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1

INFLAMMATORY AGONIST STIMULATION AND SIGNAL PATHWAY OF OXIDATIVE BURST IN NEONATAL CHICKEN HETEROPHILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A fluorescence microplate assay was adapted to examine the oxidative response by heterophils from neonatal chicks following in vitro stimulation with various inflammatory agonists. Both nonopsonized formalin-killed Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus stimulated significant heterophil o...

2

EFFECTS OF OVOTRANSFERRIN ON CHICKEN MACROPHAGES AND HETEROPHIL-GRANULOCYTES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovotransferrin is an acute phase protein in chicken, the serum level of which increases in inflammation and infections. To understand the significance of OTF in inflammation, we studied its in vitro effects on HD11, a macrophage cell line, and heterophils isolated from blood using a panel of variab...

3

FUNCTIONAL COMPARISON OF HETEROPHILS ISOLATED FROM COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heterophils from two pure lines (A and B) of commercial broiler chickens were isolated on days 1, 4, and 7 post hatch to evaluated their ability to: (1) phagocytize Salmonella enteritidis (2) degranulate when exposed to immune-IgG opsonized SE, and (3) produce an oxidative burst. On days 1 and 4, he...

4

Reducing heterophilic antibody interference in immunoassays using single chain antibodies  

SciTech Connect

Sandwich ELISA microarrays have the potential to simultaneously quantify the levels of multiple diagnostic targets in a biological sample. However, as seen with traditional ELISA diagnostics, heterophilic antibodies (HA) in patient sera have the potential to cause interference in these assays. We demonstrate here that reducing the diagnostic capture antibody to its minimal functional unit, the variable heavy and light domains artificially connected with a short polypeptide linker (scFv), is an effective strategy for reducing the HA assay interference.

Baird, Cheryl L.; Tan, Ruimin; Fischer, Christopher J.; Victry, Kristin D.; Zangar, Richard C.; Rodland, Karin D.

2011-12-15

5

Evaluation of beta defensin 2 production by chicken heterophils using direct MALDI mass spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beta defensins (BD) are cysteine rich, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP) produced mainly by epithelial and myeloid cells such as neutrophils. In birds, the equivalent of neutrophils, heterophils produce avian beta defensins (AvBD) of which AvBD2 is the major isoform. Heterophils recognize patho...

6

Anti-immunoglobulins and heterophil agglutinins in experimental trypanosomiasis.  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid factor (RF)-like substances and heterophil agglutinins (HA) were induced in rabbits by infection with a strain of Trypanosoma equiperdum. Infection with a T. gambiense strain produced HA, but no RF. RFs appeared usually before immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels started to increase. They disappeared spontaneously after 4 to 6 weeks. HA were of the IgM class, appeared within 1 to 2 weeks after infection, and usually remained at high levels afterwards. They could not be absorbed out with lyophilized whole trypanosomes. Therapy suppressed the formation of RF as well as of HA, but IgG complexes as well as antibodies against trypanosomal antigens remained present for considerable periods after the installment of therapy. It is concluded that RFs are not induced by IgG complexes. The results suggest that HA are probably not cross-reacting antibodies induced by trypanosomal antigens. PMID:6967452

Mattern, P; Klein, F; Pautrizel, R; Jongepier-Geerdes, Y E

1980-01-01

7

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measurement of heterophile antibody.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test has been developed for measurement of heterophile antibody. The microtiter test utilizes a bovine erythrocyte monolayer as antigen and anti-human IgM antiserum conjugated with horseradish peroxidase to measure the degree of binding of the heterophile antibody in the test serum with the erythrocytes. A single serum dilution yields quantitative results when read in a spectrophotometer. The ELISA test showed a sensitivity comparable with the immune adherence hemagglutination assay (IAHA) and other heterophile tests, good reproducibility, and high specificity. PMID:6763815

Hsu, J. F.; Evans, A. S.; Niederman, J. C.; Cenabre, L. C.

1982-01-01

8

Interference from heterophilic antibodies in amyloid-? oligomer ELISAs.  

PubMed

Amyloid-? (A?) oligomers of different sizes and forms have recently been the focus formany Alzheimer's disease (AD) researchers. Various immunoassays have been used to detect low concentrations of these elusive A? species in different forms of human samples using little or no sample dilutions. However, the possibility that positive results may be caused by interference from heterophilic antibodies (HA) is often overlooked. HA, which recognize immunoglobulins from other species, are present in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and may cause interference in sandwich immunoassays like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) by cross-binding the capture and detection antibodies of the assay. They thus may generate a false positive signal. Here we show that when assessing the A? oligomer content in plasma samples from 44 individuals with a sandwich ELISA, none of the 21 positive signals remained when the assay was repeated in the presence of factors blocking HA. Similarly, in CSF samples from 104 individuals, the signals from the 22 positive samples were strongly reduced when analyzed after anti-HA treatment. Taken together, HA interference is a problem that needs to be addressed when measuring low levels of an antigen in human plasma and CSF samples. PMID:21504116

Sehlin, Dag; Söllvander, Sofia; Paulie, Staffan; Brundin, RoseMarie; Ingelsson, Martin; Lannfelt, Lars; Pettersson, Frida Ekholm; Englund, Hillevi

2010-01-01

9

Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test  

SciTech Connect

A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

1982-11-19

10

Toll-like receptor agonists stimulate differential functional activation and cytokine and chemokine gene expression in heterophils isolated from chickens with differential innate responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterophils isolated from distinct broilers (lines A and B) differ in function and cytokine gene expression profiles. Nothing is known about Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression nor functional activation and cytokine\\/chemokine gene expression of line A and B heterophils when stimulated with TLR agonists. We found that line A and B heterophils express the same range of TLRs. All the bacterial

Michael H. Kogut; Christina Swaggerty; Haiqi He; Igal Pevzner; Pete Kaiser

2006-01-01

11

STRESS, CORTICOSTERONE, AND HETEROPHIL TO LYMPHOCYTE RATIOS IN FREE-LIVING ADÉLIE PENGUINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured corticosterone in plasma collected from free-living AdClie Pen- guins (Pygoscelis adeliae) and made blood smears to count the ratio of heterophils to lym- phocytes (Ha). Our objective was to categorize how these two measures of stress vary with potential stressors in the birds' environment. In penguins that were repeatedly sampled from three to eight times, repeated handling did

Carol M. Vleck; Nicole Vertalino; David Vleck; Theresa L. Bucher

2000-01-01

12

Direct screening identifies mature beta-defensin 2 in avian heterophils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to screen avian heterophils in the m/z range of 1-20 kDa with an objective to identify the cell associated peptides that may be reflective of their functional physiology. The MALDI-TOF-MS profiles ...

13

ULTRASTRUCTURAL LOCALIZATION OF DIALYZED IRON-REACTIVE MUCOSUBSTANCE IN RABBIT HETEROPHILS, BASOPHILS, AND EOSINOPHILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

For ultrastructural localization of acid mucosubstances in rabbit granulocytes, bone mar- row and buffy coat specimens were fixed with formalin, glutaraldehyde, or osmium tetrox- ide, sectioned at 40 p, and stained with the Rinehart and Abul-Haj solution of dialyzed iron(DI).Heterophils revealed DI staining on the outer surface of the plasma membrane, in the Golgi complex involved in primary granulogenesis, and

J. H. Hardin; S. S. SPICER

1971-01-01

14

Toll-like receptor agonists stimulate differential functional activation and cytokine and chemokine gene expression in heterophils isolated from chickens with differential innate responses.  

PubMed

Heterophils isolated from distinct broilers (lines A and B) differ in function and cytokine gene expression profiles. Nothing is known about Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression nor functional activation and cytokine/chemokine gene expression of line A and B heterophils when stimulated with TLR agonists. We found that line A and B heterophils express the same range of TLRs. All the bacterial TLR agonists, peptidoglycan, the synthetic lipoprotein Pam3CSK4, ultra-pure lipopolysaccharide, and flagellin all induced significantly greater functional activation of heterophils from line A compared to B. Only stimulation with the guanosine analog, loxoribine, (LOX) induced a significantly greater functional response in B over A. Additionally, all heterophils from line A stimulated with the bacterial TLR agonists had dramatic upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression, whereas heterophils from line B had little or no upregulation of these genes. However, stimulation of all heterophils from line B with the bacterial TLR agonists and LOX induced a significant upregulation of IFN-alpha, with little transcription of this cytokine gene in line A heterophils. These findings suggest that the difference in heterophil functional efficiency between these parent lines is due to recognition of pathogens and activation of signaling pathways that induce innate cytokine and chemokine responses. PMID:16815069

Kogut, Michael H; Swaggerty, Christina; He, Haiqi; Pevzner, Igal; Kaiser, Pete

2006-06-01

15

DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS MEDIATING OXIDATIVE BURST BY CHICKEN HETEROPHILS IN RESPONSE TO STIMULATION WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND LIPOTEICHOIC ACID  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been previously shown to mediate oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. This study was conducted to begin to map the molecular pathways that regulate TLR-mediated oxidative burst. Peripheral blood heterophils from neonatal chicks were isolated and exposed to known ...

16

DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS MEDIATING OXIDATIVE BURST BY CHICKEN HETEROPHILS IN RESPONSE TO STIMULATION WITH SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS LIPOTEICHOIC ACID  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been previously shown to mediate oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. This study was conducted to determine which molecular pathways are involved in TLR mediated oxidative burst. Peripheral blood heterophils from neonatal chicks were isolated and exposed to known...

17

SYK TYROSINE KINASE INVOLVEMENT IN COMPLEMENT RECEPTOR-MEDIATED SIGNALING LEADING TO AN OXIDATIVE BURST IN CHICKEN HETEROPHILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have previously reported the inhibition of Fc receptor-mediated degranulation in avian heterophils by the syk tyrosine kinase inhibitor piceatannol. The present studies investigated whether attachment of complement opsonized bacteria to complement receptors also involve the syk tyrosine kinase p...

18

Reversible adrenal insufficiency and heterophile antibodies in a case of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 27-year-old male was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis and altered sensorium with slurring of speech and ataxia. He was managed with intravenous insulin and fluids and later shifted to basal bolus insulin regimen and during further evaluation was diagnosed to be suffering from primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. He was started on thyroxin replacement and steroids only during stress. After three months of follow up he was clinically euthyroid. His glycemic control was adequate on oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs and adrenal insufficiency recovered. However, his thyrotropin levels were persistently elevated on adequate replacement doses of thyroxin. His repeat TSH was estimated after precipitating serum with polyethylene glycol which revealed normal TSH. Here we report reversible adrenal insufficiency with hypothyroidism with falsely raised TSH because of presence of heterophile antibodies in a case of poly glandular endocrinopathy syndrome. PMID:24910843

Kharb, Sandeep; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Dutta, Manoj K.; Garg, M. K.

2013-01-01

19

Ultrastructural localization of lactoferrin and iron-binding protein in human neutrophils and rabbit heterophils.  

PubMed Central

Lactoferrin in marrow and blood granulocytes from rabbits and humans was stained with an immunoferritin method. Iron-binding protein(s) was localized by the staining of granulocytes with acid ferrocyanide after saturation of the iron-binding protein with iron. The latter was most readily accomplished by treatment of the glutaraldehyde-fixed cell suspension with 1% saponin, followed by treatment with an iron-nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA 3mM:4mM) solution, adjusted to pH 7.0 with NaHCO3. The affinity of purified lactoferrin and transferrin for radioiron after such treatment was minimally diminished. Both immunoferritin and iron-binding methods heavily stained osmiophiliuc (phospholipid-containing) mature primary granules in late promyelocytes, myelocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells. Early promyelocytes containing abundant immature primary granules lacked immunoferritin or iron staining. Trypsin digestion of rabbit marrow cells considerably diminished the cytochemically demonstrable iron-binding capability of the mature primary granules. Specimens sequentially stained for peroxidase and immunostained for lactoferrin or cytochemically stained for iron-binding protein confirmed that lactoferrin and iron-binding protein were in peroxidase-positive primary granules. Some peroxidase positive granules appeared to lack staining for lactoferrin and iron-binding proteining protein, and all secondary granules uniformly lacked staining. Treatment of human neutrophils with phorbol myristate acetate demonstrated early release of granules containing iron-binding protein with subsequent agglutination of neutrophils and attachment of iron-binding protein to the cell surface. In summary, this study distinguishes at least two subpopulations of primary granules and identifies lactoferrin and an iron-binding protein(s) in a subpopulation of peroxidase-positive primary granules in rabbit heterophils and human neutrophils. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 11 and 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 PMID:7180945

Parmley, R. T.; Takagi, M.; Barton, J. C.; Boxer, L. A.; Austin, R. L.

1982-01-01

20

Gene expression analysis of toll-like receptor pathways in heterophils from genetic chicken lines that differ in their susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously conducted studies using two chicken lines (A and B) show that line A birds have increased resistance to a number of bacterial and protozoan challenges and that heterophils isolated from line A birds are functionally more responsive. Furthermore, when stimulated with toll-like receptor (T...

21

In vivo priming heterophil innate immune functions and increasing resistance to Salmonella enteritidis infection in neonatal chickens by immune stimulatory CpG-ODN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) mimic bacterial DNA and stimulate the innate immune system of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administered CpG-ODN on the innate immune functions of chicken heterophils. Our results demonstrat...

22

Flagellin and lipopolysaccharide up-regulation of IL-6 and CXCLi2 gene expression in chicken heterophils is mediated by NF-kappaB and AP-1 pathways  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Toll-like receptor agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been shown to stimulate chicken heterophils to induce the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by a mechanism involving the triggering of differential MEK-ERK signaling cascades. However, the transl...

23

Bacterial toll-like receptor agonists induce sequential NF-kB-mediated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 production in chicken heterophils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies of the response of the primary avian polymorphonuclear leukocyte, the heterophil, to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through toll-like receptors (TLR) have concentrated on the activation of the respiratory burst, release of intracellular granules, and the induction of cytokine ...

24

Rapid detection of infectious mononucleosis-associated heterophile antibodies by a novel immunochromatographic assay and a latex agglutination test.  

PubMed

A novel immunochromatographic assay, the CARDS O.S. MONO test (Pacific Biotech, San Diego, Calif.), and a latex agglutination test, the Infectious Mononucleosis Kit (Unipath Ltd., Hampshire, United Kingdom) were compared with the Paul-Bunnell-Davidsohn test. Of the 957 serum specimens studied, 78 were positive and 879 were negative by the Paul-Bunnell-Davidsohn test. After discrepancies were resolved by determining Epstein-Barr virus serology, the sensitivities of the CARDS O.S. MONO test and the Infectious Mononucleosis Kit were 91.0 and 96.2%, respectively, and both tests had a specificity and a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value and overall agreement of greater than 99%. The results show that both tests can accurately detect infectious mononucleosis-associated heterophile antibodies. PMID:8315001

Farhat, S E; Finn, S; Chua, R; Smith, B; Simor, A E; George, P; Diena, B B; Diena, D; Skulnick, M

1993-06-01

25

Associations among fluctuating asymmetry, duration of tonic immobility, heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and one-legged standing, crooked toes, or footpad dermatitis in chickens.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the associations among fluctuating asymmetry, duration of tonic immobility, heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and one-legged standing, crooked toes, or footpad dermatitis in chickens. In experiment 1, cocks (n = 96; 36 wk old) from 11 Spanish breeds and a White Leghorn population that showed one-legged or normal standing were used. There were no significant differences for the relative fluctuating asymmetry, the duration of tonic immobility, and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio between both groups of cocks, with mean values of one-legged standing birds being similar to those of normal birds. Thus, this pain-related behavior is not associated with some measures of well-being, fear, and stress. In experiment 2, cocks (n = 106; 36 wk old) from 9 Spanish breeds and the White Leghorn population that showed crooked or normal toes were used. Group effect was not significant for the relative fluctuating asymmetry and duration of tonic immobility. Heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and heterophil number were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in cocks with crooked toes and smaller in cocks with normal toes, with the opposite being true for lymphocyte number. Thus, this leg problem is associated with the stressfulness of birds and does not contribute to their well-being or fear levels. In experiment 3, cocks (n = 68; 36 wk old) from 5 Spanish breeds with or without footpad dermatitis were used. Group effect was significant for the relative asymmetry of toe length (P < 0.05), the relative asymmetry of cocks with footpad dermatitis being larger. Group x breed interaction was significant for the relative asymmetry of wattle length (P < 0.001), with the difference between cocks with footpad dermatitis and normal cocks being significant in one breed. In this breed (Red-Barred Vasca), fluctuating asymmetry of wattle length was significantly greater in cocks with footpad dermatitis, suggesting that this leg problem negatively affects the well-being of cocks. PMID:19096059

Campo, J L; Prieto, M T

2009-01-01

26

Differential induction of nitric oxide, degranulation, and oxidative burst activities in response to microbial agonist stimulations in monocytes and heterophils from young commercial turkeys.  

PubMed

The toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial pathogens and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and trigger inflammatory immune responses to control the infection. Here, we examined functional innate immune responses to Salmonella enteritidis (SE, live or formalin-killed) and various TLR agonists including lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and synthetic lipoprotein Pam3CSK4 (PAM), poly I:C (synthetic double-stranded RNA analog), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from S. enteritidis, flagellin (FGN) from S. typhimurium, loxoribine (LOX) and R837 (synthetic anti-viral compounds), and CpG oligodeoxydinucleotide (CpG ODN)by measuring antimicrobial activities including oxidative burst and degranulation in heterophils and nitric oxide production in peripheral blood monocytes. Our results demonstrate differential nitric oxide responses to TLR agonists in turkey monocytes. LTA and CpG ODN were the most potent stimuli for nitric oxide induction followed by PAM, poly I:C, and LPS, whereas FGN, PGN, LOX, R837, and control ODN stimulated little or no nitric oxide production. Live SE stimulated significantly less NO production than formalin-killed SE (FKSE). Although FKSE induced significant degranulation and oxidative burst, most TLR agonists stimulate little oxidative burst and degranulation responses in turkey heterophils. PMID:18304649

He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J; Swaggerty, Christina L; Nisbet, David J; Kogut, Michael H

2008-06-15

27

Decrease in Plasma Levels of ?-Synuclein Is Evident in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease after Elimination of Heterophilic Antibody Interference  

PubMed Central

There is substantial biochemical, pathological, and genetic evidence that ?-synuclein (A-syn) is a principal molecule in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). We previously reported that total A-syn levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), measured with the specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed by ourselves, were decreased in patients with PD, and suggested the usefulness of A-syn in CSF and plasma as a biomarker for the diagnosis of PD. After our report, a considerable number of studies have investigated the levels A-syn in CSF and in blood, but have reported inconclusive results. Such discrepancies have often been attributed not only to the use of different antibodies in the ELISAs but also to interference from hemolysis. In this study we measured the levels of A-syn in CSF and plasma by using our own sandwich ELISA with or without heterophilic antibody (HA) inhibitor in 30 patients with PD and 58 age-matched controls. We thereby revealed that HA interfered with ELISA measurements of A-syn and are accordingly considered to be an important confounder in A-syn ELISAs. HA produced falsely exaggerated signals in A-syn ELISAs more prominently in plasma samples than in CSF samples. After elimination of HA interference, it was found that hemolysis did not have a significant effect on the signals obtained using our A-syn ELISA. Furthermore, plasma levels of A-syn were significantly lower in the PD group compared with the control group following elimination of HA interference with an HA inhibitor. Our results demonstrate that HA was a major confounder that should be controlled in A-syn ELISAs, and that plasma A-syn could be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of PD if adequately quantified following elimination of HA interference. PMID:25849645

Ishii, Ryotaro; Tokuda, Takahiko; Tatebe, Harutsugu; Ohmichi, Takuma; Kasai, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki; El-Agnaf, Omar M. A.

2015-01-01

28

INTRODUCTION Because of their specific homophilic and heterophilic binding  

E-print Network

more than provide passive molecular glue and in fact may act as signaling agents, capable of actively, that suggest this adhesion protein could act as both adhesion protein and morphoregulatory agent. We have immunocomplexes exhibited a classical patching and capping response; in contrast, high density crosslinking of ap

Lin, Chi-Hung

29

Polysialic Acid Directs Tumor Cell Growth by Controlling Heterophilic Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysialic acid (PSA), a carbohydrate polymer attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), pro- motes neural plasticity and tumor malignancy, but its mode of action is controversial. Here we establish that PSA controls tumor cell growth and differentiation by interfering with NCAM signaling at cell-cell contacts. Interactions between cells with different PSA and NCAM expression profiles were initiated by

Ralph Seidenfaden; Andrea Krauter; Frank Schertzinger; Rita Gerardy-Schahn; H. Hildebrandt

2003-01-01

30

SCAVENGER RECEPTORS FOUND ON CHICKEN HETEROPHILS CONTRIBUTE TO THE PHAGOCYTOSIS OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are a critical component of the innate immune response and the hostsż ability to recognize self from infectious non-self. Scavenger receptors (SR), a type of PRR, are cell surface glycoproteins involved in receptor-mediated phagocytosis of polyanionic ligands. H...

31

Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress would both improve human health and provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (Alphamune™, YE), ...

32

Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey po...

33

Direct Ca2+-dependent Heterophilic Interaction between Desmosomal Cadherins, Desmoglein and Desmocollin, Contributes to Cell–Cell Adhesion  

PubMed Central

Human fibrosarcoma cells, HT-1080, feature extensive adherens junctions, lack mature desmosomes, and express a single known desmosomal protein, Desmoglein 2 (Dsg2). Transfection of these cells with bovine Desmocollin 1a (Dsc1a) caused dramatic changes in the subcellular distribution of endogenous Dsg2. Both cadherins clustered in the areas of the adherens junctions, whereas only a minor portion of Dsg2 was seen in these areas in the parental cells. Deletion mapping showed that intact extracellular cadherin-like repeats of Dsc1a (Arg1-Thr170) are required for the translocation of Dsg2. Deletion of the intracellular C-domain that mediates the interaction of Dsc1a with plakoglobin, or the CSI region that is involved in the binding to desmoplakin, had no effect. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments of cell lysates stably expressing Dsc1a with anti-Dsc or -Dsg antibodies demonstrate that the desmosomal cadherins, Dsg2 and Dsc1a, are involved in a direct Ca2+-dependent interaction. This conclusion was further supported by the results of solid phase binding experiments. These showed that the Dsc1a fragment containing cadherin-like repeats 1 and 2 binds directly to the extracellular portion of Dsg in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The contribution of the Dsg/ Dsc interaction to cell–cell adhesion was tested by coculturing HT-1080 cells expressing Dsc1a with HT-1080 cells lacking Dsc but expressing myc-tagged plakoglobin (MPg). In the latter cells, MPg and the endogenous Dsg form stable complexes. The observed specific coimmunoprecipitation of MPg by anti-Dsc antibodies in coculture indicates that an intercellular interaction between Dsc1 and Dsg is involved in cell–cell adhesion. PMID:9214392

Chitaev, Nikolai A.; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.

1997-01-01

34

[Heterophile interference: an experimental method of depleting rheumatoid factor from sera in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].  

PubMed

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a major source of interference in immunoassays. Several methods have been proposed to eliminate interference. We experimented with a new technique based on the depletion of rheumatoid factor from serum samples. Our study included 150 samples, 64 of them positive for RF. Depletion was performed by the adsorption of RF from the sample by latex beads sensitized with human IgG anti-RF. After precipitation of the complexes formed, the supernatant was tested for RF. Finally, we assessed the performance of this RF depletion method with two tests: ELISA Enzygnost Enzygnost anti-HBs micro-Behring and IFI falciparum Ref 75521 Biomerieux. We compared the percentages of false-negative and false-positive results of these tests before and after depletion of the RF-positive serum samples. Efficiency index is 92.2% and the performance of the two immunoassay tests improved significantly by a factor of 2 to 25 after depletion. In addition, this technique is easy, inexpensive, fast, and suitable to our limited resources as a developing country. It should be extended to other immunological tests for validation of the results. PMID:25370047

N'Guessan, K; Dassé, S R; Yébouah, O R; Kouacou, A P V; Séka, S J

2014-01-01

35

OXIDATIVE BURST MEDIATED BY TOLL LIKE RECEPTORS (TLR) AND CD14 ON AVIAN HETEROPHILS STIMULATED WITH BACTERIAL TOLL AGONISTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on...

36

The selective Dectin-1 agonist, curdlan, induces an oxidative burst response in chicken heterophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A critical component of host innate immunity is recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Dectin-1 is the primary PRR for exogenous beta-glucan, a component of fungal and bacterial cell walls. A previous study conducted in our laboratory...

37

Single-Cell Adhesion Tests against Functionalized Microspheres Arrayed on AFM Cantilevers Confirm Heterophilic E-and N-Cadherin Binding  

E-print Network

Single-Cell Adhesion Tests against Functionalized Microspheres Arrayed on AFM Cantilevers Confirm of interest. Instead, our force probe allows us to assemble arrays of prefunctionalized microspheres (or other

Heinrich, Volkmar

38

DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION BY AVIAN HETEROPHILS DURING RECEPTOR-MEDIATED PHAGOCYTOSIS OF OPSONIZED AND NON-OPSONIZED SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internalization of pathogens by phagocytic cells triggers the innate immune response, which in turn regulates the acquired response. Phagocytes express a variety of receptors that are involved in recognition of pathogens including: (1) pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved ...

39

DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION BY CHICKEN HETEROPHILS DURING RECEPTOR-MEDIATED PHAGOCYTOSIS OF OPSONIZED AND NON-OPSONIZED SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Internalization of pathogens by phagocytic cells starts the innate immune response, which in turn regulates the acquired response. Phagocytes express a variety of receptors that are involved in recognition of pathogens including: (1) pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved mo...

40

Differential induction of nitric oxide, degranulation, and oxidative burst activities in response to microbial agonist stimulation in monocytes and heterophils from young commercial turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns and trigger inflammatory immune responses to control the infection. Here, we examined functional innate immune responses to Salmonella enteritidis (SE, live or formalin-killed) and various TLR ag...

41

THE USE OF SELECTIVE PHARMACOLOGICAL INHIBITORS TO DELINEATE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS ACTIVATED DURING COMPLEMENT RECEPTOR-MEDIATED DEGRANULATION IN CHICKEN HETEROPHILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Complement receptors (CR), along with Fc receptors, play a primary role in the removal of bacterial pathogens in poultry. The binding of serum-opsonized bacteria to CR results in the secretion of both toxic oxygen metabolites and anti-bacterial granules. We have previously shown that the stimulati...

42

FLAGELLIN AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE STIMULATE THE MEK-ERK SIGNALING PATHWAY IN CHICKEN HETEROPHILS THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF THE SMALL GTPASES, RAS AND RAP1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The TLR agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulate functional activation and cytokine gene expression via the extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) MAP kinase cascade. However, the upstream mechanisms of these signaling events remain unknown. In mammals, the smal...

43

False Positivity in a Cyto-ELISA for Anti-Endothelial Cell Antibodies Caused by Heterophile Antibodies to Bovine Serum Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: ELISAs with fixed endothelial cells or cell lines are widely used screening tests for anti-endothe- lial cell antibodies (AECAs), but spurious increases occur. We examined interferences by heteroantibodies and means to eliminate them. Methods: AECAs were measured by ELISA on fixed layers of the human endothelial cell line, EA.hy 926, in a panel of 60 patient serum samples diluted

Ronan Revelen; Anne Bordron; Maryvonne Dueymes; Pierre Youinou; Josiane Arvieux

2000-01-01

44

Mononucleosis spot test  

MedlinePLUS

Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

45

Expression of the avian-specific toll-like receptor 15 in chicken heterophils is mediated by Gram-negative and Gram-postive bacteria, but not TLR agonists  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential for recognition of conserved molecular constituents found on infectious microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the PRR repertoire in both mammalian and avian species. While most mammalian TLRs have been well characterized...

46

LIPOPOLYSACCAHRIDE-BINDING PROTEIN/CD14/TLR4-DEPENDENT RECOGNITION OF SALMONELLA LPS INDUCES THE FUNCTIONAL ACTIVATION OF CHICKEN HETEROPHILS AND UP-REGULATION OF PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE & CHEMOKINE GENE EXPRESSION IN CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) found in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and, in mammals, is recognized by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in conjunction with the serum protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and the CD14 co-recep...

47

Patterns of variation in leucocyte counts of female tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor: Repeatability over time and relationships with condition and costs of reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterophil to lymphocyte (HL) ratio in the peripheral blood is increasingly being recognized as a reliable indicator of stress in birds. In this study we examined whether HL ratio, as well as the proportion of heterophils and lymphocytes, varied systematically with sampling time, date, age, climate conditions or with measures of maternal investment in female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

Courtney L. Ochs; Russell D. Dawson

2008-01-01

48

THE FEATHERING GENE IS LINKED TO DEGRANULATION AND OXIDATIVE BURST NOT CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE EXPRESSION OR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ORGAN INVASION IN BROILERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, we showed differences in in vitro heterophil function between parental broilers (Line A>B) and F1 reciprocal crosses (Line Cheterophil functional efficiency while the slow feathering gene (K) reduced efficiency. Based on...

49

THE FEATHERING GENE IS LINKED TO DEGRANULATION AND OXIDATIVE BURST NOT CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE MRNA EXPRESSION LEVELS OR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ORGAN INVASION IN BROILERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past, we showed differences in heterophil function between parental broilers Lines A (fast [F] feathering)>B (slow [S] feathering) and their F1 reciprocal crosses (Line D [F]>C [S]), indicating the feathering gene is associated with heterophil function. In the present study, we evaluated the...

50

Oxygen radical production by avian leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Oxygen radical production by heterophils of red-tailed hawks and chickens, and by neutrophils of calves, was evaluated in a chemiluminescence microassay. Leukocytes were isolated by centrifugation of blood in capillary tubes and then challenged with opsonized zymosan in the presence of luminol. Avian heterophils produced significantly fewer oxygen radicals than did bovine neutrophils. PMID:1884301

Conlon, P; Smith, D; Gowlett, T

1991-01-01

51

Immunomodulatory Effects of Probiotic and Anticoccidial Treatments in Broiler Chickens  

E-print Network

Four experiments evaluated the impact of probiotic administration on the immune response of broilers vaccinated with a live coccidiosis vaccine. Experiment one showed that probiotic administration increased heterophil and monocyte oxidative burst...

Stringfellow, Kendre

2012-10-19

52

Target protein for eucaryotic arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among ADP-ribosyltransferases reported in eucaryotes, arginine-specific transferases from turkey erythrocytes, chicken heterophils and rabbit skeletal muscle have been purified and extensively studied. They were reported to modify a number of proteinsin vitro. ADP-ribosylation of Ha-ras-p21 and transducin by the turkey erythrocyte transferase inhibits their GTPase and GTP-binding activities. Chicken heterophil enzyme modifies several substrate proteins for protein kinases and decreases

Mikako Tsuchiya; Makoto Shimoyama

1994-01-01

53

What is your diagnosis? Blood smear from an injured red-tailed hawk.  

PubMed

An injured juvenile red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. The hawk was quiet, alert, and emaciated, and had a closed comminuted, mid-diaphyseal ulnar fracture. CBC results included heterophilia with a left shift, monocytosis, and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration. The blood smear included rare heterophils containing small, dark blue inclusions approximately 1-2 mum in diameter that ranged from round to coccobacillary in shape and formed variably shaped aggregates; the morphology of the inclusions was suspicious for Chlamydophila or Ehrlichia spp. pathogens. The hawk died, and histopathologic examination of tissues obtained at necropsy found severe multifocal histiocytic and heterophilic splenitis in addition to chronic hepatitis, myocarditis and epicarditis, meningoencephalitis, and airsacculitis. Using immunohistochemistry the presence of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen within multiple tissues was confirmed. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was demonstrated in whole blood and fresh splenic tissue via real-time PCR. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of air-dried blood smears was positive in rare leukocytes for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen, and immunocytochemical staining of blood smears for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen was focally positive in rare heterophils. These findings may represent the first reported diagnosis of natural avian C. psittaci infection by visualization of organisms in peripheral blood heterophils. Immunocytochemical evaluation of blood smears was valuable in confirming the diagnosis and may be a useful antemortem test to discriminate between bacteria and other inclusions within heterophils. PMID:19228359

Johns, Jennifer L; Luff, Jennifer A; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Zehnder, Ashley M; Borjesson, Dori L

2009-06-01

54

DIFFERENTIAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION BY CHICKEN IMMUNE CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitric oxide is a rapidly reacting free radical which has cytotoxic effects during inflammatory responses and regulatory effects as a component of signal transduction cascades. We quantified the production of nitrite, a stable metabolite of nitric oxide, in chicken heterophils, monocytes and macrop...

55

Pakistan Vt. J., 22(4): 2002 STRESS MANAGEMENT FOLLOWING VACCINATION AGAINST  

E-print Network

in broilers and its management by using multivitaminsand aspirin. The parameters studied were heterophil gain and minimum stress, while thé aspirin therapy did not show any significant différence. Key words/4 lit. of drinking water. c) Aspirin (Shamsi Pharma) containing acetyl salicylic acid. Dose: 180 mg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF SEX AND GENETICS ON BEHAVIOR AND STRESS RESPONSE OF TURKEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three lines of turkeys were tested for response in T-maze and open field tests during the first 8 days after hatch and behavior was observed after catching, moving, and transport. They were also compared for corticosterone (Cort) levels and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (H/L) in response to an Escher...

57

HEMATOLOGICAL AND BLOOD CHEMICAL VALUES OF MALLARD, Anas p. platyrhynchos, DRAKES BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER REMIGE MOULT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematological and blood chemical values were determined for wild and captive mallards, Anas p. platyrhynchos, for the late spring period prior to remige moult through early fall migration. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, as well as the number of heterophils and lymphocytes, declined significantly during and after remige moult compared to values recorded prior to remige

E. A. DRIVER

58

Identification and structural characterization of avian beta-defensin 2 peptides from pheasant and quail  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pheasant and quail orthologues of avian ß-defensin 2 (AVBD2) were identified in methanol extracts of heterophil and bone marrow using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). We used comparative pattern profiling before and after reduction/alkyla...

59

Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia

C. M. Hawkey; M. G. Hart; H. J. Samour

1985-01-01

60

CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPONTANEOUSLY TRANSFORMED CHICKEN MONONUCLEAR CELL LINE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe the characterization of a spontaneously transformed chicken monocytic cell line that developed as a single colony of cells in a heterophil culture that was inadvertently left in the incubator over a period of 25 days. These cells, hitherto named HTC, grow efficiently at both 37 C or 41 C...

61

Hematologic and plasma biochemical values of Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii).  

PubMed

The Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) is considered the world's most endangered parrot, with the last wild bird disappearing in 2001 and only 74 birds in captivity. To establish hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges and to look for differences relative to sex, age, and season, we obtained blood samples from 46 captive Spix's macaws (23 male, 23 female) housed in aviaries at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. No significant differences in hematologic or plasma biochemical values were found between females and males. Adult and juvenile birds differed in mean concentrations of glucose, total protein, amylase, cholesterol, and phosphorus; in percentages of heterophils and lymphocytes; and in the absolute lymphocyte count. Total protein, cholesterol, and phosphorus concentrations; hematocrit; and heterophil and lymphocyte counts differed significantly by season. Baseline hematologic and plasma biochemical ranges were established, which may be useful as reference values for clinicians working with this highly endangered species. PMID:18351006

Foldenauer, Ulrike; Borjal, Raffy Jim; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Taha, Abid Sharif; Watson, Ryan William; Steinmetz, Hanspeter; Bürkle, Marcellus; Hammer, Sven

2007-12-01

62

Characterization of the clinical and anatomical pathological changes associated with Hepatozoon mocassini infections in unnatural reptilian hosts.  

PubMed

Laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were employed in the successful transmission of Hepatozoon mocassini from a cotton-mouth moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) to 3 lizard species (Sceloporus undulatus, Eumeces obsoletus and Sceloporus poinsetti). Marked to severe lethargy and anorexia developed in the S. undulatus, E. obsoletus and S. poinsetti at 15, 38, and 96 days postinfection (PI), respectively. All 3 lizards developed a leukocytosis and had increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST) by 14 days PI. Multifocal random hepatocellular necrosis and intrahepatic aggregates of heterophils centered on mature H. mocassini meronts were demonstrated in all 3 lizards. The pulmonary interstitium was multifocally thickened by aggregates of heterophils centered on meronts. No comparable clinical or anatomical pathological changes were demonstrated in naturally infected snakes. The results of this study suggest that H. mocassini is capable of inducing necrotizing inflammatory by lesions in unnatural reptilian hosts. PMID:8690537

Wozniak, E J; Kazacos, K R; Telford, S R; McLaughlin, G L

1996-02-01

63

LYMPHOMA IN COTTON-TOP MARMOSETS AFTER INOCULATION WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS: TUMOR INCIDENCE, HISTOLOGIC SPECTRUM ANTIBODY RESPONSES, DEMONSTRATION OF VIRAL DNA, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In certain New World monkeys Epstein-Barr (EB) 1 viral infection is accompanied by the development of lymphoproliferative disease. Four of eight cotton-top marmosets (tamarins) inoculated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (the Hawley strain) derived from a patient with post-transfusion heterophile-positive mononucleosis, developed malignant lymphoma (1). The EB3 Burkitt lymphoma virus strain induced malignant lymphoprolifo erative disease in an owl monkey, and

GEORGE MILLER; THOMAS SHOPE; DONALD COOPE; LEVIN WATERS; JOSEPH PAGANO; GEORG W. BORNKAMM; WERNER HENLE

64

Fulminant Cytomegalovirus Myocarditis in an Immunocompetent Host: Resolution with Oral Valganciclovir  

PubMed Central

We report a case of fulminant myocarditis after a primary cytomegalovirus infection, in a previously healthy 72-year-old woman. The infection underwent clinical and immunologic resolution consequent to treatment with oral valganciclovir. In an immunocompetent host, the primary cytomegalovirus infection is usually asymptomatic or manifests itself as a heterophile-negative mononucleosis-like syndrome. Cytomegalovirus myocarditis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. After presenting our case, we review the literature on cytomegalovirus myocarditis in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:25425988

Kumar, Anupam; Padala, Sandeep

2014-01-01

65

Neural cell adhesion molecule isoform 140 declines with rise of WHO grade in human gliomas and serves as indicator for the invasion zone of multiform glioblastomas and brain metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Gliomas are highly invasive neuroepithelial tumors with a propensity of malignant transformation and very restricted treatment\\u000a options. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) modulates cellular migration, proliferation, and synaptic plasticity by\\u000a homophilic and heterophilic interactions. Hereby, we investigated its relevance as a glioma tissue marker for the biological\\u000a aggressiveness of these tumors and compared these features with the carcinoma brain

Pedro Duenisch; Rupert Reichart; Ulrike Mueller; Michael Brodhun; Rolf Bjerkvig; Bernd Romeike; Jan Walter; Christian Herbold; Christian R. A. Regenbrecht; Rolf Kalff; Susanne A. Kuhn

2011-01-01

66

Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

Olsen, Glenn H.

2011-01-01

67

Developmental stages and localization of peroxidatic activity in the leucocytes of three teleost species ( Cyprinus carpio L.; Tinca tinca L.; Salmo gairdneri Richardson)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The ultrastructural localization of peroxidase (PO) in the leucocytes of three teleosts (Cyprinus carpio L., Tinca tinca L., Salmo gairdneri R.) has been investigated using the 3,3-diaminobenzidine method. In the heterophilic granulocytes the granules show a species specific structure and are PO-positive at pH 7.6. They can be traced back to small granules arising near the Golgi apparatus (GA) in

E. Bielek

1981-01-01

68

Identification of mechanisms of Salmonella gallinarum virulence  

E-print Network

lymphokine and capasaian-mediated protection (Kogut et al. , 1995; Kogut et al. , 1996; Powell, 1987). Presently, we evaluated the efficacy of an anti-inflammatory dose of an exogenous glucocorticosteroid, (DEX) and a macrophage activator, LPS... been shown recruit these PMNs resulting 10 in an increase in circulating heterophils to the site of bacterial invasion (Kogut et al, , 1995). It has been shown that the PMN inflammatory response is an important component of the ILK mediated...

Edwards, Emmerson Wendell

1998-01-01

69

Determination of Cell Adhesion Sites of Neuropilin-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropilin-1 is a type 1 membrane protein with three distinct functions. First, it can mediate cell adhesion via a heterophilic molecular interaction. Sec- ond, in neuronal cells, neuropilin-1 binds the class 3 semaphorins, which are neuronal chemorepellents, and plays a role in the directional guidance of axons. Neuro- pilin-1 is expected to form complexes with the plexinA subfamily members and

Masayuki Shimizu; Yasunori Murakami; Fumikazu Suto; Hajime Fujisawa

2000-01-01

70

Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor).  

PubMed

Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia and four had heterophilia. The findings suggested that haematological testing is of potential diagnostic value in the species. PMID:18766947

Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

1985-10-01

71

Promotion of Spinal Cord Regeneration by Neural Stem Cell-Secreted Trimerized Cell Adhesion Molecule L1  

PubMed Central

The L1 cell adhesion molecule promotes neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in homophilic and heterophilic interactions and enhances neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival homophilically, i.e. by self binding. We investigated whether exploitation of homophilic and possibly also heterophilic mechanisms of neural stem cells overexpressing the full-length transmembrane L1 and a secreted trimer engineered to express its extracellular domain would be more beneficial for functional recovery of the compression injured spinal cord of adult mice than stem cells overexpressing only full-length L1 or the parental, non-engineered cells. Here we report that stem cells expressing trimeric and full-length L1 are indeed more efficient in promoting locomotor recovery when compared to stem cells overexpressing only full-length L1 or the parental stem cells. The trimer expressing stem cells were also more efficient in reducing glial scar volume and expression of chondroitin sulfates and the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2. They were also more efficient in enhancing regrowth/sprouting and/or preservation of serotonergic axons, and remyelination and/or myelin sparing. Moreover, degeneration/dying back of corticospinal cord axons was prevented more by the trimer expressing stem cells. These results encourage the view that stem cells engineered to drive the beneficial functions of L1 via homophilic and heterophilic interactions are functionally optimized and may thus be of therapeutic value. PMID:23049984

He, Xiaowen; Knepper, Michael; Ding, Cheng; Li, Jun; Castro, Suita; Siddiqui, Maham; Schachner, Melitta

2012-01-01

72

Species cross-reactivity of rheumatoid factors and implications for immunoassays.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid factors (RFs) are antibodies recognizing other antibodies usually by binding to the Fc part, while heterophilic antibodies (HAbs) are antibodies reacting with immunoglobulins (Igs) from other species. In particular, RFs have been found to cause false positive results in sandwich immunoassays. In this work, we analyzed RF-positive and RF-negative sera for content of cytokines and for heterophilic reactions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bead-based sandwich immunoassays. All sera, including those with RFs, contained insignificant amounts of cytokines and chemokines, but RF-positive sera showed large false positive values for several cytokines when analyzed by fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassays. This non-specific binding could be minimized by reagents designed to block HAbs, i.e. by selected animal IgGs. Furthermore, sera positive for RFs reacted with several animal IgGs, when these were immobilized on beads or coated on the polystyrene surface in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This reaction could be inhibited by human IgG and by agents designed to inhibit heterophilic reactions (i.e. mixtures of IgGs from different species). In conclusion, RFs and HAbs represent an identical/overlapping set of antibodies, causing false positive reactions in sandwich and other immunoassays. Such assays must be conducted in the presence of appropriate blocking agents, e.g. HBR+, and must be carefully controlled. PMID:25347362

Holm, Bettina E; Sandhu, Noreen; Tronstrřm, Julie; Lydolph, Magnus; Trier, Nicole H; Houen, Gunnar

2015-01-01

73

Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages  

PubMed Central

The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

Hrab?áková, Petra; Voslá?ová, Eva; Bedá?ová, Iveta; Pišt?ková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimír

2014-01-01

74

Regulation of the HPA axis is related to song complexity and measures of phenotypic quality in song sparrows.  

PubMed

Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key component of the vertebrate stress response. Prior studies have found that variation in HPA responses were correlated to measures of fitness and physiological condition. In addition, sexually-selected traits have also been found to correlate to measures of condition. The proximate mechanisms responsible for such covariation between sexually selected traits and measures of quality are unclear, but could involve variation in HPA regulation. We investigated whether HPA activity is related to song complexity, body size/condition and leukocyte profiles in wild male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We characterized three aspects of HPA activity: 1) response to restraint stress; 2) negative feedback, assessed by the ability of exogenous dexamethasone to suppress corticosterone levels; and 3) adrenal sensitivity to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Birds with lower responses to restraint stress had more complex song and more heterophils and higher heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios. Birds with more effective negative feedback were larger and had fewer heterophils and lower H:L ratios, suggesting lower levels of physiological stress or infection. We observed no relationship between adrenal sensitivity to exogenous ACTH and any of the factors. These findings illustrate important relationships between HPA activity, song complexity, and morphological and physiological traits. Song complexity may thus provide receivers with information about the ability of the singer to cope with stressors. PMID:22418051

Schmidt, Kim L; Furlonger, Ainsley A; Lapierre, Janet M; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

2012-04-01

75

Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract on haematological parameters, immune function and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SC) on haematological parameters, immune function, and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed a diet contaminated with low level aflatoxin (AF). Forty-eight Ross 308 breeder hens were fed on diets containing AF (0 or 100?µg/kg) and SC (0 or 1?g/kg) in a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement. Red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), and platelet counts, differential leucocyte counts, blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD5+ T cell ratios, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst of heterophils, plasma and liver catalase activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and ascorbic acid concentrations were measured. 3. Plasma and liver MDA concentrations increased (P?heterophils increased (P?heterophil, lymphocyte, CD5+ cell percentages, and plasma catalase activity. Blood heterophil percentage decreased but lymphocyte percentage increased in hens fed on the AF contaminated diet without SC supplementation. SC supplementation counteracted the negative effect of AF on heterophils and lymphocytes. The CD5+ cell percentage decreased in unsupplemented hens fed the AF contaminated diet and this negative effect was minimised in SC supplemented hens. Plasma catalase activity increased in SC supplemented hens fed the uncontaminated diet whereas the effect of SC decreased in hens fed the AF contaminated diet. 4. The SC reduced some of the some adverse effects of AF, and improved functions of the non-specific immune system. Therefore, the SC extract which has been used for improving productive performance in birds and mammals may also be useful for modulating some of the effects of a low level, chronic dosage of AF. PMID:22029780

Matur, E; Ergul, E; Akyazi, I; Eraslan, E; Inal, G; Bilgic, S; Demircan, H

2011-10-01

76

Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).  

PubMed

Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9?µg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9?µg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p?=?0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p?=?0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6?µg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p?=?0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p?=?0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p?heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (p?heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9?µg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported. PMID:21381084

Fallacara, Dawn M; Halbrook, Richard S; French, John B

2011-06-01

77

Cytokine signaling in splenic leukocytes from vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens after intravenous infection with Salmonella enteritidis.  

PubMed

In order to design a new Salmonella enterica vaccine, one needs to understand how naive and immune chickens interact differently when exposed to S. enterica. In this study we therefore determined the immune response of vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens after intravenous infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). Using flow cytometry we showed that 4 days post infection (DPI), counts of CD4 and B-lymphocytes did not change, CD8 and ?? T-lymphocytes decreased and macrophages and heterophils increased in the spleen. When vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens were compared, only macrophages and heterophils were found in significantly higher counts in the spleens of the non-vaccinated chickens. The non-vaccinated chickens also expressed higher anti-LPS antibodies than the vaccinated chickens. The expression of interleukin (IL)1?, IL6, IL8, IL18, LITAF, IFN? and iNOS did not exhibit any clear pattern in the cells sorted from the spleens of vaccinated or non-vaccinated chickens. Only IL17 and IL22 showed a differential expression in the CD4 T-lymphocytes of the vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens at 4 DPI, both being expressed at a higher level in the non-vaccinated chickens. Due to a similar IFN? expression in the CD4 T-lymphocytes in both the vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens, and a variable IL17 expression oscillating around IFN? expression levels, the IL17?IFN? ratio in CD4 T-lymphocytes was found to be central for the outcome of the immune response. When IL17 was expressed at higher levels than IFN? in the non-vaccinated chickens, the Th17 immune response with a higher macrophage and heterophil infiltration in the spleen dominated. However, when the expression of IL17 was lower than that of IFN? as in the vaccinated chickens, the Th1 response with a higher resistance to S. Enteritidis infection dominated. PMID:22384225

Matulova, Marta; Stepanova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Faldynova, Marcela; Kyrova, Kamila; Volf, Jiri; Rychlik, Ivan

2012-01-01

78

The Identification of Loci for Immune Traits in Chickens Using a Genome-Wide Association Study  

PubMed Central

The genetic improvement of disease resistance in poultry continues to be a challenge. To identify candidate genes and loci responsible for these traits, genome-wide association studies using the chicken 60k high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array for six immune traits, total serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level, numbers of, and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes, and antibody responses against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC), were performed. RT-qPCR was used to quantify the relative expression of the identified candidate genes. Nine significantly associated SNPs (P < 2.81E-06) and 30 SNPs reaching the suggestively significant level (P < 5.62E-05) were identified. Five of the 10 SNPs that were suggestively associated with the antibody response to SRBC were located within or close to previously reported QTL regions. Fifteen SNPs reached a suggestive significance level for AIV antibody titer and seven were found on the sex chromosome Z. Seven suggestive markers involving five different SNPs were identified for the numbers of heterophils and lymphocytes, and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. Nine significant SNPs, all on chromosome 16, were significantly associated with serum total IgY concentration, and the five most significant were located within a narrow region spanning 6.4kb to 253.4kb (P = 1.20E-14 to 5.33E-08). After testing expression of five candidate genes (IL4I1, CD1b, GNB2L1, TRIM27 and ZNF692) located in this region, changes in IL4I1, CD1b transcripts were consistent with the concentrations of IgY, while abundances of TRIM27 and ZNF692 showed reciprocal changes to those of IgY concentrations. This study has revealed 39 SNPs associated with six immune traits (total serum IgY level, numbers of, and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes, and antibody responses against AIV and SRBC) in Beijing-You chickens. The narrow region spanning 247kb on chromosome 16 is an important QTL for serum total IgY concentration. Five candidate genes related to IgY level validated here are novel and may play critical roles in the modulation of immune responses. Potentially useful candidate SNPs for marker-assisted selection for disease resistance are identified. It is highly likely that these candidate genes play roles in various aspects of the immune response in chickens. PMID:25822738

Zhang, Lei; Li, Peng; Liu, Ranran; Zheng, Maiqing; Sun, Yan; Wu, Dan; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie; Zhao, Guiping

2015-01-01

79

Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

Muńoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Para; Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseńor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

2013-01-01

80

Hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for endangered red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) at wintering and migratory sites in Argentina.  

PubMed

We obtained hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for adult, long-distance migrant Red Knots at their southernmost wintering site in Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) and at the first stopover site in San Antonio Oeste (Río Negro, Argentina). Lymphocytes (L) followed by heterophils (H) were the most abundant leukocytes. H/L ratio and glucose levels were significantly higher at Río Grande, possibly because of the stress of migration and molting. Packed cell volume results ranged widely, probably in response to increased oxygen demand for migration. Protein profiles and lipids were higher at the stopover site and attributable to birds storing reserves for subsequent flights. PMID:20688666

D'Amico, Verónica L; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M

2010-04-01

81

Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma lipofaciens strain ML64, isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), for chicken embryos.  

PubMed

Some Mycoplasma species are well-known avian pathogens and are of importance in poultry breeder flocks due to their pathogenic potential for embryos. Mycoplasmas are regularly detected in birds of prey, and a strain of Mycoplasma lipofaciens that was isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) was examined for its pathogenicity in specific pathogen free chicken embryos since birds of prey eggs were not available for this purpose. The strain was found to be pathogenic, causing a high mortality as well as dwarfing, curled toes and infiltrations of heterophils in the liver, kidney, intestine and chorioallantoic membrane. PMID:17479376

Lierz, M; Stark, R; Brokat, S; Hafez, H M

2007-04-01

82

Age-related haematological changes and haemopathological responses in Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chiliensis).  

PubMed

Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 49 clinically normal Chilean flamingos of different ages. Compared with adults, chicks aged 2-3 months showed low haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations. There was a rise in haemoglobin level and red cell count with increasing age but the mean cell haemoglobin concentration did not reach optimum until the birds were mature. In chicks the total white cell count was high and the number of heterophils was widely variable. Findings on four sick adult birds provided preliminary evidence that clinical haematology has a potential diagnostic value in this species. PMID:18766839

Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

1984-04-01

83

Epizootic podoknemidokoptiasis in American robins.  

PubMed

Epizootics of scaly leg disease caused by infection with the submacroscopic mite Knemidokoptes jamaicensis (Acari: Knemidokoptidae) in migratory American robins (Turdus migratorius) from a residential area of Tulsa (Oklahoma, USA) are documented during the winters (December through February) of 1993-94 and 1994-95. Estimates of 60 to > 80% of the birds in several different flights arriving in the area had lesions consistent with knemidokoptic mange. Epizootic occurrence of K. jamaicensis also is confirmed incidentally in American robins from Georgia (USA) in 1995 and 1998 and in Florida (USA) in 1991. These are the first confirmed epizootics of scaly leg attributed to infections with mites specifically identified as K. jamaicensis in North America. Severity of observed lesions in American robins ranged from scaly hyperkeratosis of the feet and legs to extensive proliferative lesions with loss of digits or the entire foot in some birds. Histologically, there was severe diffuse hyperkeratosis of the epidermis which contained numerous mites and multifocal aggregates of degranulating to degenerating eosinophilic heterophils; there was mild to severe superficial dermatitis with aggregates of eosinophilic heterophils and some mononuclear cells. Based on limited data from affected captive birds in Florida, we questioned the efficacy of ivermectin as an effective acaricide for knemidokoptiasis and propose that conditions associated with captivity may exacerbate transmission of this mite among caged birds. While knemidokoptic mange apparently can result in substantial host morbidity and possibly mortality, the ultimate impact of these epizootics on American robin populations presently is unknown. PMID:10073340

Pence, D B; Cole, R A; Brugger, K E; Fischer, J R

1999-01-01

84

CEACAM2-L on spermatids interacts with poliovirus receptor on Sertoli cells in mouse seminiferous epithelium.  

PubMed

The removal of excess cytoplasm from elongated spermatids by Sertoli cells is the last essential step in spermatogenesis. It requires cell-to-cell recognition between a Sertoli cell and an elongating spermatid through protein-protein interactions. CEACAM2-L, an adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is present at the plasma membrane covering the excess cytoplasm of elongated spermatids, and is possibly involved in the cell-to-cell recognition. In this study, we investigated the interaction between CEACAM2-L and Poliovirus receptor (PVR), which is also from the IgSF and is expressed by Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CEACAM2-L expressed on elongated spermatids was in close contact with PVR-positive cell processes of Sertoli cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments both in vivo and in vitro demonstrated a direct heterophilic interaction between CEACAM2-L and PVR. We show that the N-terminal Ig domain of CEACAM2-L was critical for its interaction with PVR. In addition, we found that CEACAM2-L formed heterophilic trans-tetramers with PVR in transfected COS-7 cells. From these data, we propose that Sertoli cells recognize the excess cytoplasm of elongated spermatids through the PVR-CEACAM2-L interaction in mouse testis. PMID:24948196

Salaheldeen, Elsaid; Howida, Ali; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Iida, Hiroshi

2014-09-01

85

Friendship and natural selection  

PubMed Central

More than any other species, humans form social ties to individuals who are neither kin nor mates, and these ties tend to be with similar people. Here, we show that this similarity extends to genotypes. Across the whole genome, friends’ genotypes at the single nucleotide polymorphism level tend to be positively correlated (homophilic). In fact, the increase in similarity relative to strangers is at the level of fourth cousins. However, certain genotypes are also negatively correlated (heterophilic) in friends. And the degree of correlation in genotypes can be used to create a “friendship score” that predicts the existence of friendship ties in a hold-out sample. A focused gene-set analysis indicates that some of the overall correlation in genotypes can be explained by specific systems; for example, an olfactory gene set is homophilic and an immune system gene set is heterophilic, suggesting that these systems may play a role in the formation or maintenance of friendship ties. Friends may be a kind of “functional kin.” Finally, homophilic genotypes exhibit significantly higher measures of positive selection, suggesting that, on average, they may yield a synergistic fitness advantage that has been helping to drive recent human evolution. PMID:25024208

Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

2014-01-01

86

The ecology of host immune responses to chronic avian haemosporidian infection.  

PubMed

Host responses to parasitism in the wild are often studied in the context of single host-parasite systems, which provide little insight into the ecological dynamics of host-parasite interactions within a community. Here we characterized immune system responses to mostly low-intensity, chronic infection by haemosporidian parasites in a sample of 424 individuals of 22 avian host species from the same local assemblage in the Missouri Ozarks. Two types of white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) were elevated in infected individuals across species, as was the acute-phase protein haptoglobin, which is associated with inflammatory immune responses. Linear discriminant analysis indicated that individuals infected by haemosporidians occupied a subset of the overall white blood cell multivariate space that was also occupied by uninfected individuals, suggesting that these latter individuals might have harbored other pathogens or that parasites more readily infect individuals with a specific white blood cell profile. DNA sequence-defined lineages of haemosporidian parasites were sparsely distributed across the assemblage of hosts. In one well-sampled host species, the red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus), heterophils were significantly elevated in individuals infected with one but not another of two common parasite lineages. Another well-sampled host, the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), exhibited no differences in immune response to different haemosporidian lineages. Our results indicate that while immune responses to infection may be generalized across host species, parasite-specific immune responses may also occur. PMID:25179282

Ellis, Vincenzo A; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

2014-11-01

87

Survival and physiologic response of common Amakihi and Japanese white-eyes during simulated translocation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding in an aviary for 48 hr with overnight thermal support followed by transport for 4 hr prior to release. Trial 3 and 1 were identical except that overnight thermal support was provided during trial 3. We monitored survival, food consumption, weight change, and fecal production during captivity as well as changes in hematocrit, estimated total solids, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma uric acid, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) at capture and release. Survival was significantly lower for Amakihi during trial 1 (no thermal support). Birds that died lost significantly more weight than those that survived. Regardless of trial, birds responded to translocation by a combination of weight loss, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, uric acid, and CPK levels. The first 24 hr of captivity posed the greatest risk to birds regardless of whether transport or holding occurred first. Food consumption, fecal production, and weight all decreased at night, and overnight thermal support during holding was critical if ambient temperatures dipped to freezing. We recommend that if small passerines are to be held for > 12 hr, they be monitored individually for weight loss, food consumption, and fecal production.

Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S.; Banko, P.C.

1999-01-01

88

Survival and physiologic response of Common Amakihi and Japanese White-eyes during simulated translocation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding in an aviary for 48 hr with overnight thermal support followed by transport for 4 hr prior to release. Trial 3 and 1 were identical except that overnight thermal support was provided during trial 3. We monitored survival, food consumption, weight change, and fecal production during captivity as well as changes in hematocrit, estimated total solids, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma uric acid, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) at capture and release. Survival was significantly lower for Amakihi during trial I (no thermal support). Birds that died lost significantly more weight than those that survived. Regardless of trial, birds responded to translocation by a combination of weight loss, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, uric acid, and CPK levels. The first 24 hr of captivity posed the greatest risk to birds regardless of whether transport or holding occurred first. Food consumption, fecal production, and weight all decreased at night, and overnight thermal support during holding was critical if ambient temperatures dipped to freezing. We recommend that if small passerines are to be held for > 12 hr, they be monitored individually for weight loss, food consumption, and fecal production.

Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S.; Banko, P.C.

1999-01-01

89

Clinical pathology and parasitologic evaluation of free-living nestlings of the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus).  

PubMed

This study evaluated the health status and established hematologic and serum biochemistry parameters for free-living nestlings of the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) from the Brazilian Pantanal (19 degrees 51'-19 degrees 58'S; 56 degrees 17'-56 degrees 24'W), for four consecutive years (from December 2003 through December 2006). Physical examinations indicated that all the birds were in good health. Endoparasites and blood parasites were not detected in any of the nestlings, and ectoparasites seemed to be limited to Philornis sp. (Diptera: Muscidae). Significantly higher levels of total white blood cells and heterophils, glucose, total protein, triglycerides, and phosphorus were observed in females. In females, higher cholesterol levels and packed cell volumes were observed in older birds, and total white blood cell and heterophil counts were higher in young animals. In males, uric acid levels were higher in older individuals. Wild Pantanal Hyacinth Macaws feed on only two species of palm nuts (Acrocomia totai and Scheelea phalerta). This limited food habit has a strong impact on population size and may alter the clinical pathology parameters of these birds. Therefore, knowledge of blood levels in normal individuals is essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild macaws, to assess the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation strategies of this endangered species. PMID:19901373

Allgayer, M C; Guedes, N M R; Chiminazzo, C; Cziulik, M; Weimer, T A

2009-10-01

90

Comparative microscopic lesions in reoviral and staphylococcal tenosynovitis.  

PubMed

Experimental inoculation of 1-day-old male broiler chickens with avian reo-virus or Staphylococcus aureus caused tenosynovitis of the gastrocnemius and digital flexor tendons. Reovirus inoculation by either the oral or footpad route initiated a diffuse lymphocytic infiltration in the peritendineum, synovial membrane, and epitenon from 1 to 5 weeks postinoculation (PI). Heterophils were not a predominant feature of the inflammatory response, but when present they were localized with fibrin in and around synovial spaces. The prevalence of microscopic tendon lesions was less common with staphylococcal infection than with reovirus infection. With staphylococcus, lesions were localized to the synovial space and membranes and were characterized by heterophils and fibrin but few lymphocytes. Synovial cell hyperplasia and bursal atrophy were common in both groups. From 10 to 20 weeks PI, both groups developed progressive tendon fibrosis. These results indicate that tenosynovitis due to inoculation with reovirus or staphylococcus may be differentiated histologically from 1 through 5 weeks PI. After 10 weeks, this may not be possible, because diffuse fibrosis was the major lesion with both. Perhaps fibrosis predisposes older, heavier broilers to tendon failure and rupture. PMID:2549934

Hill, J E; Rowland, G N; Glisson, J R; Villegas, P

1989-01-01

91

West Nile Virus in Farmed Alligators  

PubMed Central

Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the horsemeat collected during the 2002 outbreak but negative in the horsemeat collected after the outbreak. PMID:12890319

Mauel, Michael J.; Baldwin, Charles; Burtle, Gary; Ingram, Dallas; Hines, Murray E.; Frazier, Kendal S.

2003-01-01

92

The influence of fasting on blood and plasma composition of herring gulls (Larus argentatus).  

PubMed

Populations of scavenging seabird species in the North Sea may fluctuate with an artificial food source: the availability of fishery waste. To document this impact, it is necessary to assess the birds' nutritional status during periods with decreased fishing activity. Reference data for this purpose was collected from 22 herring gulls investigated during laboratory fasting. After 6 d of food deprivation and body mass losses exceeding 15%, the first birds entered starvation phase 3. Comparatively, this is a rather weak fasting capacity. Plasma levels of total protein and thyroid hormones decreased and beta-hydroxybutyrate increased with fasting duration. The leucocyte proportions were shifted from lymphocytes to heterophils. After 3 d of refeeding, most of the fasting changes were reversed. Plasma enzyme activities increased and hematocrit, hemoglobin, and erythrocyte numbers decreased in both fasting and control birds, most likely as a result of experimental stress and repeated blood sampling. Glucose, cholesterol, monocytes, basophils, and glycosylated hemoglobin remained fairly constant. Triglycerides, free fatty acids, uric acid, and urea varied significantly, but changes were not as clearly a result of fasting. Therefore, total protein, beta-hydroxybutyrate, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and lymphocyte and heterophil percentages may be the most reliable indicators of the nutritional status and the condition of free-living herring gulls. PMID:10438680

Totzke, U; Fenske, M; Hüppop, O; Raabe, H; Schach, N

1999-01-01

93

Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and ?-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.  

PubMed

The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the ?-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone, and particularly in combination with phytase A, acted as a potent mediator of the response, whereas supplementary myo-inositol did not. PMID:23243248

Zy?a, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duli?ski, R; Starzy?ska-Janiszewska, A

2013-01-01

94

Pathogenicity of Haemoproteus danilewskyi, Kruse, 1890, in blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata).  

PubMed

Although the impact of blood parasite infections on passerine birds is potentially great, little is known of their pathologic effects. We studied Haemoproteus danilewskyi in experimentally infected captive and naturally infected free-ranging blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) to determine patterns of infection and examine the pathologic effects of the parasite on the host. Physiologic changes, such as elevated numbers of lymphocytes, heterophils, basophils, eosinophils, and monocytes and decreased packed cell volume in the peripheral blood were associated with the erythrocytic phase of experimental infections of captive juvenile jays. Sublethal pathologic changes associated with the pre-erythrocytic phase of infections were observed in the liver, lung, and spleen. Schizonts were observed in the pulmonary capillaries of a 1 yr old jay necropsied 31 days post-inoculation, but not in 20 juvenile jays necropsied 57 days post-inoculation. In free-ranging naturally infected jays plasma protein concentration increased with density of natural infections. PMID:12685080

Garvin, Mary C; Homer, Bruce L; Greiner, Ellis C

2003-01-01

95

Anisakiasis with proventricular perforation in a greater shearwater (Puffinus gravis) off the coast of Georgia, United States.  

PubMed

A juvenile male greater shearwater (Puffinus gravis) found off the Georgia coast, United States, was lethargic, hypothermic, dehydrated, and emaciated. It was provided with supportive care but subsequently died. The coelomic cavity contained fibrinous fluid intermixed with hundreds of nematodes, some of which protruded through a perforation in the proventriculus. Nematodes were embedded in the wall of the proventriculus from the lamina propria to the serosal surface and were surrounded by granulocytes, epithelioid macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, lymphocytes, and fibroplasia. A full-thickness tear in the proventriculus was lined by heterophils and multinucleate giant cells. The nematode histomorphology was consistent with Anisakis spp. The definitive hosts of Anisakis spp. are marine mammals, which are infected through ingestion of parasitized fish and crustaceans. Marine birds are aberrant hosts of Anisakis spp., and young, inexperienced, immunocompromised birds might be more susceptible to severe infestations. Fatal anisakiasis is rarely reported in birds. PMID:22779252

Nemeth, Nicole M; Yabsley, Michael; Keel, M Kevin

2012-06-01

96

Relating tumor score to hematology in green turtles with fibropapillomatosis in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relationship between hematologic status and severity of tumor affliction in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomatosis (FP) was examined. During 1 wk periods in July 1997 and July 1998, we bled 108 free-ranging green turtles from Pala'au (Molokai, Hawaii, USA) where FP is endemic. Blood was analyzed for hematocrit, estimated total solids, total white blood cell (WBC) count and differential WBC count. Each turtle was assigned a subjective tumor score ranging from 0 (no visible external tumors) to 3 (heavily tumored) that indicated the severity of FP. There was a progressive increase in monocytes and a decrease in all other hematologic parameters except heterophils and total numbers of white blood cells as tumor score increased. These data indicate that tumor score can relate to physiologic status of green turtles afflicted with FP, and that tumor score is a useful field monitor of severity of FP in this species.

Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.

1999-01-01

97

Leukocyte numbers during the humoral and cell-mediated immune response of Japanese quail after microwave irradiation in ovo.  

PubMed

1. Coturnix coturnix japonica eggs were exposed to 2.45-GHz continuous wave microwave radiation at an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2 (SAR = 4 mW/g) during the first 12 days of embryogeny. After hatching, leukocyte differential changes were measured in response to an injection with Alectoris graeca chukar red blood cells (CRBC) and in response to a phytohemagglutinin (PHA) injection in irradiated and nonirradiated (sham) quail of both sexes. 2. Microwave irradiation did not affect anti-CRBC hemagglutinin titers, PHA-evoked dermal swelling or leukocyte numbers and percentages. 3. In both the irradiated and sham irradiated males, lymphocyte percentages decreased while heterophil percentages increased after CRBC or PHA injection. 4. In ovo irradiation with microwaves did not alter the time course of either a humoral immune response or a cell-mediated immune response in Japanese quail. PMID:2886278

Gildersleeve, R P; Thaxton, J P; Parkhurst, C R; Scott, T R; Galvin, M J; McRee, D I

1987-01-01

98

Haematology and serum biochemistry of golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological and serum biochemical values were estimated in blood samples collected from 21 apparently adult golden eagles\\u000a (Aquila chrysaetos) of both sexes. The mean values of red blood cells, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cells, heterophils, lymphocytes,\\u000a monocytes and eosinophils were 1.63?±?0.11?×?1012\\/l, 0.47?±?0.009 l\\/l, 91.73?±?1.52 g\\/l, 24.31?±?1.97?×?109\\/l, 4.40?±?0.22?×?109\\/l, 16.81?±?0.65?×?109\\/l, 0.99?±?0.19?×?109\\/l and 2.10?±?0.30?×?109\\/l, respectively. The leucocytes had 69.14%, 4.09%, 18.12% and 8.65%

S. Nazifi; A. Nabinejad; M. Sepehrimanesh; S. L. Poorbaghi; F. Farshneshani; M. Rahsepar

2008-01-01

99

An adolescent girl with Crohn's disease, Fever, and sore throat.  

PubMed

An adolescent female with a past medical history significant for Crohn's disease presented with fevers, tonsillitis without exudate, and tender posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. Laboratory results showed transaminitis, leukocytosis with a left shift, and atypical lymphocytes on a blood smear. The patient did not respond to supportive care or dexamethasone, necessitating a tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Although her presentation was consistent with infectious mononucleosis, diagnosis was not confirmed until Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from tonsillar tissue was positive. False-negative results on the heterophile antibody test are common in pediatric populations and the detection of EBV antibodies is further complicated in immunocompromised patients. Studies indicate PCR is a more sensitive test, although there is no consensus regarding ideal material to use or quantitative levels necessitating intervention. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(1):e14-e17.]. PMID:25621629

Garg, Richa; Rusciolelli, Colleen; Gerber, Mark E

2015-01-01

100

Crystal structure of murine coronavirus receptor sCEACAM1a[1,4],a member of the carcinoembtyonic antigen family  

SciTech Connect

CEACAM1 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Isoforms of murine CEACAM1 serve as receptors for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Here we report the crystal structure of soluble murine sCEACAM1a[1,4], which is composed of two Ig-like domains and has MHV neutralizing activity. Its N-terminal domain has a uniquely folded CC' loop that encompasses key virus-binding residues. This is the first atomic structure of any member of the CEA family, and provides a prototypic architecture for functional exploration of CEA family members. We discuss the structural basis of virus receptor activities of murine CEACAM1 proteins, binding of Neisseria to human CEACAM1, and other homophilic and heterophilic interactions of CEA family members.

Tan, K.; Zelus, B. D.; Meijers, R.; Liu, J.-H.; Bergelson, J. M.; Zhang, R.; Duke, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Holmes, K. V.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

2002-05-01

101

FLRT Structure: Balancing Repulsion and Cell Adhesion in Cortical and Vascular Development  

PubMed Central

Summary FLRTs are broadly expressed proteins with the unique property of acting as homophilic cell adhesion molecules and as heterophilic repulsive ligands of Unc5/Netrin receptors. How these functions direct cell behavior and the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. Here we use X-ray crystallography to reveal the distinct structural bases for FLRT-mediated cell adhesion and repulsion in neurons. We apply this knowledge to elucidate FLRT functions during cortical development. We show that FLRTs regulate both the radial migration of pyramidal neurons, as well as their tangential spread. Mechanistically, radial migration is controlled by repulsive FLRT2-Unc5D interactions, while spatial organization in the tangential axis involves adhesive FLRT-FLRT interactions. Further, we show that the fundamental mechanisms of FLRT adhesion and repulsion are conserved between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. Our results reveal FLRTs as powerful guidance factors with structurally encoded repulsive and adhesive surfaces. PMID:25374360

Seiradake, Elena; del Toro, Daniel; Nagel, Daniel; Cop, Florian; Härtl, Ricarda; Ruff, Tobias; Seyit-Bremer, Gönül; Harlos, Karl; Border, Ellen Clare; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Jones, E. Yvonne; Klein, Rüdiger

2014-01-01

102

An experimental study on the effects of polymorphiasis in common eider ducklings.  

PubMed

Eight common eider (Somateria mollissima) ducklings were experimentally infected from 1 June through 13 June, 1995 with acanthocephalans (Polymorphus minutus) by allowing the birds to feed on Gammarus spp. (Gammarus oceanicus, G. salinus, G. zaddachi, and G. lacustris) containing acanthocephalan cystacanths. Uninfected Gammarus spp. were fed to a control group of seven ducklings. No mortality of ducklings occurred during the experiment. However, the infected ducklings gained weight more slowly than the control birds. After the 2 wk study period, the mean serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, fructosamine and creatine kinase were lower in the infected group than in the controls. The mean (+/-SE) number of acanthocephalans in the intestine of the infected ducklings was 21 (+/-4). The parasites were attached to the mucosa of the posterior small intestine of the infected ducklings with a mixed inflammatory reaction consisting of heterophils and mononuclear lymphocytes surrounding the attachment sites. PMID:10479080

Hollmén, T; Lehtonen, J T; Sankari, S; Soveri, T; Hario, M

1999-07-01

103

Fatal hepatitis during Epstein-Barr virus reactivation.  

PubMed

Fulminant hepatitis by Epstein-Barr virus is a rare event which is predominantly due to primary infection. We report a rare case of fatal hepatic failure due to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in a 19-year-old boy who was taking oral steroids. Transaminase peak and the fulminant course of the disease began soon after steroid interruption. Epstein-Barr virus reactivation was diagnosed on the basis of past clinical history of heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis, a high titer of IgG anti Epstein-Barr virocapsidic antigen, slight elevation of anti-virocapsidic IgM, a high titer of anti-EA IgG antibodies and elevated viral load in serum measured by polymerase chain reaction. It is concluded that Epstein-Barr virus should be considered as a possible etiological agent of fulminant hepatitis. PMID:15068233

Cacopardo, B; Nunnari, G; Mughini, M T; Tosto, S; Benanti, F; Nigro, L

2003-01-01

104

Haematological findings in healthy and sick captive rosy flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).  

PubMed

Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 36 clinically normal adult Rosy flamingos (21 males, 15 females) and six juveniles (sex uncertain). No significant sex differences were found but the haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were lower and the white cell counts higher in juveniles than in adults. Reference values obtained from the normal birds were used as a basis for assessing the results of blood counts on nine birds showing a variety of abnormal clinical conditions. Heterophilia occurred in individuals with infections, chronic renal lesions, haemorrhage and suspected thrombosis. In one case, morphologically abnormal heterophils were present. A bird with carcinoma and peritonitis showed heteropenia. Several birds had hypochromic, microcytic red cells and severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia was found in a bird with an organising abdominal haematoma associated with chronic renal pathology. Several of the cases also had thrombocytosis and raised fibrinogen levels. PMID:18766834

Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J; Knight, J A; Hutton, R E

1984-04-01

105

FLRT structure: balancing repulsion and cell adhesion in cortical and vascular development.  

PubMed

FLRTs are broadly expressed proteins with the unique property of acting as homophilic cell adhesion molecules and as heterophilic repulsive ligands of Unc5/Netrin receptors. How these functions direct cell behavior and the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. Here we use X-ray crystallography to reveal the distinct structural bases for FLRT-mediated cell adhesion and repulsion in neurons. We apply this knowledge to elucidate FLRT functions during cortical development. We show that FLRTs regulate both the radial migration of pyramidal neurons, as well as their tangential spread. Mechanistically, radial migration is controlled by repulsive FLRT2-Unc5D interactions, while spatial organization in the tangential axis involves adhesive FLRT-FLRT interactions. Further, we show that the fundamental mechanisms of FLRT adhesion and repulsion are conserved between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. Our results reveal FLRTs as powerful guidance factors with structurally encoded repulsive and adhesive surfaces. PMID:25374360

Seiradake, Elena; del Toro, Daniel; Nagel, Daniel; Cop, Florian; Härtl, Ricarda; Ruff, Tobias; Seyit-Bremer, Gönül; Harlos, Karl; Border, Ellen Clare; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Jones, E Yvonne; Klein, Rüdiger

2014-10-22

106

Effect of exposure to operant-controlled microwaves on certain blood and immunological parameters in the young chick  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-two 1-wk-old broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus) were housed at 16 C and operantly conditioned to activate either a 250-W infrared bulb (control) or a microwave generator delivering 13 mW/cm2 (treated). Plasma corticosterone concentration did not differ between groups (P greater than .05) at 4 wk of age. At that time the birds were killed, and post-mortem examination revealed no treatment differences in gross morphology of the chicks or in weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius (P greater than .05). Histological study of comparable segments of spleen, bursa, adrenal, and thyroid tissue did not show differences in any of the chosen parameters (P greater than .05). Heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein content were similar between groups (P greater than .05). These results suggest that operant exposure to low density microwave radiation did not result in stress or immunological disturbances.

Braithwaite, L.A.; Morrison, W.D.; Bate, L.; Otten, L.; Hunter, B.; Pei, D.C. (Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

1991-03-01

107

Cutaneous mucinosis in a strain of brown-egg laying chickens.  

PubMed

Cutaneous mucinosis is a cutaneous disorder described in humans, dogs, and rarely cats but never reported in birds. Twenty-six brown egg-laying chickens between ages 43 and 46 weeks had a history of feather loss, scaly, dry skin, weight loss, and decreased egg production. Microscopic findings in the skin included fragmentation of collagen bundles and interstitial, periadnexal, and perivascular dermal accumulation of wispy, mildly basophilic material that was also occasionally observed within the follicular epithelium. A moderate lymphoplasmacytic and heterophilic perivascular dermatitis was also observed. The wispy to granular material was diffusely Alcian blue positive and periodic acid-Schiff negative (consistent with mucin), suggesting a diagnosis of primary or secondary cutaneous mucinosis. The cause of this condition could not be determined. PMID:24942711

Palmieri, C; Anthenill, L; Shivaprasad, H L

2015-03-01

108

Infiltrative myxoma of the stifle joint and thigh in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  

PubMed

A 5-year-old male domestic rabbit had severe swelling of the left hindlimb. Radiographs demonstrated a proliferative, infiltrative lesion involving the stifle joint, femur and soft tissues of the thigh. Osteomyelitis or neoplasia was suspected and the limb was amputated. Grossly, there was a multilobular mass comprised of cystic spaces containing yellow mucinous material. Microscopically, the mass formed coalescing lobules of stellate to rounded cells embedded in varying amounts of myxoid to collagenous matrix, and some rimmed by narrow walls of metaplastic bone and/or cartilage, and some infiltrated by plasma cells, lymphocytes, heterophils and histiocytes. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells expressed vimentin but not cytokeratin, sarcomeric actin, Mac387 or BLA36. Cytokeratin was not detected in normal synovial cells. The radiographic, gross and histological findings were most consistent with synovial myxoma; however, because of the extensive involvement of the limb in the absence of confirmed metastatic disease, the term infiltrative synovial myxoma was applied. PMID:22520254

Löhr, C V; Hedge, Z N; Pool, R R

2012-01-01

109

Chicken CD300a homolog is found on B lymphocytes, various leukocytes populations and binds to phospholipids.  

PubMed

The chicken CD300 cluster contains three genes that encode inhibitory, activating and soluble forms. In the present study, we have generated a monoclonal antibody against the inhibitory CD300L-B1 molecule. The mab 1D4 was specific for the CD300L-B1 form and showed no crossreactivity with the related CD300L-X1. Virtually all bursal cells expressed CD300L-B1, whereas only a small positive subset was found in thymus that was identified as thymic B cell subpopulation. In peripheral tissues, CD300L-B1 was found to be expressed on lymphocyte subpopulations in blood and spleen. Double immunofluorescence analysis with B- and T-cell specific markers identified these subsets as B lymphocytes. In addition, analysis of PBMC revealed that CD300L-B1 was also present on monocytes, heterophils, blood NK cells and in vitro differentiated macrophages. We utilized a reporter cell line in order to identify potential ligands of CD300L-B1. When several phospholipids were tested, only phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine were found to trigger strong reaction of the reporter cells. The two phospholipids elicited a response only in CD300L-B1 reporter cells, but not in CD300L-X1 reporter cells. Moreover the interaction could be blocked with the specific mab. In conclusion, we provide evidence for the expression of chicken CD300L-B1 on immature and mature B cells, monocytes, heterophils, macrophages and NK cells and identify phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine as CD300L-B1 ligands. PMID:25681077

Sperling, Beatrice; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

2015-06-01

110

The PHA Test as an Indicator of Phagocytic Activity in a Passerine Bird  

PubMed Central

Several techniques in ecological immunology have been used to assess bird immunocompetence thus providing useful information to understand the contribution of the immunological system in life-history decisions. The phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-skin test has been the most widely employed technique being interpreted as the sole result of T lymphocytes proliferation and hence used to evaluate acquired immunological capacity. However, the presence of high numbers of phagocytic cells in the swelling point has cast some doubt about such an assumption. To address this issue, we collected blood from 14 days-old nestlings of spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor), administered subcutaneous PHA immediately after and then measured the swelling response 24 hours later. Differential counts of white blood cells suggested that an intense development of acquired immunological defences was taking place. The phagocytic activity of both heterophiles and monocytes was also very intense as it was the swelling response. Moreover, our results show, for the first time in birds, a positive relationship between the phagocytic activity of both kinds of cells and the swelling response. This broadens the significance of the PHA test from reflecting T lymphocytes proliferation -as previously proposed but still undetermined in vivo- to evaluate phagocytosis as well. In other words, our data suggest that the PHA swelling response may not be considered as the only consequence of processes of specific and induced immunity –T lymphocytes proliferation- but also of constitutive and nonspecific immunity –heterophiles and monocytes phagocytosis. We propose the extensive use of PHA-skin test as an optimal technique to assess immunocompetence. PMID:24391896

Salaberria, Concepción; Muriel, Jaime; de Luna, María; Gil, Diego; Puerta, Marisa

2013-01-01

111

Associations of Forest Type, Parasitism and Body Condition of Two European Passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla  

PubMed Central

Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs. PMID:24339923

Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth KV.; Schaefer, H. Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C.

2013-01-01

112

Response to dietary supplementation of l-glutamine and l-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density. PMID:25143595

Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

2014-11-01

113

Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density. Experimental treatments consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of prebiotic (with or without prebiotic), 2 levels of dietary CP [NRC-recommended or low CP level (85% of NRC-recommended level)], and 2 levels of stocking density (10 birds/m(2) as the normal density or 16 birds/m(2) as the high density), for a total of 8 treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates (cages). Birds were reared in 3-tiered battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural tropical conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all treatment groups. Starter and finisher diets in mash form were fed from 1 to 21 d and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively. Supplementation with a prebiotic had no significant effect on performance, immunity, and stress indicators (blood glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio). Protein level significantly influenced broiler performance but did not affect immunity or stress indicators (except for cholesterol level). The normal stocking density resulted in better FCR and also higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease compared with the high stocking density. However, density had no significant effect on blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Significant interactions between protein level and stocking density were observed for BW gain and final BW. The results indicated that, under the conditions of this experiment, dietary addition of a prebiotic had no significant effect on the performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers. PMID:22252353

Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Kamyab, A

2012-02-01

114

Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 ?g/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 ?g/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 ?g/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 ?g/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 ?g/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

2011-01-01

115

Infectious mononucleosis  

PubMed Central

Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by pharyngitis, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever, which results most often from a primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV, a lymphocrytovirus and a member of the ?-herpesvirus family, infects at least 90% of the population worldwide, the majority of whom have no recognizable illness. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among adolescents, but how preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. During the incubation period of approximately 6 weeks, viral replication first occurs in the oropharynx followed by viremia as early as 2 weeks before onset of illness. The acute illness is marked by high viral loads in both the oral cavity and blood accompanied by the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen and an extraordinary expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes directed against EBV-infected B cells. During convalescence, CD8+ T cells return to normal levels and antibodies develop against EBV nuclear antigen-1. A typical clinical picture in an adolescent or young adult with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients especially young children. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, long-term consequences are linked to infectious mononucleosis, especially Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. There is no licensed vaccine for prevention and no specific approved treatment. Future research goals are development of an EBV vaccine, understanding the risk factors for severity of the acute illness and likelihood of developing cancer or autoimmune diseases, and discovering anti-EBV drugs to treat infectious mononucleosis and other EBV-spurred diseases. PMID:25774295

Balfour, Henry H; Dunmire, Samantha K; Hogquist, Kristin A

2015-01-01

116

Effects of acute lead ingestion and diet on antibody and T-cell-mediated immunity in Japanese quail.  

PubMed

This study investigated the interacting effects of acute lead exposure and different diets on antibody and T-cell-mediated immunity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix). Nine quail (nine week old males) were assigned randomly to each group in a factorial experiment with four treatments and two diets. The treatments were 1) a positive control group fed 20 micrograms/g corticosterone, 2) a negative control group given no lead or corticosterone, 3) a low-lead group, and 4) a high-lead group. The low and high lead groups received 100 and 400 micrograms/ml lead as lead acetate in drinking water for 7 d. The two diets were poultry feed and ground corn. Control quail fed corn lost 13-14% of initial body mass, but lead-dosed quail fed corn lost 23-24%. All quail fed poultry feed gained body mass. On the corn diet, three high-lead and one low-lead quail died of lead poisoning. Corn increased the percentage of heterophils in white blood cells (P = 0.0018) and decreased lymphocytes (P = 0.019) and monocytes (P = 0.0073). There was marginal evidence that lead increased the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in corn-fed quail (P = 0.064). Corn decreased the T-cell-mediated response to an intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin (P = 0.0001). Corticosterone suppressed this response more than lead. In corn-fed quail, lead suppressed the primary total antibody response to immunization with chukar partridge (Alectoris graeca) erythrocytes (P < 0.05). Lead reduced the secondary total antibody and IgG responses in the low lead, corn group (P < 0.05). Lead suppressed antibody-mediated immunity only at dosages that also caused clinical lead poisoning. PMID:7710288

Grasman, K A; Scanlon, P F

1995-02-01

117

Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.

2009-01-01

118

Changes in selected biochemical indices, leukocyte profile, and pterins as biomarkers of immune system activity due to antipecking measures in pheasants.  

PubMed

The physiological changes in response to beak trimming and spectacle usage as antipecking measures were monitored in 10-mo-old common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Short-term analysis conducted before the beginning of the laying period showed immediate increases of plasma corticosterone (P < 0.05) and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001) concentrations and decrease of plasma triglycerides (P < 0.01) levels in response to both beak trimming and the application of spectacles. Beak-trimmed pheasants exhibited higher plasma corticosterone concentrations than pheasants fitted with spectacles (P < 0.001). To assess long-term changes, blood samples for biochemical (neopterin and biopterin determination) and hematological (leukocyte profile determination) examinations were taken from beak-trimmed, spectacles-fitted, and control pheasant hens housed in cages during their laying period. At the end of the laying period, hens fitted with spectacles exhibited lower concentrations of plasma neopterin (P = 0.005) and biopterin (P = 0.005) than beak-trimmed pheasant hens. Our findings suggest that the immune system was suppressed in spectacles-fitted pheasant hens as a result of chronic stress, as also indicated by the higher heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.001) compared with beak-trimmed hens. Our study found a negative correlation (r = -0.31, P = 0.019) between the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and plasma neopterin concentration. This study demonstrated that both beak trimming and use of spectacles are not only stressful procedures for pheasants, but long-term effects may also include a negative impact on the immune system. PMID:23776255

Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Pistekova, V; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J

2013-07-01

119

Comparison of blood values and health status of Floreana Mockingbirds (Mimus trifasciatus) on the islands of Champion and Gardner-by-Floreana, Galápagos Islands.  

PubMed

The Floreana Mockingbird (Mimus trifasciatus) is one of the rarest bird species in the world, with an estimated 550 individuals remaining on two rocky islets off the coast of Floreana, Galápagos, Ecuador, from which the main population was extirpated more than 100 yr ago. Because they have been listed in critical danger of extinction, a plan to reintroduce this species to Floreana has been initiated. Determining the health status of the source mockingbird populations is a top priority within the reintroduction plan. We report the health status, over the course of 4 yr, of 75 Floreana Mockingbirds on Champion Island and 160 Floreana Mockingbirds on Gardner-by-Floreana, based on physical examinations, hematology, hemolysis-hemagglutination assay, exposure to selected infectious disease agents, and ecto- and endoparasite counts. Birds on Gardner-by-Floreana had higher body condition index scores, packed cell volumes, total solids, and lymphocyte counts. Additionally, Gardner-by-Floreana birds had lower heterophil counts, eosinophil counts, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. No Chlamydophila psittaci DNA or antibodies to paramyxovirus-I, adenovirus-II, or Mycoplasma gallisepticum were found in any of the mockingbirds tested. Ectoparasites were present on birds from both islands, although species varied between islands. A coccidian species was found in eight of the 45 fecal samples from birds on Gardner-by-Floreana, but none of 33 birds examined from Champion. Birds on Gardner-by-Floreana were classified as healthier than those on Champion based on clinical and laboratory findings. These health data will be analyzed in conjunction with genetics, population structure, and disease presence on Floreana for developing recommendations for the Floreana Mockingbird reintroduction plan. PMID:21270000

Deem, Sharon L; Parker, Patricia G; Cruz, Marilyn B; Merkel, Jane; Hoeck, Paquita E A

2011-01-01

120

Effects of zebra mussels, obtained from Lake Erie and St Lawrence River, as a food source on immune system of lesser scaup  

SciTech Connect

A feeding study was undertaken to assess the influence of a zebra mussel diet from Lake Erie and the St.Lawrence river on the immune system of lesser scaup. The Great lakes and the St.Lawrence river are known to be among the most contaminated waters found in the country. Analytical studies have shown that zebra mussels are contaminated by organochlorines and other pollutants. The occurrence of these toxicants in the food diet of lesser scaup can cause serious injuries. The immune system, in its capacity to destroy foreign particles and protect the host against diseases, can serve as a useful sentinel of the health status of these environmentally stressed organisms. Immune parameters of lesser scaup fed with zebra mussels from Lake Erie or the St. Lawrence river were evaluated. The duration of the feeding trial was nine weeks. Phagocytic activity and oxidative bursts of heterophils were evaluated by flow cytometry. Intracellular thiol levels of lymphocytes and heterophils were also determined by flow cytometry. The results showed a dimunition of phagocytic activity and bactericidal potential after 6 weeks of the zebra mussel diet compared to the control. These results may be associated with pathology problems encountered in treated groups at the end of the diet. Birds from the St. Lawrence River group (40%) and the Lake Erie group (40%) demonstrated variable degrees of pododermatitis compared to the control group. The intracellular level of thiol was consistently found to be elevated in lymphocytes and heterophyls from birds feeding with on the St. Lawrence River. In conclusion, flow cytometry assays like phagocytosis, oxidative burst and thiol staining can serve as biomarkers of the immune status of birds and can give important information for evaluating the health of birds exposed to environmental contamination.

Flipo, D.; Fournier, M. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Beaulieu, C.; Tessier, C. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

121

Changes in haematological profile of common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) induced by transit to pheasantry.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess haematological changes in hand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) transported from intensive housing facilities to a pheasantry. Selected haematological parameters were monitored in a group of 100 pheasants (50 males and 50 females) aged of 9 weeks that were transported for 4 hours by a covered lorry in crates, with a total body weight of 12 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C12 - floor space: 290 cm2/kg) and with a total body weight of 18 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C18 - floor space: 195 cm2/kg). Blood samples were taken from 10 randomly selected males and 10 females before transport (CON group) and 20 hours after transport (C12 and C18 groups). Examinations consisted in determining the total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin levels and differential leukocyte counts, whereby the proportions of heterophil, basophil and eosinophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of the total leukocytes were computed. The changes in the parameters of red blood cell count were manifested by an increase (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin level, MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) values and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the total erythrocyte count and haematocrit level in both C12 and C18 pheasants, when compared with the control group of non-transported pheasants. C18 pheasants exhibited also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MCV (mean cell value) value. When analyzing differential leukocyte counts, C18 pheasants showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in heterophil counts and H/L ratio, whereas values in C12 pheasants did not differ from the non-transported control group. Individual counts of lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.05) in C12 pheasants, whereas basophil counts were increased (P < 0.01) in both C12 and C18 pheasants. Total leukocyte count was decreased (P < 0.01) in C12 and C18 pheasants. In conclusion, the specific requirements of pheasants, as primarily wild animals, for the density in crates should be respected during transportation and they should be transported at lower densities than other poultry species, at least 290 cm2/kg live weight should be provided. PMID:17078531

Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Vecerek, V; Pistekova, V; Chloupek, P; Suchy, P

2006-10-01

122

Organochlorine-induced immunosuppression in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

This investigation studied the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes and evaluated the use of immunological tests as biomarkers for contaminant exposure in wild birds. During 1991--1994, specific immune functions and general hematological parameters were measured in herring gull (Larus argentatus) and Caspian tern (Stema caspia) chicks. Study sites were chosen across a wide range of organochlorine contamination caused primarily by PCBs. In herring gull adults, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio decreased as liver EROD, an index of contaminant exposure, increased, In herring gull chicks, thymus mass decreased as EROD increased. At highly contaminated sites, gull and tern chicks showed a marked reduction in T cell-mediated immunity as measured by the phytohemagglutinin skin test. The thymic atrophy and T cell suppression were consistent with documented effects of PCBs in laboratory animals during development and growth. In both species, chicks exhibited biologically significant differences in antibody production among sites, but any relationships to contaminants or other factors remain unclear. In laboratory animals, PCBs exhibit variable effects on antibody production. Structural and functional parameters related to the immune system are useful biomarkers for assessing the effects of contaminants on wild birds.

Grasman, K.A. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States). Dept. of Biology; Scanlon, P.F. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Fox, G.A. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

123

State-dependent physiological maintenance in a long-lived ectotherm, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta).  

PubMed

Energy allocation among somatic maintenance, reproduction and growth varies not only among species, but among individuals according to states such as age, sex and season. Little research has been conducted on the somatic (physiological) maintenance of long-lived organisms, particularly ectotherms such as reptiles. In this study, we examined sex differences and age- and season-related variation in immune function and DNA repair efficiency in a long-lived reptile, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). Immune components tended to be depressed during hibernation, in winter, compared with autumn or spring. Increased heterophil count during hibernation provided the only support for winter immunoenhancement. In juvenile and adult turtles, we found little evidence for senescence in physiological maintenance, consistent with predictions for long-lived organisms. Among immune components, swelling in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and control injection increased with age, whereas basophil count decreased with age. Hatchling turtles had reduced basophil counts and natural antibodies, indicative of an immature immune system, but demonstrated higher DNA repair efficiency than older turtles. Reproductively mature turtles had reduced lymphocytes compared with juvenile turtles in the spring, presumably driven by a trade-off between maintenance and reproduction. Sex had little influence on physiological maintenance. These results suggest that components of physiological maintenance are modulated differentially according to individual state and highlight the need for more research on the multiple components of physiological maintenance in animals of variable states. PMID:21147972

Schwanz, Lisa; Warner, Daniel A; McGaugh, Suzanne; Di Terlizzi, Roberta; Bronikowski, Anne

2011-01-01

124

Empirical evidence of cold stress induced cell mediated and humoral immune response in common myna (Sturnus tristis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common myna (Sturnus tristis) is a bird indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that has invaded many parts of the world. At the onset of our investigation, we hypothesized that the immunological profile of myna makes it resistant to harsh/new environmental conditions. In order to test this hypothesis, a number of 40 mynas were caught and divided into two groups, i.e., 7 and 25 °C for 14 days. To determine the effect of cold stress, cell mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed. The macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at 25 °C rather than 7 °C either co-incubated with opsonized or unopsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Macrophage engulfment/cell and nitric oxide production behaved in a similar manner. However, splenic cells plaque formation, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and serum IgM or IgG production remained non-significant. There was a significant increase of IgG antibody production after a second immunization by SRBC. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been reported in the progression of this bird's invasion in frosty areas of the world. The results revealed a strengthened humoral immune response of myna and made this bird suitable for invasion in the areas of harsh conditions.

Sandhu, Mansur A.; Zaib, Anila; Anjum, Muhammad S.; Qayyum, Mazhar

2015-02-01

125

Plasmin-Sensitive Dibasic Sequences in the Third Fibronectin-like Domain of L1–Cell Adhesion Molecule (Cam) Facilitate Homomultimerization and Concomitant Integrin Recruitment  

PubMed Central

L1 is a multidomain transmembrane neural recognition molecule essential for neurohistogenesis. While moieties in the immunoglobulin-like domains of L1 have been implicated in both heterophilic and homophilic binding, the function of the fibronectin (FN)-like repeats remains largely unresolved. Here, we demonstrate that the third FN-like repeat of L1 (FN3) spontaneously homomultimerizes to form trimeric and higher order complexes. Remarkably, these complexes support direct RGD-independent interactions with several integrins, including ?v?3 and ?5?1. A pep- tide derived from the putative C-C? loop of FN3 (GSQRKHSKRHIHKDHV852) also forms trimeric complexes and supports ?v?3 and ?5?1 binding. Substitution of the dibasic RK841 and KR845 sequences within this peptide or the FN3 domain limited multimerization and abrogated integrin binding. Evidence is presented that the multimerization of, and integrin binding to, the FN3 domain is regulated both by conformational constraints imposed by other domains and by plasmin- mediated cleavage within the sequence RK?HSK?RH846. The integrin ?9?1, which also recognizes the FN3 domain, colocalizes with L1 in a manner restricted to sites of cell–cell contact. We propose that distal receptor ligation events at the cell–cell interface may induce a conformational change within the L1 ectodomain that culminates in receptor multimerization and integrin recruitment via interaction with the FN3 domain. PMID:10871287

Silletti, Steve; Mei, Fang; Sheppard, Dean; Montgomery, Anthony M.P.

2000-01-01

126

Body condition and immune response in wild zebra finches: effects of capture, confinement and captive-rearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behavioural ecologists attempt to predict fitness in birds from estimates of body condition and immune capacity. We investigated how the stresses associated with capture, confinement and captive-rearing of wild zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) affected different elements of the immune system and body condition. Wild birds had higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and total leucocyte counts than aviary birds, presumably an outcome of mounting specific resistance to pathogens, but this response diminished significantly within 10 days of confinement. Wild birds had lower phytohaemagglutinin-A (PHA) responses than their aviary-bred counterparts possibly because energetic costs limited a general resistance response. Wild birds were heavier and had higher haematocrits than their aviary counterparts, but had less fat, although just 10 days of captivity significantly increased fat levels. Measures of body condition were of limited use for predicting immune responsiveness. We conclude that the different elements of the immune system and body condition respond independently, and often unpredictably, to many ecological and behavioural stressors.

Ewenson, Erynne; Zann, Richard; Flannery, Graham

2001-08-01

127

Interference Testing  

PubMed Central

Summary Interference occurs when a substance or process falsely alters an assay result.Interferences are classified as endogenous or exogenous. Endogenous interference originates from substances present in the patient’s own specimen. Exogenous interferences are substances introduced into the patient’s specimen.To perform interference studies, proper planning is required.Interference from haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia are most frequently studied. Haemolysis affects more analytes than does any other type of interference.Protein interferences are most often associated with paraproteins and predominantly with IgM or IgG and rarely with IgA.Drug interference may be due to the parent drug, metabolite(s) or additives in the drug preparation.Collection tube components can affect determination of analytes.Carryover interference typically occurs when analyte from a high concentration sample (or reagent) is incompletely removed by the analytical system’s washing process, whether probe, mixer or cuvette washing.Immunoassay interferences are most commonly due to antibodies (generally polyclonal). They may be autoantibodies (e.g. in thyroid disease) or heterophile antibodies that predominantly interfere in two-site immunometric (sandwich) assays, forming a bridge between capture and detection antibodies.Determining if interference is significant requires deviation limits from the original result.Once interferences are identified during method evaluation or in general use, there is a need to establish procedures for handling affected results as part of the quality system. PMID:18852856

Dimeski, Goce

2008-01-01

128

Interference testing.  

PubMed

* Interference occurs when a substance or process falsely alters an assay result. * Interferences are classified as endogenous or exogenous. Endogenous interference originates from substances present in the patient's own specimen. Exogenous interferences are substances introduced into the patient's specimen. * To perform interference studies, proper planning is required. * Interference from haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia are most frequently studied. Haemolysis affects more analytes than does any other type of interference. * Protein interferences are most often associated with paraproteins and predominantly with IgM or IgG and rarely with IgA. * Drug interference may be due to the parent drug, metabolite(s) or additives in the drug preparation. * Collection tube components can affect determination of analytes. * Carryover interference typically occurs when analyte from a high concentration sample (or reagent) is incompletely removed by the analytical system's washing process, whether probe, mixer or cuvette washing. * Immunoassay interferences are most commonly due to antibodies (generally polyclonal). They may be autoantibodies (e.g. in thyroid disease) or heterophile antibodies that predominantly interfere in two-site immunometric (sandwich) assays, forming a bridge between capture and detection antibodies. * Determining if interference is significant requires deviation limits from the original result. * Once interferences are identified during method evaluation or in general use, there is a need to establish procedures for handling affected results as part of the quality system. PMID:18852856

Dimeski, Goce

2008-08-01

129

Effects of in vivo exposure to Roundup® on immune system of Caiman latirostris.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Roundup(®) (RU, glyphosate-based formulation) on some parameters of the immune system and growth of Caiman latirostris. Seventy-two caimans (20-day-old) from Proyecto Yacaré (Gob. Santa Fe/MUPCN) were used. Two groups were exposed for 2 months to different concentrations of RU (11 or 21?mg/L; taking into account the concentration recommended for its application in the field), while one group was maintained as control. The RU concentration was progressively decreased through the exposure period to simulate glyphosate degradation in water. Animals were measured and weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment, and blood samples taken after exposure to determine total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts as well as total protein concentration (TPC), and for performing protein electrophoresis. The results showed that, compared against control hosts, there was a decrease in WBC counts, a higher percentage of heterophils, a higher TPC (with a low percentage of F2 protein fraction), and a negative effect on growth in the young caimans exposed to RU. These results demonstrate that in vivo exposure to RU induced alterations in the selected immune parameters, plasma proteins, and growth of caimans, thereby providing relevant information about the effects of this type of pesticide in this important species in the Argentinian wetlands. PMID:23244546

Latorre, María Agustina; López González, Evelyn Cecilia; Larriera, Alejandro; Poletta, Gisela Laura; Siroski, Pablo Ariel

2013-01-01

130

Humoral and cell-mediated immune function in adult Japanese Quail following exposure to 2. 45-GHz microwave radiation during embryogeny  

SciTech Connect

Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, eggs were subjected to 2.45-GHz CW microwave radiation at 5 mW/cm2 (SAR . 4.03 mW/g) during the first 12 days of embryogeny. Following hatching the exposed embryos, as well as nonexposed controls, were reared to 22 weeks of age. Humoral immune potential, as indicated by comparable anti-CRBC antibody, IgM and IgG, levels at 0, 4, and 7 days postimmunization in both exposed and control quail was not affected significantly. However, cell-mediated immune potential, measured by the reaction to intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin-P in the wing web, was reduced in the exposed females, but not in the exposed males. Additionally, total leukocyte numbers and absolute circulating numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, and heterophils were increased significantly only in the exposed females. These data show that exposure of Japanese quail during embryogenesis reduced cell mediated immune potential and induced a general leukocytosis in females.

Galvin, M.J.; McRee, D.I.; Hall, C.A.; Thaxton, J.P.; Parkhurst, C.R.

1981-01-01

131

Hematological and plasma biochemical reference ranges of Alaskan seabirds: Their ecological significance and clinical importance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blood was analyzed from 151 pelagic marine birds to establish reference ranges for hematological and plasma biochemical parameters from healthy, wild populations of Pacific seabirds. Of the 13 species examined, 9 were from the Family Alcidae (N = 122 individuals) and the remainder (N = 29) from the Families Phalacrocoracidae, Laridae, and Procellariidae. Three of 8 hematological parameters (total white blood cell count, lymphocyte count and eosinophil count) differed significantly among species, as did 9 of 13 plasma biochemical parameters (alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, cholesterol, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, total protein and field total protein). There were no differences among species for packed cell volume, buffy coat, cell counts of heterophils, monoqtes and basophils, or for concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, uric acid and calcium. Plasma calcium concentration, triglyceride levels and field total protein varied significantly between sexes, with females having higher mean concentrations of all 3 parameters. However, no significant relationships between measures of breeding condition (brood patch size, subcutaneous and mesenteric fat deposits, or ovarian follicle size and ovary weight) and calcium or alkaline phosphatase concentrations in female birds could be identified. Alanine aminotransferase and uric acid were the only analytes which did not differ significantly between species or sexes.

Newman, S.H.; Piatt, J.F.; White, J.

1997-01-01

132

Cardiac repair and regenerative potential in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart.  

PubMed

The remarkable ability of the heart to regenerate has been demonstrated in the zebrafish and giant danio, two fish members of the cyprinid family. Here we use light and electron microscopy to examine the repair response in the heart of another cyprinid, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), following cautery injury to a small portion of its ventricular myocardium. We observed a robust inflammatory response in the first two weeks consisting primarily of infiltrating macrophages, heterophils, and melanomacrophages. These inflammatory cells were identified in the lumen of the spongy heart, within the site of the wound, and attached to endocardial cells adjacent to the site of injury. Marked accumulation of collagen fibers and increased connective tissue were also observed during the first and second weeks in a transition zone between healthy and injured myocardium as well as in adjacent sub-epicardial regions. The accumulation of collagen and connective tissue however did not persist. The presence of capillaries was also noted in the injured area during repair. The replacement of the cauterized region of the ventricle by myocardial tissue was achieved in 6weeks. The presence of ethynyl deoxyuridine-positive cardiac myocytes and partially differentiated cardiac myocytes during repair suggest effective cardiac myocyte driven regeneration mechanisms also operate in the injured goldfish heart, and are similar to those observed in zebrafish and giant danio. Our data suggest the ability for cardiac regeneration may be widely conserved among cyprinids. PMID:24548889

Grivas, Jamie; Haag, Maria; Johnson, Adedoyin; Manalo, Trina; Roell, Julia; Das, Tanmoy L; Brown, Evelyn; Burns, Alan R; Lafontant, Pascal J

2014-06-01

133

Increased Levels of Galactose-Deficient Anti-Gal Immunoglobulin G in the Sera of Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Individuals with Fibrosis and Cirrhosis?  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B and C viruses are major causative agents of liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Using comparative glycoproteomics, we identified a glycoprotein that is altered both in amount and in glycosylation as a function of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Specifically, this altered glycoprotein is an immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecule reactive to the heterophilic alpha-Gal epitope [Gal?-1-3Gal?1-(3)4GlcNAc-R]. While similar changes in glycosylation have been observed in several autoimmune diseases, the specific immunoglobulins and their antigen recognition profiles were not determined. Thus, we provide the first report identifying the specific antigenic recognition profile of an immunoglobulin molecule containing altered glycosylation as a function of liver disease. This change in glycosylation allowed increased reactivity with several fucose binding lectins and permitted the development of a plate-based assay to measure this change. Increased lectin reactivity was observed in 100% of the more than 200 individuals with stage III or greater fibrosis and appeared to be correlated with the degree of fibrosis. The reason for the alteration in the glycosylation of anti-Gal IgG is currently unclear but may be related to the natural history of the disease and may be useful in the noninvasive detection of fibrosis and cirrhosis. PMID:18045939

Mehta, Anand S.; Long, Ronald E.; Comunale, Mary Ann; Wang, Mengjun; Rodemich, Lucy; Krakover, Jonathan; Philip, Ramila; Marrero, Jorge A.; Dwek, Raymond A.; Block, Timothy M.

2008-01-01

134

rFN/Cad-11-Modified Collagen Type II Biomimetic Interface Promotes the Adhesion and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Properties of the cell-material interface are determining factors in the successful function of cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Currently, cell adhesion is commonly promoted through the use of polypeptides; however, due to their lack of complementary or modulatory domains, polypeptides must be modified to improve their ability to promote adhesion. In this study, we utilized the principle of matrix-based biomimetic modification and a recombinant protein, which spans fragments 7–10 of fibronectin module III (heterophilic motif?) and extracellular domains 1–2 of cadherin-11 (rFN/Cad-11) (homophilic motif?), to modify the interface of collagen type II (Col II) sponges. We showed that the designed material was able to stimulate cell proliferation and promote better chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro than both the FN modified surfaces and the negative control. Further, the Col II/rFN/Cad-11-MSCs composite stimulated cartilage formation in vivo; the chondrogenic effect of Col II alone was much less significant. These results suggested that the rFN/Cad-11-modified collagen type II biomimetic interface has dual biological functions of promoting adhesion and stimulating chondrogenic differentiation. This substance, thus, may serve as an ideal scaffold material for cartilage tissue engineering, enhancing repair of injured cartilage in vivo. PMID:23919505

Guo, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Zhengsheng; Kang, Fei; Yang, Bo; Kang, Xia; Wen, Can; Yan, Yanfei; Jiang, Bo; Fan, Yujiang

2013-01-01

135

Leukocyte profiles for western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, naturally infected by the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum.  

PubMed

Plasmodium mexicanum is a malaria parasite that naturally infects the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis , in northern California. We set out to determine whether lizards naturally infected with this malaria parasite have different leukocyte profiles, indicating an immune response to infection. We used 29 naturally infected western fence lizards paired with uninfected lizards based on sex, snout-to-vent length, tail status, and the presence-absence of ectoparasites such as ticks and mites, as well as the presence-absence of another hemoparasite, Schellackia occidentalis. Complete white blood cell (WBC) counts were conducted on blood smears stained with Giemsa, and the proportion of granulocytes per microliter of blood was estimated using the Avian Leukopet method. The abundance of each WBC class (lymphocytes, monocytes, heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) in infected and uninfected lizards was compared to determine whether leukocyte densities varied with infection status. We found that the numbers of WBCs and lymphocytes per microliter of blood significantly differed (P < 0.05) between the 2 groups for females but not for males, whereas parasitemia was significantly correlated with lymphocyte counts for males, but not for females. This study supports the theory that infection with P. mexicanum stimulates the lizard's immune response to increase the levels of circulating WBCs, but what effect this has on the biology of the parasite remains unclear. PMID:24945903

Motz, Victoria L; Lewis, William D; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M

2014-10-01

136

Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii.  

PubMed

Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies. PMID:10479083

Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

1999-07-01

137

Different roles of cadherins in the assembly and structural integrity of the desmosome complex  

SciTech Connect

Adhesion between cells is established by the formation of specialized intercellular junctional complexes, such as desmosomes. Desmosomes comprise two members of the cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins, desmocollin (Dsc) and desmoglein (Dsg), but their combinatorial roles in desmosome assembly is not understood. To uncouple desmosome assembly from other cell-cell adhesion complexes, we used micro-patterned substrates of Dsc2aFc and/or Dsg2Fc and collagen IV; we show that Dsc2aFc, but not Dsg2Fc, was necessary and sufficient to recruit desmosome-specific desmoplakin into desmosome puncta and produce strong adhesive binding. Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy showed that monomeric Dsc2a, but not Dsg2, formed Ca2+-dependent homophilic bonds, and that Dsg2 formed Ca2+-independent heterophilic bonds with Dsc2a. A W2A mutation in Dsc2a inhibited Ca2+-dependent homophilic binding, similar to classical cadherins, and Dsc2aW2A, but not Dsg2W2A, was excluded from desmosomes in MDCK cells. These results indicate that Dsc2a, not Dsg2, is required for desmosome assembly via homophilic Ca2+- and W2/strand swap-dependent binding, and that Dsg2 may be involved later in regulating a switch to Ca2+-independent adhesion in mature desmosomes.

Lowndes, M.; Rakshit, S.; Shafraz, O.; Borghi, N.; Harmon, R. M.; Green, K. J.; Sivasankar, S.; Nelson, W. J.

2014-05-15

138

Shiga toxin 2-induced intestinal pathology in infant rabbits is A-subunit dependent and responsive to the tyrosine kinase and potential ZAK inhibitor imatinib  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of food-borne illness worldwide. However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis (HC) is lacking. One of the obstacles to understanding the role of Shiga toxins to STEC-mediated intestinal pathology is a deficit in small animal models that perfectly mimic human disease. Infant rabbits have been previously used to study STEC and/or Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. We demonstrate using infant rabbits that Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage requires A-subunit activity, and like the human colon, that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb3. We also demonstrate that Shiga toxin treatment of the infant rabbit results in apoptosis and activation of p38 within colonic tissues. Finally we demonstrate that the infant rabbit model may be used to test candidate therapeutics against Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage. While the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the ZAK inhibitor DHP-2 were ineffective at preventing Shiga toxin-mediated damage to the colon, pretreatment of infant rabbits with the drug imatinib resulted in a decrease of Shiga toxin-mediated heterophil infiltration of the colon. Therefore, we propose that this model may be useful in elucidating mechanisms by which Shiga toxins could contribute to intestinal damage in the human. PMID:23162799

Stone, Samuel M.; Thorpe, Cheleste M.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Rogers, Arlin B.; Obata, Fumiko; Vozenilek, Aimee; Kolling, Glynis L.; Kane, Anne V.; Magun, Bruce E.; Jandhyala, Dakshina M.

2012-01-01

139

In vivo studies of Gallibacterium anatis infection in chickens.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathology in normal or immunosuppressed chickens followed intravenous or intraperitoneal inoculation with a well-characterized strain of Gallibacterium anatis. Two groups of 30 15-week-old commercial brown laying chickens were used, having been screened and found negative for Gallibacterium organisms. One group was treated with 5-fluorouracil to promote heterophil depletion, while the other was saline treated. Ten days later 15 chickens from each group were inoculated either intravenously or intraperitoneally with 3.3 x 10(7) colony-forming units of G. anatis strain 12656-12. Subsets of chickens were sacrificed at 3, 12 or 24 h post-infection and examined for lesions. Livers and spleens were examined by culture and by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Intravenously infected birds showed severe septicaemic lesions in both the normal and immunosuppressed birds. Mortality was recorded only in the latter, with an overall rate of 73%. The intraperitoneally infected chickens of normal immune status showed various degrees of localized purulent peritonitis at the inoculation site, but in the immunosuppressed birds the entire peritoneum tended to be involved along with the abdominal organs. This was similar to previous descriptions of natural infections and may represent a useful infection model for detailed analysis of Gallibacterium virulence factors and pathogenesis. PMID:15276980

Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Christensen, Jens Peter; Bisgaard, Magne

2004-04-01

140

Variation in stress and innate immunity in the tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus) across an urban-rural gradient  

PubMed Central

The urban environment presents new and different challenges to wildlife, but also potential opportunities depending on the species. As urban encroachment onto native habitats continues, understanding the impact of this expansion on native species is vital to conservation. A key physiological indicator of environmental disturbance is the vertebrate stress response, involving increases in circulating glucocorticoids (i.e., corticosterone), which exert influence on numerous physiological parameters including energy storage, reproduction, and immunity. We examined how urbanization in Phoenix, Arizona influences corticosterone levels, blood parasitism, and innate immunity in populations of tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) to determine whether urbanization may be detrimental or beneficial to this species. Both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower in urban lizards relative to the rural ones, however, the magnitude of the increase in corticosterone with stress did not differ across populations. Urban lizards also had a lower ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes, but elevated overall leukocyte count, as compared to lizards from the natural site. Urban and rural lizards did not differ in their prevalence of the blood parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum. Taken together, these results suggest that urban tree lizards may have suppressed overall corticosterone concentrations possibly from down-regulation as a result of frequent exposure to stressors, or increased access to urban resources. Also, urban lizards may have bolstered immunocompetence possibly from increased immune challenges, such as wounding, in the urban environment, or from greater energetic reserves being available as a result of access to urban resources. PMID:18594834

French, Susannah S.; Fokidis, H. Bobby; Moore, Michael C.

2009-01-01

141

Expression and Adhesion Profiles of SynCAM Adhesion Molecules Indicate Distinct Neuronal Functions  

PubMed Central

Cell-cell interactions through adhesion molecules play key roles in the development of the nervous system. SynCAMs (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecules) comprise a group of four immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily members that mediate adhesion and are prominently expressed in the brain. Although SynCAMs have been implicated in the differentiation of neurons, there has been no comprehensive analysis of their expression patterns. We here examine the spatiotemporal expression patterns of SynCAMs using RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistological techniques. SynCAMs 1–4 are widely expressed throughout the developing and adult central nervous system. They are prominently expressed in neurons throughout the brain and present in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Investigation of different brain regions in the developing and mature mouse brain indicates that each SynCAM exhibits a distinct spatiotemporal expression pattern. This is observed in all regions analyzed and particularly notable in the cerebellum, where SynCAMs display highly distinct expression in cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells. These unique expression profiles are complemented by specific heterophilic adhesion patterns of SynCAM family members as shown by cell overlay experiments. Three prominent interactions are observed, mediated by the extracellular domains of SynCAMs 1/2, 2/4, and 3/4. These expression and adhesion profiles of SynCAMs together with their previously reported functions in synapse organization indicate that SynCAM proteins contribute importantly to the synaptic circuitry of the central nervous system. PMID:18615557

Thomas, Lisa A.; Akins, Michael R.; Biederer, Thomas

2008-01-01

142

Hematobiochemical and pathological alterations due to chronic chlorpyrifos intoxication in indigenous chicken  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in indigenous chicken. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two groups I and II. Group I served as control and group II was treated with CPF (0.36 mg/kg) orally daily up to 12 weeks. Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein and uric acid. Representative pieces of tissues from liver and kidney were collected weekly for histopathological examination. Results: A significant (P < 0.01) increase of Hb, TEC, TLC, and heterophil percent and decrease of lymphocyte percent was observed. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly and CHE values decreased significantly in CPF treated birds. The protein level remained similar. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group. The results indicate that chronic CPF intoxication produces hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in treated birds. PMID:25878384

Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kavita; Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Bora, R. S.

2015-01-01

143

Haemopoiesis in the head kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a morphological (optical and ultrastructural) study  

PubMed Central

The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis. Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythroblasts and young and mature erythrocytes. The proerythroblasts were the largest cells in the erythropoietic series. During the maturation process both the nuclear and cellular size decreased gradually due to the chromatin condensation and the progressive substitution of cytoplasmic matrix with a large amount of haemoglobin. Granulopoietic series consisted of cells with variable shape and size at different stages of maturity from myeloblasts to mature granulocytes. The promyelocytes were the largest cells in the series and were characterised by the appearance of primary (azoruphilic) granules. The maturation process involved the appearance of specific granules in the heterophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic series. It is important to mention that eosinophilic granulocytes were the dominant granulopoietic series in the haemopoietic tissue (Ht) of tilapia. Lymphopoietic series consisted of lymphoblasts, large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes and active and inactive plasma cells. Thrombopoietic series consisted of thromboblasts, prothromboblasts and thrombocytes. Thrombocytes of tilapia were nucleated and possessed a spindle shape. Melanomacrophage centres were dominant among the Ht of the head kidney. Also, monocytes were detected and shown to be large cells with an indented nucleus and cytoplasm containing numerous vesicles of different sizes and a few lysosomes. PMID:19152117

Abdel-Aziz, El-Saydah H.; Abdu, Suzan B. S.; Fouad, Huda F.

2009-01-01

144

Structural insights into the exquisite selectivity of neurexin/neuroligin synaptic interactions  

PubMed Central

The extracellular domains of neuroligins and neurexins interact through Ca2+ to form flexible trans-synaptic associations characterized by selectivity for neuroligin or neurexin subtypes. This heterophilic interaction, essential for synaptic maturation and differentiation, is regulated by gene selection, alternative mRNA splicing and post-translational modifications. A new, 2.6 Ĺ-resolution crystal structure of a soluble neurexin-1?–neuroligin-4 (Nrx1?–NL4) complex permits a detailed description of the Ca2+-coordinated interface and unveils concerted positional rearrangements of several residues of NL4, not observed in neuroligin-1, associated with Nrx1? binding. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of the binding of structure-guided Nrx1? mutants towards NL4 and neuroligin-1 shows that flexibility of the Nrx1?-binding site in NL4 is reflected in a greater dissociation constant of the complex and higher sensitivity to ionic strength and pH variations. Analysis of neuroligin mutants points to critical functions for two respective residues in neuroligin-1 and neuroligin-2 in governing the affinity of the complexes. Although neuroligin-1 and neuroligin-2 have pre-determined conformations that respectively promote and prevent Nrx1? association, unique conformational reshaping of the NL4 surface is required to permit Nrx1? association. PMID:20543817

Leone, Philippe; Comoletti, Davide; Ferracci, Géraldine; Conrod, Sandrine; Garcia, Simon U; Taylor, Palmer; Bourne, Yves; Marchot, Pascale

2010-01-01

145

Low temperatures reduce skin healing in the Jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman yacare, Daudin 1802)  

PubMed Central

Summary Studies of skin wound healing in crocodilians are necessary given the frequent occurrence of cannibalism in intensive farming systems. Air temperature affects tissue recovery because crocodilians are ectothermic. Therefore, the kinetics of skin wound healing in Caiman yacare were examined at temperatures of 33°C and 23°C. Sixteen caiman were selected and divided into two groups of eight maintained at 23°C or 33°C. The studied individuals' scars were photographed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days of the experimental conditions, and samples were collected for histological processing after 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Macroscopically, the blood clot (heterophilic granuloma) noticeably remained in place covering the wound longer for the caiman kept at 23°C. Microscopically, the temperature of 23°C slowed epidermal migration and skin repair. Comparatively, new blood vessels, labeled using von Willebrand factor (vWF) antibody staining, were more frequently found in the scars of the 33°C group. The collagen fibers in the dermis were denser in the 33°C treatment. Considering the delayed healing at 23°C, producers are recommended to keep wounded animals at 33°C, especially when tanks are cold, to enable rapid wound closure and better repair of collagen fibers because such lesions tend to compromise the use of their skin as leather. PMID:24244853

Pressinotti, Leandro Nogueira; Borges, Ricardo Moraes; Alves De Lima, Angela Paula; Aleixo, Victor Manuel; Iunes, Renata Stecca; Borges, Joăo Carlos Shimada; Cogliati, Bruno; Cunha Da Silva, José Roberto Machado

2013-01-01

146

Immune function, sex ratios, and gonadal histopathology in double-crested cormorant chicks  

SciTech Connect

There is evidence that environmental contaminants may be associated with endocrine and reproductive system abnormalities in colonial water birds. Little information is available on immune system response in chicks. Two double-crested cormorant (Phalocrocrozax auritus) colonies were monitored in 1993 for a comparative immune function study. Higher concentrations of organochlorines occurred in one colony. Parameters measured included: CBC, T and B-cell function, heterophil phagocytosis, lymphoid organ size and histopathology, and selected serum hormone analysis. Significant differences at the contaminated site included marked dysplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid gland, higher T3, lower cortisol, lower eosinophil counts, and increase phagocytosis at the contaminated site. Gonads of 101 deformed (cross-bill) chicks, siblings, and normal control chicks collected in 1992 and 1993 were examined microscopically because a sex-ration skewed towards females had been noted. Cross-billed chicks aged 12 to 15 days had disorganized or delayed follicular development which normalized by 20 days of age. Cross-billed or otherwise abnormal chicks aged 18 to 23 days had hypertrophic seminiferous tubules, a decreased interstitium, and decreased evidence of active Leydig cells.

Burull, E.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Sileo, L. [National Biological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Research Center; Dale, T.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Larson, J.X. [Northeast Technical College, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Fry, D.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept of Avian Sciences

1994-12-31

147

NPPD: A Protein-Protein Docking Scoring Function Based on Dyadic Differences in Networks of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Amino Acid Residues.  

PubMed

Protein-protein docking (PPD) predictions usually rely on the use of a scoring function to rank docking models generated by exhaustive sampling. To rank good models higher than bad ones, a large number of scoring functions have been developed and evaluated, but the methods used for the computation of PPD predictions remain largely unsatisfactory. Here, we report a network-based PPD scoring function, the NPPD, in which the network consists of two types of network nodes, one for hydrophobic and the other for hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the nodes are connected when the residues they represent are within a certain contact distance. We showed that network parameters that compute dyadic interactions and those that compute heterophilic interactions of the amino acid networks thus constructed allowed NPPD to perform well in a benchmark evaluation of 115 PPD scoring functions, most of which, unlike NPPD, are based on some sort of protein-protein interaction energy. We also showed that NPPD was highly complementary to these energy-based scoring functions, suggesting that the combined use of conventional scoring functions and NPPD might significantly improve the accuracy of current PPD predictions. PMID:25811640

Shih, Edward S C; Hwang, Ming-Jing

2015-01-01

148

Localization of hematopoietic cells in the bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus).  

PubMed

Amphibians represent the first phylogenetic group to possess hematopoietic bone marrow. However, adult amphibian hematopoiesis has only been described in a few species and with conflicting data. Bone marrow, kidney, spleen, liver, gut, stomach, lung, tegument, and heart were therefore collected from adult Lithobates catesbeianus and investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemical methods under confocal laser microscopy. Our study demonstrated active hematopoiesis in the bone marrow of vertebrae, femur, and fingers and in the kidney, but no hematopoietic activity inside other organs including the spleen and liver. Blood cells were identified as a heterogeneous cell population constituted by heterophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, erythrocytic cells, lymphocytes, and their precursors. Cellular islets of the thrombocytic lineage occurred near sinusoids of the bone marrow. Antibodies against CD34, CD117, stem cell antigen, erythropoietin receptor, and the receptor for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor identified some cell populations, and some circulating immature cells were seen in the bloodstream. Thus, on the basis of these phylogenetic features, we propose that L. catesbeianus can be used as an important model for hematopoietic studies, since this anuran exhibits hematopoiesis characteristics both of lower vertebrates (renal hematopoiesis) and of higher vertebrates (bone marrow hematopoiesis). PMID:19449034

de Abreu Manso, Pedro Paulo; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

2009-08-01

149

Akhirin regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in intact and injured mouse spinal cord.  

PubMed

Although the central nervous system is considered a comparatively static tissue with limited cell turnover, cells with stem cell properties have been isolated from most neural tissues. The spinal cord ependymal cells show neural stem cell potential in vitro and in vivo in injured spinal cord. However, very little is known regarding the ependymal niche in the mouse spinal cord. We previously reported that a secreted factor, chick Akhirin, is expressed in the ciliary marginal zone of the eye, where it works as a heterophilic cell-adhesion molecule. Here, we describe a new crucial function for mouse Akhirin (M-AKH) in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of progenitors in the mouse spinal cord. During embryonic spinal cord development, M-AKH is transiently expressed in the central canal ependymal cells, which possess latent neural stem cell properties. Targeted inactivation of the AKH gene in mice causes a reduction in the size of the spinal cord and decreases BrdU incorporation in the spinal cord. Remarkably, the expression patterns of ependymal niche molecules in AKH knockout (AKH-/-) mice are different from those of AKH+/+, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we provide evidence that AKH expression in the central canal is rapidly upregulated in the injured spinal cord. Taken together, these results indicate that M-AKH plays a crucial role in mouse spinal cord formation by regulating the ependymal niche in the central canal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 494-504, 2015. PMID:25331329

Abdulhaleem M, Felemban Athary; Song, Xiaohong; Kawano, Rie; Uezono, Naohiro; Ito, Ayako; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Hossain, Mahmud; Nakashima, Kinichi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ohta, Kunimasa

2015-05-01

150

Infectious Mononucleosis  

PubMed Central

A short review of past and recent works pertinent to the etiology and pathogenesis of infectious mononucleosis is presented. Epidemiological studies have led to the elaboration of hypotheses concerning the etiology, the length of the incubation period and the mode of transmission of the disease. An unusual type of infectious mononucleosis of rickettsial origin has been reported by Japanese workers. Studies of accidental and experimental transmission suggest that more than one agent may give rise to the same disease. Isolation attempts in tissue cultures have been unrewarding except for the uncovering of possible agents by interference and immunofluorescence. The atypical lymphocyte is the site of increased RNA and DNA synthesis. It does not seem to be involved in antibody synthesis. The heterophile agglutinins and other mononucleosis-associated antibodies apparently account for only part of the excess 19S antibody material found in mononucleosis sera. The origin and function of these antibodies and of the atypical lymphocyte are the subject of speculation. The final elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease and the confirmation of the reviewed hypotheses are all dependent on the eventual discovery of the elusive etiological agent(s) of infectious mononucleosis. PMID:5336955

Joncas, J.

1967-01-01

151

Cell-surface antigens of melanoma recognized by human monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were derived from lymph node lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with melanoma. Four methods for generating human mAbs were compared: fusion with human [LICR-LON-HMy-2 (LICR-2)] or mouse (NS-1) cells; transformation by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); and EBV transformation followed by NS-1 fusion. NS-1 fusion with lymph node lymphocytes resulted in a higher number of growing hybrids than LICR-2 fusion. Virtually no hybrids were obtained from NS-1 or LICR-2 fusions with PBL. EBV transformed lymphocytes from lymph node and peripheral blood with equal efficiency, and the yield of proliferating cultures for antibody screening was more than 10- to 30-fold greater than that obtained by fusion techniques. However, once antibody-producing cultures had been identified, stability and clonability of EBV-transformed cells were poorer than that of NS-1 hybrid cells. To combine the strengths of both methods, cultures of EBV-transformed cells were fused with NS-1; and hybrid clones were isolated that showed vigorous growth, clonability, and stable antibody secretion. Detailed specificity analysis of the mAbs produced by six of these clones indicated detection of a class 1 (unique) melanoma antigen, a class 3 melanoma antigen, and four ganglioside antigens (GD3, GM3, and two other, as yet uncharacterized, heterophile antigens). PMID:3031684

Yamaguchi, H; Furukawa, K; Fortunato, S R; Livingston, P O; Lloyd, K O; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

1987-04-01

152

ETV6 (TEL1) regulates embryonic hematopoiesis in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal translocations involving fusions of the human ETV6 (TEL1) gene occur frequently in hematologic malignancies. However, a detailed understanding of the normal function of ETV6 remains incomplete. This study has employed zebrafish as a relevant model to investigate the role of ETV6 during embryonic hematopoiesis. Zebrafish possessed a single conserved etv6 ortholog that was expressed from 12 hpf in the lateral plate mesoderm, and later in hematopoietic, vascular and other tissues. Morpholino-mediated gene knockdown of etv6 revealed the complex contribution of this gene toward embryonic hematopoiesis. During primitive hematopoiesis, etv6 knockdown resulted in reduced levels of progenitor cells, erythrocyte and macrophage populations, but increased numbers of incompletely differentiated heterophils. Definitive hematopoiesis was also perturbed, with etv6 knockdown leading to decreased erythrocytes and myeloid cells, but enhanced lymphopoiesis. This study suggests that ETV6 plays a broader and more complex role in early hematopoiesis than previously thought, impacting on the development of multiple lineages. PMID:25281506

Rasighaemi, Parisa; Onnebo, Sara M.N.; Liongue, Clifford; Ward, Alister C.

2015-01-01

153

New models of chronic synovitis in rabbits induced by mycoplasmas: microbiological, histopathological, and immunological observations on rabbits injected with Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis.  

PubMed Central

A dose-dependent chronic synovitis was induced in rabbit knees after the intra-articular injection of both Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis. The inflammation progressed from an initial acute phase at 1 week characterized by edema, infiltration of the synovium with monocytes and heterophils, and desquamation of lining cells, to a more chronic phase at 1 and 3 months, in which villus hyperplasia, lymph "nodules," mononuclear cell infiltration, fibroplasia, and collagen deposition were prominent. With one exception, mycoplasmas could no longer be cultivated from the joints 1 month postinoculation. Both mycoplasma species evoked a humoral antibody response that was more marked in synovial fluids than in peripheral blood. A cell-mediated immune reaction, as evidence by enhanced uptake by [3H]thymidine by sensitized blood, spleen, or node lymphocytes in the presence of homologous antigen, was detected only in rabbits injected with M. pulmonis. Lymphocytes taken from arthritic rabbits were no more cytotoxic toward synovial cells derived from normal or arthritic rabbits than were normal lymphocytes. The models of synovitis described in this study offer a convenient probe for determining the mechanisms of mycoplasma-induced inflammation, since they require only a single injection of the initiating agent and, in addition, utilize an animal host large enough for detailed investigation into the nature of mycoplasma/synovium interactions. Images PMID:873616

Cole, B C; Griffiths, M M; Eichwald, E J; Ward, J R

1977-01-01

154

SCHOLARLY TAILGATING DEFINED: A DIVERSE, GIANT NETWORK  

PubMed Central

Scholarly tailgating and developmental relationships can soar professional identity, advance one’s scholarly career and foster cultural diversity in healthcare. This paper provides the definition and basis of scholarly tailgating for scholars who wish to propel their careers and help enable diverse cultural approaches. Scholarly tailgating is for those who wish to succeed and capitalize on the culturally diverse expertise and reciprocal network relationships from others in their web of influence. The concept of scholarly tailgating explains the use of homophilic and diverse, multidisciplinary network relationships to foster an intellectual community in healthcare in general and to benefit healthcare consumers and all being served. Scholars can benefit from standing on the shoulders of giants and allowing the aerodynamic wind to propel them to soaring career heights. Prudent scholars, apart from utilizing homophilic relationships and balancing these relationships with diverse heterophilic relationships, are able to lead in the professional academy, and become innovators who practice with cultural relevance. Multi-ethnic, diverse scholars working collaboratively can assist in igniting conversation and actions that reduce disparities, which are indigenous to those who are most vulnerable. Purposeful strategic planning and development of diverse networks that support scholarly advancement can best achieve these career accomplishments. PMID:23589967

Adegbola, Maxine

2014-01-01

155

Granulocytes of reptilian sauropsids contain beta-defensin-like peptides: a comparative ultrastructural survey.  

PubMed

The ability of lizards to withstand infections after wounding or amputation of the tail or limbs has suggested the presence of antimicrobial peptides in their tissues. Previous studies on the lizard Anolis carolinensis have identified several beta-defensin-like peptides that may potentially be involved in protection from infections. The present ultrastructural immunocytochemical study has analyzed tissues in different reptilian species in order to localize the cellular source of one of the more expressed beta-defensins previously sequenced in lizard indicated as AcBD15. Beta-defensin-like immunoreactivity is present in some of the larger, nonspecific granules of granulocytes in two lizard species, a snake, the tuatara, and a turtle. The ultrastructural study indicates that only heterophilic and basophilic granulocytes contain this defensin while other cell types from the epidermis, mesenchyme, and dermis, muscles, nerves, cartilage or bone are immunonegative. The study further indicates that not all granules in reptilian granulocytes contain the beta-defensin peptide, suggesting the presence of granules with different content as previously indicated for mammalian neutrophilic leucocytes. No immunolabeling was instead observed in granulocytes of the alligator and chick using this antibody. The present immunocytochemical observations suggest a broad cross-reactivity and conservation of beta-defensin-like sequence or steric motif across lepidosaurians and likely in turtles while archosaurian granulocytes may contain different beta-defensin-like or other peptides. PMID:23553853

Alibardi, Lorenzo

2013-08-01

156

Ultrastructural immunolocalization of beta-defensin-27 in granulocytes of the dermis and wound epidermis of lizard suggests they contribute to the anti-microbial skin barrier  

PubMed Central

The high resistance to infections in lizard wounds suggests that these reptiles possess effective antimicrobial peptides in their tissues. The present immunocytochemical study shows the cellular localization of beta-defensin 27 in tail tissues and in the blood, a defensin previously identified in the lizard Anolis carolinensis through biomolecular methods. Beta-defensin-27 immunoreactivity is only observed in some large granules mainly contained in heterophilic granulocytes that are sparse within the dermis of the skin or in the isolated blood. This peptide is absent in other cell types of the skin, in keratinocytes and in subdermal muscle tissue of the tail in normal conditions. Pre-corneous keratinocytes of the regenerating tail epidermis are unlabeled or show a weak labeling for the peptide only in sparse cytoplasmic areas or in the extracellular spaces among corneocytes of the wound and regenerating epidermis. The study suggests that beta-defensin 27 is normally stored in granulocytes present in the blood or in connective tissues while in the epidermis keratinocytes do not show the presence of this peptide unless these cells are stimulated from injury to produce and likely release beta-defensins. PMID:24386597

2013-01-01

157

Ecological immunology in a fluctuating environment: an integrative analysis of tree swallow nestling immune defense  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary ecologists have long been interested by the link between different immune defenses and fitness. Given the importance of a proper immune defense for survival, it is important to understand how its numerous components are affected by environmental heterogeneity. Previous studies targeting this question have rarely considered more than two immune markers. In this study, we measured seven immune markers (response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), hemolysis capacity, hemagglutination capacity, plasma bactericidal capacity, percentage of lymphocytes, percentage of heterophils, and percentage of eosinophils) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings raised in two types of agro-ecosystems of contrasted quality and over 2 years. First, we assessed the effect of environmental heterogeneity (spatial and temporal) on the strength and direction of correlations between immune measures. Second, we investigated the effect of an immune score integrating information from several immune markers on individual performance (including growth, mass at fledging and parasite burden). Both a multivariate and a pair-wise approach showed variation in relationships between immune measures across years and habitats. We also found a weak association between the integrated score of nestling immune function and individual performance, but only under certain environmental conditions. We conclude that the ecological context can strongly affect the interpretation of immune defenses in the wild. Given that spatiotemporal variations are likely to affect individual immune defenses, great caution should be used when generalizing conclusions to other study systems. PMID:23610646

Pigeon, Gabriel; Bélisle, Marc; Garant, Dany; Cohen, Alan A; Pelletier, Fanie

2013-01-01

158

Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela.  

PubMed

The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during post-laying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus in lithium heparin tubes. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), plasmatic protein (PP), haemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and differential leukocyte count were determined. Haematological values were: RBC 0.9×10(9)/L, WBC 5.7×10(9)/L, TC 5.4×10(9)/L, PCV 35.6%, PP 4.2g/dL, Hgb 11.8g/dL, MCV 411fL. The differential leukocyte count comprised: 71% heterophils, 23% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1.6% basophils, and 1% monocytes. The reports of reference haematology values for the wild P. expansa are limited; therefore, the results presented herein contrast with those values obtained in captivity. This study represents a contribution to the referential haematological values of the wild P. expansa. PMID:21122881

Rossini, M; Blanco, P A; Marín, E; Comerma-Steffensen, S; Zerpa, H

2012-02-01

159

Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

2007-01-01

160

CRYP-2/cPTPRO is a neurite inhibitory repulsive guidance cue for retinal neurons in vitro  

PubMed Central

Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are implicated as regulators of axon growth and guidance. Genetic deletions in the fly have shown that type III RPTPs are important in axon pathfinding, but nothing is known about their function on a cellular level. Previous experiments in our lab have identified a type III RPTP, CRYP-2/cPTPRO, specifically expressed during the period of axon outgrowth in the chick brain; cPTPRO is expressed in the axons and growth cones of retinal and tectal projection neurons. We constructed a fusion protein containing the extracellular domain of cPTPRO fused to the Fc portion of mouse immunoglobulin G-1, and used it to perform in vitro functional assays. We found that the extracellular domain of cPTPRO is an antiadhesive, neurite inhibitory molecule for retinal neurons. In addition, cPTPRO had potent growth cone collapsing activity in vitro, and locally applied gradients of cPTPRO repelled growing retinal axons. This chemorepulsive effect could be regulated by the level of cGMP in the growth cone. Immunohistochemical examination of the retina indicated that cPTPRO has at least one heterophilic binding partner in the retina. Taken together, our results indicate that cPTPRO may act as a guidance cue for retinal ganglion cells during vertebrate development. PMID:11514594

Stepanek, Laurie; Sun, Qi Lun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Cong; Bixby, John L.

2001-01-01

161

Cell-surface antigens of melanoma recognized by human monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were derived from lymph node lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with melanoma. Four methods for generating human mAbs were compared: fusion with human [LICR-LON-HMy-2 (LICR-2)] or mouse (NS-1) cells; transformation by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); and EBV transformation followed by NS-1 fusion. NS-1 fusion with lymph node lymphocytes resulted in a higher number of growing hybrids than LICR-2 fusion. Virtually no hybrids were obtained from NS-1 or LICR-2 fusions with PBL. EBV transformed lymphocytes from lymph node and peripheral blood with equal efficiency, and the yield of proliferating cultures for antibody screening was more than 10- to 30-fold greater than that obtained by fusion techniques. However, once antibody-producing cultures had been identified, stability and clonability of EBV-transformed cells were poorer than that of NS-1 hybrid cells. To combine the strengths of both methods, cultures of EBV-transformed cells were fused with NS-1; and hybrid clones were isolated that showed vigorous growth, clonability, and stable antibody secretion. Detailed specificity analysis of the mAbs produced by six of these clones indicated detection of a class 1 (unique) melanoma antigen, a class 3 melanoma antigen, and four ganglioside antigens (GD3, GM3, and two other, as yet uncharacterized, heterophile antigens). Images PMID:3031684

Yamaguchi, H; Furukawa, K; Fortunato, S R; Livingston, P O; Lloyd, K O; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

1987-01-01

162

Physiological indices of stress in wild and captive garter snakes: correlations, repeatability, and ecological variation.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids and leukocyte ratios have become the most widespread variables employed to test hypotheses regarding physiological stress in wild and captive vertebrates. Little is known, however, regarding how these two indices of stress covary in response to stressors, their repeatability within individuals, and differences in response time upon capture. Furthermore, few studies compare stress indices between captive and wild populations, to assess potential alteration of stress physiology in captivity. To address these issues, we examined corticosterone (CORT) and heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios in two ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans. We found that CORT and H:L ratios were not correlated within individuals, and both variables showed little or no repeatability over a period of months. CORT levels, but not H:L ratios, were higher for individuals sampled after 10min from the time of capture. However, both variables showed similar patterns of ecotypic variation, and both increased over time in gravid females maintained in captivity for four months. We suggest that CORT and H:L ratios are both useful, but disparate indices of stress in this species, and may show complex relationships to each other and to ecological and anthropogenic variables. PMID:24713520

Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M; Williams, Shelby; Parsai, Shikha; Manhart, Whitney; Palacios, Maria G

2014-08-01

163

In vitro activation of chicken leukocytes and in vivo protection against Salmonella enteritidis organ invasion and peritoneal S. enteritidis infection-induced mortality in neonatal chickens by immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotide.  

PubMed

Unmethylated CpG oligodinucleotides (CpG-ODN) flanked by specific bases found in bacterial DNA are known to stimulate innate immune responses. In this study, synthetic CpG-ODNs were evaluated for their in vitro stimulation of leukocyte and in vivo protection against Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in neonatal chickens. Our studies showed that CpG-ODN stimulated bactericidal activities, releasing granules (degranulation) and generating reactive oxygen species (oxidative burst), in chicken heterophils and up regulated nitric oxide production in chicken peripheral blood monocytes. When day-old chickens were given (i.p.) synthetic CpG-ODNs followed by oral challenge of SE, a significant reduction (p<0.05) of organ invasion by SE was observed in chickens pretreated with CpG-ODN containing the immunostimulatory GTCGTT motif. This CpG-OND also significantly reduced mortality of chickens with acute peritoneal infection of SE. Our study provides evidence that immunostimulatory CpG-ODN stimulated innate immune activities and enhanced the resistance to infectious pathogens in neonatal chickens. PMID:15607640

He, Haiqi; Lowry, Virginia K; Swaggerty, Christina L; Ferro, Pamela J; Kogut, Michael H

2005-01-01

164

Song repertoire size varies with HVC volume and is indicative of male quality in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).  

PubMed

Complex birdsong is a classic example of a sexually selected ornamental trait. In many species, females prefer males with large song repertoires, possibly because repertoire size is limited by the size of song control nuclei which reflect developmental success. We investigated whether song repertoire size was indicative of brain area and male quality in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) by determining if repertoire size was related to the volume of song control nucleus HVC, as well as several morphological, immunological and genetic indices of quality. We found that males with large repertoires had larger HVCs and were in better body condition. They also had lower heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, indicating less physiological stress and a robust immune system as measured by the number of lymphocytes per red blood cell. Song repertoire size also tended to increase with neutral-locus genetic diversity, as assessed by mean d2, but was not related to internal relatedness. Our results suggest several mechanisms that might explain the finding of a recent study that song sparrows with large song repertoires have higher lifetime fitness. PMID:17567560

Pfaff, Jeremy A; Zanette, Liana; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A

2007-08-22

165

Cryptosporidium baileyi--infection in Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) ducklings from a zoological garden.  

PubMed

Infection of the Bursa of Fabricius with Cryptosporidium baileyi was diagnosed in a group of hand reared Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) ducklings during one breeding season in a German zoological garden.The birds had died in an emaciated and anaemic state after problems with spontaneous feeding. The bursae were infected with moderate to high numbers of cryptosporidia, which were associated with hyperplasia, degeneration and sloughing of the affected epithelial cells and mild heterophilic bursitis, lesions typically seen in bursal cryptosporidiosis in other avian species. In addition, lymphatic tissue was nearly absent, which was probably caused by chronic stress and malnutrition related to the rearing of these highly stress-sensitive birds in an artificial environment. Companion ducklings from stress-resistant, spontaneously feeding species from the zoological collection were used to calm the Mergansers, but may have introduced the cryptosporidia into the rearing boxes. Another possible source for the introduction of C. baileyi were adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which were used to increase the hatching rate by a phase of natural breeding in the middle third of the incubation period of the Merganser eggs. PMID:23045806

Schulze, Christoph; Kämmerling, Jens; Kutzer, Peter; Engelhardt, Andreas; Richter, Barbara

2012-01-01

166

No sidesteps on a beaten track: motor axons follow a labeled substrate pathway.  

PubMed

The establishment of synaptic connections between motor neurons and muscle fibers is essential for controlled body movements in any higher organism. The wiring of the neuromuscular system in Drosophila serves as a model system for the identification of key regulatory proteins that control axon guidance and target recognition. Sidestep (Side) is a transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily and plays a pivotal role in the coordination of motor axonal guidance decisions, as it functions as a target-derived attractant. Side, however, is expressed in a highly dynamic pattern during embryogenesis, making it difficult to deduce its precise function. We have recently shown that the expression of Side strongly correlates with the actual position of motor axonal growth cones. Motor axons seem to recognize and follow Side-positive surfaces until they reach their target fields. The motor neuronal protein Beaten path Ia (Beat) is required to detect Side. In beat mutant embryos, motor axons are no longer attracted to Side-expressing tissues. In addition, Beat and Side interact biochemically, forming heterophilic adhesion complexes in vitro. Here, I discuss the model that preferential adhesion of Beat-expressing growth cones to Side-labeled substrates could be a powerful mechanism to guide motor axons. PMID:19717972

Aberle, Hermann

2009-01-01

167

Searching for guidance cues: follow the Sidestep trail.  

PubMed

Neuronal growth cones migrate along stereotypic pathways to find and select their correct targets. Although it is widely believed that attractive and repulsive guidance molecules provide directional cues for migrating growth cones, it is still only poorly understood how these factors cooperate in a spatial and temporal manner. We have recently proposed that Drosophila motor axons recognize and follow a Sidestep-labeled substrate pathway from the ventral nerve cord to their peripheral target muscles. Sidestep (Side) is a transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily and functions as a target-derived attractant. On motor axons, Beaten path Ia (Beat) is required to detect Side. In addition, Beat interacts with Side both genetically and biochemically, leading to the formation of heterophilic adhesion complexes in vitro. Since Side is expressed in sensory neurons, Beat-expressing motor axons fasciculate with sensory axons and use them as migratory substrates. In a similar process, motor axons contact a subset of Side-expressing glial cells, demonstrating that, during the period of axonal pathfinding, motor axons interact with all cell types that later will be the major constituents of peripheral nerves. Here, I discuss the idea that Sidestep-mediated attraction might represent the initial step for the controlled assembly of peripheral nerves. PMID:19786838

Aberle, Hermann

2009-01-01

168

Evidence of a dominance hierarchy in captive Caribbean flamingos and its relation to pair bonding and physiological measures of health.  

PubMed

Caribbean flamingo social structure, how pair bonds affect the structure of the flock, and how social stress affects health measured by heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (H/L) were investigated at the Philadelphia Zoo. It was hypothesized that a hierarchy may become apparent by analyzing agonistic interactions and that paired individuals would share similar places within the hierarchy. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that a negative relationship between H/L ratio and dominance would exist. Forty observations were conducted and in 70% of interactions instigating bird(s) won the encounter, suggesting either some advantage for instigating birds or a prior expectation of an encounter's outcome based upon an understanding of the flock's hierarchy. The flock possessed a semi-linear hierarchy (in terms of wins/losses) and birds with higher pair-bond strengths maintained dominant positions, suggesting that pair-bonding may help individuals become more successful in agonistic encounters. Birds who won more often had higher lymphocytes percentages and analyses suggested a trend indicating dominant birds may be less stressed. A semi-linear hierarchy was also found in terms of initiation/being targeted, and a bird's rank on the dominance (wins/losses) and initiate/target hierarchies were positively correlated, suggesting that subdominant birds were targeted by dominant birds more frequently than vice versa. PMID:24670555

Royer, Erica A; Anderson, Matthew J

2014-06-01

169

[Hematology and blood cell cytochemistry of Rhinella fernandezae (Amphibia: Anura) from Espinal and Delta-Islands of Paraná River, Argentina].  

PubMed

The description of amphibian hematology is scarce and most of these studies have been done in species from North America, Asia and Europe. With the purpose to obtain basic hematological information of Rhinella fernandezae, 23 blood samples from Santa Fe and Entre Rios natural reserves were studied. Blood of each individual was extracted by cardiac puncture and hemograms were carried out. Morphological and cytochemical description of blood cells were analyzed in slides and were inspected for extra and intra cellular parasites. Five leucocytes types were observed, being lymphocytes the predominant ones followed by basophiles. Heterophils and eosinophils were positive to PAS, Sudan B and peroxidase. The erythrocytes and its precursors were negative for cytochemical reactions. Micronuclei and nuclear alterations frequencies were scarce. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between sexes neither in hemograms nor in blood cells morphology. Microfilarias were the only hemoparasites found with a relative low prevalence and infection intensity. The hematological characteristics studied were similar to those reported for other amphibians, suggesting that R. fernandezae individuals present optimal nutritional and immunological status. PMID:21516637

Cabagna Zenklusen, Mariana C; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Junges, Celina M; Fiorenza Biancucci, Gabriela; Bassó, Agustín

2011-03-01

170

Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function  

SciTech Connect

Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.

Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.

1989-11-01

171

Requirement of homotypic NK-cell interactions through 2B4(CD244)/CD48 in the generation of NK effector functions  

PubMed Central

2B4 belongs to the CD2 subset of the IgG family of receptors. Members in this family have been shown to function as coreceptors via homophilic or heterophilic interactions. Both 2B4 and CD2 bind to CD48, another member of this family. Because all 3 molecules are expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, it raises a possibility that the binding of 2B4 and CD2 to CD48 among NK cells may have functional consequences. Using specific monoclonal antibodies and gene-deficient NK cells, we found that 2B4/CD48, but not CD2/CD48, interaction is essential for IL-2–driven expansion and activation of murine NK cells. In the absence of 2B4/CD48 interaction, NK cytotoxicity and IFN-? secretion on tumor target exposure is severely impaired. Impaired activation of NK cells in 2B4-deficient mice was also demonstrated by poor NK-mediated clearance of syngeneic tumor cells in these mice. Functional impairment of NK cells in the absence of 2B4/CD48 interactions was accompanied by defective calcium signaling, suggesting that the early signaling pathway of NK receptors is inhibited. Finally, homotypic interactions among NK cells through 2B4/CD48 was visualized by specific localization of GFP-tagged 2B4 onto NK-NK conjugation sites. Thus, these data identify a novel mechanism whereby NK effector function is regulated via homotypic 2B4/CD48 interactions. PMID:15905190

Lee, Kyung-Mi; Forman, John P.; McNerney, Megan E.; Stepp, Susan; Kuppireddi, Sumalatha; Guzior, Dustin; Latchman, Yvette E.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Yagita, Hideo; Park, Chul-Kyu; Oh, Seog Bae; Wülfing, Christoph; Schatzle, John; Mathew, Porunelloor A.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Kumar, Vinay

2006-01-01

172

A bipartite network approach to inferring interactions between environmental exposures and human diseases.  

PubMed

Environmental exposure is a key factor of understanding health and diseases. Beyond genetic propensities, many disorders are, in part, caused by human interaction with harmful substances in the water, the soil, or the air. Limited data is available on a disease or substance basis. However, we compile a global repository from literature surveys matching environmental chemical substances exposure with human disorders. We build a bipartite network linking 60 substances to over 150 disease phenotypes. We quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the network and its projections as simple networks. We identify mercury, lead and cadmium as associated with the largest number of disorders. Symmetrically, we show that breast cancer, harm to the fetus and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are associated with the most environmental chemicals. We conduct statistical analysis of how vertices with similar characteristics form the network interactions. This dyadicity and heterophilicity measures the tendencies of vertices with similar properties to either connect to one-another. We study the dyadic distribution of the substance classes in the networks show that, for instance, tobacco smoke compounds, parabens and heavy metals tend to be connected, which hint at common disease causing factors, whereas fungicides and phytoestrogens do not. We build an exposure network at the systems level. The information gathered in this study is meant to be complementary to the genome and help us understand complex diseases, their commonalities, their causes, and how to prevent and treat them. PMID:25592579

Darabos, Christian; Grussing, Emily D; Cricco, Maria E; Clark, Kenzie A; Moore, Jason H

2015-01-01

173

Histopathology of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes.  

PubMed

Hydroxylated fullerenes are reported to be very strong antioxidants, acting to quench reactive oxygen species, thus having strong potential for important and widespread applications in innovative therapies for a variety of disease processes. However, their potential for toxicological side effects is still largely controversial and unknown. Effects of hydroxylated fullerenes C60(OH)24 on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were investigated microscopically after a 72-hour (acute) exposure by intraperitoneal injection of 20 ppm of hydroxylated fullerenes per gram of body mass. Cumulative, semi-quantitative histopathologic evaluation of brain, liver, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin, coelom, gills and the vestibuloauditory system revealed significant differences between control and hydroxylated fullerene-treated fish. Fullerene-treated fish had much higher cumulative histopathology scores. Histopathologic changes included loss of cellularity in the interstitium of the kidney, a primary site of haematopoiesis in fish, and loss of intracytoplasmic glycogen in liver. In the coelom, variable numbers of leukocytes, including many macrophages and fewer heterophils and rodlet cells, were admixed with the nanomaterial. These findings raise concern about in vivo administration of hydroxylated fullerenes in experimental drugs and procedures in human medicine, and should be investigated in more detail. PMID:23883179

Jovanovi?, Boris; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Pali?, Dušan

2014-11-01

174

The desmosome and pemphigus  

PubMed Central

Desmosomes are patch-like intercellular adhering junctions (“maculae adherentes”), which, in concert with the related adherens junctions, provide the mechanical strength to intercellular adhesion. Therefore, it is not surprising that desmosomes are abundant in tissues subjected to significant mechanical stress such as stratified epithelia and myocardium. Desmosomal adhesion is based on the Ca2+-dependent, homo- and heterophilic transinteraction of cadherin-type adhesion molecules. Desmosomal cadherins are anchored to the intermediate filament cytoskeleton by adaptor proteins of the armadillo and plakin families. Desmosomes are dynamic structures subjected to regulation and are therefore targets of signalling pathways, which control their molecular composition and adhesive properties. Moreover, evidence is emerging that desmosomal components themselves take part in outside-in signalling under physiologic and pathologic conditions. Disturbed desmosomal adhesion contributes to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as pemphigus, which is caused by autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins. Beside pemphigus, desmosome-associated diseases are caused by other mechanisms such as genetic defects or bacterial toxins. Because most of these diseases affect the skin, desmosomes are interesting not only for cell biologists who are inspired by their complex structure and molecular composition, but also for clinical physicians who are confronted with patients suffering from severe blistering skin diseases such as pemphigus. To develop disease-specific therapeutic approaches, more insights into the molecular composition and regulation of desmosomes are required. PMID:18386043

2008-01-01

175

Retrobulbar adenocarcinoma in an Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis).  

PubMed

Retrobulbar neoplasms are not common in mammals and are even more infrequently seen in nonmammalian species. The current report describes a retrobulbar mass creating exophthalmia and neurologic signs in a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis). A 27-year-old female parrot presented for a 3-day history of anorexia and a 2-week history of periocular soft tissue swelling and exophthalmia of the right eye. Physical examination revealed 9% dehydration and right eye exophthalmia with inability to retropulse the globe. A fine-needle aspirate was performed, and cytologic evaluation revealed necrotic debris with scattered clusters of epithelial cells, moderate numbers of macrophages, and few heterophils. Given the possibility of neoplasia and paucity of treatment options, the owners elected euthanasia and submitted the body for necropsy. A large, fluctuant, friable, red, retrobulbar mass with multiple areas of hemorrhage, on cut surface, was noted at necropsy. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic, cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells, forming rosette-like glandular structures, admixed with abundant necrotic debris. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) by immunohistochemistry. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, the mass was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma. PMID:23404475

Watson, Victoria E; Murdock, Jessica H; Cazzini, Paola; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Divers, Stephen J; Sakamoto, Kaori

2013-03-01

176

Structure of the cadherin-related neuronal receptor/protocadherin-alpha first extracellular cadherin domain reveals diversity across cadherin families.  

PubMed

The recent explosion in genome sequencing has revealed the great diversity of the cadherin superfamily. Within the superfamily, protocadherins, which are expressed mainly in the nervous system, constitute the largest subgroup. Nevertheless, the structures of only the classical cadherins are known. Thus, to broaden our understanding of the adhesion repertoire of the cadherin superfamily, we determined the structure of the N-terminal first extracellular cadherin domain of the cadherin-related neuronal receptor/protocadherin-alpha4. The hydrophobic pocket essential for homophilic adhesiveness in the classical cadherins was not found, and the functional significance of this structural domain was supported by exchanging the first extracellular cadherin domains of protocadherin and classical cadherin. Moreover, potentially crucial variations were observed mainly in the loop regions. These included the protocadherin-specific disulfide-bonded Cys-X(5)-Cys motif, which showed Ca(2+)-induced chemical shifts, and the RGD motif, which has been suggested to be involved in heterophilic cell adhesion via the active form of beta1 integrin. Our findings reveal that the adhesion repertoire of the cadherin superfamily is far more divergent than would be predicted by studying the classical cadherins alone. PMID:16916795

Morishita, Hirofumi; Umitsu, Masataka; Murata, Yoji; Shibata, Naoki; Udaka, Keiko; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Akutsu, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Tohru; Yagi, Takeshi; Ikegami, Takahisa

2006-11-01

177

Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.  

PubMed

Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development. PMID:19929638

Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M

2010-01-01

178

Ultrastructural immunolocalization of chatelicidin-like peptides in granulocytes of normal and regenerating lizard tissues.  

PubMed

The presence and localization of cathelicidin anti-microbial peptides in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, were investigated by immunocytochemistry. The study showed that immunoreactivity for cathelicidins 1 and 2 was only present in large granules of heterophilic-basophilic granulocytes, rarely found in the dermis and sub-dermal muscle in normal and more frequently in wound and regenerating skin tissues or in the blood. Some immunopositive granulocytes were also observed among the keratinocytes of the wound epithelium covering the tail stump and occasionally in the regenerating epidermis of the tail. Immunolabeling for cathelicidins was also seen in low electrondense amorphous material present on the surface of the wound epidermis and on the plasma membrane of bacteria present on the surface of corneocytes of the epidermis. Immunolabeling for cathelicidins was absent in the other cell types and in control sections. The study suggests that cathelicidins are normally stored in granulocytes in the blood or in connective tissues, while keratinocytes can be stimulated to produce and possibly release these molecules only after injury or microbial invasion. PMID:24139311

Alibardi, Lorenzo

2014-03-01

179

Intercellular transfer of carcinoembryonic antigen from tumor cells to NK cells.  

PubMed

The inhibition of NK cell killing is mainly mediated via the interaction of NK inhibitory receptors with MHC class I proteins. In addition, we have previously demonstrated that NK cells are inhibited in a class I MHC-independent manner via homophilic carcinoembryonic Ag (CEA) cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM1)-CEACAM1 and heterophilic CEACAM1-CEA interactions. However, the cross-talk between immune effector cells and their target cells is not limited to cell interactions per se, but also involves a specific exchange of proteins. The reasons for these molecular exchanges and the functional outcome of this phenomenon are still mostly unknown. In this study, we show that NK cells rapidly and specifically acquire CEA molecules from target cells. We evaluated the role of cytotoxicity in the acquisition of CEA and demonstrated it to be mostly killing independent. We further demonstrate that CEA transfer requires a specific interaction with an unknown putative NK cell receptor and that carbohydrates are probably involved in CEA recognition and acquisition by NK cells. Functionally, the killing of bulk NK cultures was inhibited by CEA-expressing cells, suggesting that this putative receptor is an inhibitory receptor. PMID:17878338

Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Nedvetzki, Shlomo; Markel, Gal; Gazit, Roi; Betser-Cohen, Gili; Achdout, Hagit; Aker, Memet; Blumberg, Richard S; Davis, Daniel M; Appelmelk, Ben; Mandelboim, Ofer

2007-10-01

180

Avian blood parasite infection during the non-breeding season: an overlooked issue in declining populations?  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogens and parasites can have major impacts on host population dynamics, both through direct mortality and via indirect effects. Both types of effect may be stronger in species whose populations are already under pressure. We investigated the potential for blood parasites to impact upon their hosts at the immunological, physiological and population level during the non-breeding season using a declining population of yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella as a model. Results Yellowhammers infected by Haemoproteus spp. showed both a reduced heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, and an elevated standardised white blood cell (WBC) count compared to uninfected birds, indicating an immunological response to infection. Infected birds had shorter wings during the first winter of sampling but not during the second, colder, winter; survival analysis of 321 birds sampled across four winters indicated that increased wing length conferred a survival advantage. Conclusions We suggest that the potential impacts of blood parasite infections on over-wintering birds may have been underestimated. Further research should consider the potential impacts of sub-clinical parasite infections on the dynamics of vulnerable populations, and we suggest using declining populations as model systems within which to investigate these relationships as well as examining interactions between sub-clinical disease and other environmental stressors. JEL Code Q5 PMID:24011390

2013-01-01

181

Time-course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12-week-old free-range chickens.  

PubMed

Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immune-suppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322(T), and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS birds demonstrated much more severe signs of fowl cholera than IS birds. With few exceptions, signs recorded in IS and NIS birds were of the same types, but significantly milder in the IS birds, indicating that immune suppression does not change the course of infection but rather the severity of signs in fowl cholera. P. multocida signals by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were observed between 1 h and 14 days in the lungs, trachea, air sacs, liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and caecal tonsils, while signals from other organs mostly were observed after 24 h. More organs had FISH signals in NIS birds than in IS birds and at higher frequency per organ. Many organs were positive by FISH even 14 days post infection, and it is suggested that these organs may be likely places for long-term carriage of P. multocida following infection. The present study has demonstrated the spread of P. multocida in different tissues in chickens and distribution of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera, and pointed to a decrease of pathology in IS birds. Since dexamethasone mostly affects heterophils, the study suggests that these cells play a role in the development of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera in chickens. PMID:22107097

Mbuthia, P G; Njagi, L W; Nyaga, P N; Bebora, L C; Minga, U; Christensen, J P; Olsen, J E

2011-12-01

182

Mucosal injury and. gamma. -irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites  

SciTech Connect

A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and {gamma}-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. {gamma}-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment.

Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

1991-05-01

183

Influence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination on cellular immune response of guinea pigs challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) currently remains the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis. In this study, we used a newly described flow cytometric technique to monitor changes in cell populations accumulating in the lungs and lymph nodes of naďve and vaccinated guinea pigs challenged by low-dose aerosol infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As anticipated, vaccinated guinea pigs controlled the growth of the challenge infection more efficiently than controls did. This early phase of bacterial control in immune animals was associated with increased accumulation of CD4 and CD8 T cells, including cells expressing the activation marker CD45, as well as macrophages expressing class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. As the infection continued, the numbers of T cells in the lungs of vaccinated animals waned, whereas the numbers of these cells expressing CD45 increased. Whereas BCG vaccination reduced the influx of heterophils (neutrophils) into the lungs, an early B-cell influx was observed in these vaccinated animals. Overall, vaccine protection was associated with reduced pathology and lung damage in the vaccinated animals. These data provide the first direct evidence that BCG vaccination accelerates the influx of protective T-cell and macrophage populations into the infected lungs, diminishes the accumulation of nonprotective cell populations, and reduces the severity of lung pathology. PMID:18508930

Ordway, Diane; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Shanley, Crystal; Smith, Erin E; Palanisamy, Gopinath; Wang, Baolin; Basaraba, Randall J; Orme, Ian M

2008-08-01

184

Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

1999-01-01

185

Metal accumulation and evaluation of effects in a freshwater turtle.  

PubMed

A variety of contaminants have been detected in aquatic and terrestrial environments around the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. The presence of these contaminants at the PGDP may pose a risk to biota, yet little is known about the bioaccumulation of contaminants and associated effects in wildlife, especially in aquatic turtles. The current study was initiated to evaluate: (1) the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Hg) in aquatic ecosystems associated with the PGDP using red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) as biomonitors; (2) maternal transfer of heavy metals; and (3) potential hematological and immunological effects resulting from metal accumulation. A total of 26 turtles were collected from 7 ponds located south, adjacent, and north of the PGDP. Liver Cu concentrations were significantly different among ponds and Cu concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with female Cu concentrations in kidney. The concentrations of heavy metals measured in turtle tissues and eggs were low and, based on previous studies of reptiles and established avian threshold levels of heavy metals, did not appear to have adverse effects on aquatic turtles inhabiting ponds near the PGDP. However, total white blood cell counts, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and phytohemagglutinin stimulation index were correlated with metal concentrations. Because other factors may affect the hematological and immunological indices, further investigation is needed to determine if these effects are associated with metal exposure, other contaminants, or disease. PMID:21688058

Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W; Colombo, Robert

2011-11-01

186

Variation in stress and innate immunity in the tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus) across an urban-rural gradient.  

PubMed

The urban environment presents new and different challenges to wildlife, but also potential opportunities depending on the species. As urban encroachment onto native habitats continues, understanding the impact of this expansion on native species is vital to conservation. A key physiological indicator of environmental disturbance is the vertebrate stress response, involving increases in circulating glucocorticoids (i.e. corticosterone), which exert influence on numerous physiological parameters including energy storage, reproduction, and immunity. We examined how urbanization in Phoenix, Arizona influences corticosterone levels, blood parasitism, and innate immunity in populations of tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) to determine whether urbanization may be detrimental or beneficial to this species. Both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower in urban lizards relative to the rural ones, however, the magnitude of the increase in corticosterone with stress did not differ across populations. Urban lizards also had a lower ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes, but elevated overall leukocyte count, as compared to lizards from the natural site. Urban and rural lizards did not differ in their prevalence of the blood parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum. Taken together, these results suggest that urban tree lizards may have suppressed overall corticosterone concentrations possibly from down-regulation as a result of frequent exposure to stressors, or increased access to urban resources. Also, urban lizards may have bolstered immunocompetence possibly from increased immune challenges, such as wounding, in the urban environment, or from greater energetic reserves being available as a result of access to urban resources. PMID:18594834

French, Susannah S; Fokidis, H Bobby; Moore, Michael C

2008-11-01

187

Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

2014-09-01

188

Minor differences in body condition and immune status between avian influenza virus-infected and noninfected mallards: a sign of coevolution?  

PubMed Central

Wildlife pathogens can alter host fitness. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection is thought to have negligible impacts on wild birds; however, effects of infection in free-living birds are largely unstudied. We investigated the extent to which LPAIV infection and shedding were associated with body condition and immune status in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), a partially migratory key LPAIV host species. We sampled mallards throughout the species' annual autumn LPAIV infection peak, and we classified individuals according to age, sex, and migratory strategy (based on stable hydrogen isotope analysis) when analyzing data on body mass and five indices of immune status. Body mass was similar for LPAIV-infected and noninfected birds. The degree of virus shedding from the cloaca and oropharynx was not associated with body mass. LPAIV infection and shedding were not associated with natural antibody (NAbs) and complement titers (first lines of defense against infections), concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp), ratios of heterophils to lymphocytes (H:L ratio), and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibody concentrations. NAbs titers were higher in LPAIV-infected males and local (i.e., short distance) migrants than in infected females and distant (i.e., long distance) migrants. Hp concentrations were higher in LPAIV-infected juveniles and females compared to infected adults and males. NAbs, complement, and Hp levels were lower in LPAIV-infected mallards in early autumn. Our study demonstrates weak associations between infection with and shedding of LPAIV and the body condition and immune status of free-living mallards. These results may support the role of mallards as asymptomatic carriers of LPAIV and raise questions about possible coevolution between virus and host. PMID:25691969

van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Fouchier, Ron A M; Klaassen, Marcel; Matson, Kevin D

2015-01-01

189

Health of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in relation to breeding location in the early 1990s. II. Cellular and histopathological measures.  

PubMed

Organosomatic indices, hematological indicators of stress, and histopathological lesions were quantified for over 150 incubating herring gulls (Larus argentatus) sampled in 11 colonies throughout the Great Lakes and reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. Of 21 parameters assessed, significantly more differed between Great Lakes colonies and reference colonies than between the two reference colonies. Relative adrenal, kidney, and liver masses of gulls from some Great Lakes colonies were reduced and thyroid masses increased relative to gulls from reference colonies. Foci of cellular atypia were observed in the hepatocytes of two Great Lakes gulls. Chronic periportal hepatitis, lipogranulomas and vacuolation of hepatocytes, and chronic granulomatous interstitial nephritis were more prevalent or severe in gulls from Great Lakes colonies and were associated with contaminants. The kidneys of gulls from the three most contaminated locations were damaged and functionally compromised. Interstitial nephritis was likely the most functionally significant histopathological lesion. Portal-tract fibrosis, granulomatous hepatitis, and kidney tubule dilation/obstruction and splenic enlargement were more prevalent or severe at reference sites and were associated with blood-borne parasites. Amyloid deposits were observed in the spleen, kidneys, or liver of nearly half of the gulls. Associations between the prevalence or severity of lesions and contaminant levels in gull tissues or the trophic level of their diet suggest some lesions are toxicopathic. Associations were most frequently found with planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and lead. The stress response, as measured by the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, was attenuated in gulls from Areas of Concern and associated with decreased adrenal mass. Our findings suggest that adult Great Lakes gulls suffered from chronic exposure to chemical stressors in the early 1990s sufficient to modulate endocrine function and physiological processes and induce structural changes in tissues. PMID:17687731

Fox, Glen A; Grasman, Keith A; Campbell, G Douglas

2007-09-01

190

Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease  

PubMed Central

Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P?=?0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P?=?0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P?=?0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ? <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research investigations and in clinical diagnosis and to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:25402479

Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.

2014-01-01

191

Interferences in Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Substances that alter the measurable concentration of the analyte or alter antibody binding can potentially result in immunoassay interference. Interfering, endogenous substances that are natural, polyreactive antibodies or autoantibodies (heterophiles), or human anti-animal antibodies together with other unsuspected binding proteins that are unique to the individual, can interfere with the reaction between analyte and reagent antibodies in immunoassay. Lipaemia, cross-reactivity, and exogenous interferences due to pre-analytical variation, matrix and equipment reaction also affect immunoassay. Interfering substances may lead to falsely elevated or falsely low analyte concentration in one or more assay systems depending on the site of the interference in the reaction and possibly result in discordant results for other analytes. The prevalence of interference is generally low in assays containing blocking agents that neutralise or inhibit the interference but is often higher in new, untested immunoassays. A wide range of analytes measured by immunoassay including hormones, tumour markers, drugs, cardiac troponin and microbial serology may be affected. Interference in immunoassay may lead to the misinterpretation of a patient's results by the laboratory and the wrong course of treatment being given by the physician. Laboratories should put processes in place to detect, test and report suspected interferences. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of discordance between the clinical and the laboratory data to the laboratory. The detection of interference may require the use of an alternate assay or additional measurements, before and after treatment with additional blocking reagent, or following dilution of the sample in non-immune serum. It is imperative that laboratories inform physicians of the follow-up procedure and report on the presence of any interference. The establishment of on-going laboratory-physician contact is essential to the continuing awareness of wrong patient results due to interference. PMID:18458713

Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg

2004-01-01

192

Interferences in immunoassay.  

PubMed

Substances that alter the measurable concentration of the analyte or alter antibody binding can potentially result in immunoassay interference. Interfering, endogenous substances that are natural, polyreactive antibodies or autoantibodies (heterophiles), or human anti-animal antibodies together with other unsuspected binding proteins that are unique to the individual, can interfere with the reaction between analyte and reagent antibodies in immunoassay. Lipaemia, cross-reactivity, and exogenous interferences due to pre-analytical variation, matrix and equipment reaction also affect immunoassay. Interfering substances may lead to falsely elevated or falsely low analyte concentration in one or more assay systems depending on the site of the interference in the reaction and possibly result in discordant results for other analytes. The prevalence of interference is generally low in assays containing blocking agents that neutralise or inhibit the interference but is often higher in new, untested immunoassays. A wide range of analytes measured by immunoassay including hormones, tumour markers, drugs, cardiac troponin and microbial serology may be affected. Interference in immunoassay may lead to the misinterpretation of a patient's results by the laboratory and the wrong course of treatment being given by the physician. Laboratories should put processes in place to detect, test and report suspected interferences. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of discordance between the clinical and the laboratory data to the laboratory. The detection of interference may require the use of an alternate assay or additional measurements, before and after treatment with additional blocking reagent, or following dilution of the sample in non-immune serum. It is imperative that laboratories inform physicians of the follow-up procedure and report on the presence of any interference. The establishment of on-going laboratory-physician contact is essential to the continuing awareness of wrong patient results due to interference. PMID:18458713

Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg

2004-05-01

193

Differential Effects of Human L1CAM Mutations on Complementing Guidance and Synaptic Defects in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

A large number of different pathological L1CAM mutations have been identified that result in a broad spectrum of neurological and non-neurological phenotypes. While many of these mutations have been characterized for their effects on homophilic and heterophilic interactions, as well as expression levels in vitro, there are only few studies on their biological consequences in vivo. The single L1-type CAM gene in Drosophila, neuroglian (nrg), has distinct functions during axon guidance and synapse formation and the phenotypes of nrg mutants can be rescued by the expression of human L1CAM. We previously showed that the highly conserved intracellular FIGQY Ankyrin-binding motif is required for L1CAM-mediated synapse formation, but not for neurite outgrowth or axon guidance of the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) neuron. Here, we use the GF as a model neuron to characterize the pathogenic L120V, Y1070C, C264Y, H210Q, E309K and R184Q extracellular L1CAM missense mutations and a L1CAM protein with a disrupted ezrin–moesin–radixin (ERM) binding site to investigate the signaling requirements for neuronal development. We report that different L1CAM mutations have distinct effects on axon guidance and synapse formation. Furthermore, L1CAM homophilic binding and signaling via the ERM motif is essential for axon guidance in Drosophila. In addition, the human pathological H210Q, R184Q and Y1070C, but not the E309K and L120V L1CAM mutations affect outside-in signaling via the FIGQY Ankyrin binding domain which is required for synapse formation. Thus, the pathological phenotypes observed in humans are likely to be caused by the disruption of signaling required for both, guidance and synaptogenesis. PMID:24155914

Kudumala, Sirisha; Freund, Julie; Hortsch, Michael; Godenschwege, Tanja A.

2013-01-01

194

Mycoplasma corogypsi-associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (Coragyps atratus).  

PubMed

Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs. Necropsy and histological examination demonstrated a chronic lymphoplasmacytic arthritis involving multiple joints and gastrocnemius tenosynovitis. Articular lesions varied in severity and ranged from moderate synovitis and cartilage erosion and fibrillation to severe synovitis, diffuse cartilage ulceration, subchondral bone loss and/or sclerosis, pannus, synovial cysts, and epiphyseal osteomyelitis. No walled bacteria were observed or isolated from the joints. However, mycoplasmas polymerase chain reactions were positive in at least 1 affected joint from each bird. Mycoplasmas were isolated from joints of 1 vulture that did not receive antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from joint samples and the mycoplasma isolate identified Mycoplasma corogypsi in 2 vultures and was suggestive in the third vulture. Mycoplasma corogypsi identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma isolates. This report provides further evidence that M. corogypsi is a likely cause of arthritis and tenosynovitis in American black vultures. Cases of arthritis and tenosynovitis in New World vultures should be investigated for presence of Mycoplasma spp, especially M. corogypsi. PMID:22903399

Van Wettere, A J; Ley, D H; Scott, D E; Buckanoff, H D; Degernes, L A

2013-03-01

195

Galectin-15 in ovine uteroplacental tissues.  

PubMed

Galectin-15 is the newest member of a secreted beta-galactoside-binding lectin family. The galectin-15 gene is expressed specifically by the endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE) of the ovine uterus. The proposed extracellular role of secreted galec7tin-15 is to regulate implantation and placentation by functioning as a heterophilic cell adhesion molecule between the conceptus trophectoderm and endometrial LE, while that of intracellular galectin-15 is to regulate cell survival, differentiation and function. The present study determined galectin-15 expression in uteroplacental tissues during gestation and in the postpartum uterus. In the uterine lumen, secreted galectin-15 was found as multimers, particularly on days 14 and 16 of pregnancy. In the endometrial epithelium and conceptus trophectoderm, intracellular galectin-15 protein was found associated with crystalline structures. Between days 20 and 120 of pregnancy, galectin-15 mRNA was expressed specifically by the LE and sGE of the intercaruncular endometrium of ewes. Immunoreactive galectin-15 protein was most abundant in the trophectoderm with lower levels in the endometrial LE and sGE. Galectin-15 protein was detected in allantoic fluid, but not in amniotic fluid. After parturition, galectin-15 mRNA declined in the endometrium from postpartum day (PPD) 1 to 28 and exhibited a variegated expression pattern in the LE and sGE. These results indicate that galectin-15 is synthesized and secreted throughout gestation by the endometrial LE/sGE and is absorbed by the placenta and forms crystals within the trophectoderm, whereas the remainder is cleared into the allantois after being transported into the fetal circulation via the placental areolae. Based on the biological properties of other galectin family members, galectin-15 is hypothesized to have biological roles in conceptus-endometrial interactions, uterine immune and inflammatory responses, and placental morphogenesis and function. PMID:16049161

Gray, C Allison; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Burghardt, Robert C; Spencer, Thomas E

2005-08-01

196

Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 1. Effects on growth and slaughter performance, haematological and serum traits.  

PubMed

The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC, suggests that the maximum level of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds should be set at 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six one-day-old male Hubburd broiler chickens were divided into two groups, a Control (basal diet) and an Ochratoxin A (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The growth and slaughter performance traits were recorded. The liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus weights were measured. The erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers were assayed in blood samples, and the heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L) ratio was determined. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), lysozyme, the total protein and the electrophoretic pattern were evaluated in serum samples. Liver enzymes (alanino aminotransferase, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and kidney function parameters (uric acid and creatinine) were quantified. The results revealed that feeding a 0.1 mg OTA/kg contaminated diet to chicks caused a decrease in the absolute thymus weight (p < 0.05) and a lower total protein (p < 0.01), albumin (p < 0.01), alpha (p < 0.05), beta (p = 0.001) and gamma (p = 0.001) globulins serum concentration in the Ochratoxin A group. Moreover, the albumin-to-globulin (A/G) ratio of the OTA-treated animals resulted to be higher (p < 0.05). Feeding broiler chickens, a diet contaminated with the maximum level admitted by the European Commission Recommendation (0.1 mg OTA/kg), did not affect the animal performance, slaughter traits, organ weights, haematological parameters, liver enzyme or renal function parameters concentrations but had an overall immunosuppressant effect, with reduction in the thymus weight and of the total serum protein, albumin, alpha, beta and gamma globulins concentration. PMID:23639013

Pozzo, L; Salamano, G; Mellia, E; Gennero, M S; Doglione, L; Cavallarin, L; Tarantola, M; Forneris, G; Schiavone, A

2013-05-01

197

The effect of feeding rations with different ratios of concentrate to alfalfa hay on blood hematological and biochemical parameters of farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus).  

PubMed

A two-month trial was conducted to investigate the effects of pelleting rations with 70:30, 65:35, and 60:40 concentrate to high-quality roughage (alfalfa hay) ratios on hematological and biochemical parameters of ostriches. A total of 18 seven-month-old male ostrich chicks, initially weighing an average of 60-70 kg, were distributed into three different outdoor paddocks at a stocking density of six birds per paddock. In the morning, blood collection was made from the wing vein after about 12 h of fasting. All rations resulted in no significant change in hematological parameters. However, with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio tended to be lower (P = 0.089); whereas the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) tended to be higher (P values 0.069, 0.072 and 0.094, respectively). In terms of plasma biochemical parameters, increasing the ratio of concentrate to alfalfa hay in ostrich diets resulted in significant (P < 0.05) depression in the values of glucose (up to 20.2 %), total cholesterol (up to 19.2 %), creatine kinase (up to 27.9 %), and aspartate aminotransferase (up to 29.9 %). Additionally, the 65:35 or 60:40 rations caused a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (27.9 and 42 %, respectively; P = 0.008) compared to the 70:40 ration. Without exception, no rations affected the values of leukocyte subsets, total protein, albumin, globulin, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein. Based on our results, the concentrate to alfalfa ratio of 60:40 could be suggested as optimum ratio for good health conditions of juvenile ostriches. PMID:23575919

Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Kazemi-Bonchenari, Mehdi; Khaltabadi-Farahani, Amir Hossein; Khodaei Motlagh, Mahdi

2013-10-01

198

Role of tumour-associated N-glycolylated variant of GM3 ganglioside in cancer progression: effect over CD4 expression on T cells.  

PubMed

Gangliosides have diverse biological functions including modulation of immune system response. These molecules are differentially expressed on malignant cells compared with the corresponding normal ones and are involved in cancer progression affecting, in different ways, the host's anti-tumour specific immune responses. Although in humans the N-glycolylated variant of GM3 ganglioside is almost exclusively expressed in tumour tissues, the significance of this glycolipid for malignant cell biology remains obscure, while for NAcGM3 strong immune suppressive effects have been reported. The present work demonstrates, for the first time, the capacity of NGcGM3 ganglioside to down-modulate CD4 expression in murine and human T lymphocytes, especially in non-activated T cells. Thirty and tenfold reductions in CD4 expression were induced by purified NGcGM3 ganglioside in murine and human T lymphocytes, respectively. The CD4 complete recovery in these cells occurred after 48 h of ganglioside removal, due to neo-synthesis. Restored T cells kept similar sensitivity to ganglioside-induced CD4 down-modulation after a new challenge. In addition, a clear association between NGcGM3 insertion in lymphocyte plasma membranes and the CD4 down-modulation effect was documented. Notably, a possible role of this ganglioside in tumour progression, taking advantage of the X63 myeloma model, was also outlined. The relevance of these findings, characterizing NGcGM3 as a possible tumour immunesurveillance inhibitor and supporting the reason for its neo-expression in certain human cancers, is contributing to this unique heterophilic ganglioside validation as target for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:16208470

de Leňn, Joel; Fernández, Audry; Mesa, Circe; Clavel, Marilyn; Fernández, Luis E

2006-04-01

199

Immune status of free-ranging green turtles with fibropapillomatosis from Hawaii.  

PubMed

Cell-mediated and humoral immune status of free-ranging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii (USA) with and without fibropapillornatosis (FP) were assessed. Tumored and non-tumored turtles from Kaneohe Bay (KB) on the island of Oahu and from FP-free areas on the west (Kona/Kohala) coast of the island of Hawaii were sampled from April 1998 through February 1999. Turtles on Oahu were grouped (0-3) for severity of tumors with 0 for absence of tumors, 1 for light, 2 for moderate, and 3 for most severe. Turtles were weighed, straight carapace length measured and the regression slope of weight to straight carapace length compared between groups (KB0, KB1, KB2, KB3, Kona). Blood was assayed for differential white blood cell count, hematocrit, in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A (ConA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and protein electrophoresis. On Oahu, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio increased while eosinophil/monocyte ratio decreased with increasing tumors score. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation indices for ConA and PHA were significantly lower for turtles with tumor scores 2 and 3. Tumor score 3 turtles (KB3) had significantly lower hematocrit, total protein, alpha 1, alpha 2, and gamma globulins than the other four groups. No significant differences in immune status were seen between non-tumored (or KB1) turtles from Oahu and Hawaii. There was no significant difference between groups in regression slopes of body condition to carapace length. We conclude that turtles with severe FP are imunosuppressed. Furthermore, the lack of significant difference in immune status between non-tumored (and KB1) turtles from Oahu and Kona/Kohala indicates that immunosuppression may not be a prerequisite for development of FP. PMID:11504232

Work, T M; Rameyer, R A; Balazs, G H; Cray, C; Chang, S P

2001-07-01

200

Methylglyoxal and pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Methylglyoxal (MG) is a dicarbonyl molecule that forms during glycolysis and normally is detoxified via the glyoxalase system. Methylglyoxal is highly reactive with various amino acid residues in proteins, leading to oxidative stress and irreversible protein damage. Increased levels of MG have been associated with endothelial damage and vascular remodeling contributing to the development of systemic arterial hypertension in mammals. This study was conducted to determine whether administering exogenous MG can trigger pulmonary hypertension (increased pulmonary arterial pressure) in broilers. Hematological assays and preliminary mass spectrometric analyses also were conducted using blood samples from broilers that had been injected intramuscularly with either saline or MG to determine whether MG triggers either a toxic response or oxidative posttranslational modification of hemoglobin within 24 h postinjection. Clinically healthy male broilers received 100-µL intravenous injections of saline and then MG, followed by a 500-µL intramuscular injection. Neither intravenous nor intramuscular injections of saline altered the pulmonary arterial pressure, whereas both intravenous and intramuscular MG injections triggered pulmonary hypertension attributable to increased pulmonary vascular resistance. The precise mode of action by which MG triggers pulmonary vasoconstriction remains to be determined. Pulse oximetry, hematology, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight spectra data did not provide evidence of an overt toxic response to MG, nor was modification of hemoglobin detected, although increased heterophil:lymphocyte ratios did demonstrate that MG caused a stress response. To the best of our knowledge the present results constitute the first demonstration in any vertebrate species that exogenously administered MG rapidly initiates pulmonary hypertension attributable to pulmonary vasoconstriction. PMID:21597070

Khajali, F; Liyanage, R; Wideman, R F

2011-06-01

201

Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter "flycatcher") is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in saltcedar habitats exhibit poorer nutritional condition or are suffering negative physiological affects. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2005.

Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

2005-01-01

202

Infections with Avian Pathogenic and Fecal Escherichia coli Strains Display Similar Lung Histopathology and Macrophage Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare histopathological changes in the lungs of chickens infected with avian pathogenic (APEC) and avian fecal (Afecal) Escherichia coli strains, and to analyze how the interaction of the bacteria with avian macrophages relates to the outcome of the infection. Chickens were infected intratracheally with three APEC strains, MT78, IMT5155, and UEL17, and one non-pathogenic Afecal strain, IMT5104. The pathogenicity of the strains was assessed by isolating bacteria from lungs, kidneys, and spleens at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). Lungs were examined for histopathological changes at 12, 18, and 24 h p.i. Serial lung sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), terminal deoxynucleotidyl dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) for detection of apoptotic cells, and an anti-O2 antibody for detection of MT78 and IMT5155. UEL17 and IMT5104 did not cause systemic infections and the extents of lung colonization were two orders of magnitude lower than for the septicemic strains MT78 and IMT5155, yet all four strains caused the same extent of inflammation in the lungs. The inflammation was localized; there were some congested areas next to unaffected areas. Only the inflamed regions became labeled with anti-O2 antibody. TUNEL labeling revealed the presence of apoptotic cells at 12 h p.i in the inflamed regions only, and before any necrotic foci could be seen. The TUNEL-positive cells were very likely dying heterophils, as evidenced by the purulent inflammation. Some of the dying cells observed in avian lungs in situ may also be macrophages, since all four avian E. coli induced caspase 3/7 activation in monolayers of HD11 avian macrophages. In summary, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic fecal strains of avian E. coli produce focal infections in the avian lung, and these are accompanied by inflammation and cell death in the infected areas. PMID:22848424

Horn, Fabiana; Corręa, André Mendes Ribeiro; Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Glodde, Susanne; Weyrauch, Karl Dietrich; Kaspers, Bernd; Driemeier, David; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.

2012-01-01

203

Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

2014-06-01

204

Dexamethasone inhibits corticosterone deposition in feathers of greenfinches.  

PubMed

Corticosterone (CORT) content of feathers is a potent source of information about activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during feather growth, which is used for assessment of well-being and stress history of individuals and populations in avian studies. However, little is known about factors affecting deposition of CORT into feathers and how feather CORT covaries with other markers of stress imposed upon individuals during feather growth. We addressed these questions by measuring CORT levels in feathers of wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) brought into captivity. One tail feather was removed from all the birds upon arrival to the laboratory and the CORT levels of replacement feathers, grown in captivity were recorded. The birds were subjected to treatments of immune activation (by injection of phytohaemagglutinin) and synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone, DEX) administration. Only DEX injection affected feather CORT levels. DEX-injected birds deposited on average 37% less of CORT in their feathers than saline-injected birds. Despite significant effects of DEX and immune activation treatments on differential leukocyte counts, we did not find any correlations between CORT and leukocyte hemoconcentrations or heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (a haematological index of stress), measured at three stages of feather growth. Our findings provide novel evidence that feather CORT levels are sensitive to manipulation of hormonal balance of birds, thereby supporting the diagnostic value of feather CORT measurements. However, we did not find any evidence about covariation between feather CORT and other markers of stress perceived during the period of feather growth. This calls for further research on information content of feather CORT, preferably in experiments manipulating more diverse array of psychological, immunological and abiotic stressors. PMID:23856540

Hőrak, Peeter; Männiste, Marju; Meitern, Richard; Sild, Elin; Saks, Lauri; Sepp, Tuul

2013-09-15

205

Immune responsiveness of Japanese quail selected for egg yolk testosterone content under severe protein restriction.  

PubMed

Yolk testosterone concentrations vary in response to environmental conditions and different testosterone contents can subsequently modify the phenotypic traits of offspring. Apart from effects on growth, proactive behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics, the possible negative impacts of maternal testosterone on the immune system are often considered a limitation for its deposition. The effects of maternal testosterone can be modulated by postnatal environmental conditions, such as the availability of food resources. However, the majority of studies considering the effects of maternal testosterone on the immune system have been conducted under optimum conditions. We evaluated the influence of genetic selection for high (HET) and low (LET) egg testosterone content in Japanese quail on immune responsiveness of offspring to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation under severe protein restriction. Protein restriction negatively influenced body weight and performance in the PHA-test. We observed an increase in Cort (corticosterone) and He/Ly (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) after LPS, while no changes occurred in total IgY levels in the protein-restricted group. HET quails showed higher body mass and total IgY levels and lower He/Ly ratio than LET quails, while the PHA index and Cort concentration did not differ between lines. No interactions were found between protein restriction and genetic line. In conclusion, the immune response was not compromised under conditions of severe protein restriction in the faster growing HET line compared with the LET line. We hypothesise that the immune responsiveness of birds with higher yolk testosterone may be linked with other maternally-derived substances in a context-dependent manner. PMID:25086332

Kankova, Zuzana; Okuliarova, Monika; Zeman, Michal

2014-11-01

206

Critical Roles for stx2, eae, and tir in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli-Induced Diarrhea and Intestinal Inflammation in Infant Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a group of food-borne pathogens that can cause diarrhea, colitis, and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The importance of several of the proposed EHEC virulence factors lacks experimental verification in animal models. The limitations of current animal models led us to reexamine the infant rabbit model for the study of EHEC pathogenicity. Here, we report that intragastric inoculation of a Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing E. coli O157:H7 clinical isolate into infant rabbits led to severe diarrhea and intestinal inflammation but no signs of HUS. We constructed a set of isogenic derivatives of this isolate with deletions in several putative virulence genes, including stx2, eae, tir, and ehxA, to investigate the contribution of individual virulence factors to EHEC pathogenicity. stx2 increased the severity and duration of EHEC-induced diarrhea. Furthermore, although stx2 had no role in EHEC intestinal colonization nor was it required for EHEC-induced inflammation, stx2 altered how the host responded to EHEC infection by promoting heterophilic infiltration of the colonic epithelium and lamina propria. Intragastric inoculation of purified Stx2 also induced inflammation and diarrhea in this model. Diarrhea and intestinal inflammation were also dependent on EHEC colonization, as EHEC derivatives with deletions in eae and tir did not colonize, form attaching and effacing lesions, or develop clinical signs of disease. Our studies indicate that infant rabbits are a useful model for investigation of the intestinal stage of EHEC pathogenesis and suggest that Shiga toxin may play a critical role in causing diarrhea and inflammation in patients infected with EHEC. PMID:14638803

Ritchie, Jennifer M.; Thorpe, Cheleste M.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Waldor, Matthew K.

2003-01-01

207

Changes in heat shock protein 70, blood parameters, and fear-related behavior in broiler chickens as affected by pleasant and unpleasant human contact.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of combining both pleasant and unpleasant contacts with human beings on physiology and behavior of broiler chickens. Birds were subjected to the following treatments: (i) received no physical or visual contact with humans (control); (ii) from d 1 to 28, chicks were individually stroked gently for 30 s once daily (PL); (iii) from d 1 to 28, chicks were picked up individually, suspended by both legs, exposed to recorded noise, and swung gently for 15 s once daily (UNPL); (iv) from d 1 to 14 and from d 15 to 28, chicks were subjected to PL and UNPL, respectively (PL-UNPL); and (v) from d 1 to 14 and from d 15 to 28, chicks were subjected to UNPL and PL, respectively (UNPL-PL). On d 42, birds from each treatment group were road-transported for 3 h. Heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression, plasma levels of corticosterone, serum creatine kinase concentration, heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (HLR), and tonic immobility duration were determined pre- and posttransit. There were significant (P < 0.05) duration of transportation × human contact treatment interactions for HLR and hsp 70 density. Following transit, the PL chicks had significantly (P < 0.05) lower HLR and greater hsp 70 density than the other groups. The corticosterone of PL and UNPL chicks were lower than their control, PL-UNPL, and UNPL-PL counterparts. The PL and PL-UNPL treatments were effective in shortening tonic immobility duration significantly (P < 0.05). Except for UNPL-PL, the serum creatine kinase activity of PL was significantly lower than the other groups. In conclusion, subjecting birds to pleasant human contact reduced stress and fear reactions to transportation by enhancing the ability to express hsp 70 in the brain. Unpleasant human contact had adverse effect on the birds' response to transportation. Early age pleasant experience with humans failed to negate the adverse effects of subsequent unpleasant contact. PMID:23243228

Al-Aqil, A; Zulkifli, I; Hair Bejo, M; Sazili, A Q; Rajion, M A; Somchit, M N

2013-01-01

208

Reference intervals for plasma biochemical and hematologic measures in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from Moreton Bay, Australia.  

PubMed

Biochemical and hematologic reference intervals have been reported for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta, Linnaeus 1758), but low sample numbers and simple statistical analyses have constrained their diagnostic usefulness. During June 2007-May 2008, 101 loggerhead sea turtles in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, were captured by hand from boats; clinically assessed to determine health status; blood was sampled; and biochemical and hematologic variables were measured. Of these turtles, 66 were classified as clinically healthy and 23 as unhealthy. Reference intervals were calculated using data from clinically healthy turtles. Of the clinically unhealthy turtles, 82 and 45% had at least one biochemical and hematologic result, respectively, outside of at least one of the calculated intervals. However, only low proportions of unhealthy loggerhead sea turtles had abnormal results for each variable. The highest percentage of unhealthy turtles that were outside at least one estimated reference interval was 35%, for thrombocyte counts. Neither sex nor maturity category (mature versus large immature) influenced the risk of being clinically unhealthy. These are the first plasma biochemical and hematologic reference intervals reported for loggerhead sea turtles from the southwestern Pacific Ocean. We conclude that, for loggerhead sea turtles in Moreton Bay, separate reference intervals are required for mature and immature turtles for thrombocyte counts and for male and female turtles for lymphocyte, heterophil, and total white cell counts; otherwise, a single reference interval can be used regardless of age or sex. When estimating reference intervals in loggerhead sea turtles, it is desirable to use both methods for calculating reference intervals used in this study because intervals can differ substantially between methods for some variables. Joint interpretation using reference intervals from both methods allows the categorization of results as "normal," "suspect," or "abnormal." PMID:20688679

Flint, Mark; Morton, John M; Limpus, Colin J; Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Mills, Paul C

2010-07-01

209

Gelatinase Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Endocarditis Caused by Enterococcus faecalis?  

PubMed Central

The Gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis is a leading agent of nosocomial infections, including urinary tract infections, surgical site infections, and bacteremia. Among the infections caused by E. faecalis, endocarditis remains a serious clinical manifestation and unique in that it is commonly acquired in a community setting. Infective endocarditis is a complex disease, with many host and microbial components contributing to the formation of bacterial biofilm-like vegetations on the aortic valve and adjacent areas within the heart. In the current study, we compared the pathogenic potential of the vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis V583 and three isogenic protease mutants (?gelE, ?sprE, and ?gelE ?sprE mutants) in a rabbit model of enterococcal endocarditis. The bacterial burdens displayed by GelE? mutants (?gelE and ?gelE ?sprE mutants) in the heart were significantly lower than those of V583 or the SprE? mutant. Vegetations on the aortic valve infected with GelE? mutants (?gelE and ?gelE ?sprE mutants) also showed a significant increase in deposition of fibrinous matrix layer and increased chemotaxis of inflammatory cells. In support of a role for proteolytic modulation of the immune response to E. faecalis, we also demonstrate that GelE can cleave the anaphylatoxin complement C5a and that this proteolysis leads to decreased neutrophil migration in vitro. In vivo, a decreased heterophil (neutrophil-like cell) migration was observed at tissue sites infected with GelE-producing strains but not at those infected with SprE-producing strains. Taken together, these observations suggest that of the two enterococcal proteases, gelatinase is the principal mediator of pathogenesis in endocarditis. PMID:20713628

Thurlow, Lance R.; Thomas, Vinai Chittezham; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Olson, Sally; Fleming, Sherry D.; Hancock, Lynn E.

2010-01-01

210

II. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken stress1.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), and incandescent lamps on broiler welfare in response to recent interest in the agriculture industry to transition to more energy-efficient lighting technologies. Male Ross 708 broilers (n = 672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 light-tight modified large colony houses under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested were a CCFL, and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of the 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Birds were removed from each house at days 7, 14, 35, and 42 to be humanely euthanized and weighed for necropsy evaluation and comparison of body mass. Blood collection via cardiac puncture was performed to obtain heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios for evaluation of environmental stress. Birds raised under CCFLs had significantly lower body weights (2,871?g ± 53) than the control (3,000 ± 33 g) by 42 d. Birds raised under CCFLs additionally had significantly higher H:L ratios (0.68 ± 0.06) than the control (0.53 ± 0.03), indicating that these birds may have been chronically stressed (P = 0.03). There were not significant differences in the H:L ratio between LED technologies at ? = 0.05. A significant age and seasonal correlation in H:L ratios was observed across all technologies, along with significant differences among birds raised under the experimental technologies. This study indicates that variation in broiler body weight and stress may be attributed in part to lighting technologies implemented in broiler houses. PMID:25717091

Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

2015-03-01

211

Gene expression in the chicken caecum in response to infections with non-typhoid Salmonella.  

PubMed

Chickens can be infected with Salmonella enterica at any time during their life. However, infections within the first hours and days of their life are epidemiologically the most important, as newly hatched chickens are highly sensitive to Salmonella infection. Salmonella is initially recognized in the chicken caecum by TLR receptors and this recognition is followed by induction of chemokines, cytokines and many effector genes. This results in infiltration of heterophils, macrophages, B- and T-lymphocytes and changes in total gene expression in the caecal lamina propria. The highest induction in expression is observed for matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). Expression of this gene is increased in the chicken caecum over 4000 fold during the first 10 days after the infection of newly hatched chickens. Additional highly inducible genes in the caecum following S. Enteritidis infection include immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1), serum amyloid A (SAA), extracellular fatty acid binding protein (ExFABP), serine protease inhibitor (SERPINB10), trappin 6-like (TRAP6), calprotectin (MRP126), mitochondrial ES1 protein homolog (ES1), interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5), avidin (AVD) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4). The induction of expression of these proteins exceeds a factor of 50. Similar induction rates are also observed for chemokines and cytokines such as IL1?, IL6, IL8, IL17, IL18, IL22, IFN?, AH221 or iNOS. Once the infection is under control, which happens approx. 2 weeks after infection, expression of IgY and IgA increases to facilitate Salmonella elimination from the gut lumen. This review outlines the function of individual proteins expressed in chickens after infection with non-typhoid Salmonella serovars. PMID:25475706

Rychlik, Ivan; Elsheimer-Matulova, Marta; Kyrova, Kamila

2014-01-01

212

Mycoplasma corogypsi associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (Coragyps atratus)  

PubMed Central

Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs. Necropsy and histological examination demonstrated a chronic lymphoplasmacytic arthritis involving multiple joints and gastrocnemius tenosynovitis. Articular lesions varied in severity and ranged from moderate synovitis and cartilage erosion and fibrillation to severe synovitis, diffuse cartilage ulceration, subchondral bone loss and/or sclerosis, pannus, synovial cysts, and epiphyseal osteomyelitis. No walled bacteria were observed or isolated from the joints. However, mycoplasmas polymerase chain reactions were positive in at least 1 affected joint from each bird. Mycoplasmas were isolated from joints of 1 vulture that did not receive antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from joint samples and the mycoplasma isolate identified Mycoplasma corogypsi in 2 vultures and was suggestive in the third vulture. Mycoplasma corogypsi identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma isolates. This report provides further evidence that M. corogypsi is a likely cause of arthritis and tenosynovitis in American black vultures. Cases of arthritis and tenosynovitis in New World vultures should be investigated for presence of Mycoplasma spp, especially M. corogypsi. PMID:22903399

Van Wettere, A. J.; Ley, D. H.; Scott, D. E.; Buckanoff, H. D.; Degernes, L. A.

2013-01-01

213

Nectin-like molecule 1 is a glycoprotein with a single N-glycosylation site at N290KS which influences its adhesion activity.  

PubMed

Nectin-like molecule 1 (NECL1)/CADM3/IGSF4B/TSLL1/SynCAM3, from now on referred to as NECL1, is a neural tissue-specific immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion molecule which has Ca(2+)-independent homo- or heterophilic cell-cell adhesion activity and plays an important role in the formation of synapses, axon bundles and myelinated axons. Here we first detected the expression of NECL1 in human fetal and adult brains, and mouse brains at different developmental stages. The results indicated that two bands with molecular weights of about 62 kDa and 48 kDa were found in human fetal brain, while only one band with a molecular weight of about 48 kDa was found in human adult brain; two bands with molecular weights of about 62 kDa and 48 kDa whose expression level gradually increased were also found from mouse E16 to P14, while only one band with a molecular weight of about 48 kDa was found from P14. Bioinformatics analysis showed there were two putative N-glycosylation sites within human NECL1 at positions N25LS and N290KS and within mouse Necl1 at positions N23LS and N288KS, respectively. There was no O-glycosylation site in either human NECL1 or mouse Necl1. Based on the results of N-Glycosidase F treatment with human fetal brain tissue and lysates from transient transfection with human wild-type or glycosylation site mutant NECL1 in 293ET cells, we demonstrated that human NECL1 is an N-linked glycoprotein with a single glycosylation site at position N290KS. Cell aggregation assay further showed there was an increased adhesion activity after the glycosylation site mutation of NECL1 molecule. PMID:18420026

Gao, Jing; Chen, Tao; Hu, Guangyu; Gong, Yanhua; Qiang, Boqin; Yuan, Jiangang; Peng, Xiaozhong

2008-06-01

214

Immune response to an endotoxin challenge involves multiple immune parameters and is consistent among the annual-cycle stages of a free-living temperate zone bird.  

PubMed

Trade-offs between immune function and other physiological and behavioural processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. While variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is well established, studies in wild animals on multiple parameters during an immune response are lacking. It also remains to be tested whether and how immune responses correlate with baseline values that vary, for example, over the course of an annual cycle. We studied immunological responses to an endotoxin challenge in skylarks (Alauda arvensis), a partial migrant bird breeding in temperate zones. We compared birds injected with the endotoxin LPS with un-injected controls, characterizing immunological responses with leukocyte profiles, titres of lytic enzymes and natural antibodies, and concentrations of haptoglobin and heat shock proteins. We did this in five annual-cycle stages to test whether the response varied throughout the year. The endotoxin challenge affected six of 10 measured parameters. Lysis titres and proportions of heterophils increased; haptoglobin concentrations and proportions of lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils decreased. The variable effects on different immune components demonstrate the complexity of an immune response. We found no evidence that the response differed between annual-cycle stages. The response was independent of baseline measures taken directly upon capture in the field, indicating that birds were facing no immunological ceiling when mounting an immune response. Values of five parameters collected under field conditions were significantly related to values taken under standardized laboratory conditions. We conclude that multiple parts of the immune system are modulated during an immunological response and that responses are not re-organized throughout the annual cycle. PMID:23531817

Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D; Versteegh, Maaike A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Tieleman, B Irene

2013-07-15

215

Thyroid hormone suppression and cell-mediated immunomodulation in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to PCBs.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental contaminants can induce physiological changes in animals through various mechanisms. One manifestation of subclinical toxicity from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure is the disruption of normal immune function described in numerous species, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius). In 1998, 152 mature male and female kestrels were fed either a mixture of Aroclor 1248:1254:1260 (approximately 7 mg/kg kestrel/day) through their food items, or control diets. Offspring produced by 50 breeding pairs (thus, half received in ovo PCB exposure only) were also studied. Total and differential white blood cell counts, the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response, as well as thyroid hormone levels were tested in vivo in nonbreeding adults (1998 only) and nestlings (1998 and 1999). In 1999, nestlings came from three parental groups; adults exposed in 1998, birds produced by PCB-exposed parents, and unexposed birds. In 1998, directly exposed males but not females had increased total white blood cell counts driven by lymphocytosis, plus a decreased heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio relative to controls. PCB-exposed birds had a significantly greater response to PHA than did controls, with sex as a significant factor and plasma triiodothyonine (T(3)) as a significant covariate. Levels of T(3) were significantly depressed in PCB-exposed birds of both sexes. The 1999 nestlings (F1 generation with respect to PCB exposure) did not show any effect of parental treatment group on the PHA skin response, yet T(3) remained as a significant covariate. Immunological effects are discussed in light of the antibody-mediated immunotoxicity found in the same birds and reported previously. PMID:12202931

Smits, J E; Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Marchant, T A

2002-10-01

216

[Encephalitis due to the Epstein-Barr virus: a description of a clinical case and review of the literature].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Infection by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -either as a primary infection, a reactivation or an active chronic infection- can give rise to several clinical forms of involvement of the central nervous system. We report a case of encephalitis due to EBV produced by viral reactivation in an immunocompetent patient which initially mimicked, from the clinical and electroencephalographic point of view, encephalitis due to type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). CASE REPORT. A 51-year-old male who had reported the presence of dorsal herpes zoster some days earlier. The patient visited the emergency department after suffering a holocranial oppressive headache and febricula for seven days; 24 hours before admission to hospital, he was suffering from drowsiness and language disorder. The neurological examination revealed stiffness in the back of the neck and dysphasia. An analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed pleocytosis (422 cells/mm(3)) with 98% of mononuclear cells and normal protein and glucose concentration levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalogram readings were normal with periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges in the left temporal region. Intravenous acyclovir treatment was initiated, but renal failure meant it had to be changed to oral valaciclovir with clinical resolution and improvement of the liquoral parameters. Polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid was positive for EBV and negative for the other neurotropic viruses. In blood, the serology test for EBV with IgG was positive, while IgM and heterophile antibody tests were negative. CONCLUSIONS. EBV infection can give rise to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or affect several locations in the central nervous system, especially the cerebellum. Clinical pictures mimicking HSV-1 are less frequent. When encephalitis is related to viral reactivation, precipitating factors can be detected, as in our case. PMID:24203667

Barón, Johanna; Herrero-Velázquez, Sonia; Ruiz-Pińero, Marina; Pedraza, M Isabel; Rojo-Rello, Silvia; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel Luis

2013-11-16

217

Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response.  

PubMed

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions.During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70% (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:24122339

Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

2014-09-01

218

Nonspecific Cytotoxic Cell Antimicrobial Protein (NCAMP-1): A Novel Alarmin Ligand Identified in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Cells from the coelomic cavity of adult zebrafish (zf) were used to study the alarmin-like activities of nonspecific cytotoxic cell antimicrobial protein-1 (NCAMP-1). Immunohistochemistry studies using polyclonal anti-NCAMP-1 identified constitutive NCAMP-1 in epithelial cells of the zf anterior kidney, in liver parenchyma and in the lamina propria of the intestine. NCAMP-1 was also located in the cytosol of mononuclear cells in these tissues. Cytosolic NCAMP-1 was detected in a diverse population of coelomic cells (CC) using confocal microscopy and polyclonal anti-NCAMP-1 staining. Large mononuclear and heterophil-like CC had intracellular NCAMP-1. These studies indicated that NCAMP-1 is constitutively found in epithelial cells and in ZFCC. To establish a relationship between NCAMP-1 and the alarmin functions of ATP, a stimulation-secretion model was initiated using zf coelomic cells (ZFCC). ZFCCs treated with the alarmin ATP secreted NCAMP-1 into culture supernatants. Treatment of ZFCC with either ATP or NCAMP-1 activated purinergic receptor induced pore formation detected by the ZFCC uptake of the dye YO-PRO-1. ATP induced YO-PRO-1 uptake was inhibited by antagonists oxidized-ATP, KN62, or CBB. These antagonists did not compete with NCAMP-1 induced YO-PRO-1 uptake. Binding of ZFCC by both ATP and NCAMP-1 produced an influx of Ca2+. Combined treatment of ZFCC with ATP and NCAMP-1 increased target cell cytotoxicity. Individually NCAMP-1 or ATP treatment did not produce target cell damage. Similar to ATP, NCAMP-1 activates cellular pore formation, calcium influx and cytotoxicity. PMID:25689842

Monette, Margaret Mariscal; Evans, Donald Lee; Krunkosky, Thomas; Camus, Alvin; Jaso-Friedmann, Liliana

2015-01-01

219

Infectious Mononucleosis and Mononucleosis Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Infectious mononucleosis (IM) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis are caused by a primary infection with related viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and CMV. Despite the similarity of clinical manifestations, basic differences exist: (1) The heterophil antibody (HA) response is absent in CMV mononucleosis, whereas it is present in IM. (2) In IM atypical lymphocytosis reflects proliferation of B cells early and of T cells later in the disease course; in CMV mononucleosis the situation appears complex. (3) In blood, EBV is restricted to B lymphocytes, whereas CMV is found in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (4) Complications of CMV mononucleosis such as hepatitis and pneumonitis may be due to virus cytopathic effect in target organs. Prominent tonsillopharyngitis with adenopathy, and visceral complications of IM are related to lymphoproliferation which is self-limited except in males with a rare familial defect in defense against EBV. Immune complex-mediated pathology may occur in both diseases. (5) CMV is frequently transmitted to a fetus in utero or to an infant during or after birth, and this occasionally leads to severe cytomegalic inclusion disease; vertical transmission of EBV appears to be exceptional. (6) Secondary EBV infections are associated with certain malignancies whereas such an association has not been recognized in the case of CMV. Toxoplasma gondii is another cause of HA-negative mononucleosis. Its complications in the heart, in skeletal muscle and in the central nervous system are related to direct invasion by the parasite. Cellular immunity plays an important role in defense against all three agents. PMID:195404

Fiala, Milan; Heiner, Douglas C.; Turner, Jerrold A.; Rosenbloom, Barry; Guze, Lucien B.

1977-01-01

220

Insights on the Host Stress, Fear and Growth Responses to the Deoxynivalenol Feed Contaminant in Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens. PMID:24498179

Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A.; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E.; Böhm, Josef

2014-01-01

221

Immunocytochemical studies on the localization of plasma and of cellular retinol-binding proteins and of transthyretin (prealbumin) in rat liver and kidney  

PubMed Central

The immunocytochemical localization of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP), of plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP), and of plasma transthyretin (TTR) was studied in rat liver and kidney. The studies employed normal rats, retinol-deficient rats, and rats fed excess retinol. Antisera were prepared in rabbits against purified rat CRBP, RBP, and TTR. The primary antibodies and goat anti-rabbit IgG were purified by immunosorbent affinity chromatography, using the respective pure antigen coupled to Sepharose as the immunosorbent. This procedure effectively removed cross-reactive and heterophile antibodies, which permitted the specific staining and localization of each antigen by the unlabeled peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. CRBP was found to be localized in two cell types in the liver, the parenchymal cells and the fat-storing cells. Diffuse cytoplasmic staining for CRBP was seen in all the parenchymal cells. Much more intense staining for CRBP was seen in the fat-storing cells. The prominence of the CRBP-positive fat- storing cells changed markedly with vitamin A status. Thus, these cells were most prominent, and appeared most numerous, in liver from rats fed excess retinol. Both RBP and TTR were localized within liver parenchymal cells. The intensity of RBP staining increased markedly in retinol-deficient rat liver, consistent with previous biochemical observations. With the methods employed, specific staining for RBP or TTR was not seen in cells other than the parenchymal cells. In the kidney, all three proteins (CRBP, RBP, and TTR) were localized in the proximal convoluted tubules of the renal cortex. Staining for RBP was much more intense in normal kidney than in kidney from retinol- deficient rats. These findings reflect the fact that RBP in the tubules represents filtered and reabsorbed RBP. The pattern of specific staining for CRBP among the various tubules was very similar to that seen for RBP on adjacent, serial sections of kidney. The function of CRBP in the kidney is not known. PMID:6373783

1984-01-01

222

The immunoglobulin domain of the sodium channel ?3 subunit contains a surface-localized disulfide bond that is required for homophilic binding  

PubMed Central

The ? subunits of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels possess an extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) domain that is related to the L1 family of cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs). Here we show that in HEK293 cells, secretion of the free Ig domain of the ?3 subunit is reduced significantly when it is coexpressed with the full-length ?3 and ?1 subunits but not with the ?2 subunit. Using immunoprecipitation, we show that the ?3 subunit can mediate trans homophilic-binding via its Ig domain and that the ?3-Ig domain can associate heterophilically with the ?1 subunit. Evolutionary tracing analysis and structural modeling identified a cluster of surface-localized amino acids fully conserved between the Ig domains of all known ?3 and ?1 sequences. A notable feature of this conserved surface cluster is the presence of two adjacent cysteine residues that previously we have suggested may form a disulfide bond. We now confirm the presence of the disulfide bond in ?3 using mass spectrometry, and we show that its integrity is essential for the association of the full-length, membrane-anchored ?3 subunit with itself. However, selective reduction of this surface disulfide bond did not inhibit homophilic binding of the purified ?3-Ig domain in free solution. Hence, the disulfide bond itself is unlikely to be part of the homophilic binding site. Rather, we suggest that its integrity ensures the Ig domain of the membrane-tethered ?3 subunit adopts the correct orientation for productive association to occur in vivo.—Yereddi, N. R., Cusdin, F. S., Namadurai, S., Packman, L. C., Monie, T. P., Slavny, P., Clare, J. C., Powell, A. J., Jackson, A. P. The immunoglobulin domain of the sodium channel ?3 subunit contains a surface-localized disulfide bond that is required for homophilic binding. PMID:23118027

Yereddi, Nikitha R.; Cusdin, Fiona S.; Namadurai, Sivakumar; Packman, Len C.; Monie, Tom P.; Slavny, Peter; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Powell, Andrew J.; Jackson, Antony P.

2013-01-01

223

Effects of Escherichia coli challenge and transport stress on hematology and serum chemistry values of three genetic lines of turkeys.  

PubMed

Three lines of turkeys were compared for response to an Escherichia coli challenge followed by transport stress (transport). The turkey lines were a slow-growing line selected for increased egg production (egg line), a fast-growing line selected for increased 16-wk BW (F line), and a commercial line (Comm line). Birds were challenged at 14 wk of age with an air sac injection of 5,000 to 10,000 cfu of E. coli. At 8 d postchallenge, birds were subjected to a transport stress procedure that included 12 h of holding time in a transport vehicle. The following morning all birds (n = 10 to 19 birds/line) were bled. Whole blood was analyzed using the Cell-Dyn 3500 blood analysis system (Abbott Diagnostics), and serum chemistry was measured using the Express Plus analyzer (Ciba-Corning Diagnostics Corp.). Transport significantly decreased the levels of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphorus, iron, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase (AP) and increased the levels of uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Line differences were variable, but the levels of both iron and AP were least in the fastest-growing Comm line birds and greatest in the slowest-growing egg-line birds with intermediate values in the F line. Iron and AP were also the only parameters influenced by sex, with males having greater levels of both compared with females. The creatine kinase levels were more than 6-fold greater in transported Comm line birds, and iron levels of transported Comm males were 3-fold less than controls. Previously, the growth rate of these lines was positively correlated with increased heterophil to lymphocyte ratios and susceptibility to colibacillosis. The differences seen in the Comm line for these commonly measured blood parameters suggest that they may be useful for profiling flocks to determine their response to transport stress and feed withdrawal. PMID:18931173

Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Anthony, N B; Nestor, K E

2008-11-01

224

West Nile virus in raptors from Virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings.  

PubMed

Sixty-one birds of prey admitted to The Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; Waynesboro, Virginia, USA) from June to November 2003 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Choanal and/or cloacal swabs were obtained and submitted to Virginia's Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (Richmond, Virginia, USA) for analysis with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty birds of prey were positive for WNV by RT-PCR. Five avian families and nine species of raptors were represented, with great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) most frequently affected. Presenting clinical signs were consistent with previous reports of WNV infection in raptors; however, these differed between species. Of WNV positive birds, nonspecific signs of illness were the most common clinical findings, particularly in red-tailed hawks; signs included dehydration (n = 20), emaciation (n = 18), and depression (n = 15). Neurologic abnormalities were frequently identified, especially in great horned owls, and included head tremors (n = 17), ataxia (n = 13), head incoordination (n = 7), torticollis (n = 3), nystagmus (n = 3), and head tilt (n = 3). Great horned owls exhibited anemia and leukocytosis with heterophilia, eosinophilia, and monocytosis consistent with chronic inflammation. Red-tailed hawks were anemic with a heterophilic leukocytosis and regenerative left shift. The majority of WNV cases occurred during August and September; there was a marked increase in the number of raptors admitted to WCV during these months followed by a marked decrease during October, November, and December. This pattern differed from mean monthly admissions during the previous 10 years and suggests a negative impact on local raptor populations. The effects of WNV on avian populations are largely unknown; however, because of their ecological importance, further investigation of the effects of WNV on raptor populations is warranted. PMID:16870856

Joyner, Priscilla H; Kelly, Sean; Shreve, Allison A; Snead, Sarah E; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Pettit, Denise A

2006-04-01

225

Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7 % sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS ( P < 0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se ( P > 0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS ( P < 0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio ( P < 0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers ( P < 0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se ( P < 0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions ( P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were increased but serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in HS broilers ( P < 0.05).

Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

2014-07-01

226

Interspecies Differences in Virus Uptake versus Cardiac Function of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell contact protein with an important role in virus uptake. Its extracellular immunoglobulin domains mediate the binding to coxsackievirus and adenovirus as well as homophilic and heterophilic interactions between cells. The cytoplasmic tail links CAR to the cytoskeleton and intracellular signaling cascades. In the heart, CAR is crucial for embryonic development, electrophysiology, and coxsackievirus B infection. Noncardiac functions are less well understood, in part due to the lack of suitable animal models. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse that rescued the otherwise embryonic-lethal CAR knockout (KO) phenotype by expressing chicken CAR exclusively in the heart. Using this rescue model, we addressed interspecies differences in coxsackievirus uptake and noncardiac functions of CAR. Survival of the noncardiac CAR KO (ncKO) mouse indicates an essential role for CAR in the developing heart but not in other tissues. In adult animals, cardiac activity was normal, suggesting that chicken CAR can replace the physiological functions of mouse CAR in the cardiomyocyte. However, chicken CAR did not mediate virus entry in vivo, so that hearts expressing chicken instead of mouse CAR were protected from infection and myocarditis. Comparison of sequence homology and modeling of the D1 domain indicate differences between mammalian and chicken CAR that relate to the sites important for virus binding but not those involved in homodimerization. Thus, CAR-directed anticoxsackievirus therapy with only minor adverse effects in noncardiac tissue could be further improved by selectively targeting the virus-host interaction while maintaining cardiac function. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is one of the most common human pathogens causing myocarditis. Its receptor, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), not only mediates virus uptake but also relates to cytoskeletal organization and intracellular signaling. Animals without CAR die prenatally with major cardiac malformations. In the adult heart, CAR is important for virus entry and electrical conduction, but its nonmuscle functions are largely unknown. Here, we show that chicken CAR expression exclusively in the heart can rescue the otherwise embryonic-lethal CAR knockout phenotype but does not support CVB3 infection of adult cardiomyocytes. Our findings have implications for the evolution of virus-host versus physiological interactions involving CAR and could help to improve future coxsackievirus-directed therapies inhibiting virus replication while maintaining CAR's cellular functions. PMID:24741103

Freiberg, Fabian; Sauter, Martina; Pinkert, Sandra; Govindarajan, Thirupugal; Kaldrack, Joanna; Thakkar, Meghna; Fechner, Henry; Klingel, Karin

2014-01-01

227

Effects of stocking density, flock size and management on the welfare of laying hens in single-tier aviaries.  

PubMed

Management practices, stocking rate and flock size may affect laying hen welfare but there have been few replicated studies in commercial non-cage systems that investigate this. This study used a broad range of physical and physiological indicators to assess the welfare of hens in 36 commercial flocks. Six laying period treatments were examined with each treatment replicated 6 times. It was not possible to randomly allocate treatments to houses, so treatment and house were largely confounded. Three stocking rates were compared: 7 birds/m(2) (n = 2450), 9 birds/m(2) (n = 3150) and 12 birds/m(2) in either small (n = 2450) or large (n = 4200) flocks. In addition, at 12 birds/m(2), in both small and large flocks, birds were subjected to either standard (SM) or modified (MM) management. MM flocks had nipple drinkers and no nest-box lights. Bone strength, fracture incidence, heterophil:lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, live weight, organ weights, serum creatine, serum osmolality, muscle pH and faecal corticosterone were measured on samples of birds at the end of the rearing period and at the end of lay. During the laying period, mortality, production and integument condition were recorded at regular intervals. Birds housed at 9 birds/m(2) had higher mortality than birds housed at 12 birds/m(2) by the end of lay, but not higher than birds housed at 7 birds/m(2). Birds housed at 7 and 9 birds/m(2) had lower percent liver weight, and worse plumage condition than most of the 12 bird/m(2) treatments. Modified management tended to improve plumage condition. There were no clear effects of flock size on the welfare indicators recorded. At the end of the rearing period fracture incidence was almost negligible and H:L ratio was within a normal range. By the end of lay fracture incidence was 60% and H:L ratio was high, with no treatment effect for either measure. This, together with information on faecal corticosterone, feather loss and mortality, suggests that the welfare of birds in all treatments was relatively poor by the end of lay. PMID:16641024

Nicol, C J; Brown, S N; Glen, E; Pope, S J; Short, F J; Warriss, P D; Zimmerman, P H; Wilkins, L J

2006-04-01

228

Effect of a rosemary and oregano volatile oil mixture on performance, lipid oxidation of meat and haematological parameters in Pharaoh quails.  

PubMed

1. This study was conducted to determine the utility of a volatile oil (VO) mixture in quail diets as a natural growth promoter. Different levels of VO mixtures, derived from rosemary and oregano, were added to a basal diet to determine the effects of the mixture on live weight (LW), live weight gain (LWG), feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcase yield (CY), lipid oxidation level in thigh meat samples, and blood constituents. 2. A total of 880 one-day-old Pharaoh (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) quails, including both males and females, were divided into 4 groups containing 220 quails and treated as follows: (1) a control treatment with 0?mg VO/kg of diet; (2) 100?mg/kg rosemary VO plus 100?mg/kg oregano VO (50:50%); (3) 140?mg/kg oregano VO plus 60?mg/kg rosemary VO (70:30%); and (4) 60?mg/kg oregano VO plus 140?mg/kg rosemary VO (30:70%). The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experiment was carried out for 42?d. 3. The results of the study showed that the highest concentration of rosemary oil (140?mg/kg) caused a significant increase in live weight, live weight gain and carcase yields during the growing and finishing periods. However, feed intake and FCR were not significantly influenced by treatments. 4. The quails fed with rations containing the VO mixture derived from rosemary and oregano had reduced thiobarbituric acid levels (TBA) in raw breast meat samples at different storage times. There is possibly a synergistic effect between oregano and rosemary volatile oils in preventing lipid oxidation in stored meat. 5. In this study, the haemoglobin (PCV) and haematocrit values and the heterophile/lympohocyte (H/L) ratio increased in the blood samples taken from Treatment 2. 6. In conclusion, a volatile oil containing a mixture of rosemary and oregano oils could be a potential natural growth promoter for quails, depending on the plants from which the VOs were extracted, the dosage and the synergetic effects of the mixture. PMID:22404809

Yesilbag, D; Gezen, S S; Biricik, H; Bulbul, T

2012-01-01

229

Evaluation of the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and surgical steel 316L in vivo: a comparative study in rabbits  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have shown the potential suitability of magnesium alloys as biodegradable implants. The aim of the present study was to compare the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and commonly used surgical steel in vivo. Methods A biodegradable magnesium calcium alloy (MgCa0.8) and surgical steel (S316L), as a control, were investigated. Screws of identical geometrical conformation were implanted into the tibiae of 40 rabbits for a postoperative follow up of two, four, six and eight weeks. The tibialis cranialis muscle was in direct vicinity of the screw head and thus embedded in paraffin and histologically and immunohistochemically assessed. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify macrophages, giant cells and heterophil granulocytes as well as the extent of tissue fibrosis and necrosis. Mouse anti-CD79? and rat anti-CD3 monoclonal primary antibodies were used for B- and T-lymphocyte detection. Evaluation of all sections was performed by applying a semi-quantitative score. Results Clinically, both implant materials were tolerated well. Histology revealed that a layer of fibrous tissue had formed between implant and overlying muscle in MgCa0.8 and S316L, which was demarcated by a layer of synoviocyte-like cells at its interface to the implant. In MgCa0.8 implants cavities were detected within the fibrous tissue, which were surrounded by the same kind of cell type. The thickness of the fibrous layer and the amount of tissue necrosis and cellular infiltrations gradually decreased in S316L. In contrast, a decrease could only be noted in the first weeks of implantation in MgCa0.8, whereas parameters were increasing again at the end of the observation period. B-lymphocytes were found more often in MgCa0.8 indicating humoral immunity and the presence of soluble antigens. Conversely, S316L displayed a higher quantity of T-lymphocytes. Conclusions Moderate inflammation was detected in both implant materials and resolved to a minimum during the first weeks indicating comparable biocompatibility for MgCa0.8 and S316L. Thus, the application of MgCa0.8 as biodegradable implant material seems conceivable. Since the inflammatory parameters were re-increasing at the end of the observation period in MgCa0.8 it is important to observe the development of inflammation over a longer time period in addition to the present study. PMID:20974008

2010-01-01

230

The homophilic binding of junctional adhesion molecule-C mediates tumor cell-endothelial cell interactions.  

PubMed

The junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) was recently shown to undergo a heterophilic interaction with the leukocyte beta2 integrin Mac-1, thereby mediating interactions between vascular cells in inflammatory cell recruitment. Here, the homophilic interaction of JAM-C is presented and functionally characterized to mediate tumor cell-endothelial cell interactions. Recombinant soluble JAM-C in fluid phase bound to immobilized JAM-C as assessed in a purified system; moreover, JAM-C-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells adhered to immobilized JAM-C. The homophilic interaction of JAM-C was mediated by the isolated amino-terminal Ig domain (D1), but not the carboxyl-terminal Ig domain (D2), of the molecule. Dimerization of JAM-A is dependent on the sequence RVE in the amino-terminal Ig domain. This motif is conserved in JAM-C (Arg64-Ile65-Glu66), and a single amino acid mutation in this motif (E66R) abolished the homophilic interaction of JAM-C. The lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H522 was found to express JAM-C. NCI-H522 cells adhered to immobilized JAM-C, as well as to JAM-C-transfected CHO cells, but not to mock-transfected CHO cells or to CHO cells transfected with the JAM-C mutant (E66R). Adhesion of NCI-H522 cells to JAM-C protein or JAM-C-transfected CHO cells was abolished in the presence of soluble JAM-C or the isolated D1. Furthermore, the adhesion of NCI-H522 cells to endothelial cells was significantly blocked by soluble JAM-C or the isolated D1. Thus, JAM-C undergoes a homophilic interaction via the Arg64-Ile65-Glu66 motif on the membrane-distal Ig domain of the molecule. The homophilic interaction of JAM-C can mediate tumor cell-endothelial cell interactions and may thereby be involved in the process of tumor cell metastasis. PMID:16118203

Santoso, Sentot; Orlova, Valeria V; Song, Kaimei; Sachs, Ulrich J; Andrei-Selmer, Cornelia L; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

2005-10-28

231

Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions.

Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

2014-07-01

232

[Studies on patients with a discrepancy between free thyroid hormones and thyrotropin values].  

PubMed

Thyroid function has been almost exactly evaluated by the measurement of serum free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations. However, we occasionally experience patients who show a discrepancy between free thyroid hormones and TSH values, and the assessment of thyroid function in such cases is extremely difficult. Thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAA) interfere with radioimmunoassay (RIA) of FT4 and FT3 by giving inappropriate values. To investigate the incidence of THAA, immune precipitation of patients' sera after incubation with labelled T4 (125I-T4) or T3 (125I-T3) analog tracer was done in 394 patients with thyroid diseases. 9 patients (2.3%) showed an increased binding of 125I-T4 or 125I-T3 analog. Heterophilic antimouse antibodies in a patient's serum (human antimouse immunoglobulin antibodies: HAMA) can interfere in two-site immunometric assays (IMA) using mouse monoclonal antibodies and result in spuriously increased serum TSH concentrations. Manufacturers now customarily add nonspecific mouse immunoglobulins into their assay kits to absorb HAMA and prevent such interference. This approach may not always be enough to prevent HAMA interference in all samples. In 14 thyrotoxic patients with inappropriately high TSH measured by an IMA kit, we measured the levels of TSH by the further addition of mouse serum into this kit. Their serum TSH levels were fully suppressed except for 2 patients with a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH). The presence of abnormal albumin in the serum also interferes with RIA of FT4 and FT3. We experienced a female case of Graves' disease treated with methimazole who showed an inappropriately high serum FT3 measured by an analog tracer RIA kit, whose serum FT4, FT3 and TSH were 1.31 ng/dl, 19.3 pg/ml and 1.9 mu U/ml respectively. Although the anti-T3 autoantibody was considered to be present initially, immune precipitation of her serum with 125I-T3 analog tracer gave a negative result. In order to elucidate this finding, Sephadex-G200 chromatography of her serum after incubation with 125I-T3 analog tracer was done. Radioactivity of her serum in albumin fraction was significantly higher than that of normal control serum to indicate the presence of abnormal albumin in the serum. In conclusion, to assess the thyroid function of a patient with a discrepancy between free thyroid hormones and TSH values, it is important to consider the presence of THAA, HAMA, or rarely, an abnormal albumin. PMID:7958106

Hisaoka, T; Iino, S; Saitoh, H; Yoshimura, H; Ishikawa, N; Momotani, N; Ito, K

1994-08-20

233

Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions.  

PubMed

A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7% sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS (P<0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se (P>0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E (P<0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS (P<0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio (P<0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers (P<0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se (P<0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions (P?

Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

2014-07-01

234

Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P?

Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

2014-10-01

235

CEACAM1 regulates TIM–3–mediated tolerance and exhaustion  

PubMed Central

T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3, also known as HAVCR2) is an activation-induced inhibitory molecule involved in tolerance and shown to induce T-cell exhaustion in chronic viral infection and cancers1–5. Under some conditions, TIM-3 expression has also been shown to be stimulatory. Considering that TIM-3, like cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), is being targeted for cancer immunotherapy, it is important to identify the circumstances under which TIM-3 can inhibit and activate T-cell responses. Here we show that TIM-3 is co-expressed and forms a heterodimer with carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), another well-known molecule expressed on activated T cells and involved in T-cell inhibition6–10. Biochemical, biophysical and X-ray crystallography studies show that the membrane-distal immunoglobulin-variable (IgV)-like amino-terminal domain of each is crucial to these interactions. The presence of CEACAM1 endows TIM-3 with inhibitory function. CEACAM1 facilitates the maturation and cell surface expression of TIM-3 by forming a heterodimeric interaction in cis through the highly related membrane-distal N-terminal domains of each molecule. CEACAM1 and TIM-3 also bind in trans through their N-terminal domains. Both cis and trans interactions between CEACAM1 and TIM-3 determine the tolerance-inducing function of TIM-3. In a mouse adoptive transfer colitis model, CEACAM1-deficient T cells are hyper-inflammatory with reduced cell surface expression of TIM-3 and regulatory cytokines, and this is restored by T-cell-specific CEACAM1 expression. During chronic viral infection and in a tumour environment, CEACAM1 and TIM-3 mark exhausted T cells. Co-blockade of CEACAM1 and TIM-3 leads to enhancement of anti-tumour immune responses with improved elimination of tumours in mouse colorectal cancer models. Thus, CEACAM1 serves as a heterophilic ligand for TIM-3 that is required for its ability to mediate T-cell inhibition, and this interaction has a crucial role in regulating autoimmunity and anti-tumour immunity. PMID:25363763

Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zhu, Chen; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Anderson, Ana C.; Gandhi, Amit; Russell, Andrew; Dougan, Stephanie K.; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Melum, Espen; Pertel, Thomas; Clayton, Kiera L.; Raab, Monika; Chen, Qiang; Beauchemin, Nicole; Yazaki, Paul J.; Pyzik, Michal; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Rudd, Christopher E.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Franke, Andre; Petsko, Gregory A.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Blumberg, Richard S.

2014-01-01

236

The chick chorioallantoic membrane as an in vivo xenograft model for Burkitt lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive malignancy that arises from B-cells and belongs to the group of Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models NHL research is mainly performed in vitro. Here, we studied the use of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for the generation of human BL xenograft tumors, which we compared with known characteristics of the human disease. Methods In order to generate experimental BL tumors, we inoculated human BL2B95 and BL2-GFP cells on the CAM. BL2B95 xenograft-tumors were grown for seven days and subsequently analyzed with transmission electron and immunofluorescence microscopy, as well as histological staining approaches. BL2-GFP cells were studied at regular intervals up to seven days, and their metastatic behavior was visualized with intravital immunofluorescence techniques. Results Xenografted BL2B95 cells formed solid tumors in the CAM model with a Ki67-index greater than 90%, preservation of typical tumor markers (CD10, CD19, CD20), a ‘starry sky’ morphology, production of agyrophilic fibers in the stroma, formation of blood and lymphatic vessels and lymphogenic dissemination of BL2B95 to distant sites. We identified macrophages, lymphocytes and heterophilic granulocytes (chick homolog of neutrophils) as the most abundant immune cells in the experimental tumors. BL2-GFP cells could be traced in real-time during their distribution in the CAM, and the first signs for their dissemination were visible after 2-3 days. Conclusions We show that xenografted BL2B95 cells generate tumors in the CAM with a high degree of cellular, molecular and proliferative concord with the human disease, supporting the application of the CAM model for NHL research with a focus on tumor-stroma interactions. Additionally we report that BL2-GFP cells, grafted on the CAM of ex ovo cultured chick embryos, provide a powerful tool to study lymphogenic dissemination in real-time. PMID:24884418

2014-01-01

237

Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:25056125

Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

2015-05-01

238

CEACAM1 regulates TIM-3-mediated tolerance and exhaustion.  

PubMed

T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3, also known as HAVCR2) is an activation-induced inhibitory molecule involved in tolerance and shown to induce T-cell exhaustion in chronic viral infection and cancers. Under some conditions, TIM-3 expression has also been shown to be stimulatory. Considering that TIM-3, like cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), is being targeted for cancer immunotherapy, it is important to identify the circumstances under which TIM-3 can inhibit and activate T-cell responses. Here we show that TIM-3 is co-expressed and forms a heterodimer with carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), another well-known molecule expressed on activated T cells and involved in T-cell inhibition. Biochemical, biophysical and X-ray crystallography studies show that the membrane-distal immunoglobulin-variable (IgV)-like amino-terminal domain of each is crucial to these interactions. The presence of CEACAM1 endows TIM-3 with inhibitory function. CEACAM1 facilitates the maturation and cell surface expression of TIM-3 by forming a heterodimeric interaction in cis through the highly related membrane-distal N-terminal domains of each molecule. CEACAM1 and TIM-3 also bind in trans through their N-terminal domains. Both cis and trans interactions between CEACAM1 and TIM-3 determine the tolerance-inducing function of TIM-3. In a mouse adoptive transfer colitis model, CEACAM1-deficient T cells are hyper-inflammatory with reduced cell surface expression of TIM-3 and regulatory cytokines, and this is restored by T-cell-specific CEACAM1 expression. During chronic viral infection and in a tumour environment, CEACAM1 and TIM-3 mark exhausted T cells. Co-blockade of CEACAM1 and TIM-3 leads to enhancement of anti-tumour immune responses with improved elimination of tumours in mouse colorectal cancer models. Thus, CEACAM1 serves as a heterophilic ligand for TIM-3 that is required for its ability to mediate T-cell inhibition, and this interaction has a crucial role in regulating autoimmunity and anti-tumour immunity. PMID:25363763

Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zhu, Chen; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Anderson, Ana C; Gandhi, Amit; Russell, Andrew; Dougan, Stephanie K; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Melum, Espen; Pertel, Thomas; Clayton, Kiera L; Raab, Monika; Chen, Qiang; Beauchemin, Nicole; Yazaki, Paul J; Pyzik, Michal; Ostrowski, Mario A; Glickman, Jonathan N; Rudd, Christopher E; Ploegh, Hidde L; Franke, Andre; Petsko, Gregory A; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Blumberg, Richard S

2015-01-15

239

Foreign serum-induced pancreatitis in mice. I. A new model of acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Within a few hours after one injection of fresh human serum by the intraperitoneal route only, mice developed pancreatic acinar cell necrosis and inflammation, fat necrosis, elevated serum amylase and a shocklike state. The extent of these lesions and mortalities were roughly dose dependent and were not noticeably modified by either different fasting cycles or pilocarpine. Acinar cell changes and necrosis usually developed first in subserosal acini. The earliest ultrastructural change detected was nonspecific swelling of cytoplasmic compartments which was reversible but also preceded the cytoplasmic degradation that developed in cells undergoing necrosis. Notably, zymogen granule dissolution neither preceded nor accompanied this swelling, but developed pari passu with cell degradation. Occasionally, intact granules were found in necrotic cells. Serum was cytotoxic for isolated acinar cells in vitro, even in the presence of soybean trypsin inhibitor. These results (1) indicate that the injury mechanism in vivo is directly initiated through contact of serum with acinar cell surfaces and is independent of zymogen secretions and trypsin activation, and (2) suggest that a rapid disturbance in cell membrane permeability results, the magnitude of which being the primary determinant of cell death. Pancreatic toxicity of human serum was abolished by aging, heating, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, heparin, zymosan, cobra venom factor, and absorptions with mouse red blood cells, against which fresh, unabsorbed serum was hemolytic. Pancreatic toxicity in vitro and, to a much lesser extent, in vivo was reconstituted by combining the red blood cell-absorbed serum with either heated serum, or with IgM-enriched, but not IgG serum fractions. Fresh cord serum was virtually nontoxic and could substitute for absorbed serum in such reconstitutions. These results indicate that the injury mechanism involves at least two serum components. By both circumstance and analogy, other results and a review of other examples of foreign sera toxicity suggest that they are components of a complement-dependent, cytotoxic heterophile antibody system. The relevance of this odd phenomenon is that it offers a simple model of acute pancreatitis, contributes to the debunking of traditional notions of the pivotal role of zymogens in the initiation of acute pancreatitis, and hints at a potential pathogenetic connection between pancreatitis and products of immune or related reactions. PMID:1202281

Janigan, D T; Nevalainen, T J; MacAulay, M A; Vethamany, V G

1975-12-01

240

Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. II. Sex and thyroid hormone concentrations and testes development.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of pesticides on wild birds, sex (17beta-estradiol; testosterone) and thyroid (triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentrations, body mass, and testes mass were measured and the development of testes was evaluated in wild tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in four sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, in 1995-1996. In orchards, birds were exposed to asmany as 11 individual spray events and five sprays of mixtures of chemicals. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, lead, and arsenic concentrations were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE concentrations, which ranged from 0.36 to 2.23 microg/g wet weight in eggs. These persistent compounds were not correlated with any endocrine response measured in tree swallows. In 16-d-old male tree swallow chicks, body mass and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (estradiol), testosterone, and T3 in plasma showed no significant differences between sprayed and nonsprayed groups and among sites within those groups. However, T3 concentrations were slightly elevated in the sprayed group compared to the nonsprayed group, and there was a significant and positive correlation between T3 and the number of mixtures of sprays applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. In 16-d-old female chicks, there were no significant differences among spray treatments or sites and no correlations with spray exposure for testosterone, estradiol, or T3 in plasma. Body mass was correlated positively with T3 and negatively with estradiol but showed no differences among spray exposure groups or sites. Histology of testes of 16-d-old male chicks indicated there were no significant differences among sprayed and nonsprayed birds in testes mass, area, or diameter, or the presence of Leydig cells in the interstitium, the distribution of the Sertoli cells, or the occurrence of heterophils in the testicular interstitium. For the percentage of spermatogonia present on the basement membrane, there were significant differences among sites, but these differences were not specifically associated with spray exposure. However, there was a marginally significant trend between increasing occurrence of a disrupted Sertoli cell population on the seminiferous tubular basement membranes as the number of mixtures of pesticides sprayed during chick rearing increased. In adult male and female parent tree swallows, there were no differences in hormone concentrations between birds from sprayed and nonsprayed sites. Nor were there any significant correlations between the concentration of any hormone and collection date, body mass, or any type of spray exposure for adults. The correlations between increasing pesticide exposure and abnormal thyroid hormone and testes development in male chicks indicate that further reductions of pesticide use in orchards may benefit the health of birds that nest there. However, it is unclear which of these pesticides or spray mixtures are responsible for these effects, and this needs to be examined in future studies. PMID:9885998

Bishop, C A; Van Der Kraak, G J; Ng, P; Smits, J E; Hontela, A

1998-12-25

241

Testing a West Nile virus vaccine in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated with a commercial equine West Nile virus vaccine (Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, Iowa, USA) at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. Three doses of the vaccine were given, the first dose (day 0) was followed by a second 21 days later and the third dose 7 days after the second day 28 after the first dose). All doses were 0.50 ml. In addition, 5 sandhill cranes were given injections of similar amounts of sterile water on the same schedule. Blood for complete blood counts, serum chemistries, and serological testing was collected at weekly intervals. Ten weeks after the first injection of the vaccine and 6 weeks after the last of the 3 injections of the vaccine, the cranes were shipped to the USGS National Wildlife Heath Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. After a two-week adjustment period, 11 of these cranes were injected intramuscularly with one mosquito dose of West Nile virus. Two of the vaccinated cranes were not challenged and acted as uninfected controls. One week post challenge the only abnormal findings were slight weight loss (average 6% loss since the time of challenge with West Nile virus) and elevated white blood cell counts (heterophilic leukocytosis). There were no deaths and no clinically ill cranes (unvaccinated or vaccinated cranes) among the 11 challenged birds. All cranes were euthanized 6 weeks post challenge, and necropsies were performed. Pre-challenge titers showed no titer response to the vaccinations. However, when challenged, vaccinated cranes developed titers more quickly (within 7-10 days), and were viremic and shed virus via the cloaca for a shorter period of time than the unvaccinated cranes (2-7 days for vaccinated cranes versus 2-10 days for unvaccinated cranes). No remarkable lesions were noted in any of the cranes during the necropsy examinations. Histopathological findings are available for only four of the cranes at this time. Three of those had mild to moderate encephalitis, myelitis, and myocarditis. Initial histopathological findings also indicated a difference in the lesions found in the brains of the vaccinated versus unvaccinated cranes. The fourth crane was a vaccinated unchallenged control that had none of the lesions described. We concluded, based on the findings of no adverse reactions and the higher titers and reduced viremia seen in the cranes, that, indeed, the vaccine is safe for use in cranes and can be effective in reducing the severity of a natural infection. We would recommend this vaccine for use in adult cranes. A companion study is looking at the safety and efficacy of the vaccine for crane chicks as young as 7-10 days of age and that will be reported at a later date.

Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.; Docherty, D.; Sileo, L.

2005-01-01

242

A novel hypothesis for the etiology of Graves' disease: TSAb may be thyroid stimulating animal IgG-like hormone and TBAb may be the precursor of TSAb.  

PubMed

There are doubtful points about the theory that autoimmunity with auto-antibody (Ab) to TSH receptor (R) causes hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease (GD). A main doubtful point is no curative effect of corticosteroid on Graves' hyperthyroidism in spite of curative effect of corticosteroid for all autoimmune diseases. Recently we demonstrated the immunological similarity of TSAb and TBAb-IgG to animal IgGs, except for human (h)IgG, by neutralization and purification of TSAb and TBAb-IgG using (1) heterophilic Ab to animal IgG in GD sera and (2) experimentally generated anti-animal IgG Abs [such as dog (d), bovine (b), porcine (p), and rabbit (rb)]. Furthermore, greater immunological similarity of Fab- and F(ab')(2)-portion of TSAb- and TBAb-IgG to bovine Fab, compared to hFab, was demonstrated using goat anti-bovine F(ab')(2) Ab. Existence of b and p TSH-like portions in the LATS-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion) was suggested by a previous report of neutralization of LATS activity by anti-b- or anti-p-TSH Ab. We suggested the existence of a mammalian animal-TSH-like structure, excepting hTSH, in the TSAb-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion), by discovery of anti-mammalian TSH Ab (such as d, b, p, guinea-pig, rat, whale, except h) in sera of GD. Lately, similar TSHR binding of H- and L-chain of human stimulating monoclonal TSHR Ab (M22)-Fab with TSH-? and-? subunit was reported. This evidence suggests that Fab portion of TSAb has a structure like mammalian TSH, but not hTSH. IgG-? type of d, horse, b, p, goat, ovine is 95% and IgG-? type is 5%, while human ? and ? chain is 60:40. Previous report that LATS (TSAb)-IgG composed of predominant ? type is supporting evidence that TRAb-IgG has immunological similarity with these animal IgGs compared to hIgG. We speculate that TSAb-IgG may be referred as a mermaid consisted in face (Fab) and trunk-leg (Fc). Face may be a kind of hormone with animal TSH-like structure and trunk-leg has animal IgG-like structure (in spite of no antibody function). There are many reports for co-existence of TSAb and TBAb-IgG in sera of GD. We reported conversion from TBAb (non-thyroid stimulating type IgG) to TSAb by co-incubation of anti-hIgG Ab (containing anti-animal IgG Ab as a cross-reaction) with TBAb-bound porcine thyroid cells. Thus, we suggest that TBAb may be the precursor form of TSAb. PMID:22472575

Ochi, Yukio; Kajita, Yoshihiro; Hachiya, Takashi; Hamaoki, Masaru

2012-06-01