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1

HETEROPHIL CYTOKINE MRNA PROFILE FROM GENETICALLY DISTINCT LINES OF CHICKENS WITH DIFFERENTIAL HETEROPHIL-MEDIATED INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have demonstrated increased in vitro heterophil functional efficiency translates to increased in vivo resistance to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) (gram-negative) and Enterococcus gallinarum (gram-positive) infections utilizing a pair of parental broiler lines, A and B. Heterophils produce cytokine...

2

Similarities between heterophilic and homophilic cadherin adhesion.  

PubMed

The mechanism that drives the segregation of cells into tissue-specific subpopulations during development is largely attributed to differences in intercellular adhesion. This process requires the cadherin family of calcium-dependent glycoproteins. A widely held view is that protein-level discrimination between different cadherins on cell surfaces drives this sorting process. Despite this postulated molecular selectivity, adhesion selectivity has not been quantitatively verified at the protein level. In this work, molecular force measurements and bead aggregation assays tested whether differences in cadherin bond strengths could account for cell sorting in vivo and in vitro. Studies were conducted with chicken N-cadherin, canine E-cadherin, and Xenopus C-cadherin. Both qualitative bead aggregation and quantitative force measurements show that the cadherins cross-react. Furthermore, heterophilic adhesion is not substantially weaker than homophilic adhesion, and the measured differences in adhesion do not correlate with cell sorting behavior. These results suggest that the basis for cell segregation during morphogenesis does not map exclusively to protein-level differences in cadherin adhesion. PMID:17023539

Prakasam, A K; Maruthamuthu, V; Leckband, D E

2006-10-17

3

HETEROPHILS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH RESISTANCE TO SYSTEMIC SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS INFECTIONS IN GENETICALLY DISTINCT CHICKEN LINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We reported differences in in vitro heterophil functional efficiency between parental lines (A>B) of broilers and the F1 reciprocal crosses (D>C). Heterophils modulate acute protection against Salmonella in young poultry. Therefore, we are interested in evaluating susceptibility of the four lines ...

4

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN IN VITRO HETEROPHIL FUNCTION AND THE FEATHERING GENE IN COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We recently showed that in vitro heterophil functional efficiency in commercial broiler chickens is genetically controlled and may be a sex-associated trait. To further characterize the genetic mechanism(s) of heterophil functional efficiency we wanted to determine if the feathering gene, present ...

5

Innate immune responses to microbial agonist stimulations in heterophils and monocytes from young commercial turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The innate immune system recognizes microbial pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns and incites inflammatory immune responses to control the infection. Here, we examined functional innate immune responses of turkey heterophils and monocytes to microbial agonist stimulations by measur...

6

Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test  

SciTech Connect

A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

1982-11-19

7

Functional Annotation of Proteomic Data from Chicken Heterophils and Macrophages Induced by Carbon Nanotube Exposure  

PubMed Central

With the expanding applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedicine and agriculture, questions about the toxicity and biocompatibility of CNT in humans and domestic animals are becoming matters of serious concern. This study used proteomic methods to profile gene expression in chicken macrophages and heterophils in response to CNT exposure. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified 12 proteins in macrophages and 15 in heterophils, with differential expression patterns in response to CNT co-incubation (0, 1, 10, and 100 ?g/mL of CNT for 6 h) (p < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins are associated with protein interactions, cellular metabolic processes, and cell mobility, suggesting activation of innate immune functions. Western blot analysis with heat shock protein 70, high mobility group protein, and peptidylprolyl isomerase A confirmed the alterations of the profiled proteins. The functional annotations were further confirmed by effective cell migration, promoted interleukin-1? secretion, and more cell death in both macrophages and heterophils exposed to CNT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that CNT exposure affects protein expression, leading to activation of macrophages and heterophils, resulting in altered cytoskeleton remodeling, cell migration, and cytokine production, and thereby mediates tissue immune responses. PMID:24823882

Li, Yun-Ze; Cheng, Chung-Shi; Chen, Chao-Jung; Li, Zi-Lin; Lin, Yao-Tung; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan

2014-01-01

8

DIFFERENTIAL HETEROPHIL INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING AND FUNCTIONS IN WILD-TYPE AND COMMERCIAL TURKEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A comparison of cell signaling and functions in heterophils from a commercial line (A) to wild-type Rio Grande turkeys days 4 and 7 post-hatch was conducted. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and ERK 1/2 and total protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activities were measured. After stimulation...

9

Interaction of CD31 with a heterophilic counterreceptor involved in downregulation of human T cell responses  

PubMed Central

CD31 is a 130-kD glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily expressed on the surface of endothelial cells, platelets, and several leukocyte subsets. Previous reports indicated that CD31 can mediate intercellular adhesion via both homophilic and heterophilic interaction mechanisms. Using a soluble recombinant CD31-Ig fusion protein (CD31 receptor globulin [Rg]), we demonstrate here that human CD31- T lymphocytes and CD4+CD31- T cell clones express a heterophilic CD31 ligand that is upregulated 18 h after activation. Interaction of CD31Rg with CD31- T helper cell (Th) clones was divalent cation independent but could be blocked by heparin, thus indicating that the CD31 counterreceptor on T cells can be distinguished from the ligands identified on other cell types. Moreover, a single chain protein of 120 kD was precipitated by CD31Rg from the lysates of CD31- Th clones. CD31Rg completely downregulated the proliferative response and cytokine production (interleukin-4, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor- alpha) of CD31- Th clones when the cells were maximally stimulated via immobilized CD3 monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that interaction of CD31 with a heterophilic counterreceptor on T lymphocytes can interfere with a positive regulatory pathway of T cell activation, or directly signal T cells to downregulate immune function. PMID:8691148

1996-01-01

10

Fine structure of secondary granule inclusions in fowl heterophils after ruthenium tetroxide fixation.  

PubMed

Bone marrow from domestic fowls was initially fixed for electron microscopy in glutaraldehyde and post-fixed with either ruthenium tetroxide or osmium tetroxide. Inclusions with distinct outlines were revealed in the secondary granules of heterophil leucocytes after ruthenium tetroxide but not with osmium tetroxide fixation. In longitudinal orientation, these inclusions were rod-shaped and composed of microfilaments measuring 3.7 nm in diameter. In transverse section, the outline of some of these inclusions was hexagonal and therefore the inclusions may be crystalline in nature. PMID:2047586

Robertson, G W; Maxwell, M H

1991-01-01

11

DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS MEDIATING OXIDATIVE BURST BY CHICKEN HETEROPHILS IN RESPONSE TO STIMULATION WITH SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS LIPOTEICHOIC ACID  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been previously shown to mediate oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. This study was conducted to determine which molecular pathways are involved in TLR mediated oxidative burst. Peripheral blood heterophils from neonatal chicks were isolated and exposed to known...

12

Gene expression profiling of heterophils from Salmonella-resistant and -susceptible chickens using a 44K agilent microarray  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We previously examined in vitro heterophil function and resistance/susceptibility to in vivo challenge with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in broilers. All evaluations have shown a dichotomy of innate immune responsiveness with line A more responsive with increased ability to phagocytize, degranulate,...

13

Gene expression profiling in chicken heterophils with Salmonella enteritidis stimulation using a chicken 44 K Agilent microarray  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common food-borne pathogens that cause human salmonellosis and usually results from the consumption of contaminated poultry products. The mechanism of SE resistance in chickens remains largely unknown. Previously, heterophils isolated...

14

DIFFERENTIAL PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE MRNA EXPRESSION IN HETEROPHILS ISOLATED FROM SALMONELLA-RESISTANT AND -SUSCEPTIBLE CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have conducted studies utilizing a parental pair of broiler chickens (lines A and B) and the F1 reciprocal crosses (C and D). Previously we showed increased in vitro heterophil functional efficiency translates to increased in vivo resistance against a systemic Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infecti...

15

Protein tyrosine and mitogen activated kinase activities in turkey heterophils isolated from commercial and wild-type turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protein tyrosine and mitogen activated kinases are crucial mediators of the host innate immune response, conferring signals from surface receptors on the host cell to the nucleus of the cell where gene expression occurs. Heterophils were isolated from wild-type Rio Grande turkeys and a commercial li...

16

Reversible adrenal insufficiency and heterophile antibodies in a case of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 27-year-old male was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis and altered sensorium with slurring of speech and ataxia. He was managed with intravenous insulin and fluids and later shifted to basal bolus insulin regimen and during further evaluation was diagnosed to be suffering from primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. He was started on thyroxin replacement and steroids only during stress. After three months of follow up he was clinically euthyroid. His glycemic control was adequate on oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs and adrenal insufficiency recovered. However, his thyrotropin levels were persistently elevated on adequate replacement doses of thyroxin. His repeat TSH was estimated after precipitating serum with polyethylene glycol which revealed normal TSH. Here we report reversible adrenal insufficiency with hypothyroidism with falsely raised TSH because of presence of heterophile antibodies in a case of poly glandular endocrinopathy syndrome. PMID:24910843

Kharb, Sandeep; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Dutta, Manoj K.; Garg, M. K.

2013-01-01

17

The use of the non-specific immunological factors, conglutinin, immunoconglutinin and heterophile antibody, in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis.  

PubMed Central

The changes in the titres of immunoconglutinin (IK), conglutinin and heterophile antibodies were measured in calves vaccinated with Br. abortus Strain 19. The IK titres rose rapidly following vaccination but returned to normal within ten weeks. A survey of the sera of over 300 cattle showed no significant correlation between the Brucella STA titre and any of these "non-specific' indicators. It is concluded that they are of little assistance in the serodiagnosis of brucellosis. PMID:6897731

Mittal, K. R.; Tizard, I. R.; Martineau, R.

1980-01-01

18

Gene Expression Analysis of Toll-Like Receptor Pathways in Heterophils from Genetic Chicken Lines that Differ in Their Susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis.  

PubMed

Previously conducted studies using two chicken lines (A and B) show that line A birds have increased resistance to a number of bacterial and protozoan challenges and that heterophils isolated from line A birds are functionally more responsive. Furthermore, when stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, heterophils from line A expressed a totally different cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression pattern than heterophils from line B. A large-scale gene expression profile using an Agilent 44K microarray on heterophils isolated from line A and line B also revealed significantly differential expression in many immune-related genes following Salmonella enteritidis (SE) stimulation, which included genes involved in the TLR pathway. Therefore, we hypothesize the differences between the lines result from distinctive TLR pathway signaling cascades that mediate heterophil function and, thus, innate immune responsiveness to SE. Using quantitative RT-PCR on mRNA from heterophils isolated from control and SE-stimulated heterophils of each line, we profiled the expression of all chicken homologous genes identified in a reference TLR pathway. Several differentially expressed genes found were involved in the TLR-induced My88-dependent pathway, showing higher gene expression in line A than line B heterophils following SE stimulation. These genes included the TLR genes TLR4, TLR15, TLR21, MD-2, the adaptor proteins Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), Tumor necrosis factor-receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3), the I?B kinases transforming growth factor-?-activating kinase 1 (TAK1), IKK? and IKK?, the transcription factors NFkB2 and interferon regulatory factor 7, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. These results indicate that higher expression of TLR signaling activation of both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways are more beneficial to avian heterophil-mediated innate immunity and a complicated regulation of downstream adaptors is involved in stronger induction of a TLR-mediated innate response in the resistant line A. These findings identify new targets for genetic selection of chickens to increase resistance to bacterial infections. PMID:22783275

Kogut, Michael H; Chiang, Hsin-I; Swaggerty, Christina L; Pevzner, Igal Y; Zhou, Huaijun

2012-01-01

19

Heterophile antibody positive, acute cytomegaloviral infection in an immunocompetent pre-teen: An atypical presentation of an atypical infection.  

PubMed

Mononucleosis and mononucleosis-like illnesses comprise a significant proportion of pediatric and adolescent infectious illnesses. By far, the most common cause of these illnesses is Epstein-Barr virus, which causes mononucleosis, and a distant second is cytomegalovirus, which is the most common cause of mononucleosis-like illnesses. This case provides an interesting juxtaposition of laboratory findings of an adolescent who was heterophile antibody positive but acute Epstein-Barr virus antigen-antibody negative. A subsequent immunologic assay resulted in a final diagnosis of an acute cytomegaloviral infection. This is, to our knowledge, the first such report in the literature. PMID:25270386

Raja, Junaid; de Quesada, Gonzalo

2014-09-27

20

Melanoma progression-associated glycoprotein MUC18/MCAM mediates homotypic cell adhesion through interaction with a heterophilic ligand.  

PubMed

MUC18/MCAM is a cell-surface glycoprotein that is strongly expressed on advanced human melanomas. Transfection of 3 MCAM-negative melanoma cell lines with MCAM cDNA led to cell-surface expression and to a MCAM-dependent homotypic adhesion. This adhesion was independent of divalent cations and was inhibited at 4 degrees C. Mixed aggregation assays with MCAM-expressing and non-expressing cells revealed that MCAM can function as a heterophilic cell adhesion molecule interacting with a non-MCAM ligand. Although MCAM contains a potential glycosaminoglycan-binding site, cell-surface glycosaminoglycans do not appear to be involved in the heterophilic adhesion observed here since these molecules were not able to influence the adhesion. Using a functional adhesion assay, 4/4 melanoma cell lines examined were found to express an MCAM ligand. In contrast, no evidence for an MCAM ligand was found on the 2 carcinoma or 2 hematopoietic cell lines examined. Stable transfection of an MCAM ligand-negative colorectal cell line resulted in MCAM surface expression but not in homotypic adhesion, indicating that homophilic MCAM-MCAM adhesive interactions may not occur. Our results suggest that MCAM expression by melanoma cells is associated with increased homotypic adhesion, an event that may support tumor cell survival and growth in vivo. PMID:9398060

Johnson, J P; Bar-Eli, M; Jansen, B; Markhof, E

1997-11-27

21

The influence of naturally occurring heterophilic anti-immunoglobulin antibodies on direct measurement of serum proteins using sandwich ELISAs.  

PubMed

Sandwich ELISAs have become a widely used method for the quantitative detection of serum proteins. However, they can be biased by a variety of interfering substances. As reported recently, we observed false-positive levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha and -beta in up to 27% of sera from healthy blood donors using commercial ELISAs. We now demonstrate that two different groups of naturally occurring heterophilic antibodies (IgG-type) are responsible for these titers. Group I (representing 85% of positive samples) binds to the Fab region of IgG from goat, mouse, rat, horse, and bovidae (but not rabbit). Group II (15%) recognizes an epitope in the Fc region of mouse, horse, bovine, and rabbit (but not goat or rat) immunoglobulins. The antibodies did not crossreact with human IgG subclasses but contributed to false-positive IgG rheumatoid factor levels obtained using a commercially available ELISA. To investigate the susceptibility of assays to these artifacts, various combinations of capture and detection antibodies have been tested. On this basis, we defined the relative risks that standard ELISAs might be influenced by heterophilic anti-immunoglobulin antibodies. In general, assays that use monoclonal antibodies for both capture and detection are less susceptible than others which include at least one polyclonal antiserum. However, only systems utilizing rabbit F(ab')(2) fragments have been found to be immune to this interference. PMID:10675759

Hennig, C; Rink, L; Fagin, U; Jabs, W J; Kirchner, H

2000-02-21

22

Flagellin and lipopolysaccharide up-regulation of IL-6 and CXCLi2 gene expression in chicken heterophils is mediated by NF-kappaB and AP-1 pathways  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Toll-like receptor agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been shown to stimulate chicken heterophils to induce the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by a mechanism involving the triggering of differential MEK-ERK signaling cascades. However, the transl...

23

In vivo priming heterophil innate immune functions and increasing resistance to Salmonella enteritidis infection in neonatal chickens by immune stimulatory CpG-ODN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) mimic bacterial DNA and stimulate the innate immune system of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administered CpG-ODN on the innate immune functions of chicken heterophils. Our results demonstrat...

24

Gene expression analysis of toll-like receptor pathways in heterophils from genetic chicken lines that differ in their susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously conducted studies using two chicken lines (A and B) show that line A birds have increased resistance to a number of bacterial and protozoan challenges and that heterophils isolated from line A birds are functionally more responsive. Furthermore, when stimulated with toll-like receptor (T...

25

Upregulation of chicken TLR4, TLR15 and MyD88 in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with Eimeria tenella in vitro.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria parasites, is a major parasitic disease responsible for great economic losses in the poultry industry. Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is one of the most important innate immune receptors, which involved in pathogen detection by initiating host responses, and it plays important roles in the reduction and clearance of pathogens. Very little information is available about the roles of chicken TLRs (ChTLRs) during Eimeria tenella infection. In the current study, mRNA expression of ChTLRs and associated signal adaptors in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with E. tenella in vitro were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ChTLR4 and ChTLR15 expression were increased significantly in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages following live E. tenella sporozoites stimulation. The heat-killed E. tenella sporozoites stimulated higher expression of ChTLRs and signal adaptors than live sporozoites, the expression of ChTLR4, ChTLR15 and MyD88 in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with heat-killed E. tenella sporozoites were up-regulated significantly than unstimulated cells. The results suggest that ChTLR4 and ChTLR15 are involved in response to E. tenella infection, and may operate in a MyD88-dependent manner for host defense. PMID:23352867

Zhou, Zuoyong; Wang, Zhiying; Cao, Liting; Hu, Shijun; Zhang, Ze; Qin, Bo; Guo, Zhili; Nie, Kui

2013-04-01

26

Paul-Bunnell antigen and a possible mechanism of formation of heterophile antibodies in patients with infectious mononucleosis.  

PubMed

Sera of patients with infectious mononucleosis contain heterophile anti-Paul- Bunnell (PB) antibodies to erythrocytes of numerous mammalian species. Evidence is presented that the corresponding antigen of bovine erythrocytes is not, as previously described, a single molecule, but a series of glycoproteins with glycans terminated with N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). The latter compound should be an important part of the PB epitope because, in agreement with the results of others, we found that desialylation of the PB antigen abolishes almost completely its activity. We examined three different preparations of GM3 ganglioside for their capacity to bind anti-PB and found that only GM3 from horse erythrocytes containing Neu5Gc exhibited a low although ELISA measurable PB activity. The other two GM3 preparations, from bovine milk and dog erythrocytes, containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) bound little if any anti-PB antibodies. This finding confirms a previous report that human erythrocyte Neu5Ac containing sialoglycoprotein with similar O-linked glycans as the PB-antigen of bovine erythrocytes exhibits only very low PB activity (Patarca & Fletcher, 1995, Crit Rev Oncogen., 6: 305). In conclusion, we present a hypothesis that anti-PB antibodies in patients with infectious mononucleosis are formed against infection-induced cell membrane glycoconjugates containing highly immunogenic Neu5Gc. PMID:14740007

Go?aszewska, Ewa; Kurowska, Ewa; Duk, Maria; Ko?cielak, Jerzy

2003-01-01

27

Flagellin and lipopolysaccharide up-regulation of IL-6 and CXCLi2 gene expression in chicken heterophils is mediated by ERK1/2-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling pathways  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Toll-like receptor agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulate chicken heterophils to induce the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by a mechanism involving the triggering of differential MEK-ERK signaling cascades. However, the translocation and activa...

28

Evaluation of heterophilic antibody blocking agents in reducing false positive interference in immunoassays for IL-17AA, IL-17FF, and IL-17AF.  

PubMed

IL-17AA, IL-17FF, and IL-17AF are proinflammatory cytokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to measure the levels of these cytokines in synovial fluid and serum samples from RA patients, immunoassays specific for IL-17AA, FF, and AF were developed. Although these assays could tolerate up to 50% pooled normal human serum, false positive reactivity was problematic in patient samples suggesting interference from heterophilic antibodies. We therefore evaluated the ability of several commercially available heterophilic antibody blocking agents to reduce false positive reactivity by testing them against samples that were confirmed as false positives in the IL-17AA, FF, and AF assays. Several of the blockers performed well, including HBR-1, HBR-9, HBR-11, HBR-Plus, Serum Cytokine Assay Diluent, and IIR. We chose to move forward using IIR blocker for sample analysis and verified that IIR had no effect on the assay standard curves and did not affect IL-17 quantitation in plasma from ex vivo stimulated human whole blood. IL-17FF and IL-17AF were below the limits of quantitation of the assays (12.3 and 10.5pg/ml, respectively) in synovial fluid and serum samples from patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA). For the more sensitive IL-17AA assay (1.6pg/ml limit of quantitation), low levels of IL-17AA were measurable in 48% of RA synovial fluid samples (mean, 7.9pg/ml; median, <1.6pg/ml; range, <1.6-29.7pg/ml; n=23) but not in synovial fluid from patients with OA (n=33). For serum samples, however, IL-17AA was below the limit of detection for both RA and OA patients. When these same serum samples were analyzed in the absence of a heterophilic antibody blocker, false positive reactivity yielded apparent mean IL-17AA levels of 43.3pg/ml (28% positive; n=50) and 14.8pg/ml (12% positive; n=50) for RA and OA patients, respectively, results that could potentially be interpreted as consistent with disease biology. These studies demonstrate the importance of ensuring that HAb interference is well controlled, particularly when measuring low concentrations of cytokines in samples from patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:20833179

DeForge, Laura E; Loyet, Kelly M; Delarosa, Donnie; Chinn, Jason; Zamanian, Fojan; Chuntharapai, Anan; Lee, James; Hass, Phil; Wei, Nathan; Townsend, Michael J; Wang, Jianyong; Wong, Wai Lee T

2010-10-31

29

Spatial and Temporal Variation in Heterophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratios of Nestling Passerine Birds: Comparison of Blue Tits and Great Tits  

PubMed Central

Environmental factors affecting trophic conditions act as stressors on nestling altricial birds. Access of parental birds to a sufficient supply of food in a limited period of the nestling stage differ in time and space, depending on nesting habitat, prey density and weather conditions. Heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (H/L) is considered as a reliable indicator of prolonged stress reaction in birds. In this study we examine if variation in H/L shows consistent spatio-temporal patterns in nestlings of two parids, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus and great tit Parus major. We found that blue tit nestlings had on average higher H/L than great tit nestlings, which corresponds with the ecological sensitivity of these species. In both species H/L was higher in a poor parkland habitat than in a high quality forest habitat. In nestling blue tits, higher H/L values occurred in years characterized by more extreme weather conditions and worse caterpillar availability. Such consistent patterns of variation in the H/L ratio of nestling blue tits and great tits suggest that, when age-dependent effects are controlled, the ratio can be used as an indicator of physiological stress that is generated by food-related stressors differing in space and time. In particular, elevated H/L ratios are indicative of human-induced changes in the structure of breeding habitats. PMID:24066123

Banbura, Jerzy; Skwarska, Joanna; Banbura, Miroslawa; Gladalski, Michal; Holysz, Magdalena; Kalinski, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Wawrzyniak, Jaroslaw; Zielinski, Piotr

2013-01-01

30

Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress may provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed on a standard diet, or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (YE), to determine if YE would improve disease resistance in a stress model.2. At 16 weeks of age, half of the

G. R. Huff; V. Dutta; W. E. Huff; N. C. Rath

2011-01-01

31

Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey po...

32

[Heterophile interference: an experimental method of depleting rheumatoid factor from sera in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].  

PubMed

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a major source of interference in immunoassays. Several methods have been proposed to eliminate interference. We experimented with a new technique based on the depletion of rheumatoid factor from serum samples. Our study included 150 samples, 64 of them positive for RF. Depletion was performed by the adsorption of RF from the sample by latex beads sensitized with human IgG anti-RF. After precipitation of the complexes formed, the supernatant was tested for RF. Finally, we assessed the performance of this RF depletion method with two tests: ELISA Enzygnost Enzygnost anti-HBs micro-Behring and IFI falciparum Ref 75521 Biomerieux. We compared the percentages of false-negative and false-positive results of these tests before and after depletion of the RF-positive serum samples. Efficiency index is 92.2% and the performance of the two immunoassay tests improved significantly by a factor of 2 to 25 after depletion. In addition, this technique is easy, inexpensive, fast, and suitable to our limited resources as a developing country. It should be extended to other immunological tests for validation of the results. PMID:25370047

N'Guessan, K; Dassé, S R; Yébouah, O R; Kouacou, A P V; Séka, S J

2014-01-01

33

Heterophilic Binding of L1 on Unmyelinated Sensory Axons Mediates Schwann Cell Adhesion and Is Required for Axonal Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the function of the adhesion molecule L1 in unmyelinated fibers of the pe- ripheral nervous system (PNS) by analysis of L1- deficient mice. We demonstrate that L1 is present on axons and Schwann cells of sensory unmyelinated fi- bers, but only on Schwann cells of sympathetic unmy- elinated fibers. In L1-deficient sensory nerves, Schwann cells formed but

C. A. Haney; Z. Sahenk; C. Li; V. P. Lemmon; J. Roder; B. D. Trapp

1999-01-01

34

Direct Ca2+-dependent Heterophilic Interaction between Desmosomal Cadherins, Desmoglein and Desmocollin, Contributes to Cell–Cell Adhesion  

PubMed Central

Human fibrosarcoma cells, HT-1080, feature extensive adherens junctions, lack mature desmosomes, and express a single known desmosomal protein, Desmoglein 2 (Dsg2). Transfection of these cells with bovine Desmocollin 1a (Dsc1a) caused dramatic changes in the subcellular distribution of endogenous Dsg2. Both cadherins clustered in the areas of the adherens junctions, whereas only a minor portion of Dsg2 was seen in these areas in the parental cells. Deletion mapping showed that intact extracellular cadherin-like repeats of Dsc1a (Arg1-Thr170) are required for the translocation of Dsg2. Deletion of the intracellular C-domain that mediates the interaction of Dsc1a with plakoglobin, or the CSI region that is involved in the binding to desmoplakin, had no effect. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments of cell lysates stably expressing Dsc1a with anti-Dsc or -Dsg antibodies demonstrate that the desmosomal cadherins, Dsg2 and Dsc1a, are involved in a direct Ca2+-dependent interaction. This conclusion was further supported by the results of solid phase binding experiments. These showed that the Dsc1a fragment containing cadherin-like repeats 1 and 2 binds directly to the extracellular portion of Dsg in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The contribution of the Dsg/ Dsc interaction to cell–cell adhesion was tested by coculturing HT-1080 cells expressing Dsc1a with HT-1080 cells lacking Dsc but expressing myc-tagged plakoglobin (MPg). In the latter cells, MPg and the endogenous Dsg form stable complexes. The observed specific coimmunoprecipitation of MPg by anti-Dsc antibodies in coculture indicates that an intercellular interaction between Dsc1 and Dsg is involved in cell–cell adhesion. PMID:9214392

Chitaev, Nikolai A.; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.

1997-01-01

35

AVIAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR CELLS CONTRIBUTE TO A DIFFERENTIAL INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN GENETICALLY DEFINED CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heterophils, the primary polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) in chickens, are the avian counterpart to mammalian neutrophils. Heterophils modulate acute innate responses through phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and degranulation. We have been characterizing the heterophil-mediated innate immune response ...

36

The pathogenesis of and susceptibility to malabsorption syndrome in broilers is associated with heterophil influx into the intestinal mucosa and epithelial apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) in broilers is characterized by enteritis and reduced body weight gain. The pathogenesis of the intestinal lesions and the reasons for susceptibility differences between broiler lines are not clear. We studied the development of enteric lesions, epithelial apoptosis, and cell proliferation in relation to susceptibility. One-day-old chickens from two broiler lines were orally inoculated with intestinal homogenate

Bereket Zekarias; Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden; Jacob Post; Francis Balk; Cees van Reenen; Erik Gruys; Johanna M. J. Rebel

2005-01-01

37

Evaluation of heterophilic antibody blocking agents in reducing false positive interference in immunoassays for IL17AA, IL17FF, and IL17AF  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-17AA, IL-17FF, and IL-17AF are proinflammatory cytokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to measure the levels of these cytokines in synovial fluid and serum samples from RA patients, immunoassays specific for IL-17AA, FF, and AF were developed. Although these assays could tolerate up to 50% pooled normal human

Laura E. DeForge; Kelly M. Loyet; Donnie Delarosa; Jason Chinn; Fojan Zamanian; Anan Chuntharapai; James Lee; Phil Hass; Nathan Wei; Michael J. Townsend; Jianyong Wang; Wai Lee T. Wong

2010-01-01

38

Single-Cell Adhesion Tests against Functionalized Microspheres Arrayed on AFM Cantilevers Confirm Heterophilic E-and N-Cadherin Binding  

E-print Network

Single-Cell Adhesion Tests against Functionalized Microspheres Arrayed on AFM Cantilevers Confirm: vheinrich@ucdavis.edu Cadherins are calcium-dependent adhesion proteins that mediate vital physiological of processes like cadherin-medi- ated cell-cell adhesion. However, as long as each selected cell can only

Heinrich, Volkmar

39

FLAGELLIN AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE STIMULATE THE MEK-ERK SIGNALING PATHWAY IN CHICKEN HETEROPHILS THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF THE SMALL GTPASES, RAS AND RAP1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The TLR agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulate functional activation and cytokine gene expression via the extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) MAP kinase cascade. However, the upstream mechanisms of these signaling events remain unknown. In mammals, the smal...

40

FLAGELLIN AND LPS STIMULATE THE MEK-ERK SIGNALING PATHWAY IN CHICKEN HETEROPHILS THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF THE SMALL GTPASES, RAS, & RAP1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The TLR agonists, flagellin (FLG–TLR5) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-TLR4) stimulate functional activation and cytokine gene expression via the extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) MAP kinase cascade. However, the upstream mechanisms of these signaling events remains unknown. In mammal...

41

Differential mRNA expression of the avian-specific toll-like receptor 15 between heterophils from Salmonella-susceptible and -resistant chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential for recognition of conserved molecular constituents found on infectious microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the PRR repertoire and are coupled to downstream production of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptide...

42

Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

43

Expression of the avian-specific toll-like receptor 15 in chicken heterophils is mediated by Gram-negative and Gram-postive bacteria, but not TLR agonists  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential for recognition of conserved molecular constituents found on infectious microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the PRR repertoire in both mammalian and avian species. While most mammalian TLRs have been well characterized...

44

NONMALIGNANT LYMPHOCYTE DISORDERS  

E-print Network

Toxoplasmosis Cytomegalovirus Infectious Lymphocytosis Bordetella Pertussis Persistence Lymphocytosis Other, reactive lymphs Heterophile Antibodies #12;9/16/2013 2 TOXOPLASMOSIS Toxoplasma gondii Relative

45

THE FEATHERING GENE INFLUENCES DEGRANULATION AND OXIDATIVE BURST BUT NOT CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE MRNA EXPRESSION OR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ORGAN INVASION IN BROILERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past, we showed differences in in vitro heterophil function between parental broilers (Line A>B and Line X>Y) and F1 reciprocal crosses (Line Cheterophil function. Specifically, the fast feathering gene (k) may enhance heterop...

46

Oxygen radical production by avian leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Oxygen radical production by heterophils of red-tailed hawks and chickens, and by neutrophils of calves, was evaluated in a chemiluminescence microassay. Leukocytes were isolated by centrifugation of blood in capillary tubes and then challenged with opsonized zymosan in the presence of luminol. Avian heterophils produced significantly fewer oxygen radicals than did bovine neutrophils. PMID:1884301

Conlon, P; Smith, D; Gowlett, T

1991-01-01

47

THE FEATHERING GENE IS LINKED TO DEGRANULATION AND OXIDATIVE BURST NOT CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE EXPRESSION OR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ORGAN INVASION IN BROILERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, we showed differences in in vitro heterophil function between parental broilers (Line A>B) and F1 reciprocal crosses (Line Cheterophil functional efficiency while the slow feathering gene (K) reduced efficiency. Based on...

48

THE FEATHERING GENE IS LINKED TO DEGRANULATION AND OXIDATIVE BURST NOT CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE MRNA EXPRESSION LEVELS OR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ORGAN INVASION IN BROILERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past, we showed differences in heterophil function between parental broilers Lines A (fast [F] feathering)>B (slow [S] feathering) and their F1 reciprocal crosses (Line D [F]>C [S]), indicating the feathering gene is associated with heterophil function. In the present study, we evaluated the...

49

INNATE IMMUNOPROFILING OF COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKEN LINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four commercial broiler chicken lines (designated Lines A, B, C and D) were profiled for efficiency of their innate immunologic response. Oxidative burst and bactericidal functions of both heterophils and monocytes, as well as heterophil degranulation, were analyzed. The birds were tested 1, 4, 8,...

50

Patterns of variation in leucocyte counts of female tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor: Repeatability over time and relationships with condition and costs of reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterophil to lymphocyte (HL) ratio in the peripheral blood is increasingly being recognized as a reliable indicator of stress in birds. In this study we examined whether HL ratio, as well as the proportion of heterophils and lymphocytes, varied systematically with sampling time, date, age, climate conditions or with measures of maternal investment in female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

Courtney L. Ochs; Russell D. Dawson

2008-01-01

51

What is your diagnosis? Blood smear from an injured red-tailed hawk.  

PubMed

An injured juvenile red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. The hawk was quiet, alert, and emaciated, and had a closed comminuted, mid-diaphyseal ulnar fracture. CBC results included heterophilia with a left shift, monocytosis, and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration. The blood smear included rare heterophils containing small, dark blue inclusions approximately 1-2 mum in diameter that ranged from round to coccobacillary in shape and formed variably shaped aggregates; the morphology of the inclusions was suspicious for Chlamydophila or Ehrlichia spp. pathogens. The hawk died, and histopathologic examination of tissues obtained at necropsy found severe multifocal histiocytic and heterophilic splenitis in addition to chronic hepatitis, myocarditis and epicarditis, meningoencephalitis, and airsacculitis. Using immunohistochemistry the presence of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen within multiple tissues was confirmed. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was demonstrated in whole blood and fresh splenic tissue via real-time PCR. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of air-dried blood smears was positive in rare leukocytes for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen, and immunocytochemical staining of blood smears for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen was focally positive in rare heterophils. These findings may represent the first reported diagnosis of natural avian C. psittaci infection by visualization of organisms in peripheral blood heterophils. Immunocytochemical evaluation of blood smears was valuable in confirming the diagnosis and may be a useful antemortem test to discriminate between bacteria and other inclusions within heterophils. PMID:19228359

Johns, Jennifer L; Luff, Jennifer A; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Zehnder, Ashley M; Borjesson, Dori L

2009-06-01

52

Immune Function and Organochlorine Pollutants in Arctic Breeding Glaucous Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000

J. O. Bustnes; S. A. Hanssen; I. Folstad; K. E. Erikstad; D. Hasselquist; J. U. Skaare

2004-01-01

53

DIFFERENTIAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION BY CHICKEN IMMUNE CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitric oxide is a rapidly reacting free radical which has cytotoxic effects during inflammatory responses and regulatory effects as a component of signal transduction cascades. We quantified the production of nitrite, a stable metabolite of nitric oxide, in chicken heterophils, monocytes and macrop...

54

Studies on an ascitic syndrome in young broilers 1. haematology and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, the haematology and pathology of young broiler chicks with an ascitic syndrome were examined.Gross changes included cardiomegaly, ascites, congested lungs, shrunken livers, enlarged kidneys, dark breast muscle and congested intestines. Many blood parameters were significantly raised including the packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red (Rbc) and white blood cell (Wbc) counts. The heterophils and monocytes

M. H. Maxwell; G. W. Robertson; S. Spence

1986-01-01

55

The Role of Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Genes, virK and ybjX, during Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection in the Chicken Reproductive Tract  

E-print Network

and induce macrophage cell death with the T3SS-2 during the early stages of infection [17, 21]. In chickens, heterophils are the most important component of the gut innate immune system known to keep S. Enteritidis infection local and in low numbers...

McKelvey, Jessica A.

2014-05-22

56

Differential AP-1 and NF-kB expression in polymorphonuclear cells from a non-mammalian species following TLR4-mediated stimulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously, evaluation of heterophil function, susceptibility to pathogenic challenge, and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression levels showed differences between two parental lines of chickens. Line A is always more responsive and more resistant compared to Line B. Based on these findings, we...

57

HEMATOLOGICAL AND BLOOD CHEMICAL VALUES OF MALLARD, Anas p. platyrhynchos, DRAKES BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER REMIGE MOULT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematological and blood chemical values were determined for wild and captive mallards, Anas p. platyrhynchos, for the late spring period prior to remige moult through early fall migration. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, as well as the number of heterophils and lymphocytes, declined significantly during and after remige moult compared to values recorded prior to remige

E. A. DRIVER

58

Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators yields chickens with increased resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella are a leading cause of foodborne illness and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry; therefore, increasing a flocks’ natural resistance to Salmonella could improve food safety. Previously, we characterized the heterophil-mediated innate immune response of two pare...

59

Patterns of variation in leucocyte counts of female tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor: repeatability over time and relationships with condition and costs of reproduction.  

PubMed

The heterophil to lymphocyte (HL) ratio in the peripheral blood is increasingly being recognized as a reliable indicator of stress in birds. In this study we examined whether HL ratio, as well as the proportion of heterophils and lymphocytes, varied systematically with sampling time, date, age, climate conditions or with measures of maternal investment in female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) over three breeding seasons. We found that HL ratios showed significant annual variation, which appeared to be driven by annual changes in the proportion of heterophils. HL ratios were higher among those females laying larger clutches, suggesting a potential cost of reproduction. Variation in body condition also appeared to affect stress levels of females, as decreases in body condition were associated with elevated HL ratios. Among females that we sampled over multiple breeding seasons, we were unable to detect significant repeatability for both HL ratios and proportion of heterophils, although proportion of lymphocytes showed low but significant repeatability within individuals. We therefore suggest that caution should be exercised in using these measures for illustrating the inherent quality or health of individuals over time frames beyond the current breeding attempt, or as predictors of future reproductive potential. PMID:18485771

Ochs, Courtney L; Dawson, Russell D

2008-07-01

60

Pathological changes in red tilapias (Oreochromis spp.) naturally infected by Streptococcus agalactiae.  

PubMed

The pathological changes present in 300 red tilapias (Oreochromis spp.) naturally infected by Streptococcus agalactiae are described. The most consistent gross findings were marked congestion of internal organs, particularly the liver, spleen and kidneys. Other features included exophthalmos, softening of the brain and the occasional accumulation of fluid within the abdominal cavity. Microscopical examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion of the liver, spleen and kidneys. The endothelial cells lining major blood vessels of the liver and occasionally the spleen were swollen and vacuolated. There was evidence of vascular thrombosis with infarction of surrounding tissue. Bacterial colonies were noted within and immediately surrounding the affected blood vessels. The meninges were thickened by the infiltration of numerous heterophils. Similar infiltrates of heterophils and lymphocytes were observed in the lamina propria of the intestine. The kidneys were severely congested and haemorrhagic, with extensive interstitial nephritis. PMID:20334871

Zamri-Saad, M; Amal, M N A; Siti-Zahrah, A

2010-01-01

61

Hematological stress indices reveal no effect of radio-transmitters on wintering Hermit Thrushes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-telemetry is often used to track birds, and several investigators have examined the possible effects of radio-transmitters on birds. One approach to this question is to determine if transmitters induce physiological stress. Using hematological indicators of stress (heterophil-lymphocyte (H\\/L) ratios), studies of captive birds have revealed no evidence that radio-transmitters cause stress. However, studies in captivity may not reflect conditions

Andrew K. Davis; Nora E. Diggs; Robert J. Cooper; Peter P. Marra

2008-01-01

62

HEMATOLOGIC, PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CHOLINESTERASE VALUES OF FREE-LIVING BLACK STORK NESTLINGS (CICONIA NIGRA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematologic, protein electrophoresis, serum biochemistry, and cholinesterase values were determined in 36 free-living black stork nestlings (Ciconia nigra) between 25 and 53 days of age in order to establish normal reference values for this population. The following values were evaluated: white blood cell counts, red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, prealbumin, albumin, a-globulin, b-globulin,

M. Pilar Lanzarot; M. Victoria Barahona; Manuel I. San Andres; Manuel Fernandez-Garcia; Casilda Rodriguez

63

Developmental stages and localization of peroxidatic activity in the leucocytes of three teleost species ( Cyprinus carpio L.; Tinca tinca L.; Salmo gairdneri Richardson)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The ultrastructural localization of peroxidase (PO) in the leucocytes of three teleosts (Cyprinus carpio L., Tinca tinca L., Salmo gairdneri R.) has been investigated using the 3,3-diaminobenzidine method. In the heterophilic granulocytes the granules show a species specific structure and are PO-positive at pH 7.6. They can be traced back to small granules arising near the Golgi apparatus (GA) in

E. Bielek

1981-01-01

64

Identification of three novel ostricacins: an update on the phylogenetic perspective of ?-defensins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new ?-defensins, ostricacins-2, 3 and 4 (Osp-2, 3 and 4), have been successfully purified and characterised from ostrich heterophils in addition to ostricacin-1 (Osp-1). These peptides are composed of 36–42 amino acids with a molecular weight range of 4.70–4.98kDa. In vitro, Osp-1, 3 and 4 were active against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus 1056 MRSA, whilst Osp-2 was

Haryadi Sugiarto; Pak-Lam Yu

2006-01-01

65

Neural cell adhesion molecule isoform 140 declines with rise of WHO grade in human gliomas and serves as indicator for the invasion zone of multiform glioblastomas and brain metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Gliomas are highly invasive neuroepithelial tumors with a propensity of malignant transformation and very restricted treatment\\u000a options. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) modulates cellular migration, proliferation, and synaptic plasticity by\\u000a homophilic and heterophilic interactions. Hereby, we investigated its relevance as a glioma tissue marker for the biological\\u000a aggressiveness of these tumors and compared these features with the carcinoma brain

Pedro Duenisch; Rupert Reichart; Ulrike Mueller; Michael Brodhun; Rolf Bjerkvig; Bernd Romeike; Jan Walter; Christian Herbold; Christian R. A. Regenbrecht; Rolf Kalff; Susanne A. Kuhn

2011-01-01

66

Fulminant cytomegalovirus myocarditis in an immunocompetent host: resolution with oral valganciclovir.  

PubMed

We report a case of fulminant myocarditis after a primary cytomegalovirus infection, in a previously healthy 72-year-old woman. The infection underwent clinical and immunologic resolution consequent to treatment with oral valganciclovir. In an immunocompetent host, the primary cytomegalovirus infection is usually asymptomatic or manifests itself as a heterophile-negative mononucleosis-like syndrome. Cytomegalovirus myocarditis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. After presenting our case, we review the literature on cytomegalovirus myocarditis in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:25425988

Padala, Santosh K; Kumar, Anupam; Padala, Sandeep

2014-09-01

67

A possible analytical and clinical role of endogenous antibodies causing discrepant adrenocorticotropic hormone measurement in a case of ectopic Cushing's syndrome.  

PubMed

Heterophilic antibodies are well described, but poorly appreciated interferents and is often not a recognized problem affecting most immunoassays. We report a patient presented with ectopic Cushing's syndrome (CS), but repeated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations conducted by immunoassay were inappropriately within the reference range and not elevated, most probably as a result of antibody interference. A 36-year-old woman, presented with large gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and severe ectopic CS, while repeated plasma ACTH concentrations conducted by immunoassay were inappropriately within the reference range. As we expected ACTH concentration to be higher, we performed several tests to evaluate whether there was any assay interference causing falsely lower than expected ACTH results. We measured ACTH using a different immunoassay, assayed the sample in dilution, assayed the sample after being incubated in heterophilic antibody blocking agent tube and performed recovery studies. Tests indicated the presence of interfering compounds, most probably heterophilic antibodies. When clinicians find ACTH concentrations to be lower than expected, we recommend the laboratory investigate antibody interference. PMID:24518530

Saiegh, Leonard; Odeh, Majed; Chen-Konak, Limor; Elias, Nizar; Sheikh-Ahmad, Mohammad; Reut, Maria; Slobodin, Gleb; Bejar, Jacob; Shechner, Carmela

2014-07-01

68

Promotion of Spinal Cord Regeneration by Neural Stem Cell-Secreted Trimerized Cell Adhesion Molecule L1  

PubMed Central

The L1 cell adhesion molecule promotes neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in homophilic and heterophilic interactions and enhances neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival homophilically, i.e. by self binding. We investigated whether exploitation of homophilic and possibly also heterophilic mechanisms of neural stem cells overexpressing the full-length transmembrane L1 and a secreted trimer engineered to express its extracellular domain would be more beneficial for functional recovery of the compression injured spinal cord of adult mice than stem cells overexpressing only full-length L1 or the parental, non-engineered cells. Here we report that stem cells expressing trimeric and full-length L1 are indeed more efficient in promoting locomotor recovery when compared to stem cells overexpressing only full-length L1 or the parental stem cells. The trimer expressing stem cells were also more efficient in reducing glial scar volume and expression of chondroitin sulfates and the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2. They were also more efficient in enhancing regrowth/sprouting and/or preservation of serotonergic axons, and remyelination and/or myelin sparing. Moreover, degeneration/dying back of corticospinal cord axons was prevented more by the trimer expressing stem cells. These results encourage the view that stem cells engineered to drive the beneficial functions of L1 via homophilic and heterophilic interactions are functionally optimized and may thus be of therapeutic value. PMID:23049984

He, Xiaowen; Knepper, Michael; Ding, Cheng; Li, Jun; Castro, Suita; Siddiqui, Maham; Schachner, Melitta

2012-01-01

69

Nectin family of cell-adhesion molecules: structural and molecular aspects of function and specificity.  

PubMed

Cell-cell adhesive processes are central to the physiology of multicellular organisms. A number of cell surface molecules contribute to cell-cell adhesion, and the dysfunction of adhesive processes underlies numerous developmental defects and inherited diseases. The nectins, a family of four immunoglobulin superfamily members (nectin-1 to -4), interact through their extracellular domains to support cell-cell adhesion. While both homophilic and heterophilic interactions among the nectins are implicated in cell-cell adhesion, cell-based and biochemical studies suggest heterophilic interactions are stronger than homophilic interactions and control a range of physiological processes. In addition to interactions within the nectin family, heterophilic associations with nectin-like molecules, immune receptors, and viral glycoproteins support a wide range of biological functions, including immune modulation, cancer progression, host-pathogen interactions and immune evasion. We review current structural and molecular knowledge of nectin recognition processes, with a focus on the biochemical and biophysical determinants of affinity and selectivity that drive distinct nectin associations. These proteins and interactions are discussed as potential targets for immunotherapy. PMID:25326769

Samanta, Dibyendu; Almo, Steven C

2015-02-01

70

Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).  

PubMed

Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9?µg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9?µg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p?=?0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p?=?0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6?µg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p?=?0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p?=?0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p?heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (p?heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9?µg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported. PMID:21381084

Fallacara, Dawn M; Halbrook, Richard S; French, John B

2011-06-01

71

[Pathomorphological changes in the eyes of turkeys in Salmonella arizonae infections].  

PubMed

In one flock, one-eye blindness was observed in the chronical course of disease after infection with the germs of Salmonella arizonae. Changes such as granulomatous iridocyclochorioretinitis with the finding of the bacterial causative agent directly in the pathologically affected tissue were diagnosed on the basis of detailed histological examination of the affected eyeballs. The changes affected almost all parts of the eyeball (iris, ciliary body, lens, retina and chorioid) and were characterized by mononuclear infiltrate with differently intensive admixture of heterophils. The lens was liable to degeneration and fragmentation and giant-cell granulomes of different sizes formed in the posterior chamber. PMID:6815861

Lávicka, M; Matus?, A

1982-01-01

72

Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

Muńoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Para; Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseńor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

2013-01-01

73

Leucocytozoonosis in nestling bald eagles in Michigan and Minnesota.  

PubMed

Thirteen of 21 nestling bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) examined for blood parasites in Michigan and Minnesota (USA) during June and July 1997 had patent infections of Leucocytozoon toddi. No other parasites were seen. The degree of parasitemia was light and varied from 1 to 2 on the Ashford Scale. Several of the infected nestlings appeared to have elevated levels of heterophils in their peripheral circulating blood. One of the infected nestlings also showed signs of severe anemia. We believe this is the first report of L. toddi in the bald eagle. PMID:10479102

Stuht, J N; Bowerman, W W; Best, D A

1999-07-01

74

West Nile Virus in Farmed Alligators  

PubMed Central

Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the horsemeat collected during the 2002 outbreak but negative in the horsemeat collected after the outbreak. PMID:12890319

Mauel, Michael J.; Baldwin, Charles; Burtle, Gary; Ingram, Dallas; Hines, Murray E.; Frazier, Kendal S.

2003-01-01

75

The influence of fasting on blood and plasma composition of herring gulls (Larus argentatus).  

PubMed

Populations of scavenging seabird species in the North Sea may fluctuate with an artificial food source: the availability of fishery waste. To document this impact, it is necessary to assess the birds' nutritional status during periods with decreased fishing activity. Reference data for this purpose was collected from 22 herring gulls investigated during laboratory fasting. After 6 d of food deprivation and body mass losses exceeding 15%, the first birds entered starvation phase 3. Comparatively, this is a rather weak fasting capacity. Plasma levels of total protein and thyroid hormones decreased and beta-hydroxybutyrate increased with fasting duration. The leucocyte proportions were shifted from lymphocytes to heterophils. After 3 d of refeeding, most of the fasting changes were reversed. Plasma enzyme activities increased and hematocrit, hemoglobin, and erythrocyte numbers decreased in both fasting and control birds, most likely as a result of experimental stress and repeated blood sampling. Glucose, cholesterol, monocytes, basophils, and glycosylated hemoglobin remained fairly constant. Triglycerides, free fatty acids, uric acid, and urea varied significantly, but changes were not as clearly a result of fasting. Therefore, total protein, beta-hydroxybutyrate, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and lymphocyte and heterophil percentages may be the most reliable indicators of the nutritional status and the condition of free-living herring gulls. PMID:10438680

Totzke, U; Fenske, M; Hüppop, O; Raabe, H; Schach, N

1999-01-01

76

Survival and physiologic response of common Amakihi and Japanese white-eyes during simulated translocation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding in an aviary for 48 hr with overnight thermal support followed by transport for 4 hr prior to release. Trial 3 and 1 were identical except that overnight thermal support was provided during trial 3. We monitored survival, food consumption, weight change, and fecal production during captivity as well as changes in hematocrit, estimated total solids, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma uric acid, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) at capture and release. Survival was significantly lower for Amakihi during trial 1 (no thermal support). Birds that died lost significantly more weight than those that survived. Regardless of trial, birds responded to translocation by a combination of weight loss, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, uric acid, and CPK levels. The first 24 hr of captivity posed the greatest risk to birds regardless of whether transport or holding occurred first. Food consumption, fecal production, and weight all decreased at night, and overnight thermal support during holding was critical if ambient temperatures dipped to freezing. We recommend that if small passerines are to be held for > 12 hr, they be monitored individually for weight loss, food consumption, and fecal production.

Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S.; Banko, P.C.

1999-01-01

77

Survival and physiologic response of Common Amakihi and Japanese White-eyes during simulated translocation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding in an aviary for 48 hr with overnight thermal support followed by transport for 4 hr prior to release. Trial 3 and 1 were identical except that overnight thermal support was provided during trial 3. We monitored survival, food consumption, weight change, and fecal production during captivity as well as changes in hematocrit, estimated total solids, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma uric acid, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) at capture and release. Survival was significantly lower for Amakihi during trial I (no thermal support). Birds that died lost significantly more weight than those that survived. Regardless of trial, birds responded to translocation by a combination of weight loss, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, uric acid, and CPK levels. The first 24 hr of captivity posed the greatest risk to birds regardless of whether transport or holding occurred first. Food consumption, fecal production, and weight all decreased at night, and overnight thermal support during holding was critical if ambient temperatures dipped to freezing. We recommend that if small passerines are to be held for > 12 hr, they be monitored individually for weight loss, food consumption, and fecal production.

Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S.; Banko, P.C.

1999-01-01

78

Biophysical Properties of Cadherin Bonds Do Not Predict Cell Sorting*S?  

PubMed Central

Differential binding between cadherin subtypes is widely believed to mediate cell sorting during embryogenesis. However, a fundamental unanswered question is whether cell sorting is dictated by the biophysical properties of cadherin bonds, or by broader, cadherin-dependent differences in intercellular adhesion or membrane tension. This report describes atomic force microscope measurements of the strengths and dissociation rates of homophilic and heterophilic cadherin (CAD) bonds. Measurements conducted with chicken N-CAD, canine E-CAD, and Xenopus C-CAD demonstrated that all three cadherins cross-react and form multiple, intermolecular bonds. The mechanical and kinetic properties of the heterophilic bonds are similar to the homophilic interactions. The thus quantified bond parameters, together with previously reported adhesion energies were further compared with in vitro cell aggregation and sorting assays, which are thought to mimic in vivo cell sorting. Trends in quantified biophysical properties of the different cadherin bonds do not correlate with sorting outcomes. These results suggest that cell sorting in vivo and in vitro is not governed solely by biophysical differences between cadherin subtypes. PMID:18552401

Shi, Quanming; Chien, Yuan-Hung; Leckband, Deborah

2008-01-01

79

Cryptosporidium sp.-associated enteritis without gastritis in rough green snakes (Opheodrys aestivus) and a common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).  

PubMed

An epizootic of severe Cryptosporidium sp.-associated enteritis occurred in a group of 15 wild-caught juvenile rough green snakes (Opheodrys aestivus) at the Baltimore Zoo quarantine facility. All of the animals died with no premonitory signs. Histopathologic examination of the small and proximal large intestine of eight of the green snakes showed moderate to severe Cryptosporidium sp. infection and enteritis characterized by dense heterophilic and lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates throughout the lamina propria with epithelial necrosis. Cryptosporidium sp. was also found in feces of an adult common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) that was wild caught on zoo grounds and held in quarantine during the epizootic. After euthanasia, histologic examination of the garter snake showed a severe small intestinal Cryptosporidium sp. infection with only mild enteritis consisting of sparse heterophilic and lymphocytic infiltrates. There was no gross or histologic evidence of Cryptosporidium sp. gastritis in the nine snakes evaluated, and this is the first report of Cryptosporidium sp.-associated enteritis in snakes without gastric lesions. PMID:12790403

Brower, A I; Cranfield, M R

2001-03-01

80

Functional analysis of posttranslational cleavage products of the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule, Ng-CAM  

PubMed Central

Neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM) mediates cell adhesion between neurons homophilically and between neurons and glia heterophilically; it also promotes neurite outgrowth. In the chick brain, Ng-CAM is detected as glycoproteins of 190 and 210 kD (Ng- CAM200) with posttranslational cleavage products of 135 kD (F135, which contains most of the extracellular region) and 80 kD (F80, which includes the transmembrane and the cytoplasmic domains). To examine the functions of each of these components, we have expressed Ng-CAM200, F135, and F80 in murine L cells, and F135 and F80 as GST fusion proteins in the pGEX vector in bacteria. Appropriately transfected L cells expressed each of these proteins on their surfaces; F135 was also found in the media of cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135. In addition to binding homophilically, cells transfected with Ng-CAM200 and F135 bound heterophilically to untransfected L cells, suggesting that there is a ligand for Ng-CAM on fibroblasts that may be related to the glial ligand. Detailed studies using the transfected cells and the fusion proteins indicated that both the homophilic and the heterophilic binding activities of Ng-CAM are localized in the F135 fragment of the molecule. The results also indicated that proteolytic cleavage of Ng- CAM200 is not required either for its expression on the cell surface or for cell adhesion and that there is an "anchor" for F135 on L cells (and presumably on neurons). In contrast to the cell binding results, the F80 but not the F135 fusion protein enhanced the outgrowth of neurites from dorsal root ganglion cells; this activity was associated with the FnIII repeats of F80. The observations that a protein corresponding to F135 contains the cell aggregation sites whereas one corresponding to the F80 has the ability to promote neurite outgrowth suggest that proteolytic cleavage may be an important event in regulating these Ng-CAM activities during embryonic development and neural regeneration. PMID:7542658

1995-01-01

81

Haematology and serum biochemistry of golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological and serum biochemical values were estimated in blood samples collected from 21 apparently adult golden eagles\\u000a (Aquila chrysaetos) of both sexes. The mean values of red blood cells, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cells, heterophils, lymphocytes,\\u000a monocytes and eosinophils were 1.63?±?0.11?×?1012\\/l, 0.47?±?0.009 l\\/l, 91.73?±?1.52 g\\/l, 24.31?±?1.97?×?109\\/l, 4.40?±?0.22?×?109\\/l, 16.81?±?0.65?×?109\\/l, 0.99?±?0.19?×?109\\/l and 2.10?±?0.30?×?109\\/l, respectively. The leucocytes had 69.14%, 4.09%, 18.12% and 8.65%

S. Nazifi; A. Nabinejad; M. Sepehrimanesh; S. L. Poorbaghi; F. Farshneshani; M. Rahsepar

2008-01-01

82

Hematologic, protein electrophoresis, biochemistry, and cholinesterase values of free-living black stork nestlings (Ciconia nigra).  

PubMed

Hematologic, protein electrophoresis, serum biochemistry, and cholinesterase values were determined in 36 free-living black stork nestlings (Ciconia nigra) between 25 and 53 days of age in order to establish normal reference values for this population. The following values were evaluated: white blood cell counts, red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, prealbumin, albumin, alpha-globulin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, calcium, phosphorus, iron, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total solids, bile acids, and butyrylcholinesterase. Sex-dependent differences were observed in hemoglobin, prealbumin, albumin, gamma-globulin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, and triglycerides. Packed cell volume, butyrylcholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and creatinine increased with age, whereas albumin, mean cell volume, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, and total solids decreased with age. These hematologic and serum biochemistry values can be used as reference ranges in free-living black stork nestlings. PMID:16107673

Lanzarot, M Pilar; Barahona, M Victoria; Andrés, Manuel I San; Fernández-García, Manuel; Rodríguez, Casilda

2005-04-01

83

FLRT Structure: Balancing Repulsion and Cell Adhesion in Cortical and Vascular Development  

PubMed Central

Summary FLRTs are broadly expressed proteins with the unique property of acting as homophilic cell adhesion molecules and as heterophilic repulsive ligands of Unc5/Netrin receptors. How these functions direct cell behavior and the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. Here we use X-ray crystallography to reveal the distinct structural bases for FLRT-mediated cell adhesion and repulsion in neurons. We apply this knowledge to elucidate FLRT functions during cortical development. We show that FLRTs regulate both the radial migration of pyramidal neurons, as well as their tangential spread. Mechanistically, radial migration is controlled by repulsive FLRT2-Unc5D interactions, while spatial organization in the tangential axis involves adhesive FLRT-FLRT interactions. Further, we show that the fundamental mechanisms of FLRT adhesion and repulsion are conserved between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. Our results reveal FLRTs as powerful guidance factors with structurally encoded repulsive and adhesive surfaces. PMID:25374360

Seiradake, Elena; del Toro, Daniel; Nagel, Daniel; Cop, Florian; Härtl, Ricarda; Ruff, Tobias; Seyit-Bremer, Gönül; Harlos, Karl; Border, Ellen Clare; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Jones, E. Yvonne; Klein, Rüdiger

2014-01-01

84

FLRT structure: balancing repulsion and cell adhesion in cortical and vascular development.  

PubMed

FLRTs are broadly expressed proteins with the unique property of acting as homophilic cell adhesion molecules and as heterophilic repulsive ligands of Unc5/Netrin receptors. How these functions direct cell behavior and the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. Here we use X-ray crystallography to reveal the distinct structural bases for FLRT-mediated cell adhesion and repulsion in neurons. We apply this knowledge to elucidate FLRT functions during cortical development. We show that FLRTs regulate both the radial migration of pyramidal neurons, as well as their tangential spread. Mechanistically, radial migration is controlled by repulsive FLRT2-Unc5D interactions, while spatial organization in the tangential axis involves adhesive FLRT-FLRT interactions. Further, we show that the fundamental mechanisms of FLRT adhesion and repulsion are conserved between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. Our results reveal FLRTs as powerful guidance factors with structurally encoded repulsive and adhesive surfaces. PMID:25374360

Seiradake, Elena; del Toro, Daniel; Nagel, Daniel; Cop, Florian; Härtl, Ricarda; Ruff, Tobias; Seyit-Bremer, Gönül; Harlos, Karl; Border, Ellen Clare; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Jones, E Yvonne; Klein, Rüdiger

2014-10-22

85

Epstein-barr virus infection with acute pancreatitis associated with cholestatic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Infection-induced acute hepatitis complicated with acute pancreatitis is associated with hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis E virus. Although rare, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection should be considered also in the differential diagnosis if the patient has acute hepatitis combined with pancreatitis. We report a case of EBV infection with cholestatic hepatitis and pancreatitis with review of literature. An 11-year-old female was admitted due to 1-day history of abdominal pain and vomiting without any clinical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis. Diagnosis of reactivated EBV infection was made by the positive result of viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM, VCA IgG, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen and heterophile antibody test. We performed serologic tests and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography to exclude other viral or bacterial infection, autoimmune disorder, and structural problems. The patient's symptoms recovered rapidly and blood chemistry returned to normal with conservative treatment similar to previously reported cases. PMID:24010108

Kang, Seok-Jin; Yoon, Ka-Hyun; Hwang, Jin-Bok

2013-03-01

86

Zebrafish calsyntenins mediate homophilic adhesion through their amino-terminal cadherin repeats.  

PubMed

The calsyntenins are atypical members of the cadherin superfamily that have been implicated in learning in Caenorhabditis elegans and memory formation in humans. As members of the cadherin superfamily, they could mediate cell-cell adhesion, although their adhesive properties have not been investigated. As an initial step in characterizing the calsyntenins, we have cloned clstn1, clstn2 and clstn3 from the zebrafish and determined their expression in the developing zebrafish nervous system. The three genes each have broad, yet distinct, expression patterns in the zebrafish brain. Each of the ectodomains mediates homophilic interactions through two, amino-terminal cadherin repeats. In bead sorting assays, the calsyntenin ectodomains do not exhibit homophilic preferences. These data support the idea that calsyntenins could either act as adhesion molecules or as diffusible, homophilic or heterophilic ligands in the vertebrate nervous system. PMID:25463516

Ortiz-Medina, H; Emond, M R; Jontes, J D

2015-02-12

87

Hematology and plasma biochemistry values for the giant garter snake (Thamnophis gigas) and valley garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi) in the Central Valley of California.  

PubMed

Hematology and plasma biochemistry parameters are useful in the assessment and management of threatened and endangered species. Although reference ranges are readily available for many mammalian species, reference ranges for snakes are lacking for most species. We determined hematology and plasma biochemistry reference ranges for giant garter snakes (Thamnophis gigas) and valley garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi) living in four management areas in the Central Valley of California. White blood cell, heterophil, lymphocyte, and azurophil counts in giant garter snakes were approximately twice the values of valley garter snakes. Statistically significant differences in aspartate aminotransferase, globulin, and potassium between the two species did not appear clinically significant. No significant differences were found in the measured parameters between male and female giant garter snakes. Some differences were found among collection sites. These reference ranges provide baseline data for comparisons over time and between collection sites. PMID:22493106

Wack, Raymund F; Hansen, Eric; Small, Marilyn; Poppenga, Robert; Bunn, David; Johnson, Christine K

2012-04-01

88

Crystal structure of murine coronavirus receptor sCEACAM1a[1,4],a member of the carcinoembtyonic antigen family  

SciTech Connect

CEACAM1 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Isoforms of murine CEACAM1 serve as receptors for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Here we report the crystal structure of soluble murine sCEACAM1a[1,4], which is composed of two Ig-like domains and has MHV neutralizing activity. Its N-terminal domain has a uniquely folded CC' loop that encompasses key virus-binding residues. This is the first atomic structure of any member of the CEA family, and provides a prototypic architecture for functional exploration of CEA family members. We discuss the structural basis of virus receptor activities of murine CEACAM1 proteins, binding of Neisseria to human CEACAM1, and other homophilic and heterophilic interactions of CEA family members.

Tan, K.; Zelus, B. D.; Meijers, R.; Liu, J.-H.; Bergelson, J. M.; Zhang, R.; Duke, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Holmes, K. V.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

2002-05-01

89

Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead.  

PubMed

Plasma proteins, hematocrit, differential blood counts were examined and nutritional condition was estimated for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trapped (n = 66) during antumn migration, 1994-95 at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada), for the purposes of estimating prevalence of exposure to lead. Sex and age differences in hematocrit and plasma proteins were not observed; however, female eagles exhibited larger median absolute heterophil counts than males. Hematologic values were similar to those previously reported from eagles in captivity. Departures from expected hematological values from a healthy population of eagles were not observed in birds with elevated levels of blood lead (> or =0.200 microg/ml). Similarly, nutritional condition was not related to blood-lead concentrations. Therefore, it appears that lead exposure in this population was below a threshold required to indicate toxicological alteration in the hematological values and index of nutritional condition that we measured. PMID:11504222

Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

2001-07-01

90

Immune function and organochlorine pollutants in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls.  

PubMed

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000 and 2001 we injected two novel nonpathogenic antigens (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) into the pectoral muscle of gulls and measured the primary antibody responses. We then related these measurements to the blood concentrations of three pesticides (hexachlorobenzene [HCB], oxychlordane, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) and seven different polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB 101, 99, 118, 153, 138, 180, and 170). There were significant or near significant positive relationships (0.1 > p > 0.001) between most persistent OCs and the levels of heterophils in the blood for both sexes in 1997 and for male gulls in 2001. Similarly, levels of all persistent OCs and lymphocytes were positively related (0.1 > p > 0.001) in both sexes in 1997. This suggests that OCs are causing alterations to immune systems, which may decrease their efficiency and make the birds more susceptible to parasites and diseases. In female gulls, the antibody response to the diphtheria toxoid was significant and negative for HCB (p < 0.01) and weaker, but significant, for oxychlordane (p < 0.05), suggesting that OCs were causing an impairment of the humoral immunity. Various OCs have been linked to negative effects in our study population, including decreased survival and reproduction, and this study suggests that such compounds also affect immune status and function. PMID:15499504

Bustnes, J O; Hanssen, S A; Folstad, I; Erikstad, K E; Hasselquist, D; Skaare, J U

2004-11-01

91

Associations of Forest Type, Parasitism and Body Condition of Two European Passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla  

PubMed Central

Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs. PMID:24339923

Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth KV.; Schaefer, H. Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C.

2013-01-01

92

Linking molecular affinity and cellular specificity in cadherin-mediated adhesion  

PubMed Central

Many cell–cell adhesive events are mediated by the dimerization of cadherin proteins presented on apposing cell surfaces. Cadherin-mediated processes play a central role in the sorting of cells into separate tissues in vivo, but in vitro assays aimed at mimicking this behavior have yielded inconclusive results. In some cases, cells that express different cadherins exhibit homotypic cell sorting, forming separate cell aggregates, whereas in other cases, intermixed aggregates are formed. A third pattern is observed for mixtures of cells expressing either N- or E-cadherin, which form distinct homotypic aggregates that adhere to one another through a heterotypic interface. The molecular basis of cadherin-mediated cell patterning phenomena is poorly understood, in part because the relationship between cellular adhesive specificity and intermolecular binding free energies has not been established. To clarify this issue, we have measured the dimerization affinities of N-cadherin and E-cadherin. These proteins are similar in sequence and structure, yet are able to mediate homotypic cell patterning behavior in a variety of tissues. N-cadherin is found to form homodimers with higher affinity than does E-cadherin and, unexpectedly, the N/E-cadherin heterophilic binding affinity is intermediate in strength between the 2 homophilic affinities. We can account for observed cell aggregation behaviors by using a theoretical framework that establishes a connection between molecular affinities and cell–cell adhesive specificity. Our results illustrate how graded differences between different homophilic and heterophilic cadherin dimerizaton affinities can result in homotypic cell patterning and, more generally, show how proteins that are closely related can, nevertheless, be responsible for highly specific cellular adhesive behavior. PMID:19553217

Katsamba, P.; Carroll, K.; Ahlsen, G.; Bahna, F.; Vendome, J.; Posy, S.; Rajebhosale, M.; Price, S.; Jessell, T. M.; Ben-Shaul, A.; Shapiro, L.; Honig, Barry H.

2009-01-01

93

Changes in selected biochemical indices, leukocyte profile, and pterins as biomarkers of immune system activity due to antipecking measures in pheasants.  

PubMed

The physiological changes in response to beak trimming and spectacle usage as antipecking measures were monitored in 10-mo-old common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Short-term analysis conducted before the beginning of the laying period showed immediate increases of plasma corticosterone (P < 0.05) and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001) concentrations and decrease of plasma triglycerides (P < 0.01) levels in response to both beak trimming and the application of spectacles. Beak-trimmed pheasants exhibited higher plasma corticosterone concentrations than pheasants fitted with spectacles (P < 0.001). To assess long-term changes, blood samples for biochemical (neopterin and biopterin determination) and hematological (leukocyte profile determination) examinations were taken from beak-trimmed, spectacles-fitted, and control pheasant hens housed in cages during their laying period. At the end of the laying period, hens fitted with spectacles exhibited lower concentrations of plasma neopterin (P = 0.005) and biopterin (P = 0.005) than beak-trimmed pheasant hens. Our findings suggest that the immune system was suppressed in spectacles-fitted pheasant hens as a result of chronic stress, as also indicated by the higher heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.001) compared with beak-trimmed hens. Our study found a negative correlation (r = -0.31, P = 0.019) between the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and plasma neopterin concentration. This study demonstrated that both beak trimming and use of spectacles are not only stressful procedures for pheasants, but long-term effects may also include a negative impact on the immune system. PMID:23776255

Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Pistekova, V; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J

2013-07-01

94

Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.

2009-01-01

95

Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 ?g/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 ?g/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 ?g/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 ?g/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 ?g/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

2011-01-01

96

Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.  

PubMed

When wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. The suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. We examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) in wild birds (house finches Haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring infection (Mycoplasma gallisepticum) to determine whether infection alters the typical immune response to stress. Birds were captured and bled within 3 min (baseline sample) and then held in paper bags for 2 h and bled again (stress sample). From blood smears made at both time points, we obtained estimates of total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative numbers of each cell. We also measured BKA of plasma at both time points. In uninfected birds (n = 26), total WBC count decreased by 30% over time, while in infected birds (n = 9), it decreased by 6%. Relative numbers of heterophils did not change over time in uninfected birds but increased in infected birds. Combined with a reduction in lymphocyte numbers, this led to a threefold increase in heterophil-lymphocyte values in infected birds after the stressor, compared to a twofold increase in uninfected birds. There was a nonsignificant tendency for BKA to decline with stress in uninfected birds but not in diseased birds. Collectively, these results suggest that infections can buffer the negative effects of acute stress on innate immunity. PMID:24642543

Fratto, Melanie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Davis, Andrew K

2014-01-01

97

Immune Responses in Broiler Chicks Fed Propolis Extraction Residue-supplemented Diets  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of propolis extraction residue in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age on phagocytic activity of macrophages, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin, antibody production against Newcastle disease, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile and to determine the optimal level of inclusion. 120 chicks, reared in metabolism cages until 21 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of propolis residue) and six replications. The relative weight of thymus and monocyte percentage were affected by propolis residue, with a quadratic response (p<0.05) and lowest values estimated at 2.38% and 2.49%, respectively. Changes in relative weight of cloacal bursa and spleen, percentage of lymphocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, antibody production against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity of macrophages and the average number of phagocytosed erythrocytes were not observed. The nitric oxide production with regard to positive control (macrophages+erythrocytes) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased doses of propolis residue. The remaining variables of nitric oxide production (negative control – macrophages, and difference between the controls) were not affected by propolis residue. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin as determined by the increase in interdigital skin thickness exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.05), which predicted a lower reaction response at a dose of 2.60% of propolis residue and highest reaction response after 43.05 hours of phytohemagglutinin injection. The inclusion of 1% to 4% of propolis extraction residue in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days of age was not able to improve the immune parameters, despite the modest changes in the relative weight in thymus, blood monocyte percentage, nitric oxide concentration, and interdigital reaction to phytohemagglutinin. PMID:25557685

Eyng, C.; Murakami, A. E.; Santos, T. C.; Silveira, T. G. V.; Pedroso, R. B.; Lourenço, D. A. L.

2015-01-01

98

Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density. Experimental treatments consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of prebiotic (with or without prebiotic), 2 levels of dietary CP [NRC-recommended or low CP level (85% of NRC-recommended level)], and 2 levels of stocking density (10 birds/m(2) as the normal density or 16 birds/m(2) as the high density), for a total of 8 treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates (cages). Birds were reared in 3-tiered battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural tropical conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all treatment groups. Starter and finisher diets in mash form were fed from 1 to 21 d and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively. Supplementation with a prebiotic had no significant effect on performance, immunity, and stress indicators (blood glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio). Protein level significantly influenced broiler performance but did not affect immunity or stress indicators (except for cholesterol level). The normal stocking density resulted in better FCR and also higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease compared with the high stocking density. However, density had no significant effect on blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Significant interactions between protein level and stocking density were observed for BW gain and final BW. The results indicated that, under the conditions of this experiment, dietary addition of a prebiotic had no significant effect on the performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers. PMID:22252353

Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Kamyab, A

2012-02-01

99

Comparison of blood values and health status of Floreana Mockingbirds (Mimus trifasciatus) on the islands of Champion and Gardner-by-Floreana, Galápagos Islands.  

PubMed

The Floreana Mockingbird (Mimus trifasciatus) is one of the rarest bird species in the world, with an estimated 550 individuals remaining on two rocky islets off the coast of Floreana, Galápagos, Ecuador, from which the main population was extirpated more than 100 yr ago. Because they have been listed in critical danger of extinction, a plan to reintroduce this species to Floreana has been initiated. Determining the health status of the source mockingbird populations is a top priority within the reintroduction plan. We report the health status, over the course of 4 yr, of 75 Floreana Mockingbirds on Champion Island and 160 Floreana Mockingbirds on Gardner-by-Floreana, based on physical examinations, hematology, hemolysis-hemagglutination assay, exposure to selected infectious disease agents, and ecto- and endoparasite counts. Birds on Gardner-by-Floreana had higher body condition index scores, packed cell volumes, total solids, and lymphocyte counts. Additionally, Gardner-by-Floreana birds had lower heterophil counts, eosinophil counts, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. No Chlamydophila psittaci DNA or antibodies to paramyxovirus-I, adenovirus-II, or Mycoplasma gallisepticum were found in any of the mockingbirds tested. Ectoparasites were present on birds from both islands, although species varied between islands. A coccidian species was found in eight of the 45 fecal samples from birds on Gardner-by-Floreana, but none of 33 birds examined from Champion. Birds on Gardner-by-Floreana were classified as healthier than those on Champion based on clinical and laboratory findings. These health data will be analyzed in conjunction with genetics, population structure, and disease presence on Floreana for developing recommendations for the Floreana Mockingbird reintroduction plan. PMID:21270000

Deem, Sharon L; Parker, Patricia G; Cruz, Marilyn B; Merkel, Jane; Hoeck, Paquita E A

2011-01-01

100

The PHA Test as an Indicator of Phagocytic Activity in a Passerine Bird  

PubMed Central

Several techniques in ecological immunology have been used to assess bird immunocompetence thus providing useful information to understand the contribution of the immunological system in life-history decisions. The phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-skin test has been the most widely employed technique being interpreted as the sole result of T lymphocytes proliferation and hence used to evaluate acquired immunological capacity. However, the presence of high numbers of phagocytic cells in the swelling point has cast some doubt about such an assumption. To address this issue, we collected blood from 14 days-old nestlings of spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor), administered subcutaneous PHA immediately after and then measured the swelling response 24 hours later. Differential counts of white blood cells suggested that an intense development of acquired immunological defences was taking place. The phagocytic activity of both heterophiles and monocytes was also very intense as it was the swelling response. Moreover, our results show, for the first time in birds, a positive relationship between the phagocytic activity of both kinds of cells and the swelling response. This broadens the significance of the PHA test from reflecting T lymphocytes proliferation -as previously proposed but still undetermined in vivo- to evaluate phagocytosis as well. In other words, our data suggest that the PHA swelling response may not be considered as the only consequence of processes of specific and induced immunity –T lymphocytes proliferation- but also of constitutive and nonspecific immunity –heterophiles and monocytes phagocytosis. We propose the extensive use of PHA-skin test as an optimal technique to assess immunocompetence. PMID:24391896

Salaberria, Concepción; Muriel, Jaime; de Luna, María; Gil, Diego; Puerta, Marisa

2013-01-01

101

Immune Responses in Broiler Chicks Fed Propolis Extraction Residue-supplemented Diets.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of propolis extraction residue in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age on phagocytic activity of macrophages, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin, antibody production against Newcastle disease, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile and to determine the optimal level of inclusion. 120 chicks, reared in metabolism cages until 21 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of propolis residue) and six replications. The relative weight of thymus and monocyte percentage were affected by propolis residue, with a quadratic response (p<0.05) and lowest values estimated at 2.38% and 2.49%, respectively. Changes in relative weight of cloacal bursa and spleen, percentage of lymphocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, antibody production against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity of macrophages and the average number of phagocytosed erythrocytes were not observed. The nitric oxide production with regard to positive control (macrophages+erythrocytes) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased doses of propolis residue. The remaining variables of nitric oxide production (negative control - macrophages, and difference between the controls) were not affected by propolis residue. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin as determined by the increase in interdigital skin thickness exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.05), which predicted a lower reaction response at a dose of 2.60% of propolis residue and highest reaction response after 43.05 hours of phytohemagglutinin injection. The inclusion of 1% to 4% of propolis extraction residue in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days of age was not able to improve the immune parameters, despite the modest changes in the relative weight in thymus, blood monocyte percentage, nitric oxide concentration, and interdigital reaction to phytohemagglutinin. PMID:25557685

Eyng, C; Murakami, A E; Santos, T C; Silveira, T G V; Pedroso, R B; Lourenço, D A L

2015-01-01

102

Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators yields chickens with increased resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.  

PubMed

Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry; therefore, increasing a flock's natural resistance to Salmonella could improve food safety. Previously, we characterized the heterophil-mediated innate immune response of 2 parental broiler lines and F1 reciprocal crosses and showed that increased heterophil function and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators corresponds with increased resistance against diverse pathogens. A preliminary selection trial showed that individual sires had varying inherent levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and selection based on a high or low phenotype was passed onto progeny. Based on these results, we hypothesized selection of broilers for higher levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators IL-6, CXCLi2, and CCLi2 would produce progeny with increased resistance against Salmonella Enteritidis. Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated from 75 commercial broiler sires, screened, and 10 naturally high and low expressing sires were selected and mated to randomly selected dams to produce the first generation of "high" and "low" progeny. The mRNA expression of CXCLi2 and CCLi2 were significantly (P ? 0.02) higher in the high progeny and were more resistant to liver and spleen organ invasion by Salmonella Enteritidis compared with low progeny. Production of the second generation yielded progeny that had differences (P ? 0.03) in all 3 mediators and further improved resistance against Salmonella Enteritidis. Feed conversion ratio and percent breast meat yield were calculated and were equal, whereas the high birds weighed slightly, but significantly, less than the low birds. These data clearly demonstrate that selection based on a higher phenotype of key pro-inflammatory mediators is a novel means to produce broilers that are naturally more resistant to Salmonella, one of the most important foodborne pathogens affecting the poultry industry. PMID:24604845

Swaggerty, Christina L; Pevzner, Igal Y; Kogut, Michael H

2014-03-01

103

Response to dietary supplementation of l-glutamine and l-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density. PMID:25143595

Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

2014-11-01

104

Changes in haematological profile of common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) induced by transit to pheasantry.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess haematological changes in hand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) transported from intensive housing facilities to a pheasantry. Selected haematological parameters were monitored in a group of 100 pheasants (50 males and 50 females) aged of 9 weeks that were transported for 4 hours by a covered lorry in crates, with a total body weight of 12 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C12 - floor space: 290 cm2/kg) and with a total body weight of 18 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C18 - floor space: 195 cm2/kg). Blood samples were taken from 10 randomly selected males and 10 females before transport (CON group) and 20 hours after transport (C12 and C18 groups). Examinations consisted in determining the total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin levels and differential leukocyte counts, whereby the proportions of heterophil, basophil and eosinophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of the total leukocytes were computed. The changes in the parameters of red blood cell count were manifested by an increase (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin level, MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) values and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the total erythrocyte count and haematocrit level in both C12 and C18 pheasants, when compared with the control group of non-transported pheasants. C18 pheasants exhibited also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MCV (mean cell value) value. When analyzing differential leukocyte counts, C18 pheasants showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in heterophil counts and H/L ratio, whereas values in C12 pheasants did not differ from the non-transported control group. Individual counts of lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.05) in C12 pheasants, whereas basophil counts were increased (P < 0.01) in both C12 and C18 pheasants. Total leukocyte count was decreased (P < 0.01) in C12 and C18 pheasants. In conclusion, the specific requirements of pheasants, as primarily wild animals, for the density in crates should be respected during transportation and they should be transported at lower densities than other poultry species, at least 290 cm2/kg live weight should be provided. PMID:17078531

Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Vecerek, V; Pistekova, V; Chloupek, P; Suchy, P

2006-10-01

105

The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxic reaction  

PubMed Central

The circulating WBC and cells of the various rabbit lymphoid organs (thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes, appendix, sacculus rotundus and Peyer's patches) were systematically investigated for their capacity to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). The target cells used were antibody-sensitized 51Cr-labelled chicken erythrocytes. Phagocytic cells and lymphocytes were capable of inducing lysis of these sensitized target cells and they might act rapidly or show a delay in the onset of activity depending upon the organ sources of these cells. Among the circulating cells, both mononuclear cells and heterophils showed ADCC activity. The cytotoxic cells in the different lymphoid organs could be distinguished from each other on the basis of the following criteria. (i) Rabbit WBC, spleen and bone marrow cells consistently exhibited cytotoxic activity early in culture with the target cells (6–8 h), with activity levelling off by 24–48 h. In contradistinction, the cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (appendix, sacculus rotundus and Peyer's patches), thymus and lymph nodes did not display significant cytotoxic activity until 48–72 h of culture. (ii) Removal of phagocytic cells from the WBC, spleen and lymph node cells resulted in almost total loss of ADCC activity. On the other hand, the ADCC cytotoxic activity of the thymus and bone marrow cells was not significantly affected following removal of phagocytic cells. (iii) The cytotoxic activity of the WBC, spleen and lymph node cells was inhibited by soluble aggregates of rabbit gammaglobulin whereas that of the bone marrow and thymus cells was not. Rabbit ADCC cytotoxic cells could therefore be classified into a number of categories on the basis of their capacity to demonstrate immediate or delayed cytotoxic activity, their phagocytic or non-phagocytic properties and the susceptibility or lack of susceptibility of their ADCC cytotoxic activity to be inhibited by aggregates of gammaglobulin. It was therefore concluded that the ADCC effector cells in the rabbit parenchymal organs were heterogeneous. The circulating effector cells (the heterophils and monocytes), however, appeared to constitute functionally homogeneous populations of cells. PMID:93083

Keaney, Marilyn A.; Hirte, Holger; McPhail, Sylvia; Fernando, Lorraine; Belanger, R.; Richter, M.

1979-01-01

106

Bilateral acute pyogenic conjunctivitis with iritis induced by unilateral topical application of bacterial peptidoglycan muramyl dipeptide in adult rabbits.  

PubMed

The factors responsible for the conjunctivitis and iritis associated with acute ocular infection and post enteric inflammatory disease are not fully known. The pro-inflammatory activity of unilateral topical application of muramyl dipeptide (MDP; the smallest bio-active Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component) was investigated in adult rabbits. The resultant bilateral conjunctivitis/iritis and pyogenic responses were characterized. Bilateral symptoms were graded by slit lamp examinations; tear fluid, Schirmer tests (tear production), blood and aqueous humor (AH) samples were obtained from MDP-treated and untreated rabbits. MDP concentration, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity (GGT; key enzyme in glutathione recapture, xenobiotic detoxification, eicosanoid synthesis and neutrophil function), protein concentration, and tear cell density, cytology, and immunofluorescent antibody reactivity to GGT and calreticulin (CRT; MDP-binding protein) were determined. MDP was cleared from ipsilateral tears and serum by 6 h, but was undetected in mock-treated contralateral tears. Bilateral signs of acute transient pyogenic conjunctivitis, characterized by tearing, lid edema, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis and leukocytic infiltrate with iritis (erythema and aqueous flare) were detected. Milder symptoms occurred in the mock-treated contralateral eyes. Bilateral symptoms, tear production, tear protein, GGT activity, and mucopurulent discharge (containing up to 2.5-5.0 × 10(6) cells/mL) were elevated 4-8 h post MDP and resolved to near pre-treatment levels by 24 h. Tear GGT activity and protein levels were higher in MDP-treated and mock-treated contralateral eyes than in eyes of untreated adult rabbits (p's < 0.001). Elevated tear GGT activity was associated with histopathology and increased vascular and epithelial permeability to serum protein, GGT-positive epithelia cells, macrophages and heterophils. Repeat MDP applications induced recurrent induction and resolution patterns of bilateral conjunctivitis/iritis and tear GGT activity, but ipsilateral GGT responses were lower. The results suggest unilateral topical MDP application to adult rabbit eyes induces a bilateral acute pyogenic conjunctivitis/iritis (PCI) characterized by increased vascular and epithelial permeability similar to acute bacterial conjunctivitis in man. The detection of CRT/GGT positive heterophils in tears suggests efferocytosis (phagocytosis of dead/dying cells). Tear GGT activity may be a useful means to quantify MDP-induced toxicity and extraocular inflammation. PMID:24135297

Langford, Marlyn P; Foreman, Bridgett D; Srur, Lana; Ganley, James P; Redens, Thomas B

2013-11-01

107

Organochlorine-induced immunosuppression in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

This investigation studied the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes and evaluated the use of immunological tests as biomarkers for contaminant exposure in wild birds. During 1991--1994, specific immune functions and general hematological parameters were measured in herring gull (Larus argentatus) and Caspian tern (Stema caspia) chicks. Study sites were chosen across a wide range of organochlorine contamination caused primarily by PCBs. In herring gull adults, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio decreased as liver EROD, an index of contaminant exposure, increased, In herring gull chicks, thymus mass decreased as EROD increased. At highly contaminated sites, gull and tern chicks showed a marked reduction in T cell-mediated immunity as measured by the phytohemagglutinin skin test. The thymic atrophy and T cell suppression were consistent with documented effects of PCBs in laboratory animals during development and growth. In both species, chicks exhibited biologically significant differences in antibody production among sites, but any relationships to contaminants or other factors remain unclear. In laboratory animals, PCBs exhibit variable effects on antibody production. Structural and functional parameters related to the immune system are useful biomarkers for assessing the effects of contaminants on wild birds.

Grasman, K.A. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States). Dept. of Biology; Scanlon, P.F. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Fox, G.A. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

108

Impairment of growth and immune function of avocet chicks from sites with elevated selenium, arsenic, and boron.  

PubMed

Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) hatched from eggs collected from the south Central Valley of California (USA) were studied to determine the impact of elevated concentrations of selenium, arsenic, and boron on the immune system and growth to maturity. Corcoran ponds were the reference site with low selenium (1.2 ppb) and arsenic (29 ppb) (boron not measured). Westfarmers Pond had elevated concentrations of selenium (319 ppb), arsenic (127 ppb), and boron (109 ppm). Pryse ponds also had elevated selenium, arsenic, and boron concentrations (13.9 ppb, 1,100 ppb, and 29.4 ppm, respectively). Size at hatch was significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) in birds from Westfarmers and Pryse ponds. The growth rate was faster, but mean adult size was reduced in birds from Pryse ponds. Avocet chicks from Pryse and Westfarmers ponds exposed solely through in ovo transfer of these elements had significantly increased heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. The phagocytic activity of macrophages also was significantly reduced in these birds, and Pryse Pond birds had an increased proliferative ability of lymphocytes in the presence of concanavalin A, a T-cell mitogen. Avocet chicks (< or = 5 wk old) were captured from the various ponds and the same morphometric and immune function measurements made. The birds that were most severely impacted by exposure to these compounds were those that were collected from Pryse ponds. PMID:8028107

Fairbrother, A; Fix, M; O'Hara, T; Ribic, C A

1994-04-01

109

Chickens treated with a nitric oxide inhibitor became more resistant to Plasmodium gallinaceum infection due to reduced anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Malaria is a serious infectious disease caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus that affect different vertebrate hosts. Severe malaria leads to host death and involves different pathophysiological phenomena such as anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule in this disease, but little is known about its role in avian malaria models. Plasmodium gallinaceum- infected chickens were treated with aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, to observe the role of NO in the pathogenesis of this avian model. AG increased the survival of chickens, but also induced higher parasitemia. Treated chickens demonstrated reduced anemia and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, erythrocytes at different stages of maturation, heterophils, monocytes and thrombocytes were infected by Plasmodium gallinaceum and animals presented a generalized leucopenia. Activated leukocytes and thrombocytes with elongated double nuclei were observed in chickens with higher parasitemia; however, eosinophils were not involved in the infection. AG reduced levels of hemozoin in the spleen and liver, indicating lower inflammation. Taken together, the results suggest that AG reduced anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation, explaining the greater survival rate of the treated chickens. PMID:23398940

2013-01-01

110

Growth and metabolic characterization of Macrorhabdus ornithogaster.  

PubMed

Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (M. ornithogaster) is an anamorphic ascomycetous yeast found only in the stomach of birds. Infection is often benign but has also been associated with disease in some species of birds under some circumstances. In vitro efforts to grow M. ornithogaster have been largely unsuccessful. In this report, multiple liquid and solid media of varying pH, sugar concentration, and fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentrations, incubated at various temperatures in room air or microaerophilic conditions, were examined for their ability to support the growth of M. ornithogaster, obtained from a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Optimum growth conditions were found to be Basal Medium Eagle's, pH 3 to 4, containing 20% FBS, and 5% glucose or sucrose under microaerophilic conditions at 42 degrees C. Using these conditions, M. ornithogaster was repeatedly passaged without loss of viability. Polyclonal isolates of M. ornithogaster consistently assimilated glucose, sucrose, and trehalose. M. ornithogaster did not grow with prolonged exposure to atmospheric oxygen, but growth in microaerophilic conditions was moderately enhanced by preincubation with atmospheric oxygen for 24 hours. An isolate of M. ornithogaster was found to be infective to day-old chickens, reduce their rate of weight gain, and induce a mild to moderate heterophilic inflammation of the isthmus. M. ornithogaster was reisolated from the chicks 7 days after infection, fulfilling Koch's postulates. A 761-bp sequence of 18S rDNA from this isolate was compared to the originally reported M. ornithogaster sequence and was found to be 97% identical. PMID:17459854

Hannafusa, Yasuko; Bradley, Allison; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth E; Libal, Melissa C; Phalen, David N

2007-05-01

111

In vivo studies of Gallibacterium anatis infection in chickens.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathology in normal or immunosuppressed chickens followed intravenous or intraperitoneal inoculation with a well-characterized strain of Gallibacterium anatis. Two groups of 30 15-week-old commercial brown laying chickens were used, having been screened and found negative for Gallibacterium organisms. One group was treated with 5-fluorouracil to promote heterophil depletion, while the other was saline treated. Ten days later 15 chickens from each group were inoculated either intravenously or intraperitoneally with 3.3 x 10(7) colony-forming units of G. anatis strain 12656-12. Subsets of chickens were sacrificed at 3, 12 or 24 h post-infection and examined for lesions. Livers and spleens were examined by culture and by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Intravenously infected birds showed severe septicaemic lesions in both the normal and immunosuppressed birds. Mortality was recorded only in the latter, with an overall rate of 73%. The intraperitoneally infected chickens of normal immune status showed various degrees of localized purulent peritonitis at the inoculation site, but in the immunosuppressed birds the entire peritoneum tended to be involved along with the abdominal organs. This was similar to previous descriptions of natural infections and may represent a useful infection model for detailed analysis of Gallibacterium virulence factors and pathogenesis. PMID:15276980

Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Christensen, Jens Peter; Bisgaard, Magne

2004-04-01

112

Body condition and immune response in wild zebra finches: effects of capture, confinement and captive-rearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behavioural ecologists attempt to predict fitness in birds from estimates of body condition and immune capacity. We investigated how the stresses associated with capture, confinement and captive-rearing of wild zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) affected different elements of the immune system and body condition. Wild birds had higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and total leucocyte counts than aviary birds, presumably an outcome of mounting specific resistance to pathogens, but this response diminished significantly within 10 days of confinement. Wild birds had lower phytohaemagglutinin-A (PHA) responses than their aviary-bred counterparts possibly because energetic costs limited a general resistance response. Wild birds were heavier and had higher haematocrits than their aviary counterparts, but had less fat, although just 10 days of captivity significantly increased fat levels. Measures of body condition were of limited use for predicting immune responsiveness. We conclude that the different elements of the immune system and body condition respond independently, and often unpredictably, to many ecological and behavioural stressors.

Ewenson, Erynne; Zann, Richard; Flannery, Graham

2001-08-01

113

rFN/Cad-11-Modified Collagen Type II Biomimetic Interface Promotes the Adhesion and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Properties of the cell-material interface are determining factors in the successful function of cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Currently, cell adhesion is commonly promoted through the use of polypeptides; however, due to their lack of complementary or modulatory domains, polypeptides must be modified to improve their ability to promote adhesion. In this study, we utilized the principle of matrix-based biomimetic modification and a recombinant protein, which spans fragments 7–10 of fibronectin module III (heterophilic motif?) and extracellular domains 1–2 of cadherin-11 (rFN/Cad-11) (homophilic motif?), to modify the interface of collagen type II (Col II) sponges. We showed that the designed material was able to stimulate cell proliferation and promote better chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro than both the FN modified surfaces and the negative control. Further, the Col II/rFN/Cad-11-MSCs composite stimulated cartilage formation in vivo; the chondrogenic effect of Col II alone was much less significant. These results suggested that the rFN/Cad-11-modified collagen type II biomimetic interface has dual biological functions of promoting adhesion and stimulating chondrogenic differentiation. This substance, thus, may serve as an ideal scaffold material for cartilage tissue engineering, enhancing repair of injured cartilage in vivo. PMID:23919505

Guo, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Zhengsheng; Kang, Fei; Yang, Bo; Kang, Xia; Wen, Can; Yan, Yanfei; Jiang, Bo; Fan, Yujiang

2013-01-01

114

Afadin requirement for cytokine expressions in keratinocytes during chemically induced inflammation in mice  

PubMed Central

Afadin is a filamentous actin-binding protein and a mediator of nectin signaling. Nectins are Ig-like cell adhesion molecules, and the nectin family is composed of four members, nectin-1 to nectin-4. Nectins show homophilic and heterophilic interactions with other nectins or proteins on adjacent cells. Nectin signaling induces formation of cell–cell junctions and is required for the development of epithelial tissues, including skin. This study investigated the role of afadin in epithelial tissue development and established epithelium-specific afadin-deficient (CKO) mice. Although showing no obvious abnormality in the skin development and homeostasis, the mice showed the reduced neutrophil infiltration into the epidermis during chemical-induced inflammation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the expression levels of cytokines including Cxcl2, Il-1? and Tnf-? were reduced in CKO keratinocytes compared with control keratinocytes during TPA-induced inflammation. Primary-cultured skin keratinocytes from CKO mice also showed reduced expression of these cytokines and weak activation of Rap1 compared with those from control mice after the TPA treatment. These results suggested a remarkable function of afadin, which was able to enhance cytokine expression through Rap1 activation in keratinocytes during inflammation. PMID:25297509

Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Takanori; Takai, Yoshimi; Birchmeier, Walter; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

2014-01-01

115

Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

2007-01-01

116

Silencing of Neuroligin Function by Postsynaptic Neurexins  

PubMed Central

The formation of neuronal circuits during development involves a combination of synapse stabilization and elimination events. Synaptic adhesion molecules are thought to play an important role in synaptogenesis, and several trans-synaptic adhesion systems that promote the formation and maturation of synapses have been identified. The neuroligin–neurexin complex is a heterophilic adhesion system that promotes assembly and maturation of synapses through bidirectional signaling. In this protein complex, postsynaptic neuroligins are thought to interact trans-synaptically with presynaptic neurexins. However, the subcellular localization of neurexins has not been determined. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found that endogenous neurexins and epitope-tagged neurexin-1? are localized to axons and presynaptic terminals in vivo. Unexpectedly, neurexins are also abundant in the postsynaptic density. cis-expression of neurexin-1? with neuroligin-1 inhibits trans-binding to recombinant neurexins, blocks the synaptogenic activity of neuroligin-1, and reduces the density of presynaptic terminals in cultured hippocampal neurons. Our results demonstrate that the function of neurexin proteins is more diverse than previously anticipated and suggest that postsynaptic cis-interactions might provide a novel mechanism for silencing the activity of a synaptic adhesion complex. PMID:17360903

Taniguchi, Hiroki; Gollan, Leora; Scholl, Francisco G.; Mahadomrongkul, Veeravan; Dobler, Elizabeth; Limthong, Nicolas; Peck, Morgen; Aoki, Chiye; Scheiffele, Peter

2010-01-01

117

Role of claudin interactions in airway tight junctional permeability.  

PubMed

Airway epithelial tight junctions (TJs) serve to separate the external and internal environments of the lung. However, the members of the claudin family that mediate this function have not been fully delineated. We characterized the claudin expression in normal airways removed from human donors during lung transplantation and determined the contribution of each claudin to airway barrier function. Stable cell lines in NIH/3T3 and human airway (IB3.1) cells were constructed expressing the claudin components found in the human airway, claudin-1, -3, or -5. The effects of claudin expression on transepithelial resistance, permeability coefficients, and claudin-claudin interactions were assessed. Claudin-1 and -3 decreased solute permeability, whereas claudin-5 increased permeability. We also detected oligomerization of claudin-5 in cell lines and in freshly excised human airways. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed heterophilic interactions between claudin species in both cell lines and human airway epithelium. These suggest that airway TJs are regulated by claudinclaudin interactions that confer the selectivity of the junction. PMID:12909588

Coyne, Carolyn B; Gambling, Todd M; Boucher, Richard C; Carson, Johnny L; Johnson, Larry G

2003-11-01

118

Molecular genetic basis of the human Forssman glycolipid antigen negativity  

PubMed Central

Forssman heterophilic glycolipid antigen has structural similarity to the histo-blood group A antigen, and the GBGT1 gene encoding the Forssman glycolipid synthetase (FS) is evolutionarily related to the ABO gene. The antigen is present in various species, but not in others including humans. We have elucidated the molecular genetic basis of the Forssman antigen negativity in humans. In the human GBGT1 gene, we identified two common inactivating missense mutations (c.688G>A [p.Gly230Ser] and c.887A>G [p.Gln296Arg]). The reversion of the two mutations fully restored the glycosyltransferase activity to synthesize the Forssman antigen in vitro. These glycine and glutamine residues are conserved among functional GBGT1 genes in Forssman-positive species. Furthermore, the glycine and serine residues represent those at the corresponding position of the human blood group A and B transferases with GalNAc and galactose specificity, respectively, implicating the crucial role the glycine residue may play in the FS ?1,3-GalNAc transferase activity. PMID:23240079

Yamamoto, Miyako; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

2012-01-01

119

Ultrastructural immunolocalization of beta-defensin-27 in granulocytes of the dermis and wound epidermis of lizard suggests they contribute to the anti-microbial skin barrier  

PubMed Central

The high resistance to infections in lizard wounds suggests that these reptiles possess effective antimicrobial peptides in their tissues. The present immunocytochemical study shows the cellular localization of beta-defensin 27 in tail tissues and in the blood, a defensin previously identified in the lizard Anolis carolinensis through biomolecular methods. Beta-defensin-27 immunoreactivity is only observed in some large granules mainly contained in heterophilic granulocytes that are sparse within the dermis of the skin or in the isolated blood. This peptide is absent in other cell types of the skin, in keratinocytes and in subdermal muscle tissue of the tail in normal conditions. Pre-corneous keratinocytes of the regenerating tail epidermis are unlabeled or show a weak labeling for the peptide only in sparse cytoplasmic areas or in the extracellular spaces among corneocytes of the wound and regenerating epidermis. The study suggests that beta-defensin 27 is normally stored in granulocytes present in the blood or in connective tissues while in the epidermis keratinocytes do not show the presence of this peptide unless these cells are stimulated from injury to produce and likely release beta-defensins. PMID:24386597

2013-01-01

120

Low temperatures reduce skin healing in the Jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman yacare, Daudin 1802)  

PubMed Central

Summary Studies of skin wound healing in crocodilians are necessary given the frequent occurrence of cannibalism in intensive farming systems. Air temperature affects tissue recovery because crocodilians are ectothermic. Therefore, the kinetics of skin wound healing in Caiman yacare were examined at temperatures of 33°C and 23°C. Sixteen caiman were selected and divided into two groups of eight maintained at 23°C or 33°C. The studied individuals' scars were photographed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days of the experimental conditions, and samples were collected for histological processing after 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Macroscopically, the blood clot (heterophilic granuloma) noticeably remained in place covering the wound longer for the caiman kept at 23°C. Microscopically, the temperature of 23°C slowed epidermal migration and skin repair. Comparatively, new blood vessels, labeled using von Willebrand factor (vWF) antibody staining, were more frequently found in the scars of the 33°C group. The collagen fibers in the dermis were denser in the 33°C treatment. Considering the delayed healing at 23°C, producers are recommended to keep wounded animals at 33°C, especially when tanks are cold, to enable rapid wound closure and better repair of collagen fibers because such lesions tend to compromise the use of their skin as leather. PMID:24244853

Pressinotti, Leandro Nogueira; Borges, Ricardo Moraes; Alves De Lima, Angela Paula; Aleixo, Victor Manuel; Iunes, Renata Stecca; Borges, Joăo Carlos Shimada; Cogliati, Bruno; Cunha Da Silva, José Roberto Machado

2013-01-01

121

Structural Basis of Dscam Isoform Specificity  

SciTech Connect

The Dscam gene gives rise to thousands of diverse cell surface receptors1 thought to provide homophilic and heterophilic recognition specificity for neuronal wiring and immune responses. Mutually exclusive splicing allows for the generation of sequence variability in three immunoglobulin ecto-domains, D2, D3 and D7. We report X-ray structures of the amino-terminal four immunoglobulin domains (D1-D4) of two distinct Dscam isoforms. The structures reveal a horseshoe configuration, with variable residues of D2 and D3 constituting two independent surface epitopes on either side of the receptor. Both isoforms engage in homo-dimerization coupling variable domain D2 with D2, and D3 with D3. These interactions involve symmetric, antiparallel pairing of identical peptide segments from epitope I that are unique to each isoform. Structure-guided mutagenesis and swapping of peptide segments confirm that epitope I, but not epitope II, confers homophilic binding specificity of full-length Dscam receptors. Phylogenetic analysis shows strong selection of matching peptide sequences only for epitope I. We propose that peptide complementarity of variable residues in epitope I of Dscam is essential for homophilic binding specificity.

Meijers,R.; Puettmann-Holgado, R.; Skiniotis, G.; Liu, J.; Walz, T.; Wang, J.; Schmucker, D.

2007-01-01

122

Transfusion-associated cytomegalovirus mononucleosis.  

PubMed Central

Transfusion-associated cytomegalovirus mononucleosis is generally considered only as a complication of extracorporeal circulation following cardiac surgery. Three cases following trauma were recognized in less than one year. Both massive and limited volume blood transfusions were involved. Hectic fever was a characteristic feature in these otherwise remarkably asymptomatic individuals, without the classic features of heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis. Since the illness developed several weeks into the post-operative period after extensive thoracic or abdominal trauma surgery, the presence of an undrained abscess was naturally the major diagnostic concern. Atypical lymphocytosis, markers of altered immunity (cold agglutinins, rheumatoid factor) and moderate hepatic dysfunction were important laboratory clues. In one case, focal isotope defects in the spleen scan misleadingly suggested a septic complication. A false-positive monospot test initially obscured the correct serologic diagnosis in the same patient. Failure to consider this selflimited viral infection may be a critical factor leading to unnecessary surgery. Other viral agents capable of eliciting a similar syndrome are cited. Images Fig. 1. PMID:190955

Lerner, P I; Sampliner, J E

1977-01-01

123

LFA-1 Binding Destabilizes the JAM-A Homophilic Interaction During Leukocyte Transmigration  

PubMed Central

Abstract Leukocyte transendothelial migration into inflamed areas is regulated by the integrity of endothelial cell junctions and is stabilized by adhesion molecules including junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A). JAM-A has been shown to participate in homophilic interactions with itself and in heterophilic interactions with leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) via its first and second immunoglobulin domains, respectively. Using competitive binding assays in conjunction with atomic force microscopy adhesion measurements, we provide compelling evidence that the second domain of JAM-A stabilizes the homophilic interaction because its deletion suppresses the dynamic strength of the JAM-A homophilic interaction. Moreover, binding of the LFA-1 inserted domain to the second domain of JAM-A reduces the dynamic strength of the JAM-A homophilic interaction to the level measured with the JAM-A domain 2 deletion mutant. This finding suggests that LFA-1 binding cancels the stabilizing effects of the second immunoglobulin domain of JAM-A. Finally, our atomic force microscopy measurements reveal that the interaction of JAM-A with LFA-1 is stronger than the JAM-A homophilic interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that LFA-1 binding to JAM-A destabilizes the JAM-A homophilic interaction. In turn, the greater strength of the LFA-1/JAM-A complex permits it to support the tension needed to disrupt the JAM-A homophilic interaction, thus allowing transendothelial migration to proceed. PMID:18849408

Wojcikiewicz, Ewa P.; Koenen, Rory R.; Fraemohs, Line; Minkiewicz, Julia; Azad, Hashem; Weber, Christian; Moy, Vincent T.

2009-01-01

124

Pathological Studies of “Sudden Death Syndrome” in Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

Sudden death syndrome usually occurs in heavy, fast-growing and healthy-looking broilers. Most of the affected birds are males. The characteristic necropsy changes are seen in well-fleshed broilers with edema and generalized pulmonary congestion, recently ingested feed in the crop and gizzard, distended intestine with creamy content and empty gall bladder. The liver and kidneys are slightly enlarged and the latter have patchy areas of subcapsular hemorrhage. The heart contains clotted blood in the atria but the ventricles are often empty and the left ventricle in particular assumes a hypertrophied appearance. Microscopic examination of heart muscle reveals degeneration of fibers, separation of cardiac muscle fibers by edema and infiltration of heterophils. The lungs have severe vascular congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration in the mucosa of the secondary bronchi and edema fluid in the tertiary bronchi and interlobular connective tissue. The liver has moderate bile duct hyperplasia, periportal hepatitis and mononuclear cell infiltration adjacent to bile ducts which possibly leads to bile duct constriction. The kidneys have subcapsular and parenchymatous hemorrhage. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2. PMID:436100

Ononiwu, J.C.; Thomson, R.G.; Carlson, H.C.; Julian, R.J.

1979-01-01

125

Haemopoiesis in the head kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a morphological (optical and ultrastructural) study  

PubMed Central

The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis. Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythroblasts and young and mature erythrocytes. The proerythroblasts were the largest cells in the erythropoietic series. During the maturation process both the nuclear and cellular size decreased gradually due to the chromatin condensation and the progressive substitution of cytoplasmic matrix with a large amount of haemoglobin. Granulopoietic series consisted of cells with variable shape and size at different stages of maturity from myeloblasts to mature granulocytes. The promyelocytes were the largest cells in the series and were characterised by the appearance of primary (azoruphilic) granules. The maturation process involved the appearance of specific granules in the heterophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic series. It is important to mention that eosinophilic granulocytes were the dominant granulopoietic series in the haemopoietic tissue (Ht) of tilapia. Lymphopoietic series consisted of lymphoblasts, large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes and active and inactive plasma cells. Thrombopoietic series consisted of thromboblasts, prothromboblasts and thrombocytes. Thrombocytes of tilapia were nucleated and possessed a spindle shape. Melanomacrophage centres were dominant among the Ht of the head kidney. Also, monocytes were detected and shown to be large cells with an indented nucleus and cytoplasm containing numerous vesicles of different sizes and a few lysosomes. PMID:19152117

Abdel-Aziz, El-Saydah H.; Abdu, Suzan B. S.; Fouad, Huda F.

2009-01-01

126

Effects of in vivo exposure to Roundup® on immune system of Caiman latirostris.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Roundup(®) (RU, glyphosate-based formulation) on some parameters of the immune system and growth of Caiman latirostris. Seventy-two caimans (20-day-old) from Proyecto Yacaré (Gob. Santa Fe/MUPCN) were used. Two groups were exposed for 2 months to different concentrations of RU (11 or 21?mg/L; taking into account the concentration recommended for its application in the field), while one group was maintained as control. The RU concentration was progressively decreased through the exposure period to simulate glyphosate degradation in water. Animals were measured and weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment, and blood samples taken after exposure to determine total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts as well as total protein concentration (TPC), and for performing protein electrophoresis. The results showed that, compared against control hosts, there was a decrease in WBC counts, a higher percentage of heterophils, a higher TPC (with a low percentage of F2 protein fraction), and a negative effect on growth in the young caimans exposed to RU. These results demonstrate that in vivo exposure to RU induced alterations in the selected immune parameters, plasma proteins, and growth of caimans, thereby providing relevant information about the effects of this type of pesticide in this important species in the Argentinian wetlands. PMID:23244546

Latorre, María Agustina; López González, Evelyn Cecilia; Larriera, Alejandro; Poletta, Gisela Laura; Siroski, Pablo Ariel

2013-01-01

127

Proventricular dilatation disease associated with Avian bornavirus in a scarlet macaw (Ara macao).  

PubMed

A case of proventricular dilatation disease is described in a scarlet macaw (Ara macao) from clinical presentation to diagnosis with molecular methods. The initial clinical signs were depression progressing to head pressing over several days. A leukocytosis with toxic heterophil changes, hypoalbuminemia, and increased serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase were present. Lead and zinc assays were within reference ranges, and results from Chlamydophila and polyomavirus testing were negative. Contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy revealed normal gastrointestinal transit times and motility as well as the presence of 2 small metallic foreign bodies in the ventriculus. The macaw was treated with antimicrobials, analgesics, vitamins E and B complex, force-feeding, and fluid administration with little improvement. Euthanasia was elected, and histologic examination of brain tissue revealed a perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, while the lungs had evidence of a fungal pneumonia. Tissue samples from the brain and proventriculus tested positive for the presence of Avian bornavirus genotype 2, while serology confirmed Avian bornavirus infection. PMID:21088184

Keller, Dominique L; Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian; Muthuswamy, Anantharaman; Steinberg, Howard; Sladky, Kurt K

2010-11-01

128

Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.  

PubMed

Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development. PMID:19929638

Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M

2010-01-01

129

Humoral and cell-mediated immune function in adult Japanese Quail following exposure to 2. 45-GHz microwave radiation during embryogeny  

SciTech Connect

Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, eggs were subjected to 2.45-GHz CW microwave radiation at 5 mW/cm2 (SAR . 4.03 mW/g) during the first 12 days of embryogeny. Following hatching the exposed embryos, as well as nonexposed controls, were reared to 22 weeks of age. Humoral immune potential, as indicated by comparable anti-CRBC antibody, IgM and IgG, levels at 0, 4, and 7 days postimmunization in both exposed and control quail was not affected significantly. However, cell-mediated immune potential, measured by the reaction to intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin-P in the wing web, was reduced in the exposed females, but not in the exposed males. Additionally, total leukocyte numbers and absolute circulating numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, and heterophils were increased significantly only in the exposed females. These data show that exposure of Japanese quail during embryogenesis reduced cell mediated immune potential and induced a general leukocytosis in females.

Galvin, M.J.; McRee, D.I.; Hall, C.A.; Thaxton, J.P.; Parkhurst, C.R.

1981-01-01

130

Serological diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection: Problems and solutions  

PubMed Central

Serological tests for antibodies specific for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens are frequently used to define infection status and for the differential diagnosis of other pathogens responsible for mononucleosis syndrome. Using only three parameters [viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM and EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1 IgG],it is normally possible to distinguish acute from past infection: the presence of VCA IgM and VCA IgG without EBNA-1 IgG indicates acute infection, whereas the presence of VCA IgG and EBNA-1 IgG without VCA IgM is typical of past infection. However, serological findings may sometimes be difficult to interpret as VCA IgG can be present without VCA IgM or EBNA-1 IgG in cases of acute or past infection, or all the three parameters may be detected simultaneously in the case of recent infection or during the course of reactivation. A profile of isolated EBNA-1 IgG may also create some doubts. In order to interpret these patterns correctly, it is necessary to determine IgG avidity, identify anti-EBV IgG and IgM antibodies by immunoblotting, and look for heterophile antibodies, anti-EA (D) antibodies or viral genome using molecular biology methods. These tests make it possible to define the status of the infection and solve any problems that may arise in routine laboratory practice. PMID:24175209

De Paschale, Massimo; Clerici, Pierangelo

2012-01-01

131

Stepping stone: a cytohesin adaptor for membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo.  

PubMed

Cytohesin Arf-GEFs are conserved plasma membrane regulators. The sole Drosophila cytohesin, Steppke, restrains Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton activity at the base of plasma membrane furrows of the syncytial embryo. By mass spectrometry, we identified a single major Steppke-interacting protein from syncytial embryos, which we named Stepping stone (Sstn). By sequence, Sstn seems to be a divergent homologue of the mammalian cytohesin adaptor FRMD4A. Our experiments supported this relationship. Specifically, heterophilic coiled-coil interactions linked Sstn and Steppke in vivo and in vitro, whereas a separate C-terminal region was required for Sstn localization to furrows. Sstn mutant and RNAi embryos displayed abnormal, Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton expansion from the base of pseudocleavage and cellularization furrows, closely mimicking Steppke loss-of-function embryos. Elevating Sstn furrow levels had no effect on the steppke phenotype, but elevating Steppke furrow levels reversed the sstn phenotype, suggesting that Steppke acts downstream of Sstn and that additional mechanisms can recruit Steppke to furrows. Finally, the coiled-coil domain of Steppke was required for Sstn binding and in addition homodimerization, and its removal disrupted Steppke furrow localization and activity in vivo. Overall we propose that Sstn acts as a cytohesin adaptor that promotes Steppke activity for localized membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. PMID:25540427

Liu, Jiangshu; Lee, Donghoon M; Yu, Cao Guo; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J C

2015-02-15

132

Structural and energetic determinants of adhesive binding specificity in type I cadherins.  

PubMed

Type I cadherin cell-adhesion proteins are similar in sequence and structure and yet are different enough to mediate highly specific cell-cell recognition phenomena. It has previously been shown that small differences in the homophilic and heterophilic binding affinities of different type I family members can account for the differential cell-sorting behavior. Here we use a combination of X-ray crystallography, analytical ultracentrifugation, surface plasmon resonance and double electron-electron resonance (DEER) electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify the molecular determinants of type I cadherin dimerization affinities. Small changes in sequence are found to produce subtle structural and dynamical changes that impact relative affinities, in part via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, and in part through entropic effects because of increased conformational heterogeneity in the bound states as revealed by DEER distance mapping in the dimers. These findings highlight the remarkable ability of evolution to exploit a wide range of molecular properties to produce closely related members of the same protein family that have affinity differences finely tuned to mediate their biological roles. PMID:25253890

Vendome, Jeremie; Felsovalyi, Klara; Song, Hang; Yang, Zhongyu; Jin, Xiangshu; Brasch, Julia; Harrison, Oliver J; Ahlsen, Goran; Bahna, Fabiana; Kaczynska, Anna; Katsamba, Phinikoula S; Edmond, Darwin; Hubbell, Wayne L; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry

2014-10-01

133

Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and evaluation of hematological and immunological effects of PCB exposure on turtles.  

PubMed

Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Aroclor 1260, and 26 congeners were measured in liver, fat, and eggs of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) collected from ponds near or on the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky, USA. Concentrations of total PCBs (wet mass) ranged from 0.002 to 0.480 mg/kg, 0.028 to 0.839 mg/kg, and 0.001 to 0.011 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 did not exceed 0.430, 0.419, and 0.007 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Exposure to PCBs in red-eared sliders collected from the PGDP is characterized by low concentrations of moderately chlorinated mono-ortho and di-ortho congeners (PCB 153, 180, and 118). Although PCB concentrations measured in the current study were low, chronic exposure to PCBs may have altered hematology and immunity of the turtles examined. Total white blood cell count and number of heterophils were negatively correlated with concentrations of total PCBs and Arochlor 1260, respectively. However, disease and other contaminants in the study area may influence the results. Because little is known regarding the influence of PCBs on hematology and immune function in turtles, additional study is needed to better evaluate results observed in the current study. PMID:22430883

Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W

2012-06-01

134

Granulocytes of reptilian sauropsids contain beta-defensin-like peptides: a comparative ultrastructural survey.  

PubMed

The ability of lizards to withstand infections after wounding or amputation of the tail or limbs has suggested the presence of antimicrobial peptides in their tissues. Previous studies on the lizard Anolis carolinensis have identified several beta-defensin-like peptides that may potentially be involved in protection from infections. The present ultrastructural immunocytochemical study has analyzed tissues in different reptilian species in order to localize the cellular source of one of the more expressed beta-defensins previously sequenced in lizard indicated as AcBD15. Beta-defensin-like immunoreactivity is present in some of the larger, nonspecific granules of granulocytes in two lizard species, a snake, the tuatara, and a turtle. The ultrastructural study indicates that only heterophilic and basophilic granulocytes contain this defensin while other cell types from the epidermis, mesenchyme, and dermis, muscles, nerves, cartilage or bone are immunonegative. The study further indicates that not all granules in reptilian granulocytes contain the beta-defensin peptide, suggesting the presence of granules with different content as previously indicated for mammalian neutrophilic leucocytes. No immunolabeling was instead observed in granulocytes of the alligator and chick using this antibody. The present immunocytochemical observations suggest a broad cross-reactivity and conservation of beta-defensin-like sequence or steric motif across lepidosaurians and likely in turtles while archosaurian granulocytes may contain different beta-defensin-like or other peptides. PMID:23553853

Alibardi, Lorenzo

2013-08-01

135

Characterization of Gicerin/MUC18/CD146 in the rat nervous system.  

PubMed

Gicerin is a cell adhesion molecule of an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily isolated from a chicken. It shows homophilic and heterophilic binding activities and has two isoforms. s-Gicerin which has small cytoplasmic domain and the same extracellular domain as l-gicerin shows stronger cell adhesion activity. In the chick nervous system, gicerin expression is only observed in the developmental stage when neurons extend neurites and migrate. In other tissues, gicerin participates in the tissue regeneration or oncogenesis. In this report, we identified two isoforms of rat gicerin corresponding to chicken and we concluded that gicerin is a homologue of human CD146/MUC18/MCAM. Next we generated antibody to characterize a rat gicerin in the nervous system. Gicerin is expressed in the hippocampal cells, Purkinje cells, and sensory neurons of a spinal chord of an adult rat, while expressed most abundantly in the lung. In addition to this, its expression in the hippocampus was increased by electroconvulsive shock, suggesting some role in the mature nervous system. And we also showed neurite promotion activity of gicerin from hippocampal neurons. PMID:14755543

Taira, Eiichi; Kohama, Keiko; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Shigeki; Miki, Naomasa

2004-03-01

136

Single-molecule atomic force microscopy unravels the binding mechanism of a Burkholderia cenocepacia trimeric autotransporter adhesin.  

PubMed

Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are bacterial surface proteins that fulfil important functions in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Prominent examples of TAAs are found in Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of bacterial species causing severe infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. While there is strong evidence that Burkholderia cenocepacia?TAAs mediate adhesion, aggregation and colonization of the respiratory epithelium, we still know very little about the molecular mechanisms behind these interactions. Here, we use single-molecule atomic force microscopy to unravel the binding mechanism of BCAM0224, a prototype TAA from B.?cenocepacia?K56-2. We show that the adhesin forms homophilic trans-interactions engaged in bacterial aggregation, and that it behaves as a spring capable to withstand high forces. We also find that BCAM0224 binds collagen, a major extracellular component of host epithelia. Both homophilic and heterophilic interactions display low binding affinity, which could be important for epithelium colonization. We then demonstrate that BCAM0224 recognizes receptors on living pneumocytes, and leads to the formation of membrane tethers that may play a role in promoting adhesion. Collectively, our results show that BCAM0224 is a multifunctional adhesin endowed with remarkable binding properties, which may represent a general mechanism among TAAs for strengthening bacterial adhesion. PMID:23796134

El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Mil-Homens, Dalila; Beaussart, Audrey; Fialho, Arsenio M; Dufręne, Yves F

2013-08-01

137

A Genetically Encoded Tag for Correlated Light and Electron Microscopy of Intact Cells, Tissues, and Organisms  

PubMed Central

Electron microscopy (EM) achieves the highest spatial resolution in protein localization, but specific protein EM labeling has lacked generally applicable genetically encoded tags for in situ visualization in cells and tissues. Here we introduce “miniSOG” (for mini Singlet Oxygen Generator), a fluorescent flavoprotein engineered from Arabidopsis phototropin 2. MiniSOG contains 106 amino acids, less than half the size of Green Fluorescent Protein. Illumination of miniSOG generates sufficient singlet oxygen to locally catalyze the polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product resolvable by EM. MiniSOG fusions to many well-characterized proteins localize correctly in mammalian cells, intact nematodes, and rodents, enabling correlated fluorescence and EM from large volumes of tissue after strong aldehyde fixation, without the need for exogenous ligands, probes, or destructive permeabilizing detergents. MiniSOG permits high quality ultrastructural preservation and 3-dimensional protein localization via electron tomography or serial section block face scanning electron microscopy. EM shows that miniSOG-tagged SynCAM1 is presynaptic in cultured cortical neurons, whereas miniSOG-tagged SynCAM2 is postsynaptic in culture and in intact mice. Thus SynCAM1 and SynCAM2 could be heterophilic partners. MiniSOG may do for EM what Green Fluorescent Protein did for fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21483721

Shu, Xiaokun; Lev-Ram, Varda; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Qi, Yingchuan; Ramko, Ericka B.; Davidson, Michael W.; Jin, Yishi; Ellisman, Mark H.; Tsien, Roger Y.

2011-01-01

138

Clinical haematology of the great bustard (Otis tarda).  

PubMed

The haematological parameters of healthy great bustards (Otis tarda L.) have been determined. The values obtained were red cell count (3.0 x 10(12) +/- 0.2 x 10(12/)1), white cell count (33.0 x 10(9) +/- 2.6 x 10(9)/1), haematocrit value (0.51 +/- 0.01 1/1), haemoglobin (13.0 +/- 0.3 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (178.7 +/- 12.5 fl), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (25.0 +/- 0.6 g/dl), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (42.5 +/- 3.2 pg), differential white cell count: heterophils (22.5 x 10(9) +/- 0.7 x 10(9)/1), lymphocytes (6.0 x 10(9)+/-0.7 x 10(9)/1), eosinophils (2.7 x 10(9) +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/1) and monocytes (1.8 x 10(9)+/-0.2 x 10(9)/1). PMID:18680064

Jimenez, A; Barrera, R; Sanchez, J; Cuenca, R; Rodriguez, J; Andres, S; Mane, M C

1991-12-01

139

Scholarly tailgating defined: A diverse, giant network.  

PubMed

Scholarly tailgating and developmental relationships can soar professional identity, advance one's scholarly career and foster cultural diversity in healthcare. This paper provides the definition and basis of scholarly tailgating for scholars who wish to propel their careers and help enable diverse cultural approaches. The concept of scholarly tailgating explains the use of homophilic and diverse, multidisciplinary network relationships to foster an intellectual community in healthcare, and to benefit healthcare consumer. Scholars can benefit from standing on the shoulders of giants and allowing the aerodynamic wind to propel them to soaring career heights. Prudent scholars, apart from utilizing homophilic relationships and balancing these relationships with diverse heterophilic relationships, are able to lead in the professional academy, and become innovators who practice with cultural relevance. Multi-ethnic, diverse scholars working collaboratively can assist in igniting conversation and actions that reduce disparities, which are indigenous to those who are most vulnerable. Purposeful strategic planning and development of diverse networks that support scholarly advancement can best achieve these career accomplishments. PMID:23589967

Adegbola, Maxine

2013-01-01

140

Relationships between circulating leucocytes and Leucocytozoon simondi in mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, ducklings.  

PubMed

Leucocytozoon simondi is an apicomplexan blood parasite of waterfowl that frequently causes significant mortality, and thus is expected to provoke a significant immune response in hosts. Using blood smears collected in consecutive weeks from 30 wild-stock mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, ducklings, we tested with repeated measures analyses for associations between leucocyte profiles and L. simondi infection intensities. With each of the five weeks of leucocyte profiles as response variables, we found evidence of fewer circulating heterophils and more circulating lymphocytes in the third week of infection associated with more intense L. simondi infections from the second week, but no significant relationships between leucocytes and the other four weeks of L. simondi infection. With each of the five weeks of L. simondi infection intensities as response variables, we found no associations with leucocyte profiles. Collectively, our results did not reveal tight links between leucocyte profiles and parasitism by L. simondi. Our data suggest that L. simondi was relatively benign to our wild ducks. PMID:20044017

Shutler, Dave; Lowe, Amy G; Robinson, Stephen R

2010-05-01

141

Assessment of multiple cardiocentesis in ball pythons (Python regius).  

PubMed

This study evaluated the gross and microscopic effects of serial blood collection from six ball pythons (Python regius) by using cardiocentesis. We collected 39 blood samples from each snake over a 120-day period. Cardiocentesis was performed on manually restrained snakes, with each sample requiring approximately 15 sec to collect. No clinically apparent complications were noted in any of the snakes after the cardiocentesis procedures, and all snakes survived until they were euthanized 73 days after the last blood sample. Minimal gross lesions were noted at necropsy; faint brown pigmentation of the pericardium was present in five of six snakes, and three snakes had approximately 0.5 ml dark pigmented fluid in the pericardial space. One snake had a small, organized hematoma in the pericardial space. Microscopic findings were limited to moderate and regularly arranged collagen fibrosis and focal thickening of the epicardium. The pericardial sac in all snakes had a mild infiltrate of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and small numbers of heterophils. The results suggest that serial cardiocentesis is well tolerated in ball pythons. PMID:15636554

Isaza, Ramiro; Andrews, Gordon; Coke, Rob; Hunter, Robert

2004-11-01

142

A bipartite network approach to inferring interactions between environmental exposures and human diseases.  

PubMed

Environmental exposure is a key factor of understanding health and diseases. Beyond genetic propensities, many disorders are, in part, caused by human interaction with harmful substances in the water, the soil, or the air. Limited data is available on a disease or substance basis. However, we compile a global repository from literature surveys matching environmental chemical substances exposure with human disorders. We build a bipartite network linking 60 substances to over 150 disease phenotypes. We quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the network and its projections as simple networks. We identify mercury, lead and cadmium as associated with the largest number of disorders. Symmetrically, we show that breast cancer, harm to the fetus and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are associated with the most environmental chemicals. We conduct statistical analysis of how vertices with similar characteristics form the network interactions. This dyadicity and heterophilicity measures the tendencies of vertices with similar properties to either connect to one-another. We study the dyadic distribution of the substance classes in the networks show that, for instance, tobacco smoke compounds, parabens and heavy metals tend to be connected, which hint at common disease causing factors, whereas fungicides and phytoestrogens do not. We build an exposure network at the systems level. The information gathered in this study is meant to be complementary to the genome and help us understand complex diseases, their commonalities, their causes, and how to prevent and treat them. PMID:25592579

Darabos, Christian; Grussing, Emily D; Cricco, Maria E; Clark, Kenzie A; Moore, Jason H

2015-01-01

143

An introduced generalist parasite, the sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea), and its pathology in the threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens).  

PubMed

The sticktight flea, (Echidnophaga gallinacea), a major pest of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) that can cause severe pathology or death if untreated, is rarely recorded in free-living avian species. Sticktight fleas, however, were observed on the federally threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) in February 2004, in south central Florida. Of the 81 Florida scrub-jays (FSJs) sampled before the 2004 breeding season, 12 were infested, with from 1 to as many as 57 fleas. Subsequent survivorship and variation in health indices led us to conclude that the sticktight flea caused the death of several jays. Within 4 mo, 46% of sticktight flea-infested (INF) jays died, whereas in the nonflea-infested (NINF) jays, only 5.9% died. Adult INF birds lost body mass in the time since a previous capture compared with NINF jays, and mass gain was slowed in 1-yr-old INF jays. Hematocrit of INF jays was dramatically impacted, as low as 17%, and was negatively correlated with the extent of infestation. Leukocyte counts were highest in INF jays; however, plasma immunoglobulin levels were lowest. Physiological stress levels, measured using plasma corticosterone, increased more rapidly in INF jays than NINF jays and were positively correlated with heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. The impact of the sticktight flea on the federally threatened FSJ negates previous findings that sticktight fleas are benign in wild avian hosts. PMID:17152932

Boughton, R K; Atwell, J W; Schoech, S J

2006-10-01

144

Diagnostic and clinical observation on the infectious bronchitis virus strain Q1 in Italy.  

PubMed

This paper describes the diagnostic and clinical observations of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant, referred to as Q1, in clinically ill chickens in Italy. This IBV variant was described for the first time in 1998 in China. In the autumn of 2011 it caused a small-scale epidemic in nonvaccinated meat chickens in farms located in Northern Italy. The disease was characterized by increased mortality, kidney lesions and proventriculitis. Histopathological observations confirmed the nephritis and described an unusual erosive/necrotic proventriculitis with infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and heterophils, as well as fibroplasia in the lamina propria. Despite these findings and the isolation of the Q1 IB virus directly from proventricular tissue, further studies are necessary to confirm the role of this IBV strain in the development of proventricular lesions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the IBV isolates were very similar and probably had a common origin. The IBV Q1 variant appears to be now endemic in the North of Italy and at times it is detected in vaccinated backyard and commercial broiler farms. The importance of continuous monitoring in controlling the spread of known or emerging IBV variants is underlined. PMID:24362775

Toffan, Anna; Bonci, Michela; Bano, Luca; Bano, Luca; Valastro, Viviana; Vascellari, Marta; Capua, Ilaria; Terregino, Calogero

2013-01-01

145

Low temperatures reduce skin healing in the Jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman yacare, Daudin 1802).  

PubMed

Studies of skin wound healing in crocodilians are necessary given the frequent occurrence of cannibalism in intensive farming systems. Air temperature affects tissue recovery because crocodilians are ectothermic. Therefore, the kinetics of skin wound healing in Caiman yacare were examined at temperatures of 33°C and 23°C. Sixteen caiman were selected and divided into two groups of eight maintained at 23°C or 33°C. The studied individuals' scars were photographed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days of the experimental conditions, and samples were collected for histological processing after 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Macroscopically, the blood clot (heterophilic granuloma) noticeably remained in place covering the wound longer for the caiman kept at 23°C. Microscopically, the temperature of 23°C slowed epidermal migration and skin repair. Comparatively, new blood vessels, labeled using von Willebrand factor (vWF) antibody staining, were more frequently found in the scars of the 33°C group. The collagen fibers in the dermis were denser in the 33°C treatment. Considering the delayed healing at 23°C, producers are recommended to keep wounded animals at 33°C, especially when tanks are cold, to enable rapid wound closure and better repair of collagen fibers because such lesions tend to compromise the use of their skin as leather. PMID:24244853

Pressinotti, Leandro Nogueira; Borges, Ricardo Moraes; Alves De Lima, Angela Paula; Aleixo, Victor Manuel; Iunes, Renata Stecca; Borges, Joăo Carlos Shimada; Cogliati, Bruno; Cunha Da Silva, José Roberto Machado

2013-01-01

146

Discospondylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).  

PubMed

A 22-year-old female African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), housed indoors with other African and rockhopper penguins, was presented acutely with lethargy, ataxia, and hind limb weakness after a molt. The penguin would assume a hunched position and, when resting, sat on its hocks or lay on its keel. Physical and neurologic examination revealed hind limb paraparesis, proprioceptive deficits, and tiptoe walking. Results of a complete blood cell count and biochemical analysis revealed mild heterophilic leukocytosis, anemia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hypokalemia, and hyperuricemia. Results of whole-body radiographs and coelioscopy were unremarkable. Two computed tomographies of the spine at a 3-month interval revealed a lesion at the mobile thoracic vertebra proximal to the synsacrum with associated spinal cord compression. The penguin was treated with itraconazole, doxycycline, and meloxicam, and it initially improved with return to near normal gait and behavior. However, 5 months after the onset of clinical signs, the penguin was euthanatized after a relapse with worsening of the neurologic signs. Postmortem and histopathologic examination revealed focal granulomatous discospondylitis at the penultimate mobile thoracic vertebra, with intralesional bacteria from which Staphylococcus aureus was cultured. PMID:23409435

Field, Cara L; Beaufrčre, Hugues; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Rademacher, Nathalie; MacLean, Robert

2012-12-01

147

Effect of warm drinking water on the performance and immunological responses of broiler breeder hens raised at low air temperatures.  

PubMed

1. The effect of warmed drinking water on the performance and immunological responses of broiler breeder hens maintained at low air temperatures (5.0 degrees to 12.9 degrees C) was tested. From 22 weeks of age hens (mean body mass = 2.4 kg) were offered either warm water (27.7 degrees C; WARM; n = 24) or tap water (12.7 degrees C; CONR; n = 24) twice daily for a total time of 2.5 h or tap water ad libitum (CONA; n = 16). Food was restricted for all hens. 2. Daily water intake in the WARM hens (103 ml/kg) was similar to that of the CONR (93 ml/kg) and CONA hens (106 ml/kg). 3. There were no significant differences in either body mass change or egg production among treatment groups. 4. There was no difference among groups in heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. Similarly, there was no difference among groups in either phagocytic activity or wattle index after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection. Total and IgG antibody titres to SRBC tended to be highest in the WARM hens and these titres were significantly higher than in CONR hens 14 d after challenge. PMID:8513410

Spinu, M; Degen, A A; Rosenstrauch, A

1993-05-01

148

Clinical, gross, and histological findings in herring gulls and Atlantic puffins that ingested Prudhoe Bay crude oil.  

PubMed

Oral doses of 0, 1, 4, 5, 10, or 20 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil/kg body weight/day were given to herring gull and Atlantic puffin nestlings for 5 to 7 consecutive days. Gulls defecated substantial amounts of oil within 10 to 15 minutes after receiving a dose. Clinical signs and lesions occurred only in birds given greater than or equal to 10 ml oil/kg body weight/day. Gulls consumed less food and lost weight. Two categories of lesions were observed: those considered secondary to a primary toxic hemolytic disease, and those considered nonspecific reactions to stress. The former included phagocytosis of degenerate erythrocytes in the liver and spleen, hemoglobin resorption droplets in renal proximal tubule cells, and erythroid hyperplasia in the bone marrow; the latter included lymphocyte depletion in primary lymphoid tissues, an increase in heterophil: lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood, lipid depletion and necrosis in adrenal steroidogenic cells, and an increased prevalence and severity of lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. These findings indicated that the primary target of oil toxicity was the peripheral red blood cell, but that significant stress-related lesions were also associated with ingestion of oil. PMID:3727312

Leighton, F A

1986-05-01

149

Different roles of cadherins in the assembly and structural integrity of the desmosome complex  

SciTech Connect

Adhesion between cells is established by the formation of specialized intercellular junctional complexes, such as desmosomes. Desmosomes comprise two members of the cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins, desmocollin (Dsc) and desmoglein (Dsg), but their combinatorial roles in desmosome assembly is not understood. To uncouple desmosome assembly from other cell-cell adhesion complexes, we used micro-patterned substrates of Dsc2aFc and/or Dsg2Fc and collagen IV; we show that Dsc2aFc, but not Dsg2Fc, was necessary and sufficient to recruit desmosome-specific desmoplakin into desmosome puncta and produce strong adhesive binding. Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy showed that monomeric Dsc2a, but not Dsg2, formed Ca2+-dependent homophilic bonds, and that Dsg2 formed Ca2+-independent heterophilic bonds with Dsc2a. A W2A mutation in Dsc2a inhibited Ca2+-dependent homophilic binding, similar to classical cadherins, and Dsc2aW2A, but not Dsg2W2A, was excluded from desmosomes in MDCK cells. These results indicate that Dsc2a, not Dsg2, is required for desmosome assembly via homophilic Ca2+- and W2/strand swap-dependent binding, and that Dsg2 may be involved later in regulating a switch to Ca2+-independent adhesion in mature desmosomes.

Lowndes, M.; Rakshit, S.; Shafraz, O.; Borghi, N.; Harmon, R. M.; Green, K. J.; Sivasankar, S.; Nelson, W. J.

2014-05-15

150

Influence of chromium propionate on the carcass characteristics and immune response of commercial broiler birds under normal rearing conditions.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effect of supplementation of chromium propionate at different dosage levels (100 to 3,200 µg/kg of elemental chromium in feed) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and immune response of broiler birds. The study was conducted on male broiler chickens (Cobb 400) for a period of 42 d as per the completely randomized design. Seven hundred 1-d-old birds were randomly segregated into 7 treatment groups, each with 10 replicates, and each replicate having 10 birds. Weight gain, feed intake, carcass characteristics, immune response, and the serum biochemical parameters of birds were studied during the supplementation period. There was no significant response to chromium supplementation on weight gain, feed intake, FCR, and lymphoid organ weights for the overall study period of 42 d. With increased chromium dosage, the breast meat yield improved linearly (P = 0.045). Antibody response to Newcastle disease vaccination improved quadratically (P = 0.001) with increased dose of chromium in the diet. Improved cell-mediated immune response was indicated by the increase (quadratic, P = 0.00) in lymphocyte proliferation ratio with increased dose of chromium supplementation. Heterophil:lymphocyte ratio decreased (quadratic, P = 0.004) with chromium propionate dosage, suggestive of reduced stress levels. Chromium propionate supplementation also reduced serum glucose levels (quadratic, P = 0.008) and improved (quadratic, P = 0.016) the total protein levels. PMID:24604850

Rajalekshmi, M; Sugumar, C; Chirakkal, H; Ramarao, S V

2014-03-01

151

ETV6 (TEL1) regulates embryonic hematopoiesis in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal translocations involving fusions of the human ETV6 (TEL1) gene occur frequently in hematologic malignancies. However, a detailed understanding of the normal function of ETV6 remains incomplete. This study has employed zebrafish as a relevant model to investigate the role of ETV6 during embryonic hematopoiesis. Zebrafish possessed a single conserved etv6 ortholog that was expressed from 12 hpf in the lateral plate mesoderm, and later in hematopoietic, vascular and other tissues. Morpholino-mediated gene knockdown of etv6 revealed the complex contribution of this gene toward embryonic hematopoiesis. During primitive hematopoiesis, etv6 knockdown resulted in reduced levels of progenitor cells, erythrocyte and macrophage populations, but increased numbers of incompletely differentiated heterophils. Definitive hematopoiesis was also perturbed, with etv6 knockdown leading to decreased erythrocytes and myeloid cells, but enhanced lymphopoiesis. This study suggests that ETV6 plays a broader and more complex role in early hematopoiesis than previously thought, impacting on the development of multiple lineages. PMID:25281506

Rasighaemi, Parisa; Onnebo, Sara M.N.; Liongue, Clifford; Ward, Alister C.

2015-01-01

152

Monoubiquitination of Ancient Ubiquitous Protein 1 Promotes Lipid Droplet Clustering  

PubMed Central

Lipid droplets, the intracellular storage organelles for neutral lipids, exist in a wide range of sizes and of morphologically distinct organization, from loosely dispersed lipid droplets to tightly packed lipid droplet clusters. We show that the lipid droplet protein AUP1 induces cluster formation. A fraction of AUP1 is monoubiquitinated at various lysine residues. This process depends on its internal CUE domain, which is a known ubiquitin-binding domain. AUP1 with a deleted or point mutagenized CUE domain, as well as a lysine-free mutant, are not ubiquitinated and do not induce lipid droplet clustering. When such ubiquitination deficient mutants are fused to ubiquitin, clustering is restored. AUP1 mutants with defective droplet targeting fail to induce clustering. Also, another lipid droplet protein, NSDHL, with a fused ubiquitin does not induce clustering. The data indicate that monoubiquitinated AUP1 on the lipid droplet surface specifically induces clustering, and suggest a homophilic interaction with a second AUP1 molecule or a heterophilic interaction with another ubiquitin-binding protein. PMID:24039768

Lohmann, Daniel; Spandl, Johanna; Stevanovic, Ana; Schoene, Mario; Philippou-Massier, Julia; Thiele, Christoph

2013-01-01

153

Leukocyte profiles for western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, naturally infected by the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum.  

PubMed

Plasmodium mexicanum is a malaria parasite that naturally infects the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis , in northern California. We set out to determine whether lizards naturally infected with this malaria parasite have different leukocyte profiles, indicating an immune response to infection. We used 29 naturally infected western fence lizards paired with uninfected lizards based on sex, snout-to-vent length, tail status, and the presence-absence of ectoparasites such as ticks and mites, as well as the presence-absence of another hemoparasite, Schellackia occidentalis. Complete white blood cell (WBC) counts were conducted on blood smears stained with Giemsa, and the proportion of granulocytes per microliter of blood was estimated using the Avian Leukopet method. The abundance of each WBC class (lymphocytes, monocytes, heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) in infected and uninfected lizards was compared to determine whether leukocyte densities varied with infection status. We found that the numbers of WBCs and lymphocytes per microliter of blood significantly differed (P < 0.05) between the 2 groups for females but not for males, whereas parasitemia was significantly correlated with lymphocyte counts for males, but not for females. This study supports the theory that infection with P. mexicanum stimulates the lizard's immune response to increase the levels of circulating WBCs, but what effect this has on the biology of the parasite remains unclear. PMID:24945903

Motz, Victoria L; Lewis, William D; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M

2014-10-01

154

The Pattern of Disulfide Linkages in the Extracellular Loop Regions of Connexin 32 Suggests a Model for the Docking Interface of Gap Junctions  

PubMed Central

Connexins, like true cell adhesion molecules, have extracellular domains that provide strong and specific homophilic, and in some cases, heterophilic interactions between cells. Though the structure of the binding domains of adhesion proteins have been determined, the extracellular domains of connexins, consisting of two loops of ?34–37 amino acids each, are not easily studied in isolation from the rest of the molecule. As an alternative, we used a novel application of site-directed mutagenesis in which four of the six conserved cysteines in the extracellular loops of connexin 32 were moved individually and in all possible pairwise and some quadruple combinations. This mapping allowed us to deduce that all disulfides form between the two loops of a single connexin, with the first cysteine in one loop connected to the third of the other. Furthermore, the periodicity of movements that produced functional channels indicated that these loops are likely to form antiparallel ? sheets. A possible model that could explain how these domains from apposed connexins interact to form a complete channel is discussed. PMID:9490731

Foote, Cynthia I.; Zhou, Lan; Zhu, Xing; Nicholson, Bruce J.

1998-01-01

155

Ecological immunology in a fluctuating environment: an integrative analysis of tree swallow nestling immune defense  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary ecologists have long been interested by the link between different immune defenses and fitness. Given the importance of a proper immune defense for survival, it is important to understand how its numerous components are affected by environmental heterogeneity. Previous studies targeting this question have rarely considered more than two immune markers. In this study, we measured seven immune markers (response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), hemolysis capacity, hemagglutination capacity, plasma bactericidal capacity, percentage of lymphocytes, percentage of heterophils, and percentage of eosinophils) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings raised in two types of agro-ecosystems of contrasted quality and over 2 years. First, we assessed the effect of environmental heterogeneity (spatial and temporal) on the strength and direction of correlations between immune measures. Second, we investigated the effect of an immune score integrating information from several immune markers on individual performance (including growth, mass at fledging and parasite burden). Both a multivariate and a pair-wise approach showed variation in relationships between immune measures across years and habitats. We also found a weak association between the integrated score of nestling immune function and individual performance, but only under certain environmental conditions. We conclude that the ecological context can strongly affect the interpretation of immune defenses in the wild. Given that spatiotemporal variations are likely to affect individual immune defenses, great caution should be used when generalizing conclusions to other study systems. PMID:23610646

Pigeon, Gabriel; Bélisle, Marc; Garant, Dany; Cohen, Alan A; Pelletier, Fanie

2013-01-01

156

Associations between Organochlorine Contaminant Concentrations and Clinical Health Parameters in Loggerhead Sea Turtles from North Carolina, USA  

PubMed Central

Widespread and persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, are known to have broad-ranging toxicities in wildlife. In this study we investigated, for the first time, their possible health effects on loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Nonlethal fat biopsies and blood samples were collected from live turtles for OC contaminant analysis, and concentrations were compared with clinical health assessment data, including hematology, plasma chemistry, and body condition. Concentrations of total PCBs (?PCBs), ?DDTs, ?chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex were determined in 44 fat biopsies and 48 blood samples. Blood concentrations of ?chlordanes were negatively correlated with red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, indicative of anemia. Positive correlations were observed between most classes of OC contaminants and white blood cell counts and between mirex and ?TCDD-like PCB concentrations and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, suggesting modulation of the immune system. All classes of OCs in the blood except dieldrin were correlated positively with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, indicating possible hepatocellular damage. Mirex and ?TCDD-like PCB blood concentrations were negatively correlated with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Significant correlations to levels of certain OC contaminant classes also suggested possible alteration of protein (?blood urea nitrogen, ?albumin:globulin ratio), carbohydrate (?glucose), and ion (?sodium, ?magnesium) regulation. These correlations suggest that OC contaminants may be affecting the health of loggerhead sea turtles even though sea turtles accumulate lower concentrations of OCs compared with other wildlife. PMID:15238280

Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R.; Stamper, M. Andrew; Harms, Craig A.; McClellan-Green, Patricia D.

2004-01-01

157

Physiological indices of stress in wild and captive garter snakes: correlations, repeatability, and ecological variation.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids and leukocyte ratios have become the most widespread variables employed to test hypotheses regarding physiological stress in wild and captive vertebrates. Little is known, however, regarding how these two indices of stress covary in response to stressors, their repeatability within individuals, and differences in response time upon capture. Furthermore, few studies compare stress indices between captive and wild populations, to assess potential alteration of stress physiology in captivity. To address these issues, we examined corticosterone (CORT) and heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios in two ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans. We found that CORT and H:L ratios were not correlated within individuals, and both variables showed little or no repeatability over a period of months. CORT levels, but not H:L ratios, were higher for individuals sampled after 10min from the time of capture. However, both variables showed similar patterns of ecotypic variation, and both increased over time in gravid females maintained in captivity for four months. We suggest that CORT and H:L ratios are both useful, but disparate indices of stress in this species, and may show complex relationships to each other and to ecological and anthropogenic variables. PMID:24713520

Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M; Williams, Shelby; Parsai, Shikha; Manhart, Whitney; Palacios, Maria G

2014-08-01

158

Postvaccinal reovirus infection with high mortality in breeder chicks.  

PubMed

A broiler breeder flock was subcutaneously vaccinated at the hatchery with a live avian orthoreovirus (ARV) vaccine against viral arthritis. Chicks began to die at 3 days of age and postmortem examination revealed massive subcutaneous hemorrhages and edema on the dorsal aspect of the neck at the site of vaccination, a severe necrotic hepatitis, and pulmonary edema. Microscopically, the main lesion was a multifocal vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of randomly distributed small groups of hepatocytes with presence of apoptotic and multinucleated syncytial cells. Necrotic foci were also found in the lungs as well as a hemorrhagic, granulomatous, and heterophilic cellulitis and myositis of the neck and a generalized depletion and lymphocytolysis of lymphoid organs. At 8 days of age, birds also began to show hock swelling histologically characterized by a fibrinoleucocytic inflammation of the articulation and tendon sheaths, with hyperplasia of the synovial membrane, and lymphoplasmocytic infiltration. PCR and viral culture of livers were positive for ARV. Partial sequencing of the S1 gene from the virus isolate showed 99.2% to 99.8% homology with three vaccinal strains (ARV S1133, 1733, and 2408). Viral particles compatible with reovirus virions were observed at transmission electron microscopy. Investigation at the hatchery revealed that chicks were inadvertently administered an S1133 reovirus vaccine labeled for water administration in 10- to 17-week-old chickens. This human error is most likely the reason for this unusually severe viremic reovirus infection that affected this flock at such an early age. PMID:25619015

Chénier, Sonia; Boulianne, Martine; Gagnon, Carl A

2014-12-01

159

Cooperative Plasminogen Recruitment to the Surface of Streptococcus canis via M Protein and Enolase Enhances Bacterial Survival  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Streptococcus canis is a zoonotic pathogen capable of causing serious invasive diseases in domestic animals and humans. Surface-exposed M proteins and metabolic enzymes have been characterized as major virulence determinants in various streptococcal species. Recently, we have identified SCM, the M-like protein of S. canis, as the major receptor for miniplasminogen localized on the bacterial surface. The present study now characterizes the glycolytic enzyme enolase as an additional surface-exposed plasminogen-binding protein. According to its zoonotic properties, purified S. canis enolase binds to both human and canine plasminogen and facilitates degradation of aggregated fibrin matrices after activation with host-derived urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Unlike SCM, which binds to the C terminus of human plasminogen, the S. canis enolase interacts N terminally with the first four kringle domains of plasminogen, representing angiostatin. Radioactive binding analyses confirmed cooperative plasminogen recruitment to both surface-exposed enolase and SCM. Furthermore, despite the lack of surface protease activity via SpeB in S. canis, SCM is released and reassociated homophilically to surface-anchored SCM and heterophilically to surface-bound plasminogen. In addition to plasminogen-mediated antiphagocytic activity, reassociation of SCM to the bacterial surface significantly enhanced bacterial survival in phagocytosis analyses using human neutrophils. PMID:23481605

Fulde, Marcus; Rohde, Manfred; Polok, Andy; Preissner, Klaus T.; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Bergmann, Simone

2013-01-01

160

Reproductive investment compromises maternal health in three species of freshwater turtle.  

PubMed

Life-history theory predicts that a trade-off in the allocation of resources between different physiological systems exists because resources are finite. As a result, females investing heavily in reproduction may compromise their future health. We used hematology, serum biochemistry, mass, and morphometric measurements as indicators of physiological health state to investigate whether reproductive investment altered subsequent maternal health in three Australian freshwater turtles: the oblong turtle (Chelodina oblonga; n = 12), the Macquarie turtle (Emydura macquarii; n = 9), and the eastern long-necked turtle (Chelodina longicollis; n = 8). Maternal health was impaired in turtles that produced larger and heavier eggs and clutches. In C. oblonga and E. macquarii, increased reproductive investment generally resulted in negative changes to the hematology and serum biochemistry profile of maternal blood. Generally, increases in heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, calcium/phosphorus ratio, and albumin/globulin ratio were observed following reproduction, in addition to a decrease in glucose and total protein. These findings agree with the physiological constraint hypothesis and highlight the connection between life-history evolution and animal physiology by documenting, for the first time, how measures of physiological health state relate to reproductive investment in Australian freshwater turtles. Additionally, our findings suggest that body condition, a readily used morphological biomarker, is a poor predictor of health in turtles. Our results emphasize the need to investigate how maternal health is influenced by the reproductive process in different species. PMID:24769705

Rafferty, Anthony R; Scheelings, T Franciscus; Foley, Laura J; Johnstone, Christopher P; Reina, Richard D

2014-01-01

161

Mucosal injury and. gamma. -irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites  

SciTech Connect

A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and {gamma}-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. {gamma}-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment.

Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

1991-05-01

162

Cryptosporidium baileyi--infection in Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) ducklings from a zoological garden.  

PubMed

Infection of the Bursa of Fabricius with Cryptosporidium baileyi was diagnosed in a group of hand reared Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) ducklings during one breeding season in a German zoological garden.The birds had died in an emaciated and anaemic state after problems with spontaneous feeding. The bursae were infected with moderate to high numbers of cryptosporidia, which were associated with hyperplasia, degeneration and sloughing of the affected epithelial cells and mild heterophilic bursitis, lesions typically seen in bursal cryptosporidiosis in other avian species. In addition, lymphatic tissue was nearly absent, which was probably caused by chronic stress and malnutrition related to the rearing of these highly stress-sensitive birds in an artificial environment. Companion ducklings from stress-resistant, spontaneously feeding species from the zoological collection were used to calm the Mergansers, but may have introduced the cryptosporidia into the rearing boxes. Another possible source for the introduction of C. baileyi were adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which were used to increase the hatching rate by a phase of natural breeding in the middle third of the incubation period of the Merganser eggs. PMID:23045806

Schulze, Christoph; Kämmerling, Jens; Kutzer, Peter; Engelhardt, Andreas; Richter, Barbara

2012-01-01

163

Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16. PMID:25115040

Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

2014-06-01

164

Chronic myelogenous leukemia in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).  

PubMed

A free-ranging adult female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was presented to the Wildlife Medical Clinic at the University of Illinois after being observed with anorexia and decreased activity. A severe leukocytosis (212 400 cells/microl), primarily comprised of mature heterophils, was found at presentation. Results of various diagnostic tests including radiographs, Chlamydophila serologic testing, measurement of Aspergillus antibody and antigen titers, plasma protein electrophoresis, fecal culture and acid-fast staining, coelioscopy, endoscopy, tracheoscopy, exploratory coelomotomy, nuclear scintigraphy, tissue cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and histopathology revealed no underlying cause for the persistent leukocytosis. No response to treatment with antibiotics or antifungal agents was observed, although a transient, significant decrease in the leukocyte count (6200 cells/microl) was observed after treatment with fenbendazole. A presumptive diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia was made based on 3 factors: disease duration of greater than 3 months, a lack of identifiable foci of inflammation, and a lack of response to conventional therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed based on postmortem examination and testing 177 days after initial presentation. PMID:19530405

Wiley, Jennifer L; Whittington, Julia K; Wilmes, Christine M; Messick, Joanne B

2009-03-01

165

Pro-inflammatory effects of uric acid in the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Uric acid can be generated in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the breakdown of nucleotides ingested in the diet or from purines released from host cells as a result of pathogen-induced cell damage. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine or xanthine into uric acid, a reaction that also generates hydrogen peroxide. It has been assumed that the product of XO responsible for the pro-inflammatory effects of this enzyme is hydrogen peroxide. Recent literature on uric acid, however, has indicated that uric acid itself may have biological effects. We tested whether uric acid itself has detectable pro-inflammatory effects using an in vivo model using ligated rabbit intestinal segments ("loops") as well as in vitro assays using cultured cells. Addition of exogenous uric acid increased the influx of heterophils into rabbit intestinal loops, as measured by myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, white blood cells adhered avidly to uric acid crystals, forming large aggregates of cells. Uric acid acts as a leukocyte chemoattractant in the GI tract. The role of uric acid in enteric infections and in non-infectious disorders of the GI tract deserves more attention. PMID:24377830

Crane, John K; Mongiardo, Krystin M

2014-01-01

166

Ecological immunology in a fluctuating environment: an integrative analysis of tree swallow nestling immune defense.  

PubMed

Evolutionary ecologists have long been interested by the link between different immune defenses and fitness. Given the importance of a proper immune defense for survival, it is important to understand how its numerous components are affected by environmental heterogeneity. Previous studies targeting this question have rarely considered more than two immune markers. In this study, we measured seven immune markers (response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), hemolysis capacity, hemagglutination capacity, plasma bactericidal capacity, percentage of lymphocytes, percentage of heterophils, and percentage of eosinophils) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings raised in two types of agro-ecosystems of contrasted quality and over 2 years. First, we assessed the effect of environmental heterogeneity (spatial and temporal) on the strength and direction of correlations between immune measures. Second, we investigated the effect of an immune score integrating information from several immune markers on individual performance (including growth, mass at fledging and parasite burden). Both a multivariate and a pair-wise approach showed variation in relationships between immune measures across years and habitats. We also found a weak association between the integrated score of nestling immune function and individual performance, but only under certain environmental conditions. We conclude that the ecological context can strongly affect the interpretation of immune defenses in the wild. Given that spatiotemporal variations are likely to affect individual immune defenses, great caution should be used when generalizing conclusions to other study systems. PMID:23610646

Pigeon, Gabriel; Bélisle, Marc; Garant, Dany; Cohen, Alan A; Pelletier, Fanie

2013-04-01

167

Health of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in relation to breeding location in the early 1990s. II. Cellular and histopathological measures.  

PubMed

Organosomatic indices, hematological indicators of stress, and histopathological lesions were quantified for over 150 incubating herring gulls (Larus argentatus) sampled in 11 colonies throughout the Great Lakes and reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. Of 21 parameters assessed, significantly more differed between Great Lakes colonies and reference colonies than between the two reference colonies. Relative adrenal, kidney, and liver masses of gulls from some Great Lakes colonies were reduced and thyroid masses increased relative to gulls from reference colonies. Foci of cellular atypia were observed in the hepatocytes of two Great Lakes gulls. Chronic periportal hepatitis, lipogranulomas and vacuolation of hepatocytes, and chronic granulomatous interstitial nephritis were more prevalent or severe in gulls from Great Lakes colonies and were associated with contaminants. The kidneys of gulls from the three most contaminated locations were damaged and functionally compromised. Interstitial nephritis was likely the most functionally significant histopathological lesion. Portal-tract fibrosis, granulomatous hepatitis, and kidney tubule dilation/obstruction and splenic enlargement were more prevalent or severe at reference sites and were associated with blood-borne parasites. Amyloid deposits were observed in the spleen, kidneys, or liver of nearly half of the gulls. Associations between the prevalence or severity of lesions and contaminant levels in gull tissues or the trophic level of their diet suggest some lesions are toxicopathic. Associations were most frequently found with planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and lead. The stress response, as measured by the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, was attenuated in gulls from Areas of Concern and associated with decreased adrenal mass. Our findings suggest that adult Great Lakes gulls suffered from chronic exposure to chemical stressors in the early 1990s sufficient to modulate endocrine function and physiological processes and induce structural changes in tissues. PMID:17687731

Fox, Glen A; Grasman, Keith A; Campbell, G Douglas

2007-09-01

168

Insights on the Host Stress, Fear and Growth Responses to the Deoxynivalenol Feed Contaminant in Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens. PMID:24498179

Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A.; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E.; Böhm, Josef

2014-01-01

169

Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 1. Effects on growth and slaughter performance, haematological and serum traits.  

PubMed

The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC, suggests that the maximum level of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds should be set at 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six one-day-old male Hubburd broiler chickens were divided into two groups, a Control (basal diet) and an Ochratoxin A (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The growth and slaughter performance traits were recorded. The liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus weights were measured. The erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers were assayed in blood samples, and the heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L) ratio was determined. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), lysozyme, the total protein and the electrophoretic pattern were evaluated in serum samples. Liver enzymes (alanino aminotransferase, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and kidney function parameters (uric acid and creatinine) were quantified. The results revealed that feeding a 0.1 mg OTA/kg contaminated diet to chicks caused a decrease in the absolute thymus weight (p < 0.05) and a lower total protein (p < 0.01), albumin (p < 0.01), alpha (p < 0.05), beta (p = 0.001) and gamma (p = 0.001) globulins serum concentration in the Ochratoxin A group. Moreover, the albumin-to-globulin (A/G) ratio of the OTA-treated animals resulted to be higher (p < 0.05). Feeding broiler chickens, a diet contaminated with the maximum level admitted by the European Commission Recommendation (0.1 mg OTA/kg), did not affect the animal performance, slaughter traits, organ weights, haematological parameters, liver enzyme or renal function parameters concentrations but had an overall immunosuppressant effect, with reduction in the thymus weight and of the total serum protein, albumin, alpha, beta and gamma globulins concentration. PMID:23639013

Pozzo, L; Salamano, G; Mellia, E; Gennero, M S; Doglione, L; Cavallarin, L; Tarantola, M; Forneris, G; Schiavone, A

2013-05-01

170

Diversity in specificity, abundance, and composition of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in normal humans: Potential implications for disease  

PubMed Central

Human heterophile antibodies that agglutinate animal erythrocytes are known to detect the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). This monosaccharide cannot by itself fill the binding site (paratope) of an antibody and can also be modified and presented in various linkages, on diverse underlying glycans. Thus, we hypothesized that the human anti-Neu5Gc antibody response is diverse and polyclonal. Here, we use a novel set of natural and chemoenzymatically synthesized glycans to show that normal humans have an abundant and diverse spectrum of such anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, directed against a variety of Neu5Gc-containing epitopes. High sensitivity and specificity assays were achieved by using N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-containing probes (differing from Neu5Gc by one less oxygen atom) as optimal background controls. The commonest anti-Neu5Gc antibodies are of the IgG class. Moreover, the range of reactivity and Ig classes of antibodies vary greatly amongst normal humans, with some individuals having remarkably large amounts, even surpassing levels of some well-known natural blood group and xenoreactive antibodies. We purified these anti-Neu5Gc antibodies from individual human sera using a newly developed affinity method and showed that they bind to wild-type but not Neu5Gc-deficient mouse tissues. Moreover, they bind back to human carcinomas that have accumulated Neu5Gc in vivo. As dietary Neu5Gc is primarily found in red meat and milk products, we suggest that this ongoing antigen-antibody reaction may generate chronic inflammation, possibly contributing to the high frequency of diet-related carcinomas and other diseases in humans. PMID:18669916

Padler-Karavani, Vered; Yu, Hai; Cao, Hongzhi; Chokhawala, Harshal; Karp, Felix; Varki, Nissi; Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit

2008-01-01

171

Meta-analysis of the relationship of mycotoxins with biochemical and hematological parameters in broilers.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with hematological and biochemical profiles in broilers. Ninety-eight articles published between 1980 and 2009 were used in the database, totaling 37,371 broilers. The information was selected from the Materials and Methods and Results sections in the selected articles and then tabulated in a database. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphic, correlation, and variance-covariance. Mycotoxins reduced (P < 0.05) the hematocrit (-5%), hemoglobin (-15%), leukocytes (-25%), heterophils (-2%), lymphocytes (-2%), uric acid (-31%), creatine kinase (-27%), creatinine (-23%), triglycerides (-39%), albumin (-17%), globulin (-1%), total cholesterol (-14%), calcium (-5%), and inorganic phosphorus (-12%). Mycotoxins also altered (P < 0.05) the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. A quadratic effect was observed on the relationship between the concentration of aflatoxin in diets and the serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. The total protein concentration in blood was 18% lower (P < 0.05) in broilers challenged by aflatoxins compared with that of the unchallenged ones. The inclusion of antimycotoxin additives in diets with aflatoxins altered (P < 0.05) some variables (uric acid, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and ?-glutamyl transferase) in relation to the group that received diets with the mycotoxin and without the additive. The meta-analysis performed in this study allowed us to address and quantify systematically the relationship of mycotoxins with alterations in hematologic and biochemical profiles in broilers. PMID:22252351

Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Lovatto, P A

2012-02-01

172

Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens. Each of the 4 diets was fed to 5 replicates of 12 chicks each from d 0 to 42. The inclusion of thymol + carvacrol linearly decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, but the highest (P < 0.05) BW gain (ADG) and feed efficiency was observed in broilers offered 200 mg/kg of phytogenic product. The phytogenic product linearly increased (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde level in thigh muscle at d 42 and serum and liver at d 24 and 42. Total saturated fatty acids were depressed (P < 0.05) and total polyunsaturated fatty acid and n-6 were linearly increased (P < 0.05) in serum and thigh by the inclusion of phytogenic product compared with the control diet. Supplementation with thymol + carvacrol also increased intestinal and pancreatic trypsin, lipase, and protease activities in 24-d-old (linear, P < 0.05) but not in 42-d-old birds. Thymol + carvacrol modified (linear, P < 0.05) immune response by increasing hypersensitivity response, total and IgG anti-sheep red blood cell titers, and decreasing heterophil to lymphocyte ratio compared with the control group. However, hematological parameters and lymphoid organ weight were not affected by thymol + carvacrol. Thus, feed supplementation with thymol + carvacrol enhanced performance, increased antioxidant enzyme activities, retarded lipid oxidation, enhanced digestive enzyme activities, and improved immune response of broilers. PMID:23873553

Hashemipour, H; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Veldkamp, T

2013-08-01

173

Infectious Mononucleosis and Mononucleosis Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Infectious mononucleosis (IM) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis are caused by a primary infection with related viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and CMV. Despite the similarity of clinical manifestations, basic differences exist: (1) The heterophil antibody (HA) response is absent in CMV mononucleosis, whereas it is present in IM. (2) In IM atypical lymphocytosis reflects proliferation of B cells early and of T cells later in the disease course; in CMV mononucleosis the situation appears complex. (3) In blood, EBV is restricted to B lymphocytes, whereas CMV is found in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (4) Complications of CMV mononucleosis such as hepatitis and pneumonitis may be due to virus cytopathic effect in target organs. Prominent tonsillopharyngitis with adenopathy, and visceral complications of IM are related to lymphoproliferation which is self-limited except in males with a rare familial defect in defense against EBV. Immune complex-mediated pathology may occur in both diseases. (5) CMV is frequently transmitted to a fetus in utero or to an infant during or after birth, and this occasionally leads to severe cytomegalic inclusion disease; vertical transmission of EBV appears to be exceptional. (6) Secondary EBV infections are associated with certain malignancies whereas such an association has not been recognized in the case of CMV. Toxoplasma gondii is another cause of HA-negative mononucleosis. Its complications in the heart, in skeletal muscle and in the central nervous system are related to direct invasion by the parasite. Cellular immunity plays an important role in defense against all three agents. PMID:195404

Fiala, Milan; Heiner, Douglas C.; Turner, Jerrold A.; Rosenbloom, Barry; Guze, Lucien B.

1977-01-01

174

Thyroid hormone suppression and cell-mediated immunomodulation in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to PCBs.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental contaminants can induce physiological changes in animals through various mechanisms. One manifestation of subclinical toxicity from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure is the disruption of normal immune function described in numerous species, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius). In 1998, 152 mature male and female kestrels were fed either a mixture of Aroclor 1248:1254:1260 (approximately 7 mg/kg kestrel/day) through their food items, or control diets. Offspring produced by 50 breeding pairs (thus, half received in ovo PCB exposure only) were also studied. Total and differential white blood cell counts, the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response, as well as thyroid hormone levels were tested in vivo in nonbreeding adults (1998 only) and nestlings (1998 and 1999). In 1999, nestlings came from three parental groups; adults exposed in 1998, birds produced by PCB-exposed parents, and unexposed birds. In 1998, directly exposed males but not females had increased total white blood cell counts driven by lymphocytosis, plus a decreased heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio relative to controls. PCB-exposed birds had a significantly greater response to PHA than did controls, with sex as a significant factor and plasma triiodothyonine (T(3)) as a significant covariate. Levels of T(3) were significantly depressed in PCB-exposed birds of both sexes. The 1999 nestlings (F1 generation with respect to PCB exposure) did not show any effect of parental treatment group on the PHA skin response, yet T(3) remained as a significant covariate. Immunological effects are discussed in light of the antibody-mediated immunotoxicity found in the same birds and reported previously. PMID:12202931

Smits, J E; Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Marchant, T A

2002-10-01

175

Pathogenicity of frog virus 3-like virus in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) at two environmental temperatures.  

PubMed

Ranaviral disease has affected several species of reptiles, but disease progression and mortality in relation to environmental temperature has yet to be determined. In this study, two separate trials challenged adult female red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) with a ranavirus (frog virus 3-like virus; FV3) isolate at environmental temperatures of 22 °C (n = 4) and 28 °C (n = 4). The mortality rates in the turtles in the 22 °C and 28 °C trials were 100% and 50%, respectively. Median survival time for turtles exposed to FV3 at 22 °C was 24 days, while it was 30 days in the group kept at 28 °C. Consistent microscopical lesions were observed only in the group inoculated at 22 °C and included fibrinoid necrosis of vessels in the spleen, vascular and sinusoidal thrombi in the liver, necrotizing myositis and a mild heterophilic interstitial pneumonia. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, targeting a conserved portion of the major capsid protein, was able to detect virus copies in whole blood, oral and cloacal swabs, tongue, skeletal muscle, lung, heart, liver, spleen, ovary and kidney. Viral copy number in ante-mortem clinical samples was non-significantly highest in whole blood, while kidney had the highest viral copy number in post-mortem samples. All samples had higher virus copy number in turtles exposed to FV3 at 22 °C compared with 28 °C. This study determined that environmental temperature affects the survival and disease progression in ranavirus-infected red-eared slider turtles, which will aid in managing animals in a clinical or free-ranging setting. PMID:23582975

Allender, M C; Mitchell, M A; Torres, T; Sekowska, J; Driskell, E A

2013-01-01

176

A new Mel-CAM (CD146)-specific monoclonal antibody, MN-4, on paraffin-embedded tissue.  

PubMed

Mel-CAM (also termed CD146 or MUC18) is a cell-adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. It mediates cell-cell interaction through heterophilic Mel-CAM/ligand adhesion. Previous studies showed Mel-CAM immunoreactivity in normal and neoplastic human tissues, but an extensive assessment of Mel-CAM distribution was not performed because of the lack of a Mel-CAM-specific monoclonal antibody that could be used in routinely processed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Therefore, we developed a mouse monoclonal antibody, MN-4, that specifically recognized a fixation-resistant epitope in the second extracellular (C2) domain of Mel-CAM. We performed immunohistochemical staining on 467 paraffin-embedded tissue samples with this MN-4 antibody and avidin-biotin peroxidase. MN-4 immunoreactivity was seen in normal tissues, including endothelium, smooth muscle, epithelial and myoepithelial cells of the breast, Schwann cells, ganglion cells, cerebellar cortex, implantation-site intermediate trophoblast, external root sheath of hair follicles, basal cells of bronchial epithelium, parathyroid glands, subcapsular epithelium of thymus, follicular dendritic reticulum cells, skeletal muscles, epithelium of lens, and glial cell fibers in the central nervous system in early embryos. In malignant tumors, MN-4 immunostaining was consistently present in all melanomas, angiosarcomas, Kaposi's sarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas of salivary gland, placental-site trophoblastic tumors, and choriocarcinomas. Three of 8 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 of 2 small cell carcinomas of the lung, 2 of 11 of infiltrating breast carcinomas, and 4 of 11 of germinomas were focally and weakly positive for MN-4 antibody. In contrast, a wide variety of other carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, leukemias, and neuroendocrine tumors failed to show MN-4 immunoreactivity. In conclusion, MN-4 is a specific monoclonal antibody that recognizes Mel-CAM on paraffin sections. This antibody is useful in retrospective studies of Mel-CAM expression in archival tissue sections and might provide a diagnostic and prognostic marker for human neoplasms. PMID:9831208

Shih, I M; Nesbit, M; Herlyn, M; Kurman, R J

1998-11-01

177

The role of CD146 (Mel-CAM) in biology and pathology.  

PubMed

CD146, also known as Mel-CAM, MUC18, A32 antigen, and S-Endo-1, is a membrane glycoprotein which functions as a Ca(2+)-independent cell adhesion molecule involved in heterophilic cell-cell interactions. Based on homology of the nucleotide sequence, CD146 is classified as a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, since it contains the characteristic V-V-C2-C2-C2 immunoglobulin-like domain structure. Using immunohistochemistry with CD146-specific antibodies, CD146 expression has been demonstrated in a relatively limited spectrum of normal human tissues and malignant neoplasms. The lineage-specific expression pattern of CD146 can be useful in the differential diagnosis of certain lesions including melanomas and various types of gestational trophoblastic lesions. Although the biological role of CD146 in normal tissue and malignant tumours remains unclear, CD146 has been suggested to play an important role in tumour progression, implantation and placentation. CD146 expression can promote tumour progression in human melanoma, possibly through enhanced interaction between melanoma cells and endothelial cells. In contrast, CD146 may act as a tumour suppressor in breast carcinoma. CD146 expression is frequently lost in breast carcinomas and overexpression of CD146 in breast carcinoma cells results in a more cohesive cell growth and the formation of smaller tumours in nude mice. During implantation and placentation, CD146 expressed by the intermediate trophoblast in the placental site binds to its putative receptor in uterine smooth muscle cells and limits trophoblastic invasion in the myometrium. In conclusion, CD146 is a recently identified novel cell adhesion molecule and its biological functions and role as a diagnostic marker in pathology are now being recognized. Identification of the receptor for CD146 and the development of experimental models that can account for the complex interactions between CD146-expressing cells and their microenvironment are needed to investigate further the functions of this molecule in biology and in pathological states. PMID:10451481

Shih, I M

1999-09-01

178

N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion  

SciTech Connect

Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

2011-12-31

179

Methodological Aspects of ELISA Analysis of Thioredoxin 1 in Human Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) is a protein antioxidant involved in major cellular processes. Increased plasma levels of Trx1 have been associated with human diseases suggesting that Trx1 is a marker for oxidative stress with putative clinical use. However, the reported mean levels of Trx1 in the control cohorts vary a hundred-fold between studies (0.8–87 ng/ml), possibly due to methodological differences between the capture ELISA used in the different studies. The aim of this study was to investigate methodological aspects related to the ELISA measurement of Trx1. ELISAs utilizing different capture and detection combinations of antibodies to Trx1 and as well as recombinant human (rh) Trx1 standards from two sources were characterized. The different ELISAs were subsequently used to measure Trx1 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) from healthy donors and from patients with various neurological diagnoses. The Trx1 standards differed in their content of monomeric and oligomeric Trx1, which affected the ELISAs composed of different antibody combinations. Thus, the levels of Trx1 determined in human plasma and CSF samples varied depending on the antibody used in the ELISAs and on the rhTrx1 standard. Furthermore, the relevance of preventing interference by heterophilic antibodies (HA) in human plasma and CSF was investigated. The addition of a HA blocking buffer to human samples drastically reduced the ELISA signals in many samples showing that HA are likely to cause false positive results unless they are blocked. In conclusion, the study shows that the design of a Trx1 ELISA in regards to antibodies and standards used has an impact on the measured Trx1 levels. Importantly, analyses of human plasma and CSF without preventing HA interference may obscure the obtained data. Overall, the results of this study are crucial for the improvement of future studies on the association of Trx1 levels with various diseases. PMID:25075746

Lundberg, Mathias; Curbo, Sophie; Reiser, Kathrin; Masterman, Thomas; Braesch-Andersen, Sten; Areström, Irene; Ahlborg, Niklas

2014-01-01

180

Chicken immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families: an overview and expression details on ggTREM-A1.  

PubMed

Paired immunoregulatory receptors facilitate the coordination of the immune response at the cellular level. In recent years, our group characterized chicken homologues to mammalian immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families. The first part of this review focuses on the current progress on chicken immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families. One of these receptors is gallus gallus TREM-A1, which was described as the only member of the chicken TREM family with activating potential. The second part of this review presents a study initiated to further characterize ggTREM-A1 expression. For this purpose we established real-time RT-PCR and generated a specific mab to analyze the expression profile of ggTREM-A1 on mRNA and protein level, respectively. GgTREM-A1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in macrophages, but was also detected in brain, bone marrow, bursa, thymus, spleen and PBMC. Analyzing ggTREM-A1 surface expression by mab staining validated the expression on macrophages. Additionally, we showed high expression on blood monocytes, heterophils and NK cells and on monocytes isolated from bone marrow. Moreover, we detected ggTREM-A1 protein also on thrombocytes, B and T cell subsets, but antigen expression seemed to be lower and more variable in these cells. Immunohistochemistry of chicken brain tissue, combining ggTREM-A1 mab and various markers specific for various brain cell subsets showed expression of ggTREM-A1 on microglial cells, but also on neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In conclusion, ggTREM-A1 is expressed on a variety of cells, relevant for the immune system, possibly combining physiological function of different mammalian TREM. PMID:23648646

Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Hanczaruk, Matthias A; Amann, Barbara; Bader, Sophie R; Schmitt, Ramona; Sperling, Beatrice; Schwarz, Susanne C N; Schmahl, Wolfgang; Deeg, Cornelia A; Göbel, Thomas W

2013-11-01

181

Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter "flycatcher") is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in saltcedar habitats exhibit poorer nutritional condition or are suffering negative physiological affects. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2005.

Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

2005-01-01

182

Gelatinase Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Endocarditis Caused by Enterococcus faecalis?  

PubMed Central

The Gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis is a leading agent of nosocomial infections, including urinary tract infections, surgical site infections, and bacteremia. Among the infections caused by E. faecalis, endocarditis remains a serious clinical manifestation and unique in that it is commonly acquired in a community setting. Infective endocarditis is a complex disease, with many host and microbial components contributing to the formation of bacterial biofilm-like vegetations on the aortic valve and adjacent areas within the heart. In the current study, we compared the pathogenic potential of the vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis V583 and three isogenic protease mutants (?gelE, ?sprE, and ?gelE ?sprE mutants) in a rabbit model of enterococcal endocarditis. The bacterial burdens displayed by GelE? mutants (?gelE and ?gelE ?sprE mutants) in the heart were significantly lower than those of V583 or the SprE? mutant. Vegetations on the aortic valve infected with GelE? mutants (?gelE and ?gelE ?sprE mutants) also showed a significant increase in deposition of fibrinous matrix layer and increased chemotaxis of inflammatory cells. In support of a role for proteolytic modulation of the immune response to E. faecalis, we also demonstrate that GelE can cleave the anaphylatoxin complement C5a and that this proteolysis leads to decreased neutrophil migration in vitro. In vivo, a decreased heterophil (neutrophil-like cell) migration was observed at tissue sites infected with GelE-producing strains but not at those infected with SprE-producing strains. Taken together, these observations suggest that of the two enterococcal proteases, gelatinase is the principal mediator of pathogenesis in endocarditis. PMID:20713628

Thurlow, Lance R.; Thomas, Vinai Chittezham; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Olson, Sally; Fleming, Sherry D.; Hancock, Lynn E.

2010-01-01

183

Carotenoid-based bill and eye ring coloration as honest signals of condition: an experimental test in the red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carotenoid pigments cannot be synthesized by vertebrates but must be ingested through the diet. As they seem to be a limited resource, carotenoid-based ornaments are particularly interesting as possible honest signals of individual quality, in particular of foraging efficiency and nutritional status. Some studies have demonstrated the condition dependence of carotenoid-based plumage in birds. However, many other carotenoid-pigmented bare parts (i.e. skin, caruncles, bills, cere, and tarsi) are present in birds but, in comparison with plumage, little is known about these traits as indicators of individual quality. Here, we show that the eye ring pigmentation and bill redness of the red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa) are positively associated to body condition and recent changes in body mass. Also, we found a negative relationship between these two traits and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of physiological stress (the relationship with bill redness being significant only for males). In an experiment, we found that after a period of reduction in food intake (with the consequent loss of body mass), food-restricted birds showed lower eye ring pigmentation than ad-libitum-fed birds. Therefore, different ornaments seem to reflect changes in body condition but at different speeds or intensities (eye ring, a fleshy ornament, appears to respond more rapidly to changes in the nutritional status than a keratinized structure as the bill). These results indicate that carotenoid-based ornaments are condition-dependent traits in the red-legged partridge, being therefore susceptible to be employed as honest signals of quality in sexual selection.

Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Vińuela, Javier

2008-09-01

184

[Encephalitis due to the Epstein-Barr virus: a description of a clinical case and review of the literature].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Infection by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -either as a primary infection, a reactivation or an active chronic infection- can give rise to several clinical forms of involvement of the central nervous system. We report a case of encephalitis due to EBV produced by viral reactivation in an immunocompetent patient which initially mimicked, from the clinical and electroencephalographic point of view, encephalitis due to type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). CASE REPORT. A 51-year-old male who had reported the presence of dorsal herpes zoster some days earlier. The patient visited the emergency department after suffering a holocranial oppressive headache and febricula for seven days; 24 hours before admission to hospital, he was suffering from drowsiness and language disorder. The neurological examination revealed stiffness in the back of the neck and dysphasia. An analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed pleocytosis (422 cells/mm(3)) with 98% of mononuclear cells and normal protein and glucose concentration levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalogram readings were normal with periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges in the left temporal region. Intravenous acyclovir treatment was initiated, but renal failure meant it had to be changed to oral valaciclovir with clinical resolution and improvement of the liquoral parameters. Polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid was positive for EBV and negative for the other neurotropic viruses. In blood, the serology test for EBV with IgG was positive, while IgM and heterophile antibody tests were negative. CONCLUSIONS. EBV infection can give rise to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or affect several locations in the central nervous system, especially the cerebellum. Clinical pictures mimicking HSV-1 are less frequent. When encephalitis is related to viral reactivation, precipitating factors can be detected, as in our case. PMID:24203667

Barón, Johanna; Herrero-Velázquez, Sonia; Ruiz-Pińero, Marina; Pedraza, M Isabel; Rojo-Rello, Silvia; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel Luis

2013-11-16

185

West Nile virus in raptors from Virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings.  

PubMed

Sixty-one birds of prey admitted to The Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; Waynesboro, Virginia, USA) from June to November 2003 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Choanal and/or cloacal swabs were obtained and submitted to Virginia's Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (Richmond, Virginia, USA) for analysis with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty birds of prey were positive for WNV by RT-PCR. Five avian families and nine species of raptors were represented, with great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) most frequently affected. Presenting clinical signs were consistent with previous reports of WNV infection in raptors; however, these differed between species. Of WNV positive birds, nonspecific signs of illness were the most common clinical findings, particularly in red-tailed hawks; signs included dehydration (n = 20), emaciation (n = 18), and depression (n = 15). Neurologic abnormalities were frequently identified, especially in great horned owls, and included head tremors (n = 17), ataxia (n = 13), head incoordination (n = 7), torticollis (n = 3), nystagmus (n = 3), and head tilt (n = 3). Great horned owls exhibited anemia and leukocytosis with heterophilia, eosinophilia, and monocytosis consistent with chronic inflammation. Red-tailed hawks were anemic with a heterophilic leukocytosis and regenerative left shift. The majority of WNV cases occurred during August and September; there was a marked increase in the number of raptors admitted to WCV during these months followed by a marked decrease during October, November, and December. This pattern differed from mean monthly admissions during the previous 10 years and suggests a negative impact on local raptor populations. The effects of WNV on avian populations are largely unknown; however, because of their ecological importance, further investigation of the effects of WNV on raptor populations is warranted. PMID:16870856

Joyner, Priscilla H; Kelly, Sean; Shreve, Allison A; Snead, Sarah E; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Pettit, Denise A

2006-04-01

186

Contribution of Glial-Neuronal Interactions to the Neuroendocrine Control of Female Puberty  

PubMed Central

Summary Mammalian puberty is initiated by an increasedpulsatile release of the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons. Although this increase is primarily set in motion by neuronal networks synaptically connected to GnRH neurons, glial cells contribute to the process via at least two mechanisms. One involves production of growth factors acting via receptors endowed with either serine-threonine kinase or tyrosine kinase activity. The other involves plastic rearrangements of glia-GnRH neuron adhesiveness. Growth factors of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family acting via erbB receptors play a major in glia-to GnRH neuron communication. In turn, neurons facilitate astrocytic erbB signaling via glutamate-dependent cleavage of erbB ligand precursors. Genetic disruption of erbB receptors delays female sexual development due to impaired erbB ligand-induced glial prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release. The adhesiveness of glial cells to GnRH neurons involves at least two different cell-cell communication systems endowed with both adhesive and intracellular signaling capabilities. One is provided by Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule (SynCAM1), which establishes astrocyte-GnRH neuron adhesiveness via homophile interactions; the other involves the heterophilic interaction of neuronal contactin with glial Receptor-like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-? (RPTP?). These finding indicate that the interaction of glial cells with GnRH neurons involves not only secreted bioactive molecules, but also cell-surface adhesive proteins able to set in motion intracellular signaling cascades. PMID:21143655

Ojeda, Sergio R.; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Sandau, Ursula

2010-01-01

187

A key role for nectin-1 in the ventral hippocampus in contextual fear memory.  

PubMed

Nectins are cell adhesion molecules that are widely expressed in the brain. Nectin expression shows a dynamic spatiotemporal regulation, playing a role in neural migratory processes during development. Nectin-1 and nectin-3 and their heterophilic trans-interactions are important for the proper formation of synapses. In the hippocampus, nectin-1 and nectin-3 localize at puncta adherentia junctions and may play a role in synaptic plasticity, a mechanism essential for memory and learning. We evaluated the potential involvement of nectin-1 and nectin-3 in memory consolidation using an emotional learning paradigm. Rats trained for contextual fear conditioning showed transient nectin-1-but not nectin-3-protein upregulation in synapse-enriched hippocampal fractions at about 2 h posttraining. The upregulation of nectin-1 was found exclusively in the ventral hippocampus and was apparent in the synaptoneurosomal fraction. This upregulation was induced by contextual fear conditioning but not by exposure to context or shock alone. When an antibody against nectin-1, R165, was infused in the ventral-hippocampus immediately after training, contextual fear memory was impaired. However, treatment with the antibody in the dorsal hippocampus had no effect in contextual fear memory formation. Similarly, treatment with the antibody in the ventral hippocampus did not interfere with acoustic memory formation. Further control experiments indicated that the effects of ventral hippocampal infusion of the nectin-1 antibody in contextual fear memory cannot be ascribed to memory non-specific effects such as changes in anxiety-like behavior or locomotor behavior. Therefore, we conclude that nectin-1 recruitment to the perisynaptic environment in the ventral hippocampus plays an important role in the formation of contextual fear memories. Our results suggest that these mechanisms could be involved in the connection of emotional and contextual information processed in the amygdala and dorsal hippocampus, respectively, thus opening new venues for the development of treatments to psychopathological alterations linked to impaired contextualization of emotions. PMID:23418609

Fantin, Martina; van der Kooij, Michael A; Grosse, Jocelyn; Krummenacher, Claude; Sandi, Carmen

2013-01-01

188

Hematologic and biochemical reference ranges for captive California condors (Gymnogyps californianus).  

PubMed

To provide proper medical evaluation and care for the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), veterinarians need accurate hematologic and biochemical reference ranges. A retrospective study of blood samples from captive California condors housed at the San Diego Wild Animal Park assessed the samples by sex and age of condor to determine serum biochemical and hematologic reference ranges, including lead and zinc levels. Condors were grouped by age as follows: group 1 included birds less than 30 days of age; group 2 included birds between 30 days and 6 mo of age; group 3 included birds between 6 mo and 5 yr of age; group 4 included all birds greater than 5 yr of age. Significant differences between sexes included higher chloride, cholesterol, and total plasma protein concentration in males as compared to females (P < 0.05). Significant differences between age groups were identified in glucose, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, albumin, total plasma protein, globulin, cholesterol, bile acid, and zinc concentrations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase activities (P < 0.05). Additionally, significant differences between age groups were noted in white blood cell count, hematocrit, heterophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (P < 0.05). A steady increase in glucose and a decrease in alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, as well as cholesterol, bile acid, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations, were correlated with age (P < 0.05). Following application of statistical analysis, condors less than 6 mo of age were identified as unique compared to older cohorts; therefore, two reference ranges are proposed by calculating a 90% confidence interval. Reference ranges obtained from other published avian data, including those for psittaciformes, ratites, galliformes, anseriformes, and raptors, were similar to condors in this study. PMID:17312714

Dujowich, Mauricio; Mazet, Jonna K; Zuba, Jeffery R

2005-12-01

189

Infections with Avian Pathogenic and Fecal Escherichia coli Strains Display Similar Lung Histopathology and Macrophage Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare histopathological changes in the lungs of chickens infected with avian pathogenic (APEC) and avian fecal (Afecal) Escherichia coli strains, and to analyze how the interaction of the bacteria with avian macrophages relates to the outcome of the infection. Chickens were infected intratracheally with three APEC strains, MT78, IMT5155, and UEL17, and one non-pathogenic Afecal strain, IMT5104. The pathogenicity of the strains was assessed by isolating bacteria from lungs, kidneys, and spleens at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). Lungs were examined for histopathological changes at 12, 18, and 24 h p.i. Serial lung sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), terminal deoxynucleotidyl dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) for detection of apoptotic cells, and an anti-O2 antibody for detection of MT78 and IMT5155. UEL17 and IMT5104 did not cause systemic infections and the extents of lung colonization were two orders of magnitude lower than for the septicemic strains MT78 and IMT5155, yet all four strains caused the same extent of inflammation in the lungs. The inflammation was localized; there were some congested areas next to unaffected areas. Only the inflamed regions became labeled with anti-O2 antibody. TUNEL labeling revealed the presence of apoptotic cells at 12 h p.i in the inflamed regions only, and before any necrotic foci could be seen. The TUNEL-positive cells were very likely dying heterophils, as evidenced by the purulent inflammation. Some of the dying cells observed in avian lungs in situ may also be macrophages, since all four avian E. coli induced caspase 3/7 activation in monolayers of HD11 avian macrophages. In summary, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic fecal strains of avian E. coli produce focal infections in the avian lung, and these are accompanied by inflammation and cell death in the infected areas. PMID:22848424

Horn, Fabiana; Corręa, André Mendes Ribeiro; Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Glodde, Susanne; Weyrauch, Karl Dietrich; Kaspers, Bernd; Driemeier, David; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.

2012-01-01

190

Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease  

PubMed Central

Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P?=?0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P?=?0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P?=?0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ? <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research investigations and in clinical diagnosis and to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:25402479

Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.

2014-01-01

191

Association of Schistosomiasis with False-Positive HIV Test Results in an African Adolescent Population?  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the factors associated with the high rate of false-positive test results observed with the 4th-generation Murex HIV Ag/Ab Combination EIA (enzyme immunoassay) within an adolescent and young-adult cohort in northwest Tanzania. (4th-generation assays by definition detect both HIV antigen and antibody.) The clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with false-positive HIV results were analyzed for 6,940 Tanzanian adolescents and young adults. A subsample of 284 Murex assay-negative and 240 false-positive serum samples were analyzed for immunological factors, including IgG antibodies to malaria and schistosoma parasites, heterophile antibodies, and rheumatoid factor (RF) titers. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). False-positive HIV test results were associated with evidence of other infections. False positivity was strongly associated with increasing levels of Schistosoma haematobium worm IgG1, with adolescents with optical densities in the top quartile being at the highest risk (adjusted OR = 40.7, 95% CI = 8.5 to 194.2 compared with the risk for those in the bottom quartile). False positivity was also significantly associated with increasing S. mansoni egg IgG1 titers and RF titers of ?80 (adjusted OR = 8.2, 95% CI = 2.8 to 24.3). There was a significant negative association between Murex assay false positivity and the levels of S. mansoni worm IgG1 and IgG2 and Plasmodium falciparum IgG1 and IgG4. In Africa, endemic infections may affect the specificities of immunoassays for HIV infection. Caution should be used when the results of 4th-generation HIV test results are interpreted for African adolescent populations. PMID:20181896

Everett, Dean B.; Baisely, Kathy J.; McNerney, Ruth; Hambleton, Ian; Chirwa, Tobias; Ross, David A.; Changalucha, John; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Helmby, Helena; Dunne, David W.; Mabey, David; Hayes, Richard J.

2010-01-01

192

A rapid high-precision flow cytometry based technique for total white blood cell counting in chickens.  

PubMed

The automated analysis of total white blood cell count and white blood cell differentials is routine in research and clinical diagnosis in mammalian species. In contrast, in avian haematology these parameters are still estimated by conventional microscopic procedures due to technical difficulties associated with the morphological peculiarities of avian erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Both cell types are nucleated and fairly resistant to cell lysis, a prerequisite for automated leukocyte quantification and differentiation by commercial instruments. By using an anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody in combination with selected subset specific markers we have established a simple (no-lyse no-wash single-step one-tube) flow cytometry based technique for high precision chicken blood cell quantification. EDTA-blood samples are diluted, spiked with fluorescence beads and incubated with a mixture of fluorochrome conjugated chicken leukocyte specific antibodies. We demonstrate that total leukocyte numbers as well as thrombocyte, monocyte, T-cell, B-cell and heterophilic granulocyte numbers can be determined by flow cytometry in a single step without prior cell lysis, cell separation or cell washing steps. Importantly, we also show that blood samples can be fixed prior to cell staining which enables shipping of samples making the technology widely available. Comparison of this technique with conventional microscopy revealed superior precision. By comparing leukocyte differentials of two chicken populations and during immune system development after hatch we demonstrate that large sample numbers can be analysed within hours. This technique will help to overcome previous restrictions in immune status analysis in chickens in experimental systems, during vaccine testing and health status monitoring in chicken flocks. Advances in avian genomics should facilitate the development of appropriate tools for other avian species in the future which will make this technique broadly applicable. PMID:22088676

Seliger, Christian; Schaerer, Beatrice; Kohn, Marina; Pendl, Helene; Weigend, Steffen; Kaspers, Bernd; Härtle, Sonja

2012-01-15

193

Immune status of free-ranging green turtles with fibropapillomatosis from Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cell-mediated and humoral immune status of free-ranging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii (USA) with and without fibropapillornatosis (FP) were assessed. Tumored and non-tumored turtles from Kaneohe Bay (KB) on the island of Oahu and from FP-free areas on the west (Kona/Kohala) coast of the island of Hawaii were sampled from April 1998 through February 1999. Turtles on Oahu were grouped (0-3) for severity of tumors with 0 for absence of tumors, 1 for light, 2 for moderate, and 3 for most severe. Turtles were weighed, straight carapace length measured and the regression slope of weight to straight carapace length compared between groups (KB0, KB1, KB2, KB3, Kona). Blood was assayed for differential white blood cell count, hematocrit, in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A (ConA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and protein electrophoresis. On Oahu, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio increased while eosinophil/monocyte ratio decreased with increasing tumors score. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation indices for ConA and PHA were significantly lower for turtles with tumor scores 2 and 3. Tumor score 3 turtles (KB3) had significantly lower hematocrit, total protein, alpha 1, alpha 2, and gamma globulins than the other four groups. No significant differences in immune status were seen between non-tumored (or KB1) turtles from Oahu and Hawaii. There was no significant difference between groups in regression slopes of body condition to carapace length. We conclude that turtles with severe FP are imunosuppressed. Furthermore, the lack of significant difference in immune status between non-tumored (and KB1) turtles from Oahu and Kona/Kohala indicates that immunosuppression may not be a prerequisite for development of FP.

Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.; Balazs, G.H.; Cray, C.; Chang, S.P.

2001-01-01

194

Minor differences in body condition and immune status between avian influenza virus-infected and noninfected mallards: a sign of coevolution?  

PubMed Central

Wildlife pathogens can alter host fitness. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection is thought to have negligible impacts on wild birds; however, effects of infection in free-living birds are largely unstudied. We investigated the extent to which LPAIV infection and shedding were associated with body condition and immune status in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), a partially migratory key LPAIV host species. We sampled mallards throughout the species' annual autumn LPAIV infection peak, and we classified individuals according to age, sex, and migratory strategy (based on stable hydrogen isotope analysis) when analyzing data on body mass and five indices of immune status. Body mass was similar for LPAIV-infected and noninfected birds. The degree of virus shedding from the cloaca and oropharynx was not associated with body mass. LPAIV infection and shedding were not associated with natural antibody (NAbs) and complement titers (first lines of defense against infections), concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp), ratios of heterophils to lymphocytes (H:L ratio), and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibody concentrations. NAbs titers were higher in LPAIV-infected males and local (i.e., short distance) migrants than in infected females and distant (i.e., long distance) migrants. Hp concentrations were higher in LPAIV-infected juveniles and females compared to infected adults and males. NAbs, complement, and Hp levels were lower in LPAIV-infected mallards in early autumn. Our study demonstrates weak associations between infection with and shedding of LPAIV and the body condition and immune status of free-living mallards. These results may support the role of mallards as asymptomatic carriers of LPAIV and raise questions about possible coevolution between virus and host. PMID:25691969

van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Fouchier, Ron A M; Klaassen, Marcel; Matson, Kevin D

2015-01-01

195

CEACAM1 regulates TIM-3-mediated tolerance and exhaustion.  

PubMed

T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3, also known as HAVCR2) is an activation-induced inhibitory molecule involved in tolerance and shown to induce T-cell exhaustion in chronic viral infection and cancers. Under some conditions, TIM-3 expression has also been shown to be stimulatory. Considering that TIM-3, like cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), is being targeted for cancer immunotherapy, it is important to identify the circumstances under which TIM-3 can inhibit and activate T-cell responses. Here we show that TIM-3 is co-expressed and forms a heterodimer with carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), another well-known molecule expressed on activated T cells and involved in T-cell inhibition. Biochemical, biophysical and X-ray crystallography studies show that the membrane-distal immunoglobulin-variable (IgV)-like amino-terminal domain of each is crucial to these interactions. The presence of CEACAM1 endows TIM-3 with inhibitory function. CEACAM1 facilitates the maturation and cell surface expression of TIM-3 by forming a heterodimeric interaction in cis through the highly related membrane-distal N-terminal domains of each molecule. CEACAM1 and TIM-3 also bind in trans through their N-terminal domains. Both cis and trans interactions between CEACAM1 and TIM-3 determine the tolerance-inducing function of TIM-3. In a mouse adoptive transfer colitis model, CEACAM1-deficient T cells are hyper-inflammatory with reduced cell surface expression of TIM-3 and regulatory cytokines, and this is restored by T-cell-specific CEACAM1 expression. During chronic viral infection and in a tumour environment, CEACAM1 and TIM-3 mark exhausted T cells. Co-blockade of CEACAM1 and TIM-3 leads to enhancement of anti-tumour immune responses with improved elimination of tumours in mouse colorectal cancer models. Thus, CEACAM1 serves as a heterophilic ligand for TIM-3 that is required for its ability to mediate T-cell inhibition, and this interaction has a crucial role in regulating autoimmunity and anti-tumour immunity. PMID:25363763

Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zhu, Chen; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Anderson, Ana C; Gandhi, Amit; Russell, Andrew; Dougan, Stephanie K; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Melum, Espen; Pertel, Thomas; Clayton, Kiera L; Raab, Monika; Chen, Qiang; Beauchemin, Nicole; Yazaki, Paul J; Pyzik, Michal; Ostrowski, Mario A; Glickman, Jonathan N; Rudd, Christopher E; Ploegh, Hidde L; Franke, Andre; Petsko, Gregory A; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Blumberg, Richard S

2015-01-15

196

Interspecies Differences in Virus Uptake versus Cardiac Function of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell contact protein with an important role in virus uptake. Its extracellular immunoglobulin domains mediate the binding to coxsackievirus and adenovirus as well as homophilic and heterophilic interactions between cells. The cytoplasmic tail links CAR to the cytoskeleton and intracellular signaling cascades. In the heart, CAR is crucial for embryonic development, electrophysiology, and coxsackievirus B infection. Noncardiac functions are less well understood, in part due to the lack of suitable animal models. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse that rescued the otherwise embryonic-lethal CAR knockout (KO) phenotype by expressing chicken CAR exclusively in the heart. Using this rescue model, we addressed interspecies differences in coxsackievirus uptake and noncardiac functions of CAR. Survival of the noncardiac CAR KO (ncKO) mouse indicates an essential role for CAR in the developing heart but not in other tissues. In adult animals, cardiac activity was normal, suggesting that chicken CAR can replace the physiological functions of mouse CAR in the cardiomyocyte. However, chicken CAR did not mediate virus entry in vivo, so that hearts expressing chicken instead of mouse CAR were protected from infection and myocarditis. Comparison of sequence homology and modeling of the D1 domain indicate differences between mammalian and chicken CAR that relate to the sites important for virus binding but not those involved in homodimerization. Thus, CAR-directed anticoxsackievirus therapy with only minor adverse effects in noncardiac tissue could be further improved by selectively targeting the virus-host interaction while maintaining cardiac function. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is one of the most common human pathogens causing myocarditis. Its receptor, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), not only mediates virus uptake but also relates to cytoskeletal organization and intracellular signaling. Animals without CAR die prenatally with major cardiac malformations. In the adult heart, CAR is important for virus entry and electrical conduction, but its nonmuscle functions are largely unknown. Here, we show that chicken CAR expression exclusively in the heart can rescue the otherwise embryonic-lethal CAR knockout phenotype but does not support CVB3 infection of adult cardiomyocytes. Our findings have implications for the evolution of virus-host versus physiological interactions involving CAR and could help to improve future coxsackievirus-directed therapies inhibiting virus replication while maintaining CAR's cellular functions. PMID:24741103

Freiberg, Fabian; Sauter, Martina; Pinkert, Sandra; Govindarajan, Thirupugal; Kaldrack, Joanna; Thakkar, Meghna; Fechner, Henry; Klingel, Karin

2014-01-01

197

CEACAM1 regulates TIM–3–mediated tolerance and exhaustion  

PubMed Central

T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3, also known as HAVCR2) is an activation-induced inhibitory molecule involved in tolerance and shown to induce T-cell exhaustion in chronic viral infection and cancers1–5. Under some conditions, TIM-3 expression has also been shown to be stimulatory. Considering that TIM-3, like cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), is being targeted for cancer immunotherapy, it is important to identify the circumstances under which TIM-3 can inhibit and activate T-cell responses. Here we show that TIM-3 is co-expressed and forms a heterodimer with carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), another well-known molecule expressed on activated T cells and involved in T-cell inhibition6–10. Biochemical, biophysical and X-ray crystallography studies show that the membrane-distal immunoglobulin-variable (IgV)-like amino-terminal domain of each is crucial to these interactions. The presence of CEACAM1 endows TIM-3 with inhibitory function. CEACAM1 facilitates the maturation and cell surface expression of TIM-3 by forming a heterodimeric interaction in cis through the highly related membrane-distal N-terminal domains of each molecule. CEACAM1 and TIM-3 also bind in trans through their N-terminal domains. Both cis and trans interactions between CEACAM1 and TIM-3 determine the tolerance-inducing function of TIM-3. In a mouse adoptive transfer colitis model, CEACAM1-deficient T cells are hyper-inflammatory with reduced cell surface expression of TIM-3 and regulatory cytokines, and this is restored by T-cell-specific CEACAM1 expression. During chronic viral infection and in a tumour environment, CEACAM1 and TIM-3 mark exhausted T cells. Co-blockade of CEACAM1 and TIM-3 leads to enhancement of anti-tumour immune responses with improved elimination of tumours in mouse colorectal cancer models. Thus, CEACAM1 serves as a heterophilic ligand for TIM-3 that is required for its ability to mediate T-cell inhibition, and this interaction has a crucial role in regulating autoimmunity and anti-tumour immunity. PMID:25363763

Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zhu, Chen; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Anderson, Ana C.; Gandhi, Amit; Russell, Andrew; Dougan, Stephanie K.; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Melum, Espen; Pertel, Thomas; Clayton, Kiera L.; Raab, Monika; Chen, Qiang; Beauchemin, Nicole; Yazaki, Paul J.; Pyzik, Michal; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Rudd, Christopher E.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Franke, Andre; Petsko, Gregory A.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Blumberg, Richard S.

2014-01-01

198

Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions.  

PubMed

A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7% sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS (P<0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se (P>0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E (P<0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS (P<0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio (P<0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers (P<0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se (P<0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions (P?

Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

2014-07-01

199

Immune response of broiler chickens fed different levels of arginine and vitamin E to a coccidiosis vaccine and Eimeria challenge.  

PubMed

One-day-old broiler chicks (n = 300) were orally vaccinated (Coccivac-B) and divided into 6 groups to evaluate Arg at 3 levels of supplementation, 0, 0.3, or 0.6% [normal level (NARG), medium level (MARG), or high level (HARG), respectively], and 2 levels of vitamin E (VE), 40 or 80 IU/kg of feed (VE40 or VE80, respectively), in a factorial experiment. Birds were reared in floor pens with fresh pine shavings and provided a corn-soybean-based diet and water ad libitum. At d 14, all chickens were orally challenged with a mixture of Eimeria field isolates (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella). In vitro heterophil and monocyte oxidative burst (HOB and MOB, respectively) was measured at d 21 from cells isolated from peripheral blood. Antibody levels (IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes, ELISA) and NO were measured at d 14 and 28. The HOB was lower in birds fed the VE40 diets but was increased with the MARG and HARG treatments, whereas birds fed the VE80 diet had a higher HOB irrespective of Arg level. Birds fed the VE80 diet had high levels of MOB, which was not further improved by Arg, whereas birds fed the VE40-MARG diet had the highest MOB response. Plasma NO was not affected by diet at d 14, but at d 28, plasma NO was higher in birds fed the VE80-MARG or the VE40-NARG diet and lower in birds fed the VE80-NARG or the VE40-MARG diet. Birds fed the VE40-HARG or VE80-MARG diet had the highest IgG levels at d 14, but at d 28, birds fed the VE80-MARG diet had the highest IgG levels. The IgM concentration was lower in birds fed NARG levels irrespective of VE levels at d 14, but at d 28, IgM levels were higher in birds fed the VE40-HARG or the VE80-MARG feed. The IgA concentration was not consistently affected at d 14 or 28. These results suggest that Arg and VE fed at levels higher than those recommended by the NRC may play complementary roles on the innate and humoral immune response against an Eimeria challenge, potentially improving vaccine efficacy and response to field infections. PMID:20709971

Perez-Carbajal, C; Caldwell, D; Farnell, M; Stringfellow, K; Pohl, S; Casco, G; Pro-Martinez, A; Ruiz-Feria, C A

2010-09-01

200

Bacteriological and pathological studies of egg peritonitis in commerciallayer chicken in Namakkal area  

PubMed Central

Objective To detect the various bacteriological agents and pathological changes in commercial layer chicken affected with egg yolk peritonitis in Namakkal region of India. Methods A total of 6?572 layer chicken from 85 commercial farms were subjected for the study, out of which 1?715 showed various types of oviduct abnormalities. Among the 1?715, 264 birds from six farms were identified as egg peritonitis on the basis of postmortem examination. Trachea, lung, heart blood, liver, peritoneal exudate, oviduct (infundibulum, magnum, uterus) and cloacal swabs were collected from the 264 birds with egg peritonitis lesion for screening of bacterial agents. Signalment, clinical signs and pathological changes were recorded in the affected flocks. Result The results of the present investigation indicated that the E. coli associated egg peritonitis was responsible for 15.39% of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 week of age. In the affected flocks egg production drop and mortality varied from 3% to 20% and 0.5% to 7.0% respectively. It was noticed during peak egg production (21 to 60 week) and southwest monsoon season (58%). Statistical analysis of age, season and egg production by Chi square test of independence revealed highly significant difference. E. coli was isolated as a pure culture and concurrent with other bacterial agents in 226 and 38 birds respectively. Among the fifteen E. coli serotypes identified serotype O166, O64 and O111 were predominant. Necropsy examination of affected birds revealed the presence of amorphous or insipissiated yolk material in the abdominal cavity with inflammatory changes in the ovary, oviduct and intestine. Microscopically the oviduct surface epithelium showed degeneration and desquamation, moderate to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophils and lymphocytes in various regions and lumen contained serofibrinous exudate, inflammatory and desquamated epithelial cells with bacterial microcolonies. Ovarian follicles revealed hyperemia, degeneration of granulosa cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Intestine showed degenerative, necrotic and inflammatory lesion. Conclusion The findings of this study showed that the egg peritonitis might be caused by either the translocation of intestinal E. coli into the peritoneal cavity or by the movement of cloacal E. coli into the oviduct followed by ascension of these bacteria up the oviduct, through the infundibulum, and into the peritoneal cavity. To control the egg peritonitis faecal contamination with E. coli should be minimized. PMID:24093792

Srinivasan, Palani; Balasubramaniam, Gurusamypalayam Amirthalingam; Murthy, Thippichettipalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Balachandran, Perumal

2013-01-01

201

Evaluation of the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and surgical steel 316L in vivo: a comparative study in rabbits  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have shown the potential suitability of magnesium alloys as biodegradable implants. The aim of the present study was to compare the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and commonly used surgical steel in vivo. Methods A biodegradable magnesium calcium alloy (MgCa0.8) and surgical steel (S316L), as a control, were investigated. Screws of identical geometrical conformation were implanted into the tibiae of 40 rabbits for a postoperative follow up of two, four, six and eight weeks. The tibialis cranialis muscle was in direct vicinity of the screw head and thus embedded in paraffin and histologically and immunohistochemically assessed. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify macrophages, giant cells and heterophil granulocytes as well as the extent of tissue fibrosis and necrosis. Mouse anti-CD79? and rat anti-CD3 monoclonal primary antibodies were used for B- and T-lymphocyte detection. Evaluation of all sections was performed by applying a semi-quantitative score. Results Clinically, both implant materials were tolerated well. Histology revealed that a layer of fibrous tissue had formed between implant and overlying muscle in MgCa0.8 and S316L, which was demarcated by a layer of synoviocyte-like cells at its interface to the implant. In MgCa0.8 implants cavities were detected within the fibrous tissue, which were surrounded by the same kind of cell type. The thickness of the fibrous layer and the amount of tissue necrosis and cellular infiltrations gradually decreased in S316L. In contrast, a decrease could only be noted in the first weeks of implantation in MgCa0.8, whereas parameters were increasing again at the end of the observation period. B-lymphocytes were found more often in MgCa0.8 indicating humoral immunity and the presence of soluble antigens. Conversely, S316L displayed a higher quantity of T-lymphocytes. Conclusions Moderate inflammation was detected in both implant materials and resolved to a minimum during the first weeks indicating comparable biocompatibility for MgCa0.8 and S316L. Thus, the application of MgCa0.8 as biodegradable implant material seems conceivable. Since the inflammatory parameters were re-increasing at the end of the observation period in MgCa0.8 it is important to observe the development of inflammation over a longer time period in addition to the present study. PMID:20974008

2010-01-01

202

Mathematical Modeling of Sub-Cellular Asymmetry of Fat-Dachsous Heterodimer for Generation of Planar Cell Polarity  

PubMed Central

Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) is an evolutionarily conserved characteristic of animal tissues marked by coordinated polarization of cells or structures in the plane of a tissue. In insect wing epithelium, for instance, PCP is characterized by en masse orientation of hairs orthogonal to its apical-basal axis and pointing along the proximal-distal axis of the organ. Directional cue for PCP has been proposed to be generated by complex sets of interactions amongst three proteins - Fat (Ft), Dachsous (Ds) and Four-jointed (Fj). Ft and Ds are two atypical cadherins, which are phosphorylated by Fj, a Golgi kinase. Ft and Ds from adjacent cells bind heterophilically via their tandem cadherin repeats, and their binding affinities are regulated by Fj. Further, in the wing epithelium, sub-cellular levels of Ft-Ds heterodimers are seen to be elevated at the distal edges of individual cells, prefiguring their PCP. Mechanisms generating this sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer in proximal and distal edges of cells, however, have not been resolved yet. Using a mathematical modeling approach, here we provide a framework for generation of this sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer. First, we explain how the known interactions within Ft-Ds-Fj system translate into sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer. Second, we show that this asymmetric localization of Ft-Ds heterodimer is lost when tissue-level gradient of Fj is flattened, or when phosphorylation of Ft by Fj is abolished, but not when tissue-level gradient of Ds is flattened or when phosphorylation of Ds is abrogated. Finally, we show that distal enrichment of Ds also amplifies Ft-Ds asymmetry. These observations reveal that gradient of Fj expression, phosphorylation of Ft by Fj and sub-cellular distal accumulation of Ds are three critical elements required for generating sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer. Our model integrates the known experimental data and presents testable predictions for future studies. PMID:24841507

Kumar, Amit; Sinha, Pradip

2014-01-01

203

Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P?

Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

2014-10-01

204

The chick chorioallantoic membrane as an in vivo xenograft model for Burkitt lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive malignancy that arises from B-cells and belongs to the group of Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models NHL research is mainly performed in vitro. Here, we studied the use of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for the generation of human BL xenograft tumors, which we compared with known characteristics of the human disease. Methods In order to generate experimental BL tumors, we inoculated human BL2B95 and BL2-GFP cells on the CAM. BL2B95 xenograft-tumors were grown for seven days and subsequently analyzed with transmission electron and immunofluorescence microscopy, as well as histological staining approaches. BL2-GFP cells were studied at regular intervals up to seven days, and their metastatic behavior was visualized with intravital immunofluorescence techniques. Results Xenografted BL2B95 cells formed solid tumors in the CAM model with a Ki67-index greater than 90%, preservation of typical tumor markers (CD10, CD19, CD20), a ‘starry sky’ morphology, production of agyrophilic fibers in the stroma, formation of blood and lymphatic vessels and lymphogenic dissemination of BL2B95 to distant sites. We identified macrophages, lymphocytes and heterophilic granulocytes (chick homolog of neutrophils) as the most abundant immune cells in the experimental tumors. BL2-GFP cells could be traced in real-time during their distribution in the CAM, and the first signs for their dissemination were visible after 2-3 days. Conclusions We show that xenografted BL2B95 cells generate tumors in the CAM with a high degree of cellular, molecular and proliferative concord with the human disease, supporting the application of the CAM model for NHL research with a focus on tumor-stroma interactions. Additionally we report that BL2-GFP cells, grafted on the CAM of ex ovo cultured chick embryos, provide a powerful tool to study lymphogenic dissemination in real-time. PMID:24884418

2014-01-01

205

The functions of sound production in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus, and effects of loud ambient noise on its behavior and physiology in captive environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loud noise in aquaria represents a cacophonous environment for captive fishes. I tested the effects of loud noise on acoustic communication, feeding behavior, courtship behavior, and the stress response of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Total Root Mean Square (RMS) power of ambient noise to which seahorses are exposed in captivity varies widely but averages 126.1 +/- 0.8 deciBels with reference to one micropascal (dB re: 1 muPa) at the middle of the water column and 133.7 +/- 1.1 dB at the tank bottom, whereas ambient noise in the wild averages 119.6 +/- 3.5 dB. Hearing sensitivity of H. erectus, measured from auditory evoked potentials, demonstrated maximum spectrum-level sensitivities of 105.0 +/- 1.5 dB and 3.5 x 10-3 + 7.6 x 10-4 m/s2 at 200 Hz; which is characteristic of hearing generalists. H. erectus produces acoustic clicks with mean peak spectrum-level amplitudes of 94.3 +/- 0.9 dB at 232 +/- 16 Hz and 1.5 x 10 -3 +/- 1.9 x 10-4 m/s2 at 265 +/- 22 Hz. Frequency matching of clicks to best hearing sensitivity, and estimates of audition of broadband signals suggest that seahorses may hear conspecific clicks, especially in terms of particle motion. Behavioral investigations revealed that clicking did not improve prey capture proficiency. However, animals clicked more often as time progressed in a courtship sequence, and mates performed more courtship behaviors with control animals than with muted animals, lending additional evidence to the role of clicking as an acoustic signal during courtship. Despite loud noise and the role of clicking in communication, masking of the acoustic signal was not demonstrated. Seahorses exposed to loud noise in aquaria for one month demonstrated physiological, chronic stress responses: reduced weight and body condition, and increased heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Behavioral alterations were characterized by greater mean and variance of activity among animals housed in loud tanks in the first week, followed by habituation. By week four, animals in loud tanks demonstrated variable performance of clicking and piping, putative distress behaviors. Despite the physiological stress response, animals in loud tanks did not reduce feeding response or courtship behavior, suggesting allostasis.

Anderson, Paul August

206

Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7 % sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS ( P < 0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se ( P > 0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS ( P < 0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio ( P < 0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers ( P < 0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se ( P < 0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions ( P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were increased but serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in HS broilers ( P < 0.05).

Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

2014-07-01

207

Testing a West Nile virus vaccine in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated with a commercial equine West Nile virus vaccine (Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, Iowa, USA) at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. Three doses of the vaccine were given, the first dose (day 0) was followed by a second 21 days later and the third dose 7 days after the second day 28 after the first dose). All doses were 0.50 ml. In addition, 5 sandhill cranes were given injections of similar amounts of sterile water on the same schedule. Blood for complete blood counts, serum chemistries, and serological testing was collected at weekly intervals. Ten weeks after the first injection of the vaccine and 6 weeks after the last of the 3 injections of the vaccine, the cranes were shipped to the USGS National Wildlife Heath Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. After a two-week adjustment period, 11 of these cranes were injected intramuscularly with one mosquito dose of West Nile virus. Two of the vaccinated cranes were not challenged and acted as uninfected controls. One week post challenge the only abnormal findings were slight weight loss (average 6% loss since the time of challenge with West Nile virus) and elevated white blood cell counts (heterophilic leukocytosis). There were no deaths and no clinically ill cranes (unvaccinated or vaccinated cranes) among the 11 challenged birds. All cranes were euthanized 6 weeks post challenge, and necropsies were performed. Pre-challenge titers showed no titer response to the vaccinations. However, when challenged, vaccinated cranes developed titers more quickly (within 7-10 days), and were viremic and shed virus via the cloaca for a shorter period of time than the unvaccinated cranes (2-7 days for vaccinated cranes versus 2-10 days for unvaccinated cranes). No remarkable lesions were noted in any of the cranes during the necropsy examinations. Histopathological findings are available for only four of the cranes at this time. Three of those had mild to moderate encephalitis, myelitis, and myocarditis. Initial histopathological findings also indicated a difference in the lesions found in the brains of the vaccinated versus unvaccinated cranes. The fourth crane was a vaccinated unchallenged control that had none of the lesions described. We concluded, based on the findings of no adverse reactions and the higher titers and reduced viremia seen in the cranes, that, indeed, the vaccine is safe for use in cranes and can be effective in reducing the severity of a natural infection. We would recommend this vaccine for use in adult cranes. A companion study is looking at the safety and efficacy of the vaccine for crane chicks as young as 7-10 days of age and that will be reported at a later date.

Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.; Docherty, D.; Sileo, L.

2005-01-01

208

A novel hypothesis for the etiology of Graves' disease: TSAb may be thyroid stimulating animal IgG-like hormone and TBAb may be the precursor of TSAb.  

PubMed

There are doubtful points about the theory that autoimmunity with auto-antibody (Ab) to TSH receptor (R) causes hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease (GD). A main doubtful point is no curative effect of corticosteroid on Graves' hyperthyroidism in spite of curative effect of corticosteroid for all autoimmune diseases. Recently we demonstrated the immunological similarity of TSAb and TBAb-IgG to animal IgGs, except for human (h)IgG, by neutralization and purification of TSAb and TBAb-IgG using (1) heterophilic Ab to animal IgG in GD sera and (2) experimentally generated anti-animal IgG Abs [such as dog (d), bovine (b), porcine (p), and rabbit (rb)]. Furthermore, greater immunological similarity of Fab- and F(ab')(2)-portion of TSAb- and TBAb-IgG to bovine Fab, compared to hFab, was demonstrated using goat anti-bovine F(ab')(2) Ab. Existence of b and p TSH-like portions in the LATS-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion) was suggested by a previous report of neutralization of LATS activity by anti-b- or anti-p-TSH Ab. We suggested the existence of a mammalian animal-TSH-like structure, excepting hTSH, in the TSAb-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion), by discovery of anti-mammalian TSH Ab (such as d, b, p, guinea-pig, rat, whale, except h) in sera of GD. Lately, similar TSHR binding of H- and L-chain of human stimulating monoclonal TSHR Ab (M22)-Fab with TSH-? and-? subunit was reported. This evidence suggests that Fab portion of TSAb has a structure like mammalian TSH, but not hTSH. IgG-? type of d, horse, b, p, goat, ovine is 95% and IgG-? type is 5%, while human ? and ? chain is 60:40. Previous report that LATS (TSAb)-IgG composed of predominant ? type is supporting evidence that TRAb-IgG has immunological similarity with these animal IgGs compared to hIgG. We speculate that TSAb-IgG may be referred as a mermaid consisted in face (Fab) and trunk-leg (Fc). Face may be a kind of hormone with animal TSH-like structure and trunk-leg has animal IgG-like structure (in spite of no antibody function). There are many reports for co-existence of TSAb and TBAb-IgG in sera of GD. We reported conversion from TBAb (non-thyroid stimulating type IgG) to TSAb by co-incubation of anti-hIgG Ab (containing anti-animal IgG Ab as a cross-reaction) with TBAb-bound porcine thyroid cells. Thus, we suggest that TBAb may be the precursor form of TSAb. PMID:22472575

Ochi, Yukio; Kajita, Yoshihiro; Hachiya, Takashi; Hamaoki, Masaru

2012-06-01