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Sample records for heterophils

  1. INFLAMMATORY AGONIST STIMULATION AND SIGNAL PATHWAY OF OXIDATIVE BURST IN NEONATAL CHICKEN HETEROPHILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fluorescence microplate assay was adapted to examine the oxidative response by heterophils from neonatal chicks following in vitro stimulation with various inflammatory agonists. Both nonopsonized formalin-killed Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus stimulated significant heterophil o...

  2. Fluorescein isothiocyanate staining and characterization of avian heterophils.

    PubMed

    Rath, N C; Huff, G R; Balog, J M; Huff, W E

    1998-06-30

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was found to stain cytoplasmic granules of avian heterophilgranulocytes. In tissue sections, the fluorescent granulocytes were predominantly distributed adjacent to trabecular bones. The fluorescein stained granulocytes were abundant in synovial fluids of chickens with synovitis. A significant correlation was observed in the percent of fluorescein labeled granulocytes in blood smears and the percent of heterophils determined using an automated counting method, in unstained blood from normal and Escherichia coli-infected turkeys. The fluorescein-binding heterophils purified from chickens showed a time dependent increases in the oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) and the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) which were indicative of changes in oxidative burst in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and zymosan A (ZA). These heterophil-activating agents, also, caused significant degranulation at 16 h post-treatment, as indicated by the loss fluorescence. There were microscopically visible alterations in the cell shapes and a decrease in the density of granules due to treatment with LPS, PMA or ZA. In addition, these cells also showed phagocytic response which was evident at 30 min of incubation with fluorescent latex particles. Both chicken and turkey heterophils produced interleukin-6 in vitro at 24 h in response to LPS but not to PMA, FMLP or ZA. The chicken heterophils showed spontaneous production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) which was significantly enhanced by treatment with LPS, PMA, and ZA; however, LPS appeared to be most effective in inducing MMP production. These results demonstrate that the functions of heterophils can be differentially regulated by different activating agents and the fluorescein binding property of these cells may be useful for their histochemical identification. PMID:9656433

  3. FUNCTIONAL COMPARISON OF HETEROPHILS ISOLATED FROM COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterophils from two pure lines (A and B) of commercial broiler chickens were isolated on days 1, 4, and 7 post hatch to evaluated their ability to: (1) phagocytize Salmonella enteritidis (2) degranulate when exposed to immune-IgG opsonized SE, and (3) produce an oxidative burst. On days 1 and 4, he...

  4. Evaluation of the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens.

    PubMed

    Gross, W B; Siegel, H S

    1983-01-01

    The number of lymphocytes in chicken blood samples decreased and the number of heterophils increased in response to stressors and to increasing levels of corticosterone in the chicken feed. The ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes was less variable than the number of heterophil or lymphocyte cells, and the range of values for this ratio was greater than the range of values for heterophils and lymphocytes among control and experimental groups. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio appears to be a more reliable indicator of levels of corticosterone in the feed and to social stress than were the plasma corticosteroid levels. PMID:6360120

  5. Experimentally induced mononucleosis-like heterophile antibodies in man

    PubMed Central

    Leikola, J.; Aho, K.

    1969-01-01

    Nine human volunteers were immunized with sheep erythrocytes. In each of them, a small proportion of the antibodies formed after the primary stimulation resembled the heterophile mononucleosis antibody: they agglutinated sheep, horse and papain-treated ox red cells; their antigenic receptors on sheep and horse red cells were papain-sensitive; they were absorbable with ox red cells but not with guinea-pig kidney; they were macroglobulins. No corresponding antibodies were found in rabbit or guinea-pig immune sera. The observations suggest that the mononucleosis receptor on sheep red cells is immunogenic for man and that the heterophile antibody thus would be formed as a result of a distinct immunogenic stimulus. PMID:5789562

  6. Reducing heterophilic antibody interference in immunoassays using single chain antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Tan, Ruimin; Fischer, Christopher J.; Victry, Kristin D.; Zangar, Richard C.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2011-12-15

    Sandwich ELISA microarrays have the potential to simultaneously quantify the levels of multiple diagnostic targets in a biological sample. However, as seen with traditional ELISA diagnostics, heterophilic antibodies (HA) in patient sera have the potential to cause interference in these assays. We demonstrate here that reducing the diagnostic capture antibody to its minimal functional unit, the variable heavy and light domains artificially connected with a short polypeptide linker (scFv), is an effective strategy for reducing the HA assay interference.

  7. Age-dependent phagocytosis and bactericidal activities of the chicken heterophil.

    PubMed

    Wells, L L; Lowry, V K; DeLoach, J R; Kogut, M H

    1998-01-01

    Chicks are most susceptible to Salmonella infection during the first 4 days post-hatch. In poultry, one of the primary cells in the innate immune response to early bacterial invasion by Salmonella is the heterophil. Previous studies using a granulocytopenic chicken model in more mature birds demonstrated the significant role heterophils have in the defense mechanism against Salmonella. In the past studies have also shown the efficiency of heterophils from 3- to 5-week-old chickens to phagocytose and kill Salmonella as compared to monocytes. During the present study, we investigated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of heterophils from chickens during the first 7 days post-hatch to evaluate whether decreased heterophil function plays a role in the susceptibility of young chicks to Salmonella infections. Peripheral blood counts demonstrated no differences in the percentages of heterophils during the first week post-hatch. The phagocytic index of the heterophil did not change on day 1 or day 4, but doubled by day 7 (day 1, 30.69; day 4, 33.99; day 7, 60.46). Interestingly, the bactericidal activity of the heterophils from all three age groups efficiently killed Salmonella enteritidis. Based on this data, we conclude that a relationship exists between the age of the chick, the functional activity of the heterophil, and the susceptibility to organ invasion by Salmonella. PMID:9617587

  8. HETEROPHILS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH RESISTANCE TO SYSTEMIC SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS INFECTIONS IN GENETICALLY DISTINCT CHICKEN LINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We reported differences in in vitro heterophil functional efficiency between parental lines (A>B) of broilers and the F1 reciprocal crosses (D>C). Heterophils modulate acute protection against Salmonella in young poultry. Therefore, we are interested in evaluating susceptibility of the four lines ...

  9. Evaluation of beta defensin 2 production by chicken heterophils using direct MALDI mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta defensins (BD) are cysteine rich, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP) produced mainly by epithelial and myeloid cells such as neutrophils. In birds, the equivalent of neutrophils, heterophils produce avian beta defensins (AvBD) of which AvBD2 is the major isoform. Heterophils recognize patho...

  10. Avian heterophils and monocytes: phagocytic and bactericidal activities against Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Stabler, J G; McCormick, T W; Powell, K C; Kogut, M H

    1994-02-01

    The ability of heterophils and monocytes from domestic chickens and turkeys to phagocytize and kill Salmonella enteritidis (SE) was investigated using both a standard plate count (chickens only) and direct microscopic examination by staining with acridine orange (both chickens and turkeys). Optimal phagocytosis of SE by both chicken and turkey phagocytes required opsonization of the bacteria by antibodies as determined by both assays. However, heterophils from both the turkeys and chickens phagocytized more SE than did monocytes from either type of fowl. Regardless of the presence or absence of antibodies, heterophils were more efficient bactericidal cells than were the monocytes since only heterophils killed the intracellular bacteria while the majority of nonopsonized SE survived in the monocytes. Phagocytosis of SE did not result in an increase in the amount of superoxide anion released by the heterophils suggesting that the ultimate fate of the bacteria in these cells was not related to an oxygen-dependent mechanism. PMID:8160345

  11. Avian heterophils and monocytes: phagocytic and bactericidal activities against Salmonella enteritidis.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Stabler JG; McCormick TW; Powell KC; Kogut MH

    1994-02-01

    The ability of heterophils and monocytes from domestic chickens and turkeys to phagocytize and kill Salmonella enteritidis (SE) was investigated using both a standard plate count (chickens only) and direct microscopic examination by staining with acridine orange (both chickens and turkeys). Optimal phagocytosis of SE by both chicken and turkey phagocytes required opsonization of the bacteria by antibodies as determined by both assays. However, heterophils from both the turkeys and chickens phagocytized more SE than did monocytes from either type of fowl. Regardless of the presence or absence of antibodies, heterophils were more efficient bactericidal cells than were the monocytes since only heterophils killed the intracellular bacteria while the majority of nonopsonized SE survived in the monocytes. Phagocytosis of SE did not result in an increase in the amount of superoxide anion released by the heterophils suggesting that the ultimate fate of the bacteria in these cells was not related to an oxygen-dependent mechanism.

  12. Inflammatory agonist stimulation and signal pathway of oxidative burst in neonatal chicken heterophils.

    PubMed

    He, Haiqi; Farnell, Morgan B; Kogut, Michael H

    2003-05-01

    Heterophils are the predominant polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in poultry. The oxidative burst of activated heterophils, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), is one of the first line cellular defenses against invading microorganisms. In this report, the oxidative response of heterophils from neonatal chicks to in vitro stimulation by various inflammatory agonists was investigated using a fluorescence microplate assay. Both non-opsonized formalin-killed Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus were able to stimulate heterophil oxidative burst. The phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was the most potent stimulant for the chicken heterophil oxidative response, whereas, the bacterial cell surface components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) were less effective. Protein kinase C (PKC) is an essential signaling component regulating heterophil oxidative response to stimulation by PMA, LPS, LTA and S. enteritidis. However, inhibition of PKC did not affect the oxidative response to stimulation by S. aureus, suggesting differential signaling pathway responsible for the activation of oxidative burst by Gram-negative S. enteritidis and Gram-positive S. aureus. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and extracellular response kinase (ERK) by SB 203580 and PD 098059, respectively, did not inhibit activated oxidative burst. PMID:12727554

  13. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    SciTech Connect

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  14. DIFFERENTIAL HETEROPHIL INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING AND FUNCTIONS IN WILD-TYPE AND COMMERCIAL TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparison of cell signaling and functions in heterophils from a commercial line (A) to wild-type Rio Grande turkeys days 4 and 7 post-hatch was conducted. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and ERK 1/2 and total protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activities were measured. After stimulation...

  15. Direct screening identifies mature beta-defensin 2 in avian heterophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to screen avian heterophils in the m/z range of 1-20 kDa with an objective to identify the cell associated peptides that may be reflective of their functional physiology. The MALDI-TOF-MS profiles ...

  16. Oxidative burst mediated by toll like receptors (TLR) and CD14 on avian heterophils stimulated with bacterial toll agonists.

    PubMed

    Farnell, Morgan B; Crippen, Tawni L; He, Haiqi; Swaggerty, Christina L; Kogut, Michael H

    2003-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on chicken heterophils and if these receptors mediate oxidative burst. Heterophils isolated from neonatal chicks were exposed to gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis (SE), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (SA), SE-LPS, and SA-LTA and the oxidative burst quantitated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. SE, SA, SE-LPS, and SA-LTA stimulated a significant increase in oxidative burst from heterophils. Furthermore, we measured the inhibitory effects of polyclonal antibodies on rat CD14, human TLR2 and TLR4 on the oxidative burst of heterophils when stimulated with LPS and LTA. The data suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 mediate LPS-stimulated oxidative burst while CD14 and TLR2 mediate LTA-stimulated oxidative burst in heterophils. This is the first report of PAMPs from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria interacting with TLRs of avian heterophils. PMID:12631524

  17. Latrophilins Function as Heterophilic Cell-adhesion Molecules by Binding to Teneurins

    PubMed Central

    Boucard, Antony A.; Maxeiner, Stephan; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Latrophilin-1, -2, and -3 are adhesion-type G protein-coupled receptors that are auxiliary α-latrotoxin receptors, suggesting that they may have a synaptic function. Using pulldowns, we here identify teneurins, type II transmembrane proteins that are also candidate synaptic cell-adhesion molecules, as interactors for the lectin-like domain of latrophilins. We show that teneurin binds to latrophilins with nanomolar affinity and that this binding mediates cell adhesion, consistent with a role of teneurin binding to latrophilins in trans-synaptic interactions. All latrophilins are subject to alternative splicing at an N-terminal site; in latrophilin-1, this alternative splicing modulates teneurin binding but has no effect on binding of latrophilin-1 to another ligand, FLRT3. Addition to cultured neurons of soluble teneurin-binding fragments of latrophilin-1 decreased synapse density, suggesting that latrophilin binding to teneurin may directly or indirectly influence synapse formation and/or maintenance. These observations are potentially intriguing in view of the proposed role for Drosophila teneurins in determining synapse specificity. However, teneurins in Drosophila were suggested to act as homophilic cell-adhesion molecules, whereas our findings suggest a heterophilic interaction mechanism. Thus, we tested whether mammalian teneurins also are homophilic cell-adhesion molecules, in addition to binding to latrophilins as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules. Strikingly, we find that although teneurins bind to each other in solution, homophilic teneurin-teneurin binding is unable to support stable cell adhesion, different from heterophilic teneurin-latrophilin binding. Thus, mammalian teneurins act as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules that may be involved in trans-neuronal interaction processes such as synapse formation or maintenance. PMID:24273166

  18. DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS MEDIATING OXIDATIVE BURST BY CHICKEN HETEROPHILS IN RESPONSE TO STIMULATION WITH SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS LIPOTEICHOIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been previously shown to mediate oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. This study was conducted to determine which molecular pathways are involved in TLR mediated oxidative burst. Peripheral blood heterophils from neonatal chicks were isolated and exposed to known...

  19. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  20. Heterophils are decisive components in the early responses of chickens to Salmonella enteritidis infections.

    PubMed

    Kogut, M H; Tellez, G I; McGruder, E D; Hargis, B M; Williams, J D; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R

    1994-02-01

    Chickens injected with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were found to have a three- to nine-fold reduction in circulating heterophils without a reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells. A 50% organ invasive dose (ID50) for orally and intravenously administered Salmonella enteritidis (SE) was established in the heteropenic chickens. When challenged orally, about 150-fold fewer SE cells were required for organ invasion in the 5-FU-treated chickens; whereas an intravenous challenge of the heteropenic chickens required about 4000-fold fewer bacteria for organ invasion than found in the control birds. Significant (P < 0.0001) SE-dose-dependent reductions in body weight with increased mortality and lesions in the eye, heart, and thymus were found in the 5-FU-treated birds versus the control birds. Alternatively, the control birds had significantly more intestinal lesions than the 5-FU-treated birds. No consistent significant hepatic lesions were observed in either treatment group. Under the conditions used in these experiments, 5-FU treatment of chickens caused otherwise subclinical SE infections to rapidly become clinical infections with more severe extraintestinal organ infections, whereas the control chickens had infections that were primarily restricted to the intestine. These findings suggest that the heterophil is extremely important in controlling both initial SE organ invasion and subsequent disease pathogenesis in chickens. PMID:8047002

  1. Interference from heterophilic antibodies in D-dimer assessment. A case report.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Tondelli, Maria Teresa; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2014-04-01

    We describe the case of a 3-year-old girl, admitted to the pediatric ward for three repeated episodes of severe migraine associated with vertigo, with onset 1 week after complete remission from an episode of chicken pox (i.e., varicella-zoster virus infection). All radiological and laboratory examinations were normal, except for a markedly elevated value of D-dimer (i.e. 8998 ng/ml; local reference range: < 243 ng/ml), measured with a commercial latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. After physical and Doppler ultrasound examination, possible presence of thrombosis was ruled out, and the patient was discharged. In the following year, however, her plasma D-dimer values always remained frankly elevated, so that an analytical interference was suspected. A plasma sample was treated with a specific heterophilic antibodies blocking reagent and then assayed along with the untreated sample, with these showing a marked discrepancy of D-dimer values, that is 232 versus 2877 ng/ml. These results, highly indicative for the presence of heterophilic antibodies, are discussed in the light of the serious challenges that this type of analytical interference may pose on quality and reliability of D-dimer testing. PMID:24253242

  2. Heterophilic antibody interference affecting multiple hormone assays: Is it due to rheumatoid factor?

    PubMed

    Mongolu, Shiva; Armston, Annie E; Mozley, Erin; Nasruddin, Azraai

    2016-05-01

    Assay interference with heterophilic antibodies has been well described in literature. Rheumatoid factor is known to cause similar interference leading to falsely elevated hormone levels when measured by immunometric methods like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplex immunoasays (MIA). We report a case of a 60-year-old male patient with a history of rheumatoid arthritis referred to our endocrine clinic for investigation of hypogonadism and was found to have high serum levels of LH, FSH, SHBG, Prolactin, HCG and TSH. We suspected assay interference and further tests were performed. We used Heteroblock tubes and PEG precipitation to eliminate the interference and the hormone levels post treatment were in the normal range. We believe the interference was caused by high serum levels of rheumatoid factor. Although he was treated with thyroxine for 3 years, we believe he may have been treated inappropriately as his Free T4 level was always normal despite high TSH due to assay interference. Our case illustrates the phenomenon of heterophilic antibody interference likely due to high levels of rheumatoid factor. It is essential for clinicians and endocrinologists in particular to be aware of this possibility when making treatment decisions in these groups of patients. PMID:26924790

  3. Gene expression profiling in chicken heterophils with Salmonella enteritidis stimulation using a chicken 44 K Agilent microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common food-borne pathogens that cause human salmonellosis and usually results from the consumption of contaminated poultry products. The mechanism of SE resistance in chickens remains largely unknown. Previously, heterophils isolated...

  4. Granulopoiesis in tadpoles of Rana esculenta. Ultrastructural observations on the morphology and development of heterophil and basophil granules.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, G

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and development of heterophil and basophil granules from the trunk kidneys of Rana esculenta tadpoles were studied at the electron microscopic level. Cells of the heterophils series contain granules displaying either spheroid profiles with homogeneous content (Type A), or elongate profiles with a crystalloid interior (Type B). Type A granules apparently originate directly from Golgi-derived vesicles, which, gaining slightly in size and density, transform into the mature granules. Type B granules could be traced back to vacuolate structures showing an irregular content. Their development could be traced through increasingly elongated forms with the appearance of a characteristic crystalloid core. Fully developed basophil granules are considerably larger in size than heterophil granules and contain heterogeneous interna showing a central-cortical organisation: a finely stippled medullary zone of varying density is surrounded by a sickle-shaped and lamellate cortex (Type L), or a moderately dense and uniformly stippled medulla is enclosed by two diametrically opposed, cap-shaped, filamentous regions (Type F). The heterophil and basophil granules are compared to those in other vertebrates and possible phylogenetic aspects are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:2606765

  5. SYK TYROSINE KINASE INVOLVEMENT IN COMPLEMENT RECEPTOR-MEDIATED SIGNALING LEADING TO AN OXIDATIVE BURST IN CHICKEN HETEROPHILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously reported the inhibition of Fc receptor-mediated degranulation in avian heterophils by the syk tyrosine kinase inhibitor piceatannol. The present studies investigated whether attachment of complement opsonized bacteria to complement receptors also involve the syk tyrosine kinase p...

  6. Critical role of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß in regulating the avian heterophil response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß), a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently up-regulated 30-180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). The present study was ...

  7. Gene expression profiling of heterophils from Salmonella-resistant and -susceptible chickens using a 44K agilent microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously examined in vitro heterophil function and resistance/susceptibility to in vivo challenge with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in broilers. All evaluations have shown a dichotomy of innate immune responsiveness with line A more responsive with increased ability to phagocytize, degranulate,...

  8. DIFFERENTIAL PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE MRNA EXPRESSION IN HETEROPHILS ISOLATED FROM SALMONELLA-RESISTANT AND -SUSCEPTIBLE CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have conducted studies utilizing a parental pair of broiler chickens (lines A and B) and the F1 reciprocal crosses (C and D). Previously we showed increased in vitro heterophil functional efficiency translates to increased in vivo resistance against a systemic Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infecti...

  9. Differential activation of signal transduction pathways mediating oxidative burst by chicken heterophils in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Farnell, Morgan B; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H

    2003-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been previously shown to mediate oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. This study was conducted to begin to map the molecular pathways that regulate TLR-mediated oxidative burst. Peripheral blood heterophils from neonatal chicks were isolated and exposed to known inhibitors of signal transduction pathways for either 20 min (genistein, verapamil, or chelerythrine) or 120 min (pertussis toxin) at 39 degrees C. The cells were then stimulated for 30 min at 39 degrees C with Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA). The heterophil oxidative burst was then quantitated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL). Genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor), and pertussis toxin (a G-protein inhibitor) significantly reduced LPS-stimulated oxidative burst in chicken heterophils by 34, 50, 63, and 51%, respectively. Although genistein had a statistically significant effect on reducing LPS-stimulated LDCL biologically it seems to play only a minor role within the oxidative burst pathway. Heterophils stimulated with the gram-positive TLR agonist, LTA, activated a different signal transduction pathway since chelerythrine was the only inhibitor that significantly reduced (72%) LTA-stimulated oxidative burst. These findings demonstrate that distinct signal transduction pathways differentially regulate the stimulation of oxidative burst in avian heterophils. Pertussis toxin-sensitive, protein kinase C-dependent, Ca(++)-dependent G proteins appear to regulate oxidative burst of avian heterophils stimulated with gram-negative agonist LPS; whereas, a protein kinase C-dependent signal transduction pathway plays the major role activating the oxidative burst of avian heterophils stimulated with gram-positive agonists. The distinct differences in the response of heterophils to these two agonists illustrate the specificity of TLRs to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)s. PMID:14527175

  10. Reversible adrenal insufficiency and heterophile antibodies in a case of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, Sandeep; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Dutta, Manoj K.; Garg, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old male was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis and altered sensorium with slurring of speech and ataxia. He was managed with intravenous insulin and fluids and later shifted to basal bolus insulin regimen and during further evaluation was diagnosed to be suffering from primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. He was started on thyroxin replacement and steroids only during stress. After three months of follow up he was clinically euthyroid. His glycemic control was adequate on oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs and adrenal insufficiency recovered. However, his thyrotropin levels were persistently elevated on adequate replacement doses of thyroxin. His repeat TSH was estimated after precipitating serum with polyethylene glycol which revealed normal TSH. Here we report reversible adrenal insufficiency with hypothyroidism with falsely raised TSH because of presence of heterophile antibodies in a case of poly glandular endocrinopathy syndrome. PMID:24910843

  11. An examination of the utility of heterophil-lymphocyte ratios in assessing stress of caged hens.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Paul F

    2015-03-01

    To measure stress in caged hens, differential counts of their wing vein blood were used to determine heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios and total white blood cell counts (TWBC). The H/L values of 18-wk samples from conventionally caged hens (CC) were not statistically different from hens raised in aviaries (AV) when calculated by either of 2 methods (H/L 1 and H/L 2). However, there was a high degree of variation among samples within each cage type. The TWBC data and hematology indicated leukocytosis, leukemoid reactions, and a high frequency of atypia. Reactive lymphocytes, large plasmacytoid lymphocytes, cyanophils, coccinocytes, and atypical heterophils were common. Analysis of 77-wk data indicated significant differences among 3 cage types. The H/L 1 of enriched caged (EN) hens was twice (0.91) that of either AV (0.33) or CC (0.44) hens (P<0.01); the H/L 2 values were also highest for EN (0.46) versus AV (0.29) and CC (0.34; P<0.01). As was the case with 18-wk samples, TWBC distributions and hematological data indicated leukocytosis, leukemoid reactions, and a high frequency of atypia. Among the likely reasons for the hematological observations was the occurrence of polymicrobial bacteremia and fungemia, both of which could account for high TWBC and atypical cells. Collectively, these observations challenge the general application of the H/L ratio method when applied alone as an indicator of stress and welfare of hens caged in modern systems. PMID:25480738

  12. The effect of mixing and translocating juvenile ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Botswana on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Kamau, J M; Patrick, B T; Mushi, E Z

    2002-05-01

    The possibility was investigated that translocation of juvenile ostriches from concrete-paved to sandfloored pens and mixing of batches of ostriches after such translocation constitute a stress strong enough to evoke changes in the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes. Blood smears were obtained from 15 ostriches out of a group of 25 birds 4 and 2 days before and then 2 and 4 days after translocation. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio changed from 0.27 and 0.37 on days 4 and 2, respectively, before mixing and translocation to 0.53 and 0.84 on days 2 and 4, respectively, after translocation. Mixing and translocating juvenile ostriches appears to constitute stress. This information is important for the onfarm management of juvenile ostriches to enhance their welfare and productivity. PMID:12094680

  13. Critical Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in Regulating the Avian Heterophil Response to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Michael H.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Chiang, Hsin-I; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Zhou, Huaijun; Arsenault, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently upregulated 30–180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). The present study was designed to delineate the role of GSK-3β in regulating the innate function of chicken heterophils in response to S. Enteritidis exposure. Using a specific GSK-3β ELISA assay, 30 min after infection with S. Enteritidis, heterophils had a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in total GSK-3β, but a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in phosphorylated GSK-3β (Ser9). By 60 min post-infection, there was no difference in the amount of phosphorylated GSK-3β (Ser9) in either the uninfected and infected heterophils. S. Enteritidis interaction with heterophils alters GSK-3β activity by stimulating phosphorylation at Ser9 and that peaks by 30 min post-infection. Further, inhibition of GSK3β with lithium chloride resulted in a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in NF-κB activation and expression of IL-6, but induces a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Using a phospho-specific antibody array confirmed the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9) as well as the phosphorylation of the downstream cytokine-activated intracellular signaling pathway involved in stimulating immune responses, IκB, the IκB subunit IKK-β, and the NF-κB subunits p105, p65, and c-Rel. Our data revealed that the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9) is responsible for inducing and controlling an innate response to the bacteria. Our findings suggest that the repression of GSK-3 activity is beneficial to the host cell and may act as a target for treatment in controlling intestinal colonization in chickens. Further experiments will define the in vivo modulation of GSK-3 as a potential alternative to antibiotics in salmonella and other intestinal bacterial infections. PMID:26664916

  14. Gene Expression Analysis of Toll-Like Receptor Pathways in Heterophils from Genetic Chicken Lines that Differ in Their Susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Michael H.; Chiang, Hsin-I; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Pevzner, Igal Y.; Zhou, Huaijun

    2012-01-01

    Previously conducted studies using two chicken lines (A and B) show that line A birds have increased resistance to a number of bacterial and protozoan challenges and that heterophils isolated from line A birds are functionally more responsive. Furthermore, when stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, heterophils from line A expressed a totally different cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression pattern than heterophils from line B. A large-scale gene expression profile using an Agilent 44K microarray on heterophils isolated from line A and line B also revealed significantly differential expression in many immune-related genes following Salmonella enteritidis (SE) stimulation, which included genes involved in the TLR pathway. Therefore, we hypothesize the differences between the lines result from distinctive TLR pathway signaling cascades that mediate heterophil function and, thus, innate immune responsiveness to SE. Using quantitative RT-PCR on mRNA from heterophils isolated from control and SE-stimulated heterophils of each line, we profiled the expression of all chicken homologous genes identified in a reference TLR pathway. Several differentially expressed genes found were involved in the TLR-induced My88-dependent pathway, showing higher gene expression in line A than line B heterophils following SE stimulation. These genes included the TLR genes TLR4, TLR15, TLR21, MD-2, the adaptor proteins Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), Tumor necrosis factor-receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3), the IκB kinases transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1), IKKε and IKKα, the transcription factors NFkB2 and interferon regulatory factor 7, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. These results indicate that higher expression of TLR signaling activation of both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways are more beneficial to avian heterophil-mediated innate immunity and a complicated regulation of downstream adaptors is involved in stronger induction of a TLR-mediated innate response in the resistant line A. These findings identify new targets for genetic selection of chickens to increase resistance to bacterial infections. PMID:22783275

  15. Gene expression profiling in chicken heterophils with Salmonella enteritidis stimulation using a chicken 44 K Agilent microarray

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Hsin-I; Swaggerty, Christina L; Kogut, Michael H; Dowd, Scot E; Li, Xianyao; Pevzner, Igal Y; Zhou, Huaijun

    2008-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common food-borne pathogens that cause human salmonellosis and usually results from the consumption of contaminated poultry products. The mechanism of SE resistance in chickens remains largely unknown. Previously, heterophils isolated from broilers with different genetic backgrounds (SE-resistant [line A] and -susceptible [line B]) have been shown to be important in defending against SE infections. To dissect the interplay between heterophils and SE infection, we utilized large-scale gene expression profiling. Results The results showed more differentially expressed genes were found between different lines than between infection (SE-treated) and non-infection (control) samples within line. However, the numbers of expressed immune-related genes between these two comparisons were dramatically different. More genes related to immune function were down-regulated in line B than line A. The analysis of the immune-related genes indicated that SE infection induced a stronger, up-regulated gene expression of line heterophils A than line B, and these genes include several components in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, and genes involved in T-helper cell activation. Conclusion We found: (1) A divergent expression pattern of immune-related genes between lines of different genetic backgrounds. The higher expression of immune-related genes might be more beneficial to enhance host immunity in the resistant line; (2) a similar TLR regulatory network might exist in both lines, where a possible MyD88-independent pathway may participate in the regulation of host innate immunity; (3) the genes exclusively differentially expressed in line A or line B with SE infection provided strong candidates for further investigating SE resistance and susceptibility. These findings have laid the foundation for future studies of TLR pathway regulation and cellular modulation of SE infection in chickens. PMID:18990222

  16. Ultrastructural localization of lactoferrin and iron-binding protein in human neutrophils and rabbit heterophils.

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, R. T.; Takagi, M.; Barton, J. C.; Boxer, L. A.; Austin, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Lactoferrin in marrow and blood granulocytes from rabbits and humans was stained with an immunoferritin method. Iron-binding protein(s) was localized by the staining of granulocytes with acid ferrocyanide after saturation of the iron-binding protein with iron. The latter was most readily accomplished by treatment of the glutaraldehyde-fixed cell suspension with 1% saponin, followed by treatment with an iron-nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA 3mM:4mM) solution, adjusted to pH 7.0 with NaHCO3. The affinity of purified lactoferrin and transferrin for radioiron after such treatment was minimally diminished. Both immunoferritin and iron-binding methods heavily stained osmiophiliuc (phospholipid-containing) mature primary granules in late promyelocytes, myelocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells. Early promyelocytes containing abundant immature primary granules lacked immunoferritin or iron staining. Trypsin digestion of rabbit marrow cells considerably diminished the cytochemically demonstrable iron-binding capability of the mature primary granules. Specimens sequentially stained for peroxidase and immunostained for lactoferrin or cytochemically stained for iron-binding protein confirmed that lactoferrin and iron-binding protein were in peroxidase-positive primary granules. Some peroxidase positive granules appeared to lack staining for lactoferrin and iron-binding proteining protein, and all secondary granules uniformly lacked staining. Treatment of human neutrophils with phorbol myristate acetate demonstrated early release of granules containing iron-binding protein with subsequent agglutination of neutrophils and attachment of iron-binding protein to the cell surface. In summary, this study distinguishes at least two subpopulations of primary granules and identifies lactoferrin and an iron-binding protein(s) in a subpopulation of peroxidase-positive primary granules in rabbit heterophils and human neutrophils. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 11 and 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 PMID:7180945

  17. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sornplang, Pairat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Soikum, Chaiyaporn

    2015-01-01

    Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment. PMID:26580288

  18. The effects of environmental enrichment and transport stress on the weights of lymphoid organs, cell-mediated immune response, heterophil functions and antibody production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Eraslan, Evren; Ergul Ekiz, Elif; Eseceli, Hüseyin; Keten, Mehmet; Metiner, Kemal; Aktaran Bala, Deniz

    2016-02-01

    The effects of environmental enrichment and transport stress on the immune system were investigated in laying hens. A total of 48 1-day-old chickens were used, half of the chickens were reared in conventional cages (RCC) and the rest in enriched cages (REC). Transport stress was applied in the 17th week. Liver weight decreased, spleen and bursa of Fabricius weights, white blood cell count, CD4+ and CD8+ cell proportions increased due to the transport. Environmental enrichment significantly increased antibody production and tended to increase monocyte percentage and CD8+ cell proportion. The effect of transport on, heterophil (H) and lymphocyte (L) percentages was not significant in RCC chickens. While heterophil percentage and H:L ratio increased, lymphocyte percentage decreased in REC chickens subjected to transport. Transport stress increased heterophil functions both in REC and RCC chickens, but the increase was higher in REC hens than in RCC hens. In conclusion, although environmental enrichment did not neutralize the effect of transport on lymphoid organs, it activated the non-specific immune system, cellular and the humoral branches of the specific immune system by increasing heterophil functions, CD8+ cells and antibody production, respectively. Therefore, environmental enrichment suggested for improving animal welfare may also be beneficial to improve the immune system of birds exposed to stress. PMID:26419323

  19. Flagellin and lipopolysaccharide up-regulation of IL-6 and CXCLi2 gene expression in chicken heterophils is mediated by NF-kappaB and AP-1 pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Toll-like receptor agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been shown to stimulate chicken heterophils to induce the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by a mechanism involving the triggering of differential MEK-ERK signaling cascades. However, the transl...

  20. In vivo priming heterophil innate immune functions and increasing resistance to Salmonella enteritidis infection in neonatal chickens by immune stimulatory CpG-ODN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) mimic bacterial DNA and stimulate the innate immune system of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administered CpG-ODN on the innate immune functions of chicken heterophils. Our results demonstrat...

  1. Gene expression analysis of toll-like receptor pathways in heterophils from genetic chicken lines that differ in their susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously conducted studies using two chicken lines (A and B) show that line A birds have increased resistance to a number of bacterial and protozoan challenges and that heterophils isolated from line A birds are functionally more responsive. Furthermore, when stimulated with toll-like receptor (T...

  2. Bacterial toll-like receptor agonists induce sequential NF-kB-mediated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 production in chicken heterophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of the response of the primary avian polymorphonuclear leukocyte, the heterophil, to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through toll-like receptors (TLR) have concentrated on the activation of the respiratory burst, release of intracellular granules, and the induction of cytokine ...

  3. Persistent low levels of serum hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies: an unrecognized pitfall in the diagnosis of trophoblastic disease.

    PubMed

    González Aguilera, B; Syrios, P; Gadisseur, R; Luyckx, F; Cavalier, E; Beckers, A; Valdes-Socin, H

    2016-06-01

    Phantom hCG refers to persistent mild elevations of hCG, leading physicians to unnecessary treatments whereas neither a true hCG nor a trophoblastic disease is present. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman with persistent low levels of serum hCG detected one month after miscarriage. As choriocarcinoma was suspected, a chemotherapy trial of methotrexate was prescribed, without any hCG reduction. Subsequently, laparoscopy ruled out a trophoblastic residue and the patient was referred to the Endocrine Unit for further investigations. While low levels of hCG were still detected in serum, no hCG was detected in the urine. In addition, when serum was processed in a HBT tube for revealing heterophilic antibodies, hCG was no longer detected. Such finding indicated the presence of phantom hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies interaction. This case raises the need of clinico-biological discussion to avoid inappropriate therapeutic decisions. Based on this case experience and after review of the literature, we suggest that current gynecological protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of trophoblastic disease should consider the inclusion of urinary hCG and/or a test for serum heterophilic antibodies when appropriate. PMID:26792068

  4. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratios predict the magnitude of humoral immune response to a novel antigen in great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Cirule, Dina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J; Sild, Elin; Hõrak, Peeter

    2012-04-01

    Animals display remarkable individual variation in their capacity to mount immune responses against novel antigens. According to the life-history theory, this variation is caused by the costs of immune responses to the hosts. We studied one of such potential costs, depletion of somatic resources in wintering wild-caught captive passerines, the great tits (Parus major) by immune challenging the birds with a novel antigen, killed Brucella abortus (BA) suspension. We found that despite mild temperature conditions in captivity and ad libitum availability of food, immune challenge depleted somatic resources (as indicated by a body mass loss) and elevated relative proportion of heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L ratio) in the peripheral blood of birds. However, body mass loss did not covary with an increase in H/L ratios between two sampling events, which indicates that these two markers of health state describe different aspects of individual physiological condition. Antibody titres were not associated with the extent of body mass loss during the development of immune response, which shows that the somatic cost of immune response was not proportional to the amount of antibody produced. Birds with high pre-immunisation H/L ratios mounted weaker antibody response, which is indicative of stress-induced suppression of humoral immune response and is consistent with the concept of an antagonistic cross-regulation between different components of the immune system. The latter finding suggests a novel diagnostic value of H/L ratios, which reinforces the utility of this simple haematological index for prediction of the outcomes of complicated immune processes. PMID:22245489

  5. Outdoor use, tonic immobility, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and feather condition in free-range laying hens of different genotype.

    PubMed

    Mahboub, H D H; Müller, J; von Borell, E

    2004-12-01

    1. Movement (frequency of changes) between inside and outside housing areas, time spent in each area, tonic immobility (TI) and differential blood cell counts were studied in relation to feather condition in laying hens of two genotypes, white (LSL) and brown (LT). 2. From 18 weeks of age, LSL and LT were kept in 4 groups of 50 birds in a poultry house with passages to a roofed scratching room and a grassland area with a stocking density of one bird/10 m2. 3. All birds had transponders to record the movements of each hen between inside and outside areas and the time spent in each area during 24 h. Feather scoring was carried out at 6 ages from 20 to 48 weeks. At 44 weeks of age, TI reactions of 40 hens (20 from each genotype) were quantified and blood smears from 20 hens (10 from each genotype) were analysed for differential leucocyte counts. 4. LSL hens moved more frequently to outdoor areas than LT hens (44.66 vs 28.78 least square/d). However, the proportion of time spent on grassland was greater in LT than in LSL hens, whereas time (%) spent by LT hens in the roofed scratching area was less than for LSI hens. 5. In LT hens TI was shorter while heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and basophilia were greater than in LSL hens. 6. Total body feather score was poorer in LSL than in LT hens. Incidence of footpad inflammation was higher in LSL than LT hens. 7. There was a positive association between TI and footpad inflammation. The percentage of time spent on grassland and feather damage were inversely correlated. 8. More movement between the areas, as in LSL hens, was positively associated with fearfulness, whereas long periods on grassland, as in LT hens, were associated with indicators of increased stress. The negative correlation between feather damage and time spent outside suggests that feather pecking risk decreases in birds attracted to grassland. PMID:15697012

  6. Evaluation of oral, subcutaneous, and nasal administration of Salmonella enteritidis-immune lymphokines on the potentiation of a protective heterophilic inflammatory response to Salmonella enteritidis in day-old chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, M H; Genovese, K; Moyes, R B; Stanker, L H

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported that the prophylactic administration of factor(s) from T-cell supernatants derived from Salmonella enteritidis-immune chickens (ILK) have a favorable effect in controlling or eliminating salmonellosis in neonatal poultry. Experimentally, we have used the intraperitoneal injection as the standard method of administering ILK to neonatal poultry. However, this method is neither easy, practical, nor economical for the poultry industry. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of oral (p.o.), intranasal (i.n.), and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of ILK for ease of delivery, induction of protective resistance against Salmonella enteritidis (Se) organ invasion, and the ability to activate peripheral blood heterophils in day-old chickens. In the first experiments, delivery of ILK p.o., i.n., and s.c. significantly (P < 0.01) increased the resistance of day-old chickens to Se organ invasion. The level of protection was equivalent to that induced by the i.p. route. Administration of a comparable protein control (bovine serum albumin, BSA) by the 3 routes induced no protective effect against Se organ invasion. Likewise, a significant increase was found in the number of circulating heterophils within 4 h of administration of the ILK by all routes. In the 2nd experiment, the function of the heterophils from ILK-treated birds was compared with that of the control cells in adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis assays. The heterophils from birds given ILK i.p., s.c., p.o., or i.n. had significantly (P < 0.01) increased functional activities when compared to the activities of the heterophils from the control birds. These studies indicate that the delivery of ILK either orally or parenterally, routes which can be used by the poultry industry, can confer protection to chickens against a localized enteric Se organ invasion by potentiating the systemic heterophilic innate response. Images FIGURES 1A and 1B. PMID:9442936

  7. Structure of Natural Killer Receptor 2B4 Bound to CD48 Reveals Basis for Heterophilic Recognition in Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family

    PubMed Central

    Velikovsky, C. Alejandro; Deng, Lu; Chlewicki, Lukasz K.; Fernández, Marisa M.; Kumar, Vinay; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Natural killer (NK) cells eliminate virally infected and tumor cells. Among the receptors regulating NK cell function is 2B4 (CD244), a member of the signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) family that binds CD48. 2B4 is the only heterophilic receptor of the SLAM family, whose other members, e.g., NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A), are self-ligands. We determined the structure of the complex between the N-terminal domains of mouse 2B4 and CD48, as well as the structures of unbound 2B4 and CD48. The complex displayed an association mode related to, yet distinct from, that of the NTB-A dimer. Binding was accompanied by the rigidification of flexible 2B4 regions containing most of the polymorphic residues across different species and receptor isoforms. We propose a model for 2B4-CD48 interactions that permits the intermixing of SLAM receptors with major histocompatibility complex-specific receptors in the NK cell immune synapse. This analysis revealed the basis for heterophilic recognition within the SLAM family. PMID:17950006

  8. Structure of natural killer receptor 2B4 bound to CD48 reveals basis for heterophilic recognition in signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family.

    PubMed

    Velikovsky, C Alejandro; Deng, Lu; Chlewicki, Lukasz K; Fernández, Marisa M; Kumar, Vinay; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2007-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells eliminate virally infected and tumor cells. Among the receptors regulating NK cell function is 2B4 (CD244), a member of the signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) family that binds CD48. 2B4 is the only heterophilic receptor of the SLAM family, whose other members, e.g., NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A), are self-ligands. We determined the structure of the complex between the N-terminal domains of mouse 2B4 and CD48, as well as the structures of unbound 2B4 and CD48. The complex displayed an association mode related to, yet distinct from, that of the NTB-A dimer. Binding was accompanied by the rigidification of flexible 2B4 regions containing most of the polymorphic residues across different species and receptor isoforms. We propose a model for 2B4-CD48 interactions that permits the intermixing of SLAM receptors with major histocompatibility complex-specific receptors in the NK cell immune synapse. This analysis revealed the basis for heterophilic recognition within the SLAM family. PMID:17950006

  9. Structure of Natural Killer Receptor 2B4 Bound to CD48 Reveals Basis for Heterophilic Recognition in Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovsky,C.; Deng, L.; Chlewicki, L.; Fernandez, M.; Kumar, V.; Mariuzza, R.

    2007-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells eliminate virally infected and tumor cells. Among the receptors regulating NK cell function is 2B4 (CD244), a member of the signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) family that binds CD48. 2B4 is the only heterophilic receptor of the SLAM family, whose other members, e.g., NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A), are self-ligands. We determined the structure of the complex between the N-terminal domains of mouse 2B4 and CD48, as well as the structures of unbound 2B4 and CD48. The complex displayed an association mode related to, yet distinct from, that of the NTB-A dimer. Binding was accompanied by the rigidification of flexible 2B4 regions containing most of the polymorphic residues across different species and receptor isoforms. We propose a model for 2B4-CD48 interactions that permits the intermixing of SLAM receptors with major histocompatibility complex-specific receptors in the NK cell immune synapse. This analysis revealed the basis for heterophilic recognition within the SLAM family.

  10. Flagellin and lipopolysaccharide up-regulation of IL-6 and CXCLi2 gene expression in chicken heterophils is mediated by ERK1/2-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Toll-like receptor agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulate chicken heterophils to induce the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by a mechanism involving the triggering of differential MEK-ERK signaling cascades. However, the translocation and activa...

  11. Neutralization and purification of thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and thyroid blocking antibody (TBAb) by heterophilic antibody to animal IgG in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yukio; Kajita, Yoshihiro; Hachiya, Takashi; Hamaoki, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    There are several reports that sera from Graves' patients contain heterophilic antibody (Ab) to animal IgG such as human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA). We examined the binding of TSAb and TBAb with heterophilic Ab. The binding of animal IgG with patient's IgG was examined by the inhibition of animal IgG on the binding of labeled bovine (b) IgG with patient's IgG. The binding to labeled bIgG was detected in the serum of 5 patients (2.7 %) among 185 patients with Graves' disease. The binding of the labeled bIgG with patient's IgG was inhibited by animal serum or the crude IgG (45% ammonium sulfate fraction of serum)(such as dog, horse, bovine, porcine, goat, ovine, rabbit, guinea-pig, rat, mouse) except human, monkey and chick. This heterophilic Ab which had cross-reaction with mammalian IgG (except human, monkey) was used as human anti-animal IgG Ab. TBII and TSAb activity of TSAb-positive serum, and TBII activity of TBAb-positive serum were neutralized by incubation with this Ab-bound column. Partial purification of TSAb- or TBAb- IgG from Protein A-purified TSAb- or TBAb-IgG was possible using this Ab-bound column. TBII and TSAb activity of TSAb-IgG and TBII activity of TBAb-IgG were neutralized by incubation with rabbit anti-human (h) IgG Ab (having cross-reaction with animal IgG). Further purification of Protein A-purified TSAb-IgG or TBAb-IgG by rabbit anti-hIgG Ab-bound column was impossible. The binding of TSAb and TBAb with heterophlic Ab means that TSAb-and TBAb-specific IgG have immunological similarity with mammalian species IgG compared to human IgG. PMID:22082836

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Heterophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratios of Nestling Passerine Birds: Comparison of Blue Tits and Great Tits

    PubMed Central

    Banbura, Jerzy; Skwarska, Joanna; Banbura, Miroslawa; Gladalski, Michal; Holysz, Magdalena; Kalinski, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Wawrzyniak, Jaroslaw; Zielinski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors affecting trophic conditions act as stressors on nestling altricial birds. Access of parental birds to a sufficient supply of food in a limited period of the nestling stage differ in time and space, depending on nesting habitat, prey density and weather conditions. Heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (H/L) is considered as a reliable indicator of prolonged stress reaction in birds. In this study we examine if variation in H/L shows consistent spatio-temporal patterns in nestlings of two parids, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus and great tit Parus major. We found that blue tit nestlings had on average higher H/L than great tit nestlings, which corresponds with the ecological sensitivity of these species. In both species H/L was higher in a poor parkland habitat than in a high quality forest habitat. In nestling blue tits, higher H/L values occurred in years characterized by more extreme weather conditions and worse caterpillar availability. Such consistent patterns of variation in the H/L ratio of nestling blue tits and great tits suggest that, when age-dependent effects are controlled, the ratio can be used as an indicator of physiological stress that is generated by food-related stressors differing in space and time. In particular, elevated H/L ratios are indicative of human-induced changes in the structure of breeding habitats. PMID:24066123

  13. Spatial and temporal variation in heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios of nestling passerine birds: comparison of blue tits and great tits.

    PubMed

    Banbura, Jerzy; Skwarska, Joanna; Banbura, Miroslawa; Gladalski, Michal; Holysz, Magdalena; Kalinski, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Wawrzyniak, Jaroslaw; Zielinski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors affecting trophic conditions act as stressors on nestling altricial birds. Access of parental birds to a sufficient supply of food in a limited period of the nestling stage differ in time and space, depending on nesting habitat, prey density and weather conditions. Heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (H/L) is considered as a reliable indicator of prolonged stress reaction in birds. In this study we examine if variation in H/L shows consistent spatio-temporal patterns in nestlings of two parids, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus and great tit Parus major. We found that blue tit nestlings had on average higher H/L than great tit nestlings, which corresponds with the ecological sensitivity of these species. In both species H/L was higher in a poor parkland habitat than in a high quality forest habitat. In nestling blue tits, higher H/L values occurred in years characterized by more extreme weather conditions and worse caterpillar availability. Such consistent patterns of variation in the H/L ratio of nestling blue tits and great tits suggest that, when age-dependent effects are controlled, the ratio can be used as an indicator of physiological stress that is generated by food-related stressors differing in space and time. In particular, elevated H/L ratios are indicative of human-induced changes in the structure of breeding habitats. PMID:24066123

  14. Decrease in Plasma Levels of α-Synuclein Is Evident in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease after Elimination of Heterophilic Antibody Interference

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Ryotaro; Tokuda, Takahiko; Tatebe, Harutsugu; Ohmichi, Takuma; Kasai, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki; El-Agnaf, Omar M. A.

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial biochemical, pathological, and genetic evidence that α-synuclein (A-syn) is a principal molecule in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). We previously reported that total A-syn levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), measured with the specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed by ourselves, were decreased in patients with PD, and suggested the usefulness of A-syn in CSF and plasma as a biomarker for the diagnosis of PD. After our report, a considerable number of studies have investigated the levels A-syn in CSF and in blood, but have reported inconclusive results. Such discrepancies have often been attributed not only to the use of different antibodies in the ELISAs but also to interference from hemolysis. In this study we measured the levels of A-syn in CSF and plasma by using our own sandwich ELISA with or without heterophilic antibody (HA) inhibitor in 30 patients with PD and 58 age-matched controls. We thereby revealed that HA interfered with ELISA measurements of A-syn and are accordingly considered to be an important confounder in A-syn ELISAs. HA produced falsely exaggerated signals in A-syn ELISAs more prominently in plasma samples than in CSF samples. After elimination of HA interference, it was found that hemolysis did not have a significant effect on the signals obtained using our A-syn ELISA. Furthermore, plasma levels of A-syn were significantly lower in the PD group compared with the control group following elimination of HA interference with an HA inhibitor. Our results demonstrate that HA was a major confounder that should be controlled in A-syn ELISAs, and that plasma A-syn could be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of PD if adequately quantified following elimination of HA interference. PMID:25849645

  15. Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress would both improve human health and provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (Alphamune™, YE), ...

  16. BT cationic peptides: Small peptides that modulate innate immune responses of chicken heterophils and monocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drug-resistant bacteria pose an enormous threat to public health having developed resistance mechanisms to all existing classes of antibiotics. Fewer novel antibiotics are being developed, so there is an increasing need to identify alternative approaches with less associated resistance. An alternat...

  17. SCAVENGER RECEPTORS FOUND ON CHICKEN HETEROPHILS CONTRIBUTE TO THE PHAGOCYTOSIS OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are a critical component of the innate immune response and the hosts¿ ability to recognize self from infectious non-self. Scavenger receptors (SR), a type of PRR, are cell surface glycoproteins involved in receptor-mediated phagocytosis of polyanionic ligands. H...

  18. Direct Ca2+-dependent Heterophilic Interaction between Desmosomal Cadherins, Desmoglein and Desmocollin, Contributes to Cell–Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chitaev, Nikolai A.; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.

    1997-01-01

    Human fibrosarcoma cells, HT-1080, feature extensive adherens junctions, lack mature desmosomes, and express a single known desmosomal protein, Desmoglein 2 (Dsg2). Transfection of these cells with bovine Desmocollin 1a (Dsc1a) caused dramatic changes in the subcellular distribution of endogenous Dsg2. Both cadherins clustered in the areas of the adherens junctions, whereas only a minor portion of Dsg2 was seen in these areas in the parental cells. Deletion mapping showed that intact extracellular cadherin-like repeats of Dsc1a (Arg1-Thr170) are required for the translocation of Dsg2. Deletion of the intracellular C-domain that mediates the interaction of Dsc1a with plakoglobin, or the CSI region that is involved in the binding to desmoplakin, had no effect. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments of cell lysates stably expressing Dsc1a with anti-Dsc or -Dsg antibodies demonstrate that the desmosomal cadherins, Dsg2 and Dsc1a, are involved in a direct Ca2+-dependent interaction. This conclusion was further supported by the results of solid phase binding experiments. These showed that the Dsc1a fragment containing cadherin-like repeats 1 and 2 binds directly to the extracellular portion of Dsg in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The contribution of the Dsg/ Dsc interaction to cell–cell adhesion was tested by coculturing HT-1080 cells expressing Dsc1a with HT-1080 cells lacking Dsc but expressing myc-tagged plakoglobin (MPg). In the latter cells, MPg and the endogenous Dsg form stable complexes. The observed specific coimmunoprecipitation of MPg by anti-Dsc antibodies in coculture indicates that an intercellular interaction between Dsc1 and Dsg is involved in cell–cell adhesion. PMID:9214392

  19. Effects of avian triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-A1) activation on heterophil functional activites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel class of innate receptors called the triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) has been discovered and shown to be involved in innate inflammatory responses. The TREM family has been found in the chicken genome and consists of one activating gene (TREM-A1) and two inhibitory ge...

  20. OXIDATIVE BURST MEDIATED BY TOLL LIKE RECEPTORS (TLR) AND CD14 ON AVIAN HETEROPHILS STIMULATED WITH BACTERIAL TOLL AGONISTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on...

  1. The selective Dectin-1 agonist, curdlan, induces an oxidative burst response in chicken heterophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A critical component of host innate immunity is recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Dectin-1 is the primary PRR for exogenous beta-glucan, a component of fungal and bacterial cell walls. A previous study conducted in our laboratory...

  2. Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune (YE), was added to turkey po...

  3. Effects of a dietary yeast extract on hematological parameters, heterophil function, and bacterial clearance in turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli and subjected to transport stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A standardized yeast extract supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey poult diets. Male poults were challenged by air sac injection with 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 week of age. At 3 weeks of age chal...

  4. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  5. THE USE OF SELECTIVE PHARMACOLOGICAL INHIBITORS TO DELINEATE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS ACTIVATED DURING COMPLEMENT RECEPTOR-MEDIATED DEGRANULATION IN CHICKEN HETEROPHILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complement receptors (CR), along with Fc receptors, play a primary role in the removal of bacterial pathogens in poultry. The binding of serum-opsonized bacteria to CR results in the secretion of both toxic oxygen metabolites and anti-bacterial granules. We have previously shown that the stimulati...

  6. Effects of a dietary yeast extract on hematological parameters, heterophil function, and bacterial clearance in turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli and subjected to transport stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A standardized yeast extract supplement, Alphamune (YE), was added to turkey poult diets. Male poults were challenged by air sac injection with 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 week of age. At 3 weeks of age chal...

  7. DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION BY AVIAN HETEROPHILS DURING RECEPTOR-MEDIATED PHAGOCYTOSIS OF OPSONIZED AND NON-OPSONIZED SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internalization of pathogens by phagocytic cells triggers the innate immune response, which in turn regulates the acquired response. Phagocytes express a variety of receptors that are involved in recognition of pathogens including: (1) pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved ...

  8. DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION BY CHICKEN HETEROPHILS DURING RECEPTOR-MEDIATED PHAGOCYTOSIS OF OPSONIZED AND NON-OPSONIZED SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internalization of pathogens by phagocytic cells starts the innate immune response, which in turn regulates the acquired response. Phagocytes express a variety of receptors that are involved in recognition of pathogens including: (1) pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved mo...

  9. FLAGELLIN AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE STIMULATE THE MEK-ERK SIGNALING PATHWAY IN CHICKEN HETEROPHILS THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF THE SMALL GTPASES, RAS AND RAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TLR agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulate functional activation and cytokine gene expression via the extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) MAP kinase cascade. However, the upstream mechanisms of these signaling events remain unknown. In mammals, the smal...

  10. Differential induction of nitric oxide, degranulation, and oxidative burst activities in response to microbial agonist stimulation in monocytes and heterophils from young commercial turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns and trigger inflammatory immune responses to control the infection. Here, we examined functional innate immune responses to Salmonella enteritidis (SE, live or formalin-killed) and various TLR ag...

  11. Mononucleosis spot test

    MedlinePlus

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  12. Experimental study of induced inflammation in the Brazilian Boa (Boa constrictor constrictor).

    PubMed

    Tucunduva, M; Borelli, P; Silva, J R

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify the cellular types present in inflammatory processes in the Brazilian snake, Boa constrictor constrictor. Blood smears were first made from three normal snakes and stained by several methods to identify the cell types present, thus facilitating the identification of cells in inflammatory processes induced in 16 further snakes by the subcutaneous implantation of cotton suture threads and circular coverslips. Implanted threads induced migration of heterophils and monocytes after 4 h, more intense monocyte migration after 24 h, an intense granulocytic migration inside and around the thread after 48 h, heterophilic granulocytes, macrophages and giant cells after 7 days, and giant cells with a typical granuloma response and persistence of heterophilic cells after 15, 69 and 117 days. The cell population attached to the implanted coverslips after 4 h was composed of heterophils, thrombocytes, erythrocytes and macrophages; after 24 and 48 h heterophils predominated, and after 7 days heterophils, macrophages and giant cells predominated. PMID:11578134

  13. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques heterophile antibodies frequently associated with infectious mononucleosis in serum, plasma, and other body fluids. Measurements of these antibodies aid in the diagnosis of...

  14. THE FEATHERING GENE INFLUENCES DEGRANULATION AND OXIDATIVE BURST BUT NOT CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE MRNA EXPRESSION OR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ORGAN INVASION IN BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, we showed differences in in vitro heterophil function between parental broilers (Line A>B and Line X>Y) and F1 reciprocal crosses (Line Cheterophil function. Specifically, the fast feathering gene (k) may enhance heterop...

  15. THE FEATHERING GENE IS LINKED TO DEGRANULATION AND OXIDATIVE BURST NOT CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE MRNA EXPRESSION LEVELS OR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ORGAN INVASION IN BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, we showed differences in heterophil function between parental broilers Lines A (fast [F] feathering)>B (slow [S] feathering) and their F1 reciprocal crosses (Line D [F]>C [S]), indicating the feathering gene is associated with heterophil function. In the present study, we evaluated the...

  16. Quantification of the interaction of neuronal adhesion molecules by flow cytometry using microbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnok, Attila; Noehrenberg, Ursel; Schuhmacher, Stephan; Volkmer, Hans-Juergen

    1998-05-01

    Neuronal adhesion molecules expressed during embryogenesis are essential for axonal pathfinding and development of neural connections and can interact by homophilic or heterophilic adhesion. We used and further developed a simple flow cytometric (FCM) microbead method to assess these interactions. This method allows the detection of homo- or heterophilic interactions and gives estimates of the binding affinity. It is possible to determine binding domains of a molecule using site specific antibodies or protein fragments. Adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin-superfamily or the tenascin (TN)-family isolated from chick brain were analyzed. Purified molecules were covalently or non-covalently coupled to microbeads. For investigation of heterophilic interactions different molecules were coupled to beads of different colors. Measurements were done on single laser FCM with UV or 488 nm excitation. From the measured particle numbers the numbers of beads in homo- and/or heterophilic aggregates were determined. From these values the percentage of beads in aggregates and the aggregate size was calculated. Homophilic interaction was found for the molecules NCAM, NgCAM and NrCAM. Heterophilic interaction were detected e.g. for: NrCAM/F11, TN-R/F11 and CALEB/TN-C and CALEB/TN-R. Using fragments of TN-R we found, that the third of 8 fibronectin type III domains bound to F11. The FCM results were confirmed by neurite outgrowth assays. Our data demonstrate that FCM analysis of microbead aggregation is an easy and reliable method to characterize protein interactions.

  17. Erythrophagocytosis in circulating blood of loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta: the pitting of Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Maria Grazia; Ferretti, Luigi; Glomski, Chester; Pica, Alessandra

    2014-03-01

    In humans red blood cells live on average of 120 days. Senescent erythrocytes are removed from circulation by macrophages; this process, called erythrophagocytosis (EPC), takes place mainly in the liver but also in the bone marrow. We studied this process in loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta, inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. Leukocytes of reptiles include heterophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, basophils, thrombocytes, monocytes, and of these heterophils and monocytes represent the main phagocytic cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood of C. caretta specimens and to observe, in the blood smears, heterophils phagocytizing erythrocytes. The phagocytizing cells were also identified by cytochemical reactions. Furthermore some examples of tear-shaped erythrocytes (dacrocytes) were observed. A mechanism presuming a causative link between erythrophagocytosis and teardrop-erythrocyte detection have been proposed to explain this seemingly general pattern of all specimens both wild and housed. PMID:24254579

  18. Acute airsacculitis in turkeys inoculated with cell-free culture filtrate of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J; Qureshi, M A

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six female and 26 male turkeys, inoculated into the caudal thoracic air sacs with cell-free culture filtrate of Pasteurella multocida strain R44/6, were examined from 0 to 6 hours post-inoculation and compared with 26 female and 26 male sham-inoculated control turkeys given brain-heart-infusion broth. The air sac reacted rapidly with exudation of heterophils. Microscopically, low numbers of heterophils were present within air sac blood vessels and also perivascularly by 0.5 hour after inoculation. These became more numerous by 1.5 and 3 hours post-inoculation. By 6 hours post-inoculation, there was severe swelling of air sac epithelial and mesothelial cells and thickening of the air sac by proteinaceous fluid and heterophils. Ultrastructurally, mesothelial and air sac epithelial cells were vacuolated, and interdigitating processes of epithelial cells were separated. Microscopically, in control turkeys, rare heterophils were present perivascularly at 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after inoculation. Ultrastructurally, all features were normal. In turkeys given cell-free culture filtrate, total cell counts in air sac lavage fluids increased markedly by 3 hours post-inoculation in which heterophils predominated (greater than 97%). There were only slight increases in cell counts of air sac lavages from control turkeys. The circulating blood heterophil cell count dropped transiently at 1.5 hours post-inoculation, followed by a return to normal 3 hours after inoculation, and by heterophilia by 6 hours post-inoculation in turkeys given either cell-free culture filtrate or brain-heart-infusion broth. These results indicate cell-free culture filtrate of P. multocida induces hematologic, cytologic, and morphologic changes indistinguishable from those induced by cultures of P. multocida. PMID:2017827

  19. The effect of furnished cages on the immune response of laying hens under social stress.

    PubMed

    Matur, Erdal; Eraslan, Evren; Akyazi, Ibrahim; Ergul Ekiz, Elif; Eseceli, Huseyin; Keten, Mehmet; Metiner, Kemal; Aktaran Bala, Deniz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of cage furnishing and social stress on some lymphoid organ weight and innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immune responses in laying hens. Sixty-four chickens were used. The chickens were divided into 2 groups; one of the groups was reared in furnished cages (RFC) and the other was reared in conventional cages (RCC). In wk 17, social stress was applied. Heterophil and lymphocyte percentages; liver, spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius weights; phagocytic activity; oxidative burst and chemotaxic activity of heterophil; CD4+ and CD8+ cell proportions; and antibody production were measured. The effect of rearing methods was significant on heterophil, lymphocyte percentage, heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and antibody production. Heterophil percentage and H/L ratio were lower (P=0.001, P=0.001, respectively), and antibody production was higher (P=0.003) in RFC hens compared to RCC hens. The main effect of social stress was also significant on heterophil, lymphocyte percentages, and H/L ratio. Heterophil percentage was higher (P=0.049); H/L ratio tended to be higher (P=0.068); and lymphocyte percentage tended to be lower (P=0.072) due to stress. In addition, thymus and bursa of Fabricius weights tended to be lower (P=0.073 and P=0.074, respectively) in stressed hens. There were significant interactions between rearing methods and social stress on oxidative burst, chemotaxic activity, and CD4+ and CD8+ proportion (P=0.001, P=0.004, P=0.054, and P=0.001, respectively). These parameters were significantly higher in RFC hens, when they were exposed to stress. On the other hand, they did not differ in RCC or unstressed RFC hens. These results indicated that cage furnishing positively affected heterophil functions, CD4+ and CD8+ cell proportions, and antibody production. Therefore, we suggest that cage furnishing, which is recommended for improving the welfare of animals, is also beneficial for improving the immune response of hens under the stress condition. PMID:26475073

  20. Cytotoxic lymphocytes in infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, D. C.; Fox, R. A.; Fernandez, L. A.; MacSween, J. M.; Langley, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Seven patients with a clinical diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and detectable heterophil antibodies were found to have peripheral blood lymphocytes that were cytotoxic for lymphoid cells containing Epstein-Barr virus from a patient with Burkitt's lymphoma. The cytotoxic lymphocytes persisted in the peripheral circulation for up to 45 days. Patients who had had IM 1 to 5 years previously lacked such cytotoxic lymphocytes. Patients who had signs and symptoms of IM but no detectable heterophil antibodies lacked cytotoxic lymphocytes. The lymphocytes of one patient with IM showed progressive diminution of cytotoxic ability after prednisone treatment. PMID:187310

  1. Desmocollin 3-mediated Binding Is Crucial for Keratinocyte Cohesion and Is Impaired in Pemphigus*

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Volker; Heupel, Wolfgang-Moritz; Efthymiadis, Athina; Schmidt, Enno; Eming, Rüdiger; Rankl, Christian; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Müller, Thomas; Drenckhahn, Detlev; Waschke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Desmocollin (Dsc) 1–3 and desmoglein (Dsg) 1–4, transmembrane proteins of the cadherin family, form the adhesive core of desmosomes. Here we provide evidence that Dsc3 homo- and heterophilic trans-interaction is crucial for epidermal integrity. Single molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed homophilic trans-interaction of Dsc3. Dsc3 displayed heterophilic interaction with Dsg1 but not with Dsg3. A monoclonal antibody targeted against the extracellular domain reduced homophilic and heterophilic binding as measured by AFM, caused intraepidermal blistering in a model of human skin, and a loss of intercellular adhesion in cultured keratinocytes. Because autoantibodies against Dsg1 are associated with skin blistering in pemphigus, we characterized the role of Dsc3 binding for pemphigus pathogenesis. In contrast to AFM experiments, laser tweezer trapping revealed that pemphigus autoantibodies reduced binding of Dsc3-coated beads to the keratinocyte cell surface. These data indicate that loss of heterophilic Dsc3/Dsg1 binding may contribute to pemphigus skin blistering. PMID:19717567

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPONTANEOUSLY TRANSFORMED CHICKEN MONONUCLEAR CELL LINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the characterization of a spontaneously transformed chicken monocytic cell line that developed as a single colony of cells in a heterophil culture that was inadvertently left in the incubator over a period of 25 days. These cells, hitherto named HTC, grow efficiently at both 37 C or 41 C...

  3. Identification and structural characterization of avian beta-defensin 2 peptides from pheasant and quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheasant and quail orthologues of avian ß-defensin 2 (AVBD2) were identified in methanol extracts of heterophil and bone marrow using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). We used comparative pattern profiling before and after reduction/alkyla...

  4. DIFFERENTIAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION BY CHICKEN IMMUNE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide is a rapidly reacting free radical which has cytotoxic effects during inflammatory responses and regulatory effects as a component of signal transduction cascades. We quantified the production of nitrite, a stable metabolite of nitric oxide, in chicken heterophils, monocytes and macrop...

  5. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF SEX AND GENETICS ON BEHAVIOR AND STRESS RESPONSE OF TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three lines of turkeys were tested for response in T-maze and open field tests during the first 8 days after hatch and behavior was observed after catching, moving, and transport. They were also compared for corticosterone (Cort) levels and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (H/L) in response to an Escher...

  6. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators yields chickens with increased resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella are a leading cause of foodborne illness and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry; therefore, increasing a flocks’ natural resistance to Salmonella could improve food safety. Previously, we characterized the heterophil-mediated innate immune response of two pare...

  7. Histopathology of tick-bite lesions in naturally infested capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Karin Marie; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Egami, Mizue Imoto; Pereira, Marcelo Campos; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2005-01-01

    In the present work features of tick-bite lesions were evaluated in capybaras naturally infested with Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks. Gross appearance of tick bite site was characterized by a mild swelling and erythema. Microscopic examination revealed the cement cone, a tube-like homogenous eosinophilic mass penetrating deep into the dermis. This structure was surrounded in the dermis by a cellular infiltrate and free eosinophilic granules and was associated to edema of variable intensity. Necrosis was a common feature deep in the dermis particularly at the far end of the eosinophilic tube. Hyperplasia, cellular edema and occasionally necrosis of keratinocytes could be seen at both sides of the ruptured epidermis. Cellular infiltrate was constituted overwhelmingly by polymorphonuclear leukocytes with eosinophilic granules. In capybaras cells with such features can be either eosinophils or heterophils (pseudoeosinophils), the latter being the equivalent of neutrophils of other mammals. Ultrastructural analysis of the cellular infiltrate revealed the predominance of heterophils over eosinophils. Mononuclear cells and mast cells and, in lesser numbers, basophils were also seen at skin attachment sites. The presence of heterophils in the reaction of capybaras against Amblyomma ticks is an outstanding feature but its role in the reaction to the tick is not known. It is however speculated that capybara heterophils might be associated with a more permissive environment for tick feeding and pathogen transmission as already shown for the equivalent cell type, the neutrophil, in the reaction of the dog against the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. PMID:16323054

  8. Acute airsacculitis in untreated and cyclophosphamide-pretreated broiler chickens inoculated with Escherichia coli or Escherichia coli cell-free culture filtrate.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, M; Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J

    1992-01-01

    Ninety commercial broiler chickens were divided into three equal groups; 30 were injected with brain-heart-infusion broth into the cranial thoracic air sacs (controls), 30 were similarly inoculated with a culture of Escherichia coli, and 30 were similarly inoculated with E. coli cell-free culture filtrate. Birds were examined from 0 to 6 hours post-inoculation. E. coli-inoculated and cell-free culture filtrate-inoculated chickens reacted similarly, with exudation of heterophils into the air sac. Microscopically, heterophils were present in low numbers perivascularly 0.5 hour after inoculation and became more numerous by 3 hours post-inoculation. By 6 hours post-inoculation, there was severe swelling of air sac epithelial cells and thickening of the air sac by proteinaceous fluid and heterophils. Ultrastructurally, air sac epithelial cells were swollen and vacuolated, and interdigitating processes were separated. Histologically and ultrastructurally, all features in control chickens were normal, with only rare heterophils in the air sac interstitium. In E. coli-inoculated and cell-free culture filtrate-inoculated chickens, cell counts (predominantly heterophils) in air sac lavage fluids increased markedly at 3 and 6 hours, with only slight increases in counts from lavages of controls. Heteropenia was observed in E. coli-inoculated chickens, whereas heterophilia was observed in cell-free filtrate chickens and controls. Ninety additional chickens were pretreated with cyclophosphamide, subdivided into three equal groups, and inoculated and examined similarly as above. Cyclophosphamide pretreatment reduced inflammatory changes in air sacs, lowered cell numbers in lavage fluids, and abolished hematologic changes; however, it did not prevent epithelial cell changes. These results indicate that cell-free culture filtrate of E. coli induces changes similar to those induced by cultures of E. coli. PMID:1557865

  9. Gender and Personality Differences in Response to Social Stressors in Great Tits (Parus major)

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Esther; van Oers, Kees

    2015-01-01

    In response to stressors, animals can increase the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, resulting in elevated glucocorticoid concentrations. An increase in glucocorticoids results in an increase in heterophils and a decrease in lymphocytes, which ratio (H/L-ratio) is an indicator of stress in birds. The physiological response to a stressor can depend on individual characteristics, like dominance rank, sex and personality. Although the isolated effects of these characteristics on the response to a stressor have been well studied, little is known about the response in relation to a combination of these characteristics. In this study we investigate the relationship between social stress, dominance rank, sex and exploratory behaviour as a validated operational measure of personality in great tits (Parus major). Great tits show consistent individual differences in behaviour and physiology in response to stressors, and exploratory behaviour can be classified as fast or slow exploring. We group-housed four birds, two fast and two slow explorers, of the same sex that were previously singly housed, in an aviary and compared the H/L-ratio, lymphocyte and heterophil count before and after group housing. After experiencing the social context all birds increased their H/L-ratio and heterophil count. Females showed a stronger increase in H/L-ratio and heterophil count than males, which seemed to be related to a higher number of agonistic interactions compared to males. Dominance rank and exploration type did not affect the H/L-ratio or heterophil count. Contrary to our expectations, all birds increased their lymphocyte count. However, this increase was slower for fast than for slow explorers. Our study suggests that personality and sex related differences, but not dominance rank, are associated with changes in an individual's physiological response due to a social context. PMID:26011633

  10. Gender and Personality Differences in Response to Social Stressors in Great Tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Esther; van Oers, Kees

    2015-01-01

    In response to stressors, animals can increase the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, resulting in elevated glucocorticoid concentrations. An increase in glucocorticoids results in an increase in heterophils and a decrease in lymphocytes, which ratio (H/L-ratio) is an indicator of stress in birds. The physiological response to a stressor can depend on individual characteristics, like dominance rank, sex and personality. Although the isolated effects of these characteristics on the response to a stressor have been well studied, little is known about the response in relation to a combination of these characteristics. In this study we investigate the relationship between social stress, dominance rank, sex and exploratory behaviour as a validated operational measure of personality in great tits (Parus major). Great tits show consistent individual differences in behaviour and physiology in response to stressors, and exploratory behaviour can be classified as fast or slow exploring. We group-housed four birds, two fast and two slow explorers, of the same sex that were previously singly housed, in an aviary and compared the H/L-ratio, lymphocyte and heterophil count before and after group housing. After experiencing the social context all birds increased their H/L-ratio and heterophil count. Females showed a stronger increase in H/L-ratio and heterophil count than males, which seemed to be related to a higher number of agonistic interactions compared to males. Dominance rank and exploration type did not affect the H/L-ratio or heterophil count. Contrary to our expectations, all birds increased their lymphocyte count. However, this increase was slower for fast than for slow explorers. Our study suggests that personality and sex related differences, but not dominance rank, are associated with changes in an individual's physiological response due to a social context. PMID:26011633

  11. Studies on various aspects of the indirect haemagglutination test for malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Meuwissen, J. H. E. T.; Leeuwenberg, Anna D. E. M.; Molenkamp, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    This paper gives the results of studies on various technical aspects of the indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test for malaria, on the similarity of the results obtained in the IHA test and in the indirect fluorescent antibody test, on the use of various plasmodial extracts as sensitizing antigens in the IHA test, and on the influence of heterophile antibodies on the titres obtained in the IHA test. Some longitudinal observations on induced malaria infections of man and monkey showed that the infection can induce the production of heterophile antibodies: their appearance, however, remains unpredictable. In some infections agglutinins against host erythrocyte components are also produced. Absorption of sera with tanned sheep cells sensitized with noninfected host red blood cell antigens is advocated as a control on the IHA titre for specific agglutinins. PMID:4561453

  12. Hematologic and plasma biochemical values of Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii).

    PubMed

    Foldenauer, Ulrike; Borjal, Raffy Jim; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Taha, Abid Sharif; Watson, Ryan William; Steinmetz, Hanspeter; Bürkle, Marcellus; Hammer, Sven

    2007-12-01

    The Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) is considered the world's most endangered parrot, with the last wild bird disappearing in 2001 and only 74 birds in captivity. To establish hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges and to look for differences relative to sex, age, and season, we obtained blood samples from 46 captive Spix's macaws (23 male, 23 female) housed in aviaries at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. No significant differences in hematologic or plasma biochemical values were found between females and males. Adult and juvenile birds differed in mean concentrations of glucose, total protein, amylase, cholesterol, and phosphorus; in percentages of heterophils and lymphocytes; and in the absolute lymphocyte count. Total protein, cholesterol, and phosphorus concentrations; hematocrit; and heterophil and lymphocyte counts differed significantly by season. Baseline hematologic and plasma biochemical ranges were established, which may be useful as reference values for clinicians working with this highly endangered species. PMID:18351006

  13. Fulminant Cytomegalovirus Myocarditis in an Immunocompetent Host: Resolution with Oral Valganciclovir

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anupam; Padala, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of fulminant myocarditis after a primary cytomegalovirus infection, in a previously healthy 72-year-old woman. The infection underwent clinical and immunologic resolution consequent to treatment with oral valganciclovir. In an immunocompetent host, the primary cytomegalovirus infection is usually asymptomatic or manifests itself as a heterophile-negative mononucleosis-like syndrome. Cytomegalovirus myocarditis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. After presenting our case, we review the literature on cytomegalovirus myocarditis in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:25425988

  14. Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2011-01-01

    Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

  15. Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1985-10-01

    Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia and four had heterophilia. The findings suggested that haematological testing is of potential diagnostic value in the species. PMID:18766947

  16. Acute airsacculitis in turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J

    1989-05-01

    Thirty female turkeys, inoculated into the caudal thoracic air sacs with Pasteurella multocida were examined from 0 to 6 hours post-inoculation (PI). The air sac reacted rapidly and intensely with exudation of heterophils. Circulating leukocyte and thrombocyte numbers remained normal except for an absolute lymphopenia by 6 hours PI. P. multocida was initially isolated from blood at 3 hours PI. Total cell counts increased markedly in air sac lavage fluids by 1.5 hours PI and continued to increase until 6 hours PI. Heterophils predominated in lavage fluids (greater than 94%), with macrophages comprising the remaining cells. Microscopically occasional heterophils were present within air sac blood vessels and perivascularly by 0.5 hour PI. They became more numerous by 1.5 and 3 hours PI when transepithelial migration into the air sac lumen was seen. By 6 hours PI, there was diffuse, severe swelling of air sac epithelium and mesothelium, and bacteria were located in air sac interstitium. Ultrastructurally, endothelial and air sac epithelial cells were swollen and vacuolated Interdigitating processes of air sac epithelial cells were separated. These results indicate that air sacs can be the portal of entry for P. multocida into the systemic circulation, probably via damaged air sac epithelium. PMID:2763413

  17. Acute airsacculitis in turkeys inoculated with phorbol myristate acetate.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J

    1990-06-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), which induces acute pulmonary injury in mammals, induced acute airsacculitis in turkeys after intra-airsac inoculation of 0.1 mg/kg. Grossly, air sacs contained multifocal to diffuse hemorrhage and edema at postinoculation hours (PIH) 3 and 6. Microscopically, there was multifocal congestion and small thrombocyte aggregates within small blood vessels by PIH 0.5, with a few vessels containing small numbers of marginating heterophils. By PIH 1.5, thrombocyte aggregates were larger and more numerous, and moderate numbers of heterophils were located perivascularly. Erythrocytes and proteinaceous fluid were in air sac interstitium. By PIH 3 and 6, hemorrhage and exudation of proteinaceous fluid had increased, in some instances severely distending the air sac. Ultrastructurally, changes resulting from PMA-induced injury were thrombocyte aggregation and degeneration, air sac epithelial cell vacuolation with separation of interdigitating cell processes, and endothelial cell vacuolar degeneration with loss of vascular integrity. Air sac lavage fluids had mildly increased total cell counts by PIH 1.5, but values returned to baseline by the end of the experiment, indicating lack of cell exudation into the air sac lumen. Circulating leukocyte changes included transient lymphopenia at PIH 3 and marked heterophilia at PIH 6. These results indicate that thrombocytes and/or heterophils are central to the pathogenesis of injury induced in air sacs by PMA and that the air sac responds differently to PMA than to pathogenic bacteria. PMID:2368955

  18. H/L ratio as a measurement of stress in laying hens - methodology and reliability.

    PubMed

    Lentfer, T L; Pendl, H; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Fröhlich, E K F; Von Borell, E

    2015-04-01

    Measuring the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes (H/L) in response to different stressors is a standard tool for assessing long-term stress in laying hens but detailed information on the reliability of measurements, measurement techniques and methods, and absolute cell counts is often lacking. Laying hens offered different sites of the nest boxes at different ages were compared in a two-treatment crossover experiment to provide detailed information on the procedure for measuring and the difficulties in the interpretation of H/L ratios in commercial conditions. H/L ratios were pen-specific and depended on the age and aviary system. There was no effect for the position of the nest. Heterophiles and lymphocytes were not correlated within individuals. Absolute cell counts differed in the number of heterophiles and lymphocytes and H/L ratios, whereas absolute leucocyte counts between individuals were similar. The reliability of the method using relative cell counts was good, yielding a correlation coefficient between double counts of r > 0.9. It was concluded that population-based reference values may not be sensitive enough to detect individual stress reactions and that the H/L ratio as an indicator of stress under commercial conditions may not be useful because of confounding factors and that other, non-invasive, measurements should be adopted. PMID:25622692

  19. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O

    2013-01-01

    The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409

  20. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  1. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrab?kov, Petra; Vosl?ov, Eva; Bed?ov, Iveta; Pit?kov, Vladimra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimr

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  2. Discovery and characterization of cadherin domains in Saccharophagus degradans 2-40.

    PubMed

    Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Weiner, Ronald M; Lamed, Raphael

    2010-02-01

    Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 is a prominent member of newly discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycle complex polysaccharides. The S. degradans 2-40 genome codes for 15 extraordinary long polypeptides, ranging from 274 to 1,600 kDa. Five of these contain at least 52 cadherin (CA) and cadherin-like (CADG) domains, the types of which were reported to bind calcium ions and mediate protein/protein interactions in metazoan systems. In order to evaluate adhesive features of these domains, recombinant CA doublet domains (two neighboring domains) from CabC (Sde_3323) and recombinant CADG doublet domains from CabD (Sde_0798) were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for homophilic and heterophilic interactions. In addition, CA and CADG doublet domains were tested for adhesion to the surface of S. degradans 2-40. Results showed obvious homophilic and heterophilic, calcium ion-dependent interactions between CA and CADG doublet domains. Likewise, CA and CADG doublet domains adhered to the S. degradans 2-40 surface of cells that were grown on xylan from birch wood or pectin, respectively, as a sole carbon source. This research shows for the first time that bacterial cadherin homophilic and heterophilic interactions may be similar in their nature to cadherin domains from metazoan lineages. We hypothesize that S. degradans 2-40 cadherin and cadherin-like multiple domains contribute to protein-protein interactions that may mediate cell-cell contact in the marine environment. PMID:20023015

  3. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract on haematological parameters, immune function and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Matur, E; Ergul, E; Akyazi, I; Eraslan, E; Inal, G; Bilgic, S; Demircan, H

    2011-10-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SC) on haematological parameters, immune function, and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed a diet contaminated with low level aflatoxin (AF). Forty-eight Ross 308 breeder hens were fed on diets containing AF (0 or 100 µg/kg) and SC (0 or 1 g/kg) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), and platelet counts, differential leucocyte counts, blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD5+ T cell ratios, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst of heterophils, plasma and liver catalase activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and ascorbic acid concentrations were measured. 3. Plasma and liver MDA concentrations increased (P < 0·05), liver catalase activity decreased (P < 0·05) and total WBC count tended to decrease (P = 0·082) in hens fed the contaminated diet. WBC count, monocyte percentage, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst of heterophils increased (P < 0·05), and plasma MDA concentration tended to decrease (P = 0.088) in SC extract supplemented hens. There was a significant interaction between AF and SC on heterophil, lymphocyte, CD5+ cell percentages, and plasma catalase activity. Blood heterophil percentage decreased but lymphocyte percentage increased in hens fed on the AF contaminated diet without SC supplementation. SC supplementation counteracted the negative effect of AF on heterophils and lymphocytes. The CD5+ cell percentage decreased in unsupplemented hens fed the AF contaminated diet and this negative effect was minimised in SC supplemented hens. Plasma catalase activity increased in SC supplemented hens fed the uncontaminated diet whereas the effect of SC decreased in hens fed the AF contaminated diet. 4. The SC reduced some of the some adverse effects of AF, and improved functions of the non-specific immune system. Therefore, the SC extract which has been used for improving productive performance in birds and mammals may also be useful for modulating some of the effects of a low level, chronic dosage of AF. PMID:22029780

  4. Differential ex vivo responses of primary leukocytes from turkey pedigree lines to Salmonella Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    Potter, Tiffany D; Glover, Paige K; Evans, Nicholas P; Dalloul, Rami A

    2016-02-01

    Escalating product recalls as a consequence of Salmonella-contaminated poultry products have resulted in detrimental economic impacts in the poultry industry. One potential long-term alternative method to Salmonella prevention is genetic selection to improve innate resistance. This study evaluated the ex vivo effects of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) on phagocytic and bactericidal leukocyte function in turkeys from six pedigree lines (A-F). Day-of-hatch poults (n = 48) were placed and raised in cages (2 birds/gender/genetic line/cage) to 35 d when heterophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were extracted from males and females of each line. Cells were used in phagocytic and bactericidal assays to determine the ex vivo effects of SH on turkey leukocyte activity. Data were analyzed using the Fit Model platform in JMP Pro 10.0 (SAS Institute Inc.) with differences considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and data reported as LS Means with SEM. Although genetic line had no significant effect on phagocytosis of SH by heterophils and PBMCs, cumulatively, female cells exhibited higher phagocytosis potential than those from males. The main effect of gender was significant on bactericidal activity of PBMCs when incubated at a 1:10 and 1:100 PBMC to SH ratio. Genetic line also had a significant effect on bactericidal activity of PBMCs with cells from line F exhibiting the best activity. These results suggest that gender had a marked cumulative effect on phagocytosis of SH by heterophils and PBMCs while both genetic line and gender had a prominent effect on bacterial killing of SH by turkey PBMCs. Once able to determine genetic markers associated with these immune responses to Salmonella, genetic selection for increased resistance may become feasible in turkeys. PMID:26706359

  5. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals of free-living Mediterranean pond turtles (Mauremys leprosa).

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Vila, Judit; Díaz-Paniagua, Carmen; Pérez-Santigosa, Natividad; Laza, Agustín; Camacho, Inés; Recio, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Reference intervals of hematologic and biochemical blood profiles were obtained from 56 male and 58 female Mediterranean pond turtles (Mauremys leprosa) captured from the wild in different periods of their annual cycle. Mean (or median in nonnormal distributions) values of leukocyte differential were 53.8% and 58.5% heterophils, 35.3% and 32.6% eosinophils, 6.3% and 5.8% lymphocytes, 4.3% and 2% monocytes, and 0% and 0% basophils in males and females, respectively. Biochemical values did not differ from other chelonians, but values were generally higher in females than in males. PMID:17984284

  6. Bacteremia and vegetative endocarditis associated with a heart murmur in a blue-and-gold macaw.

    PubMed

    Isaza, R; Buergelt, C; Kollias, G V

    1992-01-01

    A 6-year-old male blue-and-gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented with severe weakness, anorexia, and weight loss of 2 weeks duration. Cardiac auscultation revealed a soft systolic murmur. Blood cultures collected both antemortem and postmortem yielded pure isolates of Enterobacter cloacae. At necropsy, vegetative endocarditis was found involving the left atrioventricular valve. Microscopically, the lesion on the valve was characterized by a mixture of necrotic material, colonies of gram-negative bacteria, fibrosis, and inflammatory infiltrate consisting primarily of heterophils. PMID:1485868

  7. Conjunctival xanthoma in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna).

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcy J; Johnstone-McLean, Nancy S; Ward, Daniel; Newkirk, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    A 17-year-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) presented for evaluation of a discreet, conjunctival mass of the OD. No other abnormalities were found on ophthalmic or physical examination. A heterophilic leukocytosis was present on the complete blood count, and elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity, creatinine kinase activity and cholesterol were present on the plasma biochemistry panel. Surgical removal of the mass was complete and no recurrence has occurred by six months after excision. Reduction of dietary fats was recommended to reduce serum cholesterol levels and reduce the likelihood of future occurrence of xanthomas in this bird. PMID:19152599

  8. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Para; Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  9. Diagnosing Infectious Mononucleosis: Avoiding the Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis may be diagnosed with confidence only when Hoagland's diagnostic criteria have been met. The illness must be compatible with the known clinical features of infectious mononucleosis; there should be absolute and relative lymphocytosis on differential white cell count; there should be more than 20% atypical lymphocytes and serological tests should be positive—either a Paul-Bunnell Davidsohn or a rapid slide test for heterophil antibody. Failure to diagnose this common viral infection accurately may lead to inappropriate and perhaps harmful management, and may delay recognition of potentially life-threatening complications. PMID:21274039

  10. The Identification of Loci for Immune Traits in Chickens Using a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Peng; Liu, Ranran; Zheng, Maiqing; Sun, Yan; Wu, Dan; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie; Zhao, Guiping

    2015-01-01

    The genetic improvement of disease resistance in poultry continues to be a challenge. To identify candidate genes and loci responsible for these traits, genome-wide association studies using the chicken 60k high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array for six immune traits, total serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level, numbers of, and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes, and antibody responses against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC), were performed. RT-qPCR was used to quantify the relative expression of the identified candidate genes. Nine significantly associated SNPs (P < 2.81E-06) and 30 SNPs reaching the suggestively significant level (P < 5.62E-05) were identified. Five of the 10 SNPs that were suggestively associated with the antibody response to SRBC were located within or close to previously reported QTL regions. Fifteen SNPs reached a suggestive significance level for AIV antibody titer and seven were found on the sex chromosome Z. Seven suggestive markers involving five different SNPs were identified for the numbers of heterophils and lymphocytes, and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. Nine significant SNPs, all on chromosome 16, were significantly associated with serum total IgY concentration, and the five most significant were located within a narrow region spanning 6.4kb to 253.4kb (P = 1.20E-14 to 5.33E-08). After testing expression of five candidate genes (IL4I1, CD1b, GNB2L1, TRIM27 and ZNF692) located in this region, changes in IL4I1, CD1b transcripts were consistent with the concentrations of IgY, while abundances of TRIM27 and ZNF692 showed reciprocal changes to those of IgY concentrations. This study has revealed 39 SNPs associated with six immune traits (total serum IgY level, numbers of, and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes, and antibody responses against AIV and SRBC) in Beijing-You chickens. The narrow region spanning 247kb on chromosome 16 is an important QTL for serum total IgY concentration. Five candidate genes related to IgY level validated here are novel and may play critical roles in the modulation of immune responses. Potentially useful candidate SNPs for marker-assisted selection for disease resistance are identified. It is highly likely that these candidate genes play roles in various aspects of the immune response in chickens. PMID:25822738

  11. Age-related haematological changes and haemopathological responses in Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chiliensis).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1984-04-01

    Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 49 clinically normal Chilean flamingos of different ages. Compared with adults, chicks aged 2-3 months showed low haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations. There was a rise in haemoglobin level and red cell count with increasing age but the mean cell haemoglobin concentration did not reach optimum until the birds were mature. In chicks the total white cell count was high and the number of heterophils was widely variable. Findings on four sick adult birds provided preliminary evidence that clinical haematology has a potential diagnostic value in this species. PMID:18766839

  12. Survival and physiologic response of common Amakihi and Japanese white-eyes during simulated translocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S.; Banko, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding in an aviary for 48 hr with overnight thermal support followed by transport for 4 hr prior to release. Trial 3 and 1 were identical except that overnight thermal support was provided during trial 3. We monitored survival, food consumption, weight change, and fecal production during captivity as well as changes in hematocrit, estimated total solids, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma uric acid, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) at capture and release. Survival was significantly lower for Amakihi during trial 1 (no thermal support). Birds that died lost significantly more weight than those that survived. Regardless of trial, birds responded to translocation by a combination of weight loss, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, uric acid, and CPK levels. The first 24 hr of captivity posed the greatest risk to birds regardless of whether transport or holding occurred first. Food consumption, fecal production, and weight all decreased at night, and overnight thermal support during holding was critical if ambient temperatures dipped to freezing. We recommend that if small passerines are to be held for > 12 hr, they be monitored individually for weight loss, food consumption, and fecal production.

  13. Survival and physiologic response of Common Amakihi and Japanese White-eyes during simulated translocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S.; Banko, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding in an aviary for 48 hr with overnight thermal support followed by transport for 4 hr prior to release. Trial 3 and 1 were identical except that overnight thermal support was provided during trial 3. We monitored survival, food consumption, weight change, and fecal production during captivity as well as changes in hematocrit, estimated total solids, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma uric acid, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) at capture and release. Survival was significantly lower for Amakihi during trial I (no thermal support). Birds that died lost significantly more weight than those that survived. Regardless of trial, birds responded to translocation by a combination of weight loss, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, uric acid, and CPK levels. The first 24 hr of captivity posed the greatest risk to birds regardless of whether transport or holding occurred first. Food consumption, fecal production, and weight all decreased at night, and overnight thermal support during holding was critical if ambient temperatures dipped to freezing. We recommend that if small passerines are to be held for > 12 hr, they be monitored individually for weight loss, food consumption, and fecal production.

  14. Flagellin from Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Reveals a Fundamental Role in Chicken Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhiming; Cong, Qiuxia; Geng, Shizhong; Fang, Qiang; Kang, Xilong; You, Meng

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines have been extensively studied, with a focus on eliciting specific immune responses against foreign antigens. However, very little is known about the innate immune responses, particularly the role of flagellin, in the induction of innate immunity triggered by recombinant attenuated Salmonella in chickens. In the present report, we describe two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains, wild-type (WT) or flagellin-deficient (flhD) Salmonella, both expressing the fusion protein (F) gene of Newcastle disease virus. We examined the bacterial load and spatiotemporal kinetics of expression of inflammatory cytokine, chemokine, and Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) genes in the cecum, spleen, liver, and heterophils following oral immunization of chickens with the two Salmonella strains. The flhD mutant exhibited an enhanced ability to establish systemic infection compared to the WT. In contrast, the WT strain induced higher levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), CXCLi2, and TLR5 mRNAs in cecum, the spleen, and the heterophils than the flhD mutant at different times postinfection. Collectively, the present data reveal a fundamental role of flagellin in the innate immune responses induced by recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines in chickens that should be considered for the rational design of novel vaccines for poultry. PMID:22237893

  15. Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Samantha K.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Balfour, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by sore throat, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever most often seen in adolescents and young adults and lasting several weeks. It can be caused by a number of pathogens, but this chapter only discusses infectious mononucleosis due to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV is a γ-herpesvirus that infects at least 90% of the population worldwide. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among teenagers and young adults. How preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. A typical clinical picture with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, there can also be long-term consequences as the result of acquisition of the virus. Several EBV related illnesses occur including certain cancers and autoimmune diseases, as well as complications of primary immunodeficiency in persons with the certain genetic mutations. A major obstacle to understanding these sequelae has been the lack of an efficient animal model for EBV infection, although progress in primate and mouse models has recently been made. Key future challenges are to develop protective vaccines and effective treatment regimens. PMID:26424648

  16. Friendship and natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    More than any other species, humans form social ties to individuals who are neither kin nor mates, and these ties tend to be with similar people. Here, we show that this similarity extends to genotypes. Across the whole genome, friends’ genotypes at the single nucleotide polymorphism level tend to be positively correlated (homophilic). In fact, the increase in similarity relative to strangers is at the level of fourth cousins. However, certain genotypes are also negatively correlated (heterophilic) in friends. And the degree of correlation in genotypes can be used to create a “friendship score” that predicts the existence of friendship ties in a hold-out sample. A focused gene-set analysis indicates that some of the overall correlation in genotypes can be explained by specific systems; for example, an olfactory gene set is homophilic and an immune system gene set is heterophilic, suggesting that these systems may play a role in the formation or maintenance of friendship ties. Friends may be a kind of “functional kin.” Finally, homophilic genotypes exhibit significantly higher measures of positive selection, suggesting that, on average, they may yield a synergistic fitness advantage that has been helping to drive recent human evolution. PMID:25024208

  17. Epstein-Barr virus-specific serum immunoglobulin A as an acute-phase antibody in infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Nikoskelainen, J; Neel, E U; Stevens, D A

    1979-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen were assayed serially in 19 patients with infectious mononucleosis and in 38 controls. Seventy-four percent of infectious mononucleosis patients demonstrated IgA antibody, whereas this was found in 13% of controls. This antibody appeared early in infectious mononucleosis and was virtually gone 10 weeks after onset. Comparison of IgA antibody kinetics was made with IgG and IgM antibodies to viral capsid antigen, heterophile antibody, and antibody to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen and nuclear antigen. Failure to demonstrate IgA antibody was associated with severe illness, prolonged illness, delay in IgG and anti-Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen antibody, and low or absent heterophile and anti-early antigen antibody. Assay of IgA antibody to viral capsid antigen is a potentially useful adjunct in the serodiagnosis of infectious mononucleosis or recent Epstein-Barr virus infection, as are the other antibodies tested, but in this study IgM viral capsid antigen antibody was the only acute-phase antibody present in all patients. PMID:227922

  18. HEMATOLOGIC AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF KELP GULLS (LARUS DOMINICANUS) CAPTURED IN THE CITY OF TALCAHUANO, CHILE.

    PubMed

    Doussang, Daniela; Merino, Victoria; Moreno, Lucila; Islas, Armando; Barrientos, Carlos; Mathieu, Christian; Cerda, Fabiola; López, Juana; Ortega, René; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    In order to provide tools for future health-based monitoring programs, we developed reference intervals for hematology and plasma biochemistry and partitioned data for sex and season (winter and autumn). Ninety-one physically healthy kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) were sampled in the city of Talcahuano, Chile, during winter (July-September) of 2007, autumn (April-June) and winter of 2008, and autumn of 2009. After blood sampling, the kelp gulls were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin, total plasma protein (TPP), and complete blood count were performed. Alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, calcium, phosphorus, and uric acid were analyzed. No significant differences were found between sexes (P>0.05). When a comparison was made between the two seasons, the values of PCV, TPP, white blood cell, heterophils, eosinophils, and monocytes were significantly higher in winter than in autumn (P<0.05) while and urea and uric acid concentrations were higher in autumn. Heterophils were the predominant circulating leukocyte for all birds. There was no significant difference in body condition between autumn and winter nor between sexes. Body condition showed a significant relationship with TPP and basophil concentration and ALP activity. PMID:26352947

  19. [Persistent low hCG levels beyond pregnancy: report of two cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    De Backer, Benjamin; Goffin, Frédéric; Nisolle, Michelle; Minon, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected finding or persistence of low human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels is not a rare situation. It requires a clinico-biological approach in order to avoid misunderstandings that could lead to inappropriate diagnostic or therapeutic attitudes. Beyond pregnancy, persistent low levels of hCG may be associated with various benign and malignant conditions, i.e. quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease (QTD), raised pituitary hCG or false positive elevation caused by circulating heterophile antibodies. We report the cases of two non-pregnant patients with low serum hCG. In the first case, hCG levels raised during several years following a spontaneous abortion. The likelihood of heterophilic antibodies interference was ruled out and extensive clinical investigation excluded the presence of a tumour. The diagnosis was QTD. In the second case, elevated hCG came to light as an incidental finding in a women with chronic renal failure and led the clinicians to question the laboratory. The cause was probably an increase in pituitary hCG consecutive to terminal renal failure. These cases illustrate the importance of understanding the biology of the hCG and the causes of its persistent low elevation, which are reviewed in this article. It is essential to demonstrate clinically the presence of a tumour in order to avoid unnecessary and ineffective chemotherapy and/or hysterectomy. PMID:23906583

  20. NTB-A Receptor Crystal Structure: Insights into Homophilic Interactions in the Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Receptor Family

    SciTech Connect

    Cao,E.; Ramagopal, U.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Yan, Q.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

    2006-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that regulate both innate and adaptive immunity. The ectodomains of most SLAM family members are composed of an N-terminal IgV domain and a C-terminal IgC2 domain. NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A) is a homophilic receptor that stimulates cytotoxicity in natural killer (NK) cells, regulates bactericidal activities in neutrophils, and potentiates T helper 2 (Th2) responses. The 3.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the complete NTB-A ectodomain revealed a rod-like monomer that self-associates to form a highly kinked dimer spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}100 {angstrom}. The NTB-A homophilic and CD2-CD58 heterophilic dimers show overall structural similarities but differ in detailed organization and physicochemical properties of their respective interfaces. The NTB-A structure suggests a mechanism responsible for binding specificity within the SLAM family and imposes physical constraints relevant to the colocalization of SLAM-family proteins with other signaling molecules in the immunological synapse.

  1. West Nile Virus in Farmed Alligators

    PubMed Central

    Mauel, Michael J.; Baldwin, Charles; Burtle, Gary; Ingram, Dallas; Hines, Murray E.; Frazier, Kendal S.

    2003-01-01

    Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the horsemeat collected during the 2002 outbreak but negative in the horsemeat collected after the outbreak. PMID:12890319

  2. Clinical pathology and parasitologic evaluation of free-living nestlings of the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    PubMed

    Allgayer, M C; Guedes, N M R; Chiminazzo, C; Cziulik, M; Weimer, T A

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated the health status and established hematologic and serum biochemistry parameters for free-living nestlings of the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) from the Brazilian Pantanal (19 degrees 51'-19 degrees 58'S; 56 degrees 17'-56 degrees 24'W), for four consecutive years (from December 2003 through December 2006). Physical examinations indicated that all the birds were in good health. Endoparasites and blood parasites were not detected in any of the nestlings, and ectoparasites seemed to be limited to Philornis sp. (Diptera: Muscidae). Significantly higher levels of total white blood cells and heterophils, glucose, total protein, triglycerides, and phosphorus were observed in females. In females, higher cholesterol levels and packed cell volumes were observed in older birds, and total white blood cell and heterophil counts were higher in young animals. In males, uric acid levels were higher in older individuals. Wild Pantanal Hyacinth Macaws feed on only two species of palm nuts (Acrocomia totai and Scheelea phalerta). This limited food habit has a strong impact on population size and may alter the clinical pathology parameters of these birds. Therefore, knowledge of blood levels in normal individuals is essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild macaws, to assess the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation strategies of this endangered species. PMID:19901373

  3. Friendship and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-07-22

    More than any other species, humans form social ties to individuals who are neither kin nor mates, and these ties tend to be with similar people. Here, we show that this similarity extends to genotypes. Across the whole genome, friends' genotypes at the single nucleotide polymorphism level tend to be positively correlated (homophilic). In fact, the increase in similarity relative to strangers is at the level of fourth cousins. However, certain genotypes are also negatively correlated (heterophilic) in friends. And the degree of correlation in genotypes can be used to create a "friendship score" that predicts the existence of friendship ties in a hold-out sample. A focused gene-set analysis indicates that some of the overall correlation in genotypes can be explained by specific systems; for example, an olfactory gene set is homophilic and an immune system gene set is heterophilic, suggesting that these systems may play a role in the formation or maintenance of friendship ties. Friends may be a kind of "functional kin." Finally, homophilic genotypes exhibit significantly higher measures of positive selection, suggesting that, on average, they may yield a synergistic fitness advantage that has been helping to drive recent human evolution. PMID:25024208

  4. Proteinase 3 contributes to transendothelial migration of NB1-positive neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Kuckleburg, Christopher J.; Tilkens, Sarah M.; Santoso, Sentot; Newman, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophil transmigration requires the localization of neutrophils to endothelial cell junctions, where receptor-ligand interactions and the action of serine proteases promote leukocyte diapedesis. NB1 (CD177) is a neutrophil-expressed surface molecule that has been reported to bind proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease released from activated neutrophils. PR3 has demonstrated proteolytic activity on a number of substrates, including extracellular matrix proteins, although its role in neutrophil transmigration is unknown. Recently, NB1 has been shown to be a heterophilic binding partner for the endothelial cell junctional protein, PECAM-1. Disrupting the interaction between NB1 and PECAM-1 significantly inhibits neutrophil transendothelial cell migration on endothelial cell monolayers. Because NB1 interacts with endothelial cell PECAM-1 at cell junctions where transmigration occurs, we considered that NB1-PR3 interactions may play a role in aiding neutrophil diapedesis. Blocking antibodies targeting the heterophilic binding domain of PECAM-1 significantly inhibited transmigration of NB1-positive neutrophils through IL-1β-stimulated endothelial cell monolayers. PR3 expression and activity were significantly increased on NB1-positive neutrophils following transmigration, while neutrophils lacking NB1 demonstrated no increase in PR3. Finally, using selective serine protease inhibitors, we determined that PR3 activity facilitated transmigration of NB1-positive neutrophils under both static and flow conditions. These data demonstrate that PR3 contributes in the selective recruitment of the NB1-positive neutrophil population. PMID:22266279

  5. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in the Crested Serpent eagle and Shikra.

    PubMed

    Salakij, Chaleow; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Jarernsak; Suwannasaeng, Pimsuda; Jakthong, Pattarapong

    2015-08-01

    The Crested Serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) is a bird of prey found in the tropical rain forest in Thailand. The Shikra (Accipiter badius) is a sparrow hawk and common resident in Thailand. Blood samples from 9 Crested Serpent eagles and 12 Shikras were obtained from September 2010 to November 2014. They were clinically healthy and negative for blood parasites detectable by light microscopy and molecular techniques (partial cytochrome b gene for avian malaria and partial 18S rRNA gene for trypanosome). Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B, peroxidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase, and β-glucuronidase) and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Hematological results were reported as the mean ± standard deviation and median. Heterophils were the most prevalent leukocytes in the Crested Serpent eagle, but in the Shikra, lymphocytes were the most prevalent leukocytes. In the Shikra, some vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. All blood cells in both types of raptors stained positively for β-glucuronidase but negatively for peroxidase. The ultrastructure of heterophils showed more clearly differentiate long rod granules in Crested Serpent eagle and spindle-shaped granules in Shikra. The ultrastructure of the eosinophils in the Crested Serpent eagle revealed varied electron-dense, round-shaped granules with round, different electron-dense areas in the centers of some granules, which differed from the structure reported for other raptors. These quantitative results may be useful for clinical evaluations of Crested Serpent eagles and Shikras that are undergoing rehabilitation for release. PMID:26563029

  6. Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Zyła, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duliński, R; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone, and particularly in combination with phytase A, acted as a potent mediator of the response, whereas supplementary myo-inositol did not. PMID:23243248

  7. Intracellular lipid dysregulation interferes with leukocyte function in the ovaries of meat-type hens under unrestricted feed intake.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Su, Chia-Ming; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Chen, Jiang-Young; Wu, Shu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Hui; Walzem, Rosemary L; Huang, San-Yuan; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2016-04-01

    Meat-type Red-feather country hens fed ad libitum (AD-hens) exhibit obesity-associated morbidities and a number of ovarian irregularities. Leukocyte participations in ovarian activities are unstudied in AD-hens. In contrast to feed-restricted hens (R-hens), ovulatory process of the F1 follicle appeared delayed in AD-hens in association with reduced F1 follicle progesterone content, gelatinase A (MMP-2) and collagenase-3 (MMP-13) activities coincident with elevated IL-1β and no production (P<0.05), and increased leukocyte infiltration of inflamed necrotic follicle walls. Extracts of AD-hen F1 follicle walls induced greater leukocyte migration than extracts from F1 follicle wall extracts of R-hens (P<0.05). Co-cultures of granulosa cells with increasing numbers of leukocytes from either AD-hens or R-hens exhibited dose dependent reductions in progesterone production and increases in cell death. AD-hen leukocytes were less proapoptotic than their R counterparts (P<0.05). Granulosa MMP-13 and MMP-2 activities were also suppressed in the co-cultures with heterophils or monocytes in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). AD heterophils and R monocytes had a greater inhibitory effect on MMP activities in the co-cultures than their respective counterparts (P<0.05). Both basal and LPS-induced IL-1β secretion and MMP-22 or MMP-2 activities in freshly isolated AD-hen leukocytes were reduced (P<0.05). Exposure of AD or R leukocytes to 0.5mM palmitate impaired IL-1β secretion and MMP-22 or MMP-2 activity. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis with FB1 and ROS production with n-MPG scavenging rescued MMP activity and IL-1β production in palmitate treated heterophils, but exacerbated monocyte suppression. These latter findings suggest that intracellular lipid dysregulation in leukocytes contributes to ovarian dysfunction in AD-hens. PMID:26874430

  8. Extracellular architecture of the SYG-1/SYG-2 adhesion complex instructs synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Engin; Chia, Poh Hui; Wang, RuiqiRachel; Goriatcheva, Natalia; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Walz, Thomas; Shen, Kang; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    SYG-1 and SYG-2 are multi-purpose cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that have evolved across all major animal taxato participate indiverse physiological functions, ranging from synapse formation to formation of the kidney filtration barrier. In the crystal structures of several SYG-1 and SYG-2 orthologs and their complexes, we find thatSYG-1 orthologshomodimerizethrough a common, bi-specific interface thatsimilarlymediatesan unusual orthogonal docking geometry in theheterophilicSYG-1/SYG-2 complex.C. elegansSYG-1’s specification of proper synapse formation in vivoclosely correlates withthe heterophilic complex affinity, which appears to be tuned for optimal function. Furthermore, replacement of the interacting domains of SYG-1 and SYG-2 with those from CAM complexes that assume alternative docking geometries, or the introduction of segmental flexibility, compromised synaptic function. These results suggestthat SYGextracellular complexes do not simply act as “molecular velcro”, but their distinct structural features are important in instructing synaptogenesis. PMID:24485456

  9. Esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 53-year-old mata mata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus).

    PubMed

    Lombardini, Eric D; Desoutter, Anais V; Montali, Richard J; Del Piero, Fabio

    2013-09-01

    A 53-yr-old male captive mata mata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus) was examined following sudden death. The animal was in good nutritional, muscular and postmortem condition. The esophageal wall was circumferentially expanded by a discrete, oblong, irregular, tan, and soft contiguous glandlike structure. Histologically, the mass comprised uneven, sometimes cavitated islands of polygonal neoplastic cells consistent with an esophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, peripheral to the mass, there was glandular epithelial hyperplasia, dysplasia, and multifocal heterophilic and lymphohistiocytic adenitis. Neoplastic cells expressed pancytokeratins; however, they demonstrated no immunoreactivity to vimentin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and thyroglobulin. Additional findings included multifocal to coalescing areas of cortical fibrosis and membranous glomerulonephritis affecting both kidneys, and a focal hepatocellular adenoma. PMID:24063112

  10. Intracytoplasmic inclusions in circulating leukocytes from an eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) with iridoviral infection.

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Fry, Michael M; Irizarry, Armando R; Craig, Linden; Johnson, April J; Jones, Michael

    2006-07-01

    A free-ranging adult female eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) was presented to the University of Tennessee in October 2003 because of suspected trauma and blindness. Physical examination revealed lethargy, clear ocular and nasal discharges, and white oral and laryngeal plaques. Intracytoplasmic inclusions within heterophils and large mononuclear leukocytes were observed on routine blood smear examination. Postmortem findings included necrosis of epithelial and parenchymal cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions. Ultrastructurally, the leukocyte inclusions consisted of variably electron-dense granular material and viral particles consistent with the Iridoviridae family of viruses. The virus shared 100% sequence identity to a 420-base pair sequence of frog virus 3 (family Iridoviridae, genus Ranavirus) as determined by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing targeting a portion of the Ranavirus major capsid protein gene. PMID:17092902

  11. [Histogenesis of granulation tissue in wound healing by second intention in horses and cattle].

    PubMed

    Dinev, D; Dzhurov, A

    1987-01-01

    An experiment in comparative developmental aspect was carried out with 5 horses and 5 cattle having a total of 60 skin and muscular wounds. Light microscopic studies on hematoxylin-eosin stained preparations revealed that the dystrophic changes in the underlying tissues were more strongly manifested in horses. This had to be taken into consideration in the surgical treatment of wounds with this animal species. The basic differences comprised the better manifested leukocytic reaction in horses and the more strongly expressed processes of growth and differentiation on the part of the connective tissue after the tenth day of wounding in cattle. The definitive formation of granular tissue in horses took place in shorter terms than in cattle. In the fully developed new tissue in horses three different layers were found: leukocytic, vascular-fibroblastic, and a maturing one, while in cattle the layers found were four: fibrous tissue, heterophilic-leukocytic, vascular-fibroblastic, and a maturing one. PMID:3617469

  12. Cutaneous mucinosis in a strain of brown-egg laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Anthenill, L; Shivaprasad, H L

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous mucinosis is a cutaneous disorder described in humans, dogs, and rarely cats but never reported in birds. Twenty-six brown egg-laying chickens between ages 43 and 46 weeks had a history of feather loss, scaly, dry skin, weight loss, and decreased egg production. Microscopic findings in the skin included fragmentation of collagen bundles and interstitial, periadnexal, and perivascular dermal accumulation of wispy, mildly basophilic material that was also occasionally observed within the follicular epithelium. A moderate lymphoplasmacytic and heterophilic perivascular dermatitis was also observed. The wispy to granular material was diffusely Alcian blue positive and periodic acid-Schiff negative (consistent with mucin), suggesting a diagnosis of primary or secondary cutaneous mucinosis. The cause of this condition could not be determined. PMID:24942711

  13. Relationship of in vitro immune responses to Epstein-Barr herpesvirus and severity of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, K; Lai, P K; Lightfoote, M; Andrese, A P; Fuccillo, D; Connor, R J; Levine, P H

    1980-01-01

    Immune responses to Epstein-Barr herpesvirus (EBV) and EBV-related antigens were studied serially in 18 patients with heterophil antibody-positive infectious mononucleosis and in 18 control subjects. Enhanced cellular immune responses to EBV particles and to EBV intracellular soluble antigens were found in the patients at convalescence, suggesting that the development of specific cellular immune responses was associated with apparent control of the virus infection. In addition, a correlation between severity of disease and specific cellular immune response was found. Patients with severe clinical signs were found to have a more active cellular immune response to EBV intracellular soluble antigens early in the infection compared with patients with mild disease. This suggests that an increased immune reactivity to intracellular antigens during the early part of the illness is related to the severity of clinical manifestations in infectious mononucleosis. Serum antibody to viral capsid antigen and early antigen was not related to the severity of clinical disease. PMID:6253402

  14. An experimental study on the effects of polymorphiasis in common eider ducklings.

    PubMed

    Hollmén, T; Lehtonen, J T; Sankari, S; Soveri, T; Hario, M

    1999-07-01

    Eight common eider (Somateria mollissima) ducklings were experimentally infected from 1 June through 13 June, 1995 with acanthocephalans (Polymorphus minutus) by allowing the birds to feed on Gammarus spp. (Gammarus oceanicus, G. salinus, G. zaddachi, and G. lacustris) containing acanthocephalan cystacanths. Uninfected Gammarus spp. were fed to a control group of seven ducklings. No mortality of ducklings occurred during the experiment. However, the infected ducklings gained weight more slowly than the control birds. After the 2 wk study period, the mean serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, fructosamine and creatine kinase were lower in the infected group than in the controls. The mean (+/-SE) number of acanthocephalans in the intestine of the infected ducklings was 21 (+/-4). The parasites were attached to the mucosa of the posterior small intestine of the infected ducklings with a mixed inflammatory reaction consisting of heterophils and mononuclear lymphocytes surrounding the attachment sites. PMID:10479080

  15. Double diffusion in gel tests with Paul-Bunnell antibodies of infectious mononucleosis sera.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, F; Loza, U; Kano, K

    1975-01-01

    Double diffusion tests in gel were employed for studies of reactions between infectious mononucleosis sera and extracts of bovine, sheep and equine erythrocyte stromata. The extracts were obtained by ultrasonication of stromata prepared from trypsin-digested erythrocytes. The reaction with bovine stroma extract was composed, in many instances, of two lines. A single line was observed in reactions with sheep and equine stroma extracts. This line merged into a reaction of partial or complete identy with one of the lines formed with bovine stroma extract. Evidence was obtained that some infectioous mononucleosis sera may contain heterophile (Paul-Bunnell) antibodies belonging to IgG class in addition to those of IgM nature. PMID:803932

  16. An accidental fatal attack on domestic pigeons by honey bees in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Md. Mahbubur; LEE, Sei-Jin; KIM, Gi-Beum; YANG, Dong Kwon; ALAM, Md. Rafiqul; KIM, Shang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Fatalities among avian species due to multiple bee stings are rare. Sixteen pigeons on a farm in Bangladesh each suffered multiple bee stings. Ten of the pigeons died before treatment, 5 (4–11 stings) died within 12 hr after treatment, and 1 pigeon (only 3 stings) survived. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, MCV, MCH and MCHC decreased significantly after the incident, but leucocytes, heterophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, ALT, AST, LDH, CK, creatinine, BUN and UA increased markedly. Overall, the hematological and biochemical changes in the bee-stung pigeons were similar to those of mammals; however, avian species may be more sensitive to bee stings than mammals. PMID:26028022

  17. Interpretation of Hormone Levels in Older Patients: Points for Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Sztefko, Krystyna; Szybowska, Patrycja

    2012-01-01

    Blood hormone and tumor marker concentrations are usually determined by immunochemical methods which are based on an unique reaction between antigen and assay capture antibody. Despite the speed and simplicity of assays performance on automatic immunochemistry platforms, the interpretation of final results requires a deep knowledge of method fallibility. General lack of immunoassays standardization, presence of cross-reacting substances in patient's sample, limitation of free hormones measurement due to abnormal analyte binding protein concentrations, assay interferences due to patient's autoantibodies, and heterophilic antibodies, as well as proper interpretation of very low- and very high-sample analyte levels, are the main points discussed in respect to hormones and tumor markers measurement in geriatric population. PMID:22666247

  18. NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM: cell adhesion molecule with a role in neuronal compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Winther, Malene; Berezin, Vladimir; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2012-03-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules 2 (NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM), is a paralog of NCAM1. The protein exists in a transmembrane and a lipid-anchored isoform, and has an ectodomain consisting of five immunoglobulin modules and two fibronectin type 3 homology modules. Structural models of the NCAM2 ectodomain reveal that it facilitates cell adhesion through reciprocal interactions between the membrane-distal immunoglobulin modules. There are no known heterophilic NCAM2 binding partners, and NCAM2 is not glycosylated with polysialic acid, a posttranslational modification known to be a major modulator of NCAM1-mediated processes. This suggests that NCAM2 has a function or mode of action distinctly different from that of NCAM1. NCAM2 is primarily expressed in the brain, where it is believed to stimulate neurite outgrowth and to facilitate dendritic and axonal compartmentalization. PMID:22155300

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressants by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McShane, Adam J; Bunch, Dustin R; Wang, Sihe

    2016-02-15

    Immunosuppressant medications allow the transplantation of tens of thousands of allografts per year and consequently have great potential to decrease patient morbidity and mortality. However, some medications have great risk associated with over- and under-dosing leading to adverse effects or allograft rejection, respectively. This necessitates immunosuppressant therapeutic drug monitoring accomplished by immunoassay or liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The former's accuracy can be hindered by metabolites of immunosuppressant medications, antibodies against these medications and heterophilic antibodies. Although LC-MS/MS has superior specificity which allows it to be less susceptible to interference, this methodology lacks standardization and the necessary throughput. Recent developments in LC-MS/MS quantitation, however, include patient-friendly sample submission as dried blood spots, higher sample throughput and commercialization. Here we critically review recent LC-MS/MS publications (January 2010 to July 2015) on the quantitation of cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, sirolimus and everolimus. PMID:26721314

  20. Skill complementarity enhances heterophily in collaboration networks

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical evidence shows that individuals usually exhibit significant homophily in social networks. We demonstrate, however, skill complementarity enhances heterophily in the formation of collaboration networks, where people prefer to forge social ties with people who have professions different from their own. We construct a model to quantify the heterophily by assuming that individuals choose collaborators to maximize utility. Using a huge database of online societies, we find evidence of heterophily in collaboration networks. The results of model calibration confirm the presence of heterophily. Both empirical analysis and model calibration show that the heterophilous feature is persistent along the evolution of online societies. Furthermore, the degree of skill complementarity is positively correlated with their production output. Our work sheds new light on the scientific research utility of virtual worlds for studying human behaviors in complex socioeconomic systems. PMID:26743687

  1. False positivity of monospot test in an immunocompetent elderly woman with acute cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Thamcharoen, Natanong; Sornprom, Suthanya; Permpalung, Nitipong; Hyman, Charles L

    2015-10-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented with altered mental status, septic picture, and influenza-like symptoms. Initial investigations revealed atypical lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, and a positive monospot test result. Further investigation showed the Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antibody IgM/IgG and Epstein-Barr virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction to be negative; however, interestingly her cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM and IgG were positive, suggesting that her mononucleosis-like syndrome was due to acute CMV infection. Herein, we report the first case of a heterophile-positive mononucleosis syndrome caused by acute CMV infection in an elderly immunocompetent woman. This case conveys that monospot test can yield false-positive result in the setting of acute CMV infection. PMID:26275628

  2. Skill complementarity enhances heterophily in collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical evidence shows that individuals usually exhibit significant homophily in social networks. We demonstrate, however, skill complementarity enhances heterophily in the formation of collaboration networks, where people prefer to forge social ties with people who have professions different from their own. We construct a model to quantify the heterophily by assuming that individuals choose collaborators to maximize utility. Using a huge database of online societies, we find evidence of heterophily in collaboration networks. The results of model calibration confirm the presence of heterophily. Both empirical analysis and model calibration show that the heterophilous feature is persistent along the evolution of online societies. Furthermore, the degree of skill complementarity is positively correlated with their production output. Our work sheds new light on the scientific research utility of virtual worlds for studying human behaviors in complex socioeconomic systems.

  3. Expression of Forssman antigen of avian lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed by Marek's disease virus or avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, K; Kitamoto, N; Shoji, H; Kato, S; Naiki, M

    1981-01-01

    The expression of Forssman-type heterophile antigen on Marek's disease (MD) virus (MDV)-transformed cell lines, MDCC-MSBI 1, -HP1, -RP1 and -BP1, and avian leukosis virus (ALV)-transformed cell lines, LSCC-1104B1 and -1104X5 was investigated by membrane immunofluorescence and complement-dependent antibody cytotoxicity tests. Forssman antigen was detected on a high percentage of the cells in two ALV-transformed cell lines and on a smaller percentage of splenic lymphocytes from normal chicken. Of the MDV-transformed cell lines tested only the RP1 and BP1 cell lines, derived from transplantable MD tumours, expressed Forssman antigen, while the MSB1 and HP1 cell lines, derived from MD lymphomas, did not. Forssman antigen appears to be unrelated to MD tumour-associated surface antigen (MATSA). PMID:6267170

  4. TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma: benefits of pre-operative octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Healy, E; Cooke, R S; Ellis, P K; Harper, R; Hunter, S J

    2015-01-01

    Summary TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and the optimal investigation and management is uncertain. We describe a case of a 43 year-old woman with a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, highlighting diagnostic testing and our use, pre-operatively of somatostatin analogue therapy, which induced biochemical euthyroidism and a reduction in tumour size. Learning points The differential diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate TSH secretion is non-thyroidal illness, medications, assay interference due to heterophilic antibodies, thyroid hormone resistance and TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.TRH stimulation test and triiodothyronine suppression test assist in differentiating thyroid hormone resistance and TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.Somatostatin analogue therapy can induce biochemical euthyroidism and reduce tumour size. PMID:26113979

  5. Inequality measures perform differently in global and local assessments: An exploratory computational experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yen-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Inequality measures are widely used in both the academia and public media to help us understand how incomes and wealth are distributed. They can be used to assess the distribution of a whole society-global inequality-as well as inequality of actors' referent networks-local inequality. How different is local inequality from global inequality? Formalizing the structure of reference groups as a network, the paper conducted a computational experiment to see how the structure of complex networks influences the difference between global and local inequality assessed by a selection of inequality measures. It was found that local inequality tends to be higher than global inequality when population size is large; network is dense and heterophilously assorted, and income distribution is less dispersed. The implications of the simulation findings are discussed.

  6. Crystal structure of murine coronavirus receptor sCEACAM1a[1,4],a member of the carcinoembtyonic antigen family

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Zelus, B. D.; Meijers, R.; Liu, J.-H.; Bergelson, J. M.; Zhang, R.; Duke, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Holmes, K. V.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    CEACAM1 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Isoforms of murine CEACAM1 serve as receptors for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Here we report the crystal structure of soluble murine sCEACAM1a[1,4], which is composed of two Ig-like domains and has MHV neutralizing activity. Its N-terminal domain has a uniquely folded CC' loop that encompasses key virus-binding residues. This is the first atomic structure of any member of the CEA family, and provides a prototypic architecture for functional exploration of CEA family members. We discuss the structural basis of virus receptor activities of murine CEACAM1 proteins, binding of Neisseria to human CEACAM1, and other homophilic and heterophilic interactions of CEA family members.

  7. A theory of the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis and other autoimmune diseases triggered by infection

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D. D.

    1969-01-01

    Inherited autoimmune disease appears to be due to a genetic defect which permits the formation of forbidden clones of antibody-forming cells. There is evidence that separate pathogenic and non-pathogenic autoantibodies occur, and that the former are directly responsible for the lesions of autoimmune disease. The observed initiation and aggravation of autoimmunity by tissue damage, including that inflicted by microbial infection, indicates that autoantigens in undamaged tissues are partially or completely inactive, as regards ability to stimulate autoantibody formation, even in people possessing the appropriate forbidden clones. Heterophile phenomena indicate that invading micro-organisms will sometimes carry antigens which are present in the host. If the appropriate forbidden clone is present, autoantibody formation will be stimulated. This mechanism appears to be particularly probable in rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis. To avoid the inadvertent triggering of autoimmune disease in susceptible subjects, vaccines should be free of human antigens. PMID:5370051

  8. Steatitis in egrets and herons from Japan.

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Arii, Suzue; Udagawa, Mai; Onuma, Manabu; Odaya, Yoshiya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tenpaku, Makio; Hayama, Hisayo; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mizukami, Masaya; Murata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    More than 70 egrets and herons were found sick or dead at an agricultural water reservoir in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan between September and October 2008. The birds showed weakness, lethargy, and inability to fly before death. Postmortem findings included large amounts of firm subcutaneous and cavitary fat comprised of necrotic adipose tissues with infiltrates of heterophils and macrophages. The birds were diagnosed with steatitis on the basis of the gross lesions and histopathology. Egrets with steatitis had low blood levels of vitamin E. High counts of cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were found in the reservoir concurrent with the outbreak of steatitis. No microcystin was detected in the reservoir water or the livers from the egrets. This is the first report of steatitis in wild birds in Japan. PMID:21269996

  9. Antinuclear antibodies in the sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Takimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Masuda, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshizaki, T.; Umeda, R. )

    1989-11-01

    We studied the production of heterophile antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the sera of 50 patients, 20 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 30 with other head and neck cancers (laryngeal cancer and maxillary cancer), before and after radiation therapy. A higher incidence of ANAs was found in the sera of patients with NPC and ANA production in these patients was higher after radiation therapy. We therefore performed in vitro experiments to explore the mechanisms of ANA production in the serum of postirradiated NPC patients. X-ray-irradiated NPC-derived cells (NPC-KT) produced a large amount of Epstein-Barr virus (NPC EBV) compared with non-irradiated NPC-KT cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma EBV-infected lymphocytes produced high levels of ANAs. These data suggest that lymphocytes infected by EBV from NPC cells may produce ANAs in the sera of NPC patients.

  10. Granulopoiesis in tadpoles of Rana esculenta. Survey of the organs involved.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, G

    1988-01-01

    The topography and nature of granulopoietic tissues appearing during the larval period of Rana esculenta have been investigated using light and electron microscopy. The formation of eosinophils and heterophils occurred in the interstices of the pronephros and opisthonephros, in the mesenchymal sheath surrounding the pronephric duct, as well as in the mesentery and mesenchymal coat of the bile duct and hepatic ducts. Developing basophils were very rare, being detectable only in the stroma of the trunk kidneys. The pronephric interstices additionally contained differentiating lymphocytes, the opisthonephric interstices differentiating lymphocytes and erythrocytes. In contrast, the mesenchymal sheath of the pronephric duct as well as the mesentery and the mesenchymatous coat of the bile duct and hepatic ducts were solely granulopoietic. Images Fig. 1 Figs. 2-3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3267013

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Margeta, Milica A.; Shen, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Synapses are specialized junctions that mediate information flow between neurons and their targets. A striking feature of the nervous system is the specificity of its synaptic connections: an individual neuron will form synapses only with a small subset of available presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. Synaptic specificity has been classically thought to arise from homophilic or heterophilic interactions between adhesive molecules acting across the synaptic cleft. Over the past decade, many new mechanisms giving rise to synaptic specificity have been identified. Synapses can be specified by secreted molecules that promote or inhibit synaptogenesis, and their source can be a neighboring guidepost cell, not just presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Furthermore, lineage, fate, and timing of development can also play critical roles in shaping neural circuits. Future work utilizing large-scale screens will aim to elucidate the full scope of cellular mechanisms and molecular players that can give rise to synaptic specificity. PMID:19969086

  12. Effect of exposure to operant-controlled microwaves on certain blood and immunological parameters in the young chick

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, L.A.; Morrison, W.D.; Bate, L.; Otten, L.; Hunter, B.; Pei, D.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Twenty-two 1-wk-old broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus) were housed at 16 C and operantly conditioned to activate either a 250-W infrared bulb (control) or a microwave generator delivering 13 mW/cm2 (treated). Plasma corticosterone concentration did not differ between groups (P greater than .05) at 4 wk of age. At that time the birds were killed, and post-mortem examination revealed no treatment differences in gross morphology of the chicks or in weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius (P greater than .05). Histological study of comparable segments of spleen, bursa, adrenal, and thyroid tissue did not show differences in any of the chosen parameters (P greater than .05). Heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein content were similar between groups (P greater than .05). These results suggest that operant exposure to low density microwave radiation did not result in stress or immunological disturbances.

  13. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, G.H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  14. SELECTED HEMATOLOGIC AND PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYSIS OF FERRUGINOUS DUCKS (AYTHYA NYROCA) IN ISRAEL.

    PubMed

    Avni-Magen, Nili; Gancz, Ady Y; Beaufrère, Hugues; Lublin, Avishai; Eshar, David

    2016-03-01

    The ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca) is a medium-sized chestnut-colored diving duck that inhabits wetlands of Europe and Asia. In recent years, this species has been declining throughout much of Europe--a decline that is attributed mainly to destruction of natural habitats, and to hunting and pollution. The ferruginous duck is listed as "near threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, and as a critically endangered nesting species in Israel. In 2009, a captive-breeding/reintroduction program was established in Israel, aiming to increase the species' population. The objective of this study was to collect data on normal hematology and plasma biochemistry analytes of ferruginous ducks in order to promote the species' conservation. Blood was collected from 49 birds, and 27 analytes were quantified. Compared to most other anseriformes studied, the ferruginous ducks in this study had lower white blood cell counts, which were dominated by heterophils rather than by lymphocytes. PMID:27010302

  15. Pathogenicity of Haemoproteus danilewskyi, Kruse, 1890, in blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata).

    PubMed

    Garvin, Mary C; Homer, Bruce L; Greiner, Ellis C

    2003-01-01

    Although the impact of blood parasite infections on passerine birds is potentially great, little is known of their pathologic effects. We studied Haemoproteus danilewskyi in experimentally infected captive and naturally infected free-ranging blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) to determine patterns of infection and examine the pathologic effects of the parasite on the host. Physiologic changes, such as elevated numbers of lymphocytes, heterophils, basophils, eosinophils, and monocytes and decreased packed cell volume in the peripheral blood were associated with the erythrocytic phase of experimental infections of captive juvenile jays. Sublethal pathologic changes associated with the pre-erythrocytic phase of infections were observed in the liver, lung, and spleen. Schizonts were observed in the pulmonary capillaries of a 1 yr old jay necropsied 31 days post-inoculation, but not in 20 juvenile jays necropsied 57 days post-inoculation. In free-ranging naturally infected jays plasma protein concentration increased with density of natural infections. PMID:12685080

  16. Hematologic, protein electrophoresis, biochemistry, and cholinesterase values of free-living black stork nestlings (Ciconia nigra).

    PubMed

    Lanzarot, M Pilar; Barahona, M Victoria; Andrs, Manuel I San; Fernndez-Garca, Manuel; Rodrguez, Casilda

    2005-04-01

    Hematologic, protein electrophoresis, serum biochemistry, and cholinesterase values were determined in 36 free-living black stork nestlings (Ciconia nigra) between 25 and 53 days of age in order to establish normal reference values for this population. The following values were evaluated: white blood cell counts, red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, prealbumin, albumin, alpha-globulin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, calcium, phosphorus, iron, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total solids, bile acids, and butyrylcholinesterase. Sex-dependent differences were observed in hemoglobin, prealbumin, albumin, gamma-globulin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, and triglycerides. Packed cell volume, butyrylcholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and creatinine increased with age, whereas albumin, mean cell volume, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, and total solids decreased with age. These hematologic and serum biochemistry values can be used as reference ranges in free-living black stork nestlings. PMID:16107673

  17. Skill complementarity enhances heterophily in collaboration networks.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical evidence shows that individuals usually exhibit significant homophily in social networks. We demonstrate, however, skill complementarity enhances heterophily in the formation of collaboration networks, where people prefer to forge social ties with people who have professions different from their own. We construct a model to quantify the heterophily by assuming that individuals choose collaborators to maximize utility. Using a huge database of online societies, we find evidence of heterophily in collaboration networks. The results of model calibration confirm the presence of heterophily. Both empirical analysis and model calibration show that the heterophilous feature is persistent along the evolution of online societies. Furthermore, the degree of skill complementarity is positively correlated with their production output. Our work sheds new light on the scientific research utility of virtual worlds for studying human behaviors in complex socioeconomic systems. PMID:26743687

  18. [Cell count of the milk from sheep in machine milking].

    PubMed

    Vitkov, M; Vitanov, S

    1980-01-01

    A number of microbiological and parallel direct and indirect cytological studies were carried out on sheep milk, obtained by machine-milking. It was established that the sheep milk containing up to 183,000 somatic cells per cm3 showed a negative reaction if Bernburg's mastite test was applied. Samples of cellular elements from 200,000 up to 400,000 per cm3 showed a weak positive reaction of the test, and above 420,000 per cm3 proved to be strongly positive. Polynuclear heterophils and a high percentage of infected samples were found in a quantity of cells above 500,000 per cm3. The data obtained showed good correlation between the bacterial find and the cell contents and are a reliable prerequisite for the application of Bernburg's test in studying sheep milk. PMID:7193942

  19. Hematology and blood chemistry of macaws, Ara rubrogenys.

    PubMed

    García del Campo, A L; Huecas, V; Fernández, A; Puerta, M L

    1991-01-01

    1. The hematology and blood chemistry of 10 captive adult Ara rubrogenys is described. 2. They showed 3,650,000 erythrocytes/mm3, a hematocrit of 49.9% and a blood hemoglobin content of 15.2 g/100 ml. 3. Leukocyte number was 10,000 cells/mm3, the differential counts being 42.2% heterophils, 0.8% eosinophils, 2.4% basophils, 49.9% lymphocytes and 4.5% monocytes. 4. The number of thrombocytes was 21,800 cells/mm3. 5. Plasma composition was (mg/100 ml): glucose 295; triglycerides 102; cholesterol 166; urea 5.8; uric acid 5; creatinine 0.3; bilirubin was not detected and total protein concentration was 3.2 g/100 ml. Enzymatic activities were (units/1): GOT 188; GPT 10 and alkaline phosphatase 315. PMID:1685390

  20. Immunity to bacterial infection in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Wigley, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial infections remain important to the poultry industry both in terms of animal and public health, the latter due to the importance of poultry as a source of foodborne bacterial zoonoses such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. As such, much focus of research to the immune response to bacterial infection has been to Salmonella. In this review we will focus on how research on avian salmonellosis has developed our understanding of immunity to bacteria in the chicken from understanding the role of TLRs in recognition of bacterial pathogens, through the role of heterophils, macrophages and γδ lymphocytes in innate immunity and activation of adaptive responses to the role of cellular and humoral immunity in immune clearance and protection. What is known of the immune response to other bacterial infections and in particular infections that have emerged recently as major problems in poultry production including Campylobacter jejuni, Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Clostridium perfringens are discussed. PMID:23648643

  1. Haematological findings in healthy and sick captive rosy flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J; Knight, J A; Hutton, R E

    1984-04-01

    Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 36 clinically normal adult Rosy flamingos (21 males, 15 females) and six juveniles (sex uncertain). No significant sex differences were found but the haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were lower and the white cell counts higher in juveniles than in adults. Reference values obtained from the normal birds were used as a basis for assessing the results of blood counts on nine birds showing a variety of abnormal clinical conditions. Heterophilia occurred in individuals with infections, chronic renal lesions, haemorrhage and suspected thrombosis. In one case, morphologically abnormal heterophils were present. A bird with carcinoma and peritonitis showed heteropenia. Several birds had hypochromic, microcytic red cells and severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia was found in a bird with an organising abdominal haematoma associated with chronic renal pathology. Several of the cases also had thrombocytosis and raised fibrinogen levels. PMID:18766834

  2. Relating tumor score to hematology in green turtles with fibropapillomatosis in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between hematologic status and severity of tumor affliction in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomatosis (FP) was examined. During 1 wk periods in July 1997 and July 1998, we bled 108 free-ranging green turtles from Pala'au (Molokai, Hawaii, USA) where FP is endemic. Blood was analyzed for hematocrit, estimated total solids, total white blood cell (WBC) count and differential WBC count. Each turtle was assigned a subjective tumor score ranging from 0 (no visible external tumors) to 3 (heavily tumored) that indicated the severity of FP. There was a progressive increase in monocytes and a decrease in all other hematologic parameters except heterophils and total numbers of white blood cells as tumor score increased. These data indicate that tumor score can relate to physiologic status of green turtles afflicted with FP, and that tumor score is a useful field monitor of severity of FP in this species.

  3. Synapses: Sites of Cell Recognition, Adhesion, and Functional Specification

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Soichiro; Nelson, W. James

    2012-01-01

    Synapses are specialized adhesive contacts characteristic of many types of cell-cell interactions involving neurons, immune cells, epithelial cells, and even pathogens and host cells. Cell-cell adhesion is mediated by structurally diverse classes of cell-surface glycoproteins, which form homophilic or heterophilic interactions across the intercellular space. Adhesion proteins bind to a cytoplasmic network of scaffolding proteins, regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, and signal transduction pathways that control the structural and functional organization of synapses. The themes of this review are to compare the organization of synapses in different cell types and to understand how different classes of cell adhesion proteins and cytoplasmic protein networks specify the assembly of functionally distinct synapses in different cell contexts. PMID:17506641

  4. First identification of a ranavirus from green pythons (Chondropython viridis).

    PubMed

    Hyatt, A D; Williamson, M; Coupar, B E H; Middleton, D; Hengstberger, S G; Gould, A R; Selleck, P; Wise, T G; Kattenbelt, J; Cunningham, A A; Lee, J

    2002-04-01

    Ten juvenile green pythons (Chondropython viridis) died or were euthanized shortly after having been illegally imported into Australia from Indonesia in 1998. Histologic examination of two of the three snakes that died revealed moderately severe chronic ulceration of the nasal mucosa and focal or periacinar degeneration and necrosis of the liver. In addition there was severe necrotizing inflammation of the pharyngeal submucosa accompanied by numerous macrophages, heterophils, and edema. An iridovirus was isolated in culture from several tissues and characterized by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, restriction endonuclease digestion, and DNA hybridization. This is the first report of a systemic ranavirus infection in any species of snake and is a new member of the genus, Ranavirus. PMID:12038121

  5. Haematology of wild penguins (spenisciformes) in the Falkland Islands.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Horsley, D T; Keymer, I F

    1989-07-01

    Haematological values were determined in 50 Rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), 19 Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and 12 Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus) penguins from various sites on the Falkland Islands. Adult Magellanic penguins had significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb) levels, packed cell volumes (PCV) and red cell counts (RBC) than adults of the other two species. Hb, PCV and RBC values were also lower in juvenile birds than in adults and lower in post-moult than in pre-moult adults. Comparison of findings in wild Rockhopper and Gentoo penguins with values obtained from captive birds showed slight but significant differences in Hb and mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and in the relative numbers of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils present. PMID:18679879

  6. Hematological and blood chemical values of mallard, Anas p. platyrhynchos, drakes before, during and after remige moult.

    PubMed

    Driver, E A

    1981-07-01

    Hematological and blood chemical values were determined for wild and captive mallards, Anas p. platyrhynchos, for the late spring period prior to remige moult through early fall migration. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, as well as the number of heterophils and lymphocytes, declined significantly during and after remige moult compared to values recorded prior to remige moult. During fall migration mallard drakes had elevated levels of glucose and uric acid. No significant changes were observed in total protein, alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or creatine phosphokinase in pre- or post-moult periods. The hematological and biochemical values should prove useful in providing background information on mallard drakes, and documenting baseline data for intra and interspecies comparisons with diseased birds. PMID:7310951

  7. Symptomatic hepatitis secondary to disseminated coccidioidomycosis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Kuprian, Mikhail; Schofield, Christina; Bennett, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A young man from California presented with acute onset of cough, fevers, night sweats and pruritus with dark urine. Laboratory studies were notable for moderate transaminitis with elevated bilirubin and eosinophilia. Hepatitis panel, HIV screen and heterophile antibodies were negative. CT scan showed multiple bilateral focal opacities with hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy with no ductal dilation or gallbladder stones. The patient had positive coccidioidomycosis serologies and he was started on fluconazole with resolution of symptoms and improvement in transaminitis over the next month. This article highlights a rare manifestation of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with symptomatic hepatitis. Although an increasingly prevalent infection found in southwest USA, dissemination is rare in immunocompetent hosts. Postmortem studies suggest hepatic involvement is common in disseminated infection. However symptomatic hepatitis is rare, with only three cases of symptomatic hepatitis found in the literature. PMID:24810445

  8. An accidental fatal attack on domestic pigeons by honey bees in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Lee, Sei-Jin; Kim, Gi-Beum; Yang, Dong Kwon; Alam, Md Rafiqul; Kim, Shang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Fatalities among avian species due to multiple bee stings are rare. Sixteen pigeons on a farm in Bangladesh each suffered multiple bee stings. Ten of the pigeons died before treatment, 5 (4-11 stings) died within 12 hr after treatment, and 1 pigeon (only 3 stings) survived. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, MCV, MCH and MCHC decreased significantly after the incident, but leucocytes, heterophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, ALT, AST, LDH, CK, creatinine, BUN and UA increased markedly. Overall, the hematological and biochemical changes in the bee-stung pigeons were similar to those of mammals; however, avian species may be more sensitive to bee stings than mammals. PMID:26028022

  9. Response to dietary supplementation of L-glutamine and L-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, α-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density. PMID:25143595

  10. Healing of cutaneous wounds in the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D A; Barker, I K

    1988-01-01

    Healing of cutaneous wounds was studied in groups of common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) held at 13.5 degrees C, 21 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Linear unsutured incisions and circular excisional wounds were evaluated two, five, and ten days after surgery, while linear sutured and unsutured incisions and circular and square excisional wounds were studied three and six weeks after wound production. The sequence of events during healing was the same for all experimental situations. The epithelial margins of the wounds moved freely over exposed epaxial muscle until an exudate of fibrin and inflammatory cells caused adhesion. Heterophils and macrophages were present two days after wounding. Heterophils were present throughout the wound while macrophages were concentrated in areas containing fibrin and proteinaceous exudate. Fibroblasts moved laterally into the wound from the adjacent dermis producing a flat dermal scar oriented parallel to the wound surface. Epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia occurred in a zone extending up to 1.5 mm from the margin of the wound. A tongue of flattened epithelial cells extended across the wound surface, mingling with the superficial crust and migrating over eosinophilic fibrillar material. Maturation of the new epithelium, indicated by formation of a distinct basal layer, rounding of superficial cells and keratin production, began at the wound margins before the epithelial spurs linked. The epithelium over healed wounds appeared normal, but the dermis did not reorganize to form scales. Reptilian and mammalian healing differ in the character of the inflammatory reaction, the pattern of fibroplasia, and the interaction between epithelial and dermal repair. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:3349388

  11. BLOOD GAS, LACTATE, AND HEMATOLOGY EFFECTS OF VENIPUNCTURE TIMING AND LOCATION AFTER MIST-NET CAPTURE OF MOURNING DOVES (ZENAIDA MACROURA), BOAT-TAILED GRACKLES (QUISCALUS MAJOR), AND HOUSE SPARROWS (PASSER DOMESTICUS).

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jinks, Maggie R; Harms, Ronald V

    2016-04-01

    Venous blood gas partial pressures, pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentrations, packed cell volume, white blood cell differential counts, and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios were measured from Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Boat-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus major), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). Birds were bled promptly after mist-net capture and banding or following a targeted delay of 45-60 min, in order to assess the impacts of a brief holding period commonly practiced in large-scale bird banding operations. Additionally, effects of venipuncture location (basilic [=ulnar] vein versus jugular vein) were evaluated in male Boat-tailed Grackles sampled promptly after capture and banding. All comparisons were with unpaired samples; no birds were subjected to more than one venipuncture. All three species exhibited moderate improvements in blood gas and acid-base status after the delay, with reductions in lactate concentrations with or without concurrent increases in pH and bicarbonate. Boat-tailed Grackles exhibited an increased proportion of heterophils in the differential white blood cell count following a delay in sampling, suggestive of a stress leukogram. There were no significant differences between basilic and jugular venipuncture results from male Boat-tailed Grackles. Most metabolic, respiratory, and acid-base alterations were minor, but a small number of birds exhibited values (e.g., temperature-corrected pH <7.3, lactate >10 mmol/L) that could be of concern if combined with other adverse conditions. For such birds, a short delay between capture and processing could benefit their blood gas and acid-base status, although loss of time foraging or feeding young and greater activation of the hypophyseal-pituitary-adrenal axis are additional considerations. PMID:26845300

  12. Genetic differences in ChTLR15 gene polymorphism and expression involved in Salmonella enterica natural and artificial infection respectively, of Chinese native chicken breeds, with a focus on sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Chen, W W; Liu, H X; Shan, Y J; Zhu, C H; Li, H F; Zou, J M

    2016-02-01

    Chicken Toll-like receptor 15 (ChTLR15) has been shown to participate in immune activation in response to various pathogens and in the innate defence against infection. Two genetically distinct Chinese breeds of chicken (Qinyuan Partridge and Baier breeds) were used to study the correlation between ChTLR15 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the natural infection status of salmonella in hens, and also to examine genetic and sex-specific effects on ChTLR15 mRNA expression in heterophils and spleen during acute infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) from 1 to 10 days after experimental infection. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (G168A, C726T and A1166G) in a single exon of ChTLR15 were identified in the two breeds, but only C726T showed a significant association with salmonella infection. Compared with layer-type Baier chicks, meat-type Qingyuan chicks showed a higher tolerance for capture stress and (SE) infection, as measured, respectively, by the modified body weight of chicks in the control group and in the infection group. Meanwhile, ChTLR15 down-regulation in heterophils and up-regulation in spleen were involved in the response to pathogenic SE colonization during the acute infection period. These significant genetic effects in females led to greater differences in both innate and adaptive immune responses than those exhibited in males. These results suggest that genetics, time and gender play important roles in the modulation of ChTLR15 mRNA level elicited by the SE-mediated immune response differentially in the two genetically distinct breeds, with a focus on sexual dimorphism. PMID:26488442

  13. Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Melanie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    When wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. The suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. We examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) in wild birds (house finches Haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring infection (Mycoplasma gallisepticum) to determine whether infection alters the typical immune response to stress. Birds were captured and bled within 3 min (baseline sample) and then held in paper bags for 2 h and bled again (stress sample). From blood smears made at both time points, we obtained estimates of total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative numbers of each cell. We also measured BKA of plasma at both time points. In uninfected birds (n = 26), total WBC count decreased by 30% over time, while in infected birds (n = 9), it decreased by 6%. Relative numbers of heterophils did not change over time in uninfected birds but increased in infected birds. Combined with a reduction in lymphocyte numbers, this led to a threefold increase in heterophil-lymphocyte values in infected birds after the stressor, compared to a twofold increase in uninfected birds. There was a nonsignificant tendency for BKA to decline with stress in uninfected birds but not in diseased birds. Collectively, these results suggest that infections can buffer the negative effects of acute stress on innate immunity. PMID:24642543

  14. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 μg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 μg/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 μg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

  15. Selection of broilers with improved innate immune responsiveness to reduce on-farm infection by foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, Christina L; Pevzner, Igal Y; He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J; Nisbet, David J; Kaiser, Pete; Kogut, Michael H

    2009-09-01

    Economic pressure on the modern poultry industry has directed the selection process towards fast-growing broilers that have a reduced feed conversion ratio. Selection based heavily on growth characteristics could adversely affect immune competence leaving chickens more susceptible to disease. Since the innate immune response directs the acquired immune response, efforts to select poultry with an efficient innate immune response would be beneficial. Our laboratories have been evaluating the innate immune system of two parental broiler lines to assess their capacity to protect against multiple infections. We have shown increased in vitro heterophil function corresponds with increased in vivo resistance to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. Additionally, there are increased mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in heterophils isolated from resistant lines compared to susceptible lines. Collectively, all data indicate there are measurable differences in innate responsiveness under genetic control. Recently, a small-scale selection trial was begun. We identified sires within a broiler population with higher and/or lower-than-average pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels and subsequently utilized small numbers of high-expressing and low-expressing sires to produce progeny with increased or decreased, respectively, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profiles. This novel approach should allow us to improve breeding stock by improving the overall immunological responsiveness. This will produce a line of chickens with an effective pro-inflammatory innate immune response that should improve resistance against diverse pathogens, improve responses to vaccines, and increase livability. Ongoing work from this project is providing fundamental information for the development of poultry lines that will be inherently resistant to colonization by pathogenic and food-poisoning microorganisms. Utilization of pathogen-resistant birds by the poultry production industry would significantly enhance the microbiological safety of poultry products reaching the consumer. PMID:19737057

  16. Changes in selected biochemical indices, leukocyte profile, and pterins as biomarkers of immune system activity due to antipecking measures in pheasants.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Pistekova, V; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J

    2013-07-01

    The physiological changes in response to beak trimming and spectacle usage as antipecking measures were monitored in 10-mo-old common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Short-term analysis conducted before the beginning of the laying period showed immediate increases of plasma corticosterone (P < 0.05) and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001) concentrations and decrease of plasma triglycerides (P < 0.01) levels in response to both beak trimming and the application of spectacles. Beak-trimmed pheasants exhibited higher plasma corticosterone concentrations than pheasants fitted with spectacles (P < 0.001). To assess long-term changes, blood samples for biochemical (neopterin and biopterin determination) and hematological (leukocyte profile determination) examinations were taken from beak-trimmed, spectacles-fitted, and control pheasant hens housed in cages during their laying period. At the end of the laying period, hens fitted with spectacles exhibited lower concentrations of plasma neopterin (P = 0.005) and biopterin (P = 0.005) than beak-trimmed pheasant hens. Our findings suggest that the immune system was suppressed in spectacles-fitted pheasant hens as a result of chronic stress, as also indicated by the higher heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.001) compared with beak-trimmed hens. Our study found a negative correlation (r = -0.31, P = 0.019) between the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and plasma neopterin concentration. This study demonstrated that both beak trimming and use of spectacles are not only stressful procedures for pheasants, but long-term effects may also include a negative impact on the immune system. PMID:23776255

  17. Associations of Forest Type, Parasitism and Body Condition of Two European Passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla

    PubMed Central

    Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth KV.; Schaefer, H. Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C.

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs. PMID:24339923

  18. TgrC1 mediates cell-cell adhesion by interacting with TgrB1 via mutual IPT/TIG domains during development of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoqun; Wu, Xiangfu; Piao, Ruihan; Siu, Chi-Hung

    2013-06-01

    Cell-cell adhesion plays crucial roles in cell differentiation and morphogenesis during development of Dictyostelium discoideum. The heterophilic adhesion protein TgrC1 (Tgr is transmembrane, IPT, IG, E-set, repeat protein) is expressed during cell aggregation, and disruption of the tgrC1 gene results in the arrest of development at the loose aggregate stage. We have used far-Western blotting coupled with MS to identify TgrB1 as the heterophilic binding partner of TgrC1. Co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down studies showed that TgrB1 and TgrC1 are capable of binding with each other in solution. TgrB1 and TgrC1 are encoded by a pair of adjacent genes which share a common promoter. Both TgrB1 and TgrC1 are type I transmembrane proteins, which contain three extracellular IPT/TIG (immunoglobulin, plexin, transcription factor-like/transcription factor immunoglobulin) domains. Antibodies raised against TgrB1 inhibit cell reassociation at the post-aggregation stage of development and block fruiting body formation. Ectopic expression of TgrB1 and TgrC1 driven by the actin15 promoter leads to heterotypic cell aggregation of vegetative cells. Using recombinant proteins that cover different portions of TgrB1 and TgrC1 in binding assays, we have mapped the cell-binding regions in these two proteins to Lys(537)-Ala(783) in TgrB1 and Ile(336)-Val(360) in TgrC1, corresponding to their respective TIG3 and TIG2 domain. PMID:23477311

  19. Comparison of blood values and health status of Floreana Mockingbirds (Mimus trifasciatus) on the islands of Champion and Gardner-by-Floreana, Galápagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Deem, Sharon L; Parker, Patricia G; Cruz, Marilyn B; Merkel, Jane; Hoeck, Paquita E A

    2011-01-01

    The Floreana Mockingbird (Mimus trifasciatus) is one of the rarest bird species in the world, with an estimated 550 individuals remaining on two rocky islets off the coast of Floreana, Galápagos, Ecuador, from which the main population was extirpated more than 100 yr ago. Because they have been listed in critical danger of extinction, a plan to reintroduce this species to Floreana has been initiated. Determining the health status of the source mockingbird populations is a top priority within the reintroduction plan. We report the health status, over the course of 4 yr, of 75 Floreana Mockingbirds on Champion Island and 160 Floreana Mockingbirds on Gardner-by-Floreana, based on physical examinations, hematology, hemolysis-hemagglutination assay, exposure to selected infectious disease agents, and ecto- and endoparasite counts. Birds on Gardner-by-Floreana had higher body condition index scores, packed cell volumes, total solids, and lymphocyte counts. Additionally, Gardner-by-Floreana birds had lower heterophil counts, eosinophil counts, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. No Chlamydophila psittaci DNA or antibodies to paramyxovirus-I, adenovirus-II, or Mycoplasma gallisepticum were found in any of the mockingbirds tested. Ectoparasites were present on birds from both islands, although species varied between islands. A coccidian species was found in eight of the 45 fecal samples from birds on Gardner-by-Floreana, but none of 33 birds examined from Champion. Birds on Gardner-by-Floreana were classified as healthier than those on Champion based on clinical and laboratory findings. These health data will be analyzed in conjunction with genetics, population structure, and disease presence on Floreana for developing recommendations for the Floreana Mockingbird reintroduction plan. PMID:21270000

  20. Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. Effect of oligosaccharides extract from palm kernel expeller on growth performance, gut microbiota and immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Siamak; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Zulkifli, Idrus; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract from palm kernel expeller (OligoPKE) on growth performance, cecal microbiota and immune response of broiler chickens. A total of ninety 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of six pens (replicates) with five birds per pen. Dietary treatments were: (i) basal diet as control, (ii) basal diet plus 0.5% OligoPKE, and (iii) basal diet plus 1% OligoPKE. Birds growth traits (ADG, ADFI and G:F) were measured during the starter (1-21 day), finisher (22-35 day) and the entire experimental periods. Blood and cecal digesta samples were collected from chickens at 21 and 35 days of age (DOA). Microbial quantification of the digesta samples, white blood cells including heterophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil counts and immunoglobulin (IgA and IgM) were also determined. OligoPKE had no effect on ADG and ADFI throughout the study period, but chickens fed OligoPKE supplemented diet had better (P < 0.05) G:F during finisher and overall rearing periods. Supplementing OligoPKE did not significantly alter the birds' microbiota of the cecal digesta. At 21 DOA, blood IgA concentration increased significantly when birds fed 1% OligoPKE in diet recorded compared to the control treatment. Similar observations were also recorded in birds at 35 DOA. Hematological data showed that heterophil and basophil counts of chickens fed OligoPKE supplement were lower than those in control group at 21 DOA. Our findings suggested that OligoPKE improved immune responses in broiler chickens, especially at younger age when the immune system is not still fully developed. PMID:26240398

  2. The PHA Test as an Indicator of Phagocytic Activity in a Passerine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Salaberria, Concepción; Muriel, Jaime; de Luna, María; Gil, Diego; Puerta, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Several techniques in ecological immunology have been used to assess bird immunocompetence thus providing useful information to understand the contribution of the immunological system in life-history decisions. The phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-skin test has been the most widely employed technique being interpreted as the sole result of T lymphocytes proliferation and hence used to evaluate acquired immunological capacity. However, the presence of high numbers of phagocytic cells in the swelling point has cast some doubt about such an assumption. To address this issue, we collected blood from 14 days-old nestlings of spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor), administered subcutaneous PHA immediately after and then measured the swelling response 24 hours later. Differential counts of white blood cells suggested that an intense development of acquired immunological defences was taking place. The phagocytic activity of both heterophiles and monocytes was also very intense as it was the swelling response. Moreover, our results show, for the first time in birds, a positive relationship between the phagocytic activity of both kinds of cells and the swelling response. This broadens the significance of the PHA test from reflecting T lymphocytes proliferation -as previously proposed but still undetermined in vivo- to evaluate phagocytosis as well. In other words, our data suggest that the PHA swelling response may not be considered as the only consequence of processes of specific and induced immunity –T lymphocytes proliferation- but also of constitutive and nonspecific immunity –heterophiles and monocytes phagocytosis. We propose the extensive use of PHA-skin test as an optimal technique to assess immunocompetence. PMID:24391896

  3. Immune Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Supplemented with Different Level of Chromium Methionine under Heat Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, S. K.; Farhoomand, P.; Noori, K.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the immune responses of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with different level of chromium methionine (CrMet) in heat stress (HS) condition. Two hundred and eighty eight male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to four treatment groups (supplementation with 0, 200, 400 or 800 ppb Cr in the form of CrMet) in a completely randomized design. The experiment was conducted at heat stressed condition and all birds were kept under temperature of 33±2°C. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (H/L), and concentration of plasma cortisol (CPC) were measured at 21 and 42 d. At 42 days of age two birds were chosen randomly from each replicate, slaughtered, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected, weighed and expressed as a percentage of live body weight. Antibody titers against NDV and IBV at 21 and 42 days of age in broiler fed supplemental CrMet were higher than in broiler chickens fed control diet (p<0.05). CPC level in broiler chickens fed CrMet were significantly (p<0.05) decreased. Increases in lymphocyte counts and consequently a decrease in heterophil to lymphocyte ratios in broiler chickens fed 800 ppb Cr were observed at 21 and 42 d. Supplementation with CrMet had no significant effect on lymphoid organs of broilers. The results suggest that dietary CrMet supplementation at a level of 800 ppb can improve some immune responses of broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. PMID:25049559

  4. Immune Responses in Broiler Chicks Fed Propolis Extraction Residue-supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Eyng, C.; Murakami, A. E.; Santos, T. C.; Silveira, T. G. V.; Pedroso, R. B.; Lourenço, D. A. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of propolis extraction residue in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age on phagocytic activity of macrophages, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin, antibody production against Newcastle disease, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile and to determine the optimal level of inclusion. 120 chicks, reared in metabolism cages until 21 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of propolis residue) and six replications. The relative weight of thymus and monocyte percentage were affected by propolis residue, with a quadratic response (p<0.05) and lowest values estimated at 2.38% and 2.49%, respectively. Changes in relative weight of cloacal bursa and spleen, percentage of lymphocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, antibody production against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity of macrophages and the average number of phagocytosed erythrocytes were not observed. The nitric oxide production with regard to positive control (macrophages+erythrocytes) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased doses of propolis residue. The remaining variables of nitric oxide production (negative control – macrophages, and difference between the controls) were not affected by propolis residue. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin as determined by the increase in interdigital skin thickness exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.05), which predicted a lower reaction response at a dose of 2.60% of propolis residue and highest reaction response after 43.05 hours of phytohemagglutinin injection. The inclusion of 1% to 4% of propolis extraction residue in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days of age was not able to improve the immune parameters, despite the modest changes in the relative weight in thymus, blood monocyte percentage, nitric oxide concentration, and interdigital reaction to phytohemagglutinin. PMID:25557685

  5. Effects of zebra mussels, obtained from Lake Erie and St Lawrence River, as a food source on immune system of lesser scaup

    SciTech Connect

    Flipo, D.; Fournier, M.; Beaulieu, C.; Tessier, C.

    1995-12-31

    A feeding study was undertaken to assess the influence of a zebra mussel diet from Lake Erie and the St.Lawrence river on the immune system of lesser scaup. The Great lakes and the St.Lawrence river are known to be among the most contaminated waters found in the country. Analytical studies have shown that zebra mussels are contaminated by organochlorines and other pollutants. The occurrence of these toxicants in the food diet of lesser scaup can cause serious injuries. The immune system, in its capacity to destroy foreign particles and protect the host against diseases, can serve as a useful sentinel of the health status of these environmentally stressed organisms. Immune parameters of lesser scaup fed with zebra mussels from Lake Erie or the St. Lawrence river were evaluated. The duration of the feeding trial was nine weeks. Phagocytic activity and oxidative bursts of heterophils were evaluated by flow cytometry. Intracellular thiol levels of lymphocytes and heterophils were also determined by flow cytometry. The results showed a dimunition of phagocytic activity and bactericidal potential after 6 weeks of the zebra mussel diet compared to the control. These results may be associated with pathology problems encountered in treated groups at the end of the diet. Birds from the St. Lawrence River group (40%) and the Lake Erie group (40%) demonstrated variable degrees of pododermatitis compared to the control group. The intracellular level of thiol was consistently found to be elevated in lymphocytes and heterophyls from birds feeding with on the St. Lawrence River. In conclusion, flow cytometry assays like phagocytosis, oxidative burst and thiol staining can serve as biomarkers of the immune status of birds and can give important information for evaluating the health of birds exposed to environmental contamination.

  6. Effects of different sulphur amino acids and dietary electrolyte balance levels on performance, jejunal morphology, and immunocompetence of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Nikoofard, V; Mahdavi, A H; Samie, A H; Jahanian, E

    2016-02-01

    As alterations of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) can influence amino acid metabolism via changes the ions incur in their configurations, performance and immunological responses of broiler chicks might be affected. So, the current study was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of sulphur amino acids (SAA) and DEB on performance, jejunal morphology and immunocompetence of broiler chicks. A total of 360 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine experimental treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of three levels of SAA (100, 110, and 120% of NRC recommendation, provided by methionine supplementation in diets with the same cysteine level) and three levels of DEB (150, 250, and 350 mEq/kg) that were fed during the entire of trial in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that the relative weights of intestine and abdominal fat were decreased markedly (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of SAA and DEB respectively. Antibody titre against sheep red blood cell was neither individually nor in combination influenced by supplementation of SAA or DEB. Nevertheless, a decrease in DEB level led to a suppression in heterophile (p < 0.05) and an increase in lymphocyte counts (p = 0.06); consequently, heterophile to lymphocyte ratio was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by decremental levels of DEB. Albumin to globulin ratio was increased after inclusion of at least 10% SAA (p < 0.001) and 150 mEq DEB/kg in the diet (p = 0.11). Although feeding high-DEB level led to a remarkable decrease in villus height (p < 0.01) and goblet cell numbers (p < 0.001), supplementing the highest level of SAA improved the height of jejunal villus. During the entire trial period, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased by incremental SAA levels (p < 0.05). However, inclusion of 150 mEq/kg led to not only a remarkable increase (p < 0.0001) in both ADFI and average daily weight gain (ADWG) but also to improved (p < 0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR) both during the growing and over the entire trial periods. The present findings indicated that inclusion of low DEB decreased the heterophile to lymphocyte ratio and improved both the albumin to globulin ratio and intestinal health indices. The best growth performance was obtained with 150 mEq DEB/kg in the diet for each level of SAA. PMID:25808567

  7. The effect of feeder space allocation on productivity and physiology of Hy-Line W-36 hens housed in conventional cages.

    PubMed

    Thogerson, C M; Hester, P Y; Mench, J A; Newberry, R C; Okura, C M; Pajor, E A; Talaty, P N; Garner, J P

    2009-09-01

    Insufficient feeder space for laying hens could increase competition at the feed trough, leading to disrupted feeding, inadequate nutrient intake, stress, and reduced productivity. The effects of feeder space allocation (FSA) on physiology and productivity were evaluated in beak-trimmed Hy-Line W-36 hens (n=480). They were obtained at 16.5 wk of age and housed on 4 tiers of shallow conventional cages. Five pullets/cage were housed at a stocking density of 434 cm2/hen and a feeder space of 12.2 cm/hen. After 1.5 wk of acclimation, baseline measurements were taken for feed utilization, bone mineralization, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. At 20 wk of age, pullets were given 5.8, 7.1, 8.4, 9.7, 10.9, or 12.2 cm of feeder space/bird (16 cages/treatment). Physiological and production measures were calculated monthly or twice a month for 12 mo. The heart, spleen, and right adrenal gland were collected from each hen at the end of the study. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures GLM incorporating cage, tier, FSA, and hen age. There were no effects of FSA on total egg production, bone mineral density, bone mineral content, heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, or organ weights. Hens with reduced FSA utilized more feed (P<0.001), had poorer feed conversion (P<0.001), and laid eggs with slightly thicker and heavier shells (P<0.001). There were effects of FSA on total egg weight (P<0.001) and hen-day egg production (P<0.001), but they were of low magnitude and not linear (P>0.05). Because BW was similar among FSA treatments, the results suggest that reduced feeder space did not limit feed intake. In addition, reduced FSA did not lower bone mineralization or cause physiological stress in W-36 hens housed in shallow cages, suggesting that it did not impair hen welfare. However, it did result in poorer feed efficiency, possibly related to greater feed wastage, predictive of an adverse economic effect from reducing feeder space. PMID:19687261

  8. Retrospective Study on the Isolation of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale from Chickens and Turkeys in Central California: 294 cases (2000-12).

    PubMed

    Hauck, R; Chin, R P; Shivaprasad, H L

    2015-03-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, and mostly oxidase-positive bacterium that causes respiratory infections in chickens and turkeys worldwide and can also spread to nonrespiratory organs. The present report analyzes 294 cases in which O. rhinotracheale was isolated from turkeys or chickens in central California in the years 2000 through 2012. Two hundred sixteen cases were from turkey flocks and 78 from chicken flocks. The median age of turkey flocks was 8.7 wk; the median age of chicken flocks was 6.4 wk. From turkeys, O. rhinotracheale was more often isolated from August to January than during the rest of the year. Chickens cases were more evenly distributed throughout the year. The organs with the highest isolation rate were the infraorbital sinus and trachea, followed by lungs and air sacs. Isolation from other organs was rare. Pure cultures were obtained from relatively more turkey organs than chicken organs. The organ from which there was the highest chance to obtain a pure culture was the air sac. In 108 turkey flocks (50.0%) and 64 chicken flocks (82.1%) at least one other respiratory pathogen was detected. The most common gross lesions were increased mucus in trachea, caseous or fibrinous exudate in the air sacs, consolidated lungs indicating pneumonia, congested and edematous lungs, and a flattened trachea. For most types of lesions, the percentage of affected turkeys was higher than the percentage of affected chickens. The percentage of birds with lesions was higher if other respiratory pathogens were present. Overall, the host species (turkey or chicken) was a more important factor for the prevalence of most lesions than the detection of other respiratory pathogens. The most common histopathologic lesions in the sinus and trachea were heterophilic or mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. In the lungs and air sacs, the inflammation was characterized by heterophilic infiltration and/or fibrin accumulation. These results are helpful in selecting the most appropriate samples for isolation of O. rhinotracheale. In addition, they show the incidence of the bacterium in turkeys and chickens and which lesions can be expected after infection with O. rhinotracheale, and they indicate that in some cases O. rhinotracheale can be the primary, or at least the major, pathogen. PMID:26292546

  9. Changes in haematological profile of common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) induced by transit to pheasantry.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Vecerek, V; Pistekova, V; Chloupek, P; Suchy, P

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess haematological changes in hand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) transported from intensive housing facilities to a pheasantry. Selected haematological parameters were monitored in a group of 100 pheasants (50 males and 50 females) aged of 9 weeks that were transported for 4 hours by a covered lorry in crates, with a total body weight of 12 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C12 - floor space: 290 cm2/kg) and with a total body weight of 18 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C18 - floor space: 195 cm2/kg). Blood samples were taken from 10 randomly selected males and 10 females before transport (CON group) and 20 hours after transport (C12 and C18 groups). Examinations consisted in determining the total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin levels and differential leukocyte counts, whereby the proportions of heterophil, basophil and eosinophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of the total leukocytes were computed. The changes in the parameters of red blood cell count were manifested by an increase (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin level, MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) values and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the total erythrocyte count and haematocrit level in both C12 and C18 pheasants, when compared with the control group of non-transported pheasants. C18 pheasants exhibited also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MCV (mean cell value) value. When analyzing differential leukocyte counts, C18 pheasants showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in heterophil counts and H/L ratio, whereas values in C12 pheasants did not differ from the non-transported control group. Individual counts of lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.05) in C12 pheasants, whereas basophil counts were increased (P < 0.01) in both C12 and C18 pheasants. Total leukocyte count was decreased (P < 0.01) in C12 and C18 pheasants. In conclusion, the specific requirements of pheasants, as primarily wild animals, for the density in crates should be respected during transportation and they should be transported at lower densities than other poultry species, at least 290 cm2/kg live weight should be provided. PMID:17078531

  10. Effects of long-term heat stress in an experimental model of avian necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Honda, Bruno Takashi Bueno; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; de Siqueira, Adriana; Namazu, Lilian Bernadete; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; Fonseca, Juliana Garcia da Silva; Aloia, Thiago Pinheiro Arrais; Piantino-Ferreira, Antonio José; Palermo-Neto, João

    2014-06-01

    Stressful conditions are predisposing factors for disease development. Heat stress is one of the most important stressors in poultry production. The reemergence of some previously controlled diseases [e.g., avian necrotic enteritis (NE)] has been extensively reported. The combination of bacterial infection and certain environmental factors have been reported to trigger the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of long-term heat stress (35 ± 1°C) on the development of NE in broiler chickens. For this purpose, 60 male broiler chickens were divided into the following 6 groups: control group (C), heat stressed control group (C/HS35), thioglycolate group (T), thioglycolate heat-stressed group (T/HS35), infected group (I), and infected heat-stressed group (I/HS35). The poultry of groups I and I/HS35 were experimentally infected with Clostridium perfringens via their feed from 15 to 21 d of life. Heat stress (35 ± 1°C) was constantly applied to the birds of the stressed groups from 14 to 21 d of life. The infected and heat-stressed broiler chickens presented a trend toward a decrease in gross lesion scores and significantly lower microscopic scores of necrosis in the duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.05), lower fusion of villi in the duodenum (P < 0.05), and lower congestion scores in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05) in relation to infected and non-heat-stressed chickens. Broilers of I/HS35 group also exhibited small number of heterophils in the duodenum and jejunum compared with those of the I group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the duodenum and jejunum of infected and heat-stressed broilers showed lower number of clostridia on the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). Data were discussed in light of a heat stress induced reduction on intestinal inflammation via a decrease in heterophil migration to the intestinal mucosa, which in turn might have reduced tissue damage during inflammation, hence preventing the development of a more severe form of NE. PMID:24879684

  11. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) (short review).

    PubMed

    Ablashi, D V; Salahuddin, S Z; Josephs, S F; Balachandran, N; Krueger, G R; Gallo, R C

    1991-01-01

    Human Herpesvirus-6 is the etiological agent of Roseola infantum and approximately 12% of heterophile antibody negative infectious mononucleosis. HHV-6 is T-lymphotropic, and readily infects and lyses CD4+ cells. The prevalence rate of HHV-6 in the general population is about 80% (as measured by IFA) with an IgG antibody titer of 1:80. A lower prevalence, however, is observed in some countries. HHV-6 is reactivated in various malignant and non-malignant diseases as well as in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and transplant patients. Furthermore, elevated antibody titers were also observed in lymphoproliferative disorders, auto-immune diseases and HIV-1 positive AIDS patients. There appears to be some strain variability in HHV-6 isolates. The GS isolates of HHV-6 (prototype) was resistant to Acyclovir, Gancyclovir, but its replication was inhibited by Phosphonoacetic acid and Phosphoformic acid. HHV-7 isolated from healthy individuals showed, by restriction analysis, that 6 out of 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6, cross-hybridized with DNA fragments, derived from HHV-7. PMID:1654146

  12. Insights into the posttranslational structural heterogeneity of thyroglobulin and its role in the development, diagnosis, and management of benign and malignant thyroid diseases.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ana Carolina W; Maciel, Rui M B; Vieira, José Gilberto H; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus R; Martins, João R M

    2016-02-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) is the major glycoprotein produced by the thyroid gland, where it serves as a template for thyroid hormone synthesis and as an intraglandular store of iodine. Measurement of Tg levels in serum is of great practical importance in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), a setting in which elevated levels after total thyroidectomy are indicative of residual or recurrent disease. The most recent methods for serum Tg measurement are monoclonal antibody-based and are highly sensitive. However, major challenges remain regarding the interpretation of the results obtained with these immunometric methods, particularly in patients with endogenous antithyroglobulin antibodies or in the presence of heterophile antibodies, which may produce falsely low or high Tg values, respectively. The increased prevalence of antithyroglobulin antibodies in patients with DTC, as compared with the general population, raises the very pertinent possibility that tumor Tg may be more immunogenic. This inference makes sense, as the tumor microenvironment (tumor cells plus normal host cells) is characterized by several changes that could induce posttranslational modification of many proteins, including Tg. Attempts to understand the structure of Tg have been made for several decades, but findings have generally been incomplete due to technical hindrances to analysis of such a large protein (660 kDa). This review article will explore the complex structure of Tg and the potential role of its marked heterogeneity in our understanding of normal thyroid biology and neoplastic processes. PMID:26909485

  13. Avian blood parasite infection during the non-breeding season: an overlooked issue in declining populations?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogens and parasites can have major impacts on host population dynamics, both through direct mortality and via indirect effects. Both types of effect may be stronger in species whose populations are already under pressure. We investigated the potential for blood parasites to impact upon their hosts at the immunological, physiological and population level during the non-breeding season using a declining population of yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella as a model. Results Yellowhammers infected by Haemoproteus spp. showed both a reduced heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, and an elevated standardised white blood cell (WBC) count compared to uninfected birds, indicating an immunological response to infection. Infected birds had shorter wings during the first winter of sampling but not during the second, colder, winter; survival analysis of 321 birds sampled across four winters indicated that increased wing length conferred a survival advantage. Conclusions We suggest that the potential impacts of blood parasite infections on over-wintering birds may have been underestimated. Further research should consider the potential impacts of sub-clinical parasite infections on the dynamics of vulnerable populations, and we suggest using declining populations as model systems within which to investigate these relationships as well as examining interactions between sub-clinical disease and other environmental stressors. JEL Code Q5 PMID:24011390

  14. Effects of Maternally-Transferred Methylmercury on Stress Physiology in Northern Water Snake (Nerodia sipedon) Neonates.

    PubMed

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Kremer, Victoria; Wright, Raymond; Henry, Cassandra; Otter, Ryan R; Bailey, Frank C

    2016-06-01

    Biomagnification of methylmercury in aquatic systems can cause elevated tissue mercury (Hg) and physiological stress in top predators. Mercury is known to affect stress hormone levels in mammals, birds and fish. In this study, the effects of maternally-transferred methylmercury on the stress physiology of Northern Water Snake (Nerodia sipedon) neonates were tested. Gravid females were dosed via force-fed capsules during late gestation with 0, 0.01, or 10 µg methylmercury per gram of body mass. Plasma corticosterone levels and leukocyte differentials were analyzed in baseline and confinement-stressed neonates from all dose levels. Neither Hg nor confinement stress had a significant effect on leukocyte differentials nor was Hg related to corticosterone levels. However, stress group neonates showed lower heterophil/lymphocyte ratios and this study was the first to show that neonate N. sipedon can upregulate CORT in response to stress. These results indicate that N. sipedon may be somewhat tolerant to Hg contamination. PMID:26886428

  15. Effects of in vivo exposure to Roundup® on immune system of Caiman latirostris.

    PubMed

    Latorre, María Agustina; López González, Evelyn Cecilia; Larriera, Alejandro; Poletta, Gisela Laura; Siroski, Pablo Ariel

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Roundup(®) (RU, glyphosate-based formulation) on some parameters of the immune system and growth of Caiman latirostris. Seventy-two caimans (20-day-old) from Proyecto Yacaré (Gob. Santa Fe/MUPCN) were used. Two groups were exposed for 2 months to different concentrations of RU (11 or 21 mg/L; taking into account the concentration recommended for its application in the field), while one group was maintained as control. The RU concentration was progressively decreased through the exposure period to simulate glyphosate degradation in water. Animals were measured and weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment, and blood samples taken after exposure to determine total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts as well as total protein concentration (TPC), and for performing protein electrophoresis. The results showed that, compared against control hosts, there was a decrease in WBC counts, a higher percentage of heterophils, a higher TPC (with a low percentage of F2 protein fraction), and a negative effect on growth in the young caimans exposed to RU. These results demonstrate that in vivo exposure to RU induced alterations in the selected immune parameters, plasma proteins, and growth of caimans, thereby providing relevant information about the effects of this type of pesticide in this important species in the Argentinian wetlands. PMID:23244546

  16. The Gametocytes of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi Infect Chicken Thrombocytes, Not Other Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenting; Liu, Jianwen; Xu, Ruixue; Zhang, Cui; Pang, Qin; Chen, Xin; Liu, Shengfa; Hong, Lingxian; Yuan, Jing; Li, Xiaotong; Chen, Yixin; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2015-01-01

    Leucocytozoon parasites infect a large number of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and cause significant economical loss to the poultry industry. Although the transmission stages of the parasites were observed in avian blood cells more than a century ago, the specific host cell type(s) that the gametocytes infect remain uncertain. Because all the avian blood cells, including red blood cells (RBCs), are nucleated, and the developing parasites dramatically change the morphology of the infected host cells, it has been difficult to identify Leucocytozoon infected host cell(s). Here we use cell-type specific antibodies to investigate the identities of the host cells infected by Leucocytozoon sabrazesi gametocytes. Anti-RBC antibodies stained RBCs membrane strongly, but not the parasite-infected cells, ruling out the possibility of RBCs being the infected host cells. Antibodies recognizing various leukocytes including heterophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages did not stain the infected cells either. Antisera raised against a peptide of the parasite cytochrome B (CYTB) stained parasite-infected cells and some leukocytes, particularly cells with a single round nucleus as well as clear/pale cytoplasm suggestive of thrombocytes. Finally, a monoclonal antibody known to specifically bind chicken thrombocytes also stained the infected cells, confirming that L. sabrazesi gametocytes develop within chicken thrombocytes. The identification of L. sabrazesi infected host cell solves a long unresolved puzzle and provides important information for studying parasite invasion of host cells and for developing reagents to interrupt parasite transmission. PMID:26218846

  17. Ultrastructural study on the granulocytes of Uttara fowl (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Khan Idrees; Mrigesh, Meena; Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to know the ultrastructural detail of the blood cells of Uttara fowl (native fowl of Uttarakhand). Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 10 apparently healthy adult birds of either sex reared at the Instructional Poultry Farm, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The blood was collected from wing vein using ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid as anticoagulant. The blood was further processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies separately. Results: Ultrastructurally, the heterophils were irregularly round in shape. The cytoplasm was laden with pleomorphic membrane-bound granules, viz., large elliptical-, medium oval-, large round-, and medium round-shaped granules. The eosinophils under TEM were irregularly circular in outline showing pseudopodia and finger-like cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasmic granules were pleomorphic with elliptical-, round-, and rod-shaped granules. The basophils were irregularly circular in outline containing small hook-like cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasm contained electron dense and electron lucent round-shaped granules. Conclusion: Granulocytes contained pleomorphic cytoplasmic granules. However, the shape and electron density of granules varied among the different granulocytes and helped in the characterization of different granulocytes. PMID:27057119

  18. SCHOLARLY TAILGATING DEFINED: A DIVERSE, GIANT NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Adegbola, Maxine

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly tailgating and developmental relationships can soar professional identity, advance one’s scholarly career and foster cultural diversity in healthcare. This paper provides the definition and basis of scholarly tailgating for scholars who wish to propel their careers and help enable diverse cultural approaches. Scholarly tailgating is for those who wish to succeed and capitalize on the culturally diverse expertise and reciprocal network relationships from others in their web of influence. The concept of scholarly tailgating explains the use of homophilic and diverse, multidisciplinary network relationships to foster an intellectual community in healthcare in general and to benefit healthcare consumers and all being served. Scholars can benefit from standing on the shoulders of giants and allowing the aerodynamic wind to propel them to soaring career heights. Prudent scholars, apart from utilizing homophilic relationships and balancing these relationships with diverse heterophilic relationships, are able to lead in the professional academy, and become innovators who practice with cultural relevance. Multi-ethnic, diverse scholars working collaboratively can assist in igniting conversation and actions that reduce disparities, which are indigenous to those who are most vulnerable. Purposeful strategic planning and development of diverse networks that support scholarly advancement can best achieve these career accomplishments. PMID:23589967

  19. Pro-inflammatory effects of uric acid in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Crane, John K.; Mongiardo, Krystin M.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid can be generated in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the breakdown of nucleotides ingested in the diet or from purines released from host cells as a result of pathogen-induced cell damage. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine or xanthine into uric acid, a reaction that also generates hydrogen peroxide. It has been assumed that the product of XO responsible for the pro-inflammatory effects of this enzyme is hydrogen peroxide. Recent literature on uric acid, however, has indicated that uric acid itself may have biological effects. We tested whether uric acid itself has detectable pro-inflammatory effects using an in vivo model using ligated rabbit intestinal segments (loops) as well as in vitro assays using cultured cells. Addition of exogenous uric acid increased the influx of heterophils into rabbit intestinal loops, as measured by myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, white blood cells adhered avidly to uric acid crystals, forming large aggregates of cells. Uric acid acts as a leukocyte chemoattractant in the GI tract. The role of uric acid in enteric infections and in non-infectious disorders of the GI tract deserves more attention. PMID:24377830

  20. Pododermatitis in Captive and Free-Ranging Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus).

    PubMed

    Wyss, F; Schumacher, V; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Gobeli, S; Arnaud, A; Engels, M; Friess, M; Lange, C E; Stoffel, M H; Robert, N

    2015-11-01

    Pododermatitis is frequent in captive flamingos worldwide, but little is known about the associated histopathologic lesions. Involvement of a papillomavirus or herpesvirus has been suspected. Histopathologic evaluation and viral assessment of biopsies from 19 live and 10 dead captive greater flamingos were performed. Selected samples were further examined by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Feet from 10 dead free-ranging greater flamingos were also evaluated. The histologic appearance of lesions of flamingos of increasing age was interpreted as the progression of pododermatitis. Mild histologic lesions were seen in a 3-week-old flamingo chick with no macroscopic lesions, and these were characterized by Micrococcus-like bacteria in the stratum corneum associated with exocytosis of heterophils. The inflammation associated with these bacteria may lead to further histologic changes: irregular columnar proliferations, papillary squirting, and dyskeratosis. In more chronic lesions, hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes, epidermal hyperplasia, and dyskeratosis were seen at the epidermis, as well as proliferation of new blood vessels and increased intercellular matrix in the dermis. Papillomavirus DNA was not identified in any of the samples, while herpesvirus DNA was seen only in a few cases; therefore, these viruses were not thought to be the cause of the lesions. Poor skin health through suboptimal husbandry may weaken the epidermal barrier and predispose the skin to invasion of Micrococcus-like bacteria. Histologic lesions were identified in very young flamingos with no macroscopic lesions; this is likely to be an early stage lesion that may progress to macroscopic lesions. PMID:25617345

  1. Different concentrations and sources of dietary fibre may improve the welfare of female broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Hocking, P M; Zaczek, V; Jones, E K M; Macleod, M G

    2004-02-01

    1. Broiler breeder females were fed restricted allocations of food to meet target body weights. They were fed on a standard wheat-soy ration or on one of three series of rations containing 50, 100 or 200 g/kg of ground oat hulls, ground unmolassed sugar beet pulp or sunflower meal. Changes in behaviour and heterophil-lymphocyte ratio (HLR) were measured at 5, 10 and 15 weeks of age. 2. Body weight at 15 weeks of age decreased in a linear manner with increasing concentrations of the experimental ingredients. 3. Decreased spot pecking was observed in birds fed on the rations containing 50 g/kg of sugar beet pulp and 200 g/kg of oat hulls. 4. The HLR was higher in birds fed on the control diet and diets containing 50 g/kg of the high fibre ingredients. 5. Rations containing sugar beet pulp were associated with higher water contents in the gastrointestinal tract and it is proposed that this improved satiety and welfare. PMID:15115195

  2. Evolutionary Dynamics of Homophily and Heterophily

    PubMed Central

    Ramazi, Pouria; Cao, Ming; Weissing, Franz J.

    2016-01-01

    Most social interactions do not take place at random. In many situations, individuals choose their interaction partners on the basis of phenotypic cues. When this happens, individuals are often homophilic, that is, they tend to interact with individuals that are similar to them. Here we investigate the joint evolution of phenotypic cues and cue-dependent interaction strategies. By a combination of individual-based simulations and analytical arguments, we show that homophily evolves less easily than earlier studies suggest. The evolutionary interplay of cues and cue-based behaviour is intricate and has many interesting facets. For example, an interaction strategy like heterophily may stably persist in the population even if it is selected against in association with any particular cue. Homophily persisted for extensive periods of time just in those simulations where homophilic interactions provide a lower (rather than a higher) payoff than heterophilic interactions. Our results indicate that even the simplest cue-based social interactions can have rich dynamics and a surprising diversity of evolutionary outcomes. PMID:26951038

  3. Low temperatures reduce skin healing in the Jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman yacare, Daudin 1802)

    PubMed Central

    Pressinotti, Leandro Nogueira; Borges, Ricardo Moraes; Alves De Lima, Angela Paula; Aleixo, Victor Manuel; Iunes, Renata Stecca; Borges, João Carlos Shimada; Cogliati, Bruno; Cunha Da Silva, José Roberto Machado

    2013-01-01

    Summary Studies of skin wound healing in crocodilians are necessary given the frequent occurrence of cannibalism in intensive farming systems. Air temperature affects tissue recovery because crocodilians are ectothermic. Therefore, the kinetics of skin wound healing in Caiman yacare were examined at temperatures of 33°C and 23°C. Sixteen caiman were selected and divided into two groups of eight maintained at 23°C or 33°C. The studied individuals' scars were photographed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days of the experimental conditions, and samples were collected for histological processing after 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Macroscopically, the blood clot (heterophilic granuloma) noticeably remained in place covering the wound longer for the caiman kept at 23°C. Microscopically, the temperature of 23°C slowed epidermal migration and skin repair. Comparatively, new blood vessels, labeled using von Willebrand factor (vWF) antibody staining, were more frequently found in the scars of the 33°C group. The collagen fibers in the dermis were denser in the 33°C treatment. Considering the delayed healing at 23°C, producers are recommended to keep wounded animals at 33°C, especially when tanks are cold, to enable rapid wound closure and better repair of collagen fibers because such lesions tend to compromise the use of their skin as leather. PMID:24244853

  4. Amelioration of hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin using citrus fruit oil in broilers (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Senthil; Rao, Suguna; Satyanarayana, M L; Kumar, P G Pradeep; Anitha, N

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of citrus fruit oil (CFO; 2.5 g kg(-1)) on the clinicopathological changes in broilers fed with diets containing 1 ppm of aflatoxin (AF). A total of 160 Ross 308 broiler chicks of 1-day-old were procured from a commercial hatchery, divided randomly on 7th day of age into four groups with two replicates of 20 birds each and fed with basal diet (group A), basal diet + CFO (group B), basal diet + AF (group C) and CFO + basal diet + AF (group D). The gross and histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were investigated and relative organ weights were calculated. Slight to moderate hydropic degeneration, fatty change with the formation of cyst in some cases, periportal necrosis, infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells and bile duct hyperplasia were observed in chicks fed with 1 ppm AF-containing diet. The addition of CFO to AF-containing diet moderately decreased the magnitude and severity of lesions (hydropic degeneration and bile duct hyperplasia) in the liver. The supplementation of CFO to the basal diet did not produce any adverse effects in birds. PMID:23589408

  5. Dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet to heat-stressed broiler chickens and its effect on heat shock protein 70 expression, blood parameters and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Hasheimi, S R; Zulkifli, I; Somchit, M N; Zunita, Z; Loh, T C; Soleimani, A F; Tang, S C

    2013-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. PMID:22533311

  6. Immune function, stress response, and body condition in arctic-breeding common eiders in relation to cadmium, mercury, and selenium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wayland, M; Gilchrist, H G; Marchant, T; Keating, J; Smits, J E

    2002-09-01

    We examined relationships between trace metal concentrations in tissues of common eider ducks (cadmium, mercury, and selenium) and selected biomarkers of health (stress response, immune function, and body condition). This study was conducted at an eider nesting colony in the Canadian arctic in 1998 and 1999. Capture-induced stress, measured as the rise in corticosterone concentrations following capture, was positively related (P=0.03) to renal cadmium concentration in 1998 when incubating eiders were sampled, but not in 1999 when prenesting eiders were sampled. Stress response was inversely related (P=0.02) to selenium concentrations in 1999. Following capture and blood sampling in 1999, eiders were placed in a flight pen on-site for eight days in order to examine immune function. Cell-mediated immunity, measured as the skin-swelling response to an intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin-P, (PHA-P), was positively related (P=0.003) to hepatic selenium. The heterophil:lymphocyte ratio was inversely related (P=0.08) to hepatic selenium. In 1998, selenium was positively related to body mass (P=0.01), abdominal fat mass (P=0.07), kidney mass (P=0.03), and liver mass (P=0.07). In 1999, hepatic mercury was negatively related to abdominal fat mass (P=0.01), spleen mass (P=0.07) and body mass at capture (P=0.09) in prenesting eiders. PMID:12359190

  7. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  8. Chickens treated with a nitric oxide inhibitor became more resistant to Plasmodium gallinaceum infection due to reduced anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a serious infectious disease caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus that affect different vertebrate hosts. Severe malaria leads to host death and involves different pathophysiological phenomena such as anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule in this disease, but little is known about its role in avian malaria models. Plasmodium gallinaceum- infected chickens were treated with aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, to observe the role of NO in the pathogenesis of this avian model. AG increased the survival of chickens, but also induced higher parasitemia. Treated chickens demonstrated reduced anemia and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, erythrocytes at different stages of maturation, heterophils, monocytes and thrombocytes were infected by Plasmodium gallinaceum and animals presented a generalized leucopenia. Activated leukocytes and thrombocytes with elongated double nuclei were observed in chickens with higher parasitemia; however, eosinophils were not involved in the infection. AG reduced levels of hemozoin in the spleen and liver, indicating lower inflammation. Taken together, the results suggest that AG reduced anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation, explaining the greater survival rate of the treated chickens. PMID:23398940

  9. Assessment of the stresses imposed on adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) during handling, loading, transportation and unloading.

    PubMed

    Minka, N S; Ayo, J O

    2008-06-28

    The stresses imposed during the handling, loading and unloading of 250 adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) transported by road were evaluated, weighted, scored and later compared with some objective physiological indices of stress measured after the journey. During handling, the numbers of slips and falls, incidents of aggressive behaviour, the calculated behavioural points, the number of injuries recorded per ostrich and the time spent were significantly (P<0.01) greater than the values recorded during loading and unloading. During handling and loading, 45 per cent of the ostriches had a good score (1.1 to 2 points), 15.5 per cent had a fair score (2.1 to 3 points) and 39.4 per cent had a poor or bad score (more than 3 points). The behavioural scores were significantly and positively correlated with the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, the rectal temperature and the number of injuries sustained by the ostriches. The results showed that the poorer the behavioural score, the higher the level of stress suffered by the ostriches during handling and loading. PMID:18587061

  10. Hematologic and Total Plasma Protein Values in Free-Living Red-tailed Amazon Parrot Nestlings (Amazona brasiliensis) in Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Frederico F; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Sipinski, Elenise A B; Abbud, Maria C; Sezerban, Rafael M; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Dittrich, Jaqueline; Cavalheiro, Maria L

    2015-09-01

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered psittacid species that is endemic in the south and southeast Brazilian Atlantic coastal region. Hematologic evaluation is important to monitor the health of these birds, and information about laboratory values for this species is scarce. Hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for 33 free-living nestling parrots in Paraná state, Brazil. Parrots were temporarily removed from the nest and manually restrained to record body weight and collect blood samples. Mean body weight was <400 g in 13 birds (group 1) and >400 g in 20 birds (group 2). Significantly higher levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, monocytes, and basophils were observed in younger birds (group 1). A stress leukogram (high white blood cell and heterophil count) was found in all nestlings, suggesting stress induced by capture and restraint. Parameters obtained in this study will be essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild parrots, to evaluate the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation efforts of this endangered species. PMID:26378664

  11. Physiological indices of stress in wild and captive garter snakes: correlations, repeatability, and ecological variation.

    PubMed

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M; Williams, Shelby; Parsai, Shikha; Manhart, Whitney; Palacios, Maria G

    2014-08-01

    Glucocorticoids and leukocyte ratios have become the most widespread variables employed to test hypotheses regarding physiological stress in wild and captive vertebrates. Little is known, however, regarding how these two indices of stress covary in response to stressors, their repeatability within individuals, and differences in response time upon capture. Furthermore, few studies compare stress indices between captive and wild populations, to assess potential alteration of stress physiology in captivity. To address these issues, we examined corticosterone (CORT) and heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios in two ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans. We found that CORT and H:L ratios were not correlated within individuals, and both variables showed little or no repeatability over a period of months. CORT levels, but not H:L ratios, were higher for individuals sampled after 10min from the time of capture. However, both variables showed similar patterns of ecotypic variation, and both increased over time in gravid females maintained in captivity for four months. We suggest that CORT and H:L ratios are both useful, but disparate indices of stress in this species, and may show complex relationships to each other and to ecological and anthropogenic variables. PMID:24713520

  12. An introduced generalist parasite, the sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea), and its pathology in the threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    PubMed

    Boughton, R K; Atwell, J W; Schoech, S J

    2006-10-01

    The sticktight flea, (Echidnophaga gallinacea), a major pest of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) that can cause severe pathology or death if untreated, is rarely recorded in free-living avian species. Sticktight fleas, however, were observed on the federally threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) in February 2004, in south central Florida. Of the 81 Florida scrub-jays (FSJs) sampled before the 2004 breeding season, 12 were infested, with from 1 to as many as 57 fleas. Subsequent survivorship and variation in health indices led us to conclude that the sticktight flea caused the death of several jays. Within 4 mo, 46% of sticktight flea-infested (INF) jays died, whereas in the nonflea-infested (NINF) jays, only 5.9% died. Adult INF birds lost body mass in the time since a previous capture compared with NINF jays, and mass gain was slowed in 1-yr-old INF jays. Hematocrit of INF jays was dramatically impacted, as low as 17%, and was negatively correlated with the extent of infestation. Leukocyte counts were highest in INF jays; however, plasma immunoglobulin levels were lowest. Physiological stress levels, measured using plasma corticosterone, increased more rapidly in INF jays than NINF jays and were positively correlated with heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. The impact of the sticktight flea on the federally threatened FSJ negates previous findings that sticktight fleas are benign in wild avian hosts. PMID:17152932

  13. Hepatozoon ellisgreineri n. sp. (Hepatozoidae): description of the first avian apicomplexan blood parasite inhabiting granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Mobley, Kristin; Iezhova, Tatjana A

    2016-02-01

    Blood parasites of the genus Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) infect all groups of terrestrial vertebrates, and particularly high prevalence and species diversity have been reported in reptiles and mammals. A few morphologically similar species, in which gamonts inhabit mononuclear leukocytes and red blood cells, have been described in birds. Here, we report a new Hepatozoon species, which was found in wild-caught secretary birds Sagittarius serpentarius, from Tanzania. Hepatozoon ellisgreineri n. sp. can be readily distinguished from all described species of avian Hepatozoon because its gamonts develop only in granulocytes, predominantly in heterophils, a unique characteristic among bird parasites of this genus. Additionally, this is the first reported avian apicomplexan blood parasite, which inhabits and matures in granulocytes. We describe H. ellisgreineri based on morphological characteristics of blood stages and their host cells. This finding broadens knowledge about host cells of avian Hepatozoon spp. and other avian apicomplexan blood parasites, contributing to the better understanding of the diversity of haematozoa. This is the first report of hepatozoonosis in endangered African birds of the Sagittariidae. PMID:26472715

  14. Carotenoids, sexual signals and immune function in barn swallows from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Camplani, A; Saino, N; Møller, A P

    1999-06-01

    Carotenoids have been hypothesized to facilitate immune function and act as free-radical scavengers, thereby minimizing the frequency of mutations. Populations of animals exposed to higher levels of free radicals are thus expected to demonstrate reduced sexual coloration if use of carotenoids for free-radical scavenging is traded against use for sexual signals. The intensity of carotenoid-based sexual coloration was compared among three populations of barn swallows Hirundo rustica differing in exposure to radioactive contamination. Lymphocyte and immunoglobulin concentrations were depressed, whereas the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, an index of stress, was enhanced in Chernobyl swallows compared to controls. Spleen size was reduced in Chernobyl compared to that of two control populations. Sexual coloration varied significantly among populations, with the size of a secondary sexual character (the length of the outermost tail feathers) being positively related to coloration in the two control populations, but not in the Chernobyl population. Thus the positive covariation between coloration and sexual signalling disappeared in the population subject to intense radioactive contamination. These findings suggest that the reliable signalling function of secondary sexual characters breaks down under extreme environmental conditions, no longer providing reliable information about the health status of males. PMID:10406129

  15. Hematobiochemical and pathological alterations due to chronic chlorpyrifos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kavita; Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Bora, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in indigenous chicken. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two groups I and II. Group I served as control and group II was treated with CPF (0.36 mg/kg) orally daily up to 12 weeks. Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein and uric acid. Representative pieces of tissues from liver and kidney were collected weekly for histopathological examination. Results: A significant (P < 0.01) increase of Hb, TEC, TLC, and heterophil percent and decrease of lymphocyte percent was observed. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly and CHE values decreased significantly in CPF treated birds. The protein level remained similar. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group. The results indicate that chronic CPF intoxication produces hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in treated birds. PMID:25878384

  16. Immune Responses to Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Rajesh; Chantrey, Julian; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious chicken viral disease, causing severe economic losses to poultry producers worldwide. In the last few decades, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has been extensively studied, but knowledge of immune responses to virulent or vaccine strains of IBVs remains limited. This review focuses on fundamental aspects of immune responses against IBV, including the role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in identification of conserved viral structures and the role of different components of innate immunity (e.g., heterophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, acute phase protein, and cytokines). Studies on adaptive immune activation and the role of humoral and cellular immunity in IBV clearance are also reviewed. Multiple interlinking immune responses are essential for protection against virulent IBVs, including passive, innate, adaptive, and effector T cells active at mucosal surfaces. Although the development of approaches for chicken transcriptome and proteome analyses have greatly helped the understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms for immunity, there are still major knowledge gaps, such as the role of mucosal and cellular responses to IBVs. In view of recent reports of emergent IBV variants in many countries, there is renewed interest in a more complete understanding of poultry immune responses to both virulent and vaccine strains of IBVs. This will be critical for developing new vaccine or vaccination strategies and other intervention programs. PMID:26301315

  17. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  18. Amalgam, an axon guidance Drosophila adhesion protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily: over-expression, purification and biophysical characterization.

    PubMed

    Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Tzviya; Paz, Aviv; Peleg, Yoav; Toker, Lilly; Wolf, Sharon G; Rydberg, Edwin H; Sussman, Joel L; Silman, Israel

    2009-02-01

    Amalgam, a multi-domain member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, possesses homophilic and heterophilic cell adhesion properties. It is required for axon guidance during Drosophila development in which it interacts with the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein, neurotactin, to promote adhesion. Amalgam was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the secreted protein product, bearing an NH(2)-terminal His(6)Tag, was purified from the growth medium by metal affinity chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography separated the purified protein into two fractions: a major, multimeric fraction and a minor, dimeric one. Two protocols to reduce the percentage of multimers were tested. In one, protein induction was performed in the presence of the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS, yielding primarily the dimeric form of amalgam. In a second protocol, agitation was gradually reduced during the course of the induction and antifoam was added daily to reduce the air/liquid interfacial foam area. This latter protocol lowered the percentage of multimer 2-fold, compared to constant agitation. Circular dichroism measurements showed that the dimeric fraction had a high beta-sheet content, as expected for a protein with an immunoglobulin fold. Dynamic light scattering and sedimentation velocity measurements showed that the multimeric fraction displays a monodisperse distribution, with R(H)=16 nm. When co-expressed together with amalgam the ectodomain of neurotactin copurified with it. Furthermore, both purified fractions of amalgam were shown to interact with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase, a structural homolog of neurotactin. PMID:18938249

  19. Evolutionary Dynamics of Homophily and Heterophily.

    PubMed

    Ramazi, Pouria; Cao, Ming; Weissing, Franz J

    2016-01-01

    Most social interactions do not take place at random. In many situations, individuals choose their interaction partners on the basis of phenotypic cues. When this happens, individuals are often homophilic, that is, they tend to interact with individuals that are similar to them. Here we investigate the joint evolution of phenotypic cues and cue-dependent interaction strategies. By a combination of individual-based simulations and analytical arguments, we show that homophily evolves less easily than earlier studies suggest. The evolutionary interplay of cues and cue-based behaviour is intricate and has many interesting facets. For example, an interaction strategy like heterophily may stably persist in the population even if it is selected against in association with any particular cue. Homophily persisted for extensive periods of time just in those simulations where homophilic interactions provide a lower (rather than a higher) payoff than heterophilic interactions. Our results indicate that even the simplest cue-based social interactions can have rich dynamics and a surprising diversity of evolutionary outcomes. PMID:26951038

  20. Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Kheirandish; Nasrin, Askari; Mahmoud, Salehi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. Methods This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. Results At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Conclusions Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection. PMID:23620834

  1. Effect of dexamethasone on bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2015-08-15

    Stress has been shown to affect the immune system of turkeys making them more susceptible to bacterial infections. Five-week-old male and female turkeys were treated with 3 intra-muscular injections of dexamethasone (Dex) at 0, 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg body weight. Twenty-four hours after the third injection birds were bled and white blood cell (WBC) differentials and bacteriostatic activity of monocytes were measured. Dex at both 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg decreased phagocytic activity in females only. Bacteriostatic activity was decreased at both concentrations of Dex at 8 and 16 h post-infection in both sexes and was lower in males as compared to females. Total WBC counts were increased in females at both concentrations of Dex whereas male total WBC counts were unaffected. Both males and females had an increase in the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Within the same study, replicate pens of turkeys were challenged with intra-air sac inoculation of 100 cfu of Escherichia coli. Isolation of E. coli was significantly increased by both Dex and E. coli challenge, but there were no differences between sexes. These results suggest that stress can compromise the bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and increase bacterial colonization of blood and tissues, potentially affecting food safety. PMID:26099808

  2. Methodological Issues in Cytokine Measurement in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Koola, Maju Mathew

    2016-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that inflammation is a major factor in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Inflammatory status is commonly ascertained by measuring peripheral cytokine concentrations. An issue concerning research on inflammation and schizophrenia relates to assay methodology. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used and the gold standard method used to measure cytokine concentrations. ELISA has a number of limitations. Both ELISA and multiplex are limited by not being able to distinguish between bioactive and inactive molecules and the matrix and heterophilic (auto-) antibody interference. Multiplex assays when combined with gene expression analysis and flow cytometry techniques such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting may be useful to detect abnormalities in specific immune pathways. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures, to evaluate in vitro lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production, may be a better technology than measuring cytokines in the serum. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on major methodological issues that need to be addressed in order to advance the study of cytokines in schizophrenia. We make a few recommendations on how to address these issues. PMID:27011395

  3. Shiga toxin 2-induced intestinal pathology in infant rabbits is A-subunit dependent and responsive to the tyrosine kinase and potential ZAK inhibitor imatinib.

    PubMed

    Stone, Samuel M; Thorpe, Cheleste M; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Rogers, Arlin B; Obata, Fumiko; Vozenilek, Aimee; Kolling, Glynis L; Kane, Anne V; Magun, Bruce E; Jandhyala, Dakshina M

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of food-borne illness worldwide. However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis (HC) is lacking. One of the obstacles to understanding the role of Shiga toxins to STEC-mediated intestinal pathology is a deficit in small animal models that perfectly mimic human disease. Infant rabbits have been previously used to study STEC and/or Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. We demonstrate using infant rabbits that Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage requires A-subunit activity, and like the human colon, that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb(3). We also demonstrate that Shiga toxin treatment of the infant rabbit results in apoptosis and activation of p38 within colonic tissues. Finally we demonstrate that the infant rabbit model may be used to test candidate therapeutics against Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage. While the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the ZAK inhibitor DHP-2 were ineffective at preventing Shiga toxin-mediated damage to the colon, pretreatment of infant rabbits with the drug imatinib resulted in a decrease of Shiga toxin-mediated heterophil infiltration of the colon. Therefore, we propose that this model may be useful in elucidating mechanisms by which Shiga toxins could contribute to intestinal damage in the human. PMID:23162799

  4. Biological response of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) induced by corticosterone and a bacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Shini, Shaniko; Kaiser, Pete; Shini, Agim; Bryden, Wayne L

    2008-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with chickens exposed to corticosterone and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli, with the aim of evaluating and differentiating their effects on endocrine, metabolic and immune response. Both, corticosterone and LPS significantly elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios 1 h, 3 h and 24 h post-treatments. Repeated exposure to corticosterone caused a prolonged elevation of plasma corticosterone concentration and H/L ratio. Data on blood metabolites demonstrated that corticosterone stimulated hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, LPS induced hypocholesterolemia and hypotriglyceridemia at 24 h post-injection. Weight gain and relative weight of the spleen and bursa were reduced in chickens treated with corticosterone. The LPS did not show any significant effect on weekly weight gain, but stimulated an increase in the relative weight of the spleen. Corticosterone initially stimulated antibody responsiveness to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccination, but thereafter the titres decreased. This was in contrast to LPS which depressed the antibody titre to IBV vaccination. It was concluded that the biological response of chickens induced by corticosterone could be differed from the response to LPS. The major difference occurred in metabolic, growth and immune activities. It appears that, both corticosterone and LPS differently alter physiological, metabolic and immunological responses of chickens through an activation of different molecular components (cytokines and chemokines) and neuroendocrine-immune network systems. PMID:18024213

  5. Recurrent anterior uveitis induced by multiple systemic injections of muramyl dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Fox, K; Fox, A; Pakalnis, V

    1993-07-01

    The development of new therapeutic modalities in the treatment of uveitis has been greatly aided by the availability of suitable animal models. The endotoxin model excellently mimics many features of acute anterior uveitis. A new model that exhibits many features of recurrent anterior uveitis is described here. Muramyl dipeptide, MDP, is a synthetic monomer of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial cell walls. The molecule is highly inflammatory, but unlike endotoxin does not elicit an antibody response. After a single injection (4 hr post-injection), acute anterior segment changes include massive engorgement of peri-limbal blood vessels, anterior chamber flare, fibrin deposits and heterophil (neutrophil) infiltration which subside within 24-48 hr. There is also break-down of the blood-aqueous barrier. With multiple injections the exacerbations and remissions continue to be observed after each injection but the disease progresses to a recurrent form including the development of synechiae and a mononuclear infiltrate into the anterior segment. The ocular changes are paralleled by changes in the bloodstream with recurrent heterophilia. Thus MDP does not elicit ocular or systemic tolerance. This new model of anterior uveitis should allow study of many of the events that occur in recurrent uveitis in man. PMID:8405175

  6. Molecular genetic basis of the human Forssman glycolipid antigen negativity

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Forssman heterophilic glycolipid antigen has structural similarity to the histo-blood group A antigen, and the GBGT1 gene encoding the Forssman glycolipid synthetase (FS) is evolutionarily related to the ABO gene. The antigen is present in various species, but not in others including humans. We have elucidated the molecular genetic basis of the Forssman antigen negativity in humans. In the human GBGT1 gene, we identified two common inactivating missense mutations (c.688G>A [p.Gly230Ser] and c.887A>G [p.Gln296Arg]). The reversion of the two mutations fully restored the glycosyltransferase activity to synthesize the Forssman antigen in vitro. These glycine and glutamine residues are conserved among functional GBGT1 genes in Forssman-positive species. Furthermore, the glycine and serine residues represent those at the corresponding position of the human blood group A and B transferases with GalNAc and galactose specificity, respectively, implicating the crucial role the glycine residue may play in the FS α1,3-GalNAc transferase activity. PMID:23240079

  7. Pre-existing Antibody: Biotherapeutic Modality-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Gorovits, Boris; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Birchler, Mary; Liang, Meina; Myler, Heather; Peng, Kun; Purushothama, Shobha; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj; Salazar-Fontana, Laura; Sung, Crystal; Xue, Li

    2016-03-01

    Pre-existing antibodies to biotherapeutic drugs have been detected in drug-naïve subjects for a variety of biotherapeutic modalities. Pre-existing antibodies are immunoglobulins that are either specific or cross-reacting with a protein or glycan epitopes on a biotherapeutic compound. Although the exact cause for pre-existing antibodies is often unknown, environmental exposures to non-human proteins, glycans, and structurally similar products are frequently proposed as factors. Clinical consequences of the pre-existing antibodies vary from an adverse effect on patient safety to no impact at all and remain highly dependent on the biotherapeutic drug modality and therapeutic indication. As such, pre-existing antibodies are viewed as an immunogenicity risk factor requiring a careful evaluation. Herein, the relationships between biotherapeutic modalities to the nature, prevalence, and clinical consequences of pre-existing antibodies are reviewed. Initial evidence for pre-existing antibody is often identified during anti-drug antibody (ADA) assay development. Other interfering factors known to cause false ADA positive signal, including circulating multimeric drug target, rheumatoid factors, and heterophilic antibodies, are discussed. PMID:26821802

  8. How, with whom and when: an overview of CD147-mediated regulatory networks influencing matrix metalloproteinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Grass, G. Daniel; Toole, Bryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of 23 zinc-dependent enzymes involved in various pathologic and physiologic processes. In cancer, MMPs contribute to processes from tumour initiation to establishment of distant metastases. Complex signalling and protein transport networks regulate MMP synthesis, cell surface presentation and release. Earlier attempts to disrupt MMP activity in patients have proven to be intolerable and with underwhelming clinical efficacy; thus targeting ancillary proteins that regulate MMP activity may be a useful therapeutic approach. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was originally characterized as a factor present on lung cancer cells, which stimulated collagenase (MMP-1) production in fibroblasts. Subsequent studies demonstrated that EMMPRIN was identical with several other protein factors, including basigin (Bsg), all of which are now commonly termed CD147. CD147 modulates the synthesis and activity of soluble and membrane-bound [membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs)] in various contexts via homophilic/heterophilic cell interactions, vesicular shedding or cell-autonomous processes. CD147 also participates in inflammation, nutrient and drug transporter activity, microbial pathology and developmental processes. Despite the hundreds of manuscripts demonstrating CD147-mediated MMP regulation, the molecular underpinnings governing this process have not been fully elucidated. The present review summarizes our present knowledge of the complex regulatory systems influencing CD147 biology and provides a framework to understand how CD147 may influence MMP activity. PMID:26604323

  9. Interpreting indices of physiological stress in free-living vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Christopher P; Reina, Richard D; Lill, Alan

    2012-10-01

    When vertebrate physiological ecologists use the terms 'stress' or 'physiological stress', they typically mean the level of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activation. Measurements of stress hormone concentrations (e.g. glucocorticoids in blood, urine or faeces), leukocytes (e.g. the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio or heterophil equivalent), immunofunction (e.g. innate, cell-mediated or humoral immunity measures) and regenerative anaemia (e.g. mean erythrocyte volume and red blood cell distribution width) have all been used to estimate HPA-axis activity in free-living vertebrates. Stress metrics have provided insights into aspects of autecology or population regulation that could not have been easily obtained using other indices of population wellbeing, such as body condition or relative abundance. However, short- and long-term stress (often problematically termed acute and chronic stress, respectively) can interact in unpredictable ways. When animals experience trapping and handling stress before blood, faeces and/or urine is sampled, the interaction of short- and long-term stress can confound interpretation of the data, a fact not always acknowledged in studies of stress in free-living vertebrates. This review examines how stress metrics can be confounded when estimates of HPA-axis activation are collected for free-living vertebrates and outlines some approaches that can be used to help circumvent the influence of potentially confounding factors. PMID:22415475

  10. Ecological immunology in a fluctuating environment: an integrative analysis of tree swallow nestling immune defense

    PubMed Central

    Pigeon, Gabriel; Blisle, Marc; Garant, Dany; Cohen, Alan A; Pelletier, Fanie

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary ecologists have long been interested by the link between different immune defenses and fitness. Given the importance of a proper immune defense for survival, it is important to understand how its numerous components are affected by environmental heterogeneity. Previous studies targeting this question have rarely considered more than two immune markers. In this study, we measured seven immune markers (response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), hemolysis capacity, hemagglutination capacity, plasma bactericidal capacity, percentage of lymphocytes, percentage of heterophils, and percentage of eosinophils) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings raised in two types of agro-ecosystems of contrasted quality and over 2 years. First, we assessed the effect of environmental heterogeneity (spatial and temporal) on the strength and direction of correlations between immune measures. Second, we investigated the effect of an immune score integrating information from several immune markers on individual performance (including growth, mass at fledging and parasite burden). Both a multivariate and a pair-wise approach showed variation in relationships between immune measures across years and habitats. We also found a weak association between the integrated score of nestling immune function and individual performance, but only under certain environmental conditions. We conclude that the ecological context can strongly affect the interpretation of immune defenses in the wild. Given that spatiotemporal variations are likely to affect individual immune defenses, great caution should be used when generalizing conclusions to other study systems. PMID:23610646

  11. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael James; McKernan, Moira; Lavoie, Emma T; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch. PMID:17162502

  12. Mercury levels, reproduction, and hematology in western grebes from three California Lakes, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Elbert, R.A.; Anderson, D.W.

    1998-02-01

    Twenty-three healthy adult western and Clark`s grebes (Aechmorphorus occidentalis and Aechmorphorus clarkii) were collected at three study sites in California, USA, in 1992: Clear Lake, Lake County; Eagle Lake, Lassen County; and Tule Lake, Siskiyou County. Liver, kidney, breast muscle, and brain were analyzed for total mercury (Hg) concentration (ppm wet weight), and blood was analyzed for various blood parameters. Clear Lake birds had greater Hg concentrations in kidney, breast muscle, and brain than birds from the other two lakes whereas liver concentrations were not statistically different. Average concentrations for Clear Lake birds were 2.74 ppm for liver, 2.06 ppm for kidney, 1.06 ppm for breast muscle, and 0.28 ppm for brain. The tissue levels of kidney, breast muscle, and brain at the other two study sites were one half the levels found at Clear Lake. These mean tissue levels were near, but below, those known to cause adverse effects. When data from all sites were merged, kidney, breast muscle, and brain concentrations are positively correlated to each other. Liver concentrations were not correlated to any other value. Brain Hg concentrations were also negatively correlated to blood potassium and blood phosphorus levels. Kidney Hg levels were positively correlated to percent blood heterophils and negatively correlated to percent eosinophils, suggesting that mercury levels might be affecting immune function. These biomarkers could not be related to any obvious ecological effects.

  13. Structures of CD6 and Its Ligand CD166 Give Insight into Their Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Paul E.; Garner, Lee I.; Yan, Jun; Metcalfe, Clive; Hatherley, Deborah; Johnson, Steven; Robinson, Carol V.; Lea, Susan M.; Brown, Marion H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary CD6 is a transmembrane protein with an extracellular region containing three scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) domains. The membrane proximal domain of CD6 binds the N-terminal immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domain of another cell surface receptor, CD166, which also engages in homophilic interactions. CD6 expression is mainly restricted to T cells, and the interaction between CD6 and CD166 regulates T-cell activation. We have solved the X-ray crystal structures of the three SRCR domains of CD6 and two N-terminal domains of CD166. This first structure of consecutive SRCR domains reveals a nonlinear organization. We characterized the binding sites on CD6 and CD166 and showed that a SNP in CD6 causes glycosylation that hinders the CD6/CD166 interaction. Native mass spectrometry analysis showed that there is competition between the heterophilic and homophilic interactions. These data give insight into how interactions of consecutive SRCR domains are perturbed by SNPs and potential therapeutic reagents. PMID:26146185

  14. Mucosal injury and. gamma. -irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M. )

    1991-05-01

    A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and {gamma}-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. {gamma}-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment.

  15. Effect of prolonged administration of dietary capsaicin on Salmonella enteritidis infection in leghorn chicks.

    PubMed

    Tellez, G I; Jaeger, L; Dean, C E; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Williams, J D; Hargis, B M

    1993-01-01

    The effect of 14 or 19 days of dietary capsaicin (18 ppm) on Salmonella enteritidis infection and histological, morphometric, and pH changes of the ceca was investigated. At day 13 or day 18, chicks were challenged with 10(8) colony-forming units of S. enteritidis. Chicks were killed and cultured 24 hours later. The total number of S. enteritidis-organ-culture-positive chicks was significantly lower among chicks fed capsaicin for either 14 or 19 days than among controls (P < 0.05). Subjective histological examination revealed a mild to moderate infiltration of mononuclear cells and heterophils in lamina propria of ceca, as well as epithelial cell proliferation in chicks following either 14 or 19 days of capsaicin administration. Using morphometric analysis, the mean lamina propria thickness and mean epithelial cell thickness in chickens fed capsaicin for 14 or 19 days were significantly greater than in controls (P < 0.05). Capsaicin significantly decreased luminal pH in both trials (P < 0.05). These data indicate that the observed capsaicin-induced resistance to S. enteritidis organ invasion is associated with measurable pH and morphological changes of the cecal mucosa. PMID:8452490

  16. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in chickens inoculated with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed

    Shibatani, M; Suzuki, T; Chujo, M; Nakamura, K

    1997-08-01

    In a first experiment, 28 specific pathogen-free chickens aged 3 weeks showed clinical signs 1 to 5 days after intramuscular inoculation with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Twelve of 28 birds died 2 to 4 days after inoculation. Macroscopically, the liver, spleen and kidneys were seen to be enlarged and congested. Histologically, fibrinous thrombus formation, seen in the hepatic sinusoids, renal glomerular capillaries and small pulmonary blood vessels, was a characteristic feature. In addition, the liver showed marked congestion, increase of mononuclear cells and heterophils in the sinusoids, hyperplasia of sinusoidal lining cells, and vacuolar changes in hepatic cells. The spleen showed fibrinous exudation of the lymphoid follicles and ellipsoids with lymphocytic depletion, and hyperplasia of ellipsoidal reticular cells. There was oedema, congestion and cellular infiltration in the interstitium of the kidney. The bursa of Fabricius and thymus showed marked lymphocytic depletion. In a second experiment, the blood chemical values (uric acid, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) of birds inoculated intramuscularly with E. rhusiopathiae were significantly higher than those of uninfected controls. The blood prothrombin times and activated partial thromboplastin times of the inoculated group were significantly greater than those of the control group. The pathological and haematological findings demonstrated that E. rhusiopathiae induced disseminated intravascular coagulation in the chickens. PMID:9352439

  17. NPPD: A Protein-Protein Docking Scoring Function Based on Dyadic Differences in Networks of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Amino Acid Residues

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Edward S. C.; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein docking (PPD) predictions usually rely on the use of a scoring function to rank docking models generated by exhaustive sampling. To rank good models higher than bad ones, a large number of scoring functions have been developed and evaluated, but the methods used for the computation of PPD predictions remain largely unsatisfactory. Here, we report a network-based PPD scoring function, the NPPD, in which the network consists of two types of network nodes, one for hydrophobic and the other for hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the nodes are connected when the residues they represent are within a certain contact distance. We showed that network parameters that compute dyadic interactions and those that compute heterophilic interactions of the amino acid networks thus constructed allowed NPPD to perform well in a benchmark evaluation of 115 PPD scoring functions, most of which, unlike NPPD, are based on some sort of protein-protein interaction energy. We also showed that NPPD was highly complementary to these energy-based scoring functions, suggesting that the combined use of conventional scoring functions and NPPD might significantly improve the accuracy of current PPD predictions. PMID:25811640

  18. Neuropathological observation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) affected with raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) larva migrans in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuoka, Hidefumi; Sato, Hiroshi; Kubo, Midori; Owaki, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Matsui, Takane; Kamiya, Haruo

    2003-06-01

    Larvae of the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis (B. procyonis) are a known cause of cerebrospinal larva migrans in animals and humans. The present paper described details of the central nervous lesion in the rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) affected with B. procyonis larva migrans in Japan. Clinically affected animals showed neurological signs including circling, torticollis, tremor of head, or ataxic gait. The most characteristic pathological alterations were large malacic lesions associated with an activated astroglial proliferation which was seen at the corpus medullare in the cerebellum including the cerebellar peduncle. Moreover, focal malacic lesions with perivascular cuffing and infiltration by lymphocytes and heterophiles were scattered everywhere throughout the brain. In these lesions or normal-appearing areas away from obvious lesions, ascarid larvae, about a maximum 65-75 micro m in diameter, were recognized. Other prominent features were minute lesions (we call them migration tract-like lesions) composed of lymphocytes, hemosiderin-laden macrophages and reactive astrocytes scattering throughout the cerebrum. In this study, we demonstrated ascarid larvae in only eight out of 23 animals diagnosed as B. procyonis larva migrans. Since it is not always possible to detect the larvae, the possibility of B. procyonis larva migrans must be given serious consideration to the characteristic lesions described above. PMID:12867729

  19. Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).

    PubMed

    Muro, J; Cuenca, R; Pastor, J; Vinas, L; Lavin, S

    1998-03-01

    In an effort to define the effect(s) of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on various hematologic parameters in Testudo hermanni, we collected blood samples from 29 clinically healthy adult individuals of both sexes. Portions of each blood sample were transferred to tubes containing either lithium heparin or tripotassium EDTA. The following determinations were made on samples of blood from each anticoagulant: red and white cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, red cell indices, and differential white cell counts. Due to hemolysis, hematocrits could not be determined from blood samples in EDTA. Further, red blood cell counts were lower in the EDTA samples than in the heparin samples, again due to hemolysis associated with EDTA. However, EDTA did not appear to interfere with hemoglobin determinations. Heparin blood samples provided more optimal blood smears than did EDTA samples, thus differential leucocyte counts were determined only from smears taken from heparin blood samples. Further, thrombocyte and leucocyte aggregation was not observed with heparin use. Thus, heparin is considered the anticoagulant of choice in chelonians for determining red blood cell counts, erythrocyte indices, and hematocrits. When May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain was compared with Diff-Quick, thrombocytes could be more easily differentiated from lymphocytes using the May-Brunwald-Giemsa stain. Heterophil granules seemed to coalese more when Diff-Quick was used. Eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes were similar in appearance with both staining methods. PMID:9638624

  20. Different roles of cadherins in the assembly and structural integrity of the desmosome complex

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, M.; Rakshit, S.; Shafraz, O.; Borghi, N.; Harmon, R. M.; Green, K. J.; Sivasankar, S.; Nelson, W. J.

    2014-05-15

    Adhesion between cells is established by the formation of specialized intercellular junctional complexes, such as desmosomes. Desmosomes comprise two members of the cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins, desmocollin (Dsc) and desmoglein (Dsg), but their combinatorial roles in desmosome assembly is not understood. To uncouple desmosome assembly from other cell-cell adhesion complexes, we used micro-patterned substrates of Dsc2aFc and/or Dsg2Fc and collagen IV; we show that Dsc2aFc, but not Dsg2Fc, was necessary and sufficient to recruit desmosome-specific desmoplakin into desmosome puncta and produce strong adhesive binding. Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy showed that monomeric Dsc2a, but not Dsg2, formed Ca2+-dependent homophilic bonds, and that Dsg2 formed Ca2+-independent heterophilic bonds with Dsc2a. A W2A mutation in Dsc2a inhibited Ca2+-dependent homophilic binding, similar to classical cadherins, and Dsc2aW2A, but not Dsg2W2A, was excluded from desmosomes in MDCK cells. These results indicate that Dsc2a, not Dsg2, is required for desmosome assembly via homophilic Ca2+- and W2/strand swap-dependent binding, and that Dsg2 may be involved later in regulating a switch to Ca2+-independent adhesion in mature desmosomes.

  1. The effects of hurricane Rita and subsequent drought on alligators in southwest Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Lance, Valentine A; Elsey, Ruth M; Butterstein, George; Trosclair, Phillip L; Merchant, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Hurricane Rita struck the coast of southwest Louisiana in September 2005. The storm generated an enormous tidal surge of approximately four meters in height that inundated many thousands of acres of the coastal marsh with full strength seawater. The initial surge resulted in the deaths of a number of alligators and severely stressed those who survived. In addition, a prolonged drought (the lowest rainfall in 111 years of recorded weather data) following the hurricane resulted in highly saline conditions that persisted in the marsh for several months. We had the opportunity to collect 11 blood samples from alligators located on Holly Beach less than a month after the hurricane, but were unable to collect samples from alligators on Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge until February 2006. Conditions at Rockefeller Refuge did not permit systematic sampling, but a total of 201 samples were collected on the refuge up through August 2006. The blood samples were analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolality, and corticosterone. Blood samples from alligators sampled on Holly Beach in October 2005, showed a marked elevation in plasma osmolality, sodium, chloride, potassium, corticosterone, and an elevated heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. Blood samples from alligators on Rockefeller Refuge showed increasing levels of corticosterone as the drought persisted and elevated osmolality and electrolytes. After substantial rainfall in July and August, these indices of osmotic stress returned to within normal limits. PMID:19937751

  2. Supplementation with imuno-2865 in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758): Effects on hematological and antioxidant parameters.

    PubMed

    upan, Ivan; Tkal?i?, Suzana; ari?, Tomislav; ?o-Rakovac, Rozalindra; Strunjak-Perovi?, Ivan?ica; Topi?-Popovi?, Natalija; Kardum, Matko; Kanski, Danijel; Ljubi?, Blanka Beer; Matijatko, Vesna; Polji?ak-Milas, Nina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMUNO-2865() on hematological and antioxidative parameters in sea bream. Total of 640 sea bream were fed with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 (Group 4) g of IMUNO-2865() kg(-1) feed during 90 days. Samples were taken each month and three months after the supplementation. A significant heterophils increase was observed in group 4 compared to group 1 after two months, and an increase in monocytes number was observed in group 4 compared to the other groups after one month. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) were significantly increased in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control group three months into the experiment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased in group 4 compared to the control group from day 60 until the end of the experiment, and in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control after three months. Based on the differences in the cellular immunity and oxidative stress parameters, with an overall absence of mortality, the results of this study suggest that the use of IMUNO-2865() in aquaculture is safe and possess a cumulative immunostimulatory effect on sea bream. PMID:26455665

  3. rFN/Cad-11-Modified Collagen Type II Biomimetic Interface Promotes the Adhesion and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Zhengsheng; Kang, Fei; Yang, Bo; Kang, Xia; Wen, Can; Yan, Yanfei; Jiang, Bo; Fan, Yujiang

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the cell-material interface are determining factors in the successful function of cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Currently, cell adhesion is commonly promoted through the use of polypeptides; however, due to their lack of complementary or modulatory domains, polypeptides must be modified to improve their ability to promote adhesion. In this study, we utilized the principle of matrix-based biomimetic modification and a recombinant protein, which spans fragments 7–10 of fibronectin module III (heterophilic motif ) and extracellular domains 1–2 of cadherin-11 (rFN/Cad-11) (homophilic motif ), to modify the interface of collagen type II (Col II) sponges. We showed that the designed material was able to stimulate cell proliferation and promote better chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro than both the FN modified surfaces and the negative control. Further, the Col II/rFN/Cad-11-MSCs composite stimulated cartilage formation in vivo; the chondrogenic effect of Col II alone was much less significant. These results suggested that the rFN/Cad-11-modified collagen type II biomimetic interface has dual biological functions of promoting adhesion and stimulating chondrogenic differentiation. This substance, thus, may serve as an ideal scaffold material for cartilage tissue engineering, enhancing repair of injured cartilage in vivo. PMID:23919505

  4. The effect of different degrees of feed restriction on heat shock protein 70, acute phase proteins, and other blood parameters in female broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Kashiani, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the physiological response to feed restriction in female broiler breeders using a range of conventional and novel indicators. One hundred female breeders were subjected to one of five feeding regimens from d 28 to 42 as follows (i) ad libitum feeding (AL), (ii-v) 75, 60, 45, and 30% of ad libitum feed intake. Blood heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR), and plasma circulating corticosterone (CORT), ghrelin (GHR), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) and serum acute phase proteins (APP) concentrations together with brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 level were measured. The results showed a significant effect of feed restriction on blood HLR and plasma CORT, GHR, 5-HT, DA, and brain HSP 70 levels. However, feed restriction had no effect on serum levels of APP of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and ceruloplasmin. Serum levels of 5-HT and GHR varied curvilinearly with the feed restriction level. The relationship between brain HSP 70 and level of feed restriction was negligible. However, significant linear relationships between HLR, CORT, DA, and the level of feed restriction were noted. Thus, these 3 parameters appear to represent a straight forward relation with severity of feed restriction. PMID:26316343

  5. Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Joncas, J.

    1967-01-01

    A short review of past and recent works pertinent to the etiology and pathogenesis of infectious mononucleosis is presented. Epidemiological studies have led to the elaboration of hypotheses concerning the etiology, the length of the incubation period and the mode of transmission of the disease. An unusual type of infectious mononucleosis of rickettsial origin has been reported by Japanese workers. Studies of accidental and experimental transmission suggest that more than one agent may give rise to the same disease. Isolation attempts in tissue cultures have been unrewarding except for the uncovering of possible agents by interference and immunofluorescence. The atypical lymphocyte is the site of increased RNA and DNA synthesis. It does not seem to be involved in antibody synthesis. The heterophile agglutinins and other mononucleosis-associated antibodies apparently account for only part of the excess 19S antibody material found in mononucleosis sera. The origin and function of these antibodies and of the atypical lymphocyte are the subject of speculation. The final elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease and the confirmation of the reviewed hypotheses are all dependent on the eventual discovery of the elusive etiological agent(s) of infectious mononucleosis. PMID:5336955

  6. The effect of a second dexamethasone treatment on turkeys previously challenged in an experimental Escherichia coli respiratory model of turkey osteomyelitis complex.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Balog, J M; Rath, N C

    1999-08-01

    In two separate experiments, turkeys that had survived immunosuppression with dexamethasone (DEX) and air sac inoculation with low numbers of Escherichia coli at 5 wk of age were maintained until 13 wk of age, at which time they were given a second treatment with DEX. All mortalities and birds that were necropsied 8 and 15 d (Experiment 1) and 21 d (Experiment 2) after the last DEX injection were scored for air sacculitis/pericarditis and turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC). In both experiments, all of the lesions that characterize TOC were reproduced, including osteomyelitis of the proximal tibia, synovitis/tendonitis, abscesses in the soft tissues, and green liver. In Experiment 1, all mortalities after Day 7 had TOC lesions, whereas 44% of mortalities had green livers. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 90% of all TOC lesions cultured. In Experiment 2, the incidence of mortality, air sacculitis, TOC, and green liver as well as the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were significantly higher in birds that had previously been treated with DEX but had never been challenged with E. coli than in birds that had survived both treatment with DEX and challenge with 25 or 50 cfu of E. coli. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 73% of TOC lesions cultured, whereas E. coli was isolated from only 5.4% of the lesions. These studies suggest that TOC incidence may be related to a stress-induced susceptibility to opportunistic infection. PMID:10472837

  7. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies. PMID:10479083

  8. Hemorrhagic septicemia in fallow deer (Dama dama) caused by Pasteurella multocida multocida.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, L; Aalbaek, B; Leifsson, P S; Basse, A; Christiansen, T; Eriksen, E; Rimler, R B

    1999-06-01

    Four outbreaks of hemorrhagic septicemia caused by Pasteurella multocida multocida occurred in a population of 1,800 fallow deer (Dama dama) during 1992-1996. A total of 340 fallow deer were submitted for postmortem examination. Pasteurellosis was diagnosed in 273 of 312 deer suspected of having septicemia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from 257 animals, and the diagnosis was based on typical pathologic changes alone in the other 16 animals. Pasteurella multocida was isolated in pure culture from 219 of 248 samples of cerebrospinal fluid. Eighteen animals were observed moribund with severe depression, foamy nasal discharge, and respiratory distress, and 257 were found dead. Major clinical signs and pathologic changes included extensive swelling of the head and the neck and peracute or acute septic pneumonia, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages on serous membranes, and severely hemorrhagic adrenal glands and abomasum. Rhinitis and necrotic pharyngeal mucosae were common. Histologically, the most advanced lesions were in the nasal mucosa and pharynx. The swelling of the head and the neck arose from a diffuse cellulitis in the subcutaneous and intermuscular tissues. The earliest lesions in the lungs included large numbers of bacteria in the pulmonary capillaries, but various degrees of fibrinous exudation to the alveoli and infiltration with heterophils usually were observed. PMID:10484148

  9. Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquarium.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Allison D; Andreadis, Theodore G; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2005-06-15

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was diagnosed in a flock of African penguins. Diagnosis was based on history and clinical signs and confirmed via serologic testing, virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and histologic examination. Clinical signs in penguins included anorexia, behavior changes, depression, regurgitation, ataxia, recumbency, and seizures, and some penguins did not have any clinical signs. Mean +/- SD number of days that affected penguins had clinical signs was 12 +/- 5 days. Abnormalities initially detected on CBC included heterophilic leukocytosis and anemia; lymphocytosis and monocytosis were detected later. Plasma biochemical abnormalities included high activities of aspartate amino-transferase and creatine kinase, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperglycemia, and high concentrations of globulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Mean +/- SD number of days required for resolution of CBC and plasma biochemical abnormalities was 67 +/- 24 days after the onset of clinical signs. Treatment consisted of supportive therapy. All penguins survived with the exception of one that was euthanatized; histopathologic findings were consistent with encephalitis. Results of RT-PCR assays performed on tissue from the right cerebrum of the penguin that was euthanatized were positive for EEE viral RNA. An inability to isolate virus several weeks after illness suggested successful viral clearance in recovered penguins. To the authors' knowledge, EEE infection in any penguin species has not been reported. PMID:15989191

  10. Ectonucleotidases and adenosine deaminase activity in laying hens naturally infected by Salmonella Gallinarum and their effects on the pathogenesis of the disease.

    PubMed

    Boiago, Marcel M; Baldissera, Matheus D; Doleski, Pedro H; Bottari, Nathieli B; do Carmo, Guilherme M; Araujo, Denise N; Giuriatti, Jessica; Baggio, Vanessa; Leal, Daniela B R; Casagrande, Renata A; Wisser, Cláudia S; Stefani, Lenita M; da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella Gallinarum is the etiologic agent of fowl typhoid that affects chickens and turkeys causing egg production drops, infertility, lower hatchability, high mortality, and as a consequence severe economic losses to the poultry industry. The alterations in NTPDase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities have been demonstrated in several inflammatory conditions; however, there are no data in the literature associated with this infection. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activities of NTPDase, 5'nucleotidase, and ADA in serum and hepatic tissue of laying hens naturally infected by Salmonella Gallinarum. Liver and serum samples were collected of 27 laying hens (20 S. Gallinarum infected and 7 uninfected). NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities in serum were increased (P < 0.001) in infected animals to hydrolysis of substrate ATP, ADP and AMP. In addition, it was observed decreased (P < 0.001) in ADA activity in serum of laying hens naturally infected by S. Gallinarum; as well as increased (P < 0.001) ADA activity in liver tissue of infected laying hens. Histopathological analyses revealed that S. Gallinarum caused fibrinoid necrosis in liver and spleen associated with infiltrates of heterophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Considering that NTPDase and ADA are involved in the cell-mediated immunity, this study suggests that activities of these enzymes could be important biomarkers to determine the severity of inflammatory and immune responses in salmonellosis, contributing to clarify the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26911648

  11. Interactions by the Fungal Flo11 Adhesin Depend on a Fibronectin Type III-like Adhesin Domain Girdled by Aromatic Bands.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Timo; Brückner, Stefan; Veelders, Maik; Rhinow, Daniel; Schreiner, Franka; Birke, Raphael; Pagenstecher, Axel; Mösch, Hans-Ulrich; Essen, Lars-Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbors a family of GPI-anchored cell wall proteins for interaction with its environment. The flocculin Flo11, a major representative of these fungal adhesins, confers formation of different types of multicellular structures such as biofilms, flors, or filaments. To understand these environment-dependent growth phenotypes on a molecular level, we solved the crystal structure of the N-terminal Flo11A domain at 0.89-Å resolution. Besides a hydrophobic apical region, the Flo11A domain consists of a β sandwich of the fibronectin type III domain (FN3). We further show that homophilic Flo11-Flo11 interactions and heterophilic Flo11-plastic interactions solely depend on the Flo11A domain and are strongly pH dependent. These functions of Flo11A involve an apical region with its surface-exposed aromatic band, which is accompanied by acidic stretches. Together with electron microscopic reconstructions of yeast cell-cell contact sites, our data suggest that Flo11 acts as a spacer-like, pH-sensitive adhesin that resembles a membrane-tethered hydrophobin. PMID:25960408

  12. Preliminary study of joint disease in poultry by the analysis of synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Corr, S A; Maxwell, M; Gentle, M J; Bennett, D

    2003-05-01

    Samples of synovial fluid and synovial membrane were obtained from the hock joints of several groups of broilers, including lame birds and two strains of broilers raised on different feeding regimens and given different drug treatments (carprofen or placebo). There were more significant differences between the groups on the basis of the analysis of the synovial fluid samples than the synovial membrane samples. Experimental birds fed ad libitum had the highest median red blood cell counts and median ghost cell counts of all of the groups, but there were no differences between the groups in the thickness of the synovial lining cell layer or the degree of cellular infiltrate in the synovial membrane. The synovial fluid from the broilers and lame birds fed ad libitum was more turbid, suggestive of intra-articular pathology, and the large numbers of heterophils in samples from the lame birds indicated an inflammatory arthropathy. The birds fed ad libitum which were treated with carprofen had more cells in the synovial fluid than the birds given the placebo. A large number of the samples of synovial fluid from the ad libitum-fed broilers contained blood. PMID:12751605

  13. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

    PubMed Central

    Esquinas, Paula; Botero, Lucía; Patiño, María del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n = 2); healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n = 2); healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n = 2); diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n = 3). The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide. PMID:23577280

  14. Monoubiquitination of ancient ubiquitous protein 1 promotes lipid droplet clustering.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Daniel; Spandl, Johanna; Stevanovic, Ana; Schoene, Mario; Philippou-Massier, Julia; Thiele, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplets, the intracellular storage organelles for neutral lipids, exist in a wide range of sizes and of morphologically distinct organization, from loosely dispersed lipid droplets to tightly packed lipid droplet clusters. We show that the lipid droplet protein AUP1 induces cluster formation. A fraction of AUP1 is monoubiquitinated at various lysine residues. This process depends on its internal CUE domain, which is a known ubiquitin-binding domain. AUP1 with a deleted or point mutagenized CUE domain, as well as a lysine-free mutant, are not ubiquitinated and do not induce lipid droplet clustering. When such ubiquitination deficient mutants are fused to ubiquitin, clustering is restored. AUP1 mutants with defective droplet targeting fail to induce clustering. Also, another lipid droplet protein, NSDHL, with a fused ubiquitin does not induce clustering. The data indicate that monoubiquitinated AUP1 on the lipid droplet surface specifically induces clustering, and suggest a homophilic interaction with a second AUP1 molecule or a heterophilic interaction with another ubiquitin-binding protein. PMID:24039768

  15. The adhesion molecule Necl-3/SynCAM-2 localizes to myelinated axons, binds to oligodendrocytes and promotes cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Pellissier, François; Gerber, Alan; Bauer, Christoph; Ballivet, Marc; Ossipow, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Background Cell adhesion molecules are plasma membrane proteins specialized in cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Two related adhesion molecules, Necl-1 and Necl-2/SynCAM, were recently described and shown to fulfill important functions in the central nervous system. The purpose of the work was to investigate the distribution, and the properties of Necl-3/SynCAM-2, a previously uncharacterized member of the Necl family with which it shares a conserved modular organization and extensive sequence homology. Results We show that Necl-3/SynCAM-2 is a plasma membrane protein that accumulates in several tissues, including those of the central and peripheral nervous system. There, Necl-3/SynCAM-2 is expressed in ependymal cells and in myelinated axons, and sits at the interface between the axon shaft and the myelin sheath. Several independent assays demonstrate that Necl-3/SynCAM-2 functionally and selectively interacts with oligodendrocytes. We finally prove that Necl-3/SynCAM-2 is a bona fide adhesion molecule that engages in homo- and heterophilic interactions with the other Necl family members, leading to cell aggregation. Conclusion Collectively, our manuscripts and the works on Necl-1 and SynCAM/Necl-2 reveal a complex set of interactions engaged in by the Necl proteins in the nervous system. Our work also support the notion that the family of Necl proteins fulfils key adhesion and recognition functions in the nervous system, in particular between different cell types. PMID:17967169

  16. Schistosoma japonicum soluble egg antigens activate naive B cells to produce antibodies: definition of parasite mechanisms of immune deviation.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, T; Watanabe, T; Saito, S; Araki, Y; Sendo, F

    1993-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of Schistosoma japonicum egg antigens (SEA) on the activation of lymphocytes from naive mice. T cells were found to be unaffected by SEA. B cells, however, were activated by SEA without participation of adherent cells such as macrophages. B-cell activating factor(s) in SEA were distributed into a fraction of M(r) 120,000 and a fraction of M(r) 650,000 by gel filtration. However, a fraction of M(r) 120,000 demonstrated the presence of a limited number of components by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under non-denaturing conditions. These activating factor(s) were destroyed by peroxidase oxidation, heat treatment, chymotrypsin and trypsin digestion. These results indicate that the B-cell activating factor(s) in SEA contain both carbohydrate and protein. IgM antibodies were detected in the culture supernatant of SEA-activated B cells after 48 hr in culture, but IgG antibodies were undetected in culture. These antibodies did not react with SEA but reacted with sheep, horse, mouse red blood cells, carbonic anhydrase and autoantigens in myelinated nerve fibres of cerebrum as well as luminal surface and parietal cells of the stomach of naive mice. Thus our data demonstrated that SEA directly stimulates naive B cells to produce antibodies against heterophile and autologous antigens. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8344698

  17. Synergistic action of nectins and cadherins generates the mosaic cellular pattern of the olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Katsunuma, Sayaka; Honda, Hisao; Shinoda, Tomoyasu; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Miyata, Takaki; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Abe, Takaya; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Takai, Yoshimi; Togashi, Hideru

    2016-02-29

    In the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory cells (OCs) and supporting cells (SCs), which express different cadherins, are arranged in a characteristic mosaic pattern in which OCs are enclosed by SCs. However, the mechanism underlying this cellular patterning is unclear. Here, we show that the cellular pattern of the OE is established by cellular rearrangements during development. In the OE, OCs express nectin-2 and N-cadherin, and SCs express nectin-2, nectin-3, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin. Heterophilic trans-interaction between nectin-2 on OCs and nectin-3 on SCs preferentially recruits cadherin via α-catenin to heterotypic junctions, and the differential distributions of cadherins between junctions promote cellular intercalations, resulting in the formation of the mosaic pattern. These observations are confirmed by model cell systems, and various cellular patterns are generated by the combinatorial expression of nectins and cadherins. Collectively, the synergistic action of nectins and cadherins generates mosaic pattern, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism. PMID:26929452

  18. Structure of CD84 Provides Insight into SLAM Family Function

    SciTech Connect

    Yan,Q.; Malashkevich, V.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Cao, E.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. These receptors share a common ectodomain organization: a membrane-proximal immunoglobulin constant domain and a membrane-distal immunoglobulin variable domain that is responsible for ligand recognition. CD84 is a homophilic family member that enhances IFN-{gamma} secretion in activated T cells. Our solution studies revealed that CD84 strongly self-associates with a K{sub d} in the submicromolar range. These data, in combination with previous reports, demonstrate that the SLAM family homophilic affinities span at least three orders of magnitude and suggest that differences in the affinities may contribute to the distinct signaling behavior exhibited by the individual family members. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human CD84 immunoglobulin variable domain revealed an orthogonal homophilic dimer with high similarity to the recently reported homophilic dimer of the SLAM family member NTB-A. Structural and chemical differences in the homophilic interfaces provide a mechanism to prevent the formation of undesired heterodimers among the SLAM family homophilic receptors. These structural data also suggest that, like NTB-A, all SLAM family homophilic dimers adopt a highly kinked organization spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}140 {angstrom}. This common molecular dimension provides an opportunity for all two-domain SLAM family receptors to colocalize within the immunological synapse and bridge the T cell and antigen-presenting cell.

  19. Neuropathogenic Capacity of Lentogenic, Mesogenic, and Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strains in Day-Old Chickens.

    PubMed

    Moura, V M B D; Susta, L; Cardenas-Garcia, S; Stanton, J B; Miller, P J; Afonso, C L; Brown, C C

    2016-01-01

    Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have different abilities to elicit neurologic signs. To determine the capacity of different NDV strains to replicate and cause lesions in the brain, independently of their peripheral replication, 1-day-old chickens were inoculated in the subdural space with 7 NDV strains of different virulence (4 velogenic, 2 mesogenic, 1 lentogenic). Velogenic strains induced severe necrotizing and heterophilic ventriculitis and meningitis, as well as edema of the neuroparenchyma, and replicated extensively in the nervous tissue by day 2 postinfection, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, when all infected birds died. Clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and viral replication were delayed (days 3 and 4 postinfection) with mesogenic strains. Velogenic and mesogenic NDV strains replicated mainly in neurons, and immunolabeling was first detected in surface-oriented areas (periventricular and submeningeal), possibly as a reflection of the inoculation route. The lentogenic NDV strain did not cause death of infected birds; replication was confined to the epithelium of the ependyma and choroid plexuses; and lesions consisted of lymphoid aggregates limited to the choroid plexuses. Results show that extensive NDV replication in the brain is typical of velogenic and mesogenic, but not lentogenic, NDV strains. In addition, this study suggests that differences in the rate of NDV replication in nervous tissue, not differences in neurotropism, differentiate velogenic from mesogenic NDV strains. This study indicates that intracerebral inoculation might be used as an effective method to study the mechanisms of NDV neuropathogenesis. PMID:26395462

  20. Changes in blood chemistry, hematology, and histology caused by a selenium/vitamin E deficiency and recovery in chicks.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, A; Latshaw, D; Swayne, D E

    1998-01-01

    Exudative diathesis, a condition caused by a selenium (Se)/vitamin E deficiency, was studied in chicks. Trios of chicks that showed clinical signs of exudative diathesis were matched for severity. One was injected subcutaneously with 0.5 mL distilled water, and the other two received 15 microg of Se in 0.5 mL distilled water. A chick fed a diet with supplemental Se also received 0.5 mL distilled water. Blood was collected from three chicks 2 d after injection, and from the other chick, 6 d after injection. After blood was collected, pectoral muscle and bone marrow were collected. Deficient chicks showed varying degrees of necrosis in pectoral muscle, whereas recovering chicks had extensive fibrosis in pectoral muscle. An analysis of blood showed differences in CO2, glucose, Se, glutathione peroxidase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Heterophils and monocytes were increased in deficient chicks; lymphocytes, basophils, and hemoglobin decreased. After 6 d of recovery, all of the changes noted above were correcting toward normal. Eosinophils, in contrast, were unaffected by a deficiency, but increased in recovering chicks. It is hypothesized that cytokines associated with the inflammatory response accentuate the clinical signs of exudative diathesis. PMID:9630419

  1. Hematology and blood chemistry values in free-living imperial cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps).

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luciana; Quintana, Flavio; Svagelj, Walter S; Uhart, Marcela

    2013-12-01

    As part of an on-going, long-term study on the reproductive ecology and health status of imperial cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps), blood samples were collected to establish baseline values for hematologic parameters (hematocrit, red and white blood cell counts, leukocyte profile, heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, total solids) and serum chemistries (glucose, uric acid, urea, total protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, albumin:globulin ratio, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus). One hundred and eighty-four male adults from the Punta Le6n breeding colony in Patagonia Argentina were captured during the chick-rearing period of four breeding seasons, 2004 (n = 48), 2005 (n = 29), 2010 (n = 43), and 2011 (n = 64). All birds appeared to be in good body condition and no abnormalities were noted during physical examination. In general, values for the parameters reported in this study were similar to those previously described for other cormorant species. Significant interannual differences were observed in most health parameters analyzed. This study defines baseline health parameters for imperial cormorants and, coupled with previous reports on pathogen exposure, contributes to our knowledge of the overall health status of the species. PMID:24597115

  2. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jennifer L; Whittington, Julia K; Wilmes, Christine M; Messick, Joanne B

    2009-03-01

    A free-ranging adult female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was presented to the Wildlife Medical Clinic at the University of Illinois after being observed with anorexia and decreased activity. A severe leukocytosis (212 400 cells/microl), primarily comprised of mature heterophils, was found at presentation. Results of various diagnostic tests including radiographs, Chlamydophila serologic testing, measurement of Aspergillus antibody and antigen titers, plasma protein electrophoresis, fecal culture and acid-fast staining, coelioscopy, endoscopy, tracheoscopy, exploratory coelomotomy, nuclear scintigraphy, tissue cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and histopathology revealed no underlying cause for the persistent leukocytosis. No response to treatment with antibiotics or antifungal agents was observed, although a transient, significant decrease in the leukocyte count (6200 cells/microl) was observed after treatment with fenbendazole. A presumptive diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia was made based on 3 factors: disease duration of greater than 3 months, a lack of identifiable foci of inflammation, and a lack of response to conventional therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed based on postmortem examination and testing 177 days after initial presentation. PMID:19530405

  3. Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fahimeh; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Golian, Abolghasem; Nassiri-Moghaddam, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    The effect of dietary thyme-oil extract (TOE) supplementation on immune functions of broilers were assessed by feeding graded levels (50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm) of TOE to male broiler chicks during a 42-d feeding trial compared with negative- or positive-control diets. Dietary control treatments included a negative-control diet with no feed-additive supplementation and 2 positive-control groups supplemented with either virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin. In total, 300 1-day-old Ross × Ross male broilers were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments that consisted of 5 replicates of 10 birds each. On d 21 and 42, 2 birds from each replicate were killed by cervical cutting to measure the relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. At 25 d of age, chicks were injected with 0.5 mL of 10% SRBC suspension. Broilers fed with 200 ppm of TOE had heavier weights of bursa of Fabricius than those fed other dietary treatments at d 42 of age. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of 100 ppm of TOE resulted in higher (P < 0.05) total immunoglobulin response in primary antibody titer against sheep erythrocytes compared with other dietary treatments. On the other hand, diet modifications had no significant effect on blood leukocyte subpopulations and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with TOE, especially at the level of 100 ppm, can improve immunological responses of broiler chicks. PMID:26362978

  4. The desmosome and pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Desmosomes are patch-like intercellular adhering junctions (“maculae adherentes”), which, in concert with the related adherens junctions, provide the mechanical strength to intercellular adhesion. Therefore, it is not surprising that desmosomes are abundant in tissues subjected to significant mechanical stress such as stratified epithelia and myocardium. Desmosomal adhesion is based on the Ca2+-dependent, homo- and heterophilic transinteraction of cadherin-type adhesion molecules. Desmosomal cadherins are anchored to the intermediate filament cytoskeleton by adaptor proteins of the armadillo and plakin families. Desmosomes are dynamic structures subjected to regulation and are therefore targets of signalling pathways, which control their molecular composition and adhesive properties. Moreover, evidence is emerging that desmosomal components themselves take part in outside-in signalling under physiologic and pathologic conditions. Disturbed desmosomal adhesion contributes to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as pemphigus, which is caused by autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins. Beside pemphigus, desmosome-associated diseases are caused by other mechanisms such as genetic defects or bacterial toxins. Because most of these diseases affect the skin, desmosomes are interesting not only for cell biologists who are inspired by their complex structure and molecular composition, but also for clinical physicians who are confronted with patients suffering from severe blistering skin diseases such as pemphigus. To develop disease-specific therapeutic approaches, more insights into the molecular composition and regulation of desmosomes are required. PMID:18386043

  5. A novel PI3K/AKT signaling axis mediates Nectin-4-induced gallbladder cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijian; Liu, Shibo; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yaoshi; Hao, Jiaqi; Wang, Zheng; Lu, Wei; Wang, Xu-An; Zhang, Fei; Cao, Yang; Liang, Haibin; Li, Huaifeng; Ye, Yuanyuan; Ma, Qiang; Zhao, Shuai; Shu, Yijun; Bao, Runfa; Jiang, Lin; Hu, Yunping; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Lei; Liu, Yingbin

    2016-05-28

    Nectin-4 is a Ca(2+)-independent immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule which has diverse functions in cell-cell adhesion via homophilic and heterophilic interactions. Cell-cell adhesive processes are central to cell polarization, differentiation, proliferation, survival and movement. Here we report that Nectin-4 is substantially overexpressed in gallbladder cancer (GBC), the most common biliary tract malignancy with a high risk of local tumor spread and invasion. Further, Nectin-4 high expression in GBC patients was associated with pathologic T stage and lymph node metastasis status, and the expression level of the downstream target Rac1 and poor prognoses were also correlated with Nectin-4. Ectopic expression of Nectin-4 promoted GBC cell growth, motility and tumor growth in a mouse model. The depletion of Nectin-4 inhibited GBC cell proliferation and migration both in cell culture and in mice. Our data suggest that activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway was involved in the oncogenic function of Nectin-4 to activate Rac1 in GBC. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT with LY294002 and/or Rac1 with NSC23766 impaired Nectin-4-mediated GBC cell proliferation and motility. We hypothesize that Nectin-4 is critical for GBC progression via PI3K/AKT pathway activation of Rac1. Nectin-4 may be a novel prognostic factor and therapeutic target in GBC patients. PMID:26949052

  6. Structural and energetic determinants of adhesive binding specificity in type I cadherins

    PubMed Central

    Vendome, Jeremie; Felsovalyi, Klara; Song, Hang; Yang, Zhongyu; Jin, Xiangshu; Brasch, Julia; Harrison, Oliver J.; Ahlsen, Goran; Bahna, Fabiana; Kaczynska, Anna; Katsamba, Phinikoula S.; Edmond, Darwin; Hubbell, Wayne L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Type I cadherin cell-adhesion proteins are similar in sequence and structure and yet are different enough to mediate highly specific cell–cell recognition phenomena. It has previously been shown that small differences in the homophilic and heterophilic binding affinities of different type I family members can account for the differential cell-sorting behavior. Here we use a combination of X-ray crystallography, analytical ultracentrifugation, surface plasmon resonance and double electron-electron resonance (DEER) electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify the molecular determinants of type I cadherin dimerization affinities. Small changes in sequence are found to produce subtle structural and dynamical changes that impact relative affinities, in part via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, and in part through entropic effects because of increased conformational heterogeneity in the bound states as revealed by DEER distance mapping in the dimers. These findings highlight the remarkable ability of evolution to exploit a wide range of molecular properties to produce closely related members of the same protein family that have affinity differences finely tuned to mediate their biological roles. PMID:25253890

  7. Immune function, sex ratios, and gonadal histopathology in double-crested cormorant chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Burull, E.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Sileo, L.; Dale, T.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Larson, J.X.; Fry, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    There is evidence that environmental contaminants may be associated with endocrine and reproductive system abnormalities in colonial water birds. Little information is available on immune system response in chicks. Two double-crested cormorant (Phalocrocrozax auritus) colonies were monitored in 1993 for a comparative immune function study. Higher concentrations of organochlorines occurred in one colony. Parameters measured included: CBC, T and B-cell function, heterophil phagocytosis, lymphoid organ size and histopathology, and selected serum hormone analysis. Significant differences at the contaminated site included marked dysplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid gland, higher T3, lower cortisol, lower eosinophil counts, and increase phagocytosis at the contaminated site. Gonads of 101 deformed (cross-bill) chicks, siblings, and normal control chicks collected in 1992 and 1993 were examined microscopically because a sex-ration skewed towards females had been noted. Cross-billed chicks aged 12 to 15 days had disorganized or delayed follicular development which normalized by 20 days of age. Cross-billed or otherwise abnormal chicks aged 18 to 23 days had hypertrophic seminiferous tubules, a decreased interstitium, and decreased evidence of active Leydig cells.

  8. Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.

    1989-11-01

    Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.

  9. Empirical evidence of cold stress induced cell mediated and humoral immune response in common myna ( Sturnus tristis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Mansur A.; Zaib, Anila; Anjum, Muhammad S.; Qayyum, Mazhar

    2015-11-01

    Common myna ( Sturnus tristis) is a bird indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that has invaded many parts of the world. At the onset of our investigation, we hypothesized that the immunological profile of myna makes it resistant to harsh/new environmental conditions. In order to test this hypothesis, a number of 40 mynas were caught and divided into two groups, i.e., 7 and 25 °C for 14 days. To determine the effect of cold stress, cell mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed. The macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher at 25 °C rather than 7 °C either co-incubated with opsonized or unopsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Macrophage engulfment/cell and nitric oxide production behaved in a similar manner. However, splenic cells plaque formation, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and serum IgM or IgG production remained non-significant. There was a significant increase of IgG antibody production after a second immunization by SRBC. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been reported in the progression of this bird's invasion in frosty areas of the world. The results revealed a strengthened humoral immune response of myna and made this bird suitable for invasion in the areas of harsh conditions.

  10. The structure-function relationships in Drosophila neurotactin show that cholinesterasic domains may have adhesive properties.

    PubMed Central

    Darboux, I; Barthalay, Y; Piovant, M; Hipeau-Jacquotte, R

    1996-01-01

    Neurotactin (Nrt), a Drosophila transmembrane glycoprotein which is expressed in neuronal and epithelial tissues during embryonic and larval stages, exhibits heterophilic adhesive properties. The extracellular domain is composed of a catalytically inactive cholinesterase-like domain. A three-dimensional model deduced from the crystal structure of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been constructed for Nrt and suggests that its extracellular domain is composed of two sub-domains organized around a gorge: an N-terminal region, whose three-dimensional structure is almost identical to that of Torpedo AChE, and a less conserved C-terminal region. By using truncated Nrt molecules and a homotypic cell aggregation assay which involves a soluble ligand activity, it has been possible to show that the adhesive function is localized in the N-terminal region of the extracellular domain comprised between His347 and His482. The C-terminal region of the protein can be removed without impairing Nrt adhesive properties, suggesting that the two sub-domains are structurally independent. Chimeric molecules in which the Nrt cholinesterase-like domain has been replaced by homologous domains from Drosophila AChE, Torpedo AChE or Drosophila glutactin (Glt), share similar adhesive properties. These properties may require the presence of Nrt cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains since authentic Drosophila AChE does not behave as an adhesive molecule when transfected in S2 cells. Images PMID:8890157

  11. Localization and developmental expression of two chicken host defense peptides: cathelicidin-2 and avian β-defensin 9.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; van Dijk, Albert; Dwars, R Marius; Haagsman, Henk P

    2016-08-01

    In the first weeks of life young chickens are highly susceptible to infectious diseases due to immaturity of the immune system. Little is known about the expression of host defense peptides (HDPs) during this period. In this study we examined the expression pattern of two chicken HDPs, the cathelicidin CATH-2 and the β-defensin AvBD9 by immunohistochemistry in a set of organs from embryonic day 12 until four weeks posthatch. AvBD9 was predominantly found in enteroendocrine cells throughout the intestine, the first report of in vivo HDP expression in this cell type, and showed stable expression levels during development. CATH-2 was exclusively found in heterophils which decreased after hatch in most of the examined organs including spleen, bursa and small intestine. In the lung CATH-2 expression was biphasic and peaked at the first day posthatch. In short, CATH-2 and AvBD9 appear to be expressed in cell types strategically located to respond to infectious stimuli, suggesting these peptides play a role in embryonic and early posthatch defense. PMID:26972737

  12. Reproductive investment compromises maternal health in three species of freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anthony R; Scheelings, T Franciscus; Foley, Laura J; Johnstone, Christopher P; Reina, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that a trade-off in the allocation of resources between different physiological systems exists because resources are finite. As a result, females investing heavily in reproduction may compromise their future health. We used hematology, serum biochemistry, mass, and morphometric measurements as indicators of physiological health state to investigate whether reproductive investment altered subsequent maternal health in three Australian freshwater turtles: the oblong turtle (Chelodina oblonga; n = 12), the Macquarie turtle (Emydura macquarii; n = 9), and the eastern long-necked turtle (Chelodina longicollis; n = 8). Maternal health was impaired in turtles that produced larger and heavier eggs and clutches. In C. oblonga and E. macquarii, increased reproductive investment generally resulted in negative changes to the hematology and serum biochemistry profile of maternal blood. Generally, increases in heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, calcium/phosphorus ratio, and albumin/globulin ratio were observed following reproduction, in addition to a decrease in glucose and total protein. These findings agree with the physiological constraint hypothesis and highlight the connection between life-history evolution and animal physiology by documenting, for the first time, how measures of physiological health state relate to reproductive investment in Australian freshwater turtles. Additionally, our findings suggest that body condition, a readily used morphological biomarker, is a poor predictor of health in turtles. Our results emphasize the need to investigate how maternal health is influenced by the reproductive process in different species. PMID:24769705

  13. State-dependent physiological maintenance in a long-lived ectotherm, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta).

    PubMed

    Schwanz, Lisa; Warner, Daniel A; McGaugh, Suzanne; Di Terlizzi, Roberta; Bronikowski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Energy allocation among somatic maintenance, reproduction and growth varies not only among species, but among individuals according to states such as age, sex and season. Little research has been conducted on the somatic (physiological) maintenance of long-lived organisms, particularly ectotherms such as reptiles. In this study, we examined sex differences and age- and season-related variation in immune function and DNA repair efficiency in a long-lived reptile, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). Immune components tended to be depressed during hibernation, in winter, compared with autumn or spring. Increased heterophil count during hibernation provided the only support for winter immunoenhancement. In juvenile and adult turtles, we found little evidence for senescence in physiological maintenance, consistent with predictions for long-lived organisms. Among immune components, swelling in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and control injection increased with age, whereas basophil count decreased with age. Hatchling turtles had reduced basophil counts and natural antibodies, indicative of an immature immune system, but demonstrated higher DNA repair efficiency than older turtles. Reproductively mature turtles had reduced lymphocytes compared with juvenile turtles in the spring, presumably driven by a trade-off between maintenance and reproduction. Sex had little influence on physiological maintenance. These results suggest that components of physiological maintenance are modulated differentially according to individual state and highlight the need for more research on the multiple components of physiological maintenance in animals of variable states. PMID:21147972

  14. Cell adhesion molecule L1 contributes to neuronal excitability regulating the function of voltage-gated Na+ channels.

    PubMed

    Valente, Pierluigi; Lignani, Gabriele; Medrihan, Lucian; Bosco, Federica; Contestabile, Andrea; Lippiello, Pellegrino; Ferrea, Enrico; Schachner, Melitta; Benfenati, Fabio; Giovedì, Silvia; Baldelli, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    L1 (also known as L1CAM) is a trans-membrane glycoprotein mediating neuron-neuron adhesion through homophilic and heterophilic interactions. Although experimental evidence has implicated L1 in axonal outgrowth, fasciculation and pathfinding, its contribution to voltage-gated Na(+) channel function and membrane excitability has remained unknown. Here, we show that firing rate, single cell spiking frequency and Na(+) current density are all reduced in hippocampal excitatory neurons from L1-deficient mice both in culture and in slices owing to an overall reduced membrane expression of Na(+) channels. Remarkably, normal firing activity was restored when L1 was reintroduced into L1-deficient excitatory neurons, indicating that abnormal firing patterns are not related to developmental abnormalities, but are a direct consequence of L1 deletion. Moreover, L1 deficiency leads to impairment of action potential initiation, most likely due to the loss of the interaction of L1 with ankyrin G that produces the delocalization of Na(+) channels at the axonal initial segment. We conclude that L1 contributes to functional expression and localization of Na(+) channels to the neuronal plasma membrane, ensuring correct initiation of action potential and normal firing activity. PMID:26985064

  15. Ultrastructural immunolocalization of chatelicidin-like peptides in granulocytes of normal and regenerating lizard tissues.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    The presence and localization of cathelicidin anti-microbial peptides in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, were investigated by immunocytochemistry. The study showed that immunoreactivity for cathelicidins 1 and 2 was only present in large granules of heterophilic-basophilic granulocytes, rarely found in the dermis and sub-dermal muscle in normal and more frequently in wound and regenerating skin tissues or in the blood. Some immunopositive granulocytes were also observed among the keratinocytes of the wound epithelium covering the tail stump and occasionally in the regenerating epidermis of the tail. Immunolabeling for cathelicidins was also seen in low electrondense amorphous material present on the surface of the wound epidermis and on the plasma membrane of bacteria present on the surface of corneocytes of the epidermis. Immunolabeling for cathelicidins was absent in the other cell types and in control sections. The study suggests that cathelicidins are normally stored in granulocytes in the blood or in connective tissues, while keratinocytes can be stimulated to produce and possibly release these molecules only after injury or microbial invasion. PMID:24139311

  16. Granulocytes of reptilian sauropsids contain beta-defensin-like peptides: a comparative ultrastructural survey.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2013-08-01

    The ability of lizards to withstand infections after wounding or amputation of the tail or limbs has suggested the presence of antimicrobial peptides in their tissues. Previous studies on the lizard Anolis carolinensis have identified several beta-defensin-like peptides that may potentially be involved in protection from infections. The present ultrastructural immunocytochemical study has analyzed tissues in different reptilian species in order to localize the cellular source of one of the more expressed beta-defensins previously sequenced in lizard indicated as AcBD15. Beta-defensin-like immunoreactivity is present in some of the larger, nonspecific granules of granulocytes in two lizard species, a snake, the tuatara, and a turtle. The ultrastructural study indicates that only heterophilic and basophilic granulocytes contain this defensin while other cell types from the epidermis, mesenchyme, and dermis, muscles, nerves, cartilage or bone are immunonegative. The study further indicates that not all granules in reptilian granulocytes contain the beta-defensin peptide, suggesting the presence of granules with different content as previously indicated for mammalian neutrophilic leucocytes. No immunolabeling was instead observed in granulocytes of the alligator and chick using this antibody. The present immunocytochemical observations suggest a broad cross-reactivity and conservation of beta-defensin-like sequence or steric motif across lepidosaurians and likely in turtles while archosaurian granulocytes may contain different beta-defensin-like or other peptides. PMID:23553853

  17. Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16. PMID:25115040

  18. Protective effect of in ovo treatment with the chicken cathelicidin analog D-CATH-2 against avian pathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; van Dijk, Albert; Matthijs, Mieke G R; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and ever stricter control on antibiotic use are a driving force to develop alternatives to antibiotics. One such strategy is the use of multifunctional Host Defense Peptides. Here we examined the protective effect of prophylactic treatment with the D analog of chicken cathelicidin-2 (D-CATH-2) against a respiratory E. coli infection. Chickens were treated with D-CATH-2 in ovo at day 18 of embryonic development or intramuscularly at days 1 and 4 after hatch. At 7 days of age, birds were challenged intratracheally with avian pathogenic E. coli. Protection was evaluated by recording mortality, morbidity (Mean Lesion Score) and bacterial swabs of air sacs at 7 days post-infection. In ovo D-CATH-2 treatment significantly reduced morbidity (63%) and respiratory bacterial load (>90%), while intramuscular treatment was less effective. D-CATH-2 increased the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes and heterophils by both administration routes. E. coli specific IgM levels were lower in in ovo treated animals compared to intramuscular D-CATH-2 treatment. In short, in ovo treatment with the Host Defense Peptide derived D-CATH-2 can partially protect chickens from E. coli infection, making this peptide an interesting starting point to develop alternatives to antibiotics for use in the poultry sector. PMID:27229866

  19. Virulence potential of five major pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 to SPI-5) of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis for chickens

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Salmonella is a highly successful parasite of reptiles, birds and mammals. Its ability to infect and colonise such a broad range of hosts coincided with the introduction of new genetic determinants, among them 5 major pathogenicity islands (SPI1-5), into the Salmonella genome. However, only limited information is available on how each of these pathogenicity islands influences the ability of Salmonella to infect chickens. In this study, we therefore constructed Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with each SPI deleted separately, with single individual SPIs (i.e. with the remaining four deleted) and a mutant with all 5 SPIs deleted, and assessed their virulence in one-day-old chickens, together with the innate immune response of this host. Results The mutant lacking all 5 major SPIs was still capable of colonising the caecum while colonisation of the liver and spleen was dependent on the presence of both SPI-1 and SPI-2. In contrast, the absence of SPI-3, SPI-4 or SPI-5 individually did not influence virulence of S. Enteritidis for chickens, but collectively they contributed to the colonisation of the spleen. Proinflammatory signalling and heterophil infiltration was dependent on intact SPI-1 only and not on other SPIs. Conclusions SPI-1 and SPI-2 are the two most important pathogenicity islands of Salmonella Enteritidis required for the colonisation of systemic sites in chickens. PMID:20021686

  20. Evidence of a dominance hierarchy in captive Caribbean flamingos and its relation to pair bonding and physiological measures of health.

    PubMed

    Royer, Erica A; Anderson, Matthew J

    2014-06-01

    Caribbean flamingo social structure, how pair bonds affect the structure of the flock, and how social stress affects health measured by heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (H/L) were investigated at the Philadelphia Zoo. It was hypothesized that a hierarchy may become apparent by analyzing agonistic interactions and that paired individuals would share similar places within the hierarchy. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that a negative relationship between H/L ratio and dominance would exist. Forty observations were conducted and in 70% of interactions instigating bird(s) won the encounter, suggesting either some advantage for instigating birds or a prior expectation of an encounter's outcome based upon an understanding of the flock's hierarchy. The flock possessed a semi-linear hierarchy (in terms of wins/losses) and birds with higher pair-bond strengths maintained dominant positions, suggesting that pair-bonding may help individuals become more successful in agonistic encounters. Birds who won more often had higher lymphocytes percentages and analyses suggested a trend indicating dominant birds may be less stressed. A semi-linear hierarchy was also found in terms of initiation/being targeted, and a bird's rank on the dominance (wins/losses) and initiate/target hierarchies were positively correlated, suggesting that subdominant birds were targeted by dominant birds more frequently than vice versa. PMID:24670555

  1. Empirical evidence of cold stress induced cell mediated and humoral immune response in common myna (Sturnus tristis).

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Mansur A; Zaib, Anila; Anjum, Muhammad S; Qayyum, Mazhar

    2015-11-01

    Common myna (Sturnus tristis) is a bird indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that has invaded many parts of the world. At the onset of our investigation, we hypothesized that the immunological profile of myna makes it resistant to harsh/new environmental conditions. In order to test this hypothesis, a number of 40 mynas were caught and divided into two groups, i.e., 7 and 25 °C for 14 days. To determine the effect of cold stress, cell mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed. The macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at 25 °C rather than 7 °C either co-incubated with opsonized or unopsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Macrophage engulfment/cell and nitric oxide production behaved in a similar manner. However, splenic cells plaque formation, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and serum IgM or IgG production remained non-significant. There was a significant increase of IgG antibody production after a second immunization by SRBC. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been reported in the progression of this bird's invasion in frosty areas of the world. The results revealed a strengthened humoral immune response of myna and made this bird suitable for invasion in the areas of harsh conditions. PMID:25663442

  2. Histopathology of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elizabeth M.; Pali?, Duan

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylated fullerenes are reported to be very strong antioxidants, acting to quench reactive oxygen species, thus having strong potential for important and widespread applications in innovative therapies for a variety of disease processes. However, their potential for toxicological side effects is still largely controversial and unknown. Effects of hydroxylated fullerenes C60(OH)24 on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were investigated microscopically after a 72-hour (acute) exposure by intraperitoneal injection of 20 ppm of hydroxylated fullerenes per gram of body mass. Cumulative, semi-quantitative histopathologic evaluation of brain, liver, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin, coelom, gills and the vestibuloauditory system revealed significant differences between control and hydroxylated fullerene-treated fish. Fullerene-treated fish had much higher cumulative histopathology scores. Histopathologic changes included loss of cellularity in the interstitium of the kidney, a primary site of haematopoiesis in fish, and loss of intracytoplasmic glycogen in liver. In the coelom, variable numbers of leukocytes, including many macrophages and fewer heterophils and rodlet cells, were admixed with the nanomaterial. These findings raise concern about in vivo administration of hydroxylated fullerenes in experimental drugs and procedures in human medicine, and should be investigated in more detail. PMID:23883179

  3. Body condition and immune response in wild zebra finches: effects of capture, confinement and captive-rearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewenson, Erynne; Zann, Richard; Flannery, Graham

    2001-08-01

    Behavioural ecologists attempt to predict fitness in birds from estimates of body condition and immune capacity. We investigated how the stresses associated with capture, confinement and captive-rearing of wild zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) affected different elements of the immune system and body condition. Wild birds had higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and total leucocyte counts than aviary birds, presumably an outcome of mounting specific resistance to pathogens, but this response diminished significantly within 10 days of confinement. Wild birds had lower phytohaemagglutinin-A (PHA) responses than their aviary-bred counterparts possibly because energetic costs limited a general resistance response. Wild birds were heavier and had higher haematocrits than their aviary counterparts, but had less fat, although just 10 days of captivity significantly increased fat levels. Measures of body condition were of limited use for predicting immune responsiveness. We conclude that the different elements of the immune system and body condition respond independently, and often unpredictably, to many ecological and behavioural stressors.

  4. Stepping stone: a cytohesin adaptor for membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangshu; Lee, Donghoon M.; Yu, Cao Guo; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cytohesin Arf-GEFs are conserved plasma membrane regulators. The sole Drosophila cytohesin, Steppke, restrains Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton activity at the base of plasma membrane furrows of the syncytial embryo. By mass spectrometry, we identified a single major Steppke-interacting protein from syncytial embryos, which we named Stepping stone (Sstn). By sequence, Sstn seems to be a divergent homologue of the mammalian cytohesin adaptor FRMD4A. Our experiments supported this relationship. Specifically, heterophilic coiled-coil interactions linked Sstn and Steppke in vivo and in vitro, whereas a separate C-terminal region was required for Sstn localization to furrows. Sstn mutant and RNAi embryos displayed abnormal, Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton expansion from the base of pseudocleavage and cellularization furrows, closely mimicking Steppke loss-of-function embryos. Elevating Sstn furrow levels had no effect on the steppke phenotype, but elevating Steppke furrow levels reversed the sstn phenotype, suggesting that Steppke acts downstream of Sstn and that additional mechanisms can recruit Steppke to furrows. Finally, the coiled-coil domain of Steppke was required for Sstn binding and in addition homodimerization, and its removal disrupted Steppke furrow localization and activity in vivo. Overall we propose that Sstn acts as a cytohesin adaptor that promotes Steppke activity for localized membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. PMID:25540427

  5. Cardiac repair and regenerative potential in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart★

    PubMed Central

    Roell, Julia; Das, Tanmoy L.; Brown, Evelyn; Burns, Alan R.; Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable ability of the heart to regenerate has been demonstrated in the zebrafish and giant danio, two fish members of the cyprinid family. Here we use light and electron microscopy to examine the repair response in the heart of another cyprinid, the goldfish (Carassius auretus), following cautery injury to a small portion of its ventricular myocardium. We observed a robust inflammatory response in the first two weeks consisting primarily of infiltrating macrophages, heterophils, and melanomacrophages. These inflammatory cells were identified in the lumen of the spongy heart, within the site of the wound, and attached to endocardial cells adjacent to the site of injury. Marked accumulation of collagen fibers and increased connective tissue were also observed during the first and second week in a transition zone between healthy and injured myocardium as well as in adjacent sub-epicardial regions. The accumulation of collagen and connective tissue however did not persist. The presence of capillaries was also noted in the injured area during repair. The replacement of the cauterized region of the ventricle by myocardial tissue was achieved by 6 weeks. The presence of ethynyl deoxyuridine-positive cardiac myocytes and partially differentiated cardiac myocytes during repair suggest effective cardiac myocyte driven regeneration mechanisms also operate in the injured goldfish heart, and are similar to those observed in zebrafish and giant danio. Our data suggest the ability for cardiac regeneration may be widely conserved among cyprinids. PMID:24548889

  6. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status. PMID:26740133

  7. A guinea pig model of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Morck, D W; Costerton, J W; Bolingbroke, D O; Ceri, H; Boyd, N D; Olson, M E

    1990-01-01

    The induction of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) was examined. Specific pathogen free male guinea pigs were anesthetized and a tracheostomy performed to introduce 10(5), 10(4) or 10(3) Pasteurella haemolytica-A1 into the left principal bronchus. The surgical site was closed with tissue adhesive and staples and the animals were monitored for signs of respiratory tract infection. Within 24 hours after inoculation they became depressed, anorectic, pyretic and dyspneic. Fibrinous pleuropneumonia with prominent areas of necrosis and hemorrhage was present. Pericardial effusion was a frequent finding. There was infiltration of the pleura and alveoli with degenerate heterophils and macrophages, a hyperplastic mesothelium and fibrin exudation on the pleura and within alveoli. Hemorrhage, congestion, consolidation, edema and fibrin exudation were prominent in the hilar region of the lungs. Bacterial colonies were evident in all airways. More bacteria were recovered from infected lungs than were inoculated (p less than 0.05) indicating P. haemolytica was actively multiplying in the lungs. Hematological and clinical chemistry data were consistent with fibrinous pneumonia, however, blood cultures were positive for P. haemolytica in 61% (11/18) of animals sampled. Examination of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs may be useful in studying pathogenetic and pathological features applicable to bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever pneumonia). Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2306663

  8. Hematobiochemical alterations of acute chlorpyriphos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Baruah, Gautam Kumar; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kabita; Bora, Rumi Saikia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation was undertaken to elaborate hematobiochemical alterations of acute chlorpyriphos (CPF) toxicity in indigenous chicken. Since there is no available literature on the detailed hematobiochemical changes of CPF in indigenous chicken, hence, the present study was designed to establish toxicological effect of CPF on blood biochemical parameters of indigenous chicken which are at a great risk of exposure to pesticides. These will help physiologist, pathologist, and poultry scientists for effective production strategy as well as disease control regime. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two major Groups I and II. Group I served as control and Group II was treated with CPF (36 mg/kg). Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein, and uric acid. Results: Hb, TEC, and TLC levels increased significantly (p<0.01) in toxin fed birds, whereas, lymphocyte percent decreased significantly, and heterophil percent increased significantly. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly in CPF treated birds. Decreased serum CHE values were observed in CPF fed group. The protein level remained almost same. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group compared to control. Conclusion: The results indicated that acute CPF intoxication produce changes in hematology and biochemical constituents of the treated birds. PMID:27065642

  9. Altered N-glycosylation modulates TgrB1- and TgrC1-mediated development but not allorecognition in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Lin Frank; Chen, Gong; Webb, Amanda Nicole; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-11-01

    Cell surface adhesion receptors play diverse functions in multicellular development. In Dictyostelium, two immunoglobulin-like adhesion proteins, TgrB1 and TgrC1, are essential components with dual roles in morphogenesis and allorecognition during development. TgrB1 and TgrC1 form a heterophilic adhesion complex during cell contact and mediate intercellular communication. The underlying signaling pathways, however, have not been characterized. Here, we report on a mutation that suppresses the tgrB-tgrC1-defective developmental arrest. The mutated gene alg9 encodes a putative mannosyl transferase that participates in N-linked protein glycosylation. We show that alteration in N-linked glycosylation, caused by an alg9 mutation with a plasmid insertion (alg9(ins)) or tunicamycin treatment, can partially suppress the developmental phenotypes caused by tgrC1 deletion or replacement with an incompatible allele. The alg9(ins) mutation also preferentially primed cells toward a stalk-cell fate. Despite its effect on development, we found that altered N-linked glycosylation had no discernable effect on TgrB1-TgrC1-mediated allorecognition. Our results show that N-linked protein glycosylation can modulate developmental processes without disturbing cell-cell recognition, suggesting that tgrB1 and tgrC1 have distinct effects in the two processes. PMID:26359303

  10. Structural insights into the exquisite selectivity of neurexin/neuroligin synaptic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Philippe; Comoletti, Davide; Ferracci, Géraldine; Conrod, Sandrine; Garcia, Simon U; Taylor, Palmer; Bourne, Yves; Marchot, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular domains of neuroligins and neurexins interact through Ca2+ to form flexible trans-synaptic associations characterized by selectivity for neuroligin or neurexin subtypes. This heterophilic interaction, essential for synaptic maturation and differentiation, is regulated by gene selection, alternative mRNA splicing and post-translational modifications. A new, 2.6 Å-resolution crystal structure of a soluble neurexin-1β–neuroligin-4 (Nrx1β–NL4) complex permits a detailed description of the Ca2+-coordinated interface and unveils concerted positional rearrangements of several residues of NL4, not observed in neuroligin-1, associated with Nrx1β binding. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of the binding of structure-guided Nrx1β mutants towards NL4 and neuroligin-1 shows that flexibility of the Nrx1β-binding site in NL4 is reflected in a greater dissociation constant of the complex and higher sensitivity to ionic strength and pH variations. Analysis of neuroligin mutants points to critical functions for two respective residues in neuroligin-1 and neuroligin-2 in governing the affinity of the complexes. Although neuroligin-1 and neuroligin-2 have pre-determined conformations that respectively promote and prevent Nrx1β association, unique conformational reshaping of the NL4 surface is required to permit Nrx1β association. PMID:20543817

  11. Comparison of Hematologic and Biochemical Test Results in Blood Samples Obtained by Jugular Venipuncture Versus Nail Clip in Moluccan Cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tracy D; Lejnieks, Daniel V; Koepke, Hoyt; Grimson, Fiona; Szucs, Jennifer; Omaits, Kerri; Lane, Rosalie

    2015-12-01

    In birds, blood samples are often collected from the jugular, medial metatarsal, and basilic vein. Samples are sometimes collected by toe nail clip, but concerns to avoid drawing blood from the nail include pain after nail clips for blood collection, potential differences in complete blood count (CBC) results, and potential contamination with uric acid values. To compare differences in biochemical and hematologic values in blood samples obtained by jugular venipuncture versus toenail clip, blood samples were collected from Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) (N = 23) and sent to a commercial laboratory for routine CBCs and serum biochemical analysis. Results showed good agreement between venipuncture and nail clip blood samples in red blood cell count, packed cell volume, heterophil count and percentage, lymphocyte count and percentage, aspartate aminotransferase, chloride, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and uric acid values. Constant bias was found in values of bile acids, cholesterol, and hemoglobin. Proportional bias toward higher values in the jugular sample were found in total white blood cell (WBC) count and inorganic phosphorus. Serum calcium plots revealed a proportional bias toward higher values in the toe nail blood when values were increased. Results suggest some differences in WBC count, bile acids, calcium, cholesterol, hemoglobin, and phosphorus values between blood samples collected by jugular venipuncture and samples collected by toe nail clip, but the differences are mostly minor and, with the possible exception of inorganic phosphorus and marginally elevated or very low WBC counts, are unlikely to affect the use or interpretation of the avian blood panel. PMID:26771320

  12. Immunotoxicity of commercial-mixed glyphosate in broad snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).

    PubMed

    Siroski, Pablo A; Poletta, Gisela L; Latorre, María A; Merchant, Mark E; Ortega, Hugo H; Mudry, Marta D

    2016-01-25

    The expansion and intensification of agriculture during the past 50 years is unprecedented, and thus environmental problems have been triggered at different scales. These transformations have caused the loss of habitat and biodiversity, and disruption of the structure and functioning of ecosystems. As a result of the expansion of the agricultural frontier in the recent past, many areas of the natural geographic distribution of the local wildlife, among them crocodilians and particularly the broad snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), are being exposed to contaminants. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of commercially-mixed glyphosate (RU) on some parameters of the immune system of C. latirostris. Two groups of caimans were exposed for two months to different concentrations of RU recommended for its application in the field, while one group was maintained as an unexposed control. The RU concentration was progressively decreased through the exposure period to simulate glyphosate degradation in water. After exposure, total and differential white blood cell (WBC), and complement system activity (CS) were determined. In addition, the animals were injected with a solution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli to trigger an immune response and evaluate the parameters associated with it. The results showed that an effect of the herbicide on CS was observed, as animals exposed to RU showed a lower CS activity than animals from the negative control (NC) but not in total WBC. In the case of leukocyte population counts, differences were only found for heterophils and lymphocytes. PMID:26658029

  13. ETV6 (TEL1) regulates embryonic hematopoiesis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rasighaemi, Parisa; Onnebo, Sara M.N.; Liongue, Clifford; Ward, Alister C.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving fusions of the human ETV6 (TEL1) gene occur frequently in hematologic malignancies. However, a detailed understanding of the normal function of ETV6 remains incomplete. This study has employed zebrafish as a relevant model to investigate the role of ETV6 during embryonic hematopoiesis. Zebrafish possessed a single conserved etv6 ortholog that was expressed from 12 hpf in the lateral plate mesoderm, and later in hematopoietic, vascular and other tissues. Morpholino-mediated gene knockdown of etv6 revealed the complex contribution of this gene toward embryonic hematopoiesis. During primitive hematopoiesis, etv6 knockdown resulted in reduced levels of progenitor cells, erythrocyte and macrophage populations, but increased numbers of incompletely differentiated heterophils. Definitive hematopoiesis was also perturbed, with etv6 knockdown leading to decreased erythrocytes and myeloid cells, but enhanced lymphopoiesis. This study suggests that ETV6 plays a broader and more complex role in early hematopoiesis than previously thought, impacting on the development of multiple lineages. PMID:25281506

  14. Variation in stress and innate immunity in the tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus) across an urban-rural gradient

    PubMed Central

    French, Susannah S.; Fokidis, H. Bobby; Moore, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The urban environment presents new and different challenges to wildlife, but also potential opportunities depending on the species. As urban encroachment onto native habitats continues, understanding the impact of this expansion on native species is vital to conservation. A key physiological indicator of environmental disturbance is the vertebrate stress response, involving increases in circulating glucocorticoids (i.e., corticosterone), which exert influence on numerous physiological parameters including energy storage, reproduction, and immunity. We examined how urbanization in Phoenix, Arizona influences corticosterone levels, blood parasitism, and innate immunity in populations of tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) to determine whether urbanization may be detrimental or beneficial to this species. Both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower in urban lizards relative to the rural ones, however, the magnitude of the increase in corticosterone with stress did not differ across populations. Urban lizards also had a lower ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes, but elevated overall leukocyte count, as compared to lizards from the natural site. Urban and rural lizards did not differ in their prevalence of the blood parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum. Taken together, these results suggest that urban tree lizards may have suppressed overall corticosterone concentrations possibly from down-regulation as a result of frequent exposure to stressors, or increased access to urban resources. Also, urban lizards may have bolstered immunocompetence possibly from increased immune challenges, such as wounding, in the urban environment, or from greater energetic reserves being available as a result of access to urban resources. PMID:18594834

  15. Comparison of Three Automated Immunoassay Methods for the Determination of Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific Immunoglobulin M ▿

    PubMed Central

    Berth, Mario; Bosmans, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    In this study we compared the performances of three commercially available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) assays on highly automated immunoassay platforms: BioPlex 2200 (Bio-Rad Laboratories), Immulite 2000 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), and Liaison (DiaSorin). As a confirmatory method, immunoblotting was performed. The specificity of the three EBV IgM assays was evaluated by testing 293 selected sera from patients with various infectious and noninfectious diseases. After the exclusion of 30 samples, the specificities were 96.2% for Liaison, 98.1% for Immulite, and 97.0% for BioPlex. For evaluation of the sensitivity, samples from 70 consecutive patients with a positive heterophile antibody test were examined, irrespective of clinical or biological findings. After the exclusion of six samples, the sensitivities were 89.1% for Liaison, 84.4% for Immulite, and 89.1% for BioPlex. Finally, in a prospective study performed with 500 samples obtained from consecutive patients and sent in by general practitioners, we also determined Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen IgG and viral capsid antigen IgG in a two-phase approach. Concordance of the EBV serologic status was 96.2% between Liaison and Immulite, 96.4% between Immulite and BioPlex, and 97.8% between BioPlex and Liaison. The three EBV IgM immunoassays that we evaluated have acceptable and comparable performances. PMID:20147496

  16. Hematological and plasma biochemical reference ranges of Alaskan seabirds: Their ecological significance and clinical importance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, S.H.; Piatt, J.F.; White, J.

    1997-01-01

    Blood was analyzed from 151 pelagic marine birds to establish reference ranges for hematological and plasma biochemical parameters from healthy, wild populations of Pacific seabirds. Of the 13 species examined, 9 were from the Family Alcidae (N = 122 individuals) and the remainder (N = 29) from the Families Phalacrocoracidae, Laridae, and Procellariidae. Three of 8 hematological parameters (total white blood cell count, lymphocyte count and eosinophil count) differed significantly among species, as did 9 of 13 plasma biochemical parameters (alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, cholesterol, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, total protein and field total protein). There were no differences among species for packed cell volume, buffy coat, cell counts of heterophils, monoqtes and basophils, or for concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, uric acid and calcium. Plasma calcium concentration, triglyceride levels and field total protein varied significantly between sexes, with females having higher mean concentrations of all 3 parameters. However, no significant relationships between measures of breeding condition (brood patch size, subcutaneous and mesenteric fat deposits, or ovarian follicle size and ovary weight) and calcium or alkaline phosphatase concentrations in female birds could be identified. Alanine aminotransferase and uric acid were the only analytes which did not differ significantly between species or sexes.

  17. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-01-01

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals. PMID:27050968

  18. Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rossini, M; Blanco, P A; Marín, E; Comerma-Steffensen, S; Zerpa, H

    2012-02-01

    The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during post-laying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus in lithium heparin tubes. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), plasmatic protein (PP), haemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and differential leukocyte count were determined. Haematological values were: RBC 0.9×10(9)/L, WBC 5.7×10(9)/L, TC 5.4×10(9)/L, PCV 35.6%, PP 4.2g/dL, Hgb 11.8g/dL, MCV 411fL. The differential leukocyte count comprised: 71% heterophils, 23% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1.6% basophils, and 1% monocytes. The reports of reference haematology values for the wild P. expansa are limited; therefore, the results presented herein contrast with those values obtained in captivity. This study represents a contribution to the referential haematological values of the wild P. expansa. PMID:21122881

  19. Overexpression of heat shock protein 70 and its relationship to intestine under acute heat stress in broilers: 2. Intestinal oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gu, X H; Hao, Y; Wang, X L

    2012-04-01

    Oxidative stress injury is one important factor in intestinal mucosal barrier damage. Expression of heat shock protein (HSP)70 is an endogenous mechanism by which living cells adapt to stress. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of HSP70 on intestinal oxidative stress. Two hundred and forty broilers were injected intraperitoneally with HSP70 inducer l-(1)-glutamine or with the inhibitor quercetin. Twenty-four hours later, they were heat stressed for 0, 2, 3, 5, and 10 h, respectively, at 36 ± 1°C. The l-(1)-glutamine significantly increased HSP70 expression (P < 0.001). At 2 h or 3 h of heat stress, the HSP70 expression obviously elevated (P < 0.001). Levels of corticosterone and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio significantly increased when HSP70 expression was inhibited (P < 0.0001). Serum corticosterone was negatively correlated with the HSP70 expression at 3 h of heat stress (P = 0.0015; R = -0.6537). Heat shock protein 70 significantly protected the integrity of the intestinal mucosa from heat stress, with significantly decreased lactic dehydrogenase when HSP70 expression was enhanced (P < 0.001). In addition, heat-stress time significantly affected the lactic dehydrogenase release (P < 0.001). Furthermore, HSP70 significantly elevated antioxidant enzyme activities (such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity) and inhibited lipid peroxidation to relieve intestinal mucosal oxidative injury (P < 0.001). These results suggest that HSP70 is capable of protecting the intestinal mucosa from heat-stress injury by improving antioxidant capacity of broilers and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation production. PMID:22399716

  20. Necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis in slaughtered broilers.

    PubMed

    Supartika, I K E; van der Stroom-Kruyswijk, J H; Toussaint, M J M; Gruys, E

    2007-06-01

    The present study describes a subclinical necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis in normal broilers routinely slaughtered in a medium-sized (72,000 birds per day) abattoir in the Netherlands. An exploratory investigation was scheduled on line during 20-min periods for 82 flocks (3000 birds examined per period). Liver and duodenum samples were collected for histopathology from 365 birds with liver pathology. Bacteriology was performed from 240 livers with lesions and 80 control livers. In addition to the hepatic pathology, other gross lesions of the carcasses, such as footpad dermatitis and broken legs/wings, were noted. The average prevalence for gross liver lesions was 0.16% (ranging from 0% to 0.63% per flock); 89.59% of the livers were enlarged, had a firm consistency, and revealed multifocal necrotic spots. Microscopically, 51.66% showed a granulomatous reaction in addition to the necrosis. There was no consistent anaerobic or aerobic bacterial growth in comparison to normal livers. A large proportion of the livers revealed growth of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., and this was often with more than one type of bacterial colony. The duodenum mucosa grossly showed some redness with a mucous mass on its surface. Microscopically (n = 176) in 5.70% there were no changes in anatomy and cellular activities; 64.20% had a mildly increased number of lymphoid cells and heterophils in the lamina propria and between villus epithelial cells. The remaining 30.10% had moderate degenerative changes of villus epithelium with a mixed cellular infiltration in the lamina propria; 23.29% of the duodenum samples contained coccidia (infestation stage: mild to moderate). Signs of overgrowth with Clostridium spp. were not observed. There was a small, but significant correlation (rs = 0.30; P = 0.006) between prevalence of liver pathology and footpad dermatitis. PMID:17626499

  1. Marek's disease virus isolates with unusual tropism and virulence for ocular tissues: clinical findings, challenge studies and pathological features.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Nasisse, M P; Boggan, G D; Guy, J S; Wages, D P; Witter, R L; Rosenberger, J K; Nordgren, R M

    1991-09-01

    Outbreaks of Marek's disease (MD) were diagnosed in two flocks from the same company. Clinical signs, mainly blindness (>90%), but also depression, mild paralysis, and 11 to 12% mortality by 20 weeks of age were observed. MD virus, serotype 1 was isolated. The isolates were designated NC-1 (flock 1) and NC-2 (flock 2). Challenge experiments were conducted with these isolates and with two reference MD virus strains (JM/102W and Md5) in unvaccinated, turkey herpesvirus- (HVT) vaccinated and bivalent- (HVT and SB-1) vaccinated chickens. Blindness, gross ocular lesions and tumour formation were observed in a high proportion of all groups challenged with NC-1 and NC-2 when compared with chickens challenged with JM/102W and Md5. In chickens challenged with isolates NC-1 and NC-2, corneal changes included oedema, midstromal cellular infiltration consisting of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and lesser numbers of heterophils, collagen degeneration and keratic precipitates consisting primarily of macrophages covering the central endothelium. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in mononuclear cells infiltrating the cornea. Changes in the uveal tract consisted of inflammatory cell infiltrates similar to those present in the cornea. Retinal lesions included disruption of the retinal pigmented epithelium, inflammatory cell infiltration in the subretinal space, photoreceptor degeneration and in severely affected eyes, necrosis of retinal cellular elements. Pecten changes consisted of necrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundantly present in cells of the retina's ganglion and inner nuclear cell layers. The unusual clinical manifestation of MD, the unusual tropism and virulence of NC-1 and NC-2 for ocular tissues and the incomplete protection afforded by conventional vaccination suggest that these isolates may be new pathotypes. PMID:18680042

  2. Immediate destruction of xenogeneic islets in a primate model.

    PubMed

    Hamelmann, W; Gray, D W; Cairns, T D; Ozasa, T; Ferguson, D J; Cahill, A; Welsh, K I; Morris, P J

    1994-11-27

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets from other species to man has the potential to cure diabetes, but whether such islet grafts will be subject to damage due to natural antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection is unknown. We have examined the fate of islet xenografts in a recipient with direct relevance to man, the cynomolgus monkey. Rabbit islets were prepared by an intraductal collagenase technique and incubated in neat rabbit, human, or cynomolgus serum, with and without heat inactivation, for up to 6 days. Islets were analyzed by flow cytometry for IGG and IGM binding, and scored for viability by supravital staining. For in vivo studies, isolated islets were prepared from 4 New Zealand White rabbits (15-34 x 10(3) islets 70-85% purity) and transplanted beneath the kidney capsule of normal cynomolgus monkeys after aggregation in either a rabbit or monkey blood clot. The tissue was retrieved at various times up to 4 days after transplantation and processed for light and electron microscopy. The results showed that rabbit islets bind heterophile antibody of both IGG and IGM subtypes. There was slow loss of islet viability in vitro over 3 days of culture in neat human or cynomolgus serum. Destruction of islets in vivo was more rapid with visible damage within 6 hr associated with neutrophil infiltration. Subsequently, there was heavy mononuclear cell infiltration leading to total destruction within 4 days. The results suggest that immediate mechanisms of graft rejection, possibly compliment and neutrophil mediated, represent a major barrier to islet xenotransplantation in humans. PMID:7974718

  3. Cell autonomy of DSCAM function in retinal development

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, Peter G.; Bruce, Freyja; Rounds, Ryan P.; Erskine, Lynda; Burgess, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) provide identifying cues by which neural architecture is sculpted. The Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (DSCAM) is required for many neurodevelopmental processes in different species and also has several potential mechanisms of activity, including homophilic adhesion, homophilic repulsion and heterophilic interactions. In the mouse retina, Dscam is expressed in many, but not all neuronal subtypes. Mutations in Dscam cause the fasciculation of dendrites of neighboring homotypic neurons, indicating a role in self-avoidance among cells of a given type, a disruption of the non-random patterning of their cell bodies, and a decrease in developmental cell death in affected cell populations. In order to address how DSCAM facilitates retinal pattering, we developed a conditional allele of Dscam to use alongside existing Dscam mutant mouse strains. Conditional deletion of Dscam reproduces cell spacing, cell number and dendrite arborization defects. Inducible deletion of Dscam and retinal ganglion cell depletion in Brn3b mutant retinas both indicate that these DSCAM-mediated phenotypes can occur independently. In chimeric retinas, in which wild type and Dscam mutant cells are comingled, Dscam mutant cells entangle adjacent wild type cells of the same type, as if both cells were lacking Dscam, consistent with DSCAM-dependent cell spacing and neurite arborization being mediated through homophilic binding cell-to-cell. Deletion of Dscam in specific cell types causes cell-type-autonomous cell body spacing defects, indicating that DSCAM mediates arborization and spacing by acting within given cell types. We also examine the cell autonomy of DSCAM in laminar stratification and find that laminar disorganization can be caused in a non-cell autonomous fashion. Finally, we find Dscam dosage-dependent defects in developmental cell death and amacrine cell spacing, relevant to the increased cell death and other disorders observed in Down syndrome mouse models and human patients, in which Dscam is present in three copies. PMID:22063212

  4. Infectious Mononucleosis and Mononucleosis Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Milan; Heiner, Douglas C.; Turner, Jerrold A.; Rosenbloom, Barry; Guze, Lucien B.

    1977-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis are caused by a primary infection with related viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and CMV. Despite the similarity of clinical manifestations, basic differences exist: (1) The heterophil antibody (HA) response is absent in CMV mononucleosis, whereas it is present in IM. (2) In IM atypical lymphocytosis reflects proliferation of B cells early and of T cells later in the disease course; in CMV mononucleosis the situation appears complex. (3) In blood, EBV is restricted to B lymphocytes, whereas CMV is found in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (4) Complications of CMV mononucleosis such as hepatitis and pneumonitis may be due to virus cytopathic effect in target organs. Prominent tonsillopharyngitis with adenopathy, and visceral complications of IM are related to lymphoproliferation which is self-limited except in males with a rare familial defect in defense against EBV. Immune complex-mediated pathology may occur in both diseases. (5) CMV is frequently transmitted to a fetus in utero or to an infant during or after birth, and this occasionally leads to severe cytomegalic inclusion disease; vertical transmission of EBV appears to be exceptional. (6) Secondary EBV infections are associated with certain malignancies whereas such an association has not been recognized in the case of CMV. Toxoplasma gondii is another cause of HA-negative mononucleosis. Its complications in the heart, in skeletal muscle and in the central nervous system are related to direct invasion by the parasite. Cellular immunity plays an important role in defense against all three agents. PMID:195404

  5. Probing the cis-arrangement of prototype tight junction proteins claudin-1 and claudin-3.

    PubMed

    Milatz, Susanne; Piontek, Jörg; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Blasig, Ingolf E; Fromm, Michael; Günzel, Dorothee

    2015-06-15

    Claudins form a large family of TJ (tight junction) proteins featuring four transmembrane segments (TM1-TM4), two extracellular loops, one intracellular loop and intracellular N- and C-termini. They form continuous and branched TJ strands by homo- or heterophilic interaction within the same membrane (cis-interaction) and with claudins of the opposing lateral cell membrane (trans-interaction). In order to clarify the molecular organization of TJ strand formation, we investigated the cis-interaction of two abundant prototypic claudins. Human claudin-1 and claudin-3, fused to ECFP or EYFP at the N- or C-terminus, were expressed in the TJ-free cell line HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293. Using FRET analysis, the proximity of claudin N- and C-termini integrated in homopolymeric strands composed of claudin-3 or of heteropolymeric strands composed of claudin-1 and claudin-3 were determined. The main results are that (i) within homo- and heteropolymers, the average distance between the cytoplasmic ends of the TM1s of cis-interacting claudin molecules is shorter than the average distance between their TM4s, and (ii) TM1 segments of neighbouring claudins are oriented towards each other as the cytoplasmic end of TM1 is in close proximity to more other TM1 segments than TM4 is to other TM4 segments. The results indicate at least two different cis-interaction interfaces within claudin-3 homopolymers as well as within claudin-1/claudin-3 heteropolymers. The data provide novel insight into the molecular TJ architecture consistent with a model with an antiparallel double-row cis-arrangement of classic claudin protomers within strands. PMID:25849148

  6. The effect of northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation on hen physiology, physical condition, and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; King, Annie J; Mench, Joy A

    2016-05-01

    The northern fowl mite (NFM),Ornithonyssus sylviarum, is the most common ectoparasite of laying hens in North America. Infestation can cause a reduction in egg production, egg weights, and feed conversion efficiency. However, there is a lack of information on the effects of NFM on hen physiology, physical condition, and egg quality. Singly caged beak-trimmed White Leghorn hens (N = 32) were infested with mites at 25 wk of age. The condition of each hen was assessed at wk 0 (infestation) and wk 5 and 7 post-infestation to determine comb temperatures and feather, skin, and comb condition. Heterophil-lymphocyte (H/L) ratios and body weight (BW) were evaluated at wk 0 and wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infestation. Egg weight, egg specific gravity, yolk color, Haugh unit (HU), and eggshell thickness were determined prior to infestation (wk -1) and at 1, 3, 5, and 7 wk post-infestation. The H/L ratio (P < 0.0001), HU (P < 0.0001), and egg specific gravity (P= 0.001) were lowest, and the egg yolk color was lightest (P= 0.087) at wk 5, the peak of infestation. At wk 5 and 7, more than 65% of the hens had red skin and more than 75% had scabs on the vent; in addition more than 84% had grey-black vent feathers. There were no effects of infestation on comb color, comb temperature, feather cover, BW, or eggshell thickness. It was concluded that infestation with NFM has negative effects on interior egg quality and hen integument. A decrease in H/L ratio was also observed at the peak of infestation. However, the effects of NFM on the immune system are unclear, and H/L ratio might not be a good stress measure in hens highly infested with NFM. PMID:26944982

  7. Health assessment of free-living eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in and around the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Adamovicz, Laura; Bronson, Ellen; Barrett, Kevin; Deem, Sharon L

    2015-03-01

    Health data for free-living eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore were analyzed. One hundred and eighteen turtles were captured on or near zoo grounds over the course of 15 yr (1996-2011), with recapture of many individuals leading to 208 total evaluations. Of the 118 individuals, 61 were male, 50 were female, and 7 were of undetermined sex. Of the 208 captures, 188 were healthy, and 20 were sick or injured. Complete health evaluations were performed on 30 turtles with physical examination records, complete blood counts (CBCs), and plasma biochemistry profiles. Eight animals were sampled more than once, yielding 40 total samples for complete health evaluations of these 30 individuals. The 40 samples were divided into healthy (N=29) and sick (N=11) groups based on clinical findings on physical examination. Samples from healthy animals were further divided into male (N=17) and female (N= 12) groups. CBC and biochemistry profile parameters were compared between sick and healthy groups and between healthy males and females. Sick turtles had lower albumin, globulin, total protein (TP), calcium, phosphorous, sodium, and potassium than healthy animals. Sick turtles also had higher heterophil to lymphocyte ratios. Healthy female turtles had higher leukocyte count, eosinophil count, total solids, TP, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, and phosphorous than healthy males. Banked plasma from all 40 samples was tested for antibodies to Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One sample from a clinically healthy female was antibody positive for M. agassizii; none were positive for M. testudineum. This study provides descriptive health data for eastern box turtles and CBC and biochemistry profile information for T. carolina carolina at and near the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore. It also reports low serologic evidence of exposure to mycoplasmosis. PMID:25831575

  8. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions. PMID:26953950

  9. Neonatal handling of Amazon parrots alters the stress response and immune function.

    PubMed

    Collette; Millam; Klasing; Wakenell

    2000-03-01

    The influence of neonatal handling on behavior and immune function was assessed in Orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). Chicks (n=11) were gently handled daily from 25 days of age until 38 days post-fledging, while control chicks (n=9) were not handled. At 10 days post-fledging ( approximately 66 days of age), chicks were given tests to evaluate tameness (e.g., willingness to perch on an offered finger). They were then restrained for 10 min, either by being held while perching (handled group) or, because they would not perch, by being restrained in a towel (nonhandled group). Serum corticosterone levels were measured and immune status was assessed by: the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PH-P) injection; the humoral response to a killed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge; and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio (H:L). Handled chicks were tamer by all measures of tameness. DTH was greater in nonhandled chicks (P

  10. Diversity in specificity, abundance, and composition of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in normal humans: Potential implications for disease

    PubMed Central

    Padler-Karavani, Vered; Yu, Hai; Cao, Hongzhi; Chokhawala, Harshal; Karp, Felix; Varki, Nissi; Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit

    2008-01-01

    Human heterophile antibodies that agglutinate animal erythrocytes are known to detect the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). This monosaccharide cannot by itself fill the binding site (paratope) of an antibody and can also be modified and presented in various linkages, on diverse underlying glycans. Thus, we hypothesized that the human anti-Neu5Gc antibody response is diverse and polyclonal. Here, we use a novel set of natural and chemoenzymatically synthesized glycans to show that normal humans have an abundant and diverse spectrum of such anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, directed against a variety of Neu5Gc-containing epitopes. High sensitivity and specificity assays were achieved by using N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-containing probes (differing from Neu5Gc by one less oxygen atom) as optimal background controls. The commonest anti-Neu5Gc antibodies are of the IgG class. Moreover, the range of reactivity and Ig classes of antibodies vary greatly amongst normal humans, with some individuals having remarkably large amounts, even surpassing levels of some well-known natural blood group and xenoreactive antibodies. We purified these anti-Neu5Gc antibodies from individual human sera using a newly developed affinity method and showed that they bind to wild-type but not Neu5Gc-deficient mouse tissues. Moreover, they bind back to human carcinomas that have accumulated Neu5Gc in vivo. As dietary Neu5Gc is primarily found in red meat and milk products, we suggest that this ongoing antigen-antibody reaction may generate chronic inflammation, possibly contributing to the high frequency of diet-related carcinomas and other diseases in humans. PMID:18669916

  11. Effects of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen on growth performance and immune system of Japanese quails

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Sakine; Rahimi, Shaeban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Tahmasebi, Golamhosein; Khaleghi Miran, Seyed Naser

    2016-01-01

    Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis, royal jelly, honey and bee pollen in comparison with virginiamycin (as growth promoter antibiotic) as regards the performance and immune system of Japanese quail were assessed. We used 256 mixed-sex quail chicks in a completely randomized design by eight treatments, including control, ethanolic extract of propolis 1000 (PE1) and 5000 (PE2) mg kg-1, pollen powder 1000 (PO1) and 5000 (PO2) mg kg-1, royal jelly 100 mg kg-1 (RJ), honey 22 g L-1 of drinking water (H) and virginiamycin 150 mg kg-1 (V), and four replicates of eight birds in each replication for 42 days. There was significant differences for weight gain (WG), feed intakes (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) between experimental groups. In addition, WG in V treatment (18.82%), H and PO2 treatments (16.87%) and RJ treatment (12.00%) were significantly higher than to control group (p < 0.01). Significantly higher values of FCR were recorded in control group while group PE2 exhibited a significant decrease for 1 to 42 day (p < 0.05). The results of effect of bee products on antibodies titer showed an increase in the Newcastle disease (ND) titer when compared with control and virginiamycin groups (p < 0.01). There was significant difference in antibody production against avian influenza (AI) and sheep red blood cells (p < 0.01). Significant differences were observed in heterophils to lymphocytes ratio among PE1, PE2, PO1 and PO2 with V and control groups (p < 0.01). PMID:27226882

  12. Development of Snake Fungal Disease after Experimental Challenge with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorous).

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Baker, Sarah; Wylie, Daniel; Loper, Daniel; Dreslik, Michael J; Phillips, Christopher A; Maddox, Carol; Driskell, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is a clinical syndrome associated with dermatitis, myositis, osteomyelitis, and pneumonia in several species of free-ranging snakes in the US. The causative agent has been suggested as Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, but other agents may contribute to the syndrome and the pathogenesis is not understood. To understand the role of O. ophiodiicola in SFD, a cottonmouth snake model of SFD was designed. Five cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorous) were experimentally challenged by nasolabial pit inoculation with a pure culture of O. ophiodiicola. Development of skin lesions or facial swelling at the site of inoculation was observed in all snakes. Twice weekly swabs of the inoculation site revealed variable presence of O. ophiodiicola DNA by qPCR in all five inoculated snakes for 3 to 58 days post-inoculation; nasolabial flushes were not a useful sampling method for detection. Inoculated snakes had a 40% mortality rate. All inoculated snakes had microscopic lesions unilaterally on the side of the swabbed nasolabial pit, including erosions to ulcerations and heterophilic dermatitis. All signs were consistent with SFD; however, the severity of lesions varied in individual snakes, and fungal hyphae were only observed in 3 of 5 inoculated snakes. These three snakes correlated with post-mortem tissue qPCR evidence of O. ophiodiicola. The findings of this study conclude that O. ophiodiicola inoculation in a cottonmouth snake model leads to disease similar to SFD, although lesion severity and the fungal load are quite variable within the model. Future studies may utilize this model to further understand the pathogenesis of this disease and develop management strategies that mitigate disease effects, but investigation of other models with less variability may be warranted. PMID:26469977

  13. The effect of feeding rations with different ratios of concentrate to alfalfa hay on blood hematological and biochemical parameters of farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Kazemi-Bonchenari, Mehdi; Khaltabadi-Farahani, Amir Hossein; Khodaei Motlagh, Mahdi

    2013-10-01

    A two-month trial was conducted to investigate the effects of pelleting rations with 70:30, 65:35, and 60:40 concentrate to high-quality roughage (alfalfa hay) ratios on hematological and biochemical parameters of ostriches. A total of 18 seven-month-old male ostrich chicks, initially weighing an average of 60-70 kg, were distributed into three different outdoor paddocks at a stocking density of six birds per paddock. In the morning, blood collection was made from the wing vein after about 12 h of fasting. All rations resulted in no significant change in hematological parameters. However, with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio tended to be lower (P = 0.089); whereas the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) tended to be higher (P values 0.069, 0.072 and 0.094, respectively). In terms of plasma biochemical parameters, increasing the ratio of concentrate to alfalfa hay in ostrich diets resulted in significant (P < 0.05) depression in the values of glucose (up to 20.2 %), total cholesterol (up to 19.2 %), creatine kinase (up to 27.9 %), and aspartate aminotransferase (up to 29.9 %). Additionally, the 65:35 or 60:40 rations caused a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (27.9 and 42 %, respectively; P = 0.008) compared to the 70:40 ration. Without exception, no rations affected the values of leukocyte subsets, total protein, albumin, globulin, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein. Based on our results, the concentrate to alfalfa ratio of 60:40 could be suggested as optimum ratio for good health conditions of juvenile ostriches. PMID:23575919

  14. Comparisons of Highly Virulent H5N1 Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Humans and Chickens from Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, David L.; Perdue, Michael L.; Cox, Nancy; Rowe, Thomas; Bender, Catherine; Huang, Jing; Swayne, David E.

    1998-01-01

    Genes of an influenza A (H5N1) virus from a human in Hong Kong isolated in May 1997 were sequenced and found to be all avian-like (K. Subbarao et al., Science 279:393–395, 1998). Gene sequences of this human isolate were compared to those of a highly pathogenic chicken H5N1 influenza virus isolated from Hong Kong in April 1997. Sequence comparisons of all eight RNA segments from the two viruses show greater than 99% sequence identity between them. However, neither isolate’s gene sequence was closely (>95% sequence identity) related to any other gene sequences found in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the nucleotide sequences of at least four of the eight RNA segments clustered with Eurasian origin avian influenza viruses. The hemagglutinin gene phylogenetic analysis also included the sequences from an additional three human and two chicken H5N1 virus isolates from Hong Kong, and the isolates separated into two closely related groups. However, no single amino acid change separated the chicken origin and human origin isolates, but they all contained multiple basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin cleavage site, which is associated with a highly pathogenic phenotype in poultry. In experimental intravenous inoculation studies with chickens, all seven viruses were highly pathogenic, killing most birds within 24 h. All infected chickens had virtually identical pathologic lesions, including moderate to severe diffuse edema and interstitial pneumonitis. Viral nucleoprotein was most frequently demonstrated in vascular endothelium, macrophages, heterophils, and cardiac myocytes. Asphyxiation from pulmonary edema and generalized cardiovascular collapse were the most likely pathogenic mechanisms responsible for illness and death. In summary, a small number of changes in hemagglutinin gene sequences defined two closely related subgroups, with both subgroups having human and chicken members, among the seven viruses examined from Hong Kong, and all seven viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens and caused similar lesions in experimental inoculations. PMID:9658115

  15. Methodological aspects of ELISA analysis of thioredoxin 1 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Mathias; Curbo, Sophie; Reiser, Kathrin; Masterman, Thomas; Braesch-Andersen, Sten; Areström, Irene; Ahlborg, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) is a protein antioxidant involved in major cellular processes. Increased plasma levels of Trx1 have been associated with human diseases suggesting that Trx1 is a marker for oxidative stress with putative clinical use. However, the reported mean levels of Trx1 in the control cohorts vary a hundred-fold between studies (0.8-87 ng/ml), possibly due to methodological differences between the capture ELISA used in the different studies. The aim of this study was to investigate methodological aspects related to the ELISA measurement of Trx1. ELISAs utilizing different capture and detection combinations of antibodies to Trx1 and as well as recombinant human (rh) Trx1 standards from two sources were characterized. The different ELISAs were subsequently used to measure Trx1 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) from healthy donors and from patients with various neurological diagnoses. The Trx1 standards differed in their content of monomeric and oligomeric Trx1, which affected the ELISAs composed of different antibody combinations. Thus, the levels of Trx1 determined in human plasma and CSF samples varied depending on the antibody used in the ELISAs and on the rhTrx1 standard. Furthermore, the relevance of preventing interference by heterophilic antibodies (HA) in human plasma and CSF was investigated. The addition of a HA blocking buffer to human samples drastically reduced the ELISA signals in many samples showing that HA are likely to cause false positive results unless they are blocked. In conclusion, the study shows that the design of a Trx1 ELISA in regards to antibodies and standards used has an impact on the measured Trx1 levels. Importantly, analyses of human plasma and CSF without preventing HA interference may obscure the obtained data. Overall, the results of this study are crucial for the improvement of future studies on the association of Trx1 levels with various diseases. PMID:25075746

  16. Variations in leucocyte profiles and plasma biochemistry are related to different aspects of parental investment in male and female Upland geese Chloephaga picta leucoptera.

    PubMed

    Gladbach, Anja; Gladbach, David Joachim; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2010-06-01

    The analysis of plasma biochemistry and haematology to monitor the condition of birds in the wild has been found a useful tool in ecological research. Despite biparental investment in most wild birds studied, some studies of condition indices found sex differences, and attributed these to the costs of egg formation or brooding in females or a higher contribution of males to chick rearing. We studied the natural variation of haematological and plasma biochemistry parameters (namely leucocyte, lymphocyte and heterophil counts, H/L ratio and plasma concentrations of proteins, triglycerides and carotenoids) in relation to the different measures of parental investment in males and females in the Upland goose (Chloephaga picta leucoptera), a socially monogamous species. We found no sex differences in haematological and most plasma biochemistry parameters, but a relation to different aspects of parental investment in breeding male and female Upland geese. H/L ratios were related to body condition and capture date in males while leucocyte counts, plasma protein and plasma carotenoid concentrations varied with clutch measures and hatching date in females. Higher H/L ratios of males in a low body condition and later in the year may reflect stress associated with the investment into the establishment and defence of the breeding territory. Females with higher clutch volumes had lower total leucocyte and lymphocyte numbers and higher levels of plasma protein. Earlier hatching dates were associated with lower numbers of all leucocyte types and higher values of plasma carotenoid concentrations. This indicates that differences in health state are reflected in reproductive performance in female Upland geese. We also found sexual differences in the repeatability of haematological and plasma biochemistry parameters between years and therefore suggest that their potential as a measure of individual quality differs between male and female Upland geese. Finally, numbers of leucocyte counts and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pair partners were significantly related. No study so far investigated these parameters in pair partners and we discuss possible reasons for our finding. PMID:20176125

  17. Variation with land use of immune function and prevalence of avian pox in Galapagos finches.

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, Maxine; Lee, Kelly A; Klasing, Kirk C; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Introduced disease has been implicated in recent wildlife extinctions and population declines worldwide. Both anthropogenic-induced change and natural environmental features can affect pathogen spread. Furthermore, environmental disturbance can result in changes in stress physiology, nutrition, and social structure, which in turn can suppress immune system function. However, it remains unknown whether landscape variation results in heterogeneity in host resistance to pathogens. Avian pox virus, a pathogen implicated in avian declines and extinctions in Hawaii, was introduced to the Galapagos in the 1890 s, and prevalence (total number of current infections) has increased recently in finches. We tested whether prevalence and recovery trends in 7 species of Galapagos finches varied by elevation or human land use. To do so, we used infection data obtained from 545 wild-caught birds. In addition, we determined whether annual changes in 4 aspects of innate immune function (complement protein activity, natural antibody activity, concentration of PIT54 protein, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio) varied by elevation or land use. Prevalence and recovery rates did not vary by elevation from 2008 to 2009. Avian pox prevalence and proportion of recovered individuals in undeveloped and urban areas did not change from 2008 to 2009. In agricultural areas, avian pox prevalence increased 8-fold (from 2% to 17% of 234 individuals sampled) and proportion of recovered individuals increased (11% to 19%) from 2008 to 2009. These results suggest high disease-related mortality. Variation in immune function across human land-use types correlated with variation in both increased prevalence and susceptibility, which indicates changes in innate immune function may underlie changes in disease susceptibility. Our results suggest anthropogenic disturbance, in particular agricultural practices, may underlie immunological changes in host species that themselves contribute to pathogen emergence. PMID:23082926

  18. Dexamethasone inhibits corticosterone deposition in feathers of greenfinches.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Männiste, Marju; Meitern, Richard; Sild, Elin; Saks, Lauri; Sepp, Tuul

    2013-09-15

    Corticosterone (CORT) content of feathers is a potent source of information about activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during feather growth, which is used for assessment of well-being and stress history of individuals and populations in avian studies. However, little is known about factors affecting deposition of CORT into feathers and how feather CORT covaries with other markers of stress imposed upon individuals during feather growth. We addressed these questions by measuring CORT levels in feathers of wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) brought into captivity. One tail feather was removed from all the birds upon arrival to the laboratory and the CORT levels of replacement feathers, grown in captivity were recorded. The birds were subjected to treatments of immune activation (by injection of phytohaemagglutinin) and synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone, DEX) administration. Only DEX injection affected feather CORT levels. DEX-injected birds deposited on average 37% less of CORT in their feathers than saline-injected birds. Despite significant effects of DEX and immune activation treatments on differential leukocyte counts, we did not find any correlations between CORT and leukocyte hemoconcentrations or heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (a haematological index of stress), measured at three stages of feather growth. Our findings provide novel evidence that feather CORT levels are sensitive to manipulation of hormonal balance of birds, thereby supporting the diagnostic value of feather CORT measurements. However, we did not find any evidence about covariation between feather CORT and other markers of stress perceived during the period of feather growth. This calls for further research on information content of feather CORT, preferably in experiments manipulating more diverse array of psychological, immunological and abiotic stressors. PMID:23856540

  19. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  20. Immune response to an endotoxin challenge involves multiple immune parameters and is consistent among the annual-cycle stages of a free-living temperate zone bird.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D; Versteegh, Maaike A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Tieleman, B Irene

    2013-07-15

    Trade-offs between immune function and other physiological and behavioural processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. While variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is well established, studies in wild animals on multiple parameters during an immune response are lacking. It also remains to be tested whether and how immune responses correlate with baseline values that vary, for example, over the course of an annual cycle. We studied immunological responses to an endotoxin challenge in skylarks (Alauda arvensis), a partial migrant bird breeding in temperate zones. We compared birds injected with the endotoxin LPS with un-injected controls, characterizing immunological responses with leukocyte profiles, titres of lytic enzymes and natural antibodies, and concentrations of haptoglobin and heat shock proteins. We did this in five annual-cycle stages to test whether the response varied throughout the year. The endotoxin challenge affected six of 10 measured parameters. Lysis titres and proportions of heterophils increased; haptoglobin concentrations and proportions of lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils decreased. The variable effects on different immune components demonstrate the complexity of an immune response. We found no evidence that the response differed between annual-cycle stages. The response was independent of baseline measures taken directly upon capture in the field, indicating that birds were facing no immunological ceiling when mounting an immune response. Values of five parameters collected under field conditions were significantly related to values taken under standardized laboratory conditions. We conclude that multiple parts of the immune system are modulated during an immunological response and that responses are not re-organized throughout the annual cycle. PMID:23531817

  1. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  2. Toxicity and pharmacokinetics of 2-(2-dimethylaminoethoxy)ethanol following cutaneous dosing.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Frantz, S W; Ballantyne, B

    2002-07-01

    A 9-day repeated cutaneous toxicity study in the New Zealand White rabbit was conducted using 6-h occluded contact with 0 (water control), 50, 250 and 500 mg dimethylaminoethoxyethanol (DMEE)/kg. There were no clinical signs, and no effects on body weight, food consumption or serum chemistry. Hematological effects were limted to increased leukocyte count due to heterophil leukocytosis, increased platelet count, and decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit at the high dose. These findings are typical of the response of cutaneous inflammation. Histopathological findings were limited to the DMEE-treated skin, and consisted of acanthosis and ulcerative/necrotizing dermatitis. Thus, there was no evidence for cumulative percutaneous systemic toxicity for DMEE. The pharmacokinetics of DMEE was investigated in the Fischer 344 rats. Rats were given an intravenous dose of 15 or 150 mg/kg, or an occluded cutaneous dose of 150 mg/kg [14C]DMEE, and its fate was followed for 48-72 h. DMEE was readily absorbed through the skin (bioavailability=72-80%). Concentration in plasma rose steadily to a maximum at about 3.5 h after dosing, and then declined in a biphasic manner. 14C-DMEE-derived radioactivity was distributed throughout the body, with no apparent sequestration in any particular organ. The highest concentrations were observed in the kidney, liver and lung, and the lowest concentrations were found in the brain and fat. Urine was the major route of excretion, with minor amounts eliminated in the feces and as expired CO(2). The rate of excretion was moderate, with about 30% of the applied dose eliminated in the first 12 h, and by 72 h after dosing, less than 4% of the dose remained in the carcass. Unchanged DMEE was the principal component detected in the urine. This observation, together with the less than 1% of the dose excreted as CO(2), showed that metabolism was not an important process in the elimination of DMEE in the rat. PMID:12065226

  3. Postsynaptic Receptors for Amyloid-β Oligomers as Mediators of Neuronal Damage in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dinamarca, Margarita C.; Ríos, Juvenal A.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic effect of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) over the central synapses has been described and is reflected in the decrease of some postsynaptic excitatory proteins, the alteration in the number and morphology of the dendritic spines, and a decrease in long-term potentiation. Many studies has been carried out to identify the putative Aβ receptors in neurons, and is still no clear why the Aβ oligomers only affect the excitatory synapses. Aβ oligomers bind to neurite and preferentially to the postsynaptic region, where the postsynaptic protein-95 (PSD-95) is present in the glutamatergic synapse, and interacts directly with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and neuroligin (NL). NL is a postsynaptic protein which binds to the presynaptic protein, neurexin to form a heterophilic adhesion complex, the disruption of this interaction affects the integrity of the synaptic contact. Structurally, NL has an extracellular domain homolog to acetylcholinesterase, the first synaptic protein that was found to interact with Aβ. In the present review we will document the interaction between Aβ and the extracellular domain of NL-1 at the excitatory synapse, as well as the interaction with other postsynaptic components, including the glutamatergic receptors (NMDA and mGluR5), the prion protein, the neurotrophin receptor, and the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We conclude that several Aβ oligomers receptors exist at the excitatory synapse, which could be the responsible for the neurotoxic effect described for the Aβ oligomers. The characterization of the interaction between Aβ receptors and Aβ oligomers could help to understand the source of the neurologic damage observed in the brain of the Alzheimer’s disease patients. PMID:23267328

  4. Postsynaptic Receptors for Amyloid-β Oligomers as Mediators of Neuronal Damage in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dinamarca, Margarita C; Ríos, Juvenal A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic effect of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) over the central synapses has been described and is reflected in the decrease of some postsynaptic excitatory proteins, the alteration in the number and morphology of the dendritic spines, and a decrease in long-term potentiation. Many studies has been carried out to identify the putative Aβ receptors in neurons, and is still no clear why the Aβ oligomers only affect the excitatory synapses. Aβ oligomers bind to neurite and preferentially to the postsynaptic region, where the postsynaptic protein-95 (PSD-95) is present in the glutamatergic synapse, and interacts directly with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and neuroligin (NL). NL is a postsynaptic protein which binds to the presynaptic protein, neurexin to form a heterophilic adhesion complex, the disruption of this interaction affects the integrity of the synaptic contact. Structurally, NL has an extracellular domain homolog to acetylcholinesterase, the first synaptic protein that was found to interact with Aβ. In the present review we will document the interaction between Aβ and the extracellular domain of NL-1 at the excitatory synapse, as well as the interaction with other postsynaptic components, including the glutamatergic receptors (NMDA and mGluR5), the prion protein, the neurotrophin receptor, and the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We conclude that several Aβ oligomers receptors exist at the excitatory synapse, which could be the responsible for the neurotoxic effect described for the Aβ oligomers. The characterization of the interaction between Aβ receptors and Aβ oligomers could help to understand the source of the neurologic damage observed in the brain of the Alzheimer's disease patients. PMID:23267328

  5. Stress assessment in captive greylag geese (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Scheiber, I B R; Sterenborg, M; Komdeur, J

    2015-05-01

    Chronic stress--or, more appropriately, "allostatic overload"--may be physiologically harmful and can cause death in the most severe cases. Animals in captivity are thought to be particularly vulnerable to allostatic overload due to artificial housing and group makeup. Here we attempted to determine if captive greylag geese (Anser anser), housed lifelong in captivity, showed elevated levels of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (CORT) and ectoparasites in dropping samples as well as some hematological parameters (hematocrit, packed cell volume, total white blood cell count [TWBC], and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio [H:L]). All of these have been measured as indicators of chronic stress. Furthermore, we correlated the various stress parameters within individuals. Captive geese showed elevated values of CORT and ectoparasites relative to a wild population sampled in the vicinity of the area where the captive flock is held. The elevated levels, however, were by no means at a pathological level and fall well into the range of other published values in wild greylag geese. We found no correlations between any of the variables measured from droppings with any of the ones collected from blood. Among the blood parameters, only the H:L negatively correlated with TWBC. We examine the problem of inferring allostatic overload when measuring only 1 stress parameter, as there is no consistency between various measurements taken. We discuss the different aspects of each of the parameters measured and the extensive individual variation in response to stress as well as the timing at which different systems respond to a stressor and what is actually measured at the time of data collection. We conclude that measuring only 1 stress parameter often is insufficient to evaluate the well-being of both wild and captively housed animals and that collecting behavioral data on stress might be a suitable addition. PMID:26020308

  6. Role of tumour-associated N-glycolylated variant of GM3 ganglioside in cancer progression: effect over CD4 expression on T cells.

    PubMed

    de Leòn, Joel; Fernández, Audry; Mesa, Circe; Clavel, Marilyn; Fernández, Luis E

    2006-04-01

    Gangliosides have diverse biological functions including modulation of immune system response. These molecules are differentially expressed on malignant cells compared with the corresponding normal ones and are involved in cancer progression affecting, in different ways, the host's anti-tumour specific immune responses. Although in humans the N-glycolylated variant of GM3 ganglioside is almost exclusively expressed in tumour tissues, the significance of this glycolipid for malignant cell biology remains obscure, while for NAcGM3 strong immune suppressive effects have been reported. The present work demonstrates, for the first time, the capacity of NGcGM3 ganglioside to down-modulate CD4 expression in murine and human T lymphocytes, especially in non-activated T cells. Thirty and tenfold reductions in CD4 expression were induced by purified NGcGM3 ganglioside in murine and human T lymphocytes, respectively. The CD4 complete recovery in these cells occurred after 48 h of ganglioside removal, due to neo-synthesis. Restored T cells kept similar sensitivity to ganglioside-induced CD4 down-modulation after a new challenge. In addition, a clear association between NGcGM3 insertion in lymphocyte plasma membranes and the CD4 down-modulation effect was documented. Notably, a possible role of this ganglioside in tumour progression, taking advantage of the X63 myeloma model, was also outlined. The relevance of these findings, characterizing NGcGM3 as a possible tumour immunesurveillance inhibitor and supporting the reason for its neo-expression in certain human cancers, is contributing to this unique heterophilic ganglioside validation as target for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:16208470

  7. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  8. Carotenoid-based bill and eye ring coloration as honest signals of condition: an experimental test in the red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Viñuela, Javier

    2008-09-01

    Carotenoid pigments cannot be synthesized by vertebrates but must be ingested through the diet. As they seem to be a limited resource, carotenoid-based ornaments are particularly interesting as possible honest signals of individual quality, in particular of foraging efficiency and nutritional status. Some studies have demonstrated the condition dependence of carotenoid-based plumage in birds. However, many other carotenoid-pigmented bare parts (i.e. skin, caruncles, bills, cere, and tarsi) are present in birds but, in comparison with plumage, little is known about these traits as indicators of individual quality. Here, we show that the eye ring pigmentation and bill redness of the red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa) are positively associated to body condition and recent changes in body mass. Also, we found a negative relationship between these two traits and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of physiological stress (the relationship with bill redness being significant only for males). In an experiment, we found that after a period of reduction in food intake (with the consequent loss of body mass), food-restricted birds showed lower eye ring pigmentation than ad-libitum-fed birds. Therefore, different ornaments seem to reflect changes in body condition but at different speeds or intensities (eye ring, a fleshy ornament, appears to respond more rapidly to changes in the nutritional status than a keratinized structure as the bill). These results indicate that carotenoid-based ornaments are condition-dependent traits in the red-legged partridge, being therefore susceptible to be employed as honest signals of quality in sexual selection.

  9. In tight junctions, claudins regulate the interactions between occludin, tricellulin and marvelD3, which, inversely, modulate claudin oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Cording, Jimmi; Berg, Johanna; Käding, Nadja; Bellmann, Christian; Tscheik, Christian; Westphal, Julie K; Milatz, Susanne; Günzel, Dorothee; Wolburg, Hartwig; Piontek, Jörg; Huber, Otmar; Blasig, Ingolf Ernst

    2013-01-15

    Tight junctions seal the paracellular cleft of epithelia and endothelia, form vital barriers between tissue compartments and consist of tight-junction-associated marvel proteins (TAMPs) and claudins. The function of TAMPs and the interaction with claudins are not understood. We therefore investigated the binding between the TAMPs occludin, tricellulin, and marvelD3 and their interaction with claudins in living tight-junction-free human embryonic kidney-293 cells. In contrast to claudins and occludin, tricellulin and marvelD3 showed no enrichment at cell-cell contacts indicating lack of homophilic trans-interaction between two opposing cell membranes. However, occludin, marvelD3 and tricellulin exhibited homophilic cis-interactions, along one plasma membrane, as measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. MarvelD3 also cis-interacted with occludin and tricellulin heterophilically. Classic claudins, such as claudin-1 to -5 may show cis-oligomerization with TAMPs, whereas the non-classic claudin-11 did not. Claudin-1 and -5 improved enrichment of occludin and tricellulin at cell-cell contacts. The low mobile claudin-1 reduced the membrane mobility of the highly mobile occludin and tricellulin, as studied by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Co-transfection of claudin-1 with TAMPs led to changes of the tight junction strand network of this claudin to a more physiological morphology, depicted by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. The results demonstrate multilateral interactions between the tight junction proteins, in which claudins determine the function of TAMPs and vice versa, and provide deeper insights into the tight junction assembly. PMID:23203797

  10. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

    2014-06-01

    Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

  11. N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

    2011-12-31

    Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

  12. Associations between Organochlorine Contaminant Concentrations and Clinical Health Parameters in Loggerhead Sea Turtles from North Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R.; Stamper, M. Andrew; Harms, Craig A.; McClellan-Green, Patricia D.

    2004-01-01

    Widespread and persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, are known to have broad-ranging toxicities in wildlife. In this study we investigated, for the first time, their possible health effects on loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Nonlethal fat biopsies and blood samples were collected from live turtles for OC contaminant analysis, and concentrations were compared with clinical health assessment data, including hematology, plasma chemistry, and body condition. Concentrations of total PCBs (∑PCBs), ∑DDTs, ∑chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex were determined in 44 fat biopsies and 48 blood samples. Blood concentrations of ∑chlordanes were negatively correlated with red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, indicative of anemia. Positive correlations were observed between most classes of OC contaminants and white blood cell counts and between mirex and ∑TCDD-like PCB concentrations and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, suggesting modulation of the immune system. All classes of OCs in the blood except dieldrin were correlated positively with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, indicating possible hepatocellular damage. Mirex and ∑TCDD-like PCB blood concentrations were negatively correlated with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Significant correlations to levels of certain OC contaminant classes also suggested possible alteration of protein (↑blood urea nitrogen, ↓albumin:globulin ratio), carbohydrate (↓glucose), and ion (↑sodium, ↓magnesium) regulation. These correlations suggest that OC contaminants may be affecting the health of loggerhead sea turtles even though sea turtles accumulate lower concentrations of OCs compared with other wildlife. PMID:15238280

  13. Granulomatous nephritis in psittacines associated with parasitism by the trematode Paratanaisia spp.

    PubMed

    Luppi, Marcela M; de Melo, Alan L; Motta, Rafael O C; Malta, Marcelo C C; Gardiner, C H; Santos, Renato L

    2007-05-31

    Trematodes belonging to the family Eucotylidae are parasites of the kidney and ureter, and affect several bird species. However, psittacines have not been identified as hosts of these parasites. Three birds, an adult female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna), an adult female blue-winged macaw (Propyrrhura maracana) and an adult male white-eared parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis) were admitted at the Veterinary Hospital of the Fundação Zoo-Botânica de Belo Horizonte, Brazil (FZB/BH). All three birds had severe dehydration and cachexia. The blue and gold macaw presented with dyspnea, apathy, and incoordination. Blood cell counts indicated discrete anemia and leucopenia. Blood biochemistry revealed significant increase in levels of uric acid (61 mg/dl) and blood urea nitrogen (22 mg/dl). The bird died within 24 h after admission. The other two birds were admitted with similar clinical signs, but died prior to a complete clinical examination. At the necropsy, in all the three birds, the kidneys were enlarged with brown-yellowish discoloration and irregular cortical surface. On the cut surface, there was a brown-yellowish material with few visible parasites flowing out of the parenchyma. When fragments of the kidneys were placed in 10% formalin, a large number of trematodes came out of the renal parenchyma. The parasites were identified as Paratanaisia robusta infecting all three birds, and P. bragai infecting the blue-winged macaw and the white-eared parakeet. Histologically, there was an interstitial, multifocal to coalescent, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with some epithelioid macrophages, and a few heterophils, characterizing a granulomatous nephritis. Adult worms and eggs were observed within dilated tubules and in the renal pelvis. In the blue and gold macaw, some parasite eggs were located interstitially associated with an intense adjacent granulomatous reaction. PMID:17418949

  14. Minor differences in body condition and immune status between avian influenza virus-infected and noninfected mallards: a sign of coevolution?

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Fouchier, Ron A M; Klaassen, Marcel; Matson, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife pathogens can alter host fitness. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection is thought to have negligible impacts on wild birds; however, effects of infection in free-living birds are largely unstudied. We investigated the extent to which LPAIV infection and shedding were associated with body condition and immune status in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), a partially migratory key LPAIV host species. We sampled mallards throughout the species' annual autumn LPAIV infection peak, and we classified individuals according to age, sex, and migratory strategy (based on stable hydrogen isotope analysis) when analyzing data on body mass and five indices of immune status. Body mass was similar for LPAIV-infected and noninfected birds. The degree of virus shedding from the cloaca and oropharynx was not associated with body mass. LPAIV infection and shedding were not associated with natural antibody (NAbs) and complement titers (first lines of defense against infections), concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp), ratios of heterophils to lymphocytes (H:L ratio), and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibody concentrations. NAbs titers were higher in LPAIV-infected males and local (i.e., short distance) migrants than in infected females and distant (i.e., long distance) migrants. Hp concentrations were higher in LPAIV-infected juveniles and females compared to infected adults and males. NAbs, complement, and Hp levels were lower in LPAIV-infected mallards in early autumn. Our study demonstrates weak associations between infection with and shedding of LPAIV and the body condition and immune status of free-living mallards. These results may support the role of mallards as asymptomatic carriers of LPAIV and raise questions about possible coevolution between virus and host. PMID:25691969

  15. The receptor tyrosine kinase ARK mediates cell aggregation by homophilic binding.

    PubMed

    Bellosta, P; Costa, M; Lin, D A; Basilico, C

    1995-02-01

    The ARK (AXL, UFO) receptor is a member of a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases whose extracellular domain contains a combination of fibronectin type III and immunoglobulin motifs similar to those found in many cell adhesion molecules. ARK mRNA is expressed at high levels in the mouse brain, prevalently in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and this pattern of expression resembles that of adhesion molecules that are capable of promoting cell aggregation through homophilic or heterophilic binding. We report here the ability of the murine ARK receptor to mediate homophilic binding. Expression of the ARK protein in Drosophila S2 cells induces formation of cell aggregates consisting of ARK-expressing cells, and aggregation leads to receptor activation, with an increase in receptor phosphorylation. Homophilic binding does not require ARK tyrosine kinase activity, since S2 cells expressing a receptor in which the intracellular domain was deleted were able to undergo aggregation as well as cells expressing the wild-type ARK receptor. Similar results were obtained with NIH 3T3 and CHO cells expressing high levels of ARK, although in this case ARK expression appeared to be accompanied by constitutive activation. The purified recombinant extracellular domain of ARK can induce homotypic aggregation of coated fluorescent beads (Covaspheres), and this protein can also function as a substrate for adhesion by S2 and NIH 3T3 cells expressing ARK. These results suggest that ARK represents a new cell adhesion molecule that through its homophilic interaction may regulate cellular functions during cell recognition. PMID:7823930

  16. Effects of artemisinin in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella in battery trials.

    PubMed

    Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; Tǎbǎran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-12-15

    Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina (1 × 10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5 × 10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1 × 10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500 ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5 ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p ≤ 0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500 ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5 ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated. PMID:26518641

  17. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks. PMID:19156582

  18. Hematologic reference values for clinically healthy captive golden conures (Guaruba guarouba).

    PubMed

    Prioste, Fabola Eloisa Setim; Zwarg, Ticiana; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Rocha, Arnaldo; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2012-12-01

    Golden conures or ararajubas (Guaruba guarouba) are endangered parrots endemic to the Brazilian Amazon forest. Body mass, blood cell counts, and total plasma protein were determined for 70 clinically healthy golden conures captive at zoologic parks and private breeder facilities in Brazil. Hematologic results (mean +/- SD) were: Erythrocytes 3.6 +/- 0.5 x 10(6) cells/mm3, hemoglobin 12.8 +/- 1.4 g/dl, packed cell volume 46 +/- 3.8%, mean corpuscular volume 132 +/- 20 fl, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 36 +/- 5.7 pg, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 28 +/- 3.5%, thrombocytes 26.3 +/- 9.3 x 10(3) cells/mm3, leukocytes 11.9 +/- 4.5 x 10(3) cells/mm3, heterophils 6284 +/- 2715 cells/mm3, lymphocytes 5473 +/- 2408 cells/ mm3, monocytes 113 +/- 162 cells/mm3, eosinophils 10 +/- 42 cells/mm3, basophils 27 +/- 64 cells/mm3. Body mass was 254 +/- 24.9 g and total plasma protein (TPP) was 3.54 +/- 0.58 g/dl. No statistical differences were observed between genders within age groups. Differences between juveniles (J) and adults (A) were identified for TPP (J < A), MCH (J > A), and MCHC (J > A). These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic results for the species. Hematology may be an important tool for population health investigations on free-ranging golden conure populations and will also be essential to survey the health of release candidates in future reintroduction programs. PMID:23397841

  19. COMPARISON OF TOTAL LEUKOCYTE QUANTIFICATION METHODS IN FREE-LIVING GALAPAGOS TORTOISES (CHELONOIDIS SPP.).

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Julie D; Stacy, Nicole I; Blake, Stephen; Cabrera, Fredy; Deem, Sharon L

    2016-03-01

    Reptile hematologic data provide important health information for conservation efforts of vulnerable wildlife species such as the Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis spp.). Given the reported discrepancies between manual leukocyte counts for nonmammalian species, two manual leukocyte quantification methods, the Natt and Herrick's (NH) and the Eopette (EO), were compared to white blood cell (WBC) estimates from blood films of 42 free-living, clinically healthy, adult female Galapagos tortoises. To investigate the effects of delay in sample processing, estimated WBC counts and leukocyte differentials were compared for blood films prepared at time of collection under field conditions (T0) to blood films prepared from samples that were stored for 18-23 hr at 4°C in the laboratory (T1). Passing-Bablok regression analysis revealed no constant or proportional error between the NH and WBC estimates (T0 and T1) with slopes of 1.1 and 0.9, respectively. However both constant and proportional errors were present between EO and WBC estimates (T0 and T1) with slopes of 3.1 and 2.7, respectively. Bland Altman plots also showed agreement between the NH and WBC estimates where the points fell within the confidence-interval limit lines and were evenly distributed about the mean. In contrast, the EO and WBC estimate comparisons showed numerous points above the upper limit line, especially at higher concentrations. WBC estimates obtained from T0 and T1 films were in agreement, whereas heterophil and monocyte percentages based on differentials were not. Cell morphology and preservation were superior in T0 blood films because thrombocytes exhibited swelling after storage, becoming difficult to differentiate from lymphocytes. In this study, the highest quality and most reliable hematologic data in Galapagos tortoises were obtained by combining immediate blood film preparation with the NH leukocyte quantification method and a confirmatory WBC estimate from the blood film. PMID:27010280

  20. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions.During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70% (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:24122339

  1. Limitations of immunofluorescence tests in the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis *

    PubMed Central

    Joncas, J. H.; Gilker, J. C.; Chagnon, A.

    1974-01-01

    The relative value of heterophil agglutinins (HA) and of specific EBV antibodies in the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (IM) was assessed in 108 cases of the disease and in 280 controls. Among the 108 cases 93 were HA-positive by sheep cells in at least one of their sera, while 15 were HA-negative by the same test. Among the 280 controls false-positive HA tests were not encountered except in eight cases with the horse cell microtitre tests. With one of the two slide tests at least two false-positive tests and 12 false-negative tests were also found but these sera had low titres in microtitre tests. The HA life-span was found to be unexpectedly long in a few cases, sheep cell HA lasting up to 8 to 10 months and horse cell HA up to 21 to 23 months. Many false-positive tests may therefore not be true false-positives and may result from the persistence of HA following unrecognized mononucleosis months before. Virtually all cases of IM had (or developed) antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA), whereas only half of the controls were EBV-VCA-positive. The comparative analysis of nonspecific and specific test results in mononucleosis allows the following conclusions: (1) horse cell microtitre tests and the monospot test are more sensitive than sheep cell microtitre tests and the monotest; (2) false-negative results are occasionally seen with the latter tests but not with the former; (3) more false-positive results, however, are probably seen with the former tests; and (4) specific EBV-IgM and EBV-EA antibody tests are useful in the diagnosis of selected borderline cases of mononucleosis. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4363398

  2. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter "flycatcher") is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in saltcedar habitats exhibit poorer nutritional condition or are suffering negative physiological affects. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2005.

  3. Is oxidative status influenced by dietary carotenoid and physical activity after moult in the great tit (Parus major)?

    PubMed

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Decencière, Beatriz; Perret, Samuel; Karadas, Filiz; Meylan, Sandrine; Biard, Clotilde

    2015-07-01

    In the context of sexual and natural selection, an allocation trade-off for carotenoid pigments may exist because of their obligate dietary origin and their role both in the antioxidant and immune systems and in the production of coloured signals in various taxa, particularly birds. When birds have expended large amounts of carotenoids to feather growth such as after autumn moult, bird health and oxidative status might be more constrained. We tested this hypothesis in a bird species with carotenoid-based plumage colour, by manipulating dietary carotenoids and physical activity, which can decrease antioxidant capacity and increase reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) concentration. Great tits were captured after moult and kept in aviaries, under three treatments: physical handicap and dietary supplementation with carotenoids, physical handicap and control diet, and no handicap and control diet. We measured plasma composition (antioxidant capacity, ROM concentration, and vitamin A, vitamin E and total carotenoid concentrations), immune system activation (blood sedimentation) and stress response (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) and predicted that handicap treatment should influence these negatively and carotenoid supplementation positively. Coloration of yellow feathers was also measured. Carotenoid supplementation increased total plasma carotenoid concentration, decreased feather carotenoid chroma and marginally increased ROM concentration. Handicap increased blood sedimentation only in males but had no clear influence on oxidative stress, which contradicted previous studies. Further studies are needed to investigate how physical activity and carotenoid availability might interact and influence oxidative stress outside the moult period, and their combined potential influence on attractiveness and reproductive investment later during the breeding season. PMID:25964421

  4. Chicken immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families: an overview and expression details on ggTREM-A1.

    PubMed

    Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Hanczaruk, Matthias A; Amann, Barbara; Bader, Sophie R; Schmitt, Ramona; Sperling, Beatrice; Schwarz, Susanne C N; Schmahl, Wolfgang; Deeg, Cornelia A; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Paired immunoregulatory receptors facilitate the coordination of the immune response at the cellular level. In recent years, our group characterized chicken homologues to mammalian immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families. The first part of this review focuses on the current progress on chicken immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families. One of these receptors is gallus gallus TREM-A1, which was described as the only member of the chicken TREM family with activating potential. The second part of this review presents a study initiated to further characterize ggTREM-A1 expression. For this purpose we established real-time RT-PCR and generated a specific mab to analyze the expression profile of ggTREM-A1 on mRNA and protein level, respectively. GgTREM-A1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in macrophages, but was also detected in brain, bone marrow, bursa, thymus, spleen and PBMC. Analyzing ggTREM-A1 surface expression by mab staining validated the expression on macrophages. Additionally, we showed high expression on blood monocytes, heterophils and NK cells and on monocytes isolated from bone marrow. Moreover, we detected ggTREM-A1 protein also on thrombocytes, B and T cell subsets, but antigen expression seemed to be lower and more variable in these cells. Immunohistochemistry of chicken brain tissue, combining ggTREM-A1 mab and various markers specific for various brain cell subsets showed expression of ggTREM-A1 on microglial cells, but also on neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In conclusion, ggTREM-A1 is expressed on a variety of cells, relevant for the immune system, possibly combining physiological function of different mammalian TREM. PMID:23648646

  5. West Nile virus in raptors from Virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Priscilla H; Kelly, Sean; Shreve, Allison A; Snead, Sarah E; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Pettit, Denise A

    2006-04-01

    Sixty-one birds of prey admitted to The Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; Waynesboro, Virginia, USA) from June to November 2003 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Choanal and/or cloacal swabs were obtained and submitted to Virginia's Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (Richmond, Virginia, USA) for analysis with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty birds of prey were positive for WNV by RT-PCR. Five avian families and nine species of raptors were represented, with great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) most frequently affected. Presenting clinical signs were consistent with previous reports of WNV infection in raptors; however, these differed between species. Of WNV positive birds, nonspecific signs of illness were the most common clinical findings, particularly in red-tailed hawks; signs included dehydration (n = 20), emaciation (n = 18), and depression (n = 15). Neurologic abnormalities were frequently identified, especially in great horned owls, and included head tremors (n = 17), ataxia (n = 13), head incoordination (n = 7), torticollis (n = 3), nystagmus (n = 3), and head tilt (n = 3). Great horned owls exhibited anemia and leukocytosis with heterophilia, eosinophilia, and monocytosis consistent with chronic inflammation. Red-tailed hawks were anemic with a heterophilic leukocytosis and regenerative left shift. The majority of WNV cases occurred during August and September; there was a marked increase in the number of raptors admitted to WCV during these months followed by a marked decrease during October, November, and December. This pattern differed from mean monthly admissions during the previous 10 years and suggests a negative impact on local raptor populations. The effects of WNV on avian populations are largely unknown; however, because of their ecological importance, further investigation of the effects of WNV on raptor populations is warranted. PMID:16870856

  6. Association of Beta2-Positive Clostridium perfringens Type A With Focal Duodenal Necrosis in Egg-Laying Chickens in the United States.

    PubMed

    França, M; Barrios, M A; Stabler, L; Zavala, Guillermo; Shivaprasad, H L; Lee, M D; Villegas, A M; Uzal, Francisco A

    2016-03-01

    Focal duodenal necrosis (FDN) is a poorly understood intestinal disease of egg layers, and has been associated with drops in egg production and decreased egg weights. The etiology of this disease is still unknown, but the condition has been associated with Clostridium colinum and Clostridium perfringens. In order to investigate the etiology, duodenal samples were taken from hens with FDN. The hens originated from table egg layer farms in three states. The samples were examined by histopathology, bacteriology, and immunohistochemistry. Macroscopically, all samples contained focal to multifocal, variably sized, reddened or brownish gray areas of mucosal erosion. Histopathology revealed mild to severe heterophilic and lymphoplasmacytic enteritis with loss of enterocytes at the villous tips, luminal fibrinonecrotic exudate, and variable numbers of Gram-positive and Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria within the lesions in 16/30 samples. Clostridium perfringens was isolated by anaerobic bacteriology from 4/13 samples that had characteristic microscopic lesions of FDN. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that all four isolates were Type A C. perfringens, positive for beta2 gene and negative for necrotic enteritis toxin B and enterotoxin genes. PCR for Clostridium colinum applied to DNA extracted from frozen intestinal samples yielded negative results in 14/14 duodenal samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for 7C. perfringens, alpha and beta2 toxins stained a few to numerous long rod-shaped bacteria present in the lesions. IHC for alpha and beta2 toxins also stained enterocytes at the villous tips, inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, as well as degenerated and sloughed enterocytes present within the luminal exudate. These findings suggest that C. perfringens may play a role in the development of FDN. Experimental challenge studies with these isolates still need to be performed in order to reproduce the disease and fulfill Koch's postulates. PMID:26953942

  7. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens. PMID:24498179

  8. Nonspecific Cytotoxic Cell Antimicrobial Protein (NCAMP-1): A Novel Alarmin Ligand Identified in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Monette, Margaret Mariscal; Evans, Donald Lee; Krunkosky, Thomas; Camus, Alvin; Jaso-Friedmann, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Cells from the coelomic cavity of adult zebrafish (zf) were used to study the alarmin-like activities of nonspecific cytotoxic cell antimicrobial protein-1 (NCAMP-1). Immunohistochemistry studies using polyclonal anti-NCAMP-1 identified constitutive NCAMP-1 in epithelial cells of the zf anterior kidney, in liver parenchyma and in the lamina propria of the intestine. NCAMP-1 was also located in the cytosol of mononuclear cells in these tissues. Cytosolic NCAMP-1 was detected in a diverse population of coelomic cells (CC) using confocal microscopy and polyclonal anti-NCAMP-1 staining. Large mononuclear and heterophil-like CC had intracellular NCAMP-1. These studies indicated that NCAMP-1 is constitutively found in epithelial cells and in ZFCC. To establish a relationship between NCAMP-1 and the alarmin functions of ATP, a stimulation-secretion model was initiated using zf coelomic cells (ZFCC). ZFCCs treated with the alarmin ATP secreted NCAMP-1 into culture supernatants. Treatment of ZFCC with either ATP or NCAMP-1 activated purinergic receptor induced pore formation detected by the ZFCC uptake of the dye YO-PRO-1. ATP induced YO-PRO-1 uptake was inhibited by antagonists oxidized-ATP, KN62, or CBB. These antagonists did not compete with NCAMP-1 induced YO-PRO-1 uptake. Binding of ZFCC by both ATP and NCAMP-1 produced an influx of Ca2+. Combined treatment of ZFCC with ATP and NCAMP-1 increased target cell cytotoxicity. Individually NCAMP-1 or ATP treatment did not produce target cell damage. Similar to ATP, NCAMP-1 activates cellular pore formation, calcium influx and cytotoxicity. PMID:25689842

  9. Mycoplasma corogypsi associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (Coragyps atratus)

    PubMed Central

    Van Wettere, A. J.; Ley, D. H.; Scott, D. E.; Buckanoff, H. D.; Degernes, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs. Necropsy and histological examination demonstrated a chronic lymphoplasmacytic arthritis involving multiple joints and gastrocnemius tenosynovitis. Articular lesions varied in severity and ranged from moderate synovitis and cartilage erosion and fibrillation to severe synovitis, diffuse cartilage ulceration, subchondral bone loss and/or sclerosis, pannus, synovial cysts, and epiphyseal osteomyelitis. No walled bacteria were observed or isolated from the joints. However, mycoplasmas polymerase chain reactions were positive in at least 1 affected joint from each bird. Mycoplasmas were isolated from joints of 1 vulture that did not receive antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from joint samples and the mycoplasma isolate identified Mycoplasma corogypsi in 2 vultures and was suggestive in the third vulture. Mycoplasma corogypsi identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma isolates. This report provides further evidence that M. corogypsi is a likely cause of arthritis and tenosynovitis in American black vultures. Cases of arthritis and tenosynovitis in New World vultures should be investigated for presence of Mycoplasma spp, especially M. corogypsi. PMID:22903399

  10. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird

    PubMed Central

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H.; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage) such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous interpretation of condition indices as surrogates for individual quality and fitness. PMID:26305457

  11. Immunolocalization indicates that both original and regenerated lizard tail tissues contain populations of long retaining cells, putative stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    The regeneration of the tail in lizards is likely sustained by stem/progenitor cells located in the stump after amputation of the tail. This microscopic and ultrastructural study shows the localization of 5-bromo-deoxy-uridine (5BrdU)-long retaining labeled cells in different tissues of the tail stump. These putative stem/progenitor cells are sparsely detected in the epidermis of scales, adipose tissue, intermuscle connective septa, myosatellite cells, and perichondrion of the vertebrae. Most of 5BrdU-labeled cells are present in the bone marrow of vertebrae as hemocytoblasts and reticulate cells, whereas more numerous myelocytes and polychromatophilic erythroblasts show a variable level of nuclear labeling. 5BrdU and tritiated-thymidine labeled and unlabeled hemopoietic cells are seen in circulating vessels and in the blastema where their maturation is completed. This observation indicates that the entire differentiation span of both white and red blood cells, at least during tail regeneration, lasts longer than 4 weeks. Labeled polychromatophilic erythroblasts and heterophilic and basophilic myelocytes are present in the synusoidal vessels of the regenerating tail. This study indicates that extravasating blood cells involved in immunity make large part of the forming blastema cell population, but are replaced by mesenchymal cells of different origin. The presence of long retaining labeled cells in tissues of the tail stump is likely connected to the production of blastema mesenchymal cells. Although no direct cell-lineage study has been done, histological, immunocytochemical, and autoradiographic studies have indicated that it is from these tissues that proliferating cells appear mainly localized after tail amputation and blastema formation. PMID:26415629

  12. Development of Snake Fungal Disease after Experimental Challenge with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorous)

    PubMed Central

    Allender, Matthew C.; Baker, Sarah; Wylie, Daniel; Loper, Daniel; Dreslik, Michael J.; Phillips, Christopher A.; Maddox, Carol; Driskell, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is a clinical syndrome associated with dermatitis, myositis, osteomyelitis, and pneumonia in several species of free-ranging snakes in the US. The causative agent has been suggested as Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, but other agents may contribute to the syndrome and the pathogenesis is not understood. To understand the role of O. ophiodiicola in SFD, a cottonmouth snake model of SFD was designed. Five cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorous) were experimentally challenged by nasolabial pit inoculation with a pure culture of O. ophiodiicola. Development of skin lesions or facial swelling at the site of inoculation was observed in all snakes. Twice weekly swabs of the inoculation site revealed variable presence of O. ophiodiicola DNA by qPCR in all five inoculated snakes for 3 to 58 days post-inoculation; nasolabial flushes were not a useful sampling method for detection. Inoculated snakes had a 40% mortality rate. All inoculated snakes had microscopic lesions unilaterally on the side of the swabbed nasolabial pit, including erosions to ulcerations and heterophilic dermatitis. All signs were consistent with SFD; however, the severity of lesions varied in individual snakes, and fungal hyphae were only observed in 3 of 5 inoculated snakes. These three snakes correlated with post-mortem tissue qPCR evidence of O. ophiodiicola. The findings of this study conclude that O. ophiodiicola inoculation in a cottonmouth snake model leads to disease similar to SFD, although lesion severity and the fungal load are quite variable within the model. Future studies may utilize this model to further understand the pathogenesis of this disease and develop management strategies that mitigate disease effects, but investigation of other models with less variability may be warranted. PMID:26469977

  13. Altered Functionality of Anti-Bacterial Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Anne; Long, Ronald E.; Comunale, Mary Ann; Hafner, Julie; Rodemich-Betesh, Lucy; Wang, Mengjun; Marrero, Jorge; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Background Using comparative glycoproteomics, we have previously identified a glycoprotein that is altered in both amount and glycosylation as a function of liver cirrhosis. The altered glycoprotein is an agalactosylated (G0) immunoglobulin G molecule (IgG) that recognizes the heterophilic alpha-gal epitope. Since the alpha gal epitope is found on gut enterobacteria, it has been hypothesized that anti-gal antibodies are generated as a result of increased bacterial exposure in patients with liver disease. Methods The N-linked glycosylation of anti-gal IgG molecules from patients with fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined and the effector function of anti-bacterial antibodies from over 100 patients examined. In addition, markers of microbial exposure were determined. Results Surprisingly, the subset of agalactosylated anti-gal antibodies described here, was impaired in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis and inhibited the complement-mediated destruction of common gut bacteria. In an analysis of serum from more than 100 patients with liver disease, we have shown that those with increased levels of this modified anti-gal antibody had increased levels of markers of bacterial exposure. Conclusions Anti-gal antibodies in patients with liver cirrhosis were reduced in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis of target cells. As bacterial infection is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial products such as LPS are thought to play a major role in the development and progression of liver fibrosis, this finding has many clinical implications in the etiology, prognosis and treatment of liver disease. PMID:23750224

  14. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    PubMed Central

    ELSaidy, N.; Mohamed, R. A.; Abouelenien, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw attention to the importance of maintaining the hygienic quality of stored water. PMID:27047165

  15. Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P = 0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P = 0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ρ <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research investigations and in clinical diagnosis and to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:25402479

  16. Assembly of the TgrB1-TgrC1 cell adhesion complex during Dictyostelium discoideum development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Xu, Xiaoqun; Wu, Xiangfu; Thomson, Alexander; Siu, Chi-Hung

    2014-04-15

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, TgrB1 and TgrC1 are partners of a heterophilic cell-adhesion system. To investigate its assembly process, the split GFP complementation assay was used to track the oligomeric status of both proteins. The ability of TgrC1 to form cis-homodimers spontaneously was demonstrated by fluorescence complementation studies and confirmed by chemical cross-linking. In contrast, TgrB1 failed to form cis-homodimers in the absence of TgrC1. Treatment of cell aggregates with antibodies against TgrB1 or TgrC1 did not affect TgrC1 dimerization, but inhibited TgrB1 dimer formation, suggesting that TgrB1 cis-homodimerization is dependent on trans-interaction with TgrC1. When TgrB1 and TgrC1 conjugated with the complementary halves of GFP were co-expressed in cells, cis-heterodimers were not detected. However, weak FRET signals were detected in cells expressing TgrB1-RFP and TgrC1-GFP, suggesting that TgrB1 dimers and TgrC1 dimers were arranged juxtapose to each other in the adhesion complex. The results of the present study suggest that the assembly process is initiated upon trans-interaction of monomeric TgrB1 with TgrC1 homodimers on adjacent cells, which triggers the formation of TgrB1 dimers. The homodimerization of TgrB1in turn induces the clustering of TgrB1 and TgrC1, and the coalescence of TgrB1-TgrC1 clusters results in the formation of large adhesion complexes. PMID:24490801

  17. [Encephalitis due to the Epstein-Barr virus: a description of a clinical case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Barón, Johanna; Herrero-Velázquez, Sonia; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Pedraza, M Isabel; Rojo-Rello, Silvia; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel Luis

    2013-11-16

    INTRODUCTION. Infection by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -either as a primary infection, a reactivation or an active chronic infection- can give rise to several clinical forms of involvement of the central nervous system. We report a case of encephalitis due to EBV produced by viral reactivation in an immunocompetent patient which initially mimicked, from the clinical and electroencephalographic point of view, encephalitis due to type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). CASE REPORT. A 51-year-old male who had reported the presence of dorsal herpes zoster some days earlier. The patient visited the emergency department after suffering a holocranial oppressive headache and febricula for seven days; 24 hours before admission to hospital, he was suffering from drowsiness and language disorder. The neurological examination revealed stiffness in the back of the neck and dysphasia. An analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed pleocytosis (422 cells/mm(3)) with 98% of mononuclear cells and normal protein and glucose concentration levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalogram readings were normal with periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges in the left temporal region. Intravenous acyclovir treatment was initiated, but renal failure meant it had to be changed to oral valaciclovir with clinical resolution and improvement of the liquoral parameters. Polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid was positive for EBV and negative for the other neurotropic viruses. In blood, the serology test for EBV with IgG was positive, while IgM and heterophile antibody tests were negative. CONCLUSIONS. EBV infection can give rise to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or affect several locations in the central nervous system, especially the cerebellum. Clinical pictures mimicking HSV-1 are less frequent. When encephalitis is related to viral reactivation, precipitating factors can be detected, as in our case. PMID:24203667

  18. Effect of Astragalus polysaccharide and its sulfated derivative on growth performance and immune condition of lipopolysaccharide-treated broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Yulong; Shen, Jing; Wang, Siyu; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the immunomodulating activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and sulfated APS (SAPS) in LPS-infected broiler chicks. SAPS was derived using the classic chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. On day 16, the birds were injected intramuscularly with 0.5 mL of either saline, APS (4 or 8 mg/kg of body weight (BW), shorten as APS-4 or APS-8) or SAPS (4 or 8 mg/kg of BW, shorten as SAPS-4 or SAPS-8) once a day for three successive days. On days 19 and 20, the birds were intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mL of LPS (1mg/kg of BW). Saline was used as blank control. Compared with the blank control, LPS-treated birds showed lower daily body weight gain (BWG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), villus height and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) number in jejunum, and higher feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed:gain), spleen index, plasma NO concentration, blood heterophil:lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, and the production of NO in the blood T lymphocytes. Compared with the LPS group, birds in APS-4, SAPS-4 and SAPS-8 groups showed decreased FCR (P<0.05). Moreover, SAPS increased BWG and jejunal villus height (P<0.05) at 8 mg/kg BW. Plasma NO concentration was lower in APS-8 group than that in LPS group (P<0.05). Both APS-8 and SAPS-8 treatments elevated the number of jejunal IEL (P<0.05), and decreased blood H:L ratio (P<0.05), respectively. Administration of APS or SAPS did not affect the ADFI, immune organ index, crypt depth and mucosal thickness of the jejunum, and the number of goblet cell. Our findings suggested that APS and SAPS possessed dose-dependent growth-promoting and immunomodulating effect, and was a potential development direction for immunomodulator under early LPS stimulation condition. PMID:25748840

  19. Diagnostic validation of selected serological tests for detecting scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Koraluru, Munegowda; Bairy, Indira; Varma, Muralidhar; Vidyasagar, Sudha

    2015-07-01

    Clinical diagnosis of scrub typhus is often difficult because the symptoms are very similar to those of other febrile illness such as dengue, leptospirosis, malaria and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Though better diagnostic tests are available for rickettsial diseases and scrub typhus elsewhere, the Weil-Felix test is still commonly used in India, mainly because microimmunofluorescence assays (M-IFA) were not available in India till recently and relevant staff had insufficient training. The present study was performed to investigate the performance of M-IFA, IgM ELISA, and Weil-Felix test on 546 non-repeated serum samples from subjects suspected of having scrub typhus. One hundred and forty-three of these 546 samples were positive by M-IFA; these cases were also confirmed clinically to have scrub typhus based on their dramatic responses to doxycycline therapy. IgM ELISA was positive in 122 of the 143 M-IFA positive cases and the Weil-Felix test in 96. Though the Weil-Felix test is a heterophile agglutination test, it was found in this study to have good specificity but far too little sensitivity to use as a routine diagnostic test. IgM ELISA can be a good substitute for M-IFA. Incorporation of multiple prototype antigens on M-IFA slides is likely one of the reasons for its superior performance. As newer and better diagnostic assays become available for scrub typhus diagnosis in developed countries, it will be imperative to also use such tests in other endemic countries to prevent over- or under-diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:26011315

  20. Insights on the Host Stress, Fear and Growth Responses to the Deoxynivalenol Feed Contaminant in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A.; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E.; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens. PMID:24498179

  1. Experimentally induced stress, oxidative load and changes in immunity in a tropical wild bird, Perdicula asiatica: involvement of melatonin and glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjeev K; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the year, birds encounter various environmental challenges such as extreme temperatures, rainfall and shortage of food. Here we report on the effect of stress on the general immunity of wild birds as measured by several assays including melatonin, an anti-stress hormone. We selected Perdicula asiatica, a wild tropical bird, and exposed them to experimental stressors such as water deprivation, food deprivation and immobilization, i.e., stressors that they would encounter in a natural environment. We measured the oxidative load in the spleen in terms of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels. The immune status was judged by total leukocyte count (TLC), heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (H/L) and percent stimulation ratio of splenocytes (%SR). The peripheral levels of melatonin and corticosterone were also determined and correlated with the expression of melatonin (Mel(1a)/Mel(1b)) and glucocorticoid receptors. Our results showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in splenic SOD and catalase activity, while a significant (p < 0.05) increase in TBARS and a corticosterone level was observed. Stressful conditions also decreased the immune status as reflected by the low values of H/L ratios, TLC and %SR. In contrast, melatonin pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the oxidative stress and improved the immune parameters when compared to untreated control birds. This suggests that melatonin prevents/alleviates oxidative damage and suppresses the immune status induced by stressful conditions via its membrane receptor expression (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)) in P. asiatica. PMID:25037646

  2. A new Mel-CAM (CD146)-specific monoclonal antibody, MN-4, on paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Shih, I M; Nesbit, M; Herlyn, M; Kurman, R J

    1998-11-01

    Mel-CAM (also termed CD146 or MUC18) is a cell-adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. It mediates cell-cell interaction through heterophilic Mel-CAM/ligand adhesion. Previous studies showed Mel-CAM immunoreactivity in normal and neoplastic human tissues, but an extensive assessment of Mel-CAM distribution was not performed because of the lack of a Mel-CAM-specific monoclonal antibody that could be used in routinely processed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Therefore, we developed a mouse monoclonal antibody, MN-4, that specifically recognized a fixation-resistant epitope in the second extracellular (C2) domain of Mel-CAM. We performed immunohistochemical staining on 467 paraffin-embedded tissue samples with this MN-4 antibody and avidin-biotin peroxidase. MN-4 immunoreactivity was seen in normal tissues, including endothelium, smooth muscle, epithelial and myoepithelial cells of the breast, Schwann cells, ganglion cells, cerebellar cortex, implantation-site intermediate trophoblast, external root sheath of hair follicles, basal cells of bronchial epithelium, parathyroid glands, subcapsular epithelium of thymus, follicular dendritic reticulum cells, skeletal muscles, epithelium of lens, and glial cell fibers in the central nervous system in early embryos. In malignant tumors, MN-4 immunostaining was consistently present in all melanomas, angiosarcomas, Kaposi's sarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas of salivary gland, placental-site trophoblastic tumors, and choriocarcinomas. Three of 8 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 of 2 small cell carcinomas of the lung, 2 of 11 of infiltrating breast carcinomas, and 4 of 11 of germinomas were focally and weakly positive for MN-4 antibody. In contrast, a wide variety of other carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, leukemias, and neuroendocrine tumors failed to show MN-4 immunoreactivity. In conclusion, MN-4 is a specific monoclonal antibody that recognizes Mel-CAM on paraffin sections. This antibody is useful in retrospective studies of Mel-CAM expression in archival tissue sections and might provide a diagnostic and prognostic marker for human neoplasms. PMID:9831208

  3. How salinity and temperature combine to affect physiological state and performance in red knots with contrasting non-breeding environments.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Soriano-Redondo, Andrea; Dekinga, Anne; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Masero, José A; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-08-01

    Migratory shorebirds inhabit environments that may yield contrasting salinity-temperature regimes-with widely varying osmoregulatory demands, even within a given species-and the question is: by which physiological means and at which organisational level do they show adjustments with respect to these demands? Red knots Calidris canutus winter in coastal areas over a range of latitudes. The nominal subspecies winters in salty areas in the tropics, whereas the subspecies Calidris canutus islandica winters in north-temperate regions of comparatively lower salinities and temperatures. In this study, both subspecies of red knot were acclimated to different salinity (28/40‰)-temperature (5/35 °C) combinations for 2-week periods. We then measured food/salt intakes, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass and temperature, fat and salt gland scores, gizzard mass, heat-shock proteins, heterophils/lymphocytes (H/L) ratio and plasma Na(+) to assess the responses of each taxon to osmoregulatory challenges. High salinity (HS)-warm-acclimated birds reduced food/salt intake, BMR, body mass, fat score and gizzard mass, showing that salt/heat loads constrained energy acquisition rates. Higher salt gland scores in saltier treatments indicated that its size was adjusted to higher osmoregulatory demands. Elevated plasma Na(+) and H/L ratio in high-salinity-warm-acclimated birds indicated that salt/heat loads might have a direct effect on the water-salt balance and stress responses of red knots. Subspecies had little or no effect on most measured parameters, suggesting that most adjustments reflect phenotypic flexibility rather than subspecific adaptations. Our results demonstrate how salinity and temperature affect various phenotypic traits in a migrant shorebird, highlighting the importance of considering these factors jointly when evaluating the environmental tolerances of air-breathing marine taxa. PMID:25851406

  4. Evaluation of the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and surgical steel 316L in vivo: a comparative study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown the potential suitability of magnesium alloys as biodegradable implants. The aim of the present study was to compare the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and commonly used surgical steel in vivo. Methods A biodegradable magnesium calcium alloy (MgCa0.8) and surgical steel (S316L), as a control, were investigated. Screws of identical geometrical conformation were implanted into the tibiae of 40 rabbits for a postoperative follow up of two, four, six and eight weeks. The tibialis cranialis muscle was in direct vicinity of the screw head and thus embedded in paraffin and histologically and immunohistochemically assessed. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify macrophages, giant cells and heterophil granulocytes as well as the extent of tissue fibrosis and necrosis. Mouse anti-CD79α and rat anti-CD3 monoclonal primary antibodies were used for B- and T-lymphocyte detection. Evaluation of all sections was performed by applying a semi-quantitative score. Results Clinically, both implant materials were tolerated well. Histology revealed that a layer of fibrous tissue had formed between implant and overlying muscle in MgCa0.8 and S316L, which was demarcated by a layer of synoviocyte-like cells at its interface to the implant. In MgCa0.8 implants cavities were detected within the fibrous tissue, which were surrounded by the same kind of cell type. The thickness of the fibrous layer and the amount of tissue necrosis and cellular infiltrations gradually decreased in S316L. In contrast, a decrease could only be noted in the first weeks of implantation in MgCa0.8, whereas parameters were increasing again at the end of the observation period. B-lymphocytes were found more often in MgCa0.8 indicating humoral immunity and the presence of soluble antigens. Conversely, S316L displayed a higher quantity of T-lymphocytes. Conclusions Moderate inflammation was detected in both implant materials and resolved to a minimum during the first weeks indicating comparable biocompatibility for MgCa0.8 and S316L. Thus, the application of MgCa0.8 as biodegradable implant material seems conceivable. Since the inflammatory parameters were re-increasing at the end of the observation period in MgCa0.8 it is important to observe the development of inflammation over a longer time period in addition to the present study. PMID:20974008

  5. Deletion analysis of two tandemly arranged virulence genes in myxoma virus, M11L and myxoma growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Opgenorth, A; Graham, K; Nation, N; Strayer, D; McFadden, G

    1992-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYX) is a leporipoxvirus of rabbits that induces a lethal syndrome characterized by disseminated tumorlike lesions, generalized immunosuppression, and secondary gram-negative bacterial infection. A MYX deletion mutant (vMYX-GF- delta M11L) was constructed to remove the entire myxoma growth factor (MGF) coding sequence and that for the C-terminal five amino acids of the partially overlapping upstream gene, M11L. Unexpectedly, this deletion completely abrogates the capacity of MYX to cause the characteristic disease symptoms of myxomatosis. Upon inoculation of rabbits with vMYX-GF- delta M11L, recipient animals developed only a benign, localized nodule reminiscent of a Shope fibroma virus-induced tumor in which a single primary lesion appeared at the site of injection and then completely regressed within 14 days, leaving the animals resistant to challenge with wild-type MYX. No evidence of the purulent conjunctivitis and rhinitis that always accompany wild-type MYX infection was observed. To ascertain whether the attenuation observed in vMYX-GF- delta M11L was due to a combined effect of the MGF deletion and alteration of the upstream M11L gene, two additional MYX recombinants were constructed: an MGF- virus (vMYX-GF-) containing an intact M11L gene and an M11L- virus (vMYX-M11L-) containing an intact MGF gene. Infection with vMYX-GF- resulted in moderated symptoms of myxomatosis, but all clinical stages of the disease were still detectable. In contrast, disruption of M11L alone dramatically reduced the virus virulence, resulting in a nonlethal syndrome whose clinical course was nevertheless distinct from that of vMYX-GF- delta M11L. Upon inoculation with vMYX-M11L-, rabbits developed primary and secondary tumors which were larger and more circumscribed than those of wild-type MYX recipients. Whereas wild-type MYX infection always includes severe, purulent conjunctivitis and rhinitis, vMYX-M11L- recipients remained healthy and displayed only minimal signs of respiratory distress. By about 30 days after infection, the tumors induced by vMYX-M11L- had completely regressed and these animals were immune to challenge with wild-type MYX. Histological analysis indicated that tumors induced by vMYX-M11L- are much more heavily infiltrated with macrophages and heterophils and that the sites of viral replication are more edematous and necrotic than those of wild-type infection, suggesting that the host was able to mount a more vigorous inflammatory response to vMYX-M11L- infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images PMID:1629952

  6. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions.

  7. The Effect of Cooled Perches on Immunological Parameters of Caged White Leghorn Hens during the Hot Summer Months

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Rebecca A.; Hester, Patricia Y.; Eicher, Susan D.; Hu, Jiaying; Cheng, Heng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if thermally cooled perches improve hen immunity during hot summer. White Leghorn pullets at 16 week of age were randomly assigned to 18 cages of 3 banks at 9 hens per cage. Each bank was assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments up to 32 week of age: 1) thermally cooled perches, 2) perches with ambient air, and 3) cages without perches. Hens were exposed to natural ambient temperatures from June through September 2013 in Indiana with a 4 h acute heat episode at 27.6 week of age. The packed cell volume, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, plasma concentrations of total IgG, and cytokines of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, plus lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor were measured at both 27.6 and 32 week of age. The mRNA expressions of these cytokines, toll-like receptor-4, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also examined in the spleen of 32 week-old hens. Except for H/L ratio, thermally cooled perches did not significantly improve currently measured immunological indicators. These results indicated that the ambient temperature of 2013 summer in Indiana (24°C, 17.1 to 33.1°C) was not high enough and the 4 h heat episode at 33.3°C (32 to 34.6°C) was insufficient in length to evoke severe heat stress in hens. However, cooled perch hens had a lower H/L ratio than both air perch hens and control hens at 27.6 week of age and it was still lower compared to control hens (P < 0.05, respectively) at 32 week of age. The lowered H/L ratio of cooled perch hens may suggest that they were able to cope with acute heat stress more effectively than control hens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of thermally cooled perches on hen health under higher ambient temperatures. PMID:26495988

  8. Phosphacan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain that interacts with neurons and neural cell-adhesion molecules, is an extracellular variant of a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Maurel, P; Rauch, U; Flad, M; Margolis, R K; Margolis, R U

    1994-01-01

    We have identified cDNA clones encoding a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of rat brain (previously designated 3F8 and now named phosphacan) that binds to neurons and neural cell-adhesion molecules. A sequence of 1616 amino acids deduced from a 4.8-kb open reading frame contains the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 3F8 core glycoprotein as well as four internal CNBr, tryptic, and endoproteinase Lys-C peptide sequences from the proteoglycan. The deduced amino acid sequence, beginning with a 24-amino acid signal peptide, reveals an N-terminal domain of 255 amino acids homologous to carbonic anhydrases. The entire amino acid sequence deduced from our cDNA clones corresponds to the extracellular portion of a human receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP zeta/beta) with which it has 76% identity, and the proteoglycan may represent an mRNA splicing variant of the larger transmembrane protein. RNA analysis demonstrated that a probe to the N-terminal carbonic anhydrase domain of the proteoglycan hybridizes with rat brain mRNA of 9.5, 8.4, and 6.4 kb, whereas probes to the phosphatase domains hybridize with only the 9.5-kb message and with the 6.4-kb message (which corresponds to a previously identified variant of the transmembrane protein in which half of the extracellular domain is deleted). The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the 3H1 chondroitin/keratan sulfate proteoglycan of brain are identical to those of the 3F8 proteoglycan, and six internal tryptic peptide sequences also matched those found in sequenced peptides of the 3F8 proteoglycan and/or amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNA clones. We therefore conclude that the 3H1 chondroitin/keratan sulfate proteoglycan and the 3F8 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan represent glycosylation and possible extracellular splicing variants of a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase. These proteoglycans may modulate cell interactions and other developmental processes in nervous tissue through heterophilic binding to cell-surface and extracellular matrix molecules, and by competition with ligands of the transmembrane phosphatase. Images PMID:7511813

  9. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2015-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers for secondary antibody response to sheep red blood cells and titer against Newcastle disease virus and increased the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. The supplementation with 5 % of DTP completely alleviated the negative effects of HS on immune responses. The ash, Ca, and P contents of the tibia bone were decreased under HS. The ash and Ca contents of the tibia were not significantly different between thermoneutral and heat-stressed broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of DTP, particularly 5 % DTP, to broiler diet attenuated the detrimental effects of HS on the activities of serum enzymes, oxidative status, immune response, and bone composition.

  10. The functions of sound production in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus, and effects of loud ambient noise on its behavior and physiology in captive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul August

    Loud noise in aquaria represents a cacophonous environment for captive fishes. I tested the effects of loud noise on acoustic communication, feeding behavior, courtship behavior, and the stress response of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Total Root Mean Square (RMS) power of ambient noise to which seahorses are exposed in captivity varies widely but averages 126.1 +/- 0.8 deciBels with reference to one micropascal (dB re: 1 muPa) at the middle of the water column and 133.7 +/- 1.1 dB at the tank bottom, whereas ambient noise in the wild averages 119.6 +/- 3.5 dB. Hearing sensitivity of H. erectus, measured from auditory evoked potentials, demonstrated maximum spectrum-level sensitivities of 105.0 +/- 1.5 dB and 3.5 x 10-3 + 7.6 x 10-4 m/s2 at 200 Hz; which is characteristic of hearing generalists. H. erectus produces acoustic clicks with mean peak spectrum-level amplitudes of 94.3 +/- 0.9 dB at 232 +/- 16 Hz and 1.5 x 10 -3 +/- 1.9 x 10-4 m/s2 at 265 +/- 22 Hz. Frequency matching of clicks to best hearing sensitivity, and estimates of audition of broadband signals suggest that seahorses may hear conspecific clicks, especially in terms of particle motion. Behavioral investigations revealed that clicking did not improve prey capture proficiency. However, animals clicked more often as time progressed in a courtship sequence, and mates performed more courtship behaviors with control animals than with muted animals, lending additional evidence to the role of clicking as an acoustic signal during courtship. Despite loud noise and the role of clicking in communication, masking of the acoustic signal was not demonstrated. Seahorses exposed to loud noise in aquaria for one month demonstrated physiological, chronic stress responses: reduced weight and body condition, and increased heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Behavioral alterations were characterized by greater mean and variance of activity among animals housed in loud tanks in the first week, followed by habituation. By week four, animals in loud tanks demonstrated variable performance of clicking and piping, putative distress behaviors. Despite the physiological stress response, animals in loud tanks did not reduce feeding response or courtship behavior, suggesting allostasis.

  11. Diarrhea induced by Treponema hyodysenteriae: a young chick cecal model for swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, M; Adachi, Y

    1990-10-01

    The experimental infection of 25 young chicks with Treponema hyodysenteriae was carried out. Treponemes were isolated from 21 of 25 chicks on day 21 after inoculation. The ceca of chicks infected with treponemes were atrophied. The lumen was filled with a white watery fluid instead of digested feed. In some infected chicks, a cecal core was observed with the fluid in the cecum. The cecal core was grayish, hard, and rod shaped. It consisted of eroded cells and debris of treponemes and resembled the pseudomembrane. Bloody mucus was also observed in one chick. The thickness of the mucosae in 17 of 25 chicks were markedly increased. The histological changes were classified into two types. In the case of regressive changes of epithelial cells which mean severe erosion, the laminae propriae were exposed. Hemorrhage, edema, and heterophil infiltration in the laminae propriae were also confirmed. Numerous treponemes were observed within the edematous area under the remaining epithelia and also invaded the epithelial cells and laminae propriae. In the other case, progressive changes, that is, hyperplasia of mucosal epithelial cells and elongation of the crypt, were observed. The epithelia consisted mainly of cuboidal basophilic cells, mitotic cells, and goblet cells. The mitotic cells increased in number and were also observed near the superficial luminal surface of the ceca. Mucous goblet cells were also considerably increased in number. The erosion of superficial luminal epithelial cells was not so severe, but edema in laminae propriae was frequently observed. Electron-microscopic observation demonstrated that the basophilic epithelial cells were polyribosome rich, mitochondria poor, and lipid droplet poor. Furthermore, tonofibril-like structures under the terminal web in cytoplasms were lost, and numerous membrane-bound vesicles at the terminal web with free ribosomes were observed. In places, a number of vesicles were observed between microvilli, and some vesicles were released from the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Microvilli also became scarce and irregular. The junctional complexes between cuboidal cells became unclear, the interdigitations between cuboidal cells became loose, and the intercellular spaces were widened. In conclusion, the appearance of numerous membrane-bound vesicles at the terminal web and the dilated intercellular space indicates increased secretion of water and electrolytes, and the abnormal proliferation of such immature epithelial cells indicates impaired absorption. On the basis of our findings, we can say that diarrhea induced by T. hyodysenteriae can be developed by synergism between impaired absorption and increased secretion by intestinal mucosae with hyperplastic immature epithelial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2205578

  12. Systemic toxicity from repeated cutaneous contact with 2,4-pentanedione.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, B

    2001-02-01

    2,4-Pentanedione (2,4 PD; CAS Number 123-54-6) is an industrial chemical with potential for skin contact. Repeated exposure studies by peroral and inhalation routes have shown central neurotoxicity and possible effects on the immune system. To determine the likelihood for systemic toxicity by cutaneous contact with 2,4-PD, a short-term repeated skin contact study was conducted in New Zealand white rabbits. The planned protocol was for dosing, with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ml undiluted 2,4-PD by 6 h occlusive contact/d for 9 d; these were equivalent to dosages of 244, 975 and 1463 mg/kg/d. A dosage-related skin irritation was seen macroscopically and by light microscopy, which was minimal at the low dosage. Mortalities occurred at the mid (1/6 males, 3/6 females) and high dosages (5/12 males, 7/12 females), with deaths between the 2nd and 5th dosing day. In view of these mortalities and signs, dosing of the mid and high dose animals was discontinued, and survivors were kept to the end of the dosing period. Signs at the mid and high dosage included hypoactivity, tremors, convulsions, uncoordinated movements and prostration, and appeared between the 2nd and 4th dose. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced for the mid and high dosage groups. Increased hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocyte counts may have been associated with dehydration, and increased heterophil count with cutaneous inflammation. Several serum biochemical changes reflected cutaneous irritation, and high creatine kinase activity was probably a consequence of convulsions. Immune effects included decreased lymphocyte counts and lymphoid necrosis in spleen and thymus. Central neuropathology in the mid and high dosages was seen as hemorrhages and neuronal degeneration, the latter principally in piriform cortex, globus pallidus and hippocampus. No peripheral neuropathy was present. 244 mg/kg/d was the no-effects dosage for systemic toxicity. This study confirmed a potential for systemic toxicity, principally central neurotoxicity, from percutaneous absorption of 2,4-PD. PMID:11205070

  13. CEACAM1 regulates TIM–3–mediated tolerance and exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zhu, Chen; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Anderson, Ana C.; Gandhi, Amit; Russell, Andrew; Dougan, Stephanie K.; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Melum, Espen; Pertel, Thomas; Clayton, Kiera L.; Raab, Monika; Chen, Qiang; Beauchemin, Nicole; Yazaki, Paul J.; Pyzik, Michal; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Rudd, Christopher E.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Franke, Andre; Petsko, Gregory A.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3, also known as HAVCR2) is an activation-induced inhibitory molecule involved in tolerance and shown to induce T-cell exhaustion in chronic viral infection and cancers1–5. Under some conditions, TIM-3 expression has also been shown to be stimulatory. Considering that TIM-3, like cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), is being targeted for cancer immunotherapy, it is important to identify the circumstances under which TIM-3 can inhibit and activate T-cell responses. Here we show that TIM-3 is co-expressed and forms a heterodimer with carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), another well-known molecule expressed on activated T cells and involved in T-cell inhibition6–10. Biochemical, biophysical and X-ray crystallography studies show that the membrane-distal immunoglobulin-variable (IgV)-like amino-terminal domain of each is crucial to these interactions. The presence of CEACAM1 endows TIM-3 with inhibitory function. CEACAM1 facilitates the maturation and cell surface expression of TIM-3 by forming a heterodimeric interaction in cis through the highly related membrane-distal N-terminal domains of each molecule. CEACAM1 and TIM-3 also bind in trans through their N-terminal domains. Both cis and trans interactions between CEACAM1 and TIM-3 determine the tolerance-inducing function of TIM-3. In a mouse adoptive transfer colitis model, CEACAM1-deficient T cells are hyper-inflammatory with reduced cell surface expression of TIM-3 and regulatory cytokines, and this is restored by T-cell-specific CEACAM1 expression. During chronic viral infection and in a tumour environment, CEACAM1 and TIM-3 mark exhausted T cells. Co-blockade of CEACAM1 and TIM-3 leads to enhancement of anti-tumour immune responses with improved elimination of tumours in mouse colorectal cancer models. Thus, CEACAM1 serves as a heterophilic ligand for TIM-3 that is required for its ability to mediate T-cell inhibition, and this interaction has a crucial role in regulating autoimmunity and anti-tumour immunity. PMID:25363763

  14. Comparison of the effect of different methods of molt: production and welfare evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mazzuco, H; Avila, V S; Coldebella, A; Mores, R; Jaenisch, F R F; Lopes, L S

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alternative molting protocols assessing hen welfare and performance during and after molt. Hyline W-36 pullets were housed at 15 wk of age, and their egg production was obtained during this first cycle. When birds were 80 wk, the following molting treatments were applied: a conventional molt consisting of 10 d of fasting followed by cracked corn for 8 d and a pullet developer diet for 10 d; and 4 alternative molting programs: a soy hulls-based diet (12% CP, 1,455 kcal/kg of ME, and 1.38% Ca) offered for 14 d followed by cracked corn for 4 d and a pullet developer diet for 10 d; and the other 3 molt regimens consisted of feeding soy hulls for 4, 8, or 12 d followed by 10, 6, or 2 d, respectively, of a soy hulls-based diet and 4 d of cracked corn plus 10 d of a pullet developer diet. A nonmolted group of birds was fed a laying hen diet during the experimental period. Hen-day egg number was recorded daily for 56 wk (through 80-136 wk of age). The nonmolted hens showed lower hen-day production and fewer intact eggs and a higher number of cracked and shell-less eggs compared with those of the molted hens (P < 0.0001). A significant treatment by age effect (P < 0.0001) was observed for the variables of high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides. Control hens showed the lowest high-density lipoprotein concentration and the highest triglyceride levels at 84 wk of age when compared with all treatments. The lack of difference in heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio during molt suggests little influence of molting protocols on this variable. Regardless of the treatments, molting was deleterious to bone quality. A high mobilization of Ca through bone resorption for eggshell formation could explain the results obtained. Behavioral patterns coincided with a decline in frustration activities and an increase in alertness as molt proceeded until 83 wk of age. Alternative molting diets consisting of soybean hulls were successful in providing acceptable postmolt egg production performance. PMID:22080033

  15. Dietary vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate) and selenium supplementation from different sources: performance, ascites-related variables and antioxidant status in broilers reared at low and optimum temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, S; Malayoğlu, H Basmacioğlu; Yalçin, S; Karadas, F; Koçtürk, S; Cabuk, M; Oktay, G; Ozdemir, S; Ozdemir, E; Ergül, M

    2007-10-01

    1. This study compared the effect of dietary supplementation with organic or inorganic selenium (Se) sources plus control amounts or large amounts of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate) in broilers raised at control (20 to 24 degrees C) or low (14.5 to 16.8 degrees C) temperatures after 2 weeks of age. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from one day old. Diet 1, the control diet, comprised a commercial diet containing 0.15 mg/kg inorganic Se and 50 mg vitamin E/kg feed. Diet 2 was the same as diet 1, supplemented with 0.15 mg/kg inorganic Se. Diet 3 was the same as diet 2 but was supplemented with 200 mg/kg vitamin E. Diet 4 was the same as diet 1, but inorganic Se was replaced with 0.30 mg/kg organic Se. Diet 5 was the same as diet 4, supplemented with 200 mg/kg vitamin E. 3. Low temperature reduced the growth rate of broilers; however, at 6 weeks, there were no differences in the body weights of birds fed on organic Se supplemented diets housed at low or control temperature. The feed conversion ratio was significantly affected by low temperature but not by diet. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was higher in chicks after one week in the cold, indicating mild stress. Blood triiodothyronine levels were significantly higher in birds after 1 and 4 weeks in the cold but thyroxin was not affected. 4. Organic Se supplementation increased relative lung weight at the control temperature, which might lead to greater respiratory capacity. Relative spleen weight significantly decreased in broilers fed diets supplemented with inorganic Se under cold conditions, a possible indication of chronic oxidative stress. 5. At the low temperature, supplementation with organic Se alone, or with inorganic Se and vitamin E increased glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver of broilers, which may indicate increased activity of birds' antioxidant defence against suboptimal environments. PMID:17952730

  16. Bacteriological and pathological studies of egg peritonitis in commerciallayer chicken in Namakkal area

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Palani; Balasubramaniam, Gurusamypalayam Amirthalingam; Murthy, Thippichettipalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Balachandran, Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the various bacteriological agents and pathological changes in commercial layer chicken affected with egg yolk peritonitis in Namakkal region of India. Methods A total of 6 572 layer chicken from 85 commercial farms were subjected for the study, out of which 1 715 showed various types of oviduct abnormalities. Among the 1 715, 264 birds from six farms were identified as egg peritonitis on the basis of postmortem examination. Trachea, lung, heart blood, liver, peritoneal exudate, oviduct (infundibulum, magnum, uterus) and cloacal swabs were collected from the 264 birds with egg peritonitis lesion for screening of bacterial agents. Signalment, clinical signs and pathological changes were recorded in the affected flocks. Result The results of the present investigation indicated that the E. coli associated egg peritonitis was responsible for 15.39% of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 week of age. In the affected flocks egg production drop and mortality varied from 3% to 20% and 0.5% to 7.0% respectively. It was noticed during peak egg production (21 to 60 week) and southwest monsoon season (58%). Statistical analysis of age, season and egg production by Chi square test of independence revealed highly significant difference. E. coli was isolated as a pure culture and concurrent with other bacterial agents in 226 and 38 birds respectively. Among the fifteen E. coli serotypes identified serotype O166, O64 and O111 were predominant. Necropsy examination of affected birds revealed the presence of amorphous or insipissiated yolk material in the abdominal cavity with inflammatory changes in the ovary, oviduct and intestine. Microscopically the oviduct surface epithelium showed degeneration and desquamation, moderate to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophils and lymphocytes in various regions and lumen contained serofibrinous exudate, inflammatory and desquamated epithelial cells with bacterial microcolonies. Ovarian follicles revealed hyperemia, degeneration of granulosa cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Intestine showed degenerative, necrotic and inflammatory lesion. Conclusion The findings of this study showed that the egg peritonitis might be caused by either the translocation of intestinal E. coli into the peritoneal cavity or by the movement of cloacal E. coli into the oviduct followed by ascension of these bacteria up the oviduct, through the infundibulum, and into the peritoneal cavity. To control the egg peritonitis faecal contamination with E. coli should be minimized. PMID:24093792

  17. A note on protein expression changes in chicken breast muscle in response to time in transit before slaughtering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims of the research were to devise a proteome map of the chicken Pectoralis superficialis muscle, as resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and to characterize protein expression changes in the soluble protein fraction in commercial conditions due to age and to time in transit before slaughtering. Broilers were reared under commercial conditions until they reached a mean 1.8 kg and 36 d, or 2.6 kg and 46 d of age. Transport to the slaughterhouse took 90 or 220 minutes. Transport-induced stress was assessed from blood metabolites and leukocyte cell counts, revealing significant changes in albumin, glucose and triglyceride concentrations, in heterophils and leukocyte counts for chickens in transit for longer, and in glucose depending mainly on age. The sarcoplasmic protein fractions were extracted from a total of 39 breast muscle samples, collected 15 min post mortem, for analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Image and statistical analyses enabled us to study the qualitative and quantitative differences between the samples. Twelve up- or down-regulated protein spots were detected (P < 0.05): 8 related to the age effect, 2 to time in transit, and 2 to the interaction between the two. Age and time in transit influenced the avian proteome regulating the biological processes linked to the cellular housekeeping functions, related mainly to metabolism, cell division and control of apoptosis. Principal component analysis clustering was used to assess differences between birds. Age difference discriminated between the chickens analyzed better than time in transit, which seemed to have less general impact on the proteome fraction considered here. Isolating and identifying the proteins whose expression changes in response to transport duration and age shed some light on the biological mechanisms underlying growth and stress-related metabolism in chickens. Our results, combined with a further characterization of the chicken proteome associated with commercial chicken slaughtering management, will hopefully inspire alternative strategies and policies, and action to reduce the impact of stress related to time in transit. PMID:23883180

  18. Effects of prolonged oral administration of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Del Bianchi, M; Oliveira, C A F; Albuquerque, R; Guerra, J L; Correa, B

    2005-12-01

    The effects of prolonged oral administration of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) mycotoxins were evaluated in broiler chickens from 21 to 42 d of age. A total of 192 birds were housed in experimental batteries and assigned to 32 cages, 6 birds per cage. The following treatments were applied: 1) 0 mycotoxins (control), 2) 10 mg of FB1, 3) 50 microg of AFB1, 4) 50 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1, 5) 350 microg of AFB1, 6) 350 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1, 7) 2,450 microg of AFB1, 8) 2,450 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1/kg of feed. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 6 birds each. At the end of the trial, blood samples from 12 birds per treatment were collected, and the birds were necropsied. Compared with controls, the percentage of heterophils was lower (P < 0.05) in birds from groups receiving 50 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/ kg and 2450 microg of AFB1/kg alone or in combination with FB1. A higher percentage of lymphocytes (P < 0.05) was observed in birds fed 50 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/ kg, 350 microg of AFB1/kg, and 2,450 microg of AFB1/kg. A decrease in plasma albumin was observed only in birds fed 2,450 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/kg. The liver of AFB1-treated birds had focal areas of necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. In birds fed rations containing only 10 mg of FB1/kg, bile duct hyperplasia with fibrosis and a mononuclear infiltrate accompanied by trabecular derangement were observed. In contrast, in treatments in which FB1 was administered in combination, hepatic vacuolar degeneration was observed, and renal tissue presented corpuscles with increased cellular agglomeration, characterizing glomerulonephritis, and a clearly visible tubular epithelium with areas of degeneration and necrosis. The FB1 residues were detected in liver and in excreta of all FB1-treated groups, at levels that ranged from 0.013 to 0.051 mg/kg and from 1.19 to 2.79 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated that FB1 and AFB1, singly or in combination at the levels evaluated, do not change markedly the hematological and serological parameters of broiler chickens, but may cause relevant lesions in liver and in kidneys. PMID:16479938

  19. Marek's disease virus (MDV) encodes an interleukin-8 homolog (vIL-8): characterization of the vIL-8 protein and a vIL-8 deletion mutant MDV.

    PubMed

    Parcells, M S; Lin, S F; Dienglewicz, R L; Majerciak, V; Robinson, D R; Chen, H C; Wu, Z; Dubyak, G R; Brunovskis, P; Hunt, H D; Lee, L F; Kung, H J

    2001-06-01

    Chemokines induce chemotaxis, cell migration, and inflammatory responses. We report the identification of an interleukin-8 (IL-8) homolog, termed vIL-8, encoded within the genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV). The 134-amino-acid vIL-8 shares closest homology to mammalian and avian IL-8, molecules representing the prototype CXC chemokine. The gene for vIL-8 consists of three exons which map to the BamHI-L fragment within the repeats flanking the unique long region of the MDV genome. A 0.7-kb transcript encoding vIL-8 was detected in an n-butyrate-treated, MDV-transformed T-lymphoblastoid cell line, MSB-1. This induction is essentially abolished by cycloheximide and herpesvirus DNA polymerase inhibitor phosphonoacetate, indicating that vIL-8 is expressed with true late (gamma2) kinetics. Baculovirus-expressed vIL-8 was found to be secreted into the medium and shown to be functional as a chemoattractant for chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not for heterophils. To characterize the function of vIL-8 with respect to MDV infection in vivo, a recombinant MDV was constructed with a deletion of all three exons and a soluble-modified green fluorescent protein (smGFP) expression cassette inserted at the site of deletion. In two in vivo experiments, the vIL-8 deletion mutant (RB1BvIL-8DeltasmGFP) showed a decreased level of lytic infection in comparison to its parent virus, an equal-passage-level parent virus, and to another recombinant MDV containing the insertion of a GFP expression cassette at the nonessential US2 gene. RB1BvIL-8DeltasmGFP retained oncogenicity, albeit at a greatly reduced level. Nonetheless, we have been able to establish a lymphoblastoid cell line from an RB1BvIL-8DeltasmGFP-induced ovarian lymphoma (MDCC-UA20) and verify the presence of a latent MDV genome lacking vIL-8. Taken together, these data describe the identification and characterization of a chemokine homolog encoded within the MDV genome that is dispensable for transformation but may affect the level of MDV in vivo lytic infection. PMID:11333897

  20. Comparison of Two LED Light Bulbs to a Dimmable CFL and their Effects on Broiler Chicken Growth, Stress, and Fear.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-09-01

    The poultry industry is currently undergoing a shift to alternative lighting sources as incandescent lights become less available. While LED and CFL bulbs both have associated increased energy savings, they may affect the bird's growth and well-being differently as they output different light spectrums. To determine how different LED bulbs and a CFL bulb affected broiler performance, behavior, stress, and overall well-being, we conducted an experiment using Cobb broiler chickens (N=360). A NextGen LED bulb (NextGen), a Once Innovations LED bulb (Once), and a dimmable CFL (CFL) were used, all of which had different spectral outputs. Growth and feed conversion, several stress measures, fear tests, organ characteristics, and animal welfare assessment parameters were collected to determine how each light type affected animal well-being. LED treatments had shorter (P<0.05) latency to right during tonic immobility testing when compared to the CFL treatment; however, no other differences (P>0.05) were seen in the other fear tests. The Once treatment resulted in lower composite physical asymmetry, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and basal plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to the other treatments (P<0.05). Differences were observed in some organ measures; notably in the eye dimensions of the Once treatment. The Once treatment also had lower (P<0.05) plumage, hock, and footpad scores when compared to CFL treatment, while the Nextgen treatment had lower (P<0.05) plumage and hock scores than the CFL treatment but no difference between the two was seen in foot pad scores. Weight at the end of the growout was not affected by bulb type, however, both LED treatments had increased feed conversion (P<0.05). These results indicate that LEDs can result in better well-being and feed conversion when compared to CFLs. It is also notable that the LEDs did not have the same effects and this is likely due to the spectrum of light each creates. LEDs were shown to improve production and well-being of broiler chickens compared to CFLs. PMID:26201348

  1. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:25056125

  2. Turkey osteomyelitis complex.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Balog, J M

    2000-07-01

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is defined by the US Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) to include normal-appearing processed turkey carcasses that contain lesions including green discoloration of the liver, arthritis/synovitis, soft-tissue abscesses, and osteomyelitis of the proximal tibia. The lesions are associated with many different opportunistic organisms, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, suggesting that TOC incidence may be influenced more by deficiencies in the host immune response rather than by the virulence of any one organism. This syndrome is primarily a disease of adolescent male turkeys, and birds with TOC lesions have decreased indices of cell-mediated immunity, leading to the hypothesis that defects in the immune response of individuals within flocks of male turkeys may be responsible for the occurrence of these opportunistic infections. We have developed an experimental model for this disease in which treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), either with or without air sac inoculation with Escherichia coli, produces all of the lesions associated with TOC. These studies suggest that TOC is a result of stress-induced immunosuppression in a subpopulation of male turkeys that respond to the stressors in modern poultry production in a detrimental manner. Supplemental vitamin D3 treatment protected male turkeys from the immunosuppression induced by multiple treatments with DEX and resulted in decreased incidence of mortality, TOC, green liver, and isolation of bacteria from tissues, lower air sacculitis scores, and lower heterophil to lymphocyte ratios than nonsupplemented controls. Vitamin D3 also protected BW; relative weights of the liver, heart, spleen, and bursa; and clinical chemistry values from the effects of DEX treatment. The ability of vitamin D3 supplementation to protect turkeys from the immunosuppressive effects of severe stress emphasizes its role as a prohormone that affects health and disease resistance in turkeys and suggests that variation in the vitamin D receptor genotype may be involved in this disease process. This model has potential value in the identification of other nutritional and physiological immunomodulators that can decrease TOC incidence and will provide a means for the divergent selection of birds more resistant to the stressors of turkey production. In addition, this model will provide justification for management options designed to minimize stress. PMID:10901209

  3. Practice Trends in Patients with Persistent Detectable Thyroglobulin and Negative Diagnostic Radioiodine Whole Body Scans: A Survey of American Thyroid Association Members

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Nancy; Bernet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of patients with thyroglobulin (Tg)-positive/scan-negative thyroid cancer remains challenging. American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines recommend potential use of empiric 131I therapy and various scanning modalities, but no standard for managing such cases exists. Methods: We surveyed ATA members to assess current practice in management of patients with Tg-positive/scan-negative disease. Members participated in a web-based survey of six case scenarios of Tg elevations but iodine scan negativity. Results: A total of 288 ATA members (80% male) participated. Patient age, sex, and basal and stimulated Tg varied between the cases. Respondents were asked their opinion regarding empiric 131I therapy use, including 131I dose, use and duration of low-iodine diet, thyroxine withdrawal or recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH), and utilization of additional imaging (neck ultrasound (US) or positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)) and reconsideration of 131I therapy. Between 16% and 51% recommended initial use of empiric 131I for the various scenarios. The majority chose a 131I dose between 75 and 150 mCi, and 73% employed a low-iodine diet for two or more weeks. Preference between thyroxine withdrawal versus rhTSH was evenly split. More than 98% obtained a neck US if empiric 131I was not given; 52–89% would proceed to PET/CT if US was negative. Only 44% used rhTSH stimulation in PET scan preparation. 131I use was more common with stimulated Tg significantly >10 ng/mL. 131I therapy was slightly more likely with PET-positive (56%) than PET-negative status (45%). Respondents were split regarding empiric 131I if basal and stimulated Tg increased ≥150% over two years. Providers in North America less commonly utilized 131I treatment than those from other areas. In the face of possible heterophilic antibody interference in the Tg assay, the majority did not recommend 131I therapy. Conclusions: Empiric 131I therapy is still utilized for patients with Tg-positive/scan-negative disease. Neck US is frequently used to further evaluate such cases as 18FDG-PET/CT, albeit the latter is used somewhat less often. Use of 131I therapy correlated with the degree of Tg elevation or development of Tg antibodies, and was recommended more commonly with PET-positive than PET-negative status in patients with lower Tg levels. 131I was less commonly used by providers within North America. PMID:25058708

  4. Interspecies Differences in Virus Uptake versus Cardiac Function of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Fabian; Sauter, Martina; Pinkert, Sandra; Govindarajan, Thirupugal; Kaldrack, Joanna; Thakkar, Meghna; Fechner, Henry; Klingel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell contact protein with an important role in virus uptake. Its extracellular immunoglobulin domains mediate the binding to coxsackievirus and adenovirus as well as homophilic and heterophilic interactions between cells. The cytoplasmic tail links CAR to the cytoskeleton and intracellular signaling cascades. In the heart, CAR is crucial for embryonic development, electrophysiology, and coxsackievirus B infection. Noncardiac functions are less well understood, in part due to the lack of suitable animal models. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse that rescued the otherwise embryonic-lethal CAR knockout (KO) phenotype by expressing chicken CAR exclusively in the heart. Using this rescue model, we addressed interspecies differences in coxsackievirus uptake and noncardiac functions of CAR. Survival of the noncardiac CAR KO (ncKO) mouse indicates an essential role for CAR in the developing heart but not in other tissues. In adult animals, cardiac activity was normal, suggesting that chicken CAR can replace the physiological functions of mouse CAR in the cardiomyocyte. However, chicken CAR did not mediate virus entry in vivo, so that hearts expressing chicken instead of mouse CAR were protected from infection and myocarditis. Comparison of sequence homology and modeling of the D1 domain indicate differences between mammalian and chicken CAR that relate to the sites important for virus binding but not those involved in homodimerization. Thus, CAR-directed anticoxsackievirus therapy with only minor adverse effects in noncardiac tissue could be further improved by selectively targeting the virus-host interaction while maintaining cardiac function. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is one of the most common human pathogens causing myocarditis. Its receptor, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), not only mediates virus uptake but also relates to cytoskeletal organization and intracellular signaling. Animals without CAR die prenatally with major cardiac malformations. In the adult heart, CAR is important for virus entry and electrical conduction, but its nonmuscle functions are largely unknown. Here, we show that chicken CAR expression exclusively in the heart can rescue the otherwise embryonic-lethal CAR knockout phenotype but does not support CVB3 infection of adult cardiomyocytes. Our findings have implications for the evolution of virus-host versus physiological interactions involving CAR and could help to improve future coxsackievirus-directed therapies inhibiting virus replication while maintaining CAR's cellular functions. PMID:24741103

  5. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P<0.05) physical asymmetry (0.90±0.05 mm) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (0.279±0.021), indicating that they were less susceptible to stress than the DARK birds (1.16±0.07 mm and 0.347±0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry industry. PMID:26475072

  6. The effects of water replacement by oral rehydration fluids with or without betaine supplementation on performance, acid-base balance, and water retention of heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sayed, M A M; Downing, J

    2011-01-01

    Exposing broilers to a high temperature increases water and electrolyte K(+) and Na(+) excretion, which negatively affects the heat dissipation capacity and acid-base homeostasis, resulting in losses in growth performance. In this experiment, the efficacy of providing oral rehydration therapy and betaine on growth performance, acid-base balance, and water and electrolyte retention was evaluated. A total of 432 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb) were allocated to 72 metabolic cages and reared to 31 d of age under standard conditions. From 32 to 41 d of age, chicks were exposed to heat stress (ambient temperature, 32°C) and high RH (80 to 100% RH) for 9 h daily. The ameliorative effects of a 3 × 3 factorial array of treatments administered via drinking water were evaluated in 8 replicates of 6 chicks per cage for each treatment. Two oral rehydration therapy (ORT) fluids, based on either citrate or bicarbonate salts, were added to tap water. In addition, betaine was added to tap water at an inclusion rate of 0, 500, or 1,000 mg/L to complete the array of 9 liquid-based treatments. Growth performance was assessed at 32, 35, and 41 d of age. From 32 to 35 d of age, chicks receiving ORT fluids exhibited improved growth performance, water balance, and electrolyte (K(+), Na(+)) retention. In addition, the physiological response to stress was attenuated, as indicated by lower heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and blood glucose concentrations relative to the negative controls. The addition of betaine at an inclusion rate of 500 mg/L improved BW gain. From d 36 to 41, treatments did not significantly influence growth performance, which suggests that chicks receiving tap water were able to compensate and adapt to the heat-stress conditions. The results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of providing ORT fluids and 500 mg of betaine/L were observed only during the first 4 d of heat exposure. After this period, adaptation to the heat appears to occur, and none of the treatments was successful in improving growth performance. PMID:21177455

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Sub-Cellular Asymmetry of Fat-Dachsous Heterodimer for Generation of Planar Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Sinha, Pradip

    2014-01-01

    Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) is an evolutionarily conserved characteristic of animal tissues marked by coordinated polarization of cells or structures in the plane of a tissue. In insect wing epithelium, for instance, PCP is characterized by en masse orientation of hairs orthogonal to its apical-basal axis and pointing along the proximal-distal axis of the organ. Directional cue for PCP has been proposed to be generated by complex sets of interactions amongst three proteins - Fat (Ft), Dachsous (Ds) and Four-jointed (Fj). Ft and Ds are two atypical cadherins, which are phosphorylated by Fj, a Golgi kinase. Ft and Ds from adjacent cells bind heterophilically via their tandem cadherin repeats, and their binding affinities are regulated by Fj. Further, in the wing epithelium, sub-cellular levels of Ft-Ds heterodimers are seen to be elevated at the distal edges of individual cells, prefiguring their PCP. Mechanisms generating this sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer in proximal and distal edges of cells, however, have not been resolved yet. Using a mathematical modeling approach, here we provide a framework for generation of this sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer. First, we explain how the known interactions within Ft-Ds-Fj system translate into sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer. Second, we show that this asymmetric localization of Ft-Ds heterodimer is lost when tissue-level gradient of Fj is flattened, or when phosphorylation of Ft by Fj is abolished, but not when tissue-level gradient of Ds is flattened or when phosphorylation of Ds is abrogated. Finally, we show that distal enrichment of Ds also amplifies Ft-Ds asymmetry. These observations reveal that gradient of Fj expression, phosphorylation of Ft by Fj and sub-cellular distal accumulation of Ds are three critical elements required for generating sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer. Our model integrates the known experimental data and presents testable predictions for future studies. PMID:24841507

  8. Internalization and recycling of ALCAM/CD166 detected by a fully human single-chain recombinant antibody.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Tiziana; Cha, Emanuela; Bongarzone, Italia; Canevari, Silvana; Bolognesi, Andrea; Polito, Letizia; Bargellesi, Antonio; Sassi, Francesca; Ferrini, Silvano; Fabbi, Marina

    2005-04-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily with five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, promotes heterophilic (ALCAM-CD6) and homophilic (ALCAM-ALCAM) cell-cell interactions. Here we describe a fully human single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) directed to ALCAM/CD166. We selected the I/F8 scFv from a phage display library of human V-gene segments by cell panning and phage internalization into IGROV-I human ovary carcinoma cells. The I/F8 specificity was identified as ALCAM/CD166 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) peptide mass fingerprinting of the I/F8-immunoprecipitated protein. The I/F8 scFv reacts with the human, monkey and murine ALCAM/CD166 molecule, indicating that the recognized epitope is highly conserved. The I/F8 scFv completely abolished binding of both ALCAM/Fc and CD6/Fc soluble ligands, whereas it did not compete with the anti-ALCAM/CD166 murine monoclonal antibodies J4-81 and 3A6 and therefore recognizes a different epitope. Engagement through I/F8 scFv, 3A6 monoclonal antibody or CD6/Fc ligand induced ALCAM/CD166 internalization, with a kinetics slower than that of transferrin in the same cells. Newly internalized I/F8-ALCAM complexes colocalized with clathrin but not with caveolin and we demonstrated, using surface biotinylation and recycling assays, that endocytosed ALCAM/CD166 recycles back to the cell surface. Such an endocytic pathway allows the efficient delivery of an I/F8 scFv-saporin immunotoxin into tumor cells, as the conjugates are able to selectively kill cell lines expressing ALCAM/CD166. Altogether these data provide evidence of the suitability of the I/F8 scFv for further functional analysis of ALCAM/CD166 and intracellular delivery of effector moieties. PMID:15769845

  9. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality.

    PubMed

    Loyau, T; Berri, C; Bedrani, L; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Collin, A

    2013-08-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8°C, 56% relative humidity; RH) or exposed to thermal manipulation (TM; 12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH) from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis. This study was planned in a pedigree design to identify possible heritable characters for further selection of broiler chickens to improve thermotolerance. Thermal manipulation did not affect hatchability but resulted in lower Tb at hatching and until d 28 post-hatch, with associated changes in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. At d 34, chickens were exposed to a moderate heat challenge (5 h, 32°C). Greater O2 saturation and reduced CO2 partial pressure were observed (P < 0.05) in the venous blood of TM than in that of control chickens, suggesting long-term respiratory adaptation. At slaughter age, TM chickens were 1.4% lighter and exhibited 8% less relative abdominal fat pad than controls. Breast muscle yield was enhanced by TM, especially in females, but without significant change in breast meat characteristics (pH, color, drip loss). Plasma glucose/insulin balance was affected (P < 0.05) by thermal treatments. The heat challenge increased the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in controls (P < 0.05) but not in TM birds, possibly reflecting a lower stress status in TM chickens. Interestingly, broiler chickens had moderate heritability estimates for the plasma triiodothyronine/thyroxine concentration ratio at d 28 and comb temperature during the heat challenge on d 34 (h(2) > 0.17). In conclusion, TM of the embryo modified the physiology of broilers in the long term as a possible adaptation for heat tolerance, without affecting breast meat quality. This study highlights the value of 2 new heritable characters involved in thermoregulation for further broiler selection. PMID:23736053

  10. Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Deepesh Bharat; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Vinod; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Kumar, Muneendra; Kushwaha, Raju; Vaswani, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to see the effect of feeding different levels of Azolla meal on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 160 Chabro chicks, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups each with four replicates of 10 birds. The first treatment (T1) served as a control in which basal diets was offered without Azolla supplementation while in T2, T3, and T4 groups, basal diet was replaced with Azolla meal at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels, respectively. A feeding trial was conducted upto 8 weeks. At the last week of trial, blood samples were collected randomly from one bird of each replicate and plasma was separated to estimate certain biochemical parameters, some blood metabolites, minerals and enzymes like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocytes count and differential leukocytes count were estimated in fresh blood just after collection. The humoral immune response was measured against sheep red blood cells,and cell-mediated immune response was measured against phyto hemagglutinin lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P). Results: The study showed that hematological profile of the Chabro bird was not affected by any treatment except heterophil and lymphocyte which was found higher in T2 and T3 groups and eosinophil was found higher in a T3 group than control. Blood glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and triglycerides were found similar in all the groups and within the normal values for broiler chicken. Liver enzymes and macro mineral content in blood were found similar in all the treatment groups and within normal physiological range. Although AST was found higher in 10% replacement group than control, the value was within normal range for broiler chicken. Although antibody titer was found similar in all the experimental groups in the present study, cell-mediate immune response (response to PHA-P) was found higher in 5%, 7.5%, and 10% replacement groups than control(p<0.05). Conclusion: Similar blood biochemical parameters and higher cell-mediated immune response in Azolla replacement group indicated immune-modulatory effect of Azolla meal without any toxicity. PMID:27051207

  11. Effect of calcium with and without probiotic, lactose, or both on organ and body weights, immune response and caecal microbiota in moulted laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dastar, B; Khosravi, A; Boldajie, F; Ghoorchi, T

    2016-04-01

    A total of 72 laying hens were used to investigate the effect of probiotic and lactose on body weight loss, tibia ash, antibody production against sheep red blood cell (SRBC), heterophile-to-lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and gut microbiota in a common moulting method for 14 d. Hens were randomly allocated to 6 experimental groups consisting of (i) full feed (FF), (ii) feed withdrawal (FW), (iii) FW with calcium (Ca), (iv) FW with Ca and offering 7 g/lit lactose in drinking water (CaL), (v) FW with Ca and offering 1 g/lit probiotic in drinking water (CaP), and (vi) FW with Ca and offering a mixture of lactose and probiotic in drinking water (CaLP). The results showed body weight loss in all FW groups were more than 25% that was significantly higher than FF group (p < 0.05). The relative organ weights of hens in FW groups were lower than FF group; especially, it was significant for liver and ovary (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between all groups for tibia ash. The highest H/L ratio was related to FW group and offering Ca and lactose numerically and probiotic alone significantly resulted in decrease of this ratio (p < 0.05). The results also showed no significant difference for antibody production against SRBC among experimental groups. The highest coliform bacteria numeration observed in FW group and lactose could significantly reduce this population (p < 0.05). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numeration demonstrated a significant difference among treatments, so that FF hens had higher LAB than others (p < 0.05). In addition, FW moulted hens had significantly lower LAB compared to other moulted hens (p < 0.05), except for Ca group. In conclusion, probiotic and lactose was effective in maintaining caecal microbiota balance and improving immunity in hens exposed to moulting. PMID:26122928

  12. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum thiocyanate concentration. Although inclusion of 100 g/kg PCRM showed some economic sense, dietary inclusion of either peeled or unpeeled cassava root poses a threat on growth and health status of broiler chicks. PMID:24913764

  13. Melatonin and the enhancement of immune responses in immature male chickens.

    PubMed

    Brennan, C P; Hendricks, G L; El-Sheikh, T M; Mashaly, M M

    2002-03-01

    Understanding the role of melatonin in affecting different physiological functions, especially immune responses, is becoming increasingly important in the basic and applied sciences. Enhancing the immune response will result in increasing disease resistance and, therefore, improve production efficiency. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin, administered during the light or dark period, on BW, feed consumption (FC), and immune responses of immature chickens. Eight-week-old Cornell White Leghorn males were used in this study. The doses of melatonin were 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg BW. Melatonin was administered s.c. every 24 h for 7 consecutive d. The chicks were randomly divided into two groups; one group received injection during the middle of the light period, and the other group received injection during the middle of the dark period. All birds received 16 h light and 8 h darkness during a 24-h period. Body weights were measured before and after melatonin treatment, and FC was also measured. After the seven injections, blood samples were collected from the brachial vein, and total white blood cell (WBC) counts, differential cell counts, and activities of T and B lymphocytes were measured. Body weight was not significantly affected by dose of melatonin or time of injection. Furthermore, melatonin did not significantly affect FC; however, FC was significantly lower in the group that was injected in the dark vs. light period. The WBC counts of birds injected with 40 mg melatonin/kg BW were significantly higher than the WBC counts of saline-injected birds. The heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios of birds injected during the light period were significantly higher than those of birds injected during the dark period. T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation were significantly higher in birds injected with 40 mg melatonin/kg BW compared to saline-injected birds. These results indicate that melatonin in vivo is important in enhancing not only circulating WBC but also activities of B and T lymphocytes of immature male chickens without adversely affecting BW. PMID:11902414

  14. Effect of dexamethasone in feed on intestinal permeability, differential white blood cell counts, and immune organs in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Galarza-Seeber, R; Latorre, J D; Faulkner, O B; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G; Bielke, L R

    2015-09-01

    We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by poorly digested diets or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Three experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on systemic fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D; 3-5 kDa) levels, indicative of increased gut epithelial leakage. Experiment 1 compared DEX injections of 1 mg/kg, once per day on d 3, 5, and 9, with feed administration at 0.57, 1.7, or 5.1 ppm d 4 to 10, with FITC-D serum concentrations 2.5 h after gavage with 4.16 mg/kg FITC-D. All DEX treatments resulted in marked (2 to 6X; P<0.05) increased serum FITC-D levels. Feed DEX administration resulted in greater (P<0.05) gut permeability than injection at any dose, with numerically optimal effects at the lowest dose tested. In experiments 2 and 3, chicks were randomly assigned to a starter ration containing either control (CON) or DEX treated feed (0.57 ppm/kg; d 3 to 10 experiment 2, d 4 to 10 experiment 3). At d 10, all chicks were treated by oral gavage with FITC-D and serum samples were obtained as described above. Samples of the liver were aseptically collected, homogenized, diluted 1:4 wt/vol in sterile saline, and serial dilutions were plated on tryptic soy agar to evaluate total numbers of aerobic bacteria in the liver as an index of bacterial translocation (BT). In both experiments, FITC-D absorption was significantly enhanced (P<0.05) in DEX-treated chicks, again indicating increased paracellular leakage across the gut epithelium associated with dissolution of tight junctions. Experiment 2 differential cell counts showed an increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and immune organ (spleen and bursa of Fabricius) weights for experiments 2 and 3 were decreased (P<0.05) from controls. In experiments 2 and 3, dietary DEX administration resulted in numerically (experiment 2) or significantly (P<0.05) increased enteric BT to the liver, supporting the observation that dietary DEX causes a stress-like inflammatory GI response, which may contribute to subclinical or clinical disease, and may be a useful model for ongoing disease mitigation research related to stress-related diseases of GIT origin. PMID:26195804

  15. Diarrhea induced by Treponema hyodysenteriae: a young chick cecal model for swine dysentery.

    PubMed Central

    Sueyoshi, M; Adachi, Y

    1990-01-01

    The experimental infection of 25 young chicks with Treponema hyodysenteriae was carried out. Treponemes were isolated from 21 of 25 chicks on day 21 after inoculation. The ceca of chicks infected with treponemes were atrophied. The lumen was filled with a white watery fluid instead of digested feed. In some infected chicks, a cecal core was observed with the fluid in the cecum. The cecal core was grayish, hard, and rod shaped. It consisted of eroded cells and debris of treponemes and resembled the pseudomembrane. Bloody mucus was also observed in one chick. The thickness of the mucosae in 17 of 25 chicks were markedly increased. The histological changes were classified into two types. In the case of regressive changes of epithelial cells which mean severe erosion, the laminae propriae were exposed. Hemorrhage, edema, and heterophil infiltration in the laminae propriae were also confirmed. Numerous treponemes were observed within the edematous area under the remaining epithelia and also invaded the epithelial cells and laminae propriae. In the other case, progressive changes, that is, hyperplasia of mucosal epithelial cells and elongation of the crypt, were observed. The epithelia consisted mainly of cuboidal basophilic cells, mitotic cells, and goblet cells. The mitotic cells increased in number and were also observed near the superficial luminal surface of the ceca. Mucous goblet cells were also considerably increased in number. The erosion of superficial luminal epithelial cells was not so severe, but edema in laminae propriae was frequently observed. Electron-microscopic observation demonstrated that the basophilic epithelial cells were polyribosome rich, mitochondria poor, and lipid droplet poor. Furthermore, tonofibril-like structures under the terminal web in cytoplasms were lost, and numerous membrane-bound vesicles at the terminal web with free ribosomes were observed. In places, a number of vesicles were observed between microvilli, and some vesicles were released from the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Microvilli also became scarce and irregular. The junctional complexes between cuboidal cells became unclear, the interdigitations between cuboidal cells became loose, and the intercellular spaces were widened. In conclusion, the appearance of numerous membrane-bound vesicles at the terminal web and the dilated intercellular space indicates increased secretion of water and electrolytes, and the abnormal proliferation of such immature epithelial cells indicates impaired absorption. On the basis of our findings, we can say that diarrhea induced by T. hyodysenteriae can be developed by synergism between impaired absorption and increased secretion by intestinal mucosae with hyperplastic immature epithelial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images PMID:2205578

  16. Effect of Scrophularia striata and Ferulago angulata, as alternatives to virginiamycin, on growth performance, intestinal microbial population, immune response, and blood constituents of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Farhad; Ghasemi, Hossein A; Taherpour, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the comparative effect of Scrophularia striata, Ferulago angulata, and virginiamycin (VM) on performance, intestinal microbial population, immune response, and blood constituents of broilers. A total of 300 Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 5 replicates/treatment (10 chickens/pen). Birds were fed either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg VM; 4 g/kg S. striata (SS1); 8 g/kg S. striata (SS2); 4 g/kg F. angulata (FA1); or 8 g/kg F. angulata (FA2). After 6 wk, the BW, ADG, and feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) of the VM, SS1, and FA1 groups were better (P<0.01) compared with the control group. At 42 d, cecal lactobacillus counts were higher (P=0.032) in SS2 and FA2 groups compared with the control and VM groups. In addition, broilers fed any of the diets exhibited lower coliform counts (P<0.05) in the ileum and ceca than those fed the control diet. Total and IgG antibody titers against SRBC for secondary responses, relative spleen weight, and lymphocyte counts were higher (P<0.05) in birds fed the SS2 or FA2 diet compared with the control group. Moreover, feeding the SS2 or FA2 diet decreased (P<0.05) the blood heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and plasma triglyceride level, whereas only the SS2 diet increased (P=0.037) the white blood cell counts compared with the control diet. All diets, except for the VM diet, decreased (P=0.009) the plasma cholesterol level compared to the control treatment. The plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was also increased (P=0.042) in the SS2 and FA2 groups. In conclusion, dietary S. striata or F. angulata at a level of 4 g/kg diet enhanced growth performance, which was comparable to that of VM used as an antibiotic growth promoter. Furthermore, a high dose of both herbs (8 g/kg diet) could beneficially affect the intestinal health and immune status of broilers. PMID:26217029

  17. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Özcan; Köksal, Bekir H; Tatlı, Onur; Sevim, Ömer; Ahsan, Umair; Üner, Aykut G; Ulutaş, Pınar A; Beyaz, Devrim; Büyükyörük, Sadık; Yakan, Akın; Önol, Ahmet G

    2015-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic supplementation and stocking density on the performance, relative carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 480) were allocated to 4 experimental groups for 42 d. Each treatment had 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. Two groups were subjected to a high stocking density (HSD) of 20 birds/m² and the other 2 groups were kept at low stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m². A basal diet supplemented with probiotic 1 and 0.5 g/kg of diet (in starter and finisher diets, respectively) was fed to 2 treatments, one with HSD and the other with LSD, thereby making a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between stocking density (LSD and HSD) and dietary probiotic (supplemented and unsupplemented) for all the variables. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly low and feed conversion ratio was poor in broilers at HSD. Dietary probiotic significantly enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in starter phase only. Dietary probiotic supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on total aerobs, Salmonella sp., and Lactobacilli populations in the intestines of broilers. However, HSD reduced the Lactobacilli population only (P < 0.05). Relative breast yields were significantly higher in broilers reared at LSD than HSD. Thigh meat yield was higher in broilers in HSD group compared to LSD. Dietary probiotic did not affect the relative carcass yield and weight of lymphoid organs. Serum malondialdehyde, corticosterone, nitric oxide, and plasma heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected either by stocking density or dietary probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, HSD negatively affected the performance and intestinal Lactobacilli population of broilers only, whereas probiotic supplementation enhanced the performance of broilers during the starter phase only. Total aerobes, Salmonella, Lactobacilli carcass yield, and stress indicators of broilers were not affected by the dietary supplementation of probiotic under the conditions of the present study. PMID:26240393

  18. Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7 % sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS ( P < 0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se ( P > 0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS ( P < 0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio ( P < 0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers ( P < 0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se ( P < 0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions ( P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were increased but serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in HS broilers ( P < 0.05).

  19. Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7% sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS (P<0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se (P>0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E (P<0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS (P<0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio (P<0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers (P<0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se (P<0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were increased but serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in HS broilers (P<0.05). PMID:23525898

  20. Testing a West Nile virus vaccine in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.; Docherty, D.; Sileo, L.

    2005-01-01

    Eight sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated with a commercial equine West Nile virus vaccine (Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, Iowa, USA) at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. Three doses of the vaccine were given, the first dose (day 0) was followed by a second 21 days later and the third dose 7 days after the second day 28 after the first dose). All doses were 0.50 ml. In addition, 5 sandhill cranes were given injections of similar amounts of sterile water on the same schedule. Blood for complete blood counts, serum chemistries, and serological testing was collected at weekly intervals. Ten weeks after the first injection of the vaccine and 6 weeks after the last of the 3 injections of the vaccine, the cranes were shipped to the USGS National Wildlife Heath Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. After a two-week adjustment period, 11 of these cranes were injected intramuscularly with one mosquito dose of West Nile virus. Two of the vaccinated cranes were not challenged and acted as uninfected controls. One week post challenge the only abnormal findings were slight weight loss (average 6% loss since the time of challenge with West Nile virus) and elevated white blood cell counts (heterophilic leukocytosis). There were no deaths and no clinically ill cranes (unvaccinated or vaccinated cranes) among the 11 challenged birds. All cranes were euthanized 6 weeks post challenge, and necropsies were performed. Pre-challenge titers showed no titer response to the vaccinations. However, when challenged, vaccinated cranes developed titers more quickly (within 7-10 days), and were viremic and shed virus via the cloaca for a shorter period of time than the unvaccinated cranes (2-7 days for vaccinated cranes versus 2-10 days for unvaccinated cranes). No remarkable lesions were noted in any of the cranes during the necropsy examinations. Histopathological findings are available for only four of the cranes at this time. Three of those had mild to moderate encephalitis, myelitis, and myocarditis. Initial histopathological findings also indicated a difference in the lesions found in the brains of the vaccinated versus unvaccinated cranes. The fourth crane was a vaccinated unchallenged control that had none of the lesions described. We concluded, based on the findings of no adverse reactions and the higher titers and reduced viremia seen in the cranes, that, indeed, the vaccine is safe for use in cranes and can be effective in reducing the severity of a natural infection. We would recommend this vaccine for use in adult cranes. A companion study is looking at the safety and efficacy of the vaccine for crane chicks as young as 7-10 days of age and that will be reported at a later date.

  1. Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. II. Sex and thyroid hormone concentrations and testes development.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Van Der Kraak, G J; Ng, P; Smits, J E; Hontela, A

    1998-12-25

    To investigate the effects of pesticides on wild birds, sex (17beta-estradiol; testosterone) and thyroid (triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentrations, body mass, and testes mass were measured and the development of testes was evaluated in wild tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in four sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, in 1995-1996. In orchards, birds were exposed to asmany as 11 individual spray events and five sprays of mixtures of chemicals. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, lead, and arsenic concentrations were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE concentrations, which ranged from 0.36 to 2.23 microg/g wet weight in eggs. These persistent compounds were not correlated with any endocrine response measured in tree swallows. In 16-d-old male tree swallow chicks, body mass and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (estradiol), testosterone, and T3 in plasma showed no significant differences between sprayed and nonsprayed groups and among sites within those groups. However, T3 concentrations were slightly elevated in the sprayed group compared to the nonsprayed group, and there was a significant and positive correlation between T3 and the number of mixtures of sprays applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. In 16-d-old female chicks, there were no significant differences among spray treatments or sites and no correlations with spray exposure for testosterone, estradiol, or T3 in plasma. Body mass was correlated positively with T3 and negatively with estradiol but showed no differences among spray exposure groups or sites. Histology of testes of 16-d-old male chicks indicated there were no significant differences among sprayed and nonsprayed birds in testes mass, area, or diameter, or the presence of Leydig cells in the interstitium, the distribution of the Sertoli cells, or the occurrence of heterophils in the testicular interstitium. For the percentage of spermatogonia present on the basement membrane, there were significant differences among sites, but these differences were not specifically associated with spray exposure. However, there was a marginally significant trend between increasing occurrence of a disrupted Sertoli cell population on the seminiferous tubular basement membranes as the number of mixtures of pesticides sprayed during chick rearing increased. In adult male and female parent tree swallows, there were no differences in hormone concentrations between birds from sprayed and nonsprayed sites. Nor were there any significant correlations between the concentration of any hormone and collection date, body mass, or any type of spray exposure for adults. The correlations between increasing pesticide exposure and abnormal thyroid hormone and testes development in male chicks indicate that further reductions of pesticide use in orchards may benefit the health of birds that nest there. However, it is unclear which of these pesticides or spray mixtures are responsible for these effects, and this needs to be examined in future studies. PMID:9885998

  2. A novel hypothesis for the etiology of Graves' disease: TSAb may be thyroid stimulating animal IgG-like hormone and TBAb may be the precursor of TSAb.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yukio; Kajita, Yoshihiro; Hachiya, Takashi; Hamaoki, Masaru

    2012-06-01

    There are doubtful points about the theory that autoimmunity with auto-antibody (Ab) to TSH receptor (R) causes hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease (GD). A main doubtful point is no curative effect of corticosteroid on Graves' hyperthyroidism in spite of curative effect of corticosteroid for all autoimmune diseases. Recently we demonstrated the immunological similarity of TSAb and TBAb-IgG to animal IgGs, except for human (h)IgG, by neutralization and purification of TSAb and TBAb-IgG using (1) heterophilic Ab to animal IgG in GD sera and (2) experimentally generated anti-animal IgG Abs [such as dog (d), bovine (b), porcine (p), and rabbit (rb)]. Furthermore, greater immunological similarity of Fab- and F(ab')(2)-portion of TSAb- and TBAb-IgG to bovine Fab, compared to hFab, was demonstrated using goat anti-bovine F(ab')(2) Ab. Existence of b and p TSH-like portions in the LATS-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion) was suggested by a previous report of neutralization of LATS activity by anti-b- or anti-p-TSH Ab. We suggested the existence of a mammalian animal-TSH-like structure, excepting hTSH, in the TSAb-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion), by discovery of anti-mammalian TSH Ab (such as d, b, p, guinea-pig, rat, whale, except h) in sera of GD. Lately, similar TSHR binding of H- and L-chain of human stimulating monoclonal TSHR Ab (M22)-Fab with TSH-α and-β subunit was reported. This evidence suggests that Fab portion of TSAb has a structure like mammalian TSH, but not hTSH. IgG-λ type of d, horse, b, p, goat, ovine is 95% and IgG-κ type is 5%, while human κ and λ chain is 60:40. Previous report that LATS (TSAb)-IgG composed of predominant λ type is supporting evidence that TRAb-IgG has immunological similarity with these animal IgGs compared to hIgG. We speculate that TSAb-IgG may be referred as a mermaid consisted in face (Fab) and trunk-leg (Fc). Face may be a kind of hormone with animal TSH-like structure and trunk-leg has animal IgG-like structure (in spite of no antibody function). There are many reports for co-existence of TSAb and TBAb-IgG in sera of GD. We reported conversion from TBAb (non-thyroid stimulating type IgG) to TSAb by co-incubation of anti-hIgG Ab (containing anti-animal IgG Ab as a cross-reaction) with TBAb-bound porcine thyroid cells. Thus, we suggest that TBAb may be the precursor form of TSAb. PMID:22472575