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Sample records for heterogeneous symbiodinium consortia

  1. Diversity in skeletal architecture influences biological heterogeneity and Symbiodinium habitat in corals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Denise M; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Fan, Tung-Yung; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lee, Raymond W; Sogin, Emilia; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-10-01

    Scleractinian corals vary in response to rapid shifts in the marine environment and changes in reef community structure post-disturbance reveal a clear relationship between coral performance and morphology. With exceptions, massive corals are thought to be more tolerant and branching corals more vulnerable to changing environmental conditions, notably thermal stress. The typical responses of massive and branching coral taxa, respectively, are well documented; however, the biological and functional characteristics that underpin this variation are not well understood. We address this gap by comparing multiple biological attributes that are correlated with skeletal architecture in two perforate (having porous skeletal matrices with intercalating tissues) and two imperforate coral species (Montipora aequituberculata, Porites lobata, Pocillopora damicornis, and Seriatopora hystrix) representing three morphotypes. Our results reveal inherent biological heterogeneity among corals and the potential for perforate skeletons to create complex, three-dimensional internal habitats that impact the dynamics of the symbiosis. Patterns of tissue thickness are correlated with the concentration of symbionts within narrow regions of tissue in imperforate corals versus broad distribution throughout the larger tissue area in perforate corals. Attributes of the perforate and environmentally tolerant P. lobata were notable, with tissues ∼5 times thicker than in the sensitive, imperforate species P. damicornis and S. hystrix. Additionally, P. lobata had the lowest baseline levels of superoxide and Symbiodinium that provisioned high levels of energy. Given our observations, we hypothesize that the complexity of the visually obscured internal environment has an impact on host-symbiont dynamics and ultimately on survival, warranting further scientific investigation. PMID:23992772

  2. Symbiodinium Photosynthesis in Caribbean Octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Ramsby, Blake D.; Shirur, Kartick P.

    2014-01-01

    Symbioses with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium form the foundation of tropical coral reef communities. Symbiodinium photosynthesis fuels the growth of an array of marine invertebrates, including cnidarians such as scleractinian corals and octocorals (e.g., gorgonian and soft corals). Studies examining the symbioses between Caribbean gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium are sparse, even though gorgonian corals blanket the landscape of Caribbean coral reefs. The objective of this study was to compare photosynthetic characteristics of Symbiodinium in four common Caribbean gorgonian species: Pterogorgia anceps, Eunicea tourneforti, Pseudoplexaura porosa, and Pseudoplexaura wagenaari. Symbiodinium associated with these four species exhibited differences in Symbiodinium density, chlorophyll a per cell, light absorption by chlorophyll a, and rates of photosynthetic oxygen production. The two Pseudoplexaura species had higher Symbiodinium densities and chlorophyll a per Symbiodinium cell but lower chlorophyll a specific absorption compared to P. anceps and E. tourneforti. Consequently, P. porosa and P. wagenaari had the highest average photosynthetic rates per cm2 but the lowest average photosynthetic rates per Symbiodinium cell or chlorophyll a. With the exception of Symbiodinium from E. tourneforti, isolated Symbiodinium did not photosynthesize at the same rate as Symbiodinium in hospite. Differences in Symbiodinium photosynthetic performance could not be attributed to Symbiodinium type. All P. anceps (n = 9) and P. wagenaari (n = 6) colonies, in addition to one E. tourneforti and three P. porosa colonies, associated with Symbiodinium type B1. The B1 Symbiodinium from these four gorgonian species did not cluster with lineages of B1 Symbiodinium from scleractinian corals. The remaining eight E. tourneforti colonies harbored Symbiodinium type B1L, while six P. porosa colonies harbored type B1i. Understanding the symbioses between gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium will

  3. Consortia Directory 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangamon State Univ., Springfield, IL. East Central Curriculum Management Center.

    This directory profiles the following 16 vocational education consortia: American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials; Applied Communication; Applied Mathematics; Consortium for the Development of Professional Materials for Vocational Education; Electric Utility Instructor Training Consortium; Marketing Education Resource Center;…

  4. Spatially distinct and regionally endemic Symbiodinium assemblages in the threatened Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Dustin W.; Thornhill, Daniel J.; Rotjan, Randi D.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Fitt, William K.; Schmidt, Gregory W.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata was listed as "threatened" under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite attention to this species' conservation, the extent of geographic variation within O. faveolata warrants further investigation. O. faveolata is unusual in that it can simultaneously harbor multiple genetically distinct and co-dominant species of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Here, we investigate the geographic and within-colony complexity of Symbiodinium- O. faveolata associations from Florida Keys, USA; Exuma Cays, Bahamas; Puerto Morelos, Mexico; and Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. We collected coral samples along intracolony axes, and Symbiodinium within O. faveolata samples was analyzed using the nuclear ITS2 region and chloroplast 23S rDNA genotyping. O. faveolata associated with species of Symbiodinium in clades A (type A3), B (B1 and B17), C (C3, C7, and C7a), and D (D1a/ Symbiodinium trenchii). Within-colony distributions of Symbiodinium species correlated with light availability, cardinal direction, and depth, resulting in distinct zonation patterns of endosymbionts within a host. Symbiodinium species from clades A and B occurred predominantly in the light-exposed tops, while species of clade C generally occurred in the shaded sides of colonies or in deeper-water habitats. Furthermore, geographic comparisons of host-symbiont associations revealed regional differences in Symbiodinium associations. Symbiodinium A3 was detected in Mesoamerican coral colonies, but not in colonies from the Florida Keys or Bahamas. Likewise, Symbiodinium B17 was unique to Mesoamerican O. faveolata, whereas Symbiodinium B1 was found at all localities sampled. However, using cp23S genotyping paired with ITS2 analysis revealed geographically endemic haplotypes among Symbiodinium clades A, B, and C. Since Symbiodinium spatial heterogeneity among this coral species is greater than most corals, a question arises as to whether all

  5. VARIABILITY IN THE PRIMARY SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC DAMAGE IN SYMBIODINIUM SP. (DINOPHYCEAE) EXPOSED TO THERMAL STRESS(1).

    PubMed

    Buxton, Lucy; Takahashi, Shunichi; Hill, Ross; Ralph, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to elevated temperature is known to cause photosynthetic inhibition in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium sp. Through the use of the artificial electron acceptor, methyl viologen, this study identified how reduced photosynthetic capacity occurs as a result of inhibition up- and/or downstream of ferredoxin in Symbiodinium sp. in hospite and in culture. Heterogeneity between coral species and symbiont clades was identified in the thermal sensitivity of photosynthesis in the symbionts of the scleractinian corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora damicornis, as well as among Symbiodinium cultures of clades A, B, and C. The in hospite symbionts of S. pistillata and the cultured clade C Symbiodinium both exhibited similar patterns in that their primary site of thermal inhibition occurred downstream of ferredoxin at 32°C. In contrast, the primary site of thermal inhibition occurred upstream of ferredoxin in clades A and B at 32°C, while at 34°C, all samples showed combined up- and downstream inhibition. Although clade C is common to both P. damicornis and S. pistillata, the manner of thermal inhibition was not consistent when observed in hospite. Results showed that there is heterogeneity in the primal site of thermal damage in Symbiodinium among coral species and symbiont clades. PMID:27009656

  6. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia" refers to…

  7. Thermal responses of Symbiodinium photosynthetic carbon assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, Clinton A.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hopkinson, Brian M.

    2014-06-01

    The symbiosis between hermatypic corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts, genus Symbiodinium, is based on carbon exchange. This symbiosis is disrupted by thermally induced coral bleaching, a stress response in which the coral host expels its algal symbionts as they become physiologically impaired. The disruption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supply or the thermal inactivation of Rubisco have been proposed as sites of initial thermal damage that leads to the bleaching response. Symbiodinium possesses a highly unusual Form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which exhibits a lower CO2:O2 specificity and may be more thermally unstable than the Form I Rubiscos of other algae and land plants. Components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM), which supplies inorganic carbon for photosynthesis, may also be temperature sensitive. Here, we examine the ability of four cultured Symbiodinium strains to acquire and fix DIC across a temperature gradient. Surprisingly, the half-saturation constant of photosynthesis with respect to DIC concentration ( K P), an index of CCM function, declined with increasing temperature in three of the four strains, indicating a greater potential for photosynthetic carbon acquisition at elevated temperatures. In the fourth strain, there was no effect of temperature on K P. Finding no evidence for thermal inhibition of the CCM, we conclude that CCM components are not likely to be the primary sites of thermal damage. Reduced photosynthetic quantum yields, a hallmark of thermal bleaching, were observed at low DIC concentrations, leaving open the possibility that reduced inorganic carbon availability is involved in bleaching.

  8. "Super-quenching" state protects Symbiodinium from thermal stress - Implications for coral bleaching.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Chavdar; Schrameyer, Verena; Reus, Michael; Ralph, Peter J; Hill, Ross; Büchel, Claudia; Larkum, Anthony W D; Holzwarth, Alfred R

    2016-06-01

    The global rise in sea surface temperatures causes regular exposure of corals to high temperature and high light stress, leading to worldwide disastrous coral bleaching events (loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) from reef-building corals). Our picosecond chlorophyll fluorescence experiments on cultured Symbiodinium clade C cells exposed to coral bleaching conditions uncovered the transformations of the alga's photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) that activate an extremely efficient non-photochemical "super-quenching" mechanism. The mechanism is associated with a transition from an initially heterogeneous photosystem II (PSII) pool to a homogeneous "spillover" pool, where nearly all excitation energy is transferred to photosystem I (PSI). There, the inherently higher stability of PSI and high quenching efficiency of P(700)(+) allow dumping of PSII excess excitation energy into heat, resulting in almost complete cessation of photosynthetic electron transport (PET). This potentially reversible "super-quenching" mechanism protects the PSA against destruction at the cost of a loss of photosynthetic activity. We suggest that the inhibition of PET and the consequent inhibition of organic carbon production (e.g. sugars) in the symbiotic Symbiodinium provide a trigger for the symbiont expulsion, i.e. bleaching. PMID:26869375

  9. Variation in Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages among coral colonies.

    PubMed

    Stat, Michael; Bird, Christopher E; Pochon, Xavier; Chasqui, Luis; Chauka, Leonard J; Concepcion, Gregory T; Logan, Dan; Takabayashi, Misaki; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2011-01-01

    Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are fundamentally important to the biology of scleractinian corals, as well as to a variety of other marine organisms. The genus Symbiodinium is genetically and functionally diverse and the taxonomic nature of the union between Symbiodinium and corals is implicated as a key trait determining the environmental tolerance of the symbiosis. Surprisingly, the question of how Symbiodinium diversity partitions within a species across spatial scales of meters to kilometers has received little attention, but is important to understanding the intrinsic biological scope of a given coral population and adaptations to the local environment. Here we address this gap by describing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages recovered from colonies of the reef building coral Montipora capitata sampled across Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. A total of 52 corals were sampled in a nested design of Coral Colony(Site(Region)) reflecting spatial scales of meters to kilometers. A diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences was recovered with the majority of variance partitioning at the level of the Coral Colony. To confirm this result, the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence diversity in six M. capitata colonies were analyzed in much greater depth with 35 to 55 clones per colony. The ITS2 sequences and quantitative composition recovered from these colonies varied significantly, indicating that each coral hosted a different assemblage of Symbiodinium. The diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages retrieved from individual colonies of M. capitata here highlights the problems inherent in interpreting multi-copy and intra-genomically variable molecular markers, and serves as a context for discussing the utility and biological relevance of assigning species names based on Symbiodinium ITS2 genotyping. PMID:21246044

  10. Variation in Symbiodinium ITS2 Sequence Assemblages among Coral Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Stat, Michael; Bird, Christopher E.; Pochon, Xavier; Chasqui, Luis; Chauka, Leonard J.; Concepcion, Gregory T.; Logan, Dan; Takabayashi, Misaki; Toonen, Robert J.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2011-01-01

    Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are fundamentally important to the biology of scleractinian corals, as well as to a variety of other marine organisms. The genus Symbiodinium is genetically and functionally diverse and the taxonomic nature of the union between Symbiodinium and corals is implicated as a key trait determining the environmental tolerance of the symbiosis. Surprisingly, the question of how Symbiodinium diversity partitions within a species across spatial scales of meters to kilometers has received little attention, but is important to understanding the intrinsic biological scope of a given coral population and adaptations to the local environment. Here we address this gap by describing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages recovered from colonies of the reef building coral Montipora capitata sampled across Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. A total of 52 corals were sampled in a nested design of Coral Colony(Site(Region)) reflecting spatial scales of meters to kilometers. A diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences was recovered with the majority of variance partitioning at the level of the Coral Colony. To confirm this result, the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence diversity in six M. capitata colonies were analyzed in much greater depth with 35 to 55 clones per colony. The ITS2 sequences and quantitative composition recovered from these colonies varied significantly, indicating that each coral hosted a different assemblage of Symbiodinium. The diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages retrieved from individual colonies of M. capitata here highlights the problems inherent in interpreting multi-copy and intra-genomically variable molecular markers, and serves as a context for discussing the utility and biological relevance of assigning species names based on Symbiodinium ITS2 genotyping. PMID:21246044

  11. Academic Consortia as Strategic Alliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charlotte

    1991-01-01

    The Association for Higher Education of North Texas is an alliance of 20 colleges and universities, 21 high-tech businesses, and civic interests in the Dallas-Fort Worth area that is modeling new ways for higher education institutions to respond to community needs. Other consortia are generally curriculum centered, service centered, or special…

  12. Different strategies of energy storage in cultured and freshly isolated Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Hung-Kai; Jhu, Chu-Sian; Cheng, Jing-O; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2015-12-01

    The endosymbiotic relationship between cnidarians and Symbiodinium is critical for the survival of coral reefs. In this study, we developed a protocol to rapidly and freshly separate Symbiodinium from corals and sea anemones. Furthermore, we compared these freshly-isolated Symbiodinium with cultured Symbiodinium to investigate host and Symbiodinium interaction. Clade B Symbiodinium had higher starch content and lower lipid content than those of clades C and D in both freshly isolated and cultured forms. Clade C had the highest lipid content, particularly when associated with corals. Moreover, the coral-associated Symbiodinium had higher protein content than did cultured and sea anemone-associated Symbiodinium. Regarding fatty acid composition, cultured Symbiodinium and clades B, C, and D shared similar patterns, whereas sea anemone-associated Symbiodinium had a distinct pattern compared coral-associated Symbiodinium. Specifically, the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids were lower than those of the saturated fatty acids, and the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were the highest in all examined Symbiodinium. Furthermore, PUFAs levels were higher in coral-associated Symbiodinium than in cultured Symbiodinium. These results altogether indicated that different Symbiodinium clades used different energy storage strategies, which might be modified by hosts. PMID:26987007

  13. Lipid biomarkers in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: new indicators of thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeland, J.; Hughen, K.; Cervino, J.; Hauff, B.; Eglinton, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lipid content and fatty acid profiles of corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts are known to vary in response to high-temperature stress. To better understand the heat-stress response in these symbionts, we investigated cultures of Symbiodinium goreauii type C1 and Symbiodinium sp. clade subtype D1 grown under a range of temperatures and durations. The predominant lipids produced by Symbiodinium are palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) saturated fatty acids and their unsaturated analogs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3; DHA), and a variety of sterols. Prolonged exposure to high temperature causes the relative amount of unsaturated acids within the C18 fatty acids in Symbiodinium tissue to decrease. Thermal stress also causes a decrease in abundance of fatty acids relative to sterols, as well as the more specific ratio of DHA to an algal 4-methyl sterol. These shifts in fatty acid unsaturation and fatty acid-to-sterol ratios are common to both types C1 and D1, but the apparent thermal threshold of lipid changes is lower for type C1. This work indicates that ratios among free fatty acids and sterols in Symbiodinium can be used as sensitive indicators of thermal stress. If the Symbiodinium lipid stress response is unchanged in hospite, the algal heat-stress biomarkers we have identified could be measured to detect thermal stress within the coral holobiont. These results provide new insights into the potential role of lipids in the overall Symbiodinium thermal stress response.

  14. Symbiodinium Clade Affects Coral Skeletal Isotopic Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J.; Charles, C. D.; Garren, M.; McField, M.; Norris, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    The influence of different physiologies of Symbiodinium dinoflagellate symbiont clades on the skeletal chemistry of associated coral hosts has not previously been investigated. This is an important issue because coral skeletons are routinely used for tropical paleoclimatic reconstructions. We analyzed coral skeletal samples collected simultaneously from neighboring colonies off Belize and found that those harboring different clades of Symbiodinium displayed significantly different skeletal oxygen isotopic compositions. We also found evidence for mean shifts in skeletal oxygen isotopic composition after coral bleaching (the loss and potential exchange of symbionts) in two of four longer coral cores from the Mesoamerican Reef, though all experienced similar climatic conditions. Thus, we suggest that symbiont clade identity leaves a signature in the coral skeletal archive and that this influence must be considered for quantitative environmental reconstruction. In addition, we suggest that the skeletal isotopic signature may be used to identify changes in the dominant symbiont clade that have occurred in the past, to identify how common and widespread this phenomenon is--a potential adaptation to climate change.

  15. Dispersal of Symbiodinium by the stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sanguino, Carolina; Sánchez, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental reservoirs of zooxanthellae are essential for coral larvae settlement; understanding where they occur and how they are maintained is important for coral reef ecology. This study investigated the dispersal of Symbiodinium spp. by the stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride, which had high mean densities of viable and cultivable Symbiodinium (3207–8900 cells ml−1) in faeces. Clades A, B and G were detected using amplified chloroplast ribosomal sequences (cp23S-HVR), and corresponded with diet preferences of fish and the environmental Symbiodinium diversity of the region. Cells are constantly dispersed in the water column and deposited in the substrate at a local level (86 ± 17.8 m2), demonstrating that parrotfishes are vectors for short-distance dispersal of zooxanthellae. Such dispersal could constitute a key role in the maintenance of environmental Symbiodinium reservoirs. PMID:21957090

  16. Symbiodinium associations with diseased and healthy scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, A. M. S.; Brandt, M. E.; Smith, T. B.; Thornhill, D. J.; Baker, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent advances in identifying the causative agents of disease in corals and understanding the impact of epizootics on reef communities, little is known regarding the interactions among diseases, corals, and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts ( Symbiodinium spp.). Since the genotypes of both corals and their resident Symbiodinium contribute to colony-level phenotypes, such as thermotolerance, symbiont genotypes might also contribute to the resistance or susceptibility of coral colonies to disease. To explore this, Symbiodinium were identified using the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of ribosomal DNA from diseased and healthy tissues within individual coral colonies infected with black band disease (BB), dark spot syndrome (DSS), white plague disease (WP), or yellow blotch disease (YB) in the Florida Keys (USA) and the US Virgin Islands. Most of the diseased colonies sampled contained B1, B5a, or C1 (depending on host species), while apparently healthy colonies of the same coral species frequently hosted these types and/or additional symbiont diversity. No potentially “parasitic” Symbiodinium types, uniquely associated with diseased coral tissue, were detected. Within most individual colonies, the same dominant Symbiodinium type was detected in diseased and visually healthy tissues. These data indicate that specific Symbiodinium types are not correlated with the infected tissues of diseased colonies and that DSS and WP onset do not trigger symbiont shuffling within infected tissues. However, few diseased colonies contained clade D symbionts suggesting a negative correlation between hosting Symbiodinium clade D and disease incidence in scleractinian corals. Understanding the influence of Symbiodinium diversity on colony phenotypes may play a critical role in predicting disease resistance and susceptibility in scleractinian corals.

  17. Presence of Symbiodinium spp. in macroalgal microhabitats from the southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venera-Ponton, D. E.; Diaz-Pulido, G.; Rodriguez-Lanetty, M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2010-12-01

    Coral reefs are highly dependent on the mutualistic symbiosis between reef-building corals and dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium. These dinoflagellates spend part of their life cycle outside the coral host and in the majority of the cases have to re-infect corals each generation. While considerable insight has been gained about Symbiodinium in corals, little is known about the ecology and biology of Symbiodinium in other reef microhabitats. This study documents Symbiodinium associating with benthic macroalgae on the southern Great Barrier Reef, including some Symbiodinium that are genetically close to the symbiotic strains from reef-building corals. It is possible that some of these Symbiodinium were in hospite, associated to soritid foraminifera or ciliates; nevertheless, the presence of Symbiodinium C3 and C15 in macroalgal microhabitats may also suggest a potential link between communities of Symbiodinium associating with both coral hosts and macroalgae.

  18. Educational Cooperation: An Examination of Fourteen Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepchenske, George L.

    The development of consortia and cooperative educational services in higher education in response to financial pressures and social and governmental influences is examined. Consortia or cooperatives may be multi-channeled efforts, with each member struggling to advance its own self-interest at the cost of united goals and efforts, or thriving…

  19. Managing government funded scientific consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, it is becoming apparent that good science not only requires the talents of individual scientists, but also state-of-the-art laboratory facilities. These faculties, often costing millions to billions of dollars, allow scientists unprecedented opportunities to advance their knowledge and improve the quality of human life. To make optimum use of these experimental facilities, a significant amount of computational simulations is required. These mega-projects require large-scale computational facilities and complementary infrastructures of network and software. For physical sciences in US, most of these research and development efforts are funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and National Science Foundation (NSF). Universities, US National Laboratories, and occasionally industrial partners work together on projects awarded with different flavors of government funds managed under different rules. At Fermilab, we manage multiple such collaborative computing projects for university and laboratory consortia. In this paper, I explore important lessons learned from my experience with these projects. Using examples of projects delivering computing infrastructure for the Lattice QCD Collaboration, I explain how the use of federal enterprise architecture may be deployed to run projects effectively. I also describe the lessons learned in the process. Lessons learned from the execution of the above projects are also applicable to other consortia receiving federal government funds.

  20. Cryopreservation of the gorgonian endosymbiont Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Gabriella; Tsai, Sujune; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lin, Chiahsin

    2016-01-01

    The study focused on finding a suitable cryoprotectant (CPA) and an optimum freezing protocol for the cryopreservation of the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium, clade G) of Junceella fragilis wherein the success of experiments is crucial to both scientific and ecology studies. A two-step freezing technique was developed. The viability of the thawed dinoflagellates was assayed using the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioassay for the first time and was further confirmed through the culturing of dinoflagellates in vitro. The results suggested that 30 min was the most suitable holding time for the dinoflagellates, and the samples produced highest viability when suspended at 5 cm from the surface of LN2. Results also showed that 1 M methanol with 0.4 M sucrose was the most effective CPA, yielding the highest viability (56.93%). Although cell densities of both cryopreserved and control group suffered an initial decline of culture, the cell densities were maintained throughout the remaining duration. In the present study, the cryopreservation of clade G endosymbiont algae was studied for the first time and the method described here could be applied for future studies on symbiotic algae cryopreservation. PMID:26754353

  1. Unique carotenoid lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. of dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are a large group of unicellular alge in marine and fresh water. Some are an endosymbiont of marine animals. Photosynthetic dinoflagellates have peridinin, a light-harvesting carotenoid. In addition, a unique carotenoid, P457, was found from Amphinidium. The presence of P457 in Symbiodinium derived from marine animals has not been reported. We reconfirmed the molecular structure of P457, a neoxanthin-like carotenoid with an aldehyde group and a lactoside, from Symbiodinium sp. NBRC 104787 isolated from a sea anemone. In addition, we investigated the distribution of P457 and peridinin in various Symbiodinium and scleractinian coral species, and possible biosynthetic pathways of these carotenoids are proposed. PMID:22428117

  2. Physiology and cryosensitivity of coral endosymbiotic algae (Symbiodinium).

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, M; Carter, V L; Leong, J C; Kleinhans, F W

    2010-04-01

    Coral throughout the world are under threat. To save coral via cryopreservation methods, the Symbiodinium algae that live within many coral cells must also be considered. Coral juvenile must often take up these important cells from their surrounding water and when adult coral bleach, they lose their endosymbiotic algae and will die if they are not regained. The focus of this paper was to understand some of the cryo-physiology of the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, living within three species of Hawaiian coral, Fungia scutaria, Porites compressa and Pocillopora damicornis in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Although cryopreservation of algae is common, the successful cryopreservation of these important coral endosymbionts is not common, and these species are often maintained in live serial cultures within stock centers worldwide. Freshly-extracted Symbiodinium were exposed to cryobiologically appropriate physiological stresses and their viability assessed with a Pulse Amplitude Fluorometer. Stresses included sensitivity to chilling temperatures, osmotic stress, and toxic effects of various concentrations and types of cryoprotectants (i.e., dimethyl sulfoxide, propylene glycol, glycerol and methanol). To determine the water and cryoprotectant permeabilities of Symbiodinium, uptake of radio-labeled glycerol and heavy water (D(2)O) were measured. The three different Symbiodinium subtypes studied demonstrated remarkable similarities in their morphology, sensitivity to cryoprotectants and permeability characteristics; however, they differed greatly in their sensitivity to hypo- and hyposmotic challenges and sensitivity to chilling, suggesting that standard slow freezing cryopreservation may not work well for all Symbiodinium. An appendix describes our H(2)O:D(2)O water exchange experiments and compares the diffusionally determined permeability with the two parameter model osmotic permeability. PMID:19857482

  3. Genetic diversity of free-living Symbiodinium in the Caribbean: the importance of habitats and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Neigel, Joseph; Leberg, Paul; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    Although reef corals are dependent of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, the large majority of corals spawn gametes that do not contain their vital symbiont. This suggests the existence of a pool of Symbiodinium in the environment, of which surprisingly little is known. Reefs around Curaçao (Caribbean) were sampled for free-living Symbiodinium at three time periods (summer 2009, summer 2010, and winter 2010) to characterize different habitats (water column, coral rubble, sediment, the macroalgae Halimeda spp., Dictyota spp., and Lobophora variegata, and the seagrass Thalassia testudinum) that could serve as environmental sources of symbionts for corals. We detected the common clades of Symbiodinium that engage in symbiosis with Caribbean coral hosts A, B, and C using Symbiodinium-specific primers of the hypervariable region of the chloroplast 23S ribosomal DNA gene. We also discovered clade G and, for the first time in the Caribbean, the presence of free-living Symbiodinium clades F and H. Additionally, this study expands the habitat range of free-living Symbiodinium as environmental Symbiodinium was detected in T. testudinum seagrass beds. The patterns of association between free-living Symbiodinium types and habitats were shown to be complex. An interesting, strong association was seen between some clade A sequence types and sediment, suggesting that sediment could be a niche where clade A radiated from a free-living ancestor. Other interesting relationships were seen between sequence types of Symbiodinium clade C with Halimeda spp. and clades B and F with T. testudinium. These relationships highlight the importance of some macroalgae and seagrasses in hosting free-living Symbiodinium. Finally, studies spanning beyond a 1-yr cycle are needed to further expand on our results in order to better understand the variation of Symbiodinium in the environment through time. All together, results presented here showed that the great diversity of free-living Symbiodinium has

  4. Engineering microbial consortia for controllable outputs.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Stephen R; Bernstein, Hans C; Song, Hyun-Seob; Fredrickson, Jim K; Fields, Matthew W; Shou, Wenying; Johnson, David R; Beliaev, Alexander S

    2016-09-01

    Much research has been invested into engineering microorganisms to perform desired biotransformations; nonetheless, these efforts frequently fall short of expected results due to the unforeseen effects of biofeedback regulation and functional incompatibility. In nature, metabolic function is compartmentalized into diverse organisms assembled into robust consortia, in which the division of labor is thought to lead to increased community efficiency and productivity. Here we consider whether and how consortia can be designed to perform bioprocesses of interest beyond the metabolic flexibility limitations of a single organism. Advances in post-genomic analysis of microbial consortia and application of high-resolution global measurements now offer the promise of systems-level understanding of how microbial consortia adapt to changes in environmental variables and inputs of carbon and energy. We argue that, when combined with appropriate modeling frameworks, systems-level knowledge can markedly improve our ability to predict the fate and functioning of consortia. Here we articulate our collective perspective on the current and future state of microbial community engineering and control while placing specific emphasis on ecological principles that promote control over community function and emergent properties. PMID:26967105

  5. Engineering microbial consortia for controllable outputs

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Stephen R; Bernstein, Hans C; Song, Hyun-Seob; Fredrickson, Jim K; Fields, Matthew W; Shou, Wenying; Johnson, David R; Beliaev, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Much research has been invested into engineering microorganisms to perform desired biotransformations; nonetheless, these efforts frequently fall short of expected results due to the unforeseen effects of biofeedback regulation and functional incompatibility. In nature, metabolic function is compartmentalized into diverse organisms assembled into robust consortia, in which the division of labor is thought to lead to increased community efficiency and productivity. Here we consider whether and how consortia can be designed to perform bioprocesses of interest beyond the metabolic flexibility limitations of a single organism. Advances in post-genomic analysis of microbial consortia and application of high-resolution global measurements now offer the promise of systems-level understanding of how microbial consortia adapt to changes in environmental variables and inputs of carbon and energy. We argue that, when combined with appropriate modeling frameworks, systems-level knowledge can markedly improve our ability to predict the fate and functioning of consortia. Here we articulate our collective perspective on the current and future state of microbial community engineering and control while placing specific emphasis on ecological principles that promote control over community function and emergent properties. PMID:26967105

  6. Indian Consortia Models: FORSA Libraries' Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Y. M.; Birdie, C.; Bawdekar, N.; Barve, S.; Anilkumar, N.

    2007-10-01

    With increases in prices of journals, shrinking library budgets and cuts in subscriptions to journals over the years, there has been a big challenge facing Indian library professionals to cope with the proliferation of electronic information resources. There have been sporadic efforts by different groups of libraries in forming consortia at different levels. The types of consortia identified are generally based on various models evolved in India in a variety of forms depending upon the participants' affiliations and funding sources. Indian astronomy library professionals have formed a group called Forum for Resource Sharing in Astronomy and Astrophysics (FORSA), which falls under `Open Consortia', wherein participants are affiliated to different government departments. This is a model where professionals willingly come forward and actively support consortia formation; thereby everyone benefits. As such, FORSA has realized four consortia, viz. Nature Online Consortium; Indian Astrophysics Consortium for physics/astronomy journals of Springer/Kluwer; Consortium for Scientific American Online Archive (EBSCO); and Open Consortium for Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer), which are discussed briefly.

  7. Engineering microbial consortia for controllable outputs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Song, Hyun -Seob; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fields, Matthew W.; Shou, Wenying; Johnson, David R.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-03-11

    In this study, much research has been invested into engineering microorganisms to perform desired biotransformations; nonetheless, these efforts frequently fall short of expected results due to the unforeseen effects of biofeedback regulation and functional incompatibility. In nature, metabolic function is compartmentalized into diverse organisms assembled into robust consortia, in which the division of labor is thought to lead to increased community efficiency and productivity. Here we consider whether and how consortia can be designed to perform bioprocesses of interest beyond the metabolic flexibility limitations of a single organism. Advances in post-genomic analysis of microbial consortia and application of high-resolution globalmore » measurements now offer the promise of systems-level understanding of how microbial consortia adapt to changes in environmental variables and inputs of carbon and energy. We argue that, when combined with appropriate modeling frameworks, systems-level knowledge can markedly improve our ability to predict the fate and functioning of consortia. Here we articulate our collective perspective on the current and future state of microbial community engineering and control while placing specific emphasis on ecological principles that promote control over community function and emergent properties.« less

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF ANAEROBIC DECHLORINATING CONSORTIA DERIVED FROM AQUATIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methanogenic consortia, which degraded 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, 2-chlorobenzoate, and 3-chlorobenzoate, respectively; and one nitrate-reducing consortium which degraded 3-chlorobenzoate were characterized. Degradative activity in these consortia has been maintained in...

  9. Heterotrophic feeding as a newly identified survival strategy of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Du Yoo, Yeong; Kang, Nam Seon; Lim, An Suk; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Sung Yeon; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Kim, Hyung Seop; Shin, Woongghi; Nam, Seung Won; Yih, Wonho; Lee, Kitack

    2012-07-01

    Survival of free-living and symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) in coral reefs is critical to the maintenance of a healthy coral community. Most coral reefs exist in oligotrophic waters, and their survival strategy in such nutrient-depleted waters remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that two strains of Symbiodinium spp. cultured from the environment and acquired from the tissues of the coral Alveopora japonica had the ability to feed heterotrophically. Symbiodinium spp. fed on heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.), and small microalgae in both nutrient-replete and nutrient-depleted conditions. Cultured free-living Symbiodinium spp. displayed no autotrophic growth under nitrogen-depleted conditions, but grew when provided with prey. Our results indicate that Symbiodinium spp.'s mixotrophic activity greatly increases their chance of survival and their population growth under nitrogen-depleted conditions, which tend to prevail in coral habitats. In particular, free-living Symbiodinium cells acquired considerable nitrogen from algal prey, comparable to or greater than the direct uptake of ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, or urea. In addition, free-living Symbiodinium spp. can be a sink for planktonic cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) and remove substantial portions of Synechococcus populations from coral reef waters. Our discovery of Symbiodinium's feeding alters our conventional views of the survival strategies of photosynthetic Symbiodinium and corals.

  10. U.S. Academic Library Consortia: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzy, Judith E.

    2010-01-01

    Most academic libraries are members of at least one consortium, and many belong to multiple consortia. However, consortia vary widely in the services they offer and in how they are structured. This project, carried out in the fall of 2009, focused on a review of fifteen academic library consortia that: Included two-year colleges, either…

  11. 14 CFR 1274.205 - Consortia as recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consortia as recipients. 1274.205 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.205 Consortia as recipients. (a) The use of consortia as recipients for cooperative agreements is encouraged. Such arrangements tend to bring a...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.205 - Consortia as recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consortia as recipients. 1274.205 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.205 Consortia as recipients. (a) The use of consortia as recipients for cooperative agreements is encouraged. Such arrangements tend to bring a...

  13. 14 CFR § 1274.205 - Consortia as recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consortia as recipients. § 1274.205... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.205 Consortia as recipients. (a) The use of consortia as recipients for cooperative agreements is encouraged. Such arrangements tend to bring a...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.205 - Consortia as recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consortia as recipients. 1274.205 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.205 Consortia as recipients. (a) The use of consortia as recipients for cooperative agreements is encouraged. Such arrangements tend to bring a...

  15. 14 CFR 1274.205 - Consortia as recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Consortia as recipients. 1274.205 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.205 Consortia as recipients. (a) The use of consortia as recipients for cooperative agreements is encouraged. Such arrangements tend to bring a...

  16. Symbiodinium-invertebrate symbioses and the role of metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Benjamin R; Leggat, William

    2010-01-01

    Symbioses play an important role within the marine environment. Among the most well known of these symbioses is that between coral and the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium spp. Understanding the metabolic relationships between the host and the symbiont is of the utmost importance in order to gain insight into how this symbiosis may be disrupted due to environmental stressors. Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship. We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research. Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses. PMID:21116405

  17. Deep-Sequencing Method for Quantifying Background Abundances of Symbiodinium Types: Exploring the Rare Symbiodinium Biosphere in Reef-Building Corals

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Kate M.; Davies, Sarah W.; Kenkel, Carly D.; Willis, Bette L.; Matz, Mikhail V.; Bay, Line K.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of reef-building corals to associate with environmentally-appropriate types of endosymbionts from the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium contributes significantly to their success at local scales. Additionally, some corals are able to acclimatize to environmental perturbations by shuffling the relative proportions of different Symbiodinium types hosted. Understanding the dynamics of these symbioses requires a sensitive and quantitative method of Symbiodinium genotyping. Electrophoresis methods, still widely utilized for this purpose, are predominantly qualitative and cannot guarantee detection of a background type below 10% of the total Symbiodinium population. Here, the relative abundances of four Symbiodinium types (A13, C1, C3, and D1) in mixed samples of known composition were quantified using deep sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-2) by means of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) using Roche 454. In samples dominated by each of the four Symbiodinium types tested, background levels of the other three types were detected when present at 5%, 1%, and 0.1% levels, and their relative abundances were quantified with high (A13, C1, D1) to variable (C3) accuracy. The potential of this deep sequencing method for resolving fine-scale genetic diversity within a symbiont type was further demonstrated in a natural symbiosis using ITS-1, and uncovered reef-specific differences in the composition of Symbiodinium microadriaticum in two species of acroporid corals (Acropora digitifera and A. hyacinthus) from Palau. The ability of deep sequencing of the ITS locus (1 and 2) to detect and quantify low-abundant Symbiodinium types, as well as finer-scale diversity below the type level, will enable more robust quantification of local genetic diversity in Symbiodinium populations. This method will help to elucidate the role that background types have in maximizing coral fitness across diverse environments and in response to

  18. Leveraging Higher Education Consortia for Institutional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Diana; Gnam, Cathy; Newman, Robin; Straker, Howard; Babies, Tanika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptually the role of higher education consortia in facilitating the operational advancement of member institutions, and in enabling their development as learning organizations in a changing and competitive higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This article synthesizes the…

  19. 24 CFR 92.101 - Consortia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative capacity to successfully administer the program. (b) A metropolitan city or an urban county may be... may withdraw from the consortium. See 24 CFR part 91, subpart E, for consolidated plan requirements... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consortia. 92.101 Section...

  20. Pricing Structures for Automated Library Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development of successful pricing algorithms for cooperative library automation projects. Highlights include desirable characteristics of pricing measures, including simplicity and the ability to allow for system growth; problems with transaction-based systems; and a review of the pricing strategies of seven library consortia.…

  1. The microbiology of biomining: development and optimization of mineral-oxidizing microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Douglas E; Johnson, D Barrie

    2007-02-01

    Biomining, the use of micro-organisms to recover precious and base metals from mineral ores and concentrates, has developed into a successful and expanding area of biotechnology. While careful considerations are made in the design and engineering of biomining operations, microbiological aspects have been subjected to far less scrutiny and control. Biomining processes employ microbial consortia that are dominated by acidophilic, autotrophic iron- or sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes. Mineral biooxidation takes place in highly aerated, continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactors or in irrigated dump or heap reactors, both of which provide an open, non-sterile environment. Continuous-flow, stirred tanks are characterized by homogeneous and constant growth conditions where the selection is for rapid growth, and consequently tank consortia tend to be dominated by two or three species of micro-organisms. In contrast, heap reactors provide highly heterogeneous growth environments that change with the age of the heap, and these tend to be colonized by a much greater variety of micro-organisms. Heap micro-organisms grow as biofilms that are not subject to washout and the major challenge is to provide sufficient biodiversity for optimum performance throughout the life of a heap. This review discusses theoretical and pragmatic aspects of assembling microbial consortia to process different mineral ores and concentrates, and the challenges for using constructed consortia in non-sterile industrial-scale operations. PMID:17259603

  2. Phenotype harmonization and cross-study collaboration in GWAS consortia: the GENEVA experience

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Siiri N.; Caporaso, Neil; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Agrawal, Arpana; Barnes, Kathleen; Boyd, Heather A.; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Heiss, Gerardo; Heit, John A.; Kang, Jae Hee; Kittner, Steven J.; Kraft, Peter; Lowe, William; Marazita, Mary L.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Ramos, Erin M.; van Dam, Rob M.; Udren, Jenna; Williams, Kayleen

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) consortia and collaborations formed to detect genetic loci for common phenotypes or investigate gene-environment (G*E) interactions are increasingly common. While these consortia effectively increase sample size, phenotype heterogeneity across studies represents a major obstacle that limits successful identification of these associations. Investigators are faced with the challenge of how to harmonize previously collected phenotype data obtained using different data collection instruments which cover topics in varying degrees of detail and over diverse time frames. This process has not been described in detail. We describe here some of the strategies and pitfalls associated with combining phenotype data from varying studies. Using the Gene Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) multi-site GWAS consortium as an example, this paper provides an illustration to guide GWAS consortia through the process of phenotype harmonization and describes key issues that arise when sharing data across disparate studies. GENEVA is unusual in the diversity of disease endpoints and so the issues it faces as its participating studies share data will be informative for many collaborations. Phenotype harmonization requires identifying common phenotypes, determining the feasibility of cross-study analysis for each, preparing common definitions, and applying appropriate algorithms. Other issues to be considered include genotyping timeframes, coordination of parallel efforts by other collaborative groups, analytic approaches, and imputation of genotype data. GENEVA's harmonization efforts and policy of promoting data sharing and collaboration, not only within GENEVA but also with outside collaborations, can provide important guidance to ongoing and new consortia. PMID:21284036

  3. SYMBIODINIUM ISOLATES FROM STONY CORAL: ISOLATION, GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF UV IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Symbiodinium spp. Isolates from Stony Coral: Isolation, Growth Characteristics and Effects of UV Irradiation (Abstract). J. Phycol. 37(3):42-43.

    Symbiodinium species were isolated from Montipora capitata, Acropora palmata and two field samples of Porites porites. Cultures ...

  4. Macroalgal-Associated Dinoflagellates Belonging to the Genus Symbiodinium in Caribbean Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Isabel; Granados, Camila; Restrepo, Juan C.; Sánchez, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Coral-algal symbiosis has been a subject of great attention during the last two decades in response to global coral reef decline. However, the occurrence and dispersion of free-living dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium are less documented. Here ecological and molecular evidence is presented demonstrating the existence of demersal free-living Symbiodinium populations in Caribbean reefs and the possible role of the stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride) as Symbiodinium spp. dispersers. Communities of free-living Symbiodinium were found within macroalgal beds consisting of Halimeda spp., Lobophora variegata, Amphiroa spp., Caulerpa spp. and Dictyota spp. Viable Symbiodinium spp. cells were isolated and cultured from macroalgal beds and S. viride feces. Further identification of Symbiodinium spp. type was determined by length variation in the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, nuclear rDNA) and length variation in domain V of the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal DNA (cp23S-rDNA). Determination of free-living Symbiodinium and mechanisms of dispersal is important in understanding the life cycle of Symbiodinium spp. PMID:18478069

  5. Macroalgal-associated dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium in Caribbean reefs.

    PubMed

    Porto, Isabel; Granados, Camila; Restrepo, Juan C; Sánchez, Juan A

    2008-01-01

    Coral-algal symbiosis has been a subject of great attention during the last two decades in response to global coral reef decline. However, the occurrence and dispersion of free-living dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium are less documented. Here ecological and molecular evidence is presented demonstrating the existence of demersal free-living Symbiodinium populations in Caribbean reefs and the possible role of the stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride) as Symbiodinium spp. dispersers. Communities of free-living Symbiodinium were found within macroalgal beds consisting of Halimeda spp., Lobophora variegata, Amphiroa spp., Caulerpa spp. and Dictyota spp. Viable Symbiodinium spp. cells were isolated and cultured from macroalgal beds and S. viride feces. Further identification of Symbiodinium spp. type was determined by length variation in the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, nuclear rDNA) and length variation in domain V of the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal DNA (cp23S-rDNA). Determination of free-living Symbiodinium and mechanisms of dispersal is important in understanding the life cycle of Symbiodinium spp. PMID:18478069

  6. Multiple Symbiodinium Strains Are Hosted by the Brazilian Endemic Corals Mussismilia spp.

    PubMed

    Silva-Lima, Arthur W; Walter, Juline M; Garcia, Gizele D; Ramires, Naiara; Ank, Glaucia; Meirelles, Pedro M; Nobrega, Alberto F; Siva-Neto, Inacio D; Moura, Rodrigo L; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-08-01

    Corals of genus Mussismilia (Mussidae) are one of the oldest extant clades of scleractinians. These Neogene relicts are endemic to the Brazilian coast and represent the main reef-building corals in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean (SAO). The relatively low-diversity/high-endemism SAO coralline systems are under rapid decline from emerging diseases and other local and global stressors, but have not been severely affected by coral bleaching. Despite the biogeographic significance and importance for understanding coral resilience, there is scant information about the diversity of Symbiodinium in this ocean basin. In this study, we established the first culture collections of Symbiodinium from Mussismilia hosts, comprising 11 isolates, four of them obtained by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS). We also analyzed Symbiodinium diversity directly from Mussismilia tissue samples (N = 16) and characterized taxonomically the cultures and tissue samples by sequencing the dominant ITS2 region. Symbiodinium strains A4, B19, and C3 were detected. Symbiodinium C3 was predominant in the larger SAO reef system (Abrolhos), while Symbiodinium B19 was found only in deep samples from the oceanic Trindade Island. Symbiodinium strains A4 and C3 isolates were recovered from the same Mussismilia braziliensis coral colony. In face of increasing threats, these results indicate that Symbiodinium community dynamics shall have an important contribution for the resilience of Mussismilia spp. corals. PMID:25666537

  7. Heterotrophic feeding as a newly identified survival strategy of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kang, Nam Seon; Lim, An Suk; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Sung Yeon; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Kim, Hyung Seop; Shin, Woongghi; Nam, Seung Won; Yih, Wonho; Lee, Kitack

    2012-01-01

    Survival of free-living and symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) in coral reefs is critical to the maintenance of a healthy coral community. Most coral reefs exist in oligotrophic waters, and their survival strategy in such nutrient-depleted waters remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that two strains of Symbiodinium spp. cultured from the environment and acquired from the tissues of the coral Alveopora japonica had the ability to feed heterotrophically. Symbiodinium spp. fed on heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.), and small microalgae in both nutrient-replete and nutrient-depleted conditions. Cultured free-living Symbiodinium spp. displayed no autotrophic growth under nitrogen-depleted conditions, but grew when provided with prey. Our results indicate that Symbiodinium spp.’s mixotrophic activity greatly increases their chance of survival and their population growth under nitrogen-depleted conditions, which tend to prevail in coral habitats. In particular, free-living Symbiodinium cells acquired considerable nitrogen from algal prey, comparable to or greater than the direct uptake of ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, or urea. In addition, free-living Symbiodinium spp. can be a sink for planktonic cyanobacteria (Synechococcus spp.) and remove substantial portions of Synechococcus populations from coral reef waters. Our discovery of Symbiodinium’s feeding alters our conventional views of the survival strategies of photosynthetic Symbiodinium and corals. PMID:22814379

  8. Transmission of a heterologous clade C Symbiodinium in a model anemone infection system via asexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wan-Nan U.; Hsiao, Ya-Ju; Mayfield, Anderson B.; Young, Ryan; Hsu, Ling-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1) populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1). We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration). In order to corroborate the establishment of stable symbiosis, we used microscopic techniques and genetic analyses to examine several generations of anemones, and the results of these endeavors confirmed the sustainability of the system. These findings provide a framework for understanding the differences in infection dynamics between homologous and heterologous dinoflagellate types using a model anemone infection system.

  9. The effect of temperature stress on coral- Symbiodinium associations containing distinct symbiont types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. L.; Malme, M. K.; Dove, S.

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the temperature tolerance of scleractinian reef-building corals is controlled, in part, by hosting physiologically distinct symbiotic algae. We investigated the thermal tolerance of coral-algal associations within seven common species of reef-building corals hosting distinct Symbiodinium sub-clades collected from Heron Island during experimentally induced bleaching conditions. During experimental heating, photosynthetic fitness was assessed by the dark-adapted yield of PSII ( F v/ F m), and excitation pressure across PSII ( Q m) of each coral-algal association using pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. The onset of bleaching was determined by the measurement of Symbiodinium cell density. Using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region, we showed that Symbiodinium type-coral host associations were temporally and spatially conserved in a high proportion of the colonies sampled within each species. Generally, the species Acropora millepora, Platygyra daedalea, Acropora aspera and Acropora formosa contained Symbiodinium ITS-2 type C3, whereas the species Montipora digitata, Porites cylindrica and Porites lutea contained Symbiodinium type C15. Bleaching susceptibility showed some association with Symbiodinium type, but further research is required to confirm this. Corals hosting C3 Symbiodinium displayed higher reductions in F v/ F m during heating compared to their C15 counterparts, irrespective of host species. However, a corresponding reduction in Symbiodinium density was not observed. Nonetheless, A. aspera and A. formosa showed significant reductions in Symbiodinium density relative to controls. This correlated with large increases in Q m and decreases in F v/ F m in heated explants. Our results suggest a range of bleaching susceptibilities for the coral species investigated, with A. aspera and A. formosa showing the greatest susceptibility to bleaching and M. digitata showing the lowest bleaching

  10. Novel Characteristics of Photodamage to PSII in a High-Light-Sensitive Symbiodinium Phylotype.

    PubMed

    Karim, Widiastuti; Seidi, Azadeh; Hill, Ross; Chow, Wah S; Minagawa, Jun; Hidaka, Michio; Takahashi, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    Dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with many marine invertebrates, including reef-building corals. Symbiodinium is genetically diverse, and acquiring suitable Symbiodinium phylotypes is crucial for the host to survive in habitat environments, such as high-light conditions. The sensitivity of Symbiodinium to high light differs among Symbiodinium phylotypes, but the mechanism that controls light sensitivity has not yet been fully resolved. In the present study using high-light-tolerant and -sensitive Symbiodinium phylotypes, we examined what determines sensitivity to high light. In growth experiments under different light intensities, Symbiodinium CS-164 (clade B1) and CCMP2459 (clade B2) were identified as high-light-tolerant and -sensitive phylotypes, respectively. Measurements of the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and the maximum photosynthetic oxygen production rate after high-light exposure demonstrated that CCMP2459 is more sensitive to photoinhibition of PSII than CS-164, and tends to lose maximum photosynthetic activity faster. Measurement of photodamage to PSII under light of different wavelength ranges demonstrated that PSII in both Symbiodinium phylotypes was significantly more sensitive to photodamage under shorter wavelength regions of light spectra (<470 nm). Importantly, PSII in CCMP2459, but not CS-164, was also sensitive to photodamage under the regions of light spectra around 470-550 and 630-710 nm, where photosynthetic antenna proteins of Symbiodinium have light absorption peaks. This finding indicates that the high-light-sensitive CCMP2459 has an extra component of photodamage to PSII, resulting in higher sensitivity to high light. Our results demonstrate that sensitivity of PSII to photodamage differs among Symbiodinium phylotypes and this determines their sensitivity to high light. PMID:25759327

  11. Symbiotic association between symbiodinium and the gastropod Strombus gigas: larval acquisition of symbionts.

    PubMed

    García Ramos, Maribel; Banaszak, Anastazia T

    2014-04-01

    The importance of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. was studied in the early life stages of the gastropod Strombus gigas. This dinoflagellate was not found in the eggs or the gelatinous mass surrounding the eggs of the mollusk; therefore, Symbiodinium is not inherited directly. To determine whether the planktonic veligers can acquire these algae from the environment, they were exposed to freshly isolated Symbiodinium from adult S. gigas (homologous). The optimal stage for Symbiodinium inoculation was found at 48 h post-hatching. Survival and growth rates of veligers and juveniles were higher when inoculated with freshly isolated Symbiodinium in conjunction with daily feeding of Isochrysis spp. Veligers inoculated with Symbiodinium freshly isolated from three host species elicited distinct responses: (1) veligers did not take up Symbiodinium isolated from the hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis suggesting that there is discrimination on contact prior to ingestion, (2) veligers did take up Symbiodinium isolated from the anemone Bartholomea annulata, but the algae did not persist in the host tissue suggesting that selection against this type took place after ingestion or that the algae did not divide in the host, and (3) veligers did take up Symbiodinium isolated from Pterogorgia anceps where it persisted and was associated with metamorphosis of the larvae. In contrast, the Symbiodinium freshly isolated from S. gigas were not associated with metamorphosis and required an inducer such as the red alga Laurencia poitei. These data present a significant advancement for the establishment of a new approach in the aquaculture of this important but declining Caribbean species. PMID:24037186

  12. Microsatellite allele sizes alone are insufficient to delineate species boundaries in Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Howells, E J; Willis, B L; Bay, L K; van Oppen, M J H

    2016-06-01

    Symbiodinium are a diverse group of unicellular dinoflagellates that are important nutritional symbionts of reef-building corals. Symbiodinium putative species ('types') are commonly identified with genetic markers, mostly nuclear and chloroplast encoded ribosomal DNA regions. Population genetic analyses using microsatellite loci have provided insights into Symbiodinium biogeography, connectivity and phenotypic plasticity, but are complicated by: (i) a lack of consensus criteria used to delineate inter- vs. intragenomic variation within species; and (ii) the high density of Symbiodinium in host tissues, which results in single samples comprising thousands of individuals. To address this problem, Wham & LaJeunesse (2016) present a method for identifying cryptic Symbiodinium species from microsatellite data based on correlations between allele size distributions and nongeographic genetic structure. Multilocus genotypes that potentially do not recombine in sympatry are interpreted as secondary 'species' to be discarded from downstream population genetic analyses. However, Symbiodinium species delineations should ideally incorporate multiple physiological, ecological and molecular criteria. This is because recombination tests may be a poor indicator of species boundaries in Symbiodinium due to their predominantly asexual mode of reproduction. Furthermore, discontinuous microsatellite allele sizes in sympatry may be explained by secondary contact between previously isolated populations and by mutations that occur in a nonstepwise manner. Limitations of using microsatellites alone to delineate species are highlighted in earlier studies that demonstrate occasional bimodal distributions of allele sizes within Symbiodinium species and considerable allele size sharing among Symbiodinium species. We outline these issues and discuss the validity of reinterpretations of our previously published microsatellite data from Symbiodinium populations on the Great Barrier Reef

  13. Integrated musculoskeletal service design by GP consortia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal conditions are common in primary care and are associated with significant co-morbidity and impairment of quality of life. Traditional care pathways combined community-based physiotherapy with GP referral to hospital for a consultant opinion. Locally, this model led to only 30% of hospital consultant orthopaedic referrals being listed for surgery, with the majority being referred for physiotherapy. The NHS musculoskeletal framework proposed the use of interface services to provide expertise in diagnosis, triage and management of musculoskeletal problems not requiring surgery. The White Paper Equity and Excellence: Liberating the NHS has replaced PCT commissioning with GP consortia, who will lead future service development. Setting Primary and community care, integrated with secondary care, in the NHS in England. Question How can GP consortia lead the development of integrated musculoskeletal services? Review: The Ealing experience We explore here how Ealing implemented a ‘See and Treat’ interface clinic model to improve surgical conversion rates, reduce unnecessary hospital referrals and provide community treatment more efficiently than a triage model. A high-profile GP education programme enabled GPs to triage in their practices and manage patients without referral. Conclusion In Ealing, we demonstrated that most patients with musculoskeletal conditions can be managed in primary care and community settings. The integrated musculoskeletal service provides clear and fast routes to secondary care. This is both clinically effective and cost-effective, reserving hospital referral for patients most likely to need surgery. GP consortia, in conjunction with strong clinical leadership, inbuilt organisational and professional learning, and a GP champion, are well placed to deliver service redesign by co-ordinating primary care development, local commissioning of community services and the acute commissioning vehicles responsible for secondary

  14. Expanding the population genetic perspective of cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbioses.

    PubMed

    Santos, Scott R

    2014-09-01

    The modern synthesis was a seminal period in the biological sciences, establishing many of the core principles of evolutionary biology that we know today. Significant catalysts were the contributions of R.A. Fisher, J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright (and others) developing the theoretical underpinning of population genetics, thus demonstrating adaptive evolution resulted from the interplay of forces such as natural selection and mutation within groups of individuals occupying the same space and time (i.e. a population). Given its importance, it is surprising that detailed population genetic data remain lacking for numerous organisms vital to many ecosystems. For example, the coral reef ecosystem is well recognized for its high biodiversity and productivity, numerous ecological services and significant economic and societal values (Moberg & Folke 1999;Cinner 2014). Many coral reef invertebrates form symbiotic relationships with single-celled dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium Freudenthal (Taylor 1974), with hosts providing these (typically) intracellular symbionts with by-products of metabolism and in turn receiving photosynthetically fixed carbon capable of meeting hosts' respiratory demands (Falkowski et al. 1984; Muscatine et al. 1984). Unfortunately, the health and integrity of the coral reef ecosystem has been significantly and negatively impacted by onslaughts like anthropogenic eutrophication and disease in addition to global climate change, with increased incidences of 'bleaching' events (characterized as the loss of photosynthetic pigments from the algal cell or massive reduction of Symbiodinium density from hosts' tissue) and host mortality leading to staggering declines in geographic coverage (Bruno & Selig 2007) that have raised questions on the viability of this ecosystem as we know it (Bellwood et al. 2004; Parmesan 2006). One avenue towards anticipating the future of the coral reef ecosystem is by developing a broader and deeper

  15. The endosymbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium sp.) of corals are parasites and mutualists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, M. P.; Stat, M.; Gates, R. D.

    2013-09-01

    The evolutionary success and continued survival of reef-building corals under increasing environmental change will, in part, be determined by the composition of their endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities ( Symbiodinium sp.). Recent research suggests that differences in the phylotype composition of Symbiodinium in the same host can lead to different outcomes for the host when exposed to similar environmental conditions. One explanation for these observations is that symbioses between corals and Symbiodinium represent a continuum of interaction states that encompass mutualisms and parasitisms consistent with current evolutionary theory developed for other symbiotic systems. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting the existence of a parasitic to mutualistic continuum in Symbiodinium interactions and propose that a consideration of the evolutionary ecology of these associations will advance our understanding of how environmental change will influence the ecological outcomes in these important symbioses. We advocate that a robust taxonomic structure for Symbiodinium sp. and empirical studies on sexual reproduction in Symbiodinium, the stability of interaction states among Symbiodinium symbioses spatially and temporally and how interaction states change as the environment changes will generate data for models that accurately forecast how climate change will influence the persistence of corals and the reefs they structure.

  16. Multi-gene analysis of Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: a perspective on rarity, symbiosis, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Hollie M.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiodinium, a large group of dinoflagellates, live in symbiosis with marine protists, invertebrate metazoans, and free-living in the environment. Symbiodinium are functionally variable and play critical energetic roles in symbiosis. Our knowledge of Symbiodinium has been historically constrained by the limited number of molecular markers available to study evolution in the genus. Here we compare six functional genes, representing three cellular compartments, in the nine known Symbiodinium lineages. Despite striking similarities among the single gene phylogenies from distinct organelles, none were evolutionarily identical. A fully concatenated reconstruction, however, yielded a well-resolved topology identical to the current benchmark nr28S gene. Evolutionary rates differed among cellular compartments and clades, a pattern largely driven by higher rates of evolution in the chloroplast genes of Symbiodinium clades D2 and I. The rapid rates of evolution observed amongst these relatively uncommon Symbiodinium lineages in the functionally critical chloroplast may translate into potential innovation for the symbiosis. The multi-gene analysis highlights the potential power of assessing genome-wide evolutionary patterns using recent advances in sequencing technology and emphasizes the importance of integrating ecological data with more comprehensive sampling of free-living and symbiotic Symbiodinium in assessing the evolutionary adaptation of this enigmatic dinoflagellate. PMID:24883254

  17. Photobiology of Symbiodinium revisited: bio-physical and bio-optical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennige, S. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Warner, M. E.; McDougall, K. E.; Smith, D. J.

    2009-03-01

    Light is often the most abundant resource within the nutrient-poor waters surrounding coral reefs. Consequently, zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium spp.) must continually photoacclimate to optimise productivity and ensure coral success. In situ coral photobiology is becoming dominated by routine assessments using state-of-the-art non-invasive bio-optical or chlorophyll a fluorescence (bio-physical) techniques. Multiple genetic types of Symbiodinium are now known to exist; however, little focus has been given as to how these types differ in terms of characteristics that are observable using these techniques. Therefore, this investigation aimed to revisit and expand upon a pivotal study by Iglesias-Prieto and Trench (1994) by comparing the photoacclimation characteristics of different Symbiodinium types based on their bio-physical (chlorophyll a fluorescence, reaction centre counts) and bio-optical (optical absorption, pigment concentrations) ‘signatures’. Signatures described here are unique to Symbiodinium type and describe phenotypic responses to set conditions, and hence are not suitable to describe taxonomic structure of in hospite Symbiodinium communities. In this study, eight Symbiodinium types from clades and sub-clades (A-B, F) were grown under two PFDs (Photon Flux Density) and examined. The photoacclimation response by Symbiodinium was highly variable between algal types for all bio-physical and for many bio-optical measurements; however, a general preference to modifying reaction centre content over effective antennae-absorption was observed. Certain bio-optically derived patterns, such as light absorption, were independent of algal type and, when considered per photosystem, were matched by reaction centre stoichiometry. Only by better understanding genotypic and phenotypic variability between Symbiodinium types can future studies account for the relative taxonomic and physiological contribution by Symbiodinium to coral acclimation.

  18. Feeding by heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (Clade E).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lim, An Suk; Yoo, Yeong Du; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Jang, Tae Young; Lee, Kitack

    2014-01-01

    To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on Symbiodinium sp., we tested whether the common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Gyrodinium spirale, Oblea rotundata, Oxyrrhis marina, and Polykrikos kofoidii and the ciliates Balanion sp. and Parastrombidinopsis sp. preyed on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (clade E). We measured the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. as a function of prey concentration. Furthermore, we compared the results to those obtained for other algal prey species. In addition, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of other predators at single prey concentrations at which these rates of O. marina and G. dominans were saturated. All predators tested in the present study, except Balanion sp., preyed on Symbiodinium sp. The specific growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration < ca. 740-815 ng C/ml (7,400-8,150 cells/ml), but became saturated at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (0.87 and 0.61/d) were much higher than those of G. moestrupii and P. kofoidii (0.11 and 0.04/d). Symbiodinium sp. did not support positive growth of G. spirale, O. rotundata, and Parastrombidinopsis sp. However, the maximum ingestion rates of P. kofoidii and Parastrombidinopsis sp. (6.7-10.0 ng C/predator/d) were much higher than those of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (1.9-2.1 ng C/predator/d). The results of the present study suggest that Symbiodinium sp. may increase or maintain the populations of some predators. PMID:24102740

  19. Widespread prevalence of cryptic Symbiodinium D in the key Caribbean reef builder, Orbicella annularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Emma V.; Foster, Nicola L.; Mumby, Peter J.; Stevens, Jamie R.

    2015-06-01

    Symbiodinium D, a relatively rare clade of algal endosymbiont with a global distribution, has attracted interest as some of its sub-cladal types induce increased thermal tolerance and associated trade-offs, including reduced growth rate in its coral hosts. Members of Symbiodinium D are increasingly reported to comprise low-abundance `cryptic' (<10 %) proportions of mixed coral endosymbiont communities, with unknown ecological implications. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) targeted to specific types is sufficiently sensitive to detect these background symbiont levels. In this study, RT-PCR was employed to screen 552 colonies of the key Caribbean reef builder Orbicella annularis sampled across a 5.4 million km2 range for the presence of cryptic Symbiodinium `D1' (i.e., the principal Caribbean ITS2 variants, D1 and D1-4). All but one out of 33 populations analysed were shown to host low abundances of Symbiodinium D1, with an average of >30 % of corals per site found to harbour the symbiont. When the same samples were analysed using the conventional screening technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, Symbiodinium D1 was only detected in 12 populations and appeared to be hosted by <12 % of colonies where present (in agreement with other reported low prevalence/absences in O. annularis). Cryptic Symbiodinium D1 showed a mainly uniform distribution across the wider Caribbean region, although significantly more Mesoamerican Barrier Reef corals hosted cryptic Symbiodinium D1 than might be expected by chance, possibly as a consequence of intense warming in the region in 1998. Widespread prevalence of thermally tolerant Symbiodinium in O. annularis may potentially reflect a capacity for the coral to temporarily respond to warming events through symbiont shuffling. However, association with reduced coral calcification means that the ubiquitous nature of Symbiodinium D1 in O. annularis populations is unlikely to prevent long-term declines in reef health, at a time when

  20. Genetic Divergence across Habitats in the Widespread Coral Seriatopora hystrix and Its Associated Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Bongaerts, Pim; Riginos, Cynthia; Ridgway, Tyrone; Sampayo, Eugenia M.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Englebert, Norbert; Vermeulen, Francisca; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2010-01-01

    Background Coral reefs are hotspots of biodiversity, yet processes of diversification in these ecosystems are poorly understood. The environmental heterogeneity of coral reef environments could be an important contributor to diversification, however, evidence supporting ecological speciation in corals is sparse. Here, we present data from a widespread coral species that reveals a strong association of host and symbiont lineages with specific habitats, consistent with distinct, sympatric gene pools that are maintained through ecologically-based selection. Methodology/Principal Findings Populations of a common brooding coral, Seriatopora hystrix, were sampled from three adjacent reef habitats (spanning a ∼30 m depth range) at three locations on the Great Barrier Reef (n = 336). The populations were assessed for genetic structure using a combination of mitochondrial (putative control region) and nuclear (three microsatellites) markers for the coral host, and the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA for the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium). Our results show concordant genetic partitioning of both the coral host and its symbionts across the different habitats, independent of sampling location. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that coral populations and their associated symbionts can be highly structured across habitats on a single reef. Coral populations from adjacent habitats were found to be genetically isolated from each other, whereas genetic similarity was maintained across similar habitat types at different locations. The most parsimonious explanation for the observed genetic partitioning across habitats is that adaptation to the local environment has caused ecological divergence of distinct genetic groups within S. hystrix. PMID:20523735

  1. Evaluation of NASA space grant consortia programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Martin A.

    1990-01-01

    The meaningful evaluation of the NASA Space Grant Consortium and Fellowship Programs must overcome unusual difficulties: (1) the program, in its infancy, is undergoing dynamic change; (2) the several state consortia and universities have widely divergent parochial goals that defy a uniform evaluative process; and (3) the pilot-sized consortium programs require that the evaluative process be economical in human costs less the process of evaluation comprise the effectiveness of the programs they are meant to assess. This paper represents an attempt to assess the context in which evaluation is to be conducted, the goals and limitations inherent to the evaluation, and to recommend appropriate guidelines for evaluation.

  2. Phylogeny of Symbiodinium populations in zoantharians of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Noori Koupaei, Atoosa; Dehghani, Hamed; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Mashini, Amirhossein Gheitanchi

    2016-04-30

    Zoantharians of the Persian Gulf (PG) experience periods of anomalous high temperature, irradiance and desiccation. Their survival largely relies on the symbiotic relationship with single celled dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. However, the phylogeny of symbionts of zoantharians has not been investigated in the region. In this study, the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) was used to recognize in hospite populations of Symbiodinium in Palythoa aff. mutuki, Palythoa tuberculosa and Zoanthus sansibaricus colonies from Hengam, Kish, Larak, and Qeshm Islands, in the PG. The results showed subclade D1-4 and a variant of A1, were the most prevalent subclades of Symbiodinium. Predominance of stress tolerant subclade D1-4 and putatively radiation tolerant variant of A1 of Symbiodinium in zoantharian species might suggest an adaptation strategy to the extreme physical environment of the PG. PMID:26948294

  3. Molecular phylogeny and community fingerprinting of coral-associated Symbiodinium north of the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Huda M; Al-Sarraf, Mohammad

    2016-07-15

    Understanding coral-Symbiodinium relationships including changes in the genotypes and the numbers of Symbiodinium can explain the ability of Kuwait coral to survive high fluctuations in water temperature. In the current study, the diversity of Symbiodinium associated with fourteen coral species from six reef systems south of Kuwait was investigated. The results proved the predominance of clade C members in all corals tested, which reflects the importance of this type in helping corals thrive in the Gulf's harsh conditions. Platygyra daedalea was the only coral found that harbored clades A, B and C in their tissue but it is the most vulnerable coral for bleaching. The total number of Symbiodinium-like cells in the seawater was 10(4) cell ml(-1) while in coral tissue and mucus 10(7) cell g(-1) and 10(7) cell ml(-1) were found, respectively, and a strong positive correlation with the seawater temperature, salinity and conductivity was found. PMID:27179998

  4. Partner Power: A Study of Two Distance Education Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidduck, Anne Banks; Carey, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This research reports findings from a study which explored the process and criteria of partner selection--how and why partners are chosen--for two distance education consortia. The researchers reviewed recent literature on partnerships and partner selection. Two Canada-wide distance education consortia were identified as large-scale case studies…

  5. Thermal acclimation of the symbiotic alga Symbiodinium spp. alleviates photobleaching under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shunichi; Yoshioka-Nishimura, Miho; Nanba, Daisuke; Badger, Murray R

    2013-01-01

    A moderate increase in seawater temperature causes coral bleaching, at least partially through photobleaching of the symbiotic algae Symbiodinium spp. Photobleaching of Symbiodinium spp. is primarily associated with the loss of light-harvesting proteins of photosystem II (PSII) and follows the inactivation of PSII under heat stress. Here, we examined the effect of increased growth temperature on the change in sensitivity of Symbiodinium spp. PSII inactivation and photobleaching under heat stress. When Symbiodinium spp. cells were grown at 25°C and 30°C, the thermal tolerance of PSII, measured by the thermal stability of the maximum quantum yield of PSII in darkness, was commonly enhanced in all six Symbiodinium spp. tested. In Symbiodinium sp. CCMP827, it took 6 h to acquire the maximum PSII thermal tolerance after transfer from 25°C to 30°C. The effect of increased growth temperature on the thermal tolerance of PSII was completely abolished by chloramphenicol, indicating that the acclimation mechanism of PSII is associated with the de novo synthesis of proteins. When CCMP827 cells were exposed to light at temperature ranging from 25°C to 35°C, the sensitivity of cells to both high temperature-induced photoinhibition and photobleaching was ameliorated by increased growth temperatures. These results demonstrate that thermal acclimation of Symbiodinium spp. helps to improve the thermal tolerance of PSII, resulting in reduced inactivation of PSII and algal photobleaching. These results suggest that whole-organism coral bleaching associated with algal photobleaching can be at least partially suppressed by the thermal acclimation of Symbiodinium spp. at higher growth temperatures. PMID:23170037

  6. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) from Corals

    PubMed Central

    Fujise, Lisa; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Sasaki, Kengo; Liao, Lawrence M.; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae) in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C) and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C), and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress. PMID:25493938

  7. Symbiodinium transcriptomes: genome insights into the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Yum, Lauren K; Desalvo, Michael K; Lindquist, Erika; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Voolstra, Christian R; Medina, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B). With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts.Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation. PMID:22529998

  8. Symbiodinium clade C dominates zooxanthellate corals (Scleractinia) in the temperate region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Lien, Yi-Ting; Fukami, Hironobu; Yamashita, Yoh

    2012-03-01

    Endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium have been divided into nine clades (A-I) following genetic classification; some clades are known to have physiological properties that enable the coral hosts to adapt to different environmental conditions. To understand the relationships of coral-alga symbioses, we focused on Symbiodinium diversity in zooxanthellate corals living under the severe environmental conditions of the temperate region (30°-35°N) of Japan. We investigated Symbiodinium clades in 346 colonies belonging to 58 coral species from six locations. We then selected three coral species-Acropora hyacinthus, Acropora japonica, and Cyphastrea chalcidicum-to investigate whether Symbiodinium clades changed during winter or summer over the course of year (May 2009-Apr 2010) in Tanabe Bay, Japan. Three Symbiodinium clades (C, D, and F) were detected in corals in the temperate region. Notably, 56 coral species contained Symbiodinium clade C. Oulastrea crispata predominantly contained clade D, but traces of clade C were also detected in all samples. The temperate-specific species Alveopora japonica contained clades C and F simultaneously. Seasonal change of symbiont clades did not occur in the three coral species during the investigation period where SSTs range on 12.5-29.2°C. However, we found Acropora (2 spp.) and Cyphastrea (1 sp.) contained different subcladal types of clade C. These results reveal that most coral species harbored Symbiodinium clade C stably throughout the year, suggesting that Symbiodinium clade C shows low-temperature tolerance, and that two hypothetical possibilities; genetic differences of subcladal types generating physiological differences or wide physiological flexibility in the clade C. PMID:22379984

  9. Identifying and Characterizing Alternative Molecular Markers for the Symbiotic and Free-Living Dinoflagellate Genus Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Pochon, Xavier; Putnam, Hollie M.; Burki, Fabien; Gates, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A–I) that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1) identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2) characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A–H), and 3) conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal or higher than those within the ITS-2 of Symbiodinium clade C. To this end, we used bioinformatics tools and reciprocal comparisons to identify homologous genes from 55,551 cDNA sequences representing two Symbiodinium and six additional dinoflagellate EST libraries. Of the 84 candidate genes identified, 7 Symbiodinium genes (elf2, coI, coIII, cob, calmodulin, rad24, and actin) were characterized by sequencing 23 DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A–H). Four genes displaying higher rates of genetic divergences than ITS-2 within clade C were selected for in-depth phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that calmodulin has limited taxonomic utility but that coI, rad24, and actin behave predictably with respect to Symbiodinium lineage C and are potential candidates as new markers for this group. The approach for targeting candidate genes described here can serve as a model for future studies aimed at identifying and testing new phylogenetically informative genes for taxa where transcriptomic and genomics data are available. PMID:22238660

  10. Horizontal transmission of Symbiodinium cells between adult and juvenile corals is aided by benthic sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitschke, Matthew R.; Davy, Simon K.; Ward, Selina

    2016-03-01

    Of all reef-building coral species, 80-85 % initially draw their intracellular symbionts (dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium) from the environment. Although Symbiodinium cells are crucial for the growth of corals and the formation of coral reefs, little is known about how corals first encounter free-living Symbiodinium cells. We report how the supply of free-living Symbiodinium cells to the benthos by adult corals can increase the rate of horizontal symbiont acquisition for conspecific recruits. Three species of newly settled aposymbiotic (i.e., symbiont-free) corals were maintained in an open aquarium system containing: sterilized sediment and adult coral fragments combined; adult coral fragments alone; sterilized sediment alone; or seawater at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. In all instances, the combination of an adult coral and sediment resulted in the highest symbiont acquisition rates by juvenile corals (up to five-fold greater than seawater alone). Juvenile corals exposed to individual treatments of adult coral or sediment produced an intermediate acquisition response (<52 % of recruits), and symbiont acquisition from unfiltered seawater was comparatively low (<20 % of recruits). Additionally, benthic free-living Symbiodinium cells reached their highest densities in the adult coral + sediment treatment (up to 1.2 × 104 cells mL-1). Our results suggest that corals seed microhabitats with free-living Symbiodinium cells suitable for many coral species during the process of coral recruitment.

  11. Effects of Trace Metal Concentrations on the Growth of the Coral Endosymbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Irene B.; Lin, Senjie; Ho, Jiaxuan; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Symbiodinium is an indispensable endosymbiont in corals and the most important primary producer in coral reef ecosystems. During the past decades, coral bleaching attributed to the disruption of the symbiosis has frequently occurred resulting in reduction of coral reef coverage globally. Growth and proliferation of corals require some specific trace metals that are essential components of pertinent biochemical processes, such as in photosynthetic systems and electron transport chains. In addition, trace metals are vital in the survival of corals against oxidative stress because these metals serve as enzymatic cofactors in antioxidative defense mechanisms. The basic knowledge about trace metal requirements of Symbiodinium is lacking. Here we show that the requirement of Symbiodinium kawagutii for antioxidant-associated trace metals exhibits the following order: Fe >> Cu/Zn/Mn >> Ni. In growth media with Cu, Zn, Mn, and varying Fe concentrations, we observed that Cu, Zn, and Mn cellular quotas were inversely related to Fe concentrations. In the absence of Cu, Zn, and Mn, growth rates increased with increasing inorganic Fe concentrations up to 1250 pM, indicating the relatively high Fe requirement for Symbiodinium growth and potential functional complementarity of these metals. These results demonstrate the relative importance of trace metals to sustain Symbiodinium growth and a potential metal inter replacement strategy in Symbiodinium to ensure survival of coral reefs in an oligotrophic and stressful environment. PMID:26903964

  12. Heat Induction of Cyclic Electron Flow around Photosystem I in the Symbiotic Dinoflagellate Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Yusuke; Takahashi, Shunichi; Minagawa, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Increases in seawater temperature impair photosynthesis (photoinhibition) in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium within cnidarian hosts, such as corals and sea anemones, and may destroy their symbiotic relationship. Although the degree of photoinhibition in Symbiodinium under heat stress differs among strains, the differences in their responses to increased temperatures, including cyclic electron flow (CEF), which sustains photoprotective thermal energy dissipation, have not been investigated. Here, we examined CEF in cultured Symbiodinium cells or those in an endosymbiotic relationship within a cnidarian host. The light-dependent reduction of the primary electron donor photosystem I, i.e. P700(+), was enhanced in any Symbiodinium cell by increasing temperatures, indicating CEF was induced by heat, which was accompanied by thermal energy dissipation activation. The critical temperatures for inducing CEF were different among Symbiodinium strains. The clade A strains with greater susceptibility to photoinhibition, OTcH-1 and Y106, exhibited higher CEF activities under moderate heat stress than a more phototolerant clade B strain Mf1.05b, suggesting that the observed CEF induction was not a preventive measure but a stress response in Symbiodinium. PMID:26951432

  13. Morphological Variability and Distinct Protein Profiles of Cultured and Endosymbiotic Symbiodinium cells Isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Weng, Li-Chi; Lin, I-Ping; Camargo, Eddie; Tzen, Jason T C; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lin, Mong-Rong; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2015-01-01

    Symbiodinium is a dinoflagellate that plays an important role in the physiology of the symbiotic relationships of Cnidarians such as corals and sea anemones. However, it is very difficult to cultivate free-living dinoflagellates after being isolated from the host, as they are very sensitive to environmental changes. How these symbiont cells are supported by the host tissue is still unclear. This study investigated the characteristics of Symbiodinium cells, particularly with respect to the morphological variability and distinct protein profiles of both cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium which were freshly isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella. The response of the cellular morphology of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells kept under a 12 h L:12 h D cycle to different temperatures was measured. Cellular proliferation was investigated by measuring the growth pattern of Symbiodinium cells, the results of which indicated that the growth was significantly reduced in response to the extreme temperatures. Proteomic analysis of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells revealed twelve novel proteins that putatively included transcription translation factors, photosystem proteins, and proteins associated with energy and lipid metabolism, as well as defense response. The results of this study will bring more understandings to the mechanisms governing the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates. PMID:26481560

  14. Morphological Variability and Distinct Protein Profiles of Cultured and Endosymbiotic Symbiodinium cells Isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Weng, Li-Chi; Lin, I.-Ping; Camargo, Eddie; Tzen, Jason T. C.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lin, Mong-Rong; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2015-10-01

    Symbiodinium is a dinoflagellate that plays an important role in the physiology of the symbiotic relationships of Cnidarians such as corals and sea anemones. However, it is very difficult to cultivate free-living dinoflagellates after being isolated from the host, as they are very sensitive to environmental changes. How these symbiont cells are supported by the host tissue is still unclear. This study investigated the characteristics of Symbiodinium cells, particularly with respect to the morphological variability and distinct protein profiles of both cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium which were freshly isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella. The response of the cellular morphology of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells kept under a 12 h L:12 h D cycle to different temperatures was measured. Cellular proliferation was investigated by measuring the growth pattern of Symbiodinium cells, the results of which indicated that the growth was significantly reduced in response to the extreme temperatures. Proteomic analysis of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells revealed twelve novel proteins that putatively included transcription translation factors, photosystem proteins, and proteins associated with energy and lipid metabolism, as well as defense response. The results of this study will bring more understandings to the mechanisms governing the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates.

  15. Morphological Variability and Distinct Protein Profiles of Cultured and Endosymbiotic Symbiodinium cells Isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella

    PubMed Central

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Weng, Li-Chi; Lin, I-Ping; Camargo, Eddie; Tzen, Jason T. C.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lin, Mong-Rong; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2015-01-01

    Symbiodinium is a dinoflagellate that plays an important role in the physiology of the symbiotic relationships of Cnidarians such as corals and sea anemones. However, it is very difficult to cultivate free-living dinoflagellates after being isolated from the host, as they are very sensitive to environmental changes. How these symbiont cells are supported by the host tissue is still unclear. This study investigated the characteristics of Symbiodinium cells, particularly with respect to the morphological variability and distinct protein profiles of both cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium which were freshly isolated from Exaiptasia pulchella. The response of the cellular morphology of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells kept under a 12 h L:12 h D cycle to different temperatures was measured. Cellular proliferation was investigated by measuring the growth pattern of Symbiodinium cells, the results of which indicated that the growth was significantly reduced in response to the extreme temperatures. Proteomic analysis of freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells revealed twelve novel proteins that putatively included transcription translation factors, photosystem proteins, and proteins associated with energy and lipid metabolism, as well as defense response. The results of this study will bring more understandings to the mechanisms governing the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates. PMID:26481560

  16. Symbiodinium spp. associated with high-latitude scleractinian corals from Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Palmas, S.; Denis, V.; Ribas-Deulofeu, L.; Loubeyres, M.; Woo, S.; Hwang, S. J.; Song, J. I.; Chen, C. A.

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) associated with scleractinian corals focus on tropical and sub-tropical reefs. Their diversity in outlying, non-reef coral communities at high latitudes is still not fully documented. In this study, we analyzed the Symbiodinium diversity associated with five scleractinian species collected at eight sites around Jeju Island (South Korea, 33.4°N) between 5 and 15 m depth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified internal transcribed spacer region 2 distinguished five Symbiodinium types. We observed a high level of specificity between host genera and Symbiodinium spp. despite existing in an environment with large seasonal oscillations in temperature and light. Psammocora albopicta and Psammocora profundacella were associated with C1 and Montipora millepora with C17. Alveopora japonica was associated exclusively with an unusual F-type, the only known clade F representative functionally important to a scleractinian coral. Oulastrea crispata was associated with Symbiodinium boreum (type D15), occasionally co-occurring with type C3 (in 4 % of specimens). In addition to increasing the knowledge of Symbiodinium diversity in high-latitude coral communities, this study constitutes an important baseline upon which the effects of projected environmental change in the near future can be assessed. A better understanding of high-latitude coral communities is critical for understanding how a warming planet will affect the tempo and mode of shifts in the composition of temperate marine communities.

  17. Effects of Trace Metal Concentrations on the Growth of the Coral Endosymbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Irene B; Lin, Senjie; Ho, Jiaxuan; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Symbiodinium is an indispensable endosymbiont in corals and the most important primary producer in coral reef ecosystems. During the past decades, coral bleaching attributed to the disruption of the symbiosis has frequently occurred resulting in reduction of coral reef coverage globally. Growth and proliferation of corals require some specific trace metals that are essential components of pertinent biochemical processes, such as in photosynthetic systems and electron transport chains. In addition, trace metals are vital in the survival of corals against oxidative stress because these metals serve as enzymatic cofactors in antioxidative defense mechanisms. The basic knowledge about trace metal requirements of Symbiodinium is lacking. Here we show that the requirement of Symbiodinium kawagutii for antioxidant-associated trace metals exhibits the following order: Fe > Cu/Zn/Mn > Ni. In growth media with Cu, Zn, Mn, and varying Fe concentrations, we observed that Cu, Zn, and Mn cellular quotas were inversely related to Fe concentrations. In the absence of Cu, Zn, and Mn, growth rates increased with increasing inorganic Fe concentrations up to 1250 pM, indicating the relatively high Fe requirement for Symbiodinium growth and potential functional complementarity of these metals. These results demonstrate the relative importance of trace metals to sustain Symbiodinium growth and a potential metal inter replacement strategy in Symbiodinium to ensure survival of coral reefs in an oligotrophic and stressful environment. PMID:26903964

  18. Identification of Sequences Encoding Symbiodinium minutum Mitochondrial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Erin R.; Howe, Christopher J.; Nisbet, R. Ellen R.

    2016-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are an extremely diverse group of algae closely related to the Apicomplexa and the ciliates. Much work has previously been undertaken to determine the presence of various biochemical pathways within dinoflagellate mitochondria. However, these studies were unable to identify several key transcripts including those encoding proteins involved in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, iron–sulfur cluster biosynthesis, and protein import. Here, we analyze the draft nuclear genome of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium minutum, as well as RNAseq data to identify nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. The results confirm the presence of a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle in the dinoflagellates. Results also demonstrate the difficulties in using the genome sequence for the identification of genes due to the large number of introns, but show that it is highly useful for the determination of gene duplication events. PMID:26798115

  19. Toxicity testing with the marine algae, Symbiodinium kawagutii (Dinophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Gorrie, J.R.; Bidwell, J.R.; Rippingale, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    The dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium kawagutii, is among the algal taxa which exist in symbiosis with a range of marine invertebrates. S. kawagutii is commonly found in association with the Hawaiian stony coral, Montipora verrucosa. The algae has been successfully cultured in the laboratory using a common marine algal growth media (Guillard f/2), and sufficient cell densities were achieved in a 96-hr bioassay to allow statistical evaluation of toxicity data. A 96-hr EC{sub 50} of 6.47 mg/L (95% C.I.: 3.54--9.88 mg/L) was calculated after exposure to potassium dichromate. Wide distribution of the coral host and ecological importance of the symbiosis make S. kawagutii an excellent candidate species for hazard evaluation in tropical marine ecosystems. Continuing research will seek to further refine the bioassay, including the use of a microplate technique for more rapid testing.

  20. Identification of Sequences Encoding Symbiodinium minutum Mitochondrial Proteins.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Erin R; Howe, Christopher J; Nisbet, R Ellen R

    2016-02-01

    The dinoflagellates are an extremely diverse group of algae closely related to the Apicomplexa and the ciliates. Much work has previously been undertaken to determine the presence of various biochemical pathways within dinoflagellate mitochondria. However, these studies were unable to identify several key transcripts including those encoding proteins involved in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, and protein import. Here, we analyze the draft nuclear genome of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium minutum, as well as RNAseq data to identify nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. The results confirm the presence of a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle in the dinoflagellates. Results also demonstrate the difficulties in using the genome sequence for the identification of genes due to the large number of introns, but show that it is highly useful for the determination of gene duplication events. PMID:26798115

  1. Antioxidant plasticity and thermal sensitivity in four types of Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Thomas; Becker, Susanne; Pontasch, Stefanie; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Leggat, William; Fisher, Paul L; Davy, Simon K

    2014-12-01

    Warmer than average summer sea surface temperature is one of the main drivers for coral bleaching, which describes the loss of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus: Symbiodinium) in reef-building corals. Past research has established that oxidative stress in the symbiont plays an important part in the bleaching cascade. Corals hosting different genotypes of Symbiodinium may have varying thermal bleaching thresholds, but changes in the symbiont's antioxidant system that may accompany these differences have received less attention. This study shows that constitutive activity and up-regulation of different parts of the antioxidant network under thermal stress differs between four Symbiodinium types in culture and that thermal susceptibility can be linked to glutathione redox homeostasis. In Symbiodinium B1, C1 and E, declining maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv /Fm ) and death at 33°C were generally associated with elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and a more oxidized glutathione pool. Symbiodinium F1 exhibited no decline in Fv /Fm or growth, but showed proportionally larger increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and glutathione content (GSx), while maintaining GSx in a reduced state. Depressed growth in Symbiodinium B1 at a sublethal temperature of 29°C was associated with transiently increased APX activity and glutathione pool size, and an overall increase in glutathione reductase (GR) activity. The collapse of GR activity at 33°C, together with increased SOD, APX and glutathione S-transferase activity, contributed to a strong oxidation of the glutathione pool with subsequent death. Integrating responses of multiple components of the antioxidant network highlights the importance of antioxidant plasticity in explaining type-specific temperature responses in Symbiodinium. PMID:26988785

  2. Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; Carter, Virginia L

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains. PMID:26422237

  3. Local endemicity and high diversity characterise high-latitude coral- Symbiodinium partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, L. C.; Sampayo, E.; Gardner, J. P. A.; Davy, S. K.

    2010-12-01

    Obligate symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium) residing within the tissues of most reef invertebrates are important in determining the tolerance range of their host. Coral communities living at high latitudes experience wide fluctuations in environmental conditions and thus provide an ideal system to gain insights into the range within which the symbiotic relationship can be sustained. Further, understanding whether and how symbiont communities associated with high-latitude coral reefs are different from their tropical counterparts will provide clues to the potential of corals to cope with marginal or changing conditions. However, little is known of the host and symbiont partnerships at high latitudes. Symbiodinium diversity and specificity of high-latitude coral communities were explored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA at Lord Howe Island (31°S; Australia), and the Kermadec Islands (29°S; New Zealand). All but one host associated with clade C Symbiodinium, the exception being a soft coral ( Capnella sp.) that contained Symbiodinium B1. Besides ‘host-generalist’ Symbiodinium types C1 and C3, approximately 72% of the Symbiodinium identified were novel C types, and zonation of symbionts in relation to environmental parameters such as depth and turbidity was evident in certain host species. The high-latitude Symbiodinium communities showed little overlap and relatively high diversity compared with communities sampled on the tropical Great Barrier Reef. Although host specificity was maintained in certain species, others shared symbionts and this potential reduction of fidelity at high-latitude locations may be the result of locally challenging and highly variable environmental conditions.

  4. Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Mary; Carter, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05). These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world’s Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a ‘gold-standard’ genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains. PMID:26422237

  5. Sex, Scavengers, and Chaperones: Transcriptome Secrets of Divergent Symbiodinium Thermal Tolerances

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Rachel A.; Beltran, Victor H.; Hill, Ross; Kjelleberg, Staffan; McDougald, Diane; Steinberg, Peter D.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Corals rely on photosynthesis by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) to form the basis of tropical coral reefs. High sea surface temperatures driven by climate change can trigger the loss of Symbiodinium from corals (coral bleaching), leading to declines in coral health. Different putative species (genetically distinct types) as well as conspecific populations of Symbiodinium can confer differing levels of thermal tolerance to their coral host, but the genes that govern dinoflagellate thermal tolerance are unknown. Here we show physiological and transcriptional responses to heat stress by a thermo-sensitive (physiologically susceptible at 32 °C) type C1 Symbiodinium population and a thermo-tolerant (physiologically healthy at 32 °C) type C1 Symbiodinium population. After nine days at 32 °C, neither population exhibited physiological stress, but both displayed up-regulation of meiosis genes by ≥ 4-fold and enrichment of meiosis functional gene groups, which promote adaptation. After 13 days at 32 °C, the thermo-sensitive population suffered a significant decrease in photosynthetic efficiency and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) leakage from its cells, whereas the thermo-tolerant population showed no signs of physiological stress. Correspondingly, only the thermo-tolerant population demonstrated up-regulation of a range of ROS scavenging and molecular chaperone genes by ≥ 4-fold and enrichment of ROS scavenging and protein-folding functional gene groups. The physiological and transcriptional responses of the Symbiodinium populations to heat stress directly correlate with the bleaching susceptibilities of corals that harbored these same Symbiodinium populations. Thus, our study provides novel, foundational insights into the molecular basis of dinoflagellate thermal tolerance and coral bleaching. PMID:27301593

  6. Flexible associations between Pocillopora corals and Symbiodinium limit utility of symbiosis ecology in defining species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunning, R.; Glynn, P. W.; Baker, A. C.

    2013-09-01

    Corals in the genus Pocillopora are the primary framework builders of eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) reefs. These corals typically associate with algal symbionts (genus Symbiodinium) in clade C and/or D, with clade D associations having greater thermal tolerance and resistance to bleaching. Recently, cryptic "species" delineations within both Pocillopora and Symbiodinium have been suggested, with host-symbiont specificity used as a supporting taxonomic character in both genera. In particular, it has been suggested that three lineages of Pocillopora (types 1-3) exist in the ETP, of which type 1 is the exclusive host of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium D1. This host specificity has been used to support the species name " Symbiodinium glynni" for this symbiont. To validate these host-symbiont relationships and their taxonomic utility, we identified Pocillopora types and their associated Symbiodinium at three sites in the ETP. We found greater flexibility in host-symbiont combinations than previously reported, with both Pocillopora types 1 and 3 able to host and be dominated by Symbiodinium in clade C or D. The prevalence of certain combinations did vary among sites, showing that a gradient of specificity exists which may be mediated by evolutionary relationships and environmental disturbance history. However, these results limit the utility of apparent host-symbiont specificity (which may have been a result of undersampling) in defining species boundaries in either corals or Symbiodinium. They also suggest that a greater diversity of corals may benefit from the thermal tolerance of clade D symbionts, affirming the need to conserve Pocillopora across its entire geographic and environmental range.

  7. Sex, Scavengers, and Chaperones: Transcriptome Secrets of Divergent Symbiodinium Thermal Tolerances.

    PubMed

    Levin, Rachel A; Beltran, Victor H; Hill, Ross; Kjelleberg, Staffan; McDougald, Diane; Steinberg, Peter D; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2016-09-01

    Corals rely on photosynthesis by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) to form the basis of tropical coral reefs. High sea surface temperatures driven by climate change can trigger the loss of Symbiodinium from corals (coral bleaching), leading to declines in coral health. Different putative species (genetically distinct types) as well as conspecific populations of Symbiodinium can confer differing levels of thermal tolerance to their coral host, but the genes that govern dinoflagellate thermal tolerance are unknown. Here we show physiological and transcriptional responses to heat stress by a thermo-sensitive (physiologically susceptible at 32 °C) type C1 Symbiodinium population and a thermo-tolerant (physiologically healthy at 32 °C) type C1 Symbiodinium population. After nine days at 32 °C, neither population exhibited physiological stress, but both displayed up-regulation of meiosis genes by ≥ 4-fold and enrichment of meiosis functional gene groups, which promote adaptation. After 13 days at 32 °C, the thermo-sensitive population suffered a significant decrease in photosynthetic efficiency and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) leakage from its cells, whereas the thermo-tolerant population showed no signs of physiological stress. Correspondingly, only the thermo-tolerant population demonstrated up-regulation of a range of ROS scavenging and molecular chaperone genes by ≥ 4-fold and enrichment of ROS scavenging and protein-folding functional gene groups. The physiological and transcriptional responses of the Symbiodinium populations to heat stress directly correlate with the bleaching susceptibilities of corals that harbored these same Symbiodinium populations. Thus, our study provides novel, foundational insights into the molecular basis of dinoflagellate thermal tolerance and coral bleaching. PMID:27301593

  8. The effect of elevated temperature and substrate on free-living Symbiodinium cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitschke, M. R.; Davy, S. K.; Cribb, T. H.; Ward, S.

    2015-03-01

    Elevated temperatures can produce a range of serious, deleterious effects on marine invertebrate— Symbiodinium symbioses. The responses of free-living Symbiodinium to elevated temperature, however, have been little studied, especially in the context of their natural habitat. In this study, we investigated physiological responses of two Symbiodinium cultures to elevated temperature, an exclusively free-living ITS2 clade A (strain HI-0509) and the symbiosis-forming ITS2 type A1 (strain CCMP2467). Free-living Symbiodinium strains have recently been isolated from benthic sediments, and both cultures were therefore grown with or without a microhabitat of carbonate sediment at 25, 28 or 31 °C. Maximum quantum yield of photosystem II ( F v/ F m) and specific growth rate were measured as response variables. In culture, Symbiodinium cells exhibit motility in a helical swimming pattern, and therefore, revolutions per minute (RPM) were also measured with video microscopy. The exclusively free-living clade A was physiologically superior to Symbiodinium A1 across all measured variables and treatment combinations. F v/ F m remained relatively stable through time (at approximately 0.55) and was not substantially affected by temperature or the presence or the absence of sediment. Populations of the exclusively free-living Symbiodinium A reproduced faster with sediment than without and exhibited high levels of motility across all treatments (surpassing 300 RPM). In contrast, the F v/ F m of A1 dropped to 0.42 in sediment (relative to cultures without sediment) and exhibited dramatic declines in cell concentration, most severely at 31 °C. A > 50 % reduction in motility was also observed at 31 °C. Even in the absence of sediment, elevated temperature was observed to reduce population growth and cell motility of type A1. We suggest that vital behaviours linked to motility (such as vertical migration and the locating of potential hosts) may become impaired during future thermal

  9. SLDP: a novel protein related to caleosin is associated with the endosymbiotic Symbiodinium lipid droplets from Euphyllia glabrescens.

    PubMed

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Lin, I-Ping; Tzen, Jason T C; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Fan, Tung-Yung; Ju, Yu-Min; Cheng, Jing-O; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2014-10-01

    Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) have been proposed to play a key role in the mutualistic endosymbiosis between reef-building corals and the dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium spp. This study investigates and identifies LD proteins in Symbiodinium from Euphyllia glabrescens. Discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation was used to separate Symbiodinium cells from E. glabrescens tentacles. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, Nile red, indicated that lipids accumulated in that freshly isolated Symbiodinium cells and lipid analyses further showed polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was abundant. The stable LDs were purified from endosymbiotic Symbiodinium cells. The structural integrity of the Symbiodinium LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Protein extracts from the purified LDs revealed a major protein band with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, which was termed Symbiodinium lipid droplet protein (SLDP). Interestingly, immunological cross-recognition analysis revealed that SLDP was detected strongly by the anti-sesame and anti-cycad caleosin antibodies. It was suggested that the stable Symbiodinium LDs were sheltered by this unique structural protein and was suggested that SLDP might be homologous to caleosin to a certain extent. PMID:24820937

  10. Integral Light-Harvesting Complex Expression In Symbiodinium Within The Coral Acropora aspera Under Thermal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gierz, Sarah L.; Gordon, Benjamin R.; Leggat, William

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef success is largely dependent on the symbiosis between coral hosts and dinoflagellate symbionts belonging to the genus Symbiodinium. Elevated temperatures can result in the expulsion of Symbiodinium or loss of their photosynthetic pigments and is known as coral bleaching. It has been postulated that the expression of light-harvesting protein complexes (LHCs), which bind chlorophylls (chl) and carotenoids, are important in photobleaching. This study explored the effect a sixteen-day thermal stress (increasing daily from 25–34 °C) on integral LHC (chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c2-peridinin protein complex (acpPC)) gene expression in Symbiodinium within the coral Acropora aspera. Thermal stress leads to a decrease in Symbiodinium photosynthetic efficiency by day eight, while symbiont density was significantly lower on day sixteen. Over this time period, the gene expression of five Symbiodinium acpPC genes was quantified. Three acpPC genes exhibited up-regulated expression when corals were exposed to temperatures above 31.5 °C (acpPCSym_1:1, day sixteen; acpPCSym_15, day twelve; and acpPCSym_18, day ten and day sixteen). In contrast, the expression of acpPCSym_5:1 and acpPCSym_10:1 was unchanged throughout the experiment. Interestingly, the three acpPC genes with increased expression cluster together in a phylogenetic analysis of light-harvesting complexes. PMID:27117333

  11. Integral Light-Harvesting Complex Expression In Symbiodinium Within The Coral Acropora aspera Under Thermal Stress.

    PubMed

    Gierz, Sarah L; Gordon, Benjamin R; Leggat, William

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef success is largely dependent on the symbiosis between coral hosts and dinoflagellate symbionts belonging to the genus Symbiodinium. Elevated temperatures can result in the expulsion of Symbiodinium or loss of their photosynthetic pigments and is known as coral bleaching. It has been postulated that the expression of light-harvesting protein complexes (LHCs), which bind chlorophylls (chl) and carotenoids, are important in photobleaching. This study explored the effect a sixteen-day thermal stress (increasing daily from 25-34 °C) on integral LHC (chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c2-peridinin protein complex (acpPC)) gene expression in Symbiodinium within the coral Acropora aspera. Thermal stress leads to a decrease in Symbiodinium photosynthetic efficiency by day eight, while symbiont density was significantly lower on day sixteen. Over this time period, the gene expression of five Symbiodinium acpPC genes was quantified. Three acpPC genes exhibited up-regulated expression when corals were exposed to temperatures above 31.5 °C (acpPCSym_1:1, day sixteen; acpPCSym_15, day twelve; and (acpPCSym_18), day ten and day sixteen). In contrast, the expression of acpPCSym_5:1 and acpPCSym_10:1 was unchanged throughout the experiment. Interestingly, the three acpPC genes with increased expression cluster together in a phylogenetic analysis of light-harvesting complexes. PMID:27117333

  12. Integral Light-Harvesting Complex Expression In Symbiodinium Within The Coral Acropora aspera Under Thermal Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierz, Sarah L.; Gordon, Benjamin R.; Leggat, William

    2016-04-01

    Coral reef success is largely dependent on the symbiosis between coral hosts and dinoflagellate symbionts belonging to the genus Symbiodinium. Elevated temperatures can result in the expulsion of Symbiodinium or loss of their photosynthetic pigments and is known as coral bleaching. It has been postulated that the expression of light-harvesting protein complexes (LHCs), which bind chlorophylls (chl) and carotenoids, are important in photobleaching. This study explored the effect a sixteen-day thermal stress (increasing daily from 25–34 °C) on integral LHC (chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c2-peridinin protein complex (acpPC)) gene expression in Symbiodinium within the coral Acropora aspera. Thermal stress leads to a decrease in Symbiodinium photosynthetic efficiency by day eight, while symbiont density was significantly lower on day sixteen. Over this time period, the gene expression of five Symbiodinium acpPC genes was quantified. Three acpPC genes exhibited up-regulated expression when corals were exposed to temperatures above 31.5 °C (acpPCSym_1:1, day sixteen; acpPCSym_15, day twelve; and acpPCSym_18, day ten and day sixteen). In contrast, the expression of acpPCSym_5:1 and acpPCSym_10:1 was unchanged throughout the experiment. Interestingly, the three acpPC genes with increased expression cluster together in a phylogenetic analysis of light-harvesting complexes.

  13. Temporal stability of Symbiodinium phylotype in scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis from a tropical fringing reef in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guowei; Huang, Hui; Dong, Zhijun; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-11-01

    Symbiodinium sp. occurs in a symbiotic association with various marine invertebrates, including the scleractinian corals. Understanding the flexibility and specificity in coral-algal symbiosis can have important implications for predicting the future of coral reefs in the era of global climate change. In the present study, we conducted Symbiodinium phylotype analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, from a tropical fringing reef in Hainan Island, over a 1-yr period. Our results showed that Galaxea fascicularis could associate with Symbiodinium clade C and D either individually or simultaneously. However, during the sampling period, the Symbiodinium phylotype did not change significantly in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis, although the seawater temperature decreased sharply in the winter season. This study further suggests that the shift in Symbiodinium communities in response to seasonally fluctuating environments might not be a universal feature of coral-algal associations.

  14. Host-Specific Interactions with Environmental Factors Shape the Distribution of Symbiodinium across the Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Tonk, Linda; Sampayo, Eugenia M.; Weeks, Scarla; Magno-Canto, Marites; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Background The endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) within coral reef invertebrates are critical to the survival of the holobiont. The genetic variability of Symbiodinium may contribute to the tolerance of the symbiotic association to elevated sea surface temperatures (SST). To assess the importance of factors such as the local environment, host identity and biogeography in driving Symbiodinium distributions on reef-wide scales, data from studies on reef invertebrate-Symbiodinium associations from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) were compiled. Methodology/Principal Findings The resulting database consisted of 3717 entries from 26 studies. It was used to explore ecological patterns such as host-specificity and environmental drivers structuring community complexity using a multi-scalar approach. The data was analyzed in several ways: (i) frequently sampled host species were analyzed independently to investigate the influence of the environment on symbiont distributions, thereby excluding the influence of host specificity, (ii) host species distributions across sites were added as an environmental variable to determine the contribution of host identity on symbiont distribution, and (iii) data were pooled based on clade (broad genetic groups dividing the genus Symbiodinium) to investigate factors driving Symbiodinium distributions using lower taxonomic resolution. The results indicated that host species identity plays a dominant role in determining the distribution of Symbiodinium and environmental variables shape distributions on a host species-specific level. SST derived variables (especially SSTstdev) most often contributed to the selection of the best model. Clade level comparisons decreased the power of the predictive model indicating that it fails to incorporate the main drivers behind Symbiodinium distributions. Conclusions/Significance Including the influence of different host species on Symbiodinium distributional patterns improves our understanding

  15. Heterologous DNA Uptake in Cultured Symbiodinium spp. Aided by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Boris; Menzel, Diedrik; Baluška, František; Villanueva, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-targeted pCB302 plasmids containing sequences encoding gfp fusions with a microtubule-binding domain; gfp with the fimbrin actin-binding domain 2; and gfp with AtRACK1C from Arabidopsis thaliana, all harbored in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, were used to assay heterologous expression on three different clades of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium. Accessibility to the resistant cell wall and through the plasma membrane of these dinoflagellates was gained after brief but vigorous shaking in the presence of glass beads and polyethylene glycol. A resistance gene to the herbicide Basta allowed appropriate selection of the cells expressing the hybrid proteins, which showed a characteristic green fluorescence, although they appeared to lose their photosynthetic pigments and did not further divide. Cell GFP expression frequency measured as green fluorescence emission yielded 839 per every 106 cells for Symbiodinium kawagutii, followed by 640 and 460 per every 106 cells for Symbiodinium microadriaticum and Symbiodinium sp. Mf11, respectively. Genomic PCR with specific primers amplified the AtRACK1C and gfp sequences after selection in all clades, thus revealing their presence in the cells. RT-PCR from RNA of S. kawagutii co-incubated with A. tumefaciens harboring each of the three vectors with their respective constructs, amplified products corresponding to the heterologous gfp sequence while no products were obtained from three distinct negative controls. The reported procedure shows that mild abrasion followed by co-incubation with A. tumefaciens harboring heterologous plasmids with CaMV35S and nos promoters can lead to expression of the encoded proteins into the Symbiodinium cells in culture. Despite the obvious drawbacks of the procedure, this is an important first step towards a stable transformation of Symbiodinium. PMID:26167858

  16. Heterologous DNA Uptake in Cultured Symbiodinium spp. Aided by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Matamoros, Mario Fernando; Islas-Flores, Tania; Voigt, Boris; Menzel, Diedrik; Baluška, František; Villanueva, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Plant-targeted pCB302 plasmids containing sequences encoding gfp fusions with a microtubule-binding domain; gfp with the fimbrin actin-binding domain 2; and gfp with AtRACK1C from Arabidopsis thaliana, all harbored in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, were used to assay heterologous expression on three different clades of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium. Accessibility to the resistant cell wall and through the plasma membrane of these dinoflagellates was gained after brief but vigorous shaking in the presence of glass beads and polyethylene glycol. A resistance gene to the herbicide Basta allowed appropriate selection of the cells expressing the hybrid proteins, which showed a characteristic green fluorescence, although they appeared to lose their photosynthetic pigments and did not further divide. Cell GFP expression frequency measured as green fluorescence emission yielded 839 per every 106 cells for Symbiodinium kawagutii, followed by 640 and 460 per every 106 cells for Symbiodinium microadriaticum and Symbiodinium sp. Mf11, respectively. Genomic PCR with specific primers amplified the AtRACK1C and gfp sequences after selection in all clades, thus revealing their presence in the cells. RT-PCR from RNA of S. kawagutii co-incubated with A. tumefaciens harboring each of the three vectors with their respective constructs, amplified products corresponding to the heterologous gfp sequence while no products were obtained from three distinct negative controls. The reported procedure shows that mild abrasion followed by co-incubation with A. tumefaciens harboring heterologous plasmids with CaMV35S and nos promoters can lead to expression of the encoded proteins into the Symbiodinium cells in culture. Despite the obvious drawbacks of the procedure, this is an important first step towards a stable transformation of Symbiodinium. PMID:26167858

  17. FISH-Flow: a quantitative molecular approach for describing mixed clade communities of Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, S. E.; Smith, G. J.; Geller, J. B.

    2014-03-01

    Our understanding of reef corals and their fate in a changing climate is limited by our ability to monitor the diversity and abundance of the dinoflagellate endosymbionts that sustain them. This study combined two well-known methods in tandem: fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for genotype-specific labeling of Symbiodinium and flow cytometry to quantify the abundance of each symbiont clade in a sample. This technique (FISH-Flow) was developed with cultured Symbiodinium representing four distinct clades (based on large subunit rDNA) and was used to distinguish and quantify these types with high efficiency and few false positives. This technique was also applied to freshly isolated symbionts of Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella annularis. Isolates from acutely bleached coral tissues had significantly lower labeling efficiency; however, isolates from healthy tissue had efficiencies comparable to cultured Symbiodinium trials. RNA degradation in bleaching samples may have interfered with labeling of cells. Nevertheless, we were able to determine that, with and without thermal stress, experimental columns of the coral O. annularis hosted a majority of clade B and B/C symbionts on the top and side of the coral column, respectively. We demonstrated that, for cultured Symbiodinium and Symbiodinium freshly isolated from healthy host tissues, the relative ratio of clades could be accurately determined for clades present at as low as 7 % relative abundance. While this method does not improve upon PCR-based techniques in identifying clades at background levels, FISH-Flow provides a high precision, flexible system for targeting, quantifying and isolating Symbiodinium genotypes of interest.

  18. Taxonomic and Environmental Variation of Metabolite Profiles in Marine Dinoflagellates of the Genus Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Klueter, Anke; Crandall, Jesse B.; Archer, Frederick I.; Teece, Mark A.; Coffroth, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms in terrestrial and marine ecosystems are essential to environmental sustainability. In the marine environment, invertebrates often depend on metabolic cooperation with their endosymbionts. Coral reefs, one of the most important marine ecosystems, are based on the symbiosis between a broad diversity of dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and a wide phyletic diversity of hosts (i.e., cnidarian, molluscan, poriferan). This diversity is reflected in the ecology and physiology of the symbionts, yet the underlying biochemical mechanisms are still poorly understood. We examined metabolite profiles of four cultured species of Symbiodinium known to form viable symbioses with reef-building corals, S. microadriaticum (cp-type A194), S. minutum (cp-type B184), S. psygmophilum (cp-type B224) and S. trenchii (cp-type D206). Metabolite profiles were shown to differ among Symbiodinium species and were found to be affected by their physiological response to growth in different temperatures and light regimes. A combined Random Forests and Bayesian analysis revealed that the four Symbiodinium species examined primarily differed in their production of sterols and sugars, including a C29 stanol and the two sterols C28Δ5 and C28Δ5,22, as well as differences in metabolite abundances of a hexose and inositol. Inositol levels were also strongly affected by changes in temperature across all Symbiodinium species. Our results offer a detailed view of the metabolite profile characteristic of marine symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, and identify patterns of metabolites related to several growth conditions. PMID:25693143

  19. High genetic differentiation and cross-shelf patterns of genetic diversity among Great Barrier Reef populations of Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howells, E. J.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.

    2009-03-01

    The resilience of Symbiodinium harboured by corals is dependent on the genetic diversity and extent of connectivity among reef populations. This study presents genetic analyses of Great Barrier Reef (GBR) populations of clade C Symbiodinium hosted by the alcyonacean coral, Sinularia flexibilis. Allelic variation at four newly developed microsatellite loci demonstrated that Symbiodinium populations are genetically differentiated at all spatial scales from 16 to 1,360 km (pairwise ΦST = 0.01-0.47, mean = 0.22); the only exception being two neighbouring populations in the Cairns region separated by 17 km. This indicates that gene flow is restricted for Symbiodinium C hosted by S. flexibilis on the GBR. Patterns of population structure reflect longshore circulation patterns and limited cross-shelf mixing, suggesting that passive transport by currents is the primary mechanism of dispersal in Symbiodinium types that are acquired horizontally. There was no correlation between the genetic structure of Symbiodinium populations and their host S. flexibilis, most likely because different factors affect the dispersal and recruitment of each partner in the symbiosis. The genetic diversity of these Symbiodinium reef populations is on average 1.5 times lower on inshore reefs than on offshore reefs. Lower inshore diversity may reflect the impact of recent bleaching events on Sinularia assemblages, which have been more widespread and severe on inshore reefs, but may also have been shaped by historical sea level fluctuations or recent migration patterns.

  20. Range-wide population genetic structure of Symbiodinium associated with the Caribbean Sea fan coral, Gorgonia ventalina.

    PubMed

    Andras, Jason P; Kirk, Nathan L; Drew Harvell, C

    2011-06-01

    Numerous marine invertebrates form endosymbiotic relationships with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, yet few studies have examined the population structure of these symbionts. Here, we elucidate the population genetic structure of Symbiodinium harboured by the Caribbean octocoral Gorgonia ventalina throughout the entire range of the host. We used ten microsatellite loci to survey 35 localities spanning 3124 km across the Caribbean and Western Atlantic. Diversity of Symbiodinium haplotypes was low within colonies of G. ventalina but high among colonies. Despite high haplotypic diversity, significant evidence of clonal reproduction in Symbiodinium was detected, and most clones occurred within localities, not among them. Pairwise measures of F(ST) illustrated significant differentiation in 98% of comparisons between localities, suggesting low levels of gene flow. Clustering analyses identified six genetic groups whose distribution delimited four broad biogeographic regions. There was evidence of some connectivity among regions, corresponding with known geographic and oceanographic features. Fine-scale spatial surveys of G. ventalina colonies failed to detect differentiation among Symbiodinium at the metre scale. However, significant differentiation was observed among Symbiodinium hosted by sympatric G. ventalina colonies of different size/age classes. This cohort effect suggests that Symbiodinium may have an epidemic population structure, whereby G. ventalina recruits are infected by the locally predominant symbiont strain(s), which change over time. PMID:21545573

  1. Biomineralization mediated by anaerobic methane-consuming cell consortia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Li, Yi-Liang; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Li, Han; Lin, Yang-Ting; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) play a significant role in global carbon cycles. These organisms consume more than 90% of ocean-derived methane and influence the landscape of the seafloor by stimulating the formation of carbonates. ANME frequently form cell consortia with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) of the family Deltaproteobacteria. We investigated the mechanistic link between ANME and the natural consortium by examining anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) metabolism and the deposition of biogenetic minerals through high-resolution imaging analysis. All of the cell consortia found in a sample of marine sediment were encrusted by a thick siliceous envelope consisting of laminated and cementing substances, whereas carbonate minerals were not found attached to cells. Beside SRB cells, other bacteria (such as Betaproteobacteria) were found to link with the consortia by adhering to the siliceous crusts. Given the properties of siliceous minerals, we hypothesize that ANME cell consortia can interact with other microorganisms and their substrates via their siliceous envelope, and this mechanism of silicon accumulation may serve in clay mineral formation in marine sedimentary environments. A mechanism for biomineralization mediated by AOM consortia was suggested based on the above observations. PMID:25027246

  2. Environmental Factors Controlling the Distribution of Symbiodinium Harboured by the Coral Acropora millepora on the Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Timothy F.; Berkelmans, Ray; Ulstrup, Karin E.; Weeks, Scarla; Radford, Ben; Jones, Alison M.; Doyle, Jason; Canto, Marites; O'Leary, Rebecca A.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Symbiodinium community associated with scleractinian corals is widely considered to be shaped by seawater temperature, as the coral's upper temperature tolerance is largely contingent on the Symbiodinium types harboured. Few studies have challenged this paradigm as knowledge of other environmental drivers on the distribution of Symbiodinium is limited. Here, we examine the influence of a range of environmental variables on the distribution of Symbiodinium associated with Acropora millepora collected from 47 coral reefs spanning 1,400 km on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings The environmental data included Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data at 1 km spatial resolution from which a number of sea surface temperature (SST) and water quality metrics were derived. In addition, the carbonate and mud composition of sediments were incorporated into the analysis along with in situ water quality samples for a subset of locations. Analyses were conducted at three spatio-temporal scales [GBR (regional-scale), Whitsunday Islands (local-scale) and Keppel Islands/Trunk Reef (temporal)] to examine the effects of scale on the distribution patterns. While SST metrics were important drivers of the distribution of Symbiodinium types at regional and temporal scales, our results demonstrate that spatial variability in water quality correlates significantly with Symbiodinium distribution at local scales. Background levels of Symbiodinium types were greatest at turbid inshore locations of the Whitsunday Islands where SST predictors were not as important. This was not the case at regional scales where combinations of mud and carbonate sediment content coupled with SST anomalies and mean summer SST explained 51.3% of the variation in dominant Symbiodinium communities. Conclusions/Significance Reef corals may respond to global-scale stressors such as climate change through changes in their resident symbiont

  3. SymbioGBR: a web-based database of Symbiodinium associated with cnidarian hosts on the Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The algal endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium) associated with scleractinian corals (and other reef invertebrates) have received a lot of research attention in the past decade, particularly as certain host-symbiont associations appear more affected by increasing seawater temperatures than others. With the rapid accumulation of information on the diversity of Symbiodinium, it is becoming increasingly difficult to compare newly acquired Symbiodinium data with existing data to detect patterns of host-symbiont specificity on broader spatial scales. The lack of a general consensus on the classification of Symbiodinium species coupled with the variety of different markers used to identify the genus Symbiodinium (ITS1, ITS2, LSU D1/D2, chloroplast 23S rDNA and psbA minicircle) further complicate direct comparison. Description The SymbioGBR database compiles all currently available Symbiodinium sequences and associated host information of data collected from the Great Barrier Reef into a single relational database that is accessible via a user-friendly, searchable web-based application (http://www.SymbioGBR.org). SymbioGBR allows users to query Symbiodinium types or sequences sourced from various genetic markers (e.g. ITS1, ITS2, LSU D1/D2 and chloroplast 23S) and invertebrate host species to explore their reported associations. In addition, as the database includes sequence information of multiple genetic markers, it allows cross-referencing between conventional (e.g. ITS2 region) and novel markers that exhibit low intragenomic variability (e.g. psbA region). Finally, the database is based on the collection details of individual specimens. Such host-symbiont associations can be assessed quantitatively and viewed in relation to their environmental and geographic context. Conclusions The SymbioGBR database provides a comprehensive overview of Symbiodinium diversity and host-associations on the Great Barrier Reef. It provides a quick, user-friendly means to compare

  4. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    John E. Rogers and Dragoslav Marcovich. Submitted. Simple Method for the Extraction and Quantification of Photopigments from Symbiodinium spp.. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods. 19 p. (ERL,GB 1192).

    We have developed a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol which, when...

  5. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS ON THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF SYMBIODINIUM SPP. ISOLATED FROM CORALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Symbiodinium spp. were isolated from Porites porites (JR02F2 and RD03), Montipora capitata (JR12A7), Madracis mirabolis (RD02), Montastrea faveolata (RD04), Pocillopora damicornis (JR13E1), and an unknown coral (RD01). Growth rates and the distribution between motile gymnodinoid ...

  6. Cohesive molecular genetic data delineate species diversity in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Sampayo, E M; Dove, S; Lajeunesse, T C

    2009-02-01

    The diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) in pocilloporid corals originating from various reef habitats surrounding Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, was examined by targeting ribosomal, mitochondrial, and chloroplast genes using six methods that analyse for sequence differences. The ability of each of 13 genetic analyses to characterize eight ecologically distinct Symbiodinium spp. was dependent on the level of conservation of the gene region targeted and the technique used. Other than differences in resolution, phylogenetic reconstructions using nuclear and organelle gene sequences were complementary and when combined produced a well-resolved phylogeny. Analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting in combination with sequencing of dominant bands provided a precise method for rapidly resolving and characterizing symbionts into ecologically and evolutionarily distinct units of diversity. Single-stranded conformation polymorphisms of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (D1/D2 domain) identified the same number of ecologically distinct Symbiodinium spp., but profiles were less distinctive. The repetitive sequencing of bacterially cloned ITS2 polymerase chain reaction amplifications generated numerous sequence variants that clustered together according to the symbiont under analysis. The phylogenetic relationships between these clusters show how intragenomic variation in the ribosomal array diverges among closely related eukaryotic genomes. The strong correlation between phylogenetically independent lineages with different ecological and physiological attributes establishes a clear basis for assigning species designations to members of the genus Symbiodinium. PMID:19161470

  7. Embryonic development in two species of scleractinian coral embryos: Symbiodinium localization and mode of gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Heather Q; Martindale, Mark Q

    2007-01-01

    Reef-building scleractinian corals widely engage in symbiotic relationships with Symbiodinium dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae), which reside inside cells of the gastrodermis. In most cases, sexually produced larvae acquire their symbionts from the environment in the early developmental stages preceding settlement; however, some scleractinian corals maternally "seed" their oocytes with symbionts, and these symbionts are reported to be restricted to the gastrodermis at the time of its formation (gastrulation). A precise mechanism for how Symbiodinium are translocated to endoderm in these seeded species was previously unknown. In order to examine the process of endoderm formation and Symbiodinium localization during gastrulation, we have examined two species of "robust" clade scleractinians: Fungia scutaria (nonseeded) and Pocillopora meandrina (maternally seeded). We determined that both species, independent of whether or not they are seeded, undergo a "nutritive" stage before gastrulation, wherein lipid-rich cells (F. scutaria) or membrane-bound cellular fragments (P. meandrina) are passed to the blastocoel where they are subsequently taken up by the definitive endoderm. This emergent property of anthozoan development has been co-opted to facilitate the movement of Symbiodinium to the blastocoel (future site of endoderm), in the seeded species, where they are later phagocytosed by the newly formed definitive endoderm. Additionally, both species of robust clade scleractinians examined gastrulate by way of invagination, as do the majority of anthozoans. This invagination differs from the prawn chip-type gastrulation seen in the complex clade corals and provides evidence for a possible linkage between gastrulation type and phylogenetic history. PMID:17651360

  8. Spectral Effects on Symbiodinium Photobiology Studied with a Programmable Light Engine

    PubMed Central

    Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Tamburic, Bojan; Szabó, Milán; Suggett, David; Ralph, Peter J.; Kühl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The spectral light field of Symbiodinium within the tissue of the coral animal host can deviate strongly from the ambient light field on a coral reef and that of artificial light sources used in lab studies on coral photobiology. Here, we used a novel approach involving light microsensor measurements and a programmable light engine to reconstruct the spectral light field that Symbiodinium is exposed to inside the coral host and the light field of a conventional halogen lamp in a comparative study of Symbiodinium photobiology. We found that extracellular gross photosynthetic O2 evolution was unchanged under different spectral illumination, while the more red-weighted halogen lamp spectrum decreased PSII electron transport rates and there was a trend towards increased light-enhanced dark respiration rates under excess irradiance. The approach provided here allows for reconstructing and comparing intra-tissue coral light fields and other complex spectral compositions of incident irradiance. This novel combination of sensor technologies provides a framework to studying the influence of macro- and microscale optics on Symbiodinium photobiology with unprecedented spectral resolution. PMID:25389753

  9. The value of research collaborations and consortia in rare cancers.

    PubMed

    Blay, Jean-Yves; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Ducimetière, Françoise; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Rare cancers are defined by an incidence of less than six per 100 000 people per year. They represent roughly 20% of all human cancers and are associated with worse survival than are so-called frequent tumours, because of delays to accurate diagnosis, inadequate treatments, and fewer opportunities to participate in clinical trials (because of a paucity of dedicated trials from both academic and industrial sponsors). In this Series paper, we discuss how these challenges can be addressed by research consortia and suggest the integration of these consortia with reference networks, which gather multidisciplinary expert centres, for management of rare tumours. PMID:26868355

  10. [Promising microbial consortia for producing biofertilizers for rice fields].

    PubMed

    Zaiadan, B K; Matorin, D N; Baĭmakhanova, G B; Bolatkhan, K; Oraz, G D; Sadanov, A K

    2014-01-01

    Two cyanobacterial cultures from rice paddies of Kyzylorda region, Kazakhstan were isolated and characterized: Anabaena variabilis and Nostoc calsicola. Based on these cultures, new consortia ofcyanobacteria, microalgae and Azotobacter were developed: ZOB-1 (Anabaena variabilis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Azotobacter sp.) and ZBOB-2 (Nostoc calsicola, Chlorella vulgaris, and Azotobacter sp.). High growth rate and photosynthetic activity of microalgae were observed in these consortia. The active consotrium ZOB-1 was selected, which improvd germination and growth of rice plants. ZOB-1 was recommended as a biostimulator and biofertilizer for crops. PMID:25844458

  11. Differential distribution of lipids in epidermis, gastrodermis and hosted Symbiodinium in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    PubMed

    Revel, Johana; Massi, Lionel; Mehiri, Mohamed; Boutoute, Marc; Mayzaud, Patrick; Capron, Laure; Sabourault, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis mainly relies on nutrient recycling, thus providing both partners with a competitive advantage in nutrient-poor waters. Essential processes related to lipid metabolism can be influenced by various factors, including hyperthermal stress. This can affect the lipid content and distribution in both partners, while contributing to symbiosis disruption and bleaching. In order to gain further insight into the role and distribution of lipids in the cnidarian metabolism, we investigated the lipid composition of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its photosynthetic dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium). We compared the lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the host cellular layers, non-symbiotic epidermal and symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells, and those of Symbiodinium, in a mass spectrometry-based assessment. Lipids were more concentrated in Symbiodinium cells, and the lipid class distribution was dominated by polar lipids in all tissues. The fatty acid distribution between host cell layers and Symbiodinium cells suggested potential lipid transfers between the partners. The lipid composition and distribution was modified during short-term hyperthermal stress, mainly in Symbiodinium cells and gastrodermis. Exposure to elevated temperature rapidly caused a decrease in polar lipid C18 unsaturated fatty acids and a strong and rapid decrease in the abundance of polar lipid fatty acids relative to sterols. These lipid indicators could therefore be used as sensitive biomarkers to assess the physiology of symbiotic cnidarians, especially the effect of thermal stress at the onset of cnidarian bleaching. Overall, the findings of this study provide some insight on key lipids that may regulate maintenance of the symbiotic interaction. PMID:26478191

  12. SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS AND MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS (MAAS) FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous extraction methods have been developed and used in the quantitation of both photopigments and mycosporine amino acids (MAAs) found in Symbiodinium sp. and zooanthellate metazoans. We have development of a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol, which when coupl...

  13. Diversity and Distribution of Symbiodinium Associated with Seven Common Coral Species in the Chagos Archipelago, Central Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Obura, David; Sheppard, Charles R. C.; Visram, Shakil; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-01-01

    The Chagos Archipelago designated as a no-take marine protected area in 2010, lying about 500 km south of the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, has a high conservation priority, particularly because of its fast recovery from the ocean-wide massive coral mortality following the 1998 coral bleaching event. The aims of this study were to examine Symbiodinium diversity and distribution associated with scleractinian corals in five atolls of the Chagos Archipelago, spread over 10,000 km 2. Symbiodinium clade diversity in 262 samples of seven common coral species, Acropora muricata, Isopora palifera, Pocillopora damicornis, P. verrucosa, P. eydouxi, Seriatopora hystrix, and Stylophora pistillata were determined using PCR-SSCP of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), PCR-DDGE of ITS2, and phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that Symbiodinium in clade C were the dominant symbiont group in the seven coral species. Our analysis revealed types of Symbiodinium clade C specific to coral species. Types C1 and C3 (with C3z and C3i variants) were dominant in Acroporidae and C1 and C1c were the dominant types in Pocilloporidae. We also found 2 novel ITS2 types in S. hystrix and 1 novel ITS2 type of Symbiodinium in A. muricata. Some colonies of A. muricata and I. palifera were also associated with Symbiodinium A1. These results suggest that corals in the Chagos Archipelago host different assemblages of Symbiodinium types then their conspecifics from other locations in the Indian Ocean; and that future research will show whether these patterns in Symbiodinium genotypes may be due to local adaptation to specific conditions in the Chagos. PMID:22567113

  14. Most Low-Abundance "Background" Symbiodinium spp. Are Transitory and Have Minimal Functional Significance for Symbiotic Corals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo Joon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Jang, Se Hyeon; Lee, Sung Yeon; Kang, Nam Seon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Kim, Hyung Seop; Wham, Drew C; LaJeunesse, Todd C

    2016-04-01

    Speculation surrounds the importance of ecologically cryptic Symbiodinium spp. (dinoflagellates) that occur at low abundances in reef-building corals and in the surrounding environment. Evidence acquired from extensive sampling, long-term monitoring, and experimental manipulation can allow us to deduce the ecology and functional significance of these populations and whether they might contribute to the response of coral-dinoflagellate mutualisms to climate change. Quantitative PCR was used here to diagnose the prevalence, seasonal variation, and abundances of Symbiodinium spp. within and between colonies of the coral, Alveopora japonica. Consistent with broader geographic sampling, only one species comprised 99.9 %, or greater, the population of symbionts in every sample. However, other Symbiodinium including the non-mutualistic species, Symbiodinium voratum, were often detected, but at estimated cell densities thousands-fold less than the dominant symbiont. The temporal variation in prevalence and abundances of these "background" Symbiodinium could not be definitively related to any particular environmental factor including seasonality and water chemistry. The prevalence (proportion detected among host samples), but not abundance, of S. voratum may weakly correspond to increases in environmental inorganic silica (SiO2) and possibly nitrogen (NO3). When multiple background Symbiodinium occurred within an individual polyp, the average cell densities were positively correlated, suggesting non-specific processes of cell sorting and retention by the animal. While these findings substantiate the existence of a broader, yet uncharacterized, diversity of Symbiodinium, we conclude that only those species which can occur in high abundance and are temporally stable are ultimately important to coral-dinoflagellate mutualisms. Many transient Symbiodinium spp., which occur only at trace abundances in the coral's microbiome, belong to different functional guilds and likely have

  15. Diversity and distribution of symbiodinium associated with seven common coral species in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Yin; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Obura, David; Sheppard, Charles R C; Visram, Shakil; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-01-01

    The Chagos Archipelago designated as a no-take marine protected area in 2010, lying about 500 km south of the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, has a high conservation priority, particularly because of its fast recovery from the ocean-wide massive coral mortality following the 1998 coral bleaching event. The aims of this study were to examine Symbiodinium diversity and distribution associated with scleractinian corals in five atolls of the Chagos Archipelago, spread over 10,000 km(2). Symbiodinium clade diversity in 262 samples of seven common coral species, Acropora muricata, Isopora palifera, Pocillopora damicornis, P. verrucosa, P. eydouxi, Seriatopora hystrix, and Stylophora pistillata were determined using PCR-SSCP of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), PCR-DDGE of ITS2, and phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that Symbiodinium in clade C were the dominant symbiont group in the seven coral species. Our analysis revealed types of Symbiodinium clade C specific to coral species. Types C1 and C3 (with C3z and C3i variants) were dominant in Acroporidae and C1 and C1c were the dominant types in Pocilloporidae. We also found 2 novel ITS2 types in S. hystrix and 1 novel ITS2 type of Symbiodinium in A. muricata. Some colonies of A. muricata and I. palifera were also associated with Symbiodinium A1. These results suggest that corals in the Chagos Archipelago host different assemblages of Symbiodinium types then their conspecifics from other locations in the Indian Ocean; and that future research will show whether these patterns in Symbiodinium genotypes may be due to local adaptation to specific conditions in the Chagos. PMID:22567113

  16. Partnering with Sandia National Laboratories through alliances or consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Winchell, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    To better facilitate working with industry, groups of industrial participants, and partners in alliances or consortia, Sandia National Laboratories presents information helpful to those outside groups as to the forms of arrangements that may be used to better facilitate partnering relationships between Sandia National Laboratories and consortia or alliances of outside parties. It is expected that these alliances and consortia will include both large and small for-profit industrial concerns, as well as not-for-profit entities such as universities, institutes, other research facilities, and other nonprofit institutions or consortia containing institutions. The intent of this report is to provide such outside groups with information that will facilitate rapid interactions with Sandia National Laboratories through some of these forms of business which will be discussed in this report. These are not the only approaches to facilitating business interactions with Sandia National Laboratories and it is not intended that this report be legal advice or required approaches to doing business with Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this report is merely to suggest ways in which Sandia National Laboratories can work with outside parties in the most expeditious manner.

  17. Partnering with Sandia National Laboratories through alliances or consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Winchell, B.M.

    1994-04-01

    To better facilitate working with industry, groups of industrial participants, and partners in alliances or consortia, Sandia National laboratories presents information helpful to those outside groups as to the forms of arrangements that may be used to better facilitate partnering relationships between Sandia National Laboratories and consortia or alliances of outside parties. It is expected that these alliances and consortia will include both large and small for-profit industrial concerns, as well as not-for-profit entities such as universities, institutes, other research facilities, and other nonprofit institutions or consortia containing institutions. The intent of this report is to provide such outside groups with information that will facilitate rapid interactions with Sandia National Laboratories through some of these forms of business which will be discussed in this report. These are not the only approaches to facilitating business interactions with Sandia National Laboratories and it is not intended that this report be legal advice or required approaches to doing business with Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this report is merely to suggest ways in which Sandia National Laboratories can work with outside parties in the most expeditious manner.

  18. Single cell activity reveals direct electron transfer in methanotrophic consortia.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Shawn E; Chadwick, Grayson L; Kempes, Christopher P; Orphan, Victoria J

    2015-10-22

    Multicellular assemblages of microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature, and the proximity afforded by aggregation is thought to permit intercellular metabolic coupling that can accommodate otherwise unfavourable reactions. Consortia of methane-oxidizing archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria are a well-known environmental example of microbial co-aggregation; however, the coupling mechanisms between these paired organisms is not well understood, despite the attention given them because of the global significance of anaerobic methane oxidation. Here we examined the influence of interspecies spatial positioning as it relates to biosynthetic activity within structurally diverse uncultured methane-oxidizing consortia by measuring stable isotope incorporation for individual archaeal and bacterial cells to constrain their potential metabolic interactions. In contrast to conventional models of syntrophy based on the passage of molecular intermediates, cellular activities were found to be independent of both species intermixing and distance between syntrophic partners within consortia. A generalized model of electric conductivity between co-associated archaea and bacteria best fit the empirical data. Combined with the detection of large multi-haem cytochromes in the genomes of methanotrophic archaea and the demonstration of redox-dependent staining of the matrix between cells in consortia, these results provide evidence for syntrophic coupling through direct electron transfer. PMID:26375009

  19. Consortia Building: A Handshake and a Smile, Island Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutright, Patricia J.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of library consortia focuses on the collaborative efforts in the Federated States of Micronesia that will enhance library services through staff training and educating while utilizing innovative technology. Highlights include background and socioeconomic overview; a project that addresses automation and Internet connectivity issues; and…

  20. Single cell activity reveals direct electron transfer in methanotrophic consortia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Shawn E.; Chadwick, Grayson L.; Kempes, Christopher P.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2015-10-01

    Multicellular assemblages of microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature, and the proximity afforded by aggregation is thought to permit intercellular metabolic coupling that can accommodate otherwise unfavourable reactions. Consortia of methane-oxidizing archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria are a well-known environmental example of microbial co-aggregation; however, the coupling mechanisms between these paired organisms is not well understood, despite the attention given them because of the global significance of anaerobic methane oxidation. Here we examined the influence of interspecies spatial positioning as it relates to biosynthetic activity within structurally diverse uncultured methane-oxidizing consortia by measuring stable isotope incorporation for individual archaeal and bacterial cells to constrain their potential metabolic interactions. In contrast to conventional models of syntrophy based on the passage of molecular intermediates, cellular activities were found to be independent of both species intermixing and distance between syntrophic partners within consortia. A generalized model of electric conductivity between co-associated archaea and bacteria best fit the empirical data. Combined with the detection of large multi-haem cytochromes in the genomes of methanotrophic archaea and the demonstration of redox-dependent staining of the matrix between cells in consortia, these results provide evidence for syntrophic coupling through direct electron transfer.

  1. IIM Digital Library System: Consortia-Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandian, M. Paul; Jambhekar, Ashok; Karisiddappa, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a framework for the design and development of an intranet model based on a consortia approach by the Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) digital library system that will facilitate information access and use by providing a single Web-enabled window to users to their own resources and to sources in other participating institutions.…

  2. Assessing Organizational Effectiveness in Higher Education Drug Prevention Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon-Keller, A. E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-three consortia of institutions of higher education were surveyed for the purpose of measuring organization effectiveness. Generalized satisfaction was reported. Satisfaction with goal attainment was significantly related to the presence of at least one "internal" goal for the consortium. (Author/KW)

  3. Health Sciences Librarians and Education: Clinical Librarianship, Consortia, Extraterrestial Telemedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Polly; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Three speeches presented by a panel of health science librarians discuss: (1) clinical medical librarianship, with a definition and descriptions of programs in several medical school libraries; (2) consortia, including a definition and reasons for their development; and (3) use of telecommunications for sharing medical information. (MBR)

  4. Comparing the Effects of Symbiotic Algae (Symbiodinium) Clades C1 and D on Early Growth Stages of Acropora tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades — including A and D — have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

  5. Comparing the effects of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium) clades C1 and D on early growth stages of Acropora tenuis.

    PubMed

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

  6. Isolation of zooxanthellatoxins, novel vasoconstrictive substances from the zooxanthella Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Asari, T; Ohizumi, Y; Kobayashi, J; Yamasu, T; Murai, A

    1993-04-01

    Isolation of zooxanthellatoxins, novel vasoconstrictive substances from the zooxanthella Symbiodinium sp. Toxicon 31, 371-376, 1993. New polyhydroxypolyenes with potent vasoconstrictive activity, zooxanthellatoxin-A and -B, were isolated from a symbiotic marine alga Symbiodinium sp. These compounds caused sustained contractions of isolated rabbit aorta at concentrations above 7 x 10(-7) M; this effect was abolished in Ca(2+)-free solution or in the presence of verapamil. Both compounds were relatively large molecules (mol. wt about 2900), containing a large number of oxygen atoms and olefinic carbons, thus differing from two other vasoconstrictive marine toxins, palytoxin and maitotoxin, in containing more olefins than palytoxin, and fewer ethereal rings than maitotoxin. PMID:8503128

  7. The Symbiodinium kawagutii genome illuminates dinoflagellate gene expression and coral symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Cheng, Shifeng; Song, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Lin, Xin; Li, Wujiao; Li, Ling; Zhang, Yaqun; Zhang, Huan; Ji, Zhiliang; Cai, Meichun; Zhuang, Yunyun; Shi, Xinguo; Lin, Lingxiao; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhaobao; Liu, Xin; Yu, Sheng; Zeng, Peng; Hao, Han; Zou, Quan; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Ying; Xu, Chunyan; Meng, Shanshan; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Campbell, David A; Sturm, Nancy R; Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve; Morse, David

    2015-11-01

    Dinoflagellates are important components of marine ecosystems and essential coral symbionts, yet little is known about their genomes. We report here on the analysis of a high-quality assembly from the 1180-megabase genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii. We annotated protein-coding genes and identified Symbiodinium-specific gene families. No whole-genome duplication was observed, but instead we found active (retro)transposition and gene family expansion, especially in processes important for successful symbiosis with corals. We also documented genes potentially governing sexual reproduction and cyst formation, novel promoter elements, and a microRNA system potentially regulating gene expression in both symbiont and coral. We found biochemical complementarity between genomes of S. kawagutii and the anthozoan Acropora, indicative of host-symbiont coevolution, providing a resource for studying the molecular basis and evolution of coral symbiosis. PMID:26542574

  8. Vectored dispersal of Symbiodinium by larvae of a Caribbean gorgonian octocoral.

    PubMed

    Wirshing, Herman H; Feldheim, Kevin A; Baker, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    The ability of coral reefs to recover from natural and anthropogenic disturbance is difficult to predict, in part due to uncertainty regarding the dispersal capabilities and connectivity of their reef inhabitants. We developed microsatellite markers for the broadcast spawning gorgonian octocoral Eunicea (Plexaura) flexuosa (four markers) and its dinoflagellate symbiont, Symbiodinium B1 (five markers), and used them to assess genetic connectivity, specificity and directionality of gene flow among sites in Florida, Panama, Saba and the Dominican Republic. Bayesian analyses found that most E. flexuosa from the Florida reef tract, Saba and the Dominican Republic were strongly differentiated from many E. flexuosa in Panama, with the exception of five colonies from Key West that clustered with colonies from Panama. In contrast, Symbiodinium B1 was more highly structured. At least seven populations were detected that showed patterns of isolation by distance. The symbionts in the five unusual Key West colonies also clustered with symbionts from Panama, suggesting these colonies are the result of long-distance dispersal. Migration rate tests indicated a weak signal of northward immigration from the Panama population into the lower Florida Keys. As E. flexuosa clonemates only rarely associated with the same Symbiodinium B1 genotype (and vice versa), these data suggest a dynamic host-symbiont relationship in which E. flexuosa is relatively well dispersed but likely acquires Symbiodinium B1 from highly structured natal areas prior to dispersal. Once vectored by host larvae, these symbionts may then spread through the local population, and/or host colonies may acquire different local symbiont genotypes over time. PMID:23980762

  9. Mitochondrial terminal alternative oxidase and its enhancement by thermal stress in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, Clinton A.; Hopkinson, Brian M.; Schmidt, Gregory W.

    2014-06-01

    A terminal electron acceptor alternative to mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX), mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX), is ubiquitous in higher plants and represented in nearly every algal taxon but is poorly documented in dinoflagellates. AOX competes for electrons with the conventional COX and has been hypothesized to function as a means of reducing oxidative stress in mitochondria, as well as a potential mechanism for ameliorating thermal and other physiological stressors. Here, the presence of an active AOX in cultured Symbiodinium was assayed by the response of oxygen consumption to the AOX inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and the COX inhibitor cyanide (CN). CN-insensitive, SHAM-sensitive oxygen consumption was found to account for a large portion (26 %) of Symbiodinium dark respiration and is consistent with high levels of AOX activity. This experimental evidence of the existence of a previously unreported terminal oxidase was further corroborated by analysis of publicly available Symbiodinium transcriptome data. The potential for enhanced AOX expression to play a compensatory role in mediating thermal stress was supported by inhibitor assays of cultured Symbiodinium at low (18 °C), moderate (26 °C), and high (32 °C) temperature conditions. Maximum capacity of the putative AOX pathway as a proportion of total dark oxygen consumption was found to increase from 26 % at 26 °C to 45 % and 53 % at 18 °C and 32 °C, respectively, when cells were acclimated to the treatment temperatures. Cells assayed at 18 and 32 °C without acclimation exhibited either the same or lower AOX capacity as controls, suggesting that the AOX protein is upregulated under temperature stress. The physiological implications for the presence of AOX in the coral/algal symbiosis and its potential role in response to many forms of biotic and abiotic stress, particularly oxidative stress, are discussed.

  10. Symbiodinium Genotypic and Environmental Controls on Lipids in Reef Building Corals

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Timothy F.; Lai, Michael; Ulstrup, Karin E.; Saunders, Sandra M.; Flematti, Gavin R.; Radford, Ben; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lipids in reef building corals can be divided into two classes; non-polar storage lipids, e.g. wax esters and triglycerides, and polar structural lipids, e.g. phospholipids and cholesterol. Differences among algal endosymbiont types are known to have important influences on processes including growth and the photobiology of scleractinian corals yet very little is known about the role of symbiont types on lipid energy reserves. Methodology/Principal Findings The ratio of storage lipid and structural lipid fractions of Scott Reef corals were determined by thin layer chromatography. The lipid fraction ratio varied with depth and depended on symbiont type harboured by two corals (Seriatopora hystrix and Pachyseris speciosa). S. hystrix colonies associated with Symbiodinium C1 or C1/C# at deep depths (>23 m) had lower lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately equal parts of storage and structural lipids) than those with Symbiodinium D1 in shallow depths (<23 m), which had higher lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately double amounts of storage relative to structural lipid). Further, there was a non-linear relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for S. hystrix with a modal peak at ∼23 m coinciding with the same depth as the shift from clade D to C types. In contrast, the proportional relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for P. speciosa, which exhibited high specificity for Symbiodinium C3 like across the depth gradient, was indicative of greater amounts of storage lipids contained in the deep colonies. Conclusions/Significance This study has demonstrated that Symbiodinium exert significant controls over the quality of coral energy reserves over a large-scale depth gradient. We conclude that the competitive advantages and metabolic costs that arise from flexible associations with divergent symbiont types are offset by energetic trade-offs for the coral host. PMID:21637826

  11. A genomic approach to coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: studies of Acropora digitifera and Symbiodinium minutum

    PubMed Central

    Shinzato, Chuya; Mungpakdee, Sutada; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Far more intimate knowledge of scleractinian coral biology is essential in order to understand how diverse coral-symbiont endosymbioses have been established. In particular, molecular and cellular mechanisms enabling the establishment and maintenance of obligate endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates require further clarification. By extension, such understanding may also shed light upon environmental conditions that promote the collapse of this mutualism. Genomic data undergird studies of all symbiotic processes. Here we review recent genomic data derived from the scleractinian coral, Acropora digitifera, and the endosymbiotic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum. We discuss Acropora genes involved in calcification, embryonic development, innate immunity, apoptosis, autophagy, UV resistance, fluorescence, photoreceptors, circadian clocks, etc. We also detail gene loss in amino acid metabolism that may explain at least part of the Acropora stress-response. Characteristic features of the Symbiodinium genome are also reviewed, focusing on the expansion of certain gene families, the molecular basis for permanently condensed chromatin, unique spliceosomal splicing, and unusual gene arrangement. Salient features of the Symbiodinium plastid and mitochondrial genomes are also illuminated. Although many questions regarding these interdependent genomes remain, we summarize information necessary for future studies of coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis. PMID:25071748

  12. Bioaccumulation of (63)Ni in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata and isolated Symbiodinium using radiotracer techniques.

    PubMed

    Hédouin, Laetitia; Metian, Marc; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhänsli, François; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Warnau, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Development of nickel mining activities along the New Caledonia coasts threatens the biodiversity of coral reefs. Although the validation of tropical marine organisms as bioindicators of metal mining contamination has received much attention in the literature over the last decade, few studies have examined the potential of corals, the fundamental organisms of coral reefs, to monitor nickel (Ni) contamination in tropical marine ecosystems. In an effort to bridge this gap, the present work investigated the bioaccumulation of (63)Ni in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata and in its isolated zooxanthellae Symbiodinium, using radiotracer techniques. Results highlight the high capacities of coral tissues (zooxanthellae and host tissues) to efficiently bioconcentrate (63)Ni compared to skeleton (Concentration Factors CF at 14 days of exposure are 3 orders of magnitude higher in tissues than in skeleton). When non-contaminated conditions were restored, (63)Ni was more efficiently retained in skeleton than in coral tissues, with biological half-lives (Tb½) of 44.3 and 6.5 days, respectively. In addition, our work showed that Symbiodinium bioconcentrated (63)Ni exponentially, with a vol/vol concentration factor at steady state (VCFSS) reaching 14,056. However, compilation of our results highlighted that despite efficient bioconcentration of (63)Ni in Symbiodinium, their contribution to the whole (63)Ni accumulation in coral nubbins represents less than 7%, suggesting that other biologically controlled processes occur in coral host allowing such efficient bioconcentration in coral tissues. PMID:27192479

  13. Evidence for an Inorganic Carbon-Concentrating Mechanism in the Symbiotic Dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp.1

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, William; Badger, Murray R.; Yellowlees, David

    1999-01-01

    The presence of a carbon-concentrating mechanism in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. was investigated. Its existence was postulated to explain how these algae fix inorganic carbon (Ci) efficiently despite the presence of a form II Rubisco. When the dinoflagellates were isolated from their host, the giant clam (Tridacna gigas), CO2 uptake was found to support the majority of net photosynthesis (45%–80%) at pH 8.0; however, 2 d after isolation this decreased to 5% to 65%, with HCO3− uptake supporting 35% to 95% of net photosynthesis. Measurements of intracellular Ci concentrations showed that levels inside the cell were between two and seven times what would be expected from passive diffusion of Ci into the cell. Symbiodinium also exhibits a distinct light-activated intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity. This, coupled with elevated intracellular Ci and the ability to utilize both CO2 and HCO3− from the medium, suggests that Symbiodinium sp. does possess a carbon-concentrating mechanism. However, intracellular Ci levels are not as large as might be expected of an alga utilizing a form II Rubisco with a poor affinity for CO2. PMID:10594111

  14. Spatial and temporal genetic structure of Symbiodinium populations within a common reef-building coral on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Howells, Emily J; Willis, Bette L; Bay, Line K; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2013-07-01

    The dinoflagellate photosymbiont Symbiodinium plays a fundamental role in defining the physiological tolerances of coral holobionts, but little is known about the dynamics of these endosymbiotic populations on coral reefs. Sparse data indicate that Symbiodinium populations show limited spatial connectivity; however, no studies have investigated temporal dynamics for in hospite Symbiodinium populations following significant mortality and recruitment events in coral populations. We investigated the combined influences of spatial isolation and disturbance on the population dynamics of the generalist Symbiodinium type C2 (ITS1 rDNA) hosted by the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora in the central Great Barrier Reef. Using eight microsatellite markers, we genotyped Symbiodinium in a total of 401 coral colonies, which were sampled from seven sites across a 12-year period including during flood plume-induced coral bleaching. Genetic differentiation of Symbiodinium was greatest within sites, explaining 70-86% of the total genetic variation. An additional 9-27% of variation was explained by significant differentiation of populations among sites separated by 0.4-13 km, which is consistent with low levels of dispersal via water movement and historical disturbance regimes. Sampling year accounted for 6-7% of total genetic variation and was related to significant coral mortality following severe bleaching in 1998 and a cyclone in 2006. Only 3% of the total genetic variation was related to coral bleaching status, reflecting generally small (8%) reductions in allelic diversity within bleached corals. This reduction probably reflected a loss of genotypes in hospite during bleaching, although no site-wide changes in genetic diversity were observed. Combined, our results indicate the importance of disturbance regimes acting together with limited oceanographic transport to determine the genetic composition of Symbiodinium types within reefs. PMID:23730715

  15. Variability of Symbiodinium Communities in Waters, Sediments, and Corals of Thermally Distinct Reef Pools in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Cunning, Ross; Yost, Denise M.; Guarinello, Marisa L.; Putnam, Hollie M.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2015-01-01

    Reef-building corals host assemblages of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium spp.) whose diversity and abundance may fluctuate under different conditions, potentially facilitating acclimatization to environmental change. The composition of free-living Symbiodinium in reef waters and sediments may also be environmentally labile and may influence symbiotic assemblages by mediating supply and dispersal. The magnitude and spatial scales of environmental influence over Symbiodinium composition in different reef habitat compartments are, however, not well understood. We used pyrosequencing to compare Symbiodinium in sediments, water, and ten coral species between two backreef pools in American Samoa with contrasting thermal environments. We found distinct compartmental assemblages of clades A, C, D, F, and/or G Symbiodinium types, with strong differences between pools in water, sediments, and two coral species. In the pool with higher and more variable temperatures, abundance of various clade A and C types differed compared to the other pool, while abundance of D types was lower in sediments but higher in water and in Pavona venosa, revealing an altered habitat distribution and potential linkages among compartments. The lack of between-pool effects in other coral species was due to either low overall variability (in the case of Porites) or high within-pool variability. Symbiodinium communities in water and sediment also showed within-pool structure, indicating that environmental influences may operate over multiple, small spatial scales. This work suggests that Symbiodinium composition is highly labile in reef waters, sediments, and some corals, but the underlying drivers and functional consequences of this plasticity require further testing with high spatial resolution biological and environmental sampling. PMID:26713847

  16. Variability of Symbiodinium Communities in Waters, Sediments, and Corals of Thermally Distinct Reef Pools in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Cunning, Ross; Yost, Denise M; Guarinello, Marisa L; Putnam, Hollie M; Gates, Ruth D

    2015-01-01

    Reef-building corals host assemblages of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium spp.) whose diversity and abundance may fluctuate under different conditions, potentially facilitating acclimatization to environmental change. The composition of free-living Symbiodinium in reef waters and sediments may also be environmentally labile and may influence symbiotic assemblages by mediating supply and dispersal. The magnitude and spatial scales of environmental influence over Symbiodinium composition in different reef habitat compartments are, however, not well understood. We used pyrosequencing to compare Symbiodinium in sediments, water, and ten coral species between two backreef pools in American Samoa with contrasting thermal environments. We found distinct compartmental assemblages of clades A, C, D, F, and/or G Symbiodinium types, with strong differences between pools in water, sediments, and two coral species. In the pool with higher and more variable temperatures, abundance of various clade A and C types differed compared to the other pool, while abundance of D types was lower in sediments but higher in water and in Pavona venosa, revealing an altered habitat distribution and potential linkages among compartments. The lack of between-pool effects in other coral species was due to either low overall variability (in the case of Porites) or high within-pool variability. Symbiodinium communities in water and sediment also showed within-pool structure, indicating that environmental influences may operate over multiple, small spatial scales. This work suggests that Symbiodinium composition is highly labile in reef waters, sediments, and some corals, but the underlying drivers and functional consequences of this plasticity require further testing with high spatial resolution biological and environmental sampling. PMID:26713847

  17. RNA Sociology: Group Behavioral Motifs of RNA Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Witzany, Guenther

    2014-01-01

    RNA sociology investigates the behavioral motifs of RNA consortia from the social science perspective. Besides the self-folding of RNAs into single stem loop structures, group building of such stem loops results in a variety of essential agents that are highly active in regulatory processes in cellular and non-cellular life. RNA stem loop self-folding and group building do not depend solely on sequence syntax; more important are their contextual (functional) needs. Also, evolutionary processes seem to occur through RNA stem loop consortia that may act as a complement. This means the whole entity functions only if all participating parts are coordinated, although the complementary building parts originally evolved for different functions. If complementary groups, such as rRNAs and tRNAs, are placed together in selective pressure contexts, new evolutionary features may emerge. Evolution initiated by competent agents in natural genome editing clearly contrasts with statistical error replication narratives. PMID:25426799

  18. Engineering microbial consortia to enhance biomining and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Brune, Karl D; Bayer, Travis S

    2012-01-01

    In natural environments microorganisms commonly exist as communities of multiple species that are capable of performing more varied and complicated tasks than clonal populations. Synthetic biologists have engineered clonal populations with characteristics such as differentiation, memory, and pattern formation, which are usually associated with more complex multicellular organisms. The prospect of designing microbial communities has alluring possibilities for environmental, biomedical, and energy applications, and is likely to reveal insight into how natural microbial consortia function. Cell signaling and communication pathways between different species are likely to be key processes for designing novel functions in synthetic and natural consortia. Recent efforts to engineer synthetic microbial interactions will be reviewed here, with particular emphasis given to research with significance for industrial applications in the field of biomining and bioremediation of acid mine drainage. PMID:22679443

  19. Biomass and neutral lipid production in geothermal microalgal consortia.

    PubMed

    Bywaters, Kathryn F; Fritsen, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems - in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011, 2012). Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass, and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 39.0 to 344.1 mg C L(-1) day(-1). The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production) ranged from 0 to 38.74 mg free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) L(-1 )day(-1); the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio) decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment. All results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels. PMID:25763368

  20. Mixed consortia in bioprocesses: role of microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shiladitya; Chowdhury, Ranjana; Bhattacharya, Pinaki

    2016-05-01

    The utilization of mixed consortia or mixed culture has become a current research trend of applied microbiology, bioprocess engineering and biotechnology. The constituent microorganisms of such mixed cultures can jointly perform complex processes efficiently, yielding the desired product at an augmented rate, in comparison to monocultures. It is understandable that the interactions between the microbial partners in these mixed cultures are expected to have a significant impact on the combined performance of the microorganisms and the bioprocess as a whole. Prevalence of positive interactions (commensalism or mutualism) among microbial members of a mixed culture or consortia can significantly enhance the product outcome of the bioprocess, ensuring their industrial application and long-term stability. On the contrary, negative interaction (parasitism, predation or ammensalism) leads to elimination of microbial members from the consortia causing the destruction of community structure as well as disruption of cumulative performance. Therefore, a priori knowledge on the type of interaction between the microorganisms is also essential for the optimization of the performance of the designed consortia. This could only be achieved through the study of inter-microbial interaction prevailing in a mixed culture. In the present article, different bioprocess applications of mixed cultures, currently in practice along with types of positive microbial interactions involved, have been reviewed. Complexity of mixed cultures from the perspective of multiple types of intra-culture relationships has been explained in detail. Overall, the necessity for more in-depth research studies on "microbial interaction" in mixed culture bioprocesses has been stressed in the article. PMID:27037693

  1. Biomass and Neutral Lipid Production in Geothermal Microalgal Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Bywaters, Kathryn F.; Fritsen, Christian H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems – in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011, 2012). Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass, and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 39.0 to 344.1 mg C L−1 day−1. The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production) ranged from 0 to 38.74 mg free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) L−1 day−1; the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio) decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment. All results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels. PMID:25763368

  2. Ionic liquid biodegradability depends on specific wastewater microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Kathryn M; Aiello, Steven W; Buehler, Barbara K; Jones, Stuart E; Szymczyna, Blair R; Walker, Katherine A

    2015-10-01

    Complete biodegradation of a newly-synthesized chemical in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) eliminates the potential for novel environmental pollutants. However, differences within- and between-WWTP microbial communities may alter expectations for biodegradation. WWTP communities can also serve as a source of unique consortia that, when enriched, can metabolize chemicals that tend to resist degradation, but are otherwise promising green alternatives. We tested the biodegradability of three ionic liquids (ILs): 1-octyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide (OMP), 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide (BMP) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM). We performed tests using communities from two WWTPs at three time points. Site-specific and temporal variation both influenced community composition, which impacted the success of OMP biodegradability. Neither BMP nor BMIM degraded in any test, suggesting that these ILs are unlikely to be removed by traditional treatment. Following standard biodegradation assays, we enriched for three consortia that were capable of quickly degrading OMP, BMP and BMIM. Our results indicate WWTPs are not functionally redundant with regard to biodegradation of specific ionic liquids. However, consortia can be enriched to degrade chemicals that fail biodegradability assays. This information can be used to prepare pre-treatment procedures and prevent environmental release of novel pollutants. PMID:25985304

  3. The distribution of the thermally tolerant symbiont lineage (Symbiodinium clade D) in corals from Hawaii: correlations with host and the history of ocean thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Stat, Michael; Pochon, Xavier; Franklin, Erik C; Bruno, John F; Casey, Kenneth S; Selig, Elizabeth R; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-05-01

    Spatially intimate symbioses, such as those between scleractinian corals and unicellular algae belonging to the genus Symbiodinium, can potentially adapt to changes in the environment by altering the taxonomic composition of their endosymbiont communities. We quantified the spatial relationship between the cumulative frequency of thermal stress anomalies (TSAs) and the taxonomic composition of Symbiodinium in the corals Montipora capitata, Porites lobata, and Porites compressa across the Hawaiian archipelago. Specifically, we investigated whether thermally tolerant clade D Symbiodinium was in greater abundance in corals from sites with high frequencies of TSAs. We recovered 2305 Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences from 242 coral colonies in lagoonal reef habitats at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, French Frigate Shoals, and Kaneohe Bay, Oahu in 2007. Sequences were grouped into 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 12 OTUs associated with Montipora and 21 with Porites. Both coral genera associated with Symbiodinium in clade C, and these co-occurred with clade D in M. capitata and clade G in P. lobata. The latter represents the first report of clade G Symbiodinium in P. lobata. In M. capitata (but not Porites spp.), there was a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium in clade D and a thermal history characterized by high cumulative frequency of TSAs. The endogenous community composition of Symbiodinium and an association with clade D symbionts after long-term thermal disturbance appear strongly dependent on the taxa of the coral host. PMID:23762518

  4. The distribution of the thermally tolerant symbiont lineage (Symbiodinium clade D) in corals from Hawaii: correlations with host and the history of ocean thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Stat, Michael; Pochon, Xavier; Franklin, Erik C; Bruno, John F; Casey, Kenneth S; Selig, Elizabeth R; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-01-01

    Spatially intimate symbioses, such as those between scleractinian corals and unicellular algae belonging to the genus Symbiodinium, can potentially adapt to changes in the environment by altering the taxonomic composition of their endosymbiont communities. We quantified the spatial relationship between the cumulative frequency of thermal stress anomalies (TSAs) and the taxonomic composition of Symbiodinium in the corals Montipora capitata, Porites lobata, and Porites compressa across the Hawaiian archipelago. Specifically, we investigated whether thermally tolerant clade D Symbiodinium was in greater abundance in corals from sites with high frequencies of TSAs. We recovered 2305 Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences from 242 coral colonies in lagoonal reef habitats at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, French Frigate Shoals, and Kaneohe Bay, Oahu in 2007. Sequences were grouped into 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 12 OTUs associated with Montipora and 21 with Porites. Both coral genera associated with Symbiodinium in clade C, and these co-occurred with clade D in M. capitata and clade G in P. lobata. The latter represents the first report of clade G Symbiodinium in P. lobata. In M. capitata (but not Porites spp.), there was a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium in clade D and a thermal history characterized by high cumulative frequency of TSAs. The endogenous community composition of Symbiodinium and an association with clade D symbionts after long-term thermal disturbance appear strongly dependent on the taxa of the coral host. PMID:23762518

  5. APPLICATION OF A NEW MICROCULTURING TECHNIQUE TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON SPECIFIC GROWTH RATES OF SIX SYMBIODINIUM ISOLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple micro-culturing technique is described for determining specific growth rates of cultured Symbiodinium spp. Micro-cultures were prepared by transferring 200 L fresh test medium containing 2–10 Symbiodinium cells to wells of a flat bottom 96-well plate. Cultures were incub...

  6. From Parent to Gamete: Vertical Transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) ITS2 Sequence Assemblages in the Reef Building Coral Montipora capitata

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L.; Pochon, Xavier; Bird, Christopher; Concepcion, Gregory T.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission), which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents) each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission), a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring. PMID:22701642

  7. From parent to gamete: vertical transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) ITS2 sequence assemblages in the reef building coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Pochon, Xavier; Bird, Christopher; Concepcion, Gregory T; Gates, Ruth D

    2012-01-01

    Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission), which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents) each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission), a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring. PMID:22701642

  8. Discordant coral-symbiont structuring: factors shaping geographical variation of Symbiodinium communities in a facultative zooxanthellate coral genus, Oculina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leydet, Karine Posbic; Hellberg, Michael E.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the factors that help shape the association between corals and their algal symbionts, zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium), is necessary to better understand the functional diversity and acclimatization potential of the coral host. However, most studies focus on tropical zooxanthellate corals and their obligate algal symbionts, thus limiting our full comprehension of coral-algal symbiont associations. Here, we examine algal associations in a facultative zooxanthellate coral. We survey the Symbiodinium communities associated with Oculina corals in the western North Atlantic and the Mediterranean using one clade-level marker ( psbA coding region) and three fine-scale markers ( cp23S- rDNA, b7sym15 flanking region, and b2sym17). We ask whether Oculina spp. harbor geographically different Symbiodinium communities across their geographic range and, if so, whether the host's genetics or habitat differences are correlated with this geographical variation. We found that Oculina corals harbor different Symbiodinium communities across their geographical range. Of the habitat differences (including chlorophyll a concentration and depth), sea surface temperature is better correlated with this geographical variation than the host's genetics, a pattern most evident in the Mediterranean. Our results suggest that although facultative zooxanthellate corals may be less dependent on their algal partners compared to obligate zooxanthellate corals, the Symbiodinium communities that they harbor may nevertheless reflect acclimatization to environmental variation among habitats.

  9. Niche specialization of reef-building corals in the mesophotic zone: metabolic trade-offs between divergent Symbiodinium types

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Timothy F.; Ulstrup, Karin E.; Dandan, Sana S.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Kühl, Michael; Muirhead, Andrew; O'Leary, Rebecca A.; Ziersen, Bibi E. F.; Van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The photobiology of two reef corals and the distribution of associated symbiont types were investigated over a depth gradient of 0–60 m at Scott Reef, Western Australia. Pachyseris speciosa hosted mainly the same Symbiodinium C type similar to C3 irrespective of sampling depth. By contrast, Seriatopora hystrix hosted predominantly Symbiodinium type D1a or D1a-like at shallow depths while those in deeper water were dominated by a Symbiodinium C type closely related to C1. The photosynthesis/respiration (P/R) ratio increased consistently with depth at the two sampling times (November 2008 and April 2009) for P. speciosa and in November 2008 only for S. hystrix, suggesting a reduction in metabolic energy expended for every unit of energy obtained from photosynthesis. However, in April 2009, shallow colonies of S. hystrix exhibited decreased P/R ratios down to depths of approximately 23 m, below which the ratio increased towards the maximum depth sampled. This pattern was mirrored by changes in tissue biomass determined as total protein content. The depth of change in the direction of the P/R ratio correlated with a shift from Symbiodinium D to C-dominated colonies. We conclude that while photobiological flexibility is vital for persistence in contrasting light regimes, a shift in Symbiodinium type may also confer a functional advantage albeit at a metabolic cost with increased depth. PMID:21106586

  10. GP consortia: navigating ambiguity to produce greater public value?

    PubMed

    Holbeche, Linda

    2011-05-01

    The UK's NHS is about to be significantly remodelled according to a white paper published in July 2010 that outlines the devolution of commissioning responsibilities away from strategic health authorities and primary care trusts to consortia of GPs, which are to be established at local level. Details of how the new GP consortia will operate are as yet unclear, but in essence they will be strategic alliances and it is likely that they will develop more or less formal arrangements between consortia partners, such as those of a commercial joint venture. This article draws on primary research into strategic alliances between organizations in all sectors. It suggests that there can be significant challenges for those working within strategic alliances, given that these tend to be beset by ambiguity and political tensions. In a context of ever greater transparency and accountability, it will be crucial to attend to the human aspects of strategic alliances since these represent significant risk if neglected. Conversely, alliances also offer the opportunity to develop the synergy of people, organizations and communities to deliver greater public value. Successful collaborations need to get three things right: governance, operations and behaviours. Relationships between consortia partners have a significant bearing on their ability to deliver desired outcomes. They must be able to build and maintain trust. Consortia partners will need sophisticated negotiating and stakeholder management skills and must be able to engage the public in setting the strategic goals for which they will be accountable. They also need strategic and operational management skills and must be able to cope with ambiguity and manage complexity. This paper argues that specific forms of leadership are needed in collaborative arrangements to mobilize people for positive action. People must work together by willingly and effectively pooling their initiative and expertise, and create a product or energy

  11. Sharing the slope: depth partitioning of agariciid corals and associated Symbiodinium across shallow and mesophotic habitats (2-60 m) on a Caribbean reef

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Scleractinian corals and their algal endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium) exhibit distinct bathymetric distributions on coral reefs. Yet, few studies have assessed the evolutionary context of these ecological distributions by exploring the genetic diversity of closely related coral species and their associated Symbiodinium over large depth ranges. Here we assess the distribution and genetic diversity of five agariciid coral species (Agaricia humilis, A. agaricites, A. lamarcki, A. grahamae, and Helioseris cucullata) and their algal endosymbionts (Symbiodinium) across a large depth gradient (2-60 m) covering shallow to mesophotic depths on a Caribbean reef. Results The five agariciid species exhibited distinct depth distributions, and dominant Symbiodinium associations were found to be species-specific, with each of the agariciid species harbouring a distinct ITS2-DGGE profile (except for a shared profile between A. lamarcki and A. grahamae). Only A. lamarcki harboured different Symbiodinium types across its depth distribution (i.e. exhibited symbiont zonation). Phylogenetic analysis (atp6) of the coral hosts demonstrated a division of the Agaricia genus into two major lineages that correspond to their bathymetric distribution (“shallow”: A. humilis / A. agaricites and “deep”: A. lamarcki / A. grahamae), highlighting the role of depth-related factors in the diversification of these congeneric agariciid species. The divergence between “shallow” and “deep” host species was reflected in the relatedness of the associated Symbiodinium (with A. lamarcki and A. grahamae sharing an identical Symbiodinium profile, and A. humilis and A. agaricites harbouring a related ITS2 sequence in their Symbiodinium profiles), corroborating the notion that brooding corals and their Symbiodinium are engaged in coevolutionary processes. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the depth-related environmental gradient on reefs has played an important

  12. Bacterial consortia constructed for the decomposition of Agave biomass.

    PubMed

    Maki, Miranda; Iskhakova, Svetlana; Zhang, Tingzhou; Qin, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that a greater variety of enzymes, as well as variety of microorganisms producing enzymes, can have an overall synergistic effect on the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of value-added bio-products. Here, 8 cellulase-degrading bacterial isolates were selected to develop co-, tri-, and tetra-cultures for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass. Glucose and xylose equivalents released from imitation biomass media containing 0.5% (w/v) beechwood xylan and 0.5% (w/v) Avicel was measured using di-nitrosalicylic acid for all consortia, along with cell growth and survival. Thereafter, 6 co- and 2 tri-cultures with greatest decomposition were examined for ability to degrade Agave americana fiber. Interestingly, when strains were paired up in co-culture, four pairs: G+5, G+A, C+A1, and G+A1 produced high reducing sugars in 24 h: 6 µM, 8 µM, 8 µM, and finally, 6 µM, respectively. From 4 co-cultures with highest reducing sugar equivalents, tri- and tetra-cultures were produced. The bacterial consortia which had the highest reducing sugars detected were 2 tri-cultures: G + A1 + A4 and G + A1 + 5, displaying levels as high as 9 µM and 5 µM in day 1, respectively. All co- and tri-cultures maintained high cell survival for 14 days with 0.5 g ground Agave. Upon evaluating Agave dry weight after treatment, it was evident that almost half the biomass could be decomposed in 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy of treated Agave supported decomposition when compared with the control. These bacterial consortia have potential for further study of value-added by-product production during metabolism of lignocellulosic biomasses. PMID:24637707

  13. Bacterial consortia constructed for the decomposition of Agave biomass

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Miranda; Iskhakova, Svetlana; Zhang, Tingzhou; Qin, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that a greater variety of enzymes, as well as variety of microorganisms producing enzymes, can have an overall synergistic effect on the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of value-added bio-products. Here, 8 cellulase-degrading bacterial isolates were selected to develop co-, tri-, and tetra-cultures for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass. Glucose and xylose equivalents released from imitation biomass media containing 0.5% (w/v) beechwood xylan and 0.5% (w/v) Avicel was measured using di-nitrosalicylic acid for all consortia, along with cell growth and survival. Thereafter, 6 co- and 2 tri-cultures with greatest decomposition were examined for ability to degrade Agave americana fiber. Interestingly, when strains were paired up in co-culture, four pairs: G+5, G+A, C+A1, and G+A1 produced high reducing sugars in 24 h: 6 µM, 8 µM, 8 µM, and finally, 6 µM, respectively. From 4 co-cultures with highest reducing sugar equivalents, tri- and tetra-cultures were produced. The bacterial consortia which had the highest reducing sugars detected were 2 tri-cultures: G + A1 + A4 and G + A1 + 5, displaying levels as high as 9 µM and 5 µM in day 1, respectively. All co- and tri-cultures maintained high cell survival for 14 days with 0.5 g ground Agave. Upon evaluating Agave dry weight after treatment, it was evident that almost half the biomass could be decomposed in 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy of treated Agave supported decomposition when compared with the control. These bacterial consortia have potential for further study of value-added by-product production during metabolism of lignocellulosic biomasses. PMID:24637707

  14. Rethinking quasispecies theory: From fittest type to cooperative consortia

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Luis P; Witzany, Guenther

    2013-01-01

    Recent investigations surprisingly indicate that single RNA “stem-loops” operate solely by chemical laws that act without selective forces, and in contrast, self-ligated consortia of RNA stem-loops operate by biological selection. To understand consortial RNA selection, the concept of single quasi-species and its mutant spectra as drivers of RNA variation and evolution is rethought here. Instead, we evaluate the current RNA world scenario in which consortia of cooperating RNA stem-loops (not individuals) are the basic players. We thus redefine quasispecies as RNA quasispecies consortia (qs-c) and argue that it has essential behavioral motifs that are relevant to the inherent variation, evolution and diversity in biology. We propose that qs-c is an especially innovative force. We apply qs-c thinking to RNA stem-loops and evaluate how it yields altered bulges and loops in the stem-loop regions, not as errors, but as a natural capability to generate diversity. This basic competence-not error-opens a variety of combinatorial possibilities which may alter and create new biological interactions, identities and newly emerged self identity (immunity) functions. Thus RNA stem-loops typically operate as cooperative modules, like members of social groups. From such qs-c of stem-loop groups we can trace a variety of RNA secondary structures such as ribozymes, viroids, viruses, mobile genetic elements as abundant infection derived agents that provide the stem-loop societies of small and long non-coding RNAs. PMID:24340131

  15. Evolving lineages of Symbiodinium-like dinoflagellates based on ITS1 rDNA.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2003-07-01

    Symbiodinium-like dinoflagellates have been shown to be a diverse group of endosymbionts that associate mutualistically with many kinds of coral reef dwellers, including cnidarians, molluscs, and protists. A high number of genetically ITS types of symbionts have been reported to date. However, whether these recently identified Symbiodinium ITS types indeed represent independent evolutionary lineages is still unsettled. Here I tested the null hypothesis that certain group of symbionts sampled from different geographical locations are derived from a single evolutionary lineage using a nested clade analysis (NCA). I analyzed a total of 174 ITS1 sequences from GenBank and pooled them into 74 ITS1 distinct haplotypes. Using these haplotypes, the statistical parsimony criterion produced 23 independent network trees, each one corresponding to a genetically independent evolving lineage. Some of these lineages revealed certain degree of specificity with some host groups at least at the phylum level. Within the previously described 28S-rDNA phylotype A, five ITS1 lineages were resolved. Phylotypes B and C resolved each in two ITS1 lineages. The highest ITS1 symbiont diversity was observed within the phylotype F, in which 11 lineages were resolved. Moreover, most of these lineages were associated uniquely with protist hosts from the group of foraminiferans. Here it is suggested that this high genetic diversity of endosymbionts associated with foraminiferans is linked with the evolution of soritacean foraminifera, which seems to have been driven by endosymbiosis. Lastly, the absence of genetic recombination presented in this study, suggest a lack of hybridisation at least among the major 28S-rDNA phylotypes within Symbiodinium-like dinoflagellates. This supports highly the idea that these phylotypes are indeed independent evolutionary units, which should be considered at least as different species. Whether they belong to the same genus or to different higher taxa still needs

  16. Extracellular Production and Degradation of Superoxide in the Coral Stylophora pistillata and Cultured Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Saragosti, Eldad; Tchernov, Dan; Katsir, Adi; Shaked, Yeala

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a major role in cell death pathways and bleaching in scleractinian corals. Direct measurements of ROS in corals are conspicuously in short supply, partly due to inherent problems with ROS quantification in cellular systems. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we characterized the dynamics of the reactive oxygen species superoxide anion radical (O2−) in the external milieu of the coral Stylophora pistillata. Using a sensitive, rapid and selective chemiluminesence-based technique, we measured extracellular superoxide production and detoxification activity of symbiont (non-bleached) and aposymbiont (bleached) corals, and of cultured Symbiodinium (from clades A and C). Bleached and non-bleached Stylophora fragments were found to produce superoxide at comparable rates of 10−11–10−9 mol O2− mg protein−1 min−1 in the dark. In the light, a two-fold enhancement in O2− production rates was observed in non-bleached corals, but not in bleached corals. Cultured Symbiodinium produced superoxide in the dark at a rate of . Light was found to markedly enhance O2− production. The NADPH Oxidase inhibitor Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) strongly inhibited O2− production by corals (and more moderately by algae), possibly suggesting an involvement of NADPH Oxidase in the process. An extracellular O2− detoxifying activity was found for bleached and non-bleached Stylophora but not for Symbiodinium. The O2− detoxifying activity was partially characterized and found to resemble that of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Conclusions/Significance The findings of substantial extracellular O2− production as well as extracellular O2− detoxifying activity may shed light on the chemical interactions between the symbiont and its host and between the coral and its environment. Superoxide production by Symbiodinium possibly implies that algal bearing corals are more susceptible to an internal

  17. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  18. Operational Procedures for Successful Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia in Serving Business and Industry in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, James E.; Stanton, William

    The development, organization, and operation of the Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia in Ohio was examined to identify those elements, policies, practices, and procedures that contribute to their effective operation and future growth. Data about individual consortia and general information were gathered by questionnaires completed by…

  19. Managing the Advantages and Challenges of Multiple Library Consortia: The View from within the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xudong; Maurer, Margaret Beecher

    2007-01-01

    The authors are both managers in OhioLINK libraries and have complex experiences working within a variety of simultaneous library consortial agreements. Their librarians'-eye view of consortia allows for a discussion of the nature of that landscape, some perspectives on the benefits and advantages of consortia as well as thoughts on the challenges…

  20. Hanging Together To Avoid Hanging Separately: Opportunities for Academic Libraries and Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Barbara McFadden; Hirshon, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    Discusses academic library consortia, examines types of consortia, and presents three case histories (OhioLINK, PALCI and CIC). Highlights include economic competition; changes in information access and delivery; growth of information technology; quality improvement; and future strategies, including pricing models for electronic information,…

  1. 2012 Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), Consortia 2012 (DOC, 491KB) (All SOP Documents with Table of Contents) DCP Acronym List, Consortia 2012 (DOC, 62.5KB) See SOP Documents, DCP Guidance Documents and additional resources linked by topic within the tabs below. Developing Regulatory |

  2. 45 CFR 2523.60 - May Federal agencies enter into partnerships or participate in consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May Federal agencies enter into partnerships or... PROVISION OF AMERICORPS PROGRAM ASSISTANCE § 2523.60 May Federal agencies enter into partnerships or participate in consortia? Yes. Such partnerships or consortia may consist of other Federal agencies,...

  3. 25 CFR 1001.9 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance planning grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participate in self-governance. (e) Can tribes/consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.9 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking...-governance tribe and needs advance funding in order to complete the planning phase requirement may...

  4. 25 CFR 1001.9 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance planning grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participate in self-governance. (e) Can tribes/consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.9 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking...-governance tribe and needs advance funding in order to complete the planning phase requirement may...

  5. 25 CFR 1001.9 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance planning grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participate in self-governance. (e) Can tribes/consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.9 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking...-governance tribe and needs advance funding in order to complete the planning phase requirement may...

  6. Consortia--A Viable Model and Medium for Distance Education in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Consortia are increasingly popular mechanisms by which educational institutions may achieve organisational goals that might be especially challenging to accomplish individually. Such collaborations are intended to offer courses and services through combined resources and expertise. Consortia designed to develop and deliver distance education…

  7. Sustainability for the Americas: Building the American Network of Sustainability Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motloch, John; Pacheco, Pedro; Vann, John

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To build awareness of an emergent global network of sustainability consortia, the network's Sustainability for the Americas (SFTA) regional cluster, its pilot US-Brazil Sustainability Consortium (USBSC), its subsequent North American Sustainability, Housing and Community Consortium (NASHCC), the process through which these consortia are…

  8. The Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia Serving Business and Industry in Ohio. Digest of Study: Operational Procedures for Successful Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia in Serving Business and Industry in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, James E.; Stanton, William

    This publication reports the development of the vocational-technical resource consortia in Ohio and identifies the operational procedures associated with successful programs. Five exemplary consortia were studied in some depth; however, data were obtained from all of the 23 consortia in the state. The research indicates that the consortium is an…

  9. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit. PMID:26345196

  10. Community dynamics of cellulose-adapted thermophilic bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Varanasi, Patanjali; Stavila, Vatalie; Zemla, Marcin; Auer, Manfred; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2013-09-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is a key process in the global carbon cycle and the industrial conversion of biomass to biofuels. In natural environments, cellulose hydrolysis is predominately performed by microbial communities. However, detailed understanding of bacterial cellulose hydrolysis is primarily confined to a few model isolates. Developing models for cellulose hydrolysis by mixed microbial consortia will complement these isolate studies and may reveal new mechanisms for cellulose deconstruction. Microbial communities were adapted to microcrystalline cellulose under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study cellulose hydrolysis in a microbial consortium. This adaptation selected for three dominant taxa--the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Thermus. A high-resolution profile of community development during the enrichment demonstrated a community transition from Firmicutes to a novel Bacteroidetes population that clusters in the Chitinophagaceae family. A representative strain of this population, strain NYFB, was successfully isolated, and sequencing of a nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that it was only 86% identical compared with other validated strains in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain NYFB grew well on soluble polysaccharide substrates, but grew poorly on insoluble polysaccharide substrates. Similar communities were observed in companion thermophilic enrichments on insoluble wheat arabinoxylan, a hemicellulosic substrate, suggesting a common model for deconstruction of plant polysaccharides. Combining observations of community dynamics and the physiology of strain NYFB, a cooperative successional model for polysaccharide hydrolysis by the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the thermophilic cellulolytic consortia is proposed. PMID:23763762

  11. Characterization of anaerobic consortia coupled lignin depolymerization with biomethane generation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Rui; He, Jianzhong

    2013-07-01

    Two sediment-free microbial consortia (LI3 and LP3) were established to depolymerize lignin under anaerobic conditions. During depolymerizing high molecular weight lignin to low molecular weight molecules, the two cultures produced biomethane up to 151.7 and 113.0 mL g(-1) total lignin. Furthermore, LI3 and LP3 could also utilize the biomass - oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFB) to produce 190.6 and 195.6 mL methaneg(-1) total lignin in OPEFB, and at the same time improve the bioavailability of lignocellulosic matters for further enzymatic hydrolysis. The microbial community analysis by denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the high-density 16S rDNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) exhibited that Methanomethylovorans sp. (LI3) and Methanoculleus sp. (LP3) were the main methanogens present, and phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were mainly involved in the lignin depolymerization. The established microbial consortia with both lignin depolymerization and biomethane production provide profound application on the environmental friendly pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:23639408

  12. Characterization of cellulolytic activities of environmental bacterial consortia from an Argentinian native forest.

    PubMed

    Romano, Nelson; Gioffré, Andrea; Sede, Silvana M; Campos, Eleonora; Cataldi, Angel; Talia, Paola

    2013-08-01

    Cellulolytic activities of three bacterial consortia derived from a forest soil sample from Chaco region, Argentina, were characterized. The phylogenetic analysis of consortia revealed two main highly supported groups including Achromobacter and Pseudomonas genera. All three consortia presented cellulolytic activity. The carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and total cellulase activities were studied both quantitatively and qualitatively and optimal enzymatic conditions were characterized and compared among the three consortia. Thermal and pH stability were analyzed. Based on its cellulolytic activity, one consortium was selected for further characterization by zymography. We detected a specific protein of 55 kDa with CMCase activity. In this study, we have shown that these consortia encode for cellulolytic enzymes. These enzymes could be useful for lignocellulosic biomass degradation into simple components and for different industrial applications. PMID:23471693

  13. Fermentation enhancement of methanogenic archaea consortia from an Illinois basin coalbed via DOL emulsion nutrition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Peng, Su-Ping; Wang, En-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Microbially enhanced coalbed methane technology must be used to increase the methane content in mining and generate secondary biogenic gas. In this technology, the metabolic processes of methanogenic consortia are the basis for the production of biomethane from some of the organic compounds in coal. Thus, culture nutrition plays an important role in remediating the nutritional deficiency of a coal seam. To enhance the methane production rates for microorganism consortia, different types of nutrition solutions were examined in this study. Emulsion nutrition solutions containing a novel nutritional supplement, called dystrophy optional modification latex, increased the methane yield for methanogenic consortia. This new nutritional supplement can help methanogenic consortia form an enhanced anaerobic environment, optimize the microbial balance in the consortia, and improve the methane biosynthesis rate. PMID:25884952

  14. Fermentation Enhancement of Methanogenic Archaea Consortia from an Illinois Basin Coalbed via DOL Emulsion Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dong; Peng, Su-Ping; Wang, En-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Microbially enhanced coalbed methane technology must be used to increase the methane content in mining and generate secondary biogenic gas. In this technology, the metabolic processes of methanogenic consortia are the basis for the production of biomethane from some of the organic compounds in coal. Thus, culture nutrition plays an important role in remediating the nutritional deficiency of a coal seam. To enhance the methane production rates for microorganism consortia, different types of nutrition solutions were examined in this study. Emulsion nutrition solutions containing a novel nutritional supplement, called dystrophy optional modification latex, increased the methane yield for methanogenic consortia. This new nutritional supplement can help methanogenic consortia form an enhanced anaerobic environment, optimize the microbial balance in the consortia, and improve the methane biosynthesis rate. PMID:25884952

  15. Ancient DNA from Coral-Hosted Symbiodinium Reveal a Static Mutualism over the Last 172 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David M.; Weigt, Lee; Fogel, Marilyn; Knowlton, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) provides powerful evidence for detecting the genetic basis for adaptation to environmental change in many taxa. Among the greatest of changes in our biosphere within the last century is rapid anthropogenic ocean warming. This phenomenon threatens corals with extinction, evidenced by the increasing observation of widespread mortality following mass bleaching events. There is some evidence and conjecture that coral-dinoflagellate symbioses change partnerships in response to changing external conditions over ecological and evolutionary timescales. Until now, we have been unable to ascertain the genetic identity of Symbiodinium hosted by corals prior to the rapid global change of the last century. Here, we show that Symbiodinium cells recovered from dry, century old specimens of 6 host species of octocorals contain sufficient DNA for amplification of the ITS2 subregion of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, commonly used for genotyping within this genus. Through comparisons with modern specimens sampled from similar locales we show that symbiotic associations among several species have been static over the last century, thereby suggesting that adaptive shifts to novel symbiont types is not common among these gorgonians, and perhaps, symbiotic corals in general. PMID:23405111

  16. Differential stability of photosynthetic membranes and fatty acid composition at elevated temperature in Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Almeyda, E.; Thomé, P. E.; El Hafidi, M.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.

    2011-03-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by increasing surface seawater temperatures resulting from climate change. Reef-building corals symbiotic with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium experience dramatic reductions in algal densities when exposed to temperatures above the long-term local summer average, leading to a phenomenon called coral bleaching. Although the temperature-dependent loss in photosynthetic function of the algal symbionts has been widely recognized as one of the early events leading to coral bleaching, there is considerable debate regarding the actual damage site. We have tested the relative thermal stability and composition of membranes in Symbiodinium exposed to high temperature. Our results show that melting curves of photosynthetic membranes from different symbiotic dinoflagellates substantiate a species-specific sensitivity to high temperature, while variations in fatty acid composition under high temperature rather suggest a complex process in which various modifications in lipid composition may be involved. Our results do not support the role of unsaturation of fatty acids of the thylakoid membrane as being mechanistically involved in bleaching nor as being a dependable tool for the diagnosis of thermal susceptibility of symbiotic reef corals.

  17. Symbiodinium population genetics: testing for species boundaries and analysing samples with mixed genotypes.

    PubMed

    Wham, Drew C; LaJeunesse, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Population genetic markers are increasingly being used to study the diversity, ecology and evolution of Symbiodinium, a group of eukaryotic microbes that are often mutualistic with reef-building corals. Population genetic markers can resolve individual clones, or strains, from samples of host tissue; however, samples may comprise different species that may confound interpretations of gene flow and genetic structure. Here, we propose a method for resolving species from population genetic data using tests for genetic recombination. Assigning individuals to genetically recombining populations prior to further analyses avoids critical errors in the interpretation of gene flow and dispersal. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach, we first apply this method to a simulated data set. We then use the method to resolve two species of host generalist Symbiodinium that commonly co-occur in reef-building corals collected from Indo-West Pacific reefs. We demonstrate that the method is robust even when some hosts contain genotypes from two distinct species. Finally, we examine population genetic data sets from two recently published papers in Molecular Ecology. We show that each strongly supports a two species interpretation, which significantly changes the original conclusions presented in these studies. When combined with available phylogenetic and ecological evidence, the use of population genetic data offers a robust method for unambiguously delimiting morphologically cryptic species. PMID:27118512

  18. Impediment to symbiosis establishment between giant clams and Symbiodinium algae due to sterilization of seawater.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment ("symbiosis rate") is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds. PMID:23613802

  19. Impediment to Symbiosis Establishment between Giant Clams and Symbiodinium Algae Due to Sterilization of Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment (“symbiosis rate”) is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds. PMID:23613802

  20. Patterns of Symbiodinium spp. associations within the family Aiptasiidae, a monophyletic lineage of symbiotic of sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Thornhill, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    Although the symbiotic relationships between dinoflagellates and cnidarians are well recognized, few studies have examined these associations from an evolutionary perspective. This is especially true for symbiotic sea anemones, in which many reports consist of an approximate species identification of the host, followed by the identification of the dinoflagellate symbiont using molecular genetic markers. To further explore the evolutionary history of sea anemone-dinoflagellate associations, we documented the diversity of Symbiodinium spp. in a monophyletic clade of sea anemones, the family Aiptasiidae. We combined information from several molecular genetic markers, including nuclear ITS2 and plastid cp23S-rDNA, to evaluate the patterns of evolution and diversification of Symbiodinium in the light of an existing phylogenetic framework for the sea anemone host. At the host family level, we found no evidence for coevolution or reciprocal phylogenies between host and endosymbiont. However, within some individual host species, Symbiodinium spp. exhibited patterns of host specialization and cladogenesis. This pattern suggests that coevolution between host and symbiont occurred within species and genera lineages, but that this process was regularly disrupted and symbiotic partners were recombined during the longer-term evolutionary history of the Aiptasiidae. Furthermore, we observed independent cases of phylogeographical partitioning of Symbiodinium within a single host species, suggesting that ecological speciation along an environmental gradient contributed to the diversity of associations found in nature.

  1. Does Temperature and UV Exposure History Modulate the Effects of Temperature and UV Stress on Symbiodinium Growth Rates?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temperature and ultraviolet radiation (UV) alone or in combination are known to inhibit the growth of Symbiodinium isolates. This conclusion was drawn from a number of studies having widely different exposure scenarios. Here we have examined the effects of pre-exposure acclimat...

  2. Nitrogen-deprivation elevates lipid levels in Symbiodinium spp. by lipid droplet accumulation: morphological and compositional analyses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei-Luen; Pasaribu, Buntora; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2014-01-01

    Stable cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbioses depend on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. It has been previously shown that the host cytosol is a nitrogen-deficient environment for the intracellular Symbiodinium and may act to limit growth rates of symbionts during the symbiotic association. This study aimed to investigate the cell proliferation, as well as ultrastructural and lipid compositional changes, in free-living Symbiodinium spp. (clade B) upon nitrogen (N)-deprivation. The cell proliferation of the N-deprived cells decreased significantly. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, boron dipyrromethane 493/503 (BODIPY 493/503), indicated that lipid contents progressively accumulated in the N-deprived cells. Lipid analyses further showed that both triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol ester (CE) were drastically enriched, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., docosahexaenoic acid, heneicosapentaenoic acid, and oleic acid) became more abundant. Ultrastructural examinations showed that the increase in concentration of these lipid species was due to the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs), a cellular feature that have previously shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of intact endosymbioses. Integrity of these stable LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Proteomic analyses of these LDs identified proteins putatively involved in lipid metabolism, signaling, stress response and energy metabolism. These results suggest that LDs production may be an adaptive response that enables Symbiodinium to maintain sufficient cellular energy stores for survival under the N-deprived conditions in the host cytoplasm. PMID:24475285

  3. The symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean within a new species of calcifying ciliate (Tiarina sp.).

    PubMed

    Mordret, Solenn; Romac, Sarah; Henry, Nicolas; Colin, Sébastien; Carmichael, Margaux; Berney, Cédric; Audic, Stéphane; Richter, Daniel J; Pochon, Xavier; de Vargas, Colomban; Decelle, Johan

    2016-06-01

    Symbiotic partnerships between heterotrophic hosts and intracellular microalgae are common in tropical and subtropical oligotrophic waters of benthic and pelagic marine habitats. The iconic example is the photosynthetic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium that establishes mutualistic symbioses with a wide diversity of benthic hosts, sustaining highly biodiverse reef ecosystems worldwide. Paradoxically, although various species of photosynthetic dinoflagellates are prevalent eukaryotic symbionts in pelagic waters, Symbiodinium has not yet been reported in symbiosis within oceanic plankton, despite its high propensity for the symbiotic lifestyle. Here we report a new pelagic photosymbiosis between a calcifying ciliate host and the microalga Symbiodinium in surface ocean waters. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy, together with an 18S rDNA-based phylogeny, showed that the host is a new ciliate species closely related to Tiarina fusus (Colepidae). Phylogenetic analyses of the endosymbionts based on the 28S rDNA gene revealed multiple novel closely related Symbiodinium clade A genotypes. A haplotype network using the high-resolution internal transcribed spacer-2 marker showed that these genotypes form eight divergent, biogeographically structured, subclade types that do not seem to associate with any benthic hosts. Ecological analyses using the Tara Oceans metabarcoding data set (V9 region of the 18S rDNA) and contextual oceanographic parameters showed a global distribution of the symbiotic partnership in nutrient-poor surface waters. The discovery of the symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean provides new insights into the ecology and evolution of this pivotal microalga and raises new hypotheses about coastal pelagic connectivity. PMID:26684730

  4. Cross-cancer pleiotropic analysis of endometrial cancer: PAGE and E2C2 consortia

    PubMed Central

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Schumacher, Fredrick; Prescott, Jennifer; Haessler, Jeffrey; Malinowski, Jennifer; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Yang, Hannah; Chanock, Stephen; Brinton, Louise; Hartge, Patricia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Park, S.Lani; Cheng, Iona; Bush, William S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Ursin, Giske; Horn-Ross, Pamela; Bernstein, Leslie; Lu, Lingeng; Risch, Harvey; Yu, Herbert; Sakoda, Lori C.; Doherty, Jennifer; Chen, Chu; Jackson, Rebecca; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Cote, Michele; Kocarnik, Jonathan M.; Peters, Ulrike; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kooperberg, Charles; Le Marchand, Loic

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), several of which have been associated with multiple cancer sites suggesting pleiotropic effects and shared biological mechanisms across some cancers. We hypothesized that SNPs associated with other cancers may be additionally associated with endometrial cancer. We examined 213 SNPs previously associated with 14 other cancers for their associations with endometrial cancer in 3758 endometrial cancer cases and 5966 controls of European ancestry from two consortia: Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology and the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. Study-specific logistic regression estimates adjusted for age, body mass index and the most significant principal components of genetic ancestry were combined using fixed-effect meta-analysis to evaluate the association between each SNP and endometrial cancer risk. A Bonferroni-corrected P value of 2.35×10−4 was used to determine statistical significance of the associations. SNP rs7679673, ~6.3kb upstream of TET2 and previously reported to be associated with prostate cancer risk, was associated with endometrial cancer risk in the direction opposite to that for prostate cancer [meta-analysis odds ratio = 0.87 (per copy of the C allele), 95% confidence interval = 0.81, 0.93; P = 7.37×10−5] with no evidence of heterogeneity across studies (P heterogeneity = 0.66). This pleiotropic analysis is the first to suggest TET2 as a susceptibility locus for endometrial cancer. PMID:24832084

  5. Pathways and barriers to developing pediatric research consortia.

    PubMed

    Sorantin, Erich

    2014-10-01

    In many countries pediatric radiology is responsible for imaging of patients ranging from premature babies to 19-year-olds, thus meaning a weight range from less than 500 g to sometimes much more than 100 kg. Children are not small adults and many differences exist when comparing them to adults. Therefore pediatric radiologists face a 4-D problem: the three dimensions in space as well as time, which can be summarized as maturation. Due to this multidimensionality experience exchange, knowledge transfer and teamwork is mandatory. Research consortia represent a useful approach. According the author's experience in setting up and running international, inter-institutional academic networks, this article describes pathways and barriers of such cooperations, which can be divided into external (institutional), internal (departmental) and organizational and by the research fellows themselves. PMID:25246191

  6. Crude oil degradation by bacterial consortia under four different redox and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shunzi; Li, Xia; Chen, Jianfa; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-02-01

    There is emerging interest in the anaerobic degradation of crude oil. However, there is limited knowledge about the geochemical effects and microbiological activities for it. A mixture of anaerobic sludge and the production water from an oil well was used as an inoculum to construct four consortia, which were incubated under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions at either mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures. Significant degradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and the changing quantities of some marker compounds, such as pristane, phytane, hopane and norhopane, and their relative quantities, suggested the activity of microorganisms in the consortia. Notably, the redox conditions and temperature strongly affected the diversity and structure of the enriched microbial communities and the oil degradation. Although some specific biomarker showed larger change under methanogenic condition, the degradation efficiencies for total aromatic and saturated hydrocarbon were higher under sulfate-reducing condition. After the 540-day incubation, bacteria of unknown classifications were dominant in the thermophilic methanogenic consortia, whereas Clostridium dominated the mesophilic methanogenic consortia. With the exception of the dominant phylotypes that were shared with the methanogenic consortia, the sulfate-reducing consortia were predominantly composed of Thermotogae, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaeta, and Synergistetes phyla. In conclusion, results in this study demonstrated that the different groups of degraders were responsible for degradation in the four constructed crude oil degrading consortia and consequently led to the existence of different amount of marker compounds under these distinct conditions. There might be distinct metabolic mechanism for degrading crude oil under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. PMID:25216580

  7. Succession of lignocellulolytic bacterial consortia bred anaerobically from lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, Elisa; Jiménez, Diego Javier; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic bacteria degrade lignocellulose in various anoxic and organically rich environments, often in a syntrophic process. Anaerobic enrichments of bacterial communities on a recalcitrant lignocellulose source were studied combining polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and culturing. Three consortia were constructed using the microbiota of lake sediment as the starting inoculum and untreated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) (acid or heat) or treated (with either acid or heat) as the sole source of carbonaceous compounds. Additionally, nitrate was used in order to limit sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Bacterial growth took place, as evidenced from 3 to 4 log unit increases in the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers as well as direct cell counts through three transfers on cleaned and reused substrate placed in fresh mineral medium. After 2 days, Aeromonas bestiarum-like organisms dominated the enrichments, irrespective of the substrate type. One month later, each substrate revealed major enrichments of organisms affiliated with different species of Clostridium. Moreover, only the heat-treated substrate selected Dysgonomonas capnocytophagoides-affiliated bacteria (Bacteroidetes). Towards the end of the experiment, members of the Proteobacteria (Aeromonas, Rhizobium and/or Serratia) became dominant in all three types of substrates. A total of 160 strains was isolated from the enrichments. Most of the strains tested (78%) were able to grow anaerobically on carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. The final consortia yield attractive biological tools for the depolymerization of recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials and are proposed for the production of precursors of biofuels. PMID:26875750

  8. Characterization of Thermophilic Consortia from Two Souring Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. F.; Nielsen, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial consortia from produced water at two different oil fields in Alaska (Kuparuk) and the North Sea (Ninian) were investigated for sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activity over a range of temperatures and for a variety of substrates. The consortia were sampled on site, and samples were either incubated on site at 60(deg)C with various substrates or frozen for later incubation and analyses. Temperature influenced the rates of sulfate reduction, hydrogen sulfide production, and substrate oxidation, as well as the cell morphology. The highest rates of sulfate reduction and substrate oxidation were found between 50 and 60(deg)C. Formate and n-butyrate were the most favorable electron donors at any tested temperature. Acetate was utilized at 35(deg)C but not at 50 or 70(deg)C and was produced at 60(deg)C. This indicates that the high levels of acetate found in produced water from souring oil formations are due mainly to an incomplete oxidation of volatile fatty acids to acetate. The cell size distribution of the microbial consortium indicated a nonuniform microbial composition in the original sample from the Kuparuk field. At different temperatures, different microbial morphologies and physiologies were observed. Methane-producing activity at thermophilic temperatures (60(deg)C) was found only for the Kuparuk consortium when hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present. No methane production from acetate was observed. Suppression of methanogenic activity in the presence of sulfate indicated a competition with sulfate-reducing bacteria for hydrogen. PMID:16535394

  9. Understanding diversity in coral-algal symbiosis: a cluster-based approach to interpreting fine-scale genetic variation in the genus Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, A. M. S.; Baker, A. C.

    2009-03-01

    Reef corals associate with an extraordinary diversity of dinoflagellate endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium), and this diversity has become critical to understanding how corals respond to environmental changes. A popular molecular marker for Symbiodinium diversity, the Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS-2) region of ribosomal DNA, has revealed hundreds of distinct variants that are generally interpreted as representing different species, even though many have not been systematically tested for functional or ecological differentiation. Many of these variants are only minimally divergent from one another (1 bp or less), and others occupy basal nodes of traditional species phylogenies (“living ancestors”), indicating that some Symbiodinium ITS-2 diversity may represent intraspecific sequence variation. This hypothesis was tested for Symbiodinium clades A- D (the dominant symbionts of reef corals) through the construction of statistical parsimony networks of ITS-2 sequence diversity, and identification of clusters of closely related sequences within these networks. Initial assessments indicated that ecological differentiation exists between, but not within, these clusters. This approach, although imperfect in its ability to identify species boundaries in all cases, nevertheless dramatically reduces “species” diversity in Symbiodinium (from ~175 to 35). This testable alternative hypothesis indicates that, in Symbiodinium, “species” consist of clusters of closely related ITS-2 sequences diverging from ancestral variants that are typically ecologically dominant. A cluster-based view of Symbiodinium ITS-2 diversity improves our ability to: (1) construct well-supported symbiont phylogenies; (2) establish functional niches for symbiont species; and (3) understand flexibility and specificity within coral-algal symbioses. This cluster-based approach can ultimately be integrated with emerging population-level datasets (microsatellites and microsatellite flanking

  10. Microbial Consortia Engineering for Cellular Factories: in vitro to in silico systems

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Hans C; Carlson, Ross P

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review discusses the current state of experimental and computational microbial consortia engineering with a focus on cellular factories. A discussion of promising ecological theories central to community resource usage is presented to facilitate interpretation of consortial designs. Recent case studies exemplifying different resource usage motifs and consortial assembly templates are presented. The review also highlights in silico approaches to design and to analyze consortia with an emphasis on stoichiometric modeling methods. The discipline of microbial consortia engineering possesses a widely accepted potential to generate highly novel and effective bio-catalysts for applications from biofuels to specialty chemicals to enhanced mineral recovery. PMID:24688677

  11. Differential effects of copper on three species of scleractinian corals and their algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp.).

    PubMed

    Bielmyer, G K; Grosell, M; Bhagooli, R; Baker, A C; Langdon, C; Gillette, P; Capo, T R

    2010-04-15

    Land-based sources of pollution have been identified as significant stressors linked to the widespread declines of coral cover in coastal reef ecosystems over the last 30 years. Metal contaminants, although noted as a concern, have not been closely monitored in these sensitive ecosystems, nor have their potential impacts on coral-algal symbioses been characterized. In this study, three species of laboratory-reared scleractinian corals, Acropora cervicornis, Pocillopora damicornis, and Montastraea faveolata each containing different algal symbionts (Symbiodinium A3, C1 and D1a, respectively) were exposed to copper (ranging from 2 to 20microg/L) for 5 weeks. At the end of the exposure period, copper had accumulated in the endosymbiotic dinoflagellate ("zooxanthellae") and animal tissue of A. cervicornis and the animal tissue of M. faveolata; however, no copper accumulation was detected in the zooxanthellae or animal tissue of P. damicornis. The three coral species exhibited significantly different sensitivities to copper, with effects occurring in A. cervicornis and P. damicornis at copper concentrations as low as 4microg/L. Copper exposure affected zooxanthellae photosynthesis in A. cervicornis and P. damicornis, and carbonic anhydrase was significantly decreased in A. cervicornis and M. faveolata. Likewise, significant decreases in skeletal growth were observed in A. cervicornis and P. damicornis after copper exposure. Based on preliminary results, no changes in Symbiodinium communities were apparent in response to increasing copper concentration. These results indicate that the relationships between physiological/toxicological endpoints and copper accumulation between coral species differ, suggesting different mechanisms of toxicity and/or susceptibility. This may be driven, in part, by differences in the algal symbiont communities of the coral species in question. PMID:20089320

  12. Building Tech Prep Consortia: Steps to Take--And Pitfalls to Avoid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Cassy; Key, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Common mistakes of tech prep consortia are (1) sacrificing effectiveness for efficiency; (2) poor labor market analysis; (3) superficial curriculum reorganization; and (4) no mechanism for continuity and poor communication. (SK)

  13. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR. PMID:23314376

  14. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  15. Gene Expression Variation Resolves Species and Individual Strains among Coral-Associated Dinoflagellates within the Genus Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, John E.; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Michell, Craig T.; Baums, Iliana B.; LaJeunesse, Todd C.; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This large microalgal group comprises many highly divergent lineages (“Clades A–I”) and hundreds of undescribed species. Given their ecological importance, efforts have turned to genomic approaches to characterize the functional ecology of Symbiodinium. To date, investigators have only compared gene expression between representatives from separate clades—the equivalent of contrasting genera or families in other dinoflagellate groups—making it impossible to distinguish between clade-level and species-level functional differences. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of four species within one Symbiodinium clade (Clade B) at ∼20,000 orthologous genes, as well as multiple isoclonal cell lines within species (i.e., cultured strains). These species span two major adaptive radiations within Clade B, each encompassing both host-specialized and ecologically cryptic taxa. Species-specific expression differences were consistently enriched for photosynthesis-related genes, likely reflecting selection pressures driving niche diversification. Transcriptional variation among strains involved fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis pathways. Such differences among individuals are potentially a major source of physiological variation, contributing to the functional diversity of coral holobionts composed of unique host–symbiont genotype pairings. Our findings expand the genomic resources available for this important symbiont group and emphasize the power of comparative transcriptomics as a method for studying speciation processes and interindividual variation in nonmodel organisms. PMID:26868597

  16. Gene Expression Variation Resolves Species and Individual Strains among Coral-Associated Dinoflagellates within the Genus Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, John E; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Michell, Craig T; Baums, Iliana B; LaJeunesse, Todd C; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-03-01

    Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This large microalgal group comprises many highly divergent lineages ("Clades A-I") and hundreds of undescribed species. Given their ecological importance, efforts have turned to genomic approaches to characterize the functional ecology of Symbiodinium. To date, investigators have only compared gene expression between representatives from separate clades-the equivalent of contrasting genera or families in other dinoflagellate groups-making it impossible to distinguish between clade-level and species-level functional differences. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of four species within one Symbiodinium clade (Clade B) at ∼20,000 orthologous genes, as well as multiple isoclonal cell lines within species (i.e., cultured strains). These species span two major adaptive radiations within Clade B, each encompassing both host-specialized and ecologically cryptic taxa. Species-specific expression differences were consistently enriched for photosynthesis-related genes, likely reflecting selection pressures driving niche diversification. Transcriptional variation among strains involved fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis pathways. Such differences among individuals are potentially a major source of physiological variation, contributing to the functional diversity of coral holobionts composed of unique host-symbiont genotype pairings. Our findings expand the genomic resources available for this important symbiont group and emphasize the power of comparative transcriptomics as a method for studying speciation processes and interindividual variation in nonmodel organisms. PMID:26868597

  17. The transcriptomic response of the coral Acropora digitifera to a competent Symbiodinium strain: the symbiosome as an arrested early phagosome.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A R; Cumbo, V; Harii, S; Shinzato, C; Chan, C X; Ragan, M A; Bourne, D G; Willis, B L; Ball, E E; Satoh, N; Miller, D J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the ecological significance of the relationship between reef-building corals and intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in its establishment. Indeed, microarray-based analyses point to the conclusion that host gene expression is largely or completely unresponsive during the establishment of symbiosis with a competent strain of Symbiodinium. In this study, the use of Illumina RNA-Seq technology allowed detection of a transient period of differential expression involving a small number of genes (1073 transcripts; <3% of the transcriptome) 4 h after the exposure of Acropora digitifera planulae to a competent strain of Symbiodinium (a clade B strain). This phenomenon has not previously been detected as a consequence of both the lower sensitivity of the microarray approaches used and the sampling times used. The results indicate that complex changes occur, including transient suppression of mitochondrial metabolism and protein synthesis, but are also consistent with the hypothesis that the symbiosome is a phagosome that has undergone early arrest, raising the possibility of common mechanisms in the symbiotic interactions of corals and symbiotic sea anemones with their endosymbionts. PMID:27094992

  18. Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Cecilia; Hume, Benjamin C C; Burt, John; Smith, Edward G; Achterberg, Eric P; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The symbiotic association of corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) display an exceptional heat tolerance, enduring summer peak temperatures of up to 36 °C. As yet, it is not clear whether this resilience is related to the presence of specific symbiont types that are exclusively found in this region. Therefore, we used molecular markers to identify the symbiotic algae of three Porites species along >1000 km of coastline in the PAG and the Gulf of Oman and found that a recently described species, Symbiodinium thermophilum, is integral to coral survival in the southern PAG, the world's hottest sea. Despite the geographic isolation of the PAG, we discovered that representatives of the S. thermophilum group can also be found in the adjacent Gulf of Oman providing a potential source of thermotolerant symbionts that might facilitate the adaptation of Indian Ocean populations to the higher water temperatures expected for the future. However, corals from the PAG associated with S. thermophilum show strong local adaptation not only to high temperatures but also to the exceptionally high salinity of their habitat. We show that their superior heat tolerance can be lost when these corals are exposed to reduced salinity levels common for oceanic environments elsewhere. Consequently, the salinity prevailing in most reefs outside the PAG might represent a distribution barrier for extreme temperature-tolerant coral/Symbiodinium associations from the PAG. PMID:25989370

  19. Differences in the protein profiles of cultured and endosymbiotic symbiodinium sp. (pyrrophyta) from the anemone aiptasia pallida (anthozoa)

    SciTech Connect

    Stochaj, W.R.; Grossman, A.R.

    1997-02-01

    One- and two-dimensional sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunological analyses were used to visualize differences in polypeptides synthesized by Symbiodinium sp. from the anemone Aiptasia pallida when grown in the cultured and endosymbiotic states (freshly isolated zooxanthellae). Surprisingly, a comparison of proteins in cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium sp. revealed only four major polypeptides with similar isoelectric and molecular mass characteristics. Using monospecific antibodies, we demonstrated differences in specific proteins synthesized by the dinoflagellate in the two different growth states. The dimeric, 14 kDa form of the peripheral membrane peridinin-chlorophyll a binding protein predominates under endosymbiotic conditions, whereas the monomeric, 35 kDa form predominates under the culture conditions used in this study. Antibodies to form II ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase revealed 62 and 60 kDa forms of this protein in the alga grown as an endosymbiont and in culture, respectively. Differences in the integral membrane peridinin-chlorophyll a-c-binding proteins were also observed. These results demonstrate that there are major changes in the populations of proteins synthesized by Symbiodinium sp. in response to the conditions in hospite. Such changes may reflect a developmental switch that tailors the physiology of the alga to the conditions encountered in the endosymbiotic state. 77 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Cecilia; Hume, Benjamin C C; Burt, John; Smith, Edward G; Achterberg, Eric P; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic association of corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) display an exceptional heat tolerance, enduring summer peak temperatures of up to 36 °C. As yet, it is not clear whether this resilience is related to the presence of specific symbiont types that are exclusively found in this region. Therefore, we used molecular markers to identify the symbiotic algae of three Porites species along >1000 km of coastline in the PAG and the Gulf of Oman and found that a recently described species, Symbiodinium thermophilum, is integral to coral survival in the southern PAG, the world's hottest sea. Despite the geographic isolation of the PAG, we discovered that representatives of the S. thermophilum group can also be found in the adjacent Gulf of Oman providing a potential source of thermotolerant symbionts that might facilitate the adaptation of Indian Ocean populations to the higher water temperatures expected for the future. However, corals from the PAG associated with S. thermophilum show strong local adaptation not only to high temperatures but also to the exceptionally high salinity of their habitat. We show that their superior heat tolerance can be lost when these corals are exposed to reduced salinity levels common for oceanic environments elsewhere. Consequently, the salinity prevailing in most reefs outside the PAG might represent a distribution barrier for extreme temperature-tolerant coral/Symbiodinium associations from the PAG. PMID:25989370

  1. A Combinatorial Algorithm for Microbial Consortia Synthetic Design

    PubMed Central

    Julien-Laferrière, Alice; Bulteau, Laurent; Parrot, Delphine; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Stougie, Leen; Vinga, Susana; Mary, Arnaud; Sagot, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology has boomed since the early 2000s when it started being shown that it was possible to efficiently synthetize compounds of interest in a much more rapid and effective way by using other organisms than those naturally producing them. However, to thus engineer a single organism, often a microbe, to optimise one or a collection of metabolic tasks may lead to difficulties when attempting to obtain a production system that is efficient, or to avoid toxic effects for the recruited microorganism. The idea of using instead a microbial consortium has thus started being developed in the last decade. This was motivated by the fact that such consortia may perform more complicated functions than could single populations and be more robust to environmental fluctuations. Success is however not always guaranteed. In particular, establishing which consortium is best for the production of a given compound or set thereof remains a great challenge. This is the problem we address in this paper. We thus introduce an initial model and a method that enable to propose a consortium to synthetically produce compounds that are either exogenous to it, or are endogenous but where interaction among the species in the consortium could improve the production line. PMID:27373593

  2. Stable isotope fractionation of selenium by natural microbial consortia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, A.S.; Johnson, T.M.; Herbel, M.J.; Bullen, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of Se depend on its redox state, and reduction of Se oxyanions to less mobile, reduced species controls transport of this potentially toxic element in the environment. Stable isotope fractionation of Se is currently being developed as an indicator of Se immobilization through reduction. In this study, Se isotope fractionation resulting from reduction of Se(VI) and Se(IV) oxyanions by natural microbial consortia was measured in sediment slurry experiments under nearly natural conditions, with no substrate added. Experiments were conducted with a wide range of initial Se concentrations and with sediment and water from three locations with contrasting environmental settings. The products of Se(VI) and Se(IV) reduction were enriched in the lighter isotopes relative to the reactants. Shifts of -2.6??? to -3.1??? and -5.5??? to -5.7???, respectively, were observed in the 80Se/76Se ratio. These isotopic fractionations did not depend significantly on initial Se concentrations, which were varied from 22 ??g/l to 8 mg/l, or on geochemical differences among the sediments. These results provide estimates of Se isotope fractionation in organic-rich wetland environments but may not be appropriate for substrate-poor aquifers and marine sediments. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Combinatorial Algorithm for Microbial Consortia Synthetic Design.

    PubMed

    Julien-Laferrière, Alice; Bulteau, Laurent; Parrot, Delphine; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Stougie, Leen; Vinga, Susana; Mary, Arnaud; Sagot, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology has boomed since the early 2000s when it started being shown that it was possible to efficiently synthetize compounds of interest in a much more rapid and effective way by using other organisms than those naturally producing them. However, to thus engineer a single organism, often a microbe, to optimise one or a collection of metabolic tasks may lead to difficulties when attempting to obtain a production system that is efficient, or to avoid toxic effects for the recruited microorganism. The idea of using instead a microbial consortium has thus started being developed in the last decade. This was motivated by the fact that such consortia may perform more complicated functions than could single populations and be more robust to environmental fluctuations. Success is however not always guaranteed. In particular, establishing which consortium is best for the production of a given compound or set thereof remains a great challenge. This is the problem we address in this paper. We thus introduce an initial model and a method that enable to propose a consortium to synthetically produce compounds that are either exogenous to it, or are endogenous but where interaction among the species in the consortium could improve the production line. PMID:27373593

  4. Pyrolysis kinetics of algal consortia grown using swine manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sharara, Mahmoud A; Holeman, Nathan; Sadaka, Sammy S; Costello, Thomas A

    2014-10-01

    In this study, pyrolysis kinetics of periphytic microalgae consortia grown using swine manure slurry in two seasonal climatic patterns in northwest Arkansas were investigated. Four heating rates (5, 10, 20 and 40 °C min(-1)) were used to determine the pyrolysis kinetics. Differences in proximate, ultimate, and heating value analyses reflected variability in growing substrate conditions, i.e., flocculant use, manure slurry dilution, and differences in diurnal solar radiation and air temperature regimes. Peak decomposition temperature in algal harvests varied with changing the heating rate. Analyzing pyrolysis kinetics using differential and integral isoconversional methods (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) showed strong dependency of apparent activation energy on the degree of conversion suggesting parallel reaction scheme. Consequently, the weight loss data in each thermogravimetric test was modeled using independent parallel reactions (IPR). The quality of fit (QOF) for the model ranged between 2.09% and 3.31% indicating a good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:25105272

  5. Identification, visualization, and sorting of translationally active microbial consortia from deep-sea methane seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzenpichler, R.; Connon, S. A.; Goudeau, D.; Malmstrom, R.; Woyke, T.; Orphan, V. J.

    2015-12-01

    Within the past few years, great progress has been made in tapping the genomes of individual cells separated from environmental samples. Unfortunately, however, most often these efforts have been target blind, as they did not pre-select for taxa of interest or focus on metabolically active cells that could be considered key species of the system at the time. This problem is particularly pronounced in low-turnover systems such as deep sea sediments. In an effort to tap the genetic potential hidden within functionally active cells, we have recently developed an approach for the in situ fluorescent tracking of protein synthesis in uncultured cells via bioorthogonal non-canonical amino acid-tagging (BONCAT). This technique depends on the incorporation of synthetic amino acids that carry chemically modifiable tags into newly made proteins, which later can be visualized via click chemistry-mediated fluorescence-labeling. BONCAT is thus able to specifically target proteins that have been expressed in reaction to an experimental condition. We are particularly interested in using BONCAT to understand the functional potential of slow-growing syntrophic consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria which together catalyze the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine methane seeps. In order to specifically target consortia that are active under varying environmental regimes, we are studying different subpopulations of these inter-domain consortia via a combination of BONCAT with rRNA-targeted FISH. We then couple the BONCAT-enabled staining of active consortia with their separation from inactive members of the community via fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) and metagenomic sequencing of individual consortia. Using this approach, we were able to identify previously unrecognized AOM-partnerships. By comparing the mini-metagenomes obtained from individual consortia with each other we are starting to gain a more hollistic understanding

  6. Different inocula produce distinctive microbial consortia with similar lignocellulose degradation capacity.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Tolalpa, Larisa; Jiménez, Diego Javier; de Lima Brossi, Maria Julia; Salles, Joana Falcão; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-09-01

    Despite multiple research efforts, the current strategies for exploitation of lignocellulosic plant matter are still far from optimal, being hampered mostly by the difficulty of degrading the recalcitrant parts. An interesting approach is to use lignocellulose-degrading microbial communities by using different environmental sources of microbial inocula. However, it remains unclear whether the inoculum source matters for the degradation process. Here, we addressed this question by verifying the lignocellulose degradation potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw by microbial consortia generated from three different microbial inoculum sources, i.e., forest soil, canal sediment and decaying wood. We selected these consortia through ten sequential-batch enrichments by dilution-to-stimulation using wheat straw as the sole carbon source. We monitored the changes in microbial composition and abundance, as well as their associated degradation capacity and enzymatic activities. Overall, the microbial consortia developed well on the substrate, with progressively-decreasing net average generation times. Each final consortium encompassed bacterial/fungal communities that were distinct in composition but functionally similar, as they all revealed high substrate degradation activities. However, we did find significant differences in the metabolic diversities per consortium: in wood-derived consortia cellobiohydrolases prevailed, in soil-derived ones β-glucosidases, and in sediment-derived ones several activities. Isolates recovered from the consortia showed considerable metabolic diversities across the consortia. This confirmed that, although the overall lignocellulose degradation was similar, each consortium had a unique enzyme activity pattern. Clearly, inoculum source was the key determinant of the composition of the final microbial degrader consortia, yet with varying enzyme activities. Hence, in accord with Beyerinck's, "everything is everywhere, the environment selects

  7. Biodegradation Of Thiocyanate Using Microbial Consortia Cultured From Gold Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J. W.; Watts, M. P.; Spurr, L. P.; Vu, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Some bacteria possess the capability to degrade SCN-; therefore, harnessing this metabolic trait offers a biotechnological remediation strategy for SCN- produced in gold ore processing. A tailings storage facility (TSF) at a gold mine in Victoria, Australia holds large quantities of thiocyanate (SCN-) contaminated mine waste. The surface water in the TSF typically contains SCN- concentrations of >800 mg L-1, and seepage from the facility has contaminated the groundwater at the site. This study aimed to culture SCN-degrading microbes from the TSF, characterize the microbial consortia and test its operational parameters for use in a thiocyanate-degrading bioreactor. Surface samples were obtained from several locations around the TSF facility and used to inoculate medium reflective of the moderately saline and alkaline tailings water at the TSF, in the absence of organic carbon but subject to additions of phosphate and trace metals. Four microbial consortia capable of rapid SCN- degradation were successfully cultured. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes found that the consortia were dominated by Thiobacillus species, a genus of known SCN- degraders. Lower abundances of other SCN- degraders; Sphingopyxis and Rhodobacter, were also identified. The impact of a number of geochemical conditions, including pH, temperature and SCN- concentration, upon the growth and SCN- degrading capacity of these consortia was determined. These results informed the optimization of a lab-scale thiocyanate degrading bioreactor. In summary, the cultured bacterial consortia proved effective towards SCN- degradation at the prevailing geochemical conditions of the TSF, requiring minimal nutrient additions. These consortia were dominated by genera of known autotrophic SCN- degraders. The comprehensive characterisation of these SCN- degrading consortia will provide the fundamental operational parameters required for deployment of this technique at the field scale.

  8. Separate Introns Gained within Short and Long Soluble Peridinin-Chlorophyll a-Protein Genes during Radiation of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) Clade A and B Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Jay R.; Vize, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Here we document introns in two Symbiodinium clades that were most likely gained following divergence of this genus from other peridinin-containing dinoflagellate lineages. Soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-proteins (sPCP) occur in short and long forms in different species. Duplication and fusion of short sPCP genes produced long sPCP genes. All short and long sPCP genes characterized to date, including those from free living species and Symbiodinium sp. 203 (clade C/type C2) are intronless. However, we observed that long sPCP genes from two Caribbean Symbiodinium clade B isolates each contained two introns. To test the hypothesis that introns were gained during radiation of clade B, we compared sPCP genomic and cDNA sequences from 13 additional distinct Caribbean and Pacific Symbiodinium clade A, B, and F isolates. Long sPCP genes from all clade B/B1 and B/B19 descendants contain orthologs of both introns. Short sPCP genes from S. pilosum (A/A2) and S. muscatinei (B/B4) plus long sPCP genes from S. microadriaticum (A/A1) and S. kawagutii (F/F1) are intronless. Short sPCP genes of S. microadriaticum have a third unique intron. Symbiodinium clade B long sPCP sequences are useful for assessing divergence among B1 and B19 descendants. Phylogenetic analyses of coding sequences from four dinoflagellate orders indicate that introns were gained independently during radiation of Symbiodinium clades A and B. Long sPCP introns were present in the most recent common ancestor of Symbiodinium clade B core types B1 and B19, which apparently diverged sometime during the Miocene. The clade A short sPCP intron was either gained by S. microadriaticum or possibly by the ancestor of Symbiodinium types A/A1, A3, A4 and A5. The timing of short sPCP intron gain in Symbiodinium clade A is less certain. But, all sPCP introns were gained after fusion of ancestral short sPCP genes, which we confirm as occurring once in dinoflagellate evolution. PMID:25330037

  9. Symbiotic specificity, association patterns, and function determine community responses to global changes: defining critical research areas for coral-Symbiodinium symbioses.

    PubMed

    Fabina, Nicholas S; Putnam, Hollie M; Franklin, Erik C; Stat, Michael; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-11-01

    Climate change-driven stressors threaten the persistence of coral reefs worldwide. Symbiotic relationships between scleractinian corals and photosynthetic endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium) are the foundation of reef ecosystems, and these associations are differentially impacted by stress. Here, we couple empirical data from the coral reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, and a network theoretic modeling approach to evaluate how patterns in coral-Symbiodinium associations influence community stability under climate change. To introduce the effect of climate perturbations, we simulate local 'extinctions' that represent either the loss of coral species or the ability to engage in symbiotic interactions. Community stability is measured by determining the duration and number of species that persist through the simulated extinctions. Our results suggest that four factors greatly increase coral-Symbiodinium community stability in response to global changes: (i) the survival of generalist hosts and symbionts maximizes potential symbiotic unions; (ii) elevated symbiont diversity provides redundant or complementary symbiotic functions; (iii) compatible symbiotic assemblages create the potential for local recolonization; and (iv) the persistence of certain traits associate with symbiotic diversity and redundancy. Symbiodinium may facilitate coral persistence through novel environmental regimes, but this capacity is mediated by symbiotic specificity, association patterns, and the functional performance of the symbionts. Our model-based approach identifies general trends and testable hypotheses in coral-Symbiodinium community responses. Future studies should consider similar methods when community size and/or environmental complexity preclude experimental approaches. PMID:23847174

  10. Proton and Cd adsorption onto natural bacterial consortia: Testing universal adsorption behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrok, David; Fein, Jeremy B.; Kulpa, Charles F.

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial surface adsorption can control metal distributions in some natural systems, yet it is unclear whether natural bacterial consortia differ in their adsorption behaviors. In this study, we conduct potentiometric titration and metal adsorption experiments to measure proton and Cd adsorption onto a range of bacterial consortia. We model the experimental data using a surface complexation approach to determine thermodynamic stability constants. Our results indicate that these consortia adsorb similar extents of protons and Cd and that the adsorption onto all of the consortia can be modeled using a single set of stability constants. Consortia of bacteria cultured from natural environments also adsorb metals to lesser extents than individual strains of laboratory-cultivated species. This study suggests that a wide range of bacterial species exhibit similar adsorption behaviors, potentially simplifying the task of modeling the distribution and speciation of metals in bacteria-bearing natural systems. Current models for bacteria-metal adsorption that rely on pure strains of laboratory-cultivated species likely overpredict the amount of bacteria-metal adsorption in natural systems.

  11. The commissioning of nurse education by consortia in England: a quasi-market analysis.

    PubMed

    Francis, B; Humphreys, J

    1998-09-01

    The planning and commissioning of nurse education by consortia of NHS trusts and others in England is examined. These arrangements are analysed in terms of quasi-market theory, investigating their ability to co-ordinate effectively the demand for nurse education and workforce demand for nurses. Hence the paper examines evidence concerning the success or failure of consortia to co-ordinate these aspects, discussing the arguments over nurse and student nurse shortages, and the procedure for assessing the demand for nurse training places. The paper argues that current nurse shortages illustrate past planning errors in commissioning nurse training. Consequently, the central body (National Health Service Executive) is still aiding consortia in their decision-making concerning numbers of nurse training places, modelling workforce plans and suggesting increases in training places (and producing the money to pay for this). As such, it is argued, the quasi-market is not as yet a completely devolved one. It is suggested in the concluding discussion that if qualitative benefits of consortia fail to materialize (as suggested elsewhere), and the quantitative functions are inadequate, the utility of consortia as planners and commissioners of nurse education may be questioned. PMID:9756218

  12. The PsbO homolog from Symbiodinium kawagutii (Dinophyceae) characterized using biochemical and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Medina, Raúl E; Islas-Flores, Tania; Thomé, Patricia E; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Villanueva, Marco A

    2013-07-01

    A photosystem II component, the PsbO protein is essential for maximum rates of oxygen production during photosynthesis, and has been extensively characterized in plants and cyanobacteria but not in symbiotic dinoflagellates. Its close interaction with D1 protein has important environmental implications since D1 has been identified as the primary site of damage in endosymbiotic dinoflagellates after thermal stress. We identified and biochemically characterized the PsbO homolog from Symbiodinium kawagutii as a 28-kDa protein, and immunolocalized it to chloroplast membranes. Chloroplast association was further confirmed by western blot on photosynthetic membrane preparations. TX-114 phase partitioning, chromatography, and SDS-PAGE for single band separation and partial peptide sequencing yielded peptides identical or with high identity to PsbO from dinoflagellates. Analysis of a cDNA library revealed three genes differing by only one aminoacid residue in the in silico-translated ORFs despite greater differences at nucleotide level in the untranslated, putative regulatory sequences. The consensus full amino acid sequence displayed all the characteristic domains and features of PsbO from other sources, but changes in functionally critical, highly conserved motifs were detected. Our biochemical, molecular, and immunolocalization data led to the conclusion that the 28-kDa protein from S. kawagutii is the PsbO homolog, thereby named SkPsbO. We discuss the implications of critical amino acid substitutions for a putative regulatory role of this protein. PMID:23708979

  13. The Large Mitochondrial Genome of Symbiodinium minutum Reveals Conserved Noncoding Sequences between Dinoflagellates and Apicomplexans

    PubMed Central

    Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Satoh, Nori; Mungpakdee, Sutada

    2015-01-01

    Even though mitochondrial genomes, which characterize eukaryotic cells, were first discovered more than 50 years ago, mitochondrial genomics remains an important topic in molecular biology and genome sciences. The Phylum Alveolata comprises three major groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates), the mitochondrial genomes of which have diverged widely. Even though the gene content of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes is reportedly comparable to that of apicomplexans, the highly fragmented and rearranged genome structures of dinoflagellates have frustrated whole genomic analysis. Consequently, noncoding sequences and gene arrangements of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have not been well characterized. Here we report that the continuous assembled genome (∼326 kb) of the dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum, is AT-rich (∼64.3%) and that it contains three protein-coding genes. Based upon in silico analysis, the remaining 99% of the genome comprises transcriptomic noncoding sequences. RNA edited sites and unique, possible start and stop codons clarify conserved regions among dinoflagellates. Our massive transcriptome analysis shows that almost all regions of the genome are transcribed, including 27 possible fragmented ribosomal RNA genes and 12 uncharacterized small RNAs that are similar to mitochondrial RNA genes of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gene map comparisons show that gene order is only slightly conserved between S. minutum and P. falciparum. However, small RNAs and intergenic sequences share sequence similarities with P. falciparum, suggesting that the function of noncoding sequences has been preserved despite development of very different genome structures. PMID:26199191

  14. Symbiodinium diversity in the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor on the east Australian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontasch, S.; Scott, A.; Hill, R.; Bridge, T.; Fisher, P. L.; Davy, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    The diversity of Symbiodinium spp. in Entacmaea quadricolor was analysed from five locations along ~2,100 km on the east coast of Australia using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) combined with bacterial cloning. DGGE revealed that E. quadricolor predominantly associated with six types of clade C (four of which are novel) and that most anemones harboured multiple types simultaneously. Anemones from southern locations associated with a mixed assemblage of C25 and a variant of C3. This assemblage also dominated the central location, but was absent at the northern location. At central and northern sites, two novel variants of C42(type2) and C1 were found. Anemones hosting C42(type2) also showed a low abundance of variants of C3 and C1, and E1 was found in one sample, as revealed by bacterial cloning. The occurrence of geographically distinct ITS2 types or a consortium of types might reflect a need to optimise physiological performance of the symbiosis at different latitudes.

  15. The Large Mitochondrial Genome of Symbiodinium minutum Reveals Conserved Noncoding Sequences between Dinoflagellates and Apicomplexans.

    PubMed

    Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Satoh, Nori; Mungpakdee, Sutada

    2015-08-01

    Even though mitochondrial genomes, which characterize eukaryotic cells, were first discovered more than 50 years ago, mitochondrial genomics remains an important topic in molecular biology and genome sciences. The Phylum Alveolata comprises three major groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates), the mitochondrial genomes of which have diverged widely. Even though the gene content of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes is reportedly comparable to that of apicomplexans, the highly fragmented and rearranged genome structures of dinoflagellates have frustrated whole genomic analysis. Consequently, noncoding sequences and gene arrangements of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have not been well characterized. Here we report that the continuous assembled genome (∼326 kb) of the dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum, is AT-rich (∼64.3%) and that it contains three protein-coding genes. Based upon in silico analysis, the remaining 99% of the genome comprises transcriptomic noncoding sequences. RNA edited sites and unique, possible start and stop codons clarify conserved regions among dinoflagellates. Our massive transcriptome analysis shows that almost all regions of the genome are transcribed, including 27 possible fragmented ribosomal RNA genes and 12 uncharacterized small RNAs that are similar to mitochondrial RNA genes of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gene map comparisons show that gene order is only slightly conserved between S. minutum and P. falciparum. However, small RNAs and intergenic sequences share sequence similarities with P. falciparum, suggesting that the function of noncoding sequences has been preserved despite development of very different genome structures. PMID:26199191

  16. Photosynthetic response to elevated temperature in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium microadriaticum in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Prieto, R; Matta, J L; Robins, W A; Trench, R K

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature (28-34 degrees C) has been hypothesized as the primary cause of the loss of algal endosymbionts in coral reef-associated invertebrates, a phenomenon observed on a world-wide scale over the last decade. In past studies of this "bleaching" phenomenon, there has been an underlying assumption that temperature adversely affects the animal hosts, the algae thereby being relegated to a more passive role. Because photosynthesis is a sensitive indicator of thermal stress in plants and has a central role in the nutrition of symbiotic invertebrates, we have tested the hypothesis that elevated temperature adversely affects photosynthesis in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium microadriaticum. The results, based on analyses of light-mediated O2 evolution and in vivo fluorescence, indicate that photosynthesis is impaired at temperatures above 30 degrees C and ceases completely at 34-36 degrees C. These observations are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms that may function in the disassociation of algal-invertebrate symbioses in response to elevated temperature. PMID:11607337

  17. Response of indigenously developed bacterial consortia in progressive degradation of polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mohammad S; Kapri, Anil; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Mishra, Aradhana; Ansari, Mohammad W; Souche, Yogesh; Nautiyal, Chandra S; Zaidi, M G H; Goel, Reeta

    2016-07-01

    Thermoplastic-based materials are recalcitrant in nature, which extensive use affect environmental health. Here, we attempt to compare the response of indigenously produced bacterial consortium-I and consortium-II in degrading polyvinyl chloride (PVC). These consortia were developed by using different combination of bacterial strains of Pseudomonas otitidis, Bacillus cereus, and Acanthopleurobacter pedis from waste disposal sites of Northern India after their identification via 16S rDNA sequencing. The progressive degradation of PVC by consortia was examined via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-vis, FT-IR spectra, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis at different incubations and time intervals. The consortium-II was superior over consortium-I in degrading the PVC. Further, the carbon source utilization analysis revealed that the extensive use of consortia has not any effect on functional diversity of native soil microbes. PMID:26231814

  18. A Compartmental Comparison of Major Lipid Species in a Coral-Symbiodinium Endosymbiosis: Evidence that the Coral Host Regulates Lipogenesis of Its Cytosolic Lipid Bodies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Kai; Song, Shin-Ni; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Mayfield, Anderson B; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Chen, Wan-Nan U; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2015-01-01

    The lipid body (LB) formation in the host coral gastrodermal cell cytoplasm is a hallmark of the coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis, and such lipid-based entities are not found in endosymbiont-free cnidarian cells. Therefore, the elucidation of lipogenesis regulation in LBs and how it is related to the lipid metabolism of the host and endosymbiont could provide direct insight to understand the symbiosis mechanism. Herein, the lipid composition of host cells of the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens, as well as that of their cytoplasmic LBs and in hospite Symbiodinium populations, was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and six major lipid species were identified: wax esters, sterol esters, triacylglycerols, cholesterols, free fatty acids, and phospholipids. Their concentrations differed significantly between host coral cells, LBs, and Symbiodinium, suggesting compartmental regulation. WE were only present in the host coral and were particularly highly concentrated in LBs. Amongst the four species of WE, the monoene R = C18:1/R = C16 was found to be LB-specific and was not present in the host gastrodermal cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, the acyl pool profiles of the individual LB lipid species were more similar, but not equal to, those of the host gastrodermal cells in which they were located, indicating partially autonomous lipid metabolism in these LBs. Nevertheless, given the overall similarity in the host gastrodermal cell and LB lipid profiles, these data suggest that a significant portion of the LB lipids may be of host coral origin. Finally, lipid profiles of the in hospite Symbiodinium populations were significantly distinct from those of the cultured Symbiodinium, potentially suggesting a host regulation effect that may be fundamental to lipid metabolism in endosymbiotic associations involving clade C Symbiodinium. PMID:26218797

  19. A Compartmental Comparison of Major Lipid Species in a Coral-Symbiodinium Endosymbiosis: Evidence that the Coral Host Regulates Lipogenesis of Its Cytosolic Lipid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Kai; Song, Shin-Ni; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Mayfield, Anderson B.; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Chen, Wan-Nan U.; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2015-01-01

    The lipid body (LB) formation in the host coral gastrodermal cell cytoplasm is a hallmark of the coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis, and such lipid-based entities are not found in endosymbiont-free cnidarian cells. Therefore, the elucidation of lipogenesis regulation in LBs and how it is related to the lipid metabolism of the host and endosymbiont could provide direct insight to understand the symbiosis mechanism. Herein, the lipid composition of host cells of the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens, as well as that of their cytoplasmic LBs and in hospite Symbiodinium populations, was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and six major lipid species were identified: wax esters, sterol esters, triacylglycerols, cholesterols, free fatty acids, and phospholipids. Their concentrations differed significantly between host coral cells, LBs, and Symbiodinium, suggesting compartmental regulation. WE were only present in the host coral and were particularly highly concentrated in LBs. Amongst the four species of WE, the monoene R = C18:1/R = C16 was found to be LB-specific and was not present in the host gastrodermal cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, the acyl pool profiles of the individual LB lipid species were more similar, but not equal to, those of the host gastrodermal cells in which they were located, indicating partially autonomous lipid metabolism in these LBs. Nevertheless, given the overall similarity in the host gastrodermal cell and LB lipid profiles, these data suggest that a significant portion of the LB lipids may be of host coral origin. Finally, lipid profiles of the in hospite Symbiodinium populations were significantly distinct from those of the cultured Symbiodinium, potentially suggesting a host regulation effect that may be fundamental to lipid metabolism in endosymbiotic associations involving clade C Symbiodinium. PMID:26218797

  20. 25 CFR 1000.145 - Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between Title-I eligible...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between Title-I eligible programs that the Tribe/Consortium administers under a non-BIA AFA..., Duration, and Amendments § 1000.145 Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.103 - Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the Tribe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the Tribe/Consortium administers under the AFA? 1000.103 Section 1000....103 Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.103 - Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the Tribe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the Tribe/Consortium administers under the AFA? 1000.103 Section 1000....103 Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.145 - Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between Title-I eligible...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between Title-I eligible programs that the Tribe/Consortium administers under a non-BIA AFA..., Duration, and Amendments § 1000.145 Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.103 - Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the Tribe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the Tribe/Consortium administers under the AFA? 1000.103 Section 1000....103 Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.103 - Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the Tribe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the Tribe/Consortium administers under the AFA? 1000.103 Section 1000....103 Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.145 - Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between Title-I eligible...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between Title-I eligible programs that the Tribe/Consortium administers under a non-BIA AFA..., Duration, and Amendments § 1000.145 Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.145 - Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between Title-I eligible...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between Title-I eligible programs that the Tribe/Consortium administers under a non-BIA AFA..., Duration, and Amendments § 1000.145 Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.145 - Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between Title-I eligible...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between Title-I eligible programs that the Tribe/Consortium administers under a non-BIA AFA..., Duration, and Amendments § 1000.145 Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.103 - Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the Tribe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the Tribe/Consortium administers under the AFA? 1000.103 Section 1000....103 Do Tribes/Consortia need Secretarial approval to reallocate funds between programs that the...

  10. Strength in Numbers: Creating Employment Consortia To Assist People Who Are Blind and Visually Impaired To Secure Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candela, Anthony R.; Wolffe, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the activities of two consortia that consist of individuals who assist people who are blind and visually impaired to secure employment. Consortia members are direct service employment specialists who focus on five critical activities: preparing consumers for job seeking, job development, placement, follow-up, and job…

  11. Photosynthetic Acclimation of Symbiodinium in hospite Depends on Vertical Position in the Tissue of the Scleractinian Coral Montastrea curta

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Coral photophysiology has been studied intensively from the colony scale down to the scale of single fluorescent pigment granules as light is one of the key determinants for coral health. We studied the photophysiology of the oral and aboral symbiont band of scleractinian coral Montastrea curta to investigate if different acclimation to light exist in hospite on a polyp scale. By combined use of electrochemical and fiber-optic microsensors for O2, scalar irradiance and variable chlorophyll fluorescence, we could characterize the physical and chemical microenvironment experienced by the symbionts and, for the first time, estimate effective quantum yields of PSII photochemistry and rates of electron transport at the position of the zooxanthellae corrected for the in-tissue gradient of scalar irradiance. The oral- and aboral Symbiodinium layers received ∼71% and ∼33% of surface scalar irradiance, respectively, and the two symbiont layers experience considerable differences in light exposure. Rates of gross photosynthesis did not differ markedly between the oral- and aboral layer and curves of PSII electron transport rates corrected for scalar irradiance in hospite, showed that the light use efficiency under sub-saturating light conditions were similar between the two layers. However, the aboral Symbiodinium band did not experience photosynthetic saturation, even at the highest investigated irradiance where the oral layer was clearly saturated. We thus found a different light acclimation response for the oral and aboral symbiont bands in hospite, and discuss whether such response could be shaped by spectral shifts caused by tissue gradients of scalar irradiance. Based on our experimental finding, combined with previous knowledge, we present a conceptual model on the photophysiology of Symbiodinium residing inside living coral tissue under natural gradients of light and chemical parameters. PMID:26955372

  12. Diversification of the light-harvesting complex gene family via intra- and intergenic duplications in the coral symbiotic alga Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Shinichiro; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Satoh, Nori; Minagawa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The light-harvesting complex (LHC) is an essential component in light energy capture and transduction to facilitate downstream photosynthetic reactions in plant and algal chloroplasts. The unicellular dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium is an endosymbiont of cnidarian animals, including corals and sea anemones, and provides carbohydrates generated through photosynthesis to host animals. Although Symbiodinium possesses a unique LHC gene family, called chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c2-peridinin protein complex (acpPC), its genome-level diversity and evolutionary trajectories have not been investigated. Here, we describe a phylogenetic analysis revealing that many of the LHCs are encoded by highly duplicated genes with multi-subunit polyprotein structures in the nuclear genome of Symbiodinium minutum. This analysis provides an extended list of the LHC gene family in a single organism, including 80 loci encoding polyproteins composed of 145 LHC subunits recovered in the phylogenetic tree. In S. minutum, 5 phylogenetic groups of the Lhcf-type gene family, which is exclusively conserved in algae harboring secondary plastids of red algal origin, were identified. Moreover, 5 groups of the Lhcr-type gene family, of which members are known to be associated with PSI in red algal plastids and secondary plastids of red algal origin, were identified. Notably, members classified within a phylogenetic group of the Lhcf-type (group F1) are highly duplicated, which may explain the presence of an unusually large number of LHC genes in this species. Some gene units were homologous to other units within single loci of the polyprotein genes, whereas intergenic homologies between separate loci were conspicuous in other cases, implying that gene unit 'shuffling' by gene conversion and/or genome rearrangement might have been a driving force for diversification. These results suggest that vigorous intra- and intergenic gene duplication events have resulted in the genomic framework of

  13. Diversification of the Light-Harvesting Complex Gene Family via Intra- and Intergenic Duplications in the Coral Symbiotic Alga Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Shinichiro; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Satoh, Nori; Minagawa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The light-harvesting complex (LHC) is an essential component in light energy capture and transduction to facilitate downstream photosynthetic reactions in plant and algal chloroplasts. The unicellular dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium is an endosymbiont of cnidarian animals, including corals and sea anemones, and provides carbohydrates generated through photosynthesis to host animals. Although Symbiodinium possesses a unique LHC gene family, called chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c2-peridinin protein complex (acpPC), its genome-level diversity and evolutionary trajectories have not been investigated. Here, we describe a phylogenetic analysis revealing that many of the LHCs are encoded by highly duplicated genes with multi-subunit polyprotein structures in the nuclear genome of Symbiodinium minutum. This analysis provides an extended list of the LHC gene family in a single organism, including 80 loci encoding polyproteins composed of 145 LHC subunits recovered in the phylogenetic tree. In S. minutum, 5 phylogenetic groups of the Lhcf-type gene family, which is exclusively conserved in algae harboring secondary plastids of red algal origin, were identified. Moreover, 5 groups of the Lhcr-type gene family, of which members are known to be associated with PSI in red algal plastids and secondary plastids of red algal origin, were identified. Notably, members classified within a phylogenetic group of the Lhcf-type (group F1) are highly duplicated, which may explain the presence of an unusually large number of LHC genes in this species. Some gene units were homologous to other units within single loci of the polyprotein genes, whereas intergenic homologies between separate loci were conspicuous in other cases, implying that gene unit ‘shuffling’ by gene conversion and/or genome rearrangement might have been a driving force for diversification. These results suggest that vigorous intra- and intergenic gene duplication events have resulted in the genomic framework of

  14. Imbalance between oxygen photoreduction and antioxidant capacities in Symbiodinium cells exposed to combined heat and high light stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberty, S.; Fransolet, D.; Cardol, P.; Plumier, J.-C.; Franck, F.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades, coral reefs have been affected by several large-scale bleaching events, and such phenomena are expected to increase in frequency and severity in the future, thus compromising their survival. High sea surface temperature accompanied by high levels of solar irradiance has been found to be responsible for the induction of oxidative stress ultimately ending with the disruption of the symbiosis between cnidarians and Symbiodinium. For two decades, many studies have pointed to the water-water cycle (WWC) as being one of the primary mediators of this phenomenon, but the impacts of environmental stress on the O2 reduction by PSI and the associated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-detoxifying enzymes remain to be determined. In this study, we analyzed the impacts of acute thermal and light stress on the WWC in the model Symbiodinium strain A1. We observed that the high light treatment at 26 °C resulted in the up-regulation of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities and an increased production of ROS with no significant change in O2-dependent electron transport. Under high light and at 33 °C, O2-dependent electron transport was significantly increased relative to total electron transport. This increase was concomitant with a twofold increase in ROS generation compared with the treatment at 26 °C, while enzymes involved in the WWC were largely inactivated. These data show for the first time that combined heat and light stress inactivate antioxidant capacities of the WWC and suggests that its photoprotective functions are overwhelmed under these conditions. This study also indicates that cnidarians may be more prone to bleach if they harbor Symbiodinium cells having a highly active Mehler-type electron transport, unless they are able to quickly up-regulate their antioxidant capacities.

  15. Toward a "Common Definition of English Learner": Guidance for States and State Assessment Consortia in Defining and Addressing Policy and Technical Issues and Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linquanti, Robert; Cook, H. Gary

    2013-01-01

    States participating in the four federally-funded assessment consortia are required to establish a "common definition of English Learner." This includes the two Race to the Top academic assessment consortia and the two Enhanced Assessment Grant English language proficiency (ELP) assessment consortia. This paper provides guidance that…

  16. Divergent PCB organohalide-respiring consortia enriched from the efflux channel of a former Delor manufacturer in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V; Cvancarova, Monika; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Holliger, Christof; Rossi, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) organohalide-respiring communities from the efflux channel of a former Delor manufacturer in Eastern Slovakia were assessed using metagenomic, statistical and cultivation-adapted approaches. Multivariate analysis of environmental factors together with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the bacterial communities in the primary sediments revealed both temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of microbial populations, which reflects the dynamic pattern of contamination and altered conditions for biodegradation activity along the channel. Anaerobic microcosms were developed from eight sediments sampled along the channel, where high concentrations of PCBs - from 6.6 to 136mg/kg dry weight, were measured. PCB dehalorespiring activity, congruent with changes in the microbial composition in all microcosms, was detected. After 10 months of cultivation, the divergently evolved consortia achieved up to 35.9 percent reduction of the total PCB concentration. Phylogenetic-analysis of the active Chloroflexi-related organohalide-respiring bacteria by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in cDNA from microcosms with the highest PCB dechlorination activity revealed diverse and unique complexity of the populations. The predominant organohalide respirers were either affiliated with Dehalococcoides sp. and Dehalococcoides-like group (DLG) organisms or were composed of currently unknown distant clades of DLG bacteria. The present study should encourage researchers to explore the full potential of the indigenous PCB dechlorinating populations to develop effective bioremediation approaches that can perform the complete mineralization of PCBs in polluted environments. PMID:26092554

  17. Diel rhythmicity of lipid-body formation in a coral- Symbiodinium endosymbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.-N. U.; Kang, H.-J.; Weis, V. M.; Mayfield, A. B.; Jiang, P.-L.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2012-06-01

    The biogenesis of intracellular lipid bodies (LBs) is dependent upon the symbiotic status between host corals and their intracellular dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium), though aside from this observation, little is known about LB behavior and function in this globally important endosymbiosis. The present research aimed to understand how LB formation and density are regulated in the gastrodermal tissue layer of the reef-building coral Euphyllia glabrescens. After tissue fixation and labeling with osmium tetroxide, LB distribution and density were quantified by imaging analysis of serial cryo-sections, and a diel rhythmicity was observed; the onset of solar irradiation at sunrise initiated an increase in LB density and size, which peaked at sunset. Both LB density and size then decreased to basal levels at night. On a seasonal timescale, LB density was found to be significantly positively correlated with seasonal irradiation, with highest densities found in the summer and lowest in the fall. In terms of LB lipid composition, only the concentration of wax esters, and not triglycerides or sterols, exhibited diel variability. This suggests that the metabolism and accumulation of lipids in LBs is at least partially light dependent. Ultrastructural examinations revealed that the LB wax ester concentration correlated with the number of electron-transparent inclusion bodies. Finally, there was a directional redistribution of the LB population across the gastroderm over the diel cycle. Collectively, these data reveal that coral gastrodermal LBs vary in composition and intracellular location over diel cycles, features which may shed light on their function within this coral-dinoflagellate mutualism.

  18. Synthetic Escherichia coli consortia engineered for syntrophy demonstrate enhanced biomass productivity

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Paulson, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic Escherichia coli consortia engineered for syntrophy demonstrated enhanced biomass productivity relative to monocultures. Binary consortia were designed to mimic a ubiquitous, naturally occurring ecological template of primary productivity supported by secondary consumption. The synthetic consortia replicated this evolution-proven strategy by combining a glucose positive E. coli strain, which served as the system’s primary producer, with a glucose negative E. coli strain which consumed metabolic byproducts from the primary producer. The engineered consortia utilized strategic division of labor to simultaneously optimize multiple tasks enhancing overall culture performance. Consortial interactions resulted in the emergent property of enhanced system biomass productivity which was demonstrated with three distinct culturing systems: batch, chemostat and biofilm growth. Glucose-based biomass productivity increased by ~15, 20 and 50% compared to appropriate monoculture controls for these three culturing systems respectively. Interestingly, the consortial interactions also produced biofilms with predictable, self-assembling, laminated microstructures. This study establishes a metabolic engineering paradigm which can be easily adapted to existing E. coli based bioprocesses to improve productivity based on a robust ecological theme. PMID:22015987

  19. Transition from High School to College and Work for Tech Prep Participants in Eight Selected Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Loeb, Jane W.; Gong, Yuqin; Deng, Chi-Ping; Yoo, Jung-sup; Hill, Jerry L.

    The transition from high school to college and work for tech prep participants was examined in a 4-year longitudinal study of local tech prep consortia in eight regions of the United States. The study methodology drew heavily on transcript analysis and two surveys with tech prep participants and nonparticipants. The tech prep participants and…

  20. 34 CFR 614.5 - What are the matching requirements for the consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the matching requirements for the consortia? 614.5 Section 614.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO...

  1. 76 FR 19998 - Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Device Consortia Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Device Consortia Grant Program AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of supplemental grant funds...

  2. 25 CFR 1001.9 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance planning grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Tribes/consortia that have received a planning grant within 3 years preceding the date of the latest... describes the tribe's/consortium's plans to conduct: (i) Legal and budgetary research, and (ii) Internal... of tribal resources to total resources as indicated in the latest A-128 audit. We will give...

  3. 15 CFR 918.5 - Eligibility, qualifications, and responsibilities-Sea Grant Regional Consortia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility, qualifications, and responsibilities-Sea Grant Regional Consortia. 918.5 Section 918.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  4. 15 CFR 918.5 - Eligibility, qualifications, and responsibilities-Sea Grant Regional Consortia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sufficiently high level to fulfill its multidisciplinary and multifaceted mandate. (3) Relevance. The Sea Grant... agencies, industry, etc.) commensurate with the length of its Sea Grant operations and the level of funding... responsibilities-Sea Grant Regional Consortia. 918.5 Section 918.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...

  5. 34 CFR 614.5 - What are the matching requirements for the consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the matching requirements for the consortia? 614.5 Section 614.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO...

  6. 34 CFR 614.5 - What are the matching requirements for the consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the matching requirements for the consortia? 614.5 Section 614.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO...

  7. 34 CFR 614.5 - What are the matching requirements for the consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the matching requirements for the consortia? 614.5 Section 614.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO...

  8. 34 CFR 614.5 - What are the matching requirements for the consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the matching requirements for the consortia? 614.5 Section 614.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO...

  9. Selected Outcomes Related to Tech Prep Implementation by Illinois Consortia, 2001-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Kirby, Catherine; Zhu, Rongchun

    2006-01-01

    This report is the summary of key aspects of Tech Prep in Illinois over the five year period of 2001-2005 during which all Tech Prep consortia provided annual data based on federal legislative requirements and state-determined essential elements of successful programs. These annual Tech Prep reports enable local educators to monitor student…

  10. 47 CFR 54.604 - Consortia, telecommunications services, and existing contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consortia, telecommunications services, and existing contracts. 54.604 Section 54.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care...