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Sample records for heterophils

  1. Heterophilic antibodies: a problem for all immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Boscato, L M; Stuart, M C

    1988-01-01

    We verified that antibody-binding substances in serum that interfere in two-site immunoassays involving murine antibodies are heterophilic antibodies. Incubation of serum containing heterophilic antibodies and a murine monoclonal antibody to human choriogonadotropin (hCG) leads to formation of a series of soluble immune complexes. We investigated the recognition of hCG by reagent antibody in the presence of heterophilic antibodies and found this recognition to be diminished. Consequently, about 30% of serum samples containing heterophilic antibodies falsely appear to contain increased concentrations of hCG. The effect on analyte recognition probably results from steric inhibition of hCG binding to complexed antibody. Heterophilic antibodies detected with a murine antibody also bound immunoglobulin from several other species but did not bind all of those tested. PMID:3338181

  2. INFLAMMATORY AGONIST STIMULATION AND SIGNAL PATHWAY OF OXIDATIVE BURST IN NEONATAL CHICKEN HETEROPHILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fluorescence microplate assay was adapted to examine the oxidative response by heterophils from neonatal chicks following in vitro stimulation with various inflammatory agonists. Both nonopsonized formalin-killed Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus stimulated significant heterophil o...

  3. Hematologic differences in heterophile-positive and heterophile-negative infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Ventura, K C; Hudnall, S D

    2004-08-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) due to all causes is characterized by atypical lymphocytosis. We sought to compare hematologic parameters of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (heterophile antibody (HA) positive) with mononucleosis due to other causes. Mono-Latex Slide Agglutination Test results and complete blood counts (CBC) of 147 patients with mononucleosis were retrospectively analyzed. Leukocyte count, absolute lymphocyte count, and presence of atypical lymphocytes in EBV-positive and EBV-negative groups were statistically compared. We analyzed 68 EBV-positive and 79 EBV-negative cases. EBV-positive patients were significantly younger than EBV-negative patients were. Mean total WBC count and mean absolute lymphocyte count were significantly higher in EBV-positive patients. Absolute lymphocytosis, absolute leukocytosis, and atypical lymphocytosis were also significantly more frequent in EBV-positive patients. Leukopenia was more frequently seen in EBV-negative patients. PMID:15282662

  4. Evaluation of the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens.

    PubMed

    Gross, W B; Siegel, H S

    1983-01-01

    The number of lymphocytes in chicken blood samples decreased and the number of heterophils increased in response to stressors and to increasing levels of corticosterone in the chicken feed. The ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes was less variable than the number of heterophil or lymphocyte cells, and the range of values for this ratio was greater than the range of values for heterophils and lymphocytes among control and experimental groups. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio appears to be a more reliable indicator of levels of corticosterone in the feed and to social stress than were the plasma corticosteroid levels. PMID:6360120

  5. Impairment of phagocytosis by heterophils from chickens during ochratoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C F; Hamilton, P B

    1980-01-01

    The effect of graded concentrations of dietary ochratoxin A (0, O.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 microgram/g of diet) on the in vitro phagocytic, locomotory, and bactericidal capacities of heterophils from broiler chickens was investigated. Both the percentage and the mean phagocytic activities were decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) at 4.0 and 8.0 microgram/g. Both directed and undirected locomotion of heterophila was impaired significantly at the same concentrations. A crossover experiment revealed that the reduced percentage of phagocytosis was associated with the heterophil itself and not with a serum factor such as complement. Heterophila from birds that consumed 4.0 microgram/g were not impaired in ability to kill engulfed bacteria. PMID:7387156

  6. Reducing heterophilic antibody interference in immunoassays using single chain antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Tan, Ruimin; Fischer, Christopher J.; Victry, Kristin D.; Zangar, Richard C.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2011-12-15

    Sandwich ELISA microarrays have the potential to simultaneously quantify the levels of multiple diagnostic targets in a biological sample. However, as seen with traditional ELISA diagnostics, heterophilic antibodies (HA) in patient sera have the potential to cause interference in these assays. We demonstrate here that reducing the diagnostic capture antibody to its minimal functional unit, the variable heavy and light domains artificially connected with a short polypeptide linker (scFv), is an effective strategy for reducing the HA assay interference.

  7. Age-dependent phagocytosis and bactericidal activities of the chicken heterophil.

    PubMed

    Wells, L L; Lowry, V K; DeLoach, J R; Kogut, M H

    1998-01-01

    Chicks are most susceptible to Salmonella infection during the first 4 days post-hatch. In poultry, one of the primary cells in the innate immune response to early bacterial invasion by Salmonella is the heterophil. Previous studies using a granulocytopenic chicken model in more mature birds demonstrated the significant role heterophils have in the defense mechanism against Salmonella. In the past studies have also shown the efficiency of heterophils from 3- to 5-week-old chickens to phagocytose and kill Salmonella as compared to monocytes. During the present study, we investigated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of heterophils from chickens during the first 7 days post-hatch to evaluate whether decreased heterophil function plays a role in the susceptibility of young chicks to Salmonella infections. Peripheral blood counts demonstrated no differences in the percentages of heterophils during the first week post-hatch. The phagocytic index of the heterophil did not change on day 1 or day 4, but doubled by day 7 (day 1, 30.69; day 4, 33.99; day 7, 60.46). Interestingly, the bactericidal activity of the heterophils from all three age groups efficiently killed Salmonella enteritidis. Based on this data, we conclude that a relationship exists between the age of the chick, the functional activity of the heterophil, and the susceptibility to organ invasion by Salmonella. PMID:9617587

  8. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN IN VITRO HETEROPHIL FUNCTION AND THE FEATHERING GENE IN COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently showed that in vitro heterophil functional efficiency in commercial broiler chickens is genetically controlled and may be a sex-associated trait. To further characterize the genetic mechanism(s) of heterophil functional efficiency we wanted to determine if the feathering gene, present ...

  9. Evaluation of beta defensin 2 production by chicken heterophils using direct MALDI mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta defensins (BD) are cysteine rich, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP) produced mainly by epithelial and myeloid cells such as neutrophils. In birds, the equivalent of neutrophils, heterophils produce avian beta defensins (AvBD) of which AvBD2 is the major isoform. Heterophils recognize patho...

  10. Avian heterophils and monocytes: phagocytic and bactericidal activities against Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Stabler, J G; McCormick, T W; Powell, K C; Kogut, M H

    1994-02-01

    The ability of heterophils and monocytes from domestic chickens and turkeys to phagocytize and kill Salmonella enteritidis (SE) was investigated using both a standard plate count (chickens only) and direct microscopic examination by staining with acridine orange (both chickens and turkeys). Optimal phagocytosis of SE by both chicken and turkey phagocytes required opsonization of the bacteria by antibodies as determined by both assays. However, heterophils from both the turkeys and chickens phagocytized more SE than did monocytes from either type of fowl. Regardless of the presence or absence of antibodies, heterophils were more efficient bactericidal cells than were the monocytes since only heterophils killed the intracellular bacteria while the majority of nonopsonized SE survived in the monocytes. Phagocytosis of SE did not result in an increase in the amount of superoxide anion released by the heterophils suggesting that the ultimate fate of the bacteria in these cells was not related to an oxygen-dependent mechanism. PMID:8160345

  11. Avian heterophils and monocytes: phagocytic and bactericidal activities against Salmonella enteritidis.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Stabler JG; McCormick TW; Powell KC; Kogut MH

    1994-02-01

    The ability of heterophils and monocytes from domestic chickens and turkeys to phagocytize and kill Salmonella enteritidis (SE) was investigated using both a standard plate count (chickens only) and direct microscopic examination by staining with acridine orange (both chickens and turkeys). Optimal phagocytosis of SE by both chicken and turkey phagocytes required opsonization of the bacteria by antibodies as determined by both assays. However, heterophils from both the turkeys and chickens phagocytized more SE than did monocytes from either type of fowl. Regardless of the presence or absence of antibodies, heterophils were more efficient bactericidal cells than were the monocytes since only heterophils killed the intracellular bacteria while the majority of nonopsonized SE survived in the monocytes. Phagocytosis of SE did not result in an increase in the amount of superoxide anion released by the heterophils suggesting that the ultimate fate of the bacteria in these cells was not related to an oxygen-dependent mechanism.

  12. Anti-immunoglobulins and heterophil agglutinins in experimental trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Mattern, P; Klein, F; Pautrizel, R; Jongepier-Geerdes, Y E

    1980-01-01

    Rheumatoid factor (RF)-like substances and heterophil agglutinins (HA) were induced in rabbits by infection with a strain of Trypanosoma equiperdum. Infection with a T. gambiense strain produced HA, but no RF. RFs appeared usually before immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels started to increase. They disappeared spontaneously after 4 to 6 weeks. HA were of the IgM class, appeared within 1 to 2 weeks after infection, and usually remained at high levels afterwards. They could not be absorbed out with lyophilized whole trypanosomes. Therapy suppressed the formation of RF as well as of HA, but IgG complexes as well as antibodies against trypanosomal antigens remained present for considerable periods after the installment of therapy. It is concluded that RFs are not induced by IgG complexes. The results suggest that HA are probably not cross-reacting antibodies induced by trypanosomal antigens. PMID:6967452

  13. Innate immune responses to microbial agonist stimulations in heterophils and monocytes from young commercial turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The innate immune system recognizes microbial pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns and incites inflammatory immune responses to control the infection. Here, we examined functional innate immune responses of turkey heterophils and monocytes to microbial agonist stimulations by measur...

  14. Inflammatory agonist stimulation and signal pathway of oxidative burst in neonatal chicken heterophils.

    PubMed

    He, Haiqi; Farnell, Morgan B; Kogut, Michael H

    2003-05-01

    Heterophils are the predominant polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in poultry. The oxidative burst of activated heterophils, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), is one of the first line cellular defenses against invading microorganisms. In this report, the oxidative response of heterophils from neonatal chicks to in vitro stimulation by various inflammatory agonists was investigated using a fluorescence microplate assay. Both non-opsonized formalin-killed Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus were able to stimulate heterophil oxidative burst. The phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was the most potent stimulant for the chicken heterophil oxidative response, whereas, the bacterial cell surface components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) were less effective. Protein kinase C (PKC) is an essential signaling component regulating heterophil oxidative response to stimulation by PMA, LPS, LTA and S. enteritidis. However, inhibition of PKC did not affect the oxidative response to stimulation by S. aureus, suggesting differential signaling pathway responsible for the activation of oxidative burst by Gram-negative S. enteritidis and Gram-positive S. aureus. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and extracellular response kinase (ERK) by SB 203580 and PD 098059, respectively, did not inhibit activated oxidative burst. PMID:12727554

  15. Heterophils isolated from chickens resistant to extra-intestinal Salmonella enteritidis infection express higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA following infection than heterophils from susceptible chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Pamela J.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Kaiser, Pete; Pevzner, Igal Y.; Kogut, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies showed differences in in vitro heterophil function between parental (A > B) broilers and F1 reciprocal crosses (D > C). Our objectives were to (1) determine if in vitro variations translate to differences in resistance to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and (2) quantitate cytokine mRNA in heterophils from SE-infected chicks. One-day-old chicks were challenged and organs were cultured for SE. Chicks with efficient heterophils (A and D) were less susceptible to SE compared to chicks with inefficient heterophils (B and C). Heterophils were isolated from SE-infected chicks and cytokine mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was up-regulated in heterophils from SE-resistant chicks compared to susceptible chicks. This is the first report to quantitate cytokine mRNA in heterophils from SE-infected chicks. These data show a relationship between in vitro heterophil function, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression, and increased resistance to SE in 1-day-old chicks. PMID:15635959

  16. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    SciTech Connect

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  17. Direct screening identifies mature beta-defensin 2 in avian heterophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to screen avian heterophils in the m/z range of 1-20 kDa with an objective to identify the cell associated peptides that may be reflective of their functional physiology. The MALDI-TOF-MS profiles ...

  18. Functional Annotation of Proteomic Data from Chicken Heterophils and Macrophages Induced by Carbon Nanotube Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun-Ze; Cheng, Chung-Shi; Chen, Chao-Jung; Li, Zi-Lin; Lin, Yao-Tung; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    With the expanding applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedicine and agriculture, questions about the toxicity and biocompatibility of CNT in humans and domestic animals are becoming matters of serious concern. This study used proteomic methods to profile gene expression in chicken macrophages and heterophils in response to CNT exposure. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified 12 proteins in macrophages and 15 in heterophils, with differential expression patterns in response to CNT co-incubation (0, 1, 10, and 100 ?g/mL of CNT for 6 h) (p < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins are associated with protein interactions, cellular metabolic processes, and cell mobility, suggesting activation of innate immune functions. Western blot analysis with heat shock protein 70, high mobility group protein, and peptidylprolyl isomerase A confirmed the alterations of the profiled proteins. The functional annotations were further confirmed by effective cell migration, promoted interleukin-1? secretion, and more cell death in both macrophages and heterophils exposed to CNT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that CNT exposure affects protein expression, leading to activation of macrophages and heterophils, resulting in altered cytoskeleton remodeling, cell migration, and cytokine production, and thereby mediates tissue immune responses. PMID:24823882

  19. DIFFERENTIAL HETEROPHIL INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING AND FUNCTIONS IN WILD-TYPE AND COMMERCIAL TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparison of cell signaling and functions in heterophils from a commercial line (A) to wild-type Rio Grande turkeys days 4 and 7 post-hatch was conducted. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and ERK 1/2 and total protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activities were measured. After stimulation...

  20. Oxidative burst mediated by toll like receptors (TLR) and CD14 on avian heterophils stimulated with bacterial toll agonists.

    PubMed

    Farnell, Morgan B; Crippen, Tawni L; He, Haiqi; Swaggerty, Christina L; Kogut, Michael H

    2003-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on chicken heterophils and if these receptors mediate oxidative burst. Heterophils isolated from neonatal chicks were exposed to gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis (SE), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (SA), SE-LPS, and SA-LTA and the oxidative burst quantitated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. SE, SA, SE-LPS, and SA-LTA stimulated a significant increase in oxidative burst from heterophils. Furthermore, we measured the inhibitory effects of polyclonal antibodies on rat CD14, human TLR2 and TLR4 on the oxidative burst of heterophils when stimulated with LPS and LTA. The data suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 mediate LPS-stimulated oxidative burst while CD14 and TLR2 mediate LTA-stimulated oxidative burst in heterophils. This is the first report of PAMPs from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria interacting with TLRs of avian heterophils. PMID:12631524

  1. Evaluation of latex-based heterophile antibody assay for diagnosis of acute infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Cook, L; Midgett, J; Willis, D; Clinton, B; Folds, J D

    1987-12-01

    The diagnosis of an acute episode of infectious mononucleosis (IM) is made on the basis of clinical symptoms and serological evidence for development of heterophile antibodies. In an effort to obtain a very sensitive and specific assay for diagnosis of IM, we have developed MERISTAR:IM. The MERISTAR assay uses latex beads coated with purified bovine heterophile antigen. We compared the sensitivity and specificity and performance characteristics of the latex-based test to those of the commercially available erythrocyte-based Monospot test with serum samples from 363 suspected-IM patients and controls. A total of 28 samples from patients with confirmed IM were positive with the MERISTAR assay, while only 23 of the samples were positive with the Monospot assay. The two assays had equal specificity, as each test gave two false-positive results. In the technical performance of the assay, the MERISTAR assay was simpler and faster to perform than the Monospot assay. PMID:2828417

  2. Latrophilins Function as Heterophilic Cell-adhesion Molecules by Binding to Teneurins

    PubMed Central

    Boucard, Antony A.; Maxeiner, Stephan; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Latrophilin-1, -2, and -3 are adhesion-type G protein-coupled receptors that are auxiliary α-latrotoxin receptors, suggesting that they may have a synaptic function. Using pulldowns, we here identify teneurins, type II transmembrane proteins that are also candidate synaptic cell-adhesion molecules, as interactors for the lectin-like domain of latrophilins. We show that teneurin binds to latrophilins with nanomolar affinity and that this binding mediates cell adhesion, consistent with a role of teneurin binding to latrophilins in trans-synaptic interactions. All latrophilins are subject to alternative splicing at an N-terminal site; in latrophilin-1, this alternative splicing modulates teneurin binding but has no effect on binding of latrophilin-1 to another ligand, FLRT3. Addition to cultured neurons of soluble teneurin-binding fragments of latrophilin-1 decreased synapse density, suggesting that latrophilin binding to teneurin may directly or indirectly influence synapse formation and/or maintenance. These observations are potentially intriguing in view of the proposed role for Drosophila teneurins in determining synapse specificity. However, teneurins in Drosophila were suggested to act as homophilic cell-adhesion molecules, whereas our findings suggest a heterophilic interaction mechanism. Thus, we tested whether mammalian teneurins also are homophilic cell-adhesion molecules, in addition to binding to latrophilins as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules. Strikingly, we find that although teneurins bind to each other in solution, homophilic teneurin-teneurin binding is unable to support stable cell adhesion, different from heterophilic teneurin-latrophilin binding. Thus, mammalian teneurins act as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules that may be involved in trans-neuronal interaction processes such as synapse formation or maintenance. PMID:24273166

  3. Comparative evaluation of seven commercial tests for detection of heterophile antibody in infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Skulnick, M; Low, D E; Simor, A E; Patel, M; George, P; Chua, R

    1992-01-01

    Detection of heterophile antibodies in infectious mononucleosis is the most rapid and cost-effective method for confirming the clinical diagnosis of the disease. This study compared seven commercial test kits (the Oxoid Infectious Mononucleosis Kit [Oxoid Ltd], Immunoscan Im-Latex [Baxter Travenol], Mono-Latex [Wampole Laboratories], Monospot and Im Screen Test [Ortho Diagnostics], Immunoscan Im-RBC Test [Baxter Travenol], and Infectious Mononucleosis Test [NCS Diagnostics]) to the Davidsohn differential test. All of the kits were shown to be acceptable for use, with specificities and sensitivities greater than 96.5% and 95.5%, respectively. PMID:22451758

  4. DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS MEDIATING OXIDATIVE BURST BY CHICKEN HETEROPHILS IN RESPONSE TO STIMULATION WITH SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS LIPOTEICHOIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been previously shown to mediate oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. This study was conducted to determine which molecular pathways are involved in TLR mediated oxidative burst. Peripheral blood heterophils from neonatal chicks were isolated and exposed to known...

  5. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  6. Heterophilic antibody interference affecting multiple hormone assays: Is it due to rheumatoid factor?

    PubMed

    Mongolu, Shiva; Armston, Annie E; Mozley, Erin; Nasruddin, Azraai

    2016-05-01

    Assay interference with heterophilic antibodies has been well described in literature. Rheumatoid factor is known to cause similar interference leading to falsely elevated hormone levels when measured by immunometric methods like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplex immunoasays (MIA). We report a case of a 60-year-old male patient with a history of rheumatoid arthritis referred to our endocrine clinic for investigation of hypogonadism and was found to have high serum levels of LH, FSH, SHBG, Prolactin, HCG and TSH. We suspected assay interference and further tests were performed. We used Heteroblock tubes and PEG precipitation to eliminate the interference and the hormone levels post treatment were in the normal range. We believe the interference was caused by high serum levels of rheumatoid factor. Although he was treated with thyroxine for 3 years, we believe he may have been treated inappropriately as his Free T4 level was always normal despite high TSH due to assay interference. Our case illustrates the phenomenon of heterophilic antibody interference likely due to high levels of rheumatoid factor. It is essential for clinicians and endocrinologists in particular to be aware of this possibility when making treatment decisions in these groups of patients. PMID:26924790

  7. Heterophils are decisive components in the early responses of chickens to Salmonella enteritidis infections.

    PubMed

    Kogut, M H; Tellez, G I; McGruder, E D; Hargis, B M; Williams, J D; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R

    1994-02-01

    Chickens injected with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were found to have a three- to nine-fold reduction in circulating heterophils without a reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells. A 50% organ invasive dose (ID50) for orally and intravenously administered Salmonella enteritidis (SE) was established in the heteropenic chickens. When challenged orally, about 150-fold fewer SE cells were required for organ invasion in the 5-FU-treated chickens; whereas an intravenous challenge of the heteropenic chickens required about 4000-fold fewer bacteria for organ invasion than found in the control birds. Significant (P < 0.0001) SE-dose-dependent reductions in body weight with increased mortality and lesions in the eye, heart, and thymus were found in the 5-FU-treated birds versus the control birds. Alternatively, the control birds had significantly more intestinal lesions than the 5-FU-treated birds. No consistent significant hepatic lesions were observed in either treatment group. Under the conditions used in these experiments, 5-FU treatment of chickens caused otherwise subclinical SE infections to rapidly become clinical infections with more severe extraintestinal organ infections, whereas the control chickens had infections that were primarily restricted to the intestine. These findings suggest that the heterophil is extremely important in controlling both initial SE organ invasion and subsequent disease pathogenesis in chickens. PMID:8047002

  8. Interference from heterophilic antibodies in D-dimer assessment. A case report.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Tondelli, Maria Teresa; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2014-04-01

    We describe the case of a 3-year-old girl, admitted to the pediatric ward for three repeated episodes of severe migraine associated with vertigo, with onset 1 week after complete remission from an episode of chicken pox (i.e., varicella-zoster virus infection). All radiological and laboratory examinations were normal, except for a markedly elevated value of D-dimer (i.e. 8998?ng/ml; local reference range:?heterophilic antibodies blocking reagent and then assayed along with the untreated sample, with these showing a marked discrepancy of D-dimer values, that is 232 versus 2877?ng/ml. These results, highly indicative for the presence of heterophilic antibodies, are discussed in the light of the serious challenges that this type of analytical interference may pose on quality and reliability of D-dimer testing. PMID:24253242

  9. Granulopoiesis in tadpoles of Rana esculenta. Ultrastructural observations on the morphology and development of heterophil and basophil granules.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, G

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and development of heterophil and basophil granules from the trunk kidneys of Rana esculenta tadpoles were studied at the electron microscopic level. Cells of the heterophils series contain granules displaying either spheroid profiles with homogeneous content (Type A), or elongate profiles with a crystalloid interior (Type B). Type A granules apparently originate directly from Golgi-derived vesicles, which, gaining slightly in size and density, transform into the mature granules. Type B granules could be traced back to vacuolate structures showing an irregular content. Their development could be traced through increasingly elongated forms with the appearance of a characteristic crystalloid core. Fully developed basophil granules are considerably larger in size than heterophil granules and contain heterogeneous interna showing a central-cortical organisation: a finely stippled medullary zone of varying density is surrounded by a sickle-shaped and lamellate cortex (Type L), or a moderately dense and uniformly stippled medulla is enclosed by two diametrically opposed, cap-shaped, filamentous regions (Type F). The heterophil and basophil granules are compared to those in other vertebrates and possible phylogenetic aspects are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:2606765

  10. Protein tyrosine and mitogen activated kinase activities in turkey heterophils isolated from commercial and wild-type turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein tyrosine and mitogen activated kinases are crucial mediators of the host innate immune response, conferring signals from surface receptors on the host cell to the nucleus of the cell where gene expression occurs. Heterophils were isolated from wild-type Rio Grande turkeys and a commercial li...

  11. Gene expression profiling of heterophils from Salmonella-resistant and -susceptible chickens using a 44K agilent microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously examined in vitro heterophil function and resistance/susceptibility to in vivo challenge with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in broilers. All evaluations have shown a dichotomy of innate immune responsiveness with line A more responsive with increased ability to phagocytize, degranulate,...

  12. DIFFERENTIAL PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE MRNA EXPRESSION IN HETEROPHILS ISOLATED FROM SALMONELLA-RESISTANT AND -SUSCEPTIBLE CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have conducted studies utilizing a parental pair of broiler chickens (lines A and B) and the F1 reciprocal crosses (C and D). Previously we showed increased in vitro heterophil functional efficiency translates to increased in vivo resistance against a systemic Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infecti...

  13. Gene expression profiling in chicken heterophils with Salmonella enteritidis stimulation using a chicken 44 K Agilent microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common food-borne pathogens that cause human salmonellosis and usually results from the consumption of contaminated poultry products. The mechanism of SE resistance in chickens remains largely unknown. Previously, heterophils isolated...

  14. Differential activation of signal transduction pathways mediating oxidative burst by chicken heterophils in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Farnell, Morgan B; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H

    2003-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been previously shown to mediate oxidative burst in chicken heterophils. This study was conducted to begin to map the molecular pathways that regulate TLR-mediated oxidative burst. Peripheral blood heterophils from neonatal chicks were isolated and exposed to known inhibitors of signal transduction pathways for either 20 min (genistein, verapamil, or chelerythrine) or 120 min (pertussis toxin) at 39 degrees C. The cells were then stimulated for 30 min at 39 degrees C with Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA). The heterophil oxidative burst was then quantitated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL). Genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor), and pertussis toxin (a G-protein inhibitor) significantly reduced LPS-stimulated oxidative burst in chicken heterophils by 34, 50, 63, and 51%, respectively. Although genistein had a statistically significant effect on reducing LPS-stimulated LDCL biologically it seems to play only a minor role within the oxidative burst pathway. Heterophils stimulated with the gram-positive TLR agonist, LTA, activated a different signal transduction pathway since chelerythrine was the only inhibitor that significantly reduced (72%) LTA-stimulated oxidative burst. These findings demonstrate that distinct signal transduction pathways differentially regulate the stimulation of oxidative burst in avian heterophils. Pertussis toxin-sensitive, protein kinase C-dependent, Ca(++)-dependent G proteins appear to regulate oxidative burst of avian heterophils stimulated with gram-negative agonist LPS; whereas, a protein kinase C-dependent signal transduction pathway plays the major role activating the oxidative burst of avian heterophils stimulated with gram-positive agonists. The distinct differences in the response of heterophils to these two agonists illustrate the specificity of TLRs to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)s. PMID:14527175

  15. Reversible adrenal insufficiency and heterophile antibodies in a case of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, Sandeep; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Dutta, Manoj K.; Garg, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old male was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis and altered sensorium with slurring of speech and ataxia. He was managed with intravenous insulin and fluids and later shifted to basal bolus insulin regimen and during further evaluation was diagnosed to be suffering from primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. He was started on thyroxin replacement and steroids only during stress. After three months of follow up he was clinically euthyroid. His glycemic control was adequate on oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs and adrenal insufficiency recovered. However, his thyrotropin levels were persistently elevated on adequate replacement doses of thyroxin. His repeat TSH was estimated after precipitating serum with polyethylene glycol which revealed normal TSH. Here we report reversible adrenal insufficiency with hypothyroidism with falsely raised TSH because of presence of heterophile antibodies in a case of poly glandular endocrinopathy syndrome. PMID:24910843

  16. Reversible adrenal insufficiency and heterophile antibodies in a case of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kharb, Sandeep; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Dutta, Manoj K; Garg, M K

    2013-12-01

    A 27-year-old male was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis and altered sensorium with slurring of speech and ataxia. He was managed with intravenous insulin and fluids and later shifted to basal bolus insulin regimen and during further evaluation was diagnosed to be suffering from primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. He was started on thyroxin replacement and steroids only during stress. After three months of follow up he was clinically euthyroid. His glycemic control was adequate on oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs and adrenal insufficiency recovered. However, his thyrotropin levels were persistently elevated on adequate replacement doses of thyroxin. His repeat TSH was estimated after precipitating serum with polyethylene glycol which revealed normal TSH. Here we report reversible adrenal insufficiency with hypothyroidism with falsely raised TSH because of presence of heterophile antibodies in a case of poly glandular endocrinopathy syndrome. PMID:24910843

  17. An examination of the utility of heterophil-lymphocyte ratios in assessing stress of caged hens.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Paul F

    2015-03-01

    To measure stress in caged hens, differential counts of their wing vein blood were used to determine heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios and total white blood cell counts (TWBC). The H/L values of 18-wk samples from conventionally caged hens (CC) were not statistically different from hens raised in aviaries (AV) when calculated by either of 2 methods (H/L 1 and H/L 2). However, there was a high degree of variation among samples within each cage type. The TWBC data and hematology indicated leukocytosis, leukemoid reactions, and a high frequency of atypia. Reactive lymphocytes, large plasmacytoid lymphocytes, cyanophils, coccinocytes, and atypical heterophils were common. Analysis of 77-wk data indicated significant differences among 3 cage types. The H/L 1 of enriched caged (EN) hens was twice (0.91) that of either AV (0.33) or CC (0.44) hens (P<0.01); the H/L 2 values were also highest for EN (0.46) versus AV (0.29) and CC (0.34; P<0.01). As was the case with 18-wk samples, TWBC distributions and hematological data indicated leukocytosis, leukemoid reactions, and a high frequency of atypia. Among the likely reasons for the hematological observations was the occurrence of polymicrobial bacteremia and fungemia, both of which could account for high TWBC and atypical cells. Collectively, these observations challenge the general application of the H/L ratio method when applied alone as an indicator of stress and welfare of hens caged in modern systems. PMID:25480738

  18. Fulminant liver failure associated with delayed identification of thyroid storm due to heterophile antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic dysfunction during hyperthyroidism frequently occurs with mild abnormalities in liver function tests that are self-limited, improving after treatment of thyroid disease. With the exception of congestive heart failure or secondary hepatic disease, significant hepatic compromise during thyrotoxicosis is rare and often of unexplained origin. This report identifies a novel case of severe hepatic compromise in the setting of thyrotoxicosis that was not initially identified due to a falsely elevated TSH. A 43-year-old African-American man presented to the intensive care unit with severe jaundice, weight loss, thyroid bruit and altered mental status. Initial diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was delayed due to a non-suppressed TSH of 0.20 ?U/mL. Laboratory studies identified dramatic hepatic synthetic dysfunction and elevated transaminases with a total bilirubin of 47.4 mg/dL, AST 259 U/L, and ALT 142 U/L. No toxins, structural or viral causes of liver disease were identified and the patient was prepared for potential liver biopsy. Heterophile antibodies were identified and removed by precipitation, demonstrating an undetectable TSH and free thyroxine 9.0 ng/dL consistent with hyperthyroidism. Subsequent treatment with thionamides, corticosteroids, and potassium iodide improved both thyroid and liver function and avoided unnecessary invasive testing. Heterophile antibodies remain as important interfering factors in TSH immunoassays, and thus, this case demonstrates the importance of matching the clinical picture with available laboratory data. In the absence of a known cause of hepatic dysfunction, hyperthyroidism should be considered as a potential etiology of acute liver failure of unknown origin. PMID:26491542

  19. Cytokine measurements and possible interference from heterophilic antibodies--problems and solutions experienced with rheumatoid factor.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Else Marie; Ribel-Madsen, Sren

    2013-05-15

    Cytokines are important in the understanding of the immune process in health and disease and are valuable indicators in diagnostics. Measurements of cytokines are based on immunometric methods, and it is important to understand possible pitfalls in these methods to produce reliable cytokine data. This paper focuses on obtaining optimal measurements when applying enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplex immunoassays (MIA). Cytokines are measured in serum or plasma, as well as in various other body fluids, all containing a series of antibodies and the possibility of interference from these. Some antibodies, such as heterophilic and human anti-animal antibodies, are able to interfere with all immunoassays, but the immunometric techniques are most prone to serious interference from this source. Another type, rheumatoid factor (RF) is a composite of different autoimmune antibodies which can be present in both blood and synovial fluid. RF is present in some arthritic diseases as well as in some other medical conditions. When present, especially RF IgM is known to interfere with the immunometric measurements. A possible and affordable solution to diminish this interference is PEG precipitation, but other efficient, but more expensive, methods, such as precipitation using Protein L or commercially available blocking agents, are also available. Interference of RF is at present not tested in all cytokine assays, but degree of interference from RF, human anti-animal and heterophilic antibodies, as well as from other possible disease-specific antibodies, must always be considered when developing and applying new assays for cytokine measurements. PMID:23306035

  20. The effect of mixing and translocating juvenile ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Botswana on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Kamau, J M; Patrick, B T; Mushi, E Z

    2002-05-01

    The possibility was investigated that translocation of juvenile ostriches from concrete-paved to sandfloored pens and mixing of batches of ostriches after such translocation constitute a stress strong enough to evoke changes in the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes. Blood smears were obtained from 15 ostriches out of a group of 25 birds 4 and 2 days before and then 2 and 4 days after translocation. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio changed from 0.27 and 0.37 on days 4 and 2, respectively, before mixing and translocation to 0.53 and 0.84 on days 2 and 4, respectively, after translocation. Mixing and translocating juvenile ostriches appears to constitute stress. This information is important for the onfarm management of juvenile ostriches to enhance their welfare and productivity. PMID:12094680

  1. Interference of circulating endogenous antibodies on the Dimension DGNA digoxin immunoassay: elimination with a heterophilic blocking reagent.

    PubMed

    Hermida-Cadaha, Esperanza F; Calvo, M Mar; Tutor, J Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Only two cases have been previously described about circulating endogenous antibodies interference on the immunochemical determination of digoxin. In an elderly patient with history of social cat handling was observed a moderate positive interference (about 0.8 ng/mL) on the Dimension DGNA digoxin immunoassay (capture rabbit antibody), which was eliminated treating the serum samples with a heterophilic blocking reagent. The Architect immunoassay was not affected. PMID:20875811

  2. Evaluation of a novel dry latex preparation for demonstration of infectious mononucleosis heterophile antibody in comparison with three established tests.

    PubMed

    Rogers, R; Windust, A; Gregory, J

    1999-01-01

    A new, dried antigen-coated latex preparation for the demonstration of infectious mononucleosis (IM) heterophile antibody (Dryspot IM kit; Oxoid, Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom) was compared with the IM kit (a liquid latex reagent from the same source), an immunoassay (ImmunoCard Mono; Meridian Diagnostics), and an absorption test (Monospot; Meridian Diagnostics). The latter was used as a standard for initial statistical comparisons. Discrepancies were resolved by using Epstein-Barr virus serology. Of the 328 routine samples tested, 77 were positive and 222 were negative by all IM heterophile antibody-based kits. Twenty-nine samples gave discrepant results. Following resolution of discrepant results, the sensitivity and specificity values for the IM Dryspot kit were 87.0 and 98.7%, those for the Oxoid liquid latex IM kit were 83.0 and 99.6%, and those for the ImmunoCard Mono immunoassay were 85.0 and 100.0%, respectively. The evaluation shows that the Dryspot kit, which is uniquely straightforward to use and may be stored at room temperature, is comparable in performance to other rapid heterophile tests for the confirmation of IM. PMID:9854070

  3. Bacterial toll-like receptor agonists induce sequential NF-?B-mediated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 production in chicken heterophils.

    PubMed

    Kogut, Michael H; He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J

    2012-01-15

    Studies of the response of the primary avian polymorphonuclear leukocyte, the heterophil, to microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through toll-like receptors (TLR) has concentrated on the activation of the respiratory burst, release of intracellular granules, and the induction of cytokine and chemokine expression. Virtually no studies have been described on the role of lipid mediators, leukotrienes and prostaglandins, as effectors of the avian inflammatory response. We have previously shown that flagellin (FLG), the bacterial lipoprotein mimic palmitoly-3-cysteine-serine-lysine-4 (PAM), and unmethylated CpG motifs of bacteria DNA (CpG) are all potent activators of the avian innate immune system. In the present studies, we hypothesized that FLG, PAM, and CpG are also capable of eliciting the production of these lipid mediators of inflammation by avian heterophils. Compared to non-stimulated control heterophils, all three TLR agonists were potent inducers (3-5-fold increase) of a rapid production (30 min) of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) followed by a later release (60-120 min) of prostaglandin (PGE(2)) by the heterophils. LTB(4) and PGE(2) production were derived from lipoxygenase-5 (5-LO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymatic activities, respectively, as the selective 5-LO (caffeic acid) and COX-2 (NS-398) inhibitors eliminated LTB(4) and PGE(2) production from the MAMP-stimulated heterophils. These results demonstrate that both the lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase pathways are operational in avian heterophils in response to bacterial MAMPs. Treatment of heterophils with either FLG, PAM, or CpG also induced a significant increase in DNA binding by NF-?B family members' p50, c-Rel, and RelB. Additionally, the production of LTB(4) and PGE(2) were inhibited following treatment of heterophils with the specific pharmacologic inhibitor of NF-?B (Bay 11-7086), thus suggesting that TLR pathway activation of NF-?B controls LTB(4) and PGE(2) production. This the first report of the production of lipid mediators of inflammation by avian heterophils in response to PAMPs. Since FLG, lipoproteins, and bacterial CpG DNA are abundant during bacterial infections, these data support their role in the inflammatory response mediated by avian heterophils. PMID:22119018

  4. Critical Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in Regulating the Avian Heterophil Response to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Michael H.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Chiang, Hsin-I; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Zhou, Huaijun; Arsenault, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently upregulated 30–180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). The present study was designed to delineate the role of GSK-3β in regulating the innate function of chicken heterophils in response to S. Enteritidis exposure. Using a specific GSK-3β ELISA assay, 30 min after infection with S. Enteritidis, heterophils had a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in total GSK-3β, but a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in phosphorylated GSK-3β (Ser9). By 60 min post-infection, there was no difference in the amount of phosphorylated GSK-3β (Ser9) in either the uninfected and infected heterophils. S. Enteritidis interaction with heterophils alters GSK-3β activity by stimulating phosphorylation at Ser9 and that peaks by 30 min post-infection. Further, inhibition of GSK3β with lithium chloride resulted in a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in NF-κB activation and expression of IL-6, but induces a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Using a phospho-specific antibody array confirmed the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9) as well as the phosphorylation of the downstream cytokine-activated intracellular signaling pathway involved in stimulating immune responses, IκB, the IκB subunit IKK-β, and the NF-κB subunits p105, p65, and c-Rel. Our data revealed that the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9) is responsible for inducing and controlling an innate response to the bacteria. Our findings suggest that the repression of GSK-3 activity is beneficial to the host cell and may act as a target for treatment in controlling intestinal colonization in chickens. Further experiments will define the in vivo modulation of GSK-3 as a potential alternative to antibiotics in salmonella and other intestinal bacterial infections. PMID:26664916

  5. Gene Expression Analysis of Toll-Like Receptor Pathways in Heterophils from Genetic Chicken Lines that Differ in Their Susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Michael H.; Chiang, Hsin-I; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Pevzner, Igal Y.; Zhou, Huaijun

    2012-01-01

    Previously conducted studies using two chicken lines (A and B) show that line A birds have increased resistance to a number of bacterial and protozoan challenges and that heterophils isolated from line A birds are functionally more responsive. Furthermore, when stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, heterophils from line A expressed a totally different cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression pattern than heterophils from line B. A large-scale gene expression profile using an Agilent 44K microarray on heterophils isolated from line A and line B also revealed significantly differential expression in many immune-related genes following Salmonella enteritidis (SE) stimulation, which included genes involved in the TLR pathway. Therefore, we hypothesize the differences between the lines result from distinctive TLR pathway signaling cascades that mediate heterophil function and, thus, innate immune responsiveness to SE. Using quantitative RT-PCR on mRNA from heterophils isolated from control and SE-stimulated heterophils of each line, we profiled the expression of all chicken homologous genes identified in a reference TLR pathway. Several differentially expressed genes found were involved in the TLR-induced My88-dependent pathway, showing higher gene expression in line A than line B heterophils following SE stimulation. These genes included the TLR genes TLR4, TLR15, TLR21, MD-2, the adaptor proteins Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), Tumor necrosis factor-receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3), the IκB kinases transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1), IKKε and IKKα, the transcription factors NFkB2 and interferon regulatory factor 7, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. These results indicate that higher expression of TLR signaling activation of both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways are more beneficial to avian heterophil-mediated innate immunity and a complicated regulation of downstream adaptors is involved in stronger induction of a TLR-mediated innate response in the resistant line A. These findings identify new targets for genetic selection of chickens to increase resistance to bacterial infections. PMID:22783275

  6. Gene expression profiling in chicken heterophils with Salmonella enteritidis stimulation using a chicken 44 K Agilent microarray

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Hsin-I; Swaggerty, Christina L; Kogut, Michael H; Dowd, Scot E; Li, Xianyao; Pevzner, Igal Y; Zhou, Huaijun

    2008-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common food-borne pathogens that cause human salmonellosis and usually results from the consumption of contaminated poultry products. The mechanism of SE resistance in chickens remains largely unknown. Previously, heterophils isolated from broilers with different genetic backgrounds (SE-resistant [line A] and -susceptible [line B]) have been shown to be important in defending against SE infections. To dissect the interplay between heterophils and SE infection, we utilized large-scale gene expression profiling. Results The results showed more differentially expressed genes were found between different lines than between infection (SE-treated) and non-infection (control) samples within line. However, the numbers of expressed immune-related genes between these two comparisons were dramatically different. More genes related to immune function were down-regulated in line B than line A. The analysis of the immune-related genes indicated that SE infection induced a stronger, up-regulated gene expression of line heterophils A than line B, and these genes include several components in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, and genes involved in T-helper cell activation. Conclusion We found: (1) A divergent expression pattern of immune-related genes between lines of different genetic backgrounds. The higher expression of immune-related genes might be more beneficial to enhance host immunity in the resistant line; (2) a similar TLR regulatory network might exist in both lines, where a possible MyD88-independent pathway may participate in the regulation of host innate immunity; (3) the genes exclusively differentially expressed in line A or line B with SE infection provided strong candidates for further investigating SE resistance and susceptibility. These findings have laid the foundation for future studies of TLR pathway regulation and cellular modulation of SE infection in chickens. PMID:18990222

  7. Heterophile antibody positive, acute cytomegaloviral infection in an immunocompetent pre-teen: an atypical presentation of an atypical infection.

    PubMed

    Raja, Junaid; de Quesada, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Mononucleosis and mononucleosis-like illnesses comprise a significant proportion of pediatric and adolescent infectious illnesses. By far, the most common cause of these illnesses is Epstein-Barr virus, which causes mononucleosis, and a distant second is cytomegalovirus, which is the most common cause of mononucleosis-like illnesses. This case provides an interesting juxtaposition of laboratory findings of an adolescent who was heterophile antibody positive but acute Epstein-Barr virus antigen-antibody negative. A subsequent immunologic assay resulted in a final diagnosis of an acute cytomegaloviral infection. This is, to our knowledge, the first such report in the literature. PMID:25270386

  8. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sornplang, Pairat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Soikum, Chaiyaporn

    2015-01-01

    Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment. PMID:26580288

  9. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Sornplang, Pairat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Soikum, Chaiyaporn

    2015-11-01

    Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment. PMID:26580288

  10. Bacterial toll-like receptor agonists induce sequential NF-kB-mediated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 production in chicken heterophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of the response of the primary avian polymorphonuclear leukocyte, the heterophil, to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through toll-like receptors (TLR) have concentrated on the activation of the respiratory burst, release of intracellular granules, and the induction of cytokine ...

  11. Flagellin and lipopolysaccharide up-regulation of IL-6 and CXCLi2 gene expression in chicken heterophils is mediated by NF-kappaB and AP-1 pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Toll-like receptor agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been shown to stimulate chicken heterophils to induce the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by a mechanism involving the triggering of differential MEK-ERK signaling cascades. However, the transl...

  12. In vivo priming heterophil innate immune functions and increasing resistance to Salmonella enteritidis infection in neonatal chickens by immune stimulatory CpG-ODN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) mimic bacterial DNA and stimulate the innate immune system of vertebrates. Here, we investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administered CpG-ODN on the innate immune functions of chicken heterophils. Our results demonstrat...

  13. The effects of environmental enrichment and transport stress on the weights of lymphoid organs, cell-mediated immune response, heterophil functions and antibody production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, ?brahim; Eraslan, Evren; Ergul Ekiz, Elif; Eseceli, Hseyin; Keten, Mehmet; Metiner, Kemal; Aktaran Bala, Deniz

    2016-02-01

    The effects of environmental enrichment and transport stress on the immune system were investigated in laying hens. A total of 48 1-day-old chickens were used, half of the chickens were reared in conventional cages (RCC) and the rest in enriched cages (REC). Transport stress was applied in the 17th week. Liver weight decreased, spleen and bursa of Fabricius weights, white blood cell count, CD4+ and CD8+ cell proportions increased due to the transport. Environmental enrichment significantly increased antibody production and tended to increase monocyte percentage and CD8+ cell proportion. The effect of transport on, heterophil (H) and lymphocyte (L) percentages was not significant in RCC chickens. While heterophil percentage and H:L ratio increased, lymphocyte percentage decreased in REC chickens subjected to transport. Transport stress increased heterophil functions both in REC and RCC chickens, but the increase was higher in REC hens than in RCC hens. In conclusion, although environmental enrichment did not neutralize the effect of transport on lymphoid organs, it activated the non-specific immune system, cellular and the humoral branches of the specific immune system by increasing heterophil functions, CD8+ cells and antibody production, respectively. Therefore, environmental enrichment suggested for improving animal welfare may also be beneficial to improve the immune system of birds exposed to stress. PMID:26419323

  14. Gene expression analysis of toll-like receptor pathways in heterophils from genetic chicken lines that differ in their susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously conducted studies using two chicken lines (A and B) show that line A birds have increased resistance to a number of bacterial and protozoan challenges and that heterophils isolated from line A birds are functionally more responsive. Furthermore, when stimulated with toll-like receptor (T...

  15. Effect of lighting stress on fluctuating asymmetry, heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and tonic immobility duration in eleven breeds of chickens.

    PubMed

    Campo, J L; Gil, M G; Dvila, S G; Muoz, I

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of a lighting stress on the fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and the tonic immobility duration of chickens. The experiment (440 birds) measured the FA of several traits (outer, middle, inner, and hind toe lengths and leg, wing, second primary feather, and spur lengths), the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and the tonic immobility duration in 36-wk-old hens and cocks of 8 Spanish breeds of chickens (Black-Barred Andaluza, Black-Red Andaluza, Black Castellana, Buff Prat, Red-Barred Vasca, Red Villafranquina, Birchen Leonesa, and Blue Leonesa), a synthetic breed (Quail Castellana), a White Leghorn population, and the e(y) tester line, which had been housed in continuous light (24L:0D) or in a light-dark regimen (14L:10D) for 16 wk. There was a significant difference between lighting treatments in both females and males on the combined FA of the 4 toes (P < 0.01) and the combined FA of toe, leg, wing, feather, and spur (in males) lengths (P < 0.05), the FA of birds housed under continuous light being greater than that of control birds. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) for the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and the tonic immobility duration between lighting treatments, the ratio being higher and the duration being longer in the group of birds housed under continuous light. Thus, birds exposed to continuous light were more stressed and fearful than control hens. Results were consistent across the breeds and indicate that a continuous light regimen seriously negatively affects the welfare of birds. PMID:17179413

  16. Evaluation of oral, subcutaneous, and nasal administration of Salmonella enteritidis-immune lymphokines on the potentiation of a protective heterophilic inflammatory response to Salmonella enteritidis in day-old chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, M H; Genovese, K; Moyes, R B; Stanker, L H

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported that the prophylactic administration of factor(s) from T-cell supernatants derived from Salmonella enteritidis-immune chickens (ILK) have a favorable effect in controlling or eliminating salmonellosis in neonatal poultry. Experimentally, we have used the intraperitoneal injection as the standard method of administering ILK to neonatal poultry. However, this method is neither easy, practical, nor economical for the poultry industry. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of oral (p.o.), intranasal (i.n.), and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of ILK for ease of delivery, induction of protective resistance against Salmonella enteritidis (Se) organ invasion, and the ability to activate peripheral blood heterophils in day-old chickens. In the first experiments, delivery of ILK p.o., i.n., and s.c. significantly (P < 0.01) increased the resistance of day-old chickens to Se organ invasion. The level of protection was equivalent to that induced by the i.p. route. Administration of a comparable protein control (bovine serum albumin, BSA) by the 3 routes induced no protective effect against Se organ invasion. Likewise, a significant increase was found in the number of circulating heterophils within 4 h of administration of the ILK by all routes. In the 2nd experiment, the function of the heterophils from ILK-treated birds was compared with that of the control cells in adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis assays. The heterophils from birds given ILK i.p., s.c., p.o., or i.n. had significantly (P < 0.01) increased functional activities when compared to the activities of the heterophils from the control birds. These studies indicate that the delivery of ILK either orally or parenterally, routes which can be used by the poultry industry, can confer protection to chickens against a localized enteric Se organ invasion by potentiating the systemic heterophilic innate response. Images FIGURES 1A and 1B. PMID:9442936

  17. Structure of Natural Killer Receptor 2B4 Bound to CD48 Reveals Basis for Heterophilic Recognition in Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovsky,C.; Deng, L.; Chlewicki, L.; Fernandez, M.; Kumar, V.; Mariuzza, R.

    2007-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells eliminate virally infected and tumor cells. Among the receptors regulating NK cell function is 2B4 (CD244), a member of the signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) family that binds CD48. 2B4 is the only heterophilic receptor of the SLAM family, whose other members, e.g., NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A), are self-ligands. We determined the structure of the complex between the N-terminal domains of mouse 2B4 and CD48, as well as the structures of unbound 2B4 and CD48. The complex displayed an association mode related to, yet distinct from, that of the NTB-A dimer. Binding was accompanied by the rigidification of flexible 2B4 regions containing most of the polymorphic residues across different species and receptor isoforms. We propose a model for 2B4-CD48 interactions that permits the intermixing of SLAM receptors with major histocompatibility complex-specific receptors in the NK cell immune synapse. This analysis revealed the basis for heterophilic recognition within the SLAM family.

  18. Flagellin and lipopolysaccharide up-regulation of IL-6 and CXCLi2 gene expression in chicken heterophils is mediated by ERK1/2-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Toll-like receptor agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulate chicken heterophils to induce the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by a mechanism involving the triggering of differential MEK-ERK signaling cascades. However, the translocation and activa...

  19. Neutralization and purification of thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and thyroid blocking antibody (TBAb) by heterophilic antibody to animal IgG in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yukio; Kajita, Yoshihiro; Hachiya, Takashi; Hamaoki, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    There are several reports that sera from Graves' patients contain heterophilic antibody (Ab) to animal IgG such as human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA). We examined the binding of TSAb and TBAb with heterophilic Ab. The binding of animal IgG with patient's IgG was examined by the inhibition of animal IgG on the binding of labeled bovine (b) IgG with patient's IgG. The binding to labeled bIgG was detected in the serum of 5 patients (2.7 %) among 185 patients with Graves' disease. The binding of the labeled bIgG with patient's IgG was inhibited by animal serum or the crude IgG (45% ammonium sulfate fraction of serum)(such as dog, horse, bovine, porcine, goat, ovine, rabbit, guinea-pig, rat, mouse) except human, monkey and chick. This heterophilic Ab which had cross-reaction with mammalian IgG (except human, monkey) was used as human anti-animal IgG Ab. TBII and TSAb activity of TSAb-positive serum, and TBII activity of TBAb-positive serum were neutralized by incubation with this Ab-bound column. Partial purification of TSAb- or TBAb- IgG from Protein A-purified TSAb- or TBAb-IgG was possible using this Ab-bound column. TBII and TSAb activity of TSAb-IgG and TBII activity of TBAb-IgG were neutralized by incubation with rabbit anti-human (h) IgG Ab (having cross-reaction with animal IgG). Further purification of Protein A-purified TSAb-IgG or TBAb-IgG by rabbit anti-hIgG Ab-bound column was impossible. The binding of TSAb and TBAb with heterophlic Ab means that TSAb-and TBAb-specific IgG have immunological similarity with mammalian species IgG compared to human IgG. PMID:22082836

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios of nestling passerine birds: comparison of blue tits and great tits.

    PubMed

    Banbura, Jerzy; Skwarska, Joanna; Banbura, Miroslawa; Gladalski, Michal; Holysz, Magdalena; Kalinski, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Wawrzyniak, Jaroslaw; Zielinski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors affecting trophic conditions act as stressors on nestling altricial birds. Access of parental birds to a sufficient supply of food in a limited period of the nestling stage differ in time and space, depending on nesting habitat, prey density and weather conditions. Heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (H/L) is considered as a reliable indicator of prolonged stress reaction in birds. In this study we examine if variation in H/L shows consistent spatio-temporal patterns in nestlings of two parids, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus and great tit Parus major. We found that blue tit nestlings had on average higher H/L than great tit nestlings, which corresponds with the ecological sensitivity of these species. In both species H/L was higher in a poor parkland habitat than in a high quality forest habitat. In nestling blue tits, higher H/L values occurred in years characterized by more extreme weather conditions and worse caterpillar availability. Such consistent patterns of variation in the H/L ratio of nestling blue tits and great tits suggest that, when age-dependent effects are controlled, the ratio can be used as an indicator of physiological stress that is generated by food-related stressors differing in space and time. In particular, elevated H/L ratios are indicative of human-induced changes in the structure of breeding habitats. PMID:24066123

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Heterophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratios of Nestling Passerine Birds: Comparison of Blue Tits and Great Tits

    PubMed Central

    Banbura, Jerzy; Skwarska, Joanna; Banbura, Miroslawa; Gladalski, Michal; Holysz, Magdalena; Kalinski, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Wawrzyniak, Jaroslaw; Zielinski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors affecting trophic conditions act as stressors on nestling altricial birds. Access of parental birds to a sufficient supply of food in a limited period of the nestling stage differ in time and space, depending on nesting habitat, prey density and weather conditions. Heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (H/L) is considered as a reliable indicator of prolonged stress reaction in birds. In this study we examine if variation in H/L shows consistent spatio-temporal patterns in nestlings of two parids, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus and great tit Parus major. We found that blue tit nestlings had on average higher H/L than great tit nestlings, which corresponds with the ecological sensitivity of these species. In both species H/L was higher in a poor parkland habitat than in a high quality forest habitat. In nestling blue tits, higher H/L values occurred in years characterized by more extreme weather conditions and worse caterpillar availability. Such consistent patterns of variation in the H/L ratio of nestling blue tits and great tits suggest that, when age-dependent effects are controlled, the ratio can be used as an indicator of physiological stress that is generated by food-related stressors differing in space and time. In particular, elevated H/L ratios are indicative of human-induced changes in the structure of breeding habitats. PMID:24066123

  2. Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress would both improve human health and provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (Alphamune™, YE), ...

  3. Comparative evaluation of three commercial tests for detection of heterophile antibody in patients with infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Tilton, R C; Dias, F; Ryan, R W

    1988-02-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Commonly used laboratory tests used for diagnosis of IM include a screening test based on the observation that horse erythrocytes are agglutinated by the Paul-Bunnell antibody found in the serum of patients with IM. This study evaluated two latex agglutination (LA) kits for IM, Monolatex (Wampole Laboratories) and Immunoscan-IM (American MicroScan) (formerly Monogen; Biokit, S.A.), and compared them with Monospot (Ortho Diagnostic Systems) results on 220 patient sera. Discrepancies in the three test results were resolved with complete Epstein-Barr virus antibody profiles. They indicated that any of the three kits tested can be successfully used as a screening test for IM. The advantage of the LA kits is that no differential absorption step is necessary. When discrepancies were resolved, sensitivity and specificity of both LA kits were greater than 93%. PMID:2830311

  4. BT cationic peptides: Small peptides that modulate innate immune responses of chicken heterophils and monocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drug-resistant bacteria pose an enormous threat to public health having developed resistance mechanisms to all existing classes of antibiotics. Fewer novel antibiotics are being developed, so there is an increasing need to identify alternative approaches with less associated resistance. An alternat...

  5. SCAVENGER RECEPTORS FOUND ON CHICKEN HETEROPHILS CONTRIBUTE TO THE PHAGOCYTOSIS OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are a critical component of the innate immune response and the hosts ability to recognize self from infectious non-self. Scavenger receptors (SR), a type of PRR, are cell surface glycoproteins involved in receptor-mediated phagocytosis of polyanionic ligands. H...

  6. Effects of avian triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-A1) activation on heterophil functional activites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel class of innate receptors called the triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) has been discovered and shown to be involved in innate inflammatory responses. The TREM family has been found in the chicken genome and consists of one activating gene (TREM-A1) and two inhibitory ge...

  7. Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune (YE), was added to turkey po...

  8. Direct Ca2+-dependent Heterophilic Interaction between Desmosomal Cadherins, Desmoglein and Desmocollin, Contributes to CellCell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chitaev, Nikolai A.; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.

    1997-01-01

    Human fibrosarcoma cells, HT-1080, feature extensive adherens junctions, lack mature desmosomes, and express a single known desmosomal protein, Desmoglein 2 (Dsg2). Transfection of these cells with bovine Desmocollin 1a (Dsc1a) caused dramatic changes in the subcellular distribution of endogenous Dsg2. Both cadherins clustered in the areas of the adherens junctions, whereas only a minor portion of Dsg2 was seen in these areas in the parental cells. Deletion mapping showed that intact extracellular cadherin-like repeats of Dsc1a (Arg1-Thr170) are required for the translocation of Dsg2. Deletion of the intracellular C-domain that mediates the interaction of Dsc1a with plakoglobin, or the CSI region that is involved in the binding to desmoplakin, had no effect. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments of cell lysates stably expressing Dsc1a with anti-Dsc or -Dsg antibodies demonstrate that the desmosomal cadherins, Dsg2 and Dsc1a, are involved in a direct Ca2+-dependent interaction. This conclusion was further supported by the results of solid phase binding experiments. These showed that the Dsc1a fragment containing cadherin-like repeats 1 and 2 binds directly to the extracellular portion of Dsg in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The contribution of the Dsg/ Dsc interaction to cellcell adhesion was tested by coculturing HT-1080 cells expressing Dsc1a with HT-1080 cells lacking Dsc but expressing myc-tagged plakoglobin (MPg). In the latter cells, MPg and the endogenous Dsg form stable complexes. The observed specific coimmunoprecipitation of MPg by anti-Dsc antibodies in coculture indicates that an intercellular interaction between Dsc1 and Dsg is involved in cellcell adhesion. PMID:9214392

  9. OXIDATIVE BURST MEDIATED BY TOLL LIKE RECEPTORS (TLR) AND CD14 ON AVIAN HETEROPHILS STIMULATED WITH BACTERIAL TOLL AGONISTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on...

  10. The selective Dectin-1 agonist, curdlan, induces an oxidative burst response in chicken heterophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A critical component of host innate immunity is recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Dectin-1 is the primary PRR for exogenous beta-glucan, a component of fungal and bacterial cell walls. A previous study conducted in our laboratory...

  11. FLAGELLIN AND LPS STIMULATE THE MEK-ERK SIGNALING PATHWAY IN CHICKEN HETEROPHILS THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF THE SMALL GTPASES, RAS, & RAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TLR agonists, flagellin (FLGTLR5) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-TLR4) stimulate functional activation and cytokine gene expression via the extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) MAP kinase cascade. However, the upstream mechanisms of these signaling events remains unknown. In mammal...

  12. Differential mRNA expression of the avian-specific toll-like receptor 15 between heterophils from Salmonella-susceptible and -resistant chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential for recognition of conserved molecular constituents found on infectious microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the PRR repertoire and are coupled to downstream production of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptide...

  13. Effects of a dietary yeast extract on hematological parameters, heterophil function, and bacterial clearance in turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli and subjected to transport stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A standardized yeast extract supplement, Alphamune (YE), was added to turkey poult diets. Male poults were challenged by air sac injection with 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 week of age. At 3 weeks of age chal...

  14. FLAGELLIN AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE STIMULATE THE MEK-ERK SIGNALING PATHWAY IN CHICKEN HETEROPHILS THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF THE SMALL GTPASES, RAS AND RAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TLR agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulate functional activation and cytokine gene expression via the extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) MAP kinase cascade. However, the upstream mechanisms of these signaling events remain unknown. In mammals, the smal...

  15. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  16. Differential induction of nitric oxide, degranulation, and oxidative burst activities in response to microbial agonist stimulation in monocytes and heterophils from young commercial turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns and trigger inflammatory immune responses to control the infection. Here, we examined functional innate immune responses to Salmonella enteritidis (SE, live or formalin-killed) and various TLR ag...

  17. Effects of a dietary yeast extract on hematological parameters, heterophil function, and bacterial clearance in turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli and subjected to transport stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A standardized yeast extract supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey poult diets. Male poults were challenged by air sac injection with 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 week of age. At 3 weeks of age chal...

  18. Mononucleosis spot test

    MedlinePLUS

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  19. Expression of the avian-specific toll-like receptor 15 in chicken heterophils is mediated by Gram-negative and Gram-postive bacteria, but not TLR agonists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential for recognition of conserved molecular constituents found on infectious microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the PRR repertoire in both mammalian and avian species. While most mammalian TLRs have been well characterized...

  20. Experimental study of induced inflammation in the Brazilian Boa (Boa constrictor constrictor).

    PubMed

    Tucunduva, M; Borelli, P; Silva, J R

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify the cellular types present in inflammatory processes in the Brazilian snake, Boa constrictor constrictor. Blood smears were first made from three normal snakes and stained by several methods to identify the cell types present, thus facilitating the identification of cells in inflammatory processes induced in 16 further snakes by the subcutaneous implantation of cotton suture threads and circular coverslips. Implanted threads induced migration of heterophils and monocytes after 4 h, more intense monocyte migration after 24 h, an intense granulocytic migration inside and around the thread after 48 h, heterophilic granulocytes, macrophages and giant cells after 7 days, and giant cells with a typical granuloma response and persistence of heterophilic cells after 15, 69 and 117 days. The cell population attached to the implanted coverslips after 4 h was composed of heterophils, thrombocytes, erythrocytes and macrophages; after 24 and 48 h heterophils predominated, and after 7 days heterophils, macrophages and giant cells predominated. PMID:11578134

  1. INNATE IMMUNOPROFILING OF COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKEN LINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four commercial broiler chicken lines (designated Lines A, B, C and D) were profiled for efficiency of their innate immunologic response. Oxidative burst and bactericidal functions of both heterophils and monocytes, as well as heterophil degranulation, were analyzed. The birds were tested 1, 4, 8,...

  2. THE FEATHERING GENE IS LINKED TO DEGRANULATION AND OXIDATIVE BURST NOT CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE EXPRESSION OR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ORGAN INVASION IN BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we showed differences in in vitro heterophil function between parental broilers (Line A>B) and F1 reciprocal crosses (Line Cheterophil functional efficiency while the slow feathering gene (K) reduced efficiency. Based on...

  3. THE FEATHERING GENE INFLUENCES DEGRANULATION AND OXIDATIVE BURST BUT NOT CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE MRNA EXPRESSION OR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ORGAN INVASION IN BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, we showed differences in in vitro heterophil function between parental broilers (Line A>B and Line X>Y) and F1 reciprocal crosses (Line Cheterophil function. Specifically, the fast feathering gene (k) may enhance heterop...

  4. THE FEATHERING GENE IS LINKED TO DEGRANULATION AND OXIDATIVE BURST NOT CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE MRNA EXPRESSION LEVELS OR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ORGAN INVASION IN BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, we showed differences in heterophil function between parental broilers Lines A (fast [F] feathering)>B (slow [S] feathering) and their F1 reciprocal crosses (Line D [F]>C [S]), indicating the feathering gene is associated with heterophil function. In the present study, we evaluated the...

  5. Infectious mononucleosis presenting as acute hepatitis, with marked leukocytosis and renal involvement.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Sudeep; Kumar, Arun

    2003-01-01

    We report a 45-year-old lady with infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus. The unusual features of this case included a negative heterophil antibody test, marked leukocytosis, renal involvement and jaundice. PMID:12696827

  6. Erythrophagocytosis in circulating blood of loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta: the pitting of Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Maria Grazia; Ferretti, Luigi; Glomski, Chester; Pica, Alessandra

    2014-03-01

    In humans red blood cells live on average of 120 days. Senescent erythrocytes are removed from circulation by macrophages; this process, called erythrophagocytosis (EPC), takes place mainly in the liver but also in the bone marrow. We studied this process in loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta, inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. Leukocytes of reptiles include heterophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, basophils, thrombocytes, monocytes, and of these heterophils and monocytes represent the main phagocytic cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood of C. caretta specimens and to observe, in the blood smears, heterophils phagocytizing erythrocytes. The phagocytizing cells were also identified by cytochemical reactions. Furthermore some examples of tear-shaped erythrocytes (dacrocytes) were observed. A mechanism presuming a causative link between erythrophagocytosis and teardrop-erythrocyte detection have been proposed to explain this seemingly general pattern of all specimens both wild and housed. PMID:24254579

  7. The effect of furnished cages on the immune response of laying hens under social stress.

    PubMed

    Matur, Erdal; Eraslan, Evren; Akyazi, Ibrahim; Ergul Ekiz, Elif; Eseceli, Huseyin; Keten, Mehmet; Metiner, Kemal; Aktaran Bala, Deniz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of cage furnishing and social stress on some lymphoid organ weight and innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immune responses in laying hens. Sixty-four chickens were used. The chickens were divided into 2 groups; one of the groups was reared in furnished cages (RFC) and the other was reared in conventional cages (RCC). In wk 17, social stress was applied. Heterophil and lymphocyte percentages; liver, spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius weights; phagocytic activity; oxidative burst and chemotaxic activity of heterophil; CD4+ and CD8+ cell proportions; and antibody production were measured. The effect of rearing methods was significant on heterophil, lymphocyte percentage, heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and antibody production. Heterophil percentage and H/L ratio were lower (P=0.001, P=0.001, respectively), and antibody production was higher (P=0.003) in RFC hens compared to RCC hens. The main effect of social stress was also significant on heterophil, lymphocyte percentages, and H/L ratio. Heterophil percentage was higher (P=0.049); H/L ratio tended to be higher (P=0.068); and lymphocyte percentage tended to be lower (P=0.072) due to stress. In addition, thymus and bursa of Fabricius weights tended to be lower (P=0.073 and P=0.074, respectively) in stressed hens. There were significant interactions between rearing methods and social stress on oxidative burst, chemotaxic activity, and CD4+ and CD8+ proportion (P=0.001, P=0.004, P=0.054, and P=0.001, respectively). These parameters were significantly higher in RFC hens, when they were exposed to stress. On the other hand, they did not differ in RCC or unstressed RFC hens. These results indicated that cage furnishing positively affected heterophil functions, CD4+ and CD8+ cell proportions, and antibody production. Therefore, we suggest that cage furnishing, which is recommended for improving the welfare of animals, is also beneficial for improving the immune response of hens under the stress condition. PMID:26475073

  8. Identification and structural characterization of avian beta-defensin 2 peptides from pheasant and quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheasant and quail orthologues of avian ß-defensin 2 (AVBD2) were identified in methanol extracts of heterophil and bone marrow using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). We used comparative pattern profiling before and after reduction/alkyla...

  9. CELL SIGNALING AND HOST INNATE IMMUNE DEFENSES IN WILD-TYPE AND COMMERCIAL TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to measure any functional differences in heterophils isolated from a commercial line (A) to wild-type Rio Grande turkeys and to observe differences in intracellular signaling. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and ERK 1/2 and total protein tyrosine ki...

  10. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF SEX AND GENETICS ON BEHAVIOR AND STRESS RESPONSE OF TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three lines of turkeys were tested for response in T-maze and open field tests during the first 8 days after hatch and behavior was observed after catching, moving, and transport. They were also compared for corticosterone (Cort) levels and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (H/L) in response to an Escher...

  11. Cutaneous myelolipoma in a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis).

    PubMed

    Ozakt, K; Kinoshita, H; Kurasho, H; Narama, I

    1996-03-01

    A case of cutaneous myelolipoma in a 2.5-year-old female peach-faced lovebird is reported. Histopathologically, the subcutaneous mass on the tip of the left wing consisted of well circumscribed adipose tissue containing several aggregates of * haematopoietic cells. Heterophilic differentiation was most prominent in them. PMID:18645843

  12. DIFFERENTIAL NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION BY CHICKEN IMMUNE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide is a rapidly reacting free radical which has cytotoxic effects during inflammatory responses and regulatory effects as a component of signal transduction cascades. We quantified the production of nitrite, a stable metabolite of nitric oxide, in chicken heterophils, monocytes and macrop...

  13. Monospot: a differential slide test for infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Basson, V; Sharp, A A

    1969-05-01

    Sera collected from 372 patients with suspected infectious mononucleosis were examined for heterophile antibodies by the Paul-Bunnell and the Monospot test. Comparison of results showed the latter to be simple, time saving, and of sufficient specificity for routine use in the general laboratory. PMID:5814738

  14. Thymic necrosis in slaughtered Nile crocodiles.

    PubMed

    Penrith, M L; Huchzermeyer, F W

    1993-09-01

    Foci of necrosis with formation of heterophilic granulomas in the medullary region of the thymus were found in apparently normal slaughtered crocodiles from 4 South African crocodile farms. The comparative pathology of these lesions is discussed. From these preliminary results it may be assumed that thymic necrosis occurs commonly in intensively reared slaughter crocodiles. The cause of this condition, however, remains obscure. PMID:8176686

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPONTANEOUSLY TRANSFORMED CHICKEN MONONUCLEAR CELL LINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the characterization of a spontaneously transformed chicken monocytic cell line that developed as a single colony of cells in a heterophil culture that was inadvertently left in the incubator over a period of 25 days. These cells, hitherto named HTC, grow efficiently at both 37 C or 41 C...

  16. Differential AP-1 and NF-kB expression in polymorphonuclear cells from a non-mammalian species following TLR4-mediated stimulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, evaluation of heterophil function, susceptibility to pathogenic challenge, and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression levels showed differences between two parental lines of chickens. Line A is always more responsive and more resistant compared to Line B. Based on these findings, we...

  17. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators yields chickens with increased resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella are a leading cause of foodborne illness and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry; therefore, increasing a flocks’ natural resistance to Salmonella could improve food safety. Previously, we characterized the heterophil-mediated innate immune response of two pare...

  18. Gender and Personality Differences in Response to Social Stressors in Great Tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Esther; van Oers, Kees

    2015-01-01

    In response to stressors, animals can increase the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, resulting in elevated glucocorticoid concentrations. An increase in glucocorticoids results in an increase in heterophils and a decrease in lymphocytes, which ratio (H/L-ratio) is an indicator of stress in birds. The physiological response to a stressor can depend on individual characteristics, like dominance rank, sex and personality. Although the isolated effects of these characteristics on the response to a stressor have been well studied, little is known about the response in relation to a combination of these characteristics. In this study we investigate the relationship between social stress, dominance rank, sex and exploratory behaviour as a validated operational measure of personality in great tits (Parus major). Great tits show consistent individual differences in behaviour and physiology in response to stressors, and exploratory behaviour can be classified as fast or slow exploring. We group-housed four birds, two fast and two slow explorers, of the same sex that were previously singly housed, in an aviary and compared the H/L-ratio, lymphocyte and heterophil count before and after group housing. After experiencing the social context all birds increased their H/L-ratio and heterophil count. Females showed a stronger increase in H/L-ratio and heterophil count than males, which seemed to be related to a higher number of agonistic interactions compared to males. Dominance rank and exploration type did not affect the H/L-ratio or heterophil count. Contrary to our expectations, all birds increased their lymphocyte count. However, this increase was slower for fast than for slow explorers. Our study suggests that personality and sex related differences, but not dominance rank, are associated with changes in an individual's physiological response due to a social context. PMID:26011633

  19. Gender and Personality Differences in Response to Social Stressors in Great Tits (Parus major)

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Esther; van Oers, Kees

    2015-01-01

    In response to stressors, animals can increase the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, resulting in elevated glucocorticoid concentrations. An increase in glucocorticoids results in an increase in heterophils and a decrease in lymphocytes, which ratio (H/L-ratio) is an indicator of stress in birds. The physiological response to a stressor can depend on individual characteristics, like dominance rank, sex and personality. Although the isolated effects of these characteristics on the response to a stressor have been well studied, little is known about the response in relation to a combination of these characteristics. In this study we investigate the relationship between social stress, dominance rank, sex and exploratory behaviour as a validated operational measure of personality in great tits (Parus major). Great tits show consistent individual differences in behaviour and physiology in response to stressors, and exploratory behaviour can be classified as fast or slow exploring. We group-housed four birds, two fast and two slow explorers, of the same sex that were previously singly housed, in an aviary and compared the H/L-ratio, lymphocyte and heterophil count before and after group housing. After experiencing the social context all birds increased their H/L-ratio and heterophil count. Females showed a stronger increase in H/L-ratio and heterophil count than males, which seemed to be related to a higher number of agonistic interactions compared to males. Dominance rank and exploration type did not affect the H/L-ratio or heterophil count. Contrary to our expectations, all birds increased their lymphocyte count. However, this increase was slower for fast than for slow explorers. Our study suggests that personality and sex related differences, but not dominance rank, are associated with changes in an individual's physiological response due to a social context. PMID:26011633

  20. The chronic effects of Fusarium moniliforme culture material, containing known levels of fumonisin B1, in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, A J; Ledoux, D R; Turk, J R; Rottinghaus, G E

    1996-01-01

    Fourteen 1-day-old male turkeys were randomly assigned to two adjacent floor pens and fed balanced rations containing 0 and 75 mg fumonisin B1 (FB1)/kg for 18 weeks. Inclusion of FB1 in the ration caused decreased body weight gain on weeks 4, 10, and 12 during the trial. Turkeys fed 75 mg FB1/kg had significantly heavier livers after treatment for 18 weeks. Chronic FB1 exposure resulted in an increased total white blood cell count, absolute heterophil count, absolute lymphocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. No mortality was noted in turkeys in either treatment group. Turkeys are relatively resistant to chronic FB1 exposure. PMID:8713041

  1. Studies on various aspects of the indirect haemagglutination test for malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Meuwissen, J. H. E. T.; Leeuwenberg, Anna D. E. M.; Molenkamp, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    This paper gives the results of studies on various technical aspects of the indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test for malaria, on the similarity of the results obtained in the IHA test and in the indirect fluorescent antibody test, on the use of various plasmodial extracts as sensitizing antigens in the IHA test, and on the influence of heterophile antibodies on the titres obtained in the IHA test. Some longitudinal observations on induced malaria infections of man and monkey showed that the infection can induce the production of heterophile antibodies: their appearance, however, remains unpredictable. In some infections agglutinins against host erythrocyte components are also produced. Absorption of sera with tanned sheep cells sensitized with noninfected host red blood cell antigens is advocated as a control on the IHA titre for specific agglutinins. PMID:4561453

  2. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of diagnostic tests for infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    English, E C; Geyman, J P

    1978-05-01

    The problem of diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patients presenting with pharyngitis is a common occurrence in family practice. The study of these patients includes laboratory tests to differentiate between infectious mononucleosis and other bacterial and viral infections. This study reviews the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis in two large ambulatory populations, where different approaches were used. In one approach, all laboratory tests were concurrent, while in the other, serology was performed only after satisfaction of hematologic criteria for infectious mononucleosis. In the latter case, sequential use of laboratory tests resulted in a significant improvement in cost effectiveness. In both approaches, no appreciable gain was obtained from heterophil titers. Since the heterophil titer in confirmed cases of infectious mononucleosis does not correlate with prognosis or severity of the disease, this procedure can be replaced by the Monospot/"monoscreen" test alone. PMID:96205

  3. Acute Kidney Injury Complicated Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Ozgurhan, Gamze; Ozcetin, Mustafa; Vehapoglu, Aysel; Karakaya, Zeynep; Aygun, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is an acute lymphoproliferative disorder caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and seen most commonly in children and young adults. Clinical presentation of the disease is characterized by fever, tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly, whereas serological findings of this benign disorder include positive heterophilic antibody formation (transient increase in heterophilic antibodies) and prominence of hematological lymphocytosis of more than 10% of atypical lymphocytes. An EBV infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood, but acute kidney injury can be a rare complication during its course. Most cases recover from the disease completely. Early recognition of EBV infection and estimation of its complication are important for its prognosis. In light of previous literature, we discuss the case evaluated as an EBV infection complicated by acute kidney injury in early childhood and results of tubulointerstitial nephritis shown on a renal biopsy that was later diagnosed as an EBV infection by serological examination. PMID:26064752

  4. Clinical inquiries. What test is the best for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis?

    PubMed

    Bell, Amy Trelease; Fortune, Barbara; Sheeler, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Tests for antibodies to Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen or Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen are the most sensitive, are highly specific, and are also the most expensive for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, based on validating cohort study). Heterophile antibody tests have similar specificity and are cheaper, but are less sensitive in children or in adults during the early days of the illness (SOR: C, based on validating cohort study). The polymerase chain reaction assay for Epstein-Barr virus DNA is more sensitive than the heterophile antibody test in children, is highly specific, but is also expensive (SOR: C, based on validating cohort study). The percentages of atypical lymphocytes and total lymphocytes on a complete blood count provide another specific and moderately sensitive, yet inexpensive, test (SOR: C, based on validating cohort study). PMID:16948964

  5. Fulminant Cytomegalovirus Myocarditis in an Immunocompetent Host: Resolution with Oral Valganciclovir

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anupam; Padala, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of fulminant myocarditis after a primary cytomegalovirus infection, in a previously healthy 72-year-old woman. The infection underwent clinical and immunologic resolution consequent to treatment with oral valganciclovir. In an immunocompetent host, the primary cytomegalovirus infection is usually asymptomatic or manifests itself as a heterophile-negative mononucleosis-like syndrome. Cytomegalovirus myocarditis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. After presenting our case, we review the literature on cytomegalovirus myocarditis in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:25425988

  6. Hormone assays: some aspects that endocrinologists should know.

    PubMed

    Alfayate, Roco; Mauri, Montserrat

    2008-02-01

    Since the pioneering works of Yalow and Berson that introduced radioimmunoassays (RIA), hormone assays have been developed gradually, with improvements in all aspects of their design, from immunoradiometric assays to automatization. Examples of this evolution are the thyrotropin (TSH) and parathyroid (PTH) assays. Despite the strong accuracy and reliability of currently used hormone assays, some limitations should be reviewed, such as interference by autoantibodies, heterophile antibodies or macroprolactin and the hook effect. PMID:22964101

  7. Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2011-01-01

    Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

  8. Fluctuation of Spuriously Elevated Troponin I: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghali, Sam; Lewis, Keith; Kazan, Viviane; Altorok, Neezam; Taji, Jamil; Taleb, Mohammad; Lanka, Kiranmayee; Assaly, Ragheb

    2012-01-01

    Serum troponin is a useful laboratory study for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. However, elevations can also be seen in a variety of other diseases processes. Falsely positive troponin values caused by interference with current troponin assays have been reported. We report a unique case that demonstrates the fluctuation of falsely elevated troponin correlating with hemoglobin, serving as a marker of heterophile antibody levels. A 74-year-old gentleman presented to our Emergency Department with a several-day history of increasing shortness of breath associated with a new-onset chest pain and a troponin I level of 77.28?ng/mL. Throughout his stay, fluctuations in measured troponin levels correlated strongly with fluctuations in hemoglobin levels. Several investigations confirmed false elevated troponin levels secondary to heterophile antibody interference. We conclude that hemoglobin trending in our patient represented a surrogate measure of his heterophile antibody titers with time and that fluctuations in these levels correlated with respective fluctuations in the falsely elevated troponin levels. PMID:24804120

  9. H/L ratio as a measurement of stress in laying hens - methodology and reliability.

    PubMed

    Lentfer, T L; Pendl, H; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Fröhlich, E K F; Von Borell, E

    2015-04-01

    Measuring the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes (H/L) in response to different stressors is a standard tool for assessing long-term stress in laying hens but detailed information on the reliability of measurements, measurement techniques and methods, and absolute cell counts is often lacking. Laying hens offered different sites of the nest boxes at different ages were compared in a two-treatment crossover experiment to provide detailed information on the procedure for measuring and the difficulties in the interpretation of H/L ratios in commercial conditions. H/L ratios were pen-specific and depended on the age and aviary system. There was no effect for the position of the nest. Heterophiles and lymphocytes were not correlated within individuals. Absolute cell counts differed in the number of heterophiles and lymphocytes and H/L ratios, whereas absolute leucocyte counts between individuals were similar. The reliability of the method using relative cell counts was good, yielding a correlation coefficient between double counts of r > 0.9. It was concluded that population-based reference values may not be sensitive enough to detect individual stress reactions and that the H/L ratio as an indicator of stress under commercial conditions may not be useful because of confounding factors and that other, non-invasive, measurements should be adopted. PMID:25622692

  10. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O

    2013-01-01

    The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409

  11. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  12. Nectin family of cell-adhesion molecules: structural and molecular aspects of function and specificity.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Dibyendu; Almo, Steven C

    2015-02-01

    Cell-cell adhesive processes are central to the physiology of multicellular organisms. A number of cell surface molecules contribute to cell-cell adhesion, and the dysfunction of adhesive processes underlies numerous developmental defects and inherited diseases. The nectins, a family of four immunoglobulin superfamily members (nectin-1 to -4), interact through their extracellular domains to support cell-cell adhesion. While both homophilic and heterophilic interactions among the nectins are implicated in cell-cell adhesion, cell-based and biochemical studies suggest heterophilic interactions are stronger than homophilic interactions and control a range of physiological processes. In addition to interactions within the nectin family, heterophilic associations with nectin-like molecules, immune receptors, and viral glycoproteins support a wide range of biological functions, including immune modulation, cancer progression, host-pathogen interactions and immune evasion. We review current structural and molecular knowledge of nectin recognition processes, with a focus on the biochemical and biophysical determinants of affinity and selectivity that drive distinct nectin associations. These proteins and interactions are discussed as potential targets for immunotherapy. PMID:25326769

  13. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrab?kov, Petra; Vosl?ov, Eva; Bed?ov, Iveta; Pit?kov, Vladimra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimr

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  14. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract on haematological parameters, immune function and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Matur, E; Ergul, E; Akyazi, I; Eraslan, E; Inal, G; Bilgic, S; Demircan, H

    2011-10-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SC) on haematological parameters, immune function, and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed a diet contaminated with low level aflatoxin (AF). Forty-eight Ross 308 breeder hens were fed on diets containing AF (0 or 100?g/kg) and SC (0 or 1?g/kg) in a 2??2 factorial arrangement. Red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), and platelet counts, differential leucocyte counts, blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD5+ T cell ratios, phagocytic activity and oxidative burst of heterophils, plasma and liver catalase activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and ascorbic acid concentrations were measured. 3. Plasma and liver MDA concentrations increased (P?heterophils increased (P?heterophil, lymphocyte, CD5+ cell percentages, and plasma catalase activity. Blood heterophil percentage decreased but lymphocyte percentage increased in hens fed on the AF contaminated diet without SC supplementation. SC supplementation counteracted the negative effect of AF on heterophils and lymphocytes. The CD5+ cell percentage decreased in unsupplemented hens fed the AF contaminated diet and this negative effect was minimised in SC supplemented hens. Plasma catalase activity increased in SC supplemented hens fed the uncontaminated diet whereas the effect of SC decreased in hens fed the AF contaminated diet. 4. The SC reduced some of the some adverse effects of AF, and improved functions of the non-specific immune system. Therefore, the SC extract which has been used for improving productive performance in birds and mammals may also be useful for modulating some of the effects of a low level, chronic dosage of AF. PMID:22029780

  15. Differential ex vivo responses of primary leukocytes from turkey pedigree lines to Salmonella Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    Potter, Tiffany D; Glover, Paige K; Evans, Nicholas P; Dalloul, Rami A

    2016-02-01

    Escalating product recalls as a consequence of Salmonella-contaminated poultry products have resulted in detrimental economic impacts in the poultry industry. One potential long-term alternative method to Salmonella prevention is genetic selection to improve innate resistance. This study evaluated the ex vivo effects of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) on phagocytic and bactericidal leukocyte function in turkeys from six pedigree lines (A-F). Day-of-hatch poults (n = 48) were placed and raised in cages (2 birds/gender/genetic line/cage) to 35 d when heterophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were extracted from males and females of each line. Cells were used in phagocytic and bactericidal assays to determine the ex vivo effects of SH on turkey leukocyte activity. Data were analyzed using the Fit Model platform in JMP Pro 10.0 (SAS Institute Inc.) with differences considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and data reported as LS Means with SEM. Although genetic line had no significant effect on phagocytosis of SH by heterophils and PBMCs, cumulatively, female cells exhibited higher phagocytosis potential than those from males. The main effect of gender was significant on bactericidal activity of PBMCs when incubated at a 1:10 and 1:100 PBMC to SH ratio. Genetic line also had a significant effect on bactericidal activity of PBMCs with cells from line F exhibiting the best activity. These results suggest that gender had a marked cumulative effect on phagocytosis of SH by heterophils and PBMCs while both genetic line and gender had a prominent effect on bacterial killing of SH by turkey PBMCs. Once able to determine genetic markers associated with these immune responses to Salmonella, genetic selection for increased resistance may become feasible in turkeys. PMID:26706359

  16. Infectious mononucleosis: immunoglobulin synthesis by cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Glade, Philip R.; Chessin, Lawrence N.

    1968-01-01

    Immunoglobulin synthesis by 16 long-term suspension cultures of mononuclear cells derived from peripheral blood of nine patients with heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM) has been demonstrated by radioimmunoelectrophoretic techniques. All cell lines synthesized molecules with IgG (?) heavy chain specificity. 14 cell lines produced molecules with IgM (?) heavy chain specificity and 11 cell lines produced molecules with IgA (?) heavy chain specificity. No detectable synthesis of molecules with IgD (?) heavy chain specificity was observed by these cell lines derived from peripheral blood of patients with IM. 13 cell lines produced molecules with type K (?) light chain specificity and 6 cell lines produced molecules with type L (?) light chain specificity. Of interest, 9 of 16 lines produced IgG (?), IgA (?), and IgM (?) heavy chain molecules and 5 of these cell lines produced molecules with type K (?) and type L (?) light chain specificity as well. Further characterization by combined polyacrylamide gel filtration, immunodiffusion, and radioautography indicated the presence of newly synthesized immunoglobulin molecules with both heavy and light polypeptide chains in close association as well as free light polypeptide chain synthesis. Investigation of the localization of immunoglobulin in single cells by immunofluorescent techniques revealed that 5-22% of cells in these lines were strongly reactive with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated rabbit antisera directed against the antigenic determinants of human IgG and cross-reactive with the determinants common to IgA and IgM. No heterophile antibody, heteroagglutinin, or hemolytic antibody could be demonstrated in these cell lines derived from peripheral blood of patients with heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis. Images PMID:4175543

  17. Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Papesch, M; Watkins, R

    2001-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the aetiological agent of classical infectious mononucleosis. This review article describes the antigenicity of the virus, the specific antibody response and the stimulated polyclonal heterophile antibody production in the host. The diagnostic tests for EBV infection are discussed, with particular attention drawn to the pitfalls of the Monospot test. Complications are listed and management strategies are outlined. The uses and complications of steroids are discussed. The importance of avoidance of contact sport and the association with splenic rupture is described. PMID:11298158

  18. Epstein-Barr virus infection and neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, P M; Veltri, R W

    1981-01-01

    Once acquired, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a latent virus, remains in the body for what appears to be the lifetime of the human host. Circumstantial data suggest EBV is involved in clinical disease including malignancies far more often than previously recognized. A serologic test for early antigen (EA) is more specific for diagnosing active EBV disease than the monospot or heterophile test. A case study of active Epstein-Barr infection is reported showing persistently elevated early antigen titers prior to and following malignant transformation. PMID:6270614

  19. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Para; Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  20. The Identification of Loci for Immune Traits in Chickens Using a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Peng; Liu, Ranran; Zheng, Maiqing; Sun, Yan; Wu, Dan; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie; Zhao, Guiping

    2015-01-01

    The genetic improvement of disease resistance in poultry continues to be a challenge. To identify candidate genes and loci responsible for these traits, genome-wide association studies using the chicken 60k high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array for six immune traits, total serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level, numbers of, and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes, and antibody responses against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC), were performed. RT-qPCR was used to quantify the relative expression of the identified candidate genes. Nine significantly associated SNPs (P < 2.81E-06) and 30 SNPs reaching the suggestively significant level (P < 5.62E-05) were identified. Five of the 10 SNPs that were suggestively associated with the antibody response to SRBC were located within or close to previously reported QTL regions. Fifteen SNPs reached a suggestive significance level for AIV antibody titer and seven were found on the sex chromosome Z. Seven suggestive markers involving five different SNPs were identified for the numbers of heterophils and lymphocytes, and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. Nine significant SNPs, all on chromosome 16, were significantly associated with serum total IgY concentration, and the five most significant were located within a narrow region spanning 6.4kb to 253.4kb (P = 1.20E-14 to 5.33E-08). After testing expression of five candidate genes (IL4I1, CD1b, GNB2L1, TRIM27 and ZNF692) located in this region, changes in IL4I1, CD1b transcripts were consistent with the concentrations of IgY, while abundances of TRIM27 and ZNF692 showed reciprocal changes to those of IgY concentrations. This study has revealed 39 SNPs associated with six immune traits (total serum IgY level, numbers of, and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes, and antibody responses against AIV and SRBC) in Beijing-You chickens. The narrow region spanning 247kb on chromosome 16 is an important QTL for serum total IgY concentration. Five candidate genes related to IgY level validated here are novel and may play critical roles in the modulation of immune responses. Potentially useful candidate SNPs for marker-assisted selection for disease resistance are identified. It is highly likely that these candidate genes play roles in various aspects of the immune response in chickens. PMID:25822738

  1. Activity concentration and mass concentration (monoclonal antibody immunoenzymometric method) compared for creatine kinase MB isoenzyme in serum.

    PubMed

    Murthy, V V; Karmen, A

    1986-10-01

    Results of the "Tandem-E CKMB" immunoenzymometric procedure (y) for creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.9.3.2) were compared with electrophoresis (x) for 160 serum samples from patients suspected of having sustained myocardial infarctions. The results correlated well: y, microgram/L (Tandem assay) = 1.3x-6.3 U/L(electrophoresis) (r = 0.95). CK-MB mass measurement was more stable than enzyme activity after storage and appeared to be more sensitive. Sera from 86 other people, which had no detectable CK-MB upon electrophoresis, gave a mean CK-MB value of 1.1 microgram/L (SD 1.3, range 0-8) with the Tandem assay. To determine whether these low values represented actual isoenzyme, we tested for possible interference by heterophile antibodies in the patients' sera by preincubating the samples with mouse serum before the Tandem assay. The mouse serum did not interfere with the assay of sera that had substantial quantities of CK-MB by electrophoresis. However, in five of six samples that were negative by electrophoresis, the CK-MB values were substantially smaller, indicating that the values measured were false-positives caused by the presence of heterophile antibodies directed against mouse proteins, an interference that could be eliminated by pretreatment with mouse serum. PMID:3530534

  2. Friendship and natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    More than any other species, humans form social ties to individuals who are neither kin nor mates, and these ties tend to be with similar people. Here, we show that this similarity extends to genotypes. Across the whole genome, friends genotypes at the single nucleotide polymorphism level tend to be positively correlated (homophilic). In fact, the increase in similarity relative to strangers is at the level of fourth cousins. However, certain genotypes are also negatively correlated (heterophilic) in friends. And the degree of correlation in genotypes can be used to create a friendship score that predicts the existence of friendship ties in a hold-out sample. A focused gene-set analysis indicates that some of the overall correlation in genotypes can be explained by specific systems; for example, an olfactory gene set is homophilic and an immune system gene set is heterophilic, suggesting that these systems may play a role in the formation or maintenance of friendship ties. Friends may be a kind of functional kin. Finally, homophilic genotypes exhibit significantly higher measures of positive selection, suggesting that, on average, they may yield a synergistic fitness advantage that has been helping to drive recent human evolution. PMID:25024208

  3. Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Samantha K.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Balfour, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by sore throat, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever most often seen in adolescents and young adults and lasting several weeks. It can be caused by a number of pathogens, but this chapter only discusses infectious mononucleosis due to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV is a ?-herpesvirus that infects at least 90% of the population worldwide. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among teenagers and young adults. How preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. A typical clinical picture with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, there can also be long-term consequences as the result of acquisition of the virus. Several EBV related illnesses occur including certain cancers and autoimmune diseases, as well as complications of primary immunodeficiency in persons with the certain genetic mutations. A major obstacle to understanding these sequelae has been the lack of an efficient animal model for EBV infection, although progress in primate and mouse models has recently been made. Key future challenges are to develop protective vaccines and effective treatment regimens. PMID:26424648

  4. West Nile Virus in Farmed Alligators

    PubMed Central

    Mauel, Michael J.; Baldwin, Charles; Burtle, Gary; Ingram, Dallas; Hines, Murray E.; Frazier, Kendal S.

    2003-01-01

    Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the horsemeat collected during the 2002 outbreak but negative in the horsemeat collected after the outbreak. PMID:12890319

  5. NTB-A Receptor Crystal Structure: Insights into Homophilic Interactions in the Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Receptor Family

    SciTech Connect

    Cao,E.; Ramagopal, U.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Yan, Q.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

    2006-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that regulate both innate and adaptive immunity. The ectodomains of most SLAM family members are composed of an N-terminal IgV domain and a C-terminal IgC2 domain. NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A) is a homophilic receptor that stimulates cytotoxicity in natural killer (NK) cells, regulates bactericidal activities in neutrophils, and potentiates T helper 2 (Th2) responses. The 3.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the complete NTB-A ectodomain revealed a rod-like monomer that self-associates to form a highly kinked dimer spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}100 {angstrom}. The NTB-A homophilic and CD2-CD58 heterophilic dimers show overall structural similarities but differ in detailed organization and physicochemical properties of their respective interfaces. The NTB-A structure suggests a mechanism responsible for binding specificity within the SLAM family and imposes physical constraints relevant to the colocalization of SLAM-family proteins with other signaling molecules in the immunological synapse.

  6. The ecology of host immune responses to chronic avian haemosporidian infection.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Vincenzo A; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2014-11-01

    Host responses to parasitism in the wild are often studied in the context of single host-parasite systems, which provide little insight into the ecological dynamics of host-parasite interactions within a community. Here we characterized immune system responses to mostly low-intensity, chronic infection by haemosporidian parasites in a sample of 424 individuals of 22 avian host species from the same local assemblage in the Missouri Ozarks. Two types of white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) were elevated in infected individuals across species, as was the acute-phase protein haptoglobin, which is associated with inflammatory immune responses. Linear discriminant analysis indicated that individuals infected by haemosporidians occupied a subset of the overall white blood cell multivariate space that was also occupied by uninfected individuals, suggesting that these latter individuals might have harbored other pathogens or that parasites more readily infect individuals with a specific white blood cell profile. DNA sequence-defined lineages of haemosporidian parasites were sparsely distributed across the assemblage of hosts. In one well-sampled host species, the red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus), heterophils were significantly elevated in individuals infected with one but not another of two common parasite lineages. Another well-sampled host, the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), exhibited no differences in immune response to different haemosporidian lineages. Our results indicate that while immune responses to infection may be generalized across host species, parasite-specific immune responses may also occur. PMID:25179282

  7. Influence of stocking density on some behavioural, physiological and productivity traits of broilers.

    PubMed

    Martrenchar, A; Morisse, J P; Huonnic, D; Cotte, J P

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of stocking density on broiler welfare, 17,616 Ross chickens were assigned to three different treatments: T1, T2 and T3 with a final stocking density of 27, 35 and 43 kg/m2, respectively (corresponding to an initial density of 12, 16 and 20 birds/m2). Animal welfare was assessed by measuring behavioural, physiological and productivity traits. Behavioural observations included the disturbance frequency of resting birds by other birds, the duration of the lying bouts and the standing/lying ratio. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratios were assessed from blood collected before departure to the slaughterhouse. Main productivity traits were the final live weight and carcass degradation due to foot and pad dermatitis and breast blisters. Most of the observed parameters were adversely affected by the highest density (P < 0.05). Between T1 and T2, some traits tended to demonstrate that a better degree of bird welfare existed in T1 (higher standing/lying postures ratio and final live weight, lower frequency of pododermatitis and hock lesions; P < 0.05) whereas other traits showed no differences (frequency of disturbances by other birds during resting, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio). In conclusion, a stocking density of 43 kg/m2 seemed to induce poor bird welfare whereas it was not clearly demonstrated that 27 kg/m2 was better than 35 kg/m2. PMID:9342823

  8. West Nile virus in farmed alligators.

    PubMed

    Miller, Debra L; Mauel, Michael J; Baldwin, Charles; Burtle, Gary; Ingram, Dallas; Hines, Murray E; Frazier, Kendal S

    2003-07-01

    Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the horsemeat collected during the 2002 outbreak but negative in the horsemeat collected after the outbreak. PMID:12890319

  9. DeltaC and DeltaD interact as Notch ligands in the zebrafish segmentation clock.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gavin J; Giudicelli, Franois; Soza-Ried, Cristian; Hanisch, Anja; Ariza-McNaughton, Linda; Lewis, Julian

    2011-07-01

    We describe the production and characterisation of two monoclonal antibodies, zdc2 and zdd2, directed against the zebrafish Notch ligands DeltaC and DeltaD, respectively. We use our antibodies to show that these Delta proteins can bind to one another homo- and heterophilically, and to study the localisation of DeltaC and DeltaD in the zebrafish nervous system and presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Our findings in the nervous system largely confirm expectations from previous studies, but in the PSM we see an unexpected pattern in which the localisation of DeltaD varies according to the level of expression of DeltaC: in the anterior PSM, where DeltaC is plentiful, the two proteins are colocalised in intracellular puncta, but in the posterior PSM, where DeltaC is at a lower level, DeltaD is seen mainly on the cell surface. Forced overexpression of DeltaC reduces the amount of DeltaD on the cell surface in the posterior PSM; conversely, loss-of-function mutation of DeltaC increases the amount of DeltaD on the cell surface in the anterior PSM. These findings suggest an explanation for a long-standing puzzle regarding the functions of the two Delta proteins in the somite segmentation clock--an explanation that is based on the proposition that they associate heterophilically to activate Notch. PMID:21653612

  10. HEMATOLOGIC AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF KELP GULLS (LARUS DOMINICANUS) CAPTURED IN THE CITY OF TALCAHUANO, CHILE.

    PubMed

    Doussang, Daniela; Merino, Victoria; Moreno, Lucila; Islas, Armando; Barrientos, Carlos; Mathieu, Christian; Cerda, Fabiola; Lpez, Juana; Ortega, Ren; Gonzlez-Acua, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    In order to provide tools for future health-based monitoring programs, we developed reference intervals for hematology and plasma biochemistry and partitioned data for sex and season (winter and autumn). Ninety-one physically healthy kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) were sampled in the city of Talcahuano, Chile, during winter (July-September) of 2007, autumn (April-June) and winter of 2008, and autumn of 2009. After blood sampling, the kelp gulls were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin, total plasma protein (TPP), and complete blood count were performed. Alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, calcium, phosphorus, and uric acid were analyzed. No significant differences were found between sexes (P>0.05). When a comparison was made between the two seasons, the values of PCV, TPP, white blood cell, heterophils, eosinophils, and monocytes were significantly higher in winter than in autumn (P<0.05) while and urea and uric acid concentrations were higher in autumn. Heterophils were the predominant circulating leukocyte for all birds. There was no significant difference in body condition between autumn and winter nor between sexes. Body condition showed a significant relationship with TPP and basophil concentration and ALP activity. PMID:26352947

  11. Survival and physiologic response of Common Amakihi and Japanese White-eyes during simulated translocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S.; Banko, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding in an aviary for 48 hr with overnight thermal support followed by transport for 4 hr prior to release. Trial 3 and 1 were identical except that overnight thermal support was provided during trial 3. We monitored survival, food consumption, weight change, and fecal production during captivity as well as changes in hematocrit, estimated total solids, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma uric acid, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) at capture and release. Survival was significantly lower for Amakihi during trial I (no thermal support). Birds that died lost significantly more weight than those that survived. Regardless of trial, birds responded to translocation by a combination of weight loss, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, uric acid, and CPK levels. The first 24 hr of captivity posed the greatest risk to birds regardless of whether transport or holding occurred first. Food consumption, fecal production, and weight all decreased at night, and overnight thermal support during holding was critical if ambient temperatures dipped to freezing. We recommend that if small passerines are to be held for > 12 hr, they be monitored individually for weight loss, food consumption, and fecal production.

  12. Survival and physiologic response of common Amakihi and Japanese white-eyes during simulated translocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S.; Banko, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding in an aviary for 48 hr with overnight thermal support followed by transport for 4 hr prior to release. Trial 3 and 1 were identical except that overnight thermal support was provided during trial 3. We monitored survival, food consumption, weight change, and fecal production during captivity as well as changes in hematocrit, estimated total solids, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma uric acid, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) at capture and release. Survival was significantly lower for Amakihi during trial 1 (no thermal support). Birds that died lost significantly more weight than those that survived. Regardless of trial, birds responded to translocation by a combination of weight loss, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, uric acid, and CPK levels. The first 24 hr of captivity posed the greatest risk to birds regardless of whether transport or holding occurred first. Food consumption, fecal production, and weight all decreased at night, and overnight thermal support during holding was critical if ambient temperatures dipped to freezing. We recommend that if small passerines are to be held for > 12 hr, they be monitored individually for weight loss, food consumption, and fecal production.

  13. Common questions about infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Womack, Jason; Jimenez, Marissa

    2015-03-15

    Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus that infects 95% of the world population at some point in life. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are often asymptomatic, some patients present with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The syndrome most commonly occurs between 15 and 24 years of age. It should be suspected in patients presenting with sore throat, fever, tonsillar enlargement, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, pharyngeal inflammation, and palatal petechiae. A heterophile antibody test is the best initial test for diagnosis of EBV infection, with 71% to 90% accuracy for diagnosing IM. However, the test has a 25% false-negative rate in the first week of illness. IM is unlikely if the lymphocyte count is less than 4,000 mm3. The presence of EBV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies confirms infection, but the test is more costly and results take longer than the heterophile antibody test. Symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. Glucocorticoids and antivirals do not reduce the length or severity of illness. Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of IM. Because physical activity within the first three weeks of illness may increase the risk of splenic rupture, athletic participation is not recommended during this time. Children are at the highest risk of airway obstruction, which is the most common cause of hospitalization from IM. Patients with immunosuppression are more likely to have fulminant EBV infection. PMID:25822555

  14. Flagellin from Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Reveals a Fundamental Role in Chicken Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhiming; Cong, Qiuxia; Geng, Shizhong; Fang, Qiang; Kang, Xilong; You, Meng

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines have been extensively studied, with a focus on eliciting specific immune responses against foreign antigens. However, very little is known about the innate immune responses, particularly the role of flagellin, in the induction of innate immunity triggered by recombinant attenuated Salmonella in chickens. In the present report, we describe two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains, wild-type (WT) or flagellin-deficient (flhD) Salmonella, both expressing the fusion protein (F) gene of Newcastle disease virus. We examined the bacterial load and spatiotemporal kinetics of expression of inflammatory cytokine, chemokine, and Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) genes in the cecum, spleen, liver, and heterophils following oral immunization of chickens with the two Salmonella strains. The flhD mutant exhibited an enhanced ability to establish systemic infection compared to the WT. In contrast, the WT strain induced higher levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), CXCLi2, and TLR5 mRNAs in cecum, the spleen, and the heterophils than the flhD mutant at different times postinfection. Collectively, the present data reveal a fundamental role of flagellin in the innate immune responses induced by recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines in chickens that should be considered for the rational design of novel vaccines for poultry. PMID:22237893

  15. Changes in heat shock protein 70 expression and blood characteristics in transported broiler chickens as affected by housing and early age feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqil, A; Zulkifli, I

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of 2 types of housing systems and early age feed restriction on heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression and blood parameters in broiler chickens subjected to road transportation. On d 1, female chicks were housed either in windowless environmentally controlled chambers (temperature was set at 32 degrees C on d 1 and gradually reduced to 23 degrees C by d 21; CH) or in conventional open-sided houses (OH) with cyclic temperatures (minimum, 24 degrees C; maximum, 34 degrees C). Equal number of chicks from each housing system were subjected to either ad libitum feeding or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). On d 42, all of the birds were crated and transported for 6 h. Birds raised in OH had smaller increases in heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and plasma corticosterone concentrations than those of CH. Subjecting birds to FR dampened heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and corticosterone reactions to transportation. After 4 h of transportation, the OH birds had greater hsp 70 expression than their CH counterparts. Within the CH, the FR chicks showed higher hsp 70 density than those of the ad libitum-fed group. Except for glucose, housing system had a negligible effect on serum levels of cholesterol, potassium, and chloride. Collectively, the results suggest that the improved tolerance to transport stress in OH and FR chicks could be associated with better hsp 70 expression. PMID:19531704

  16. Epizootic podoknemidokoptiasis in American robins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pence, Danny B.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Brugger, Kristin E.; Fischer, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Epizootics of scaly leg disease caused by infection with the submacroscopic miteKnemidokoptes jamaicensis(Acari: Knemidokoptidae) in migratory American robins (Turdus migratorius) from a residential area of Tulsa (Oklahoma, USA) are documented during the winters (December through February) of 199394 and 199495. Estimates of 60 to >80% of the birds in several different flights arriving in the area had lesions consistent with knemidokoptic mange. Epizootic occurrence ofK. jamaicensisalso is confirmed incidentally in American robins from Georgia (USA) in 1995 and 1998 and in Florida (USA) in 1991. These are the first confirmed epizootics of scaly leg attributed to infections with mites specifically identified asK. jamaicensisin North America. Severity of observed lesions in American robins ranged from scaly hyperkeratosis of the feet and legs to extensive proliferative lesions with loss of digits or the entire foot in some birds. Histologically, there was severe diffuse hyperkeratosis of the epidermis which contained numerous mites and multifocal aggregates of degranulating to degenerating eosinophilic heterophils; there was mild to severe superficial dermatitis with aggregates of eosinophilic heterophils and some mononuclear cells. Based on limited data from affected captive birds in Florida, we questioned the efficacy of ivermectin as an effective acaricide for knemidokoptiasis and propose that conditions associated with captivity may exacerbate transmission of this mite among caged birds. While knemidokoptic mange apparently can result in substantial host morbidity and possibly mortality, the ultimate impact of these epizootics on American robin populations presently is unknown.

  17. Friendship and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-07-22

    More than any other species, humans form social ties to individuals who are neither kin nor mates, and these ties tend to be with similar people. Here, we show that this similarity extends to genotypes. Across the whole genome, friends' genotypes at the single nucleotide polymorphism level tend to be positively correlated (homophilic). In fact, the increase in similarity relative to strangers is at the level of fourth cousins. However, certain genotypes are also negatively correlated (heterophilic) in friends. And the degree of correlation in genotypes can be used to create a "friendship score" that predicts the existence of friendship ties in a hold-out sample. A focused gene-set analysis indicates that some of the overall correlation in genotypes can be explained by specific systems; for example, an olfactory gene set is homophilic and an immune system gene set is heterophilic, suggesting that these systems may play a role in the formation or maintenance of friendship ties. Friends may be a kind of "functional kin." Finally, homophilic genotypes exhibit significantly higher measures of positive selection, suggesting that, on average, they may yield a synergistic fitness advantage that has been helping to drive recent human evolution. PMID:25024208

  18. Intracellular lipid dysregulation interferes with leukocyte function in the ovaries of meat-type hens under unrestricted feed intake.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Su, Chia-Ming; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Chen, Jiang-Young; Wu, Shu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Hui; Walzem, Rosemary L; Huang, San-Yuan; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2016-04-01

    Meat-type Red-feather country hens fed ad libitum (AD-hens) exhibit obesity-associated morbidities and a number of ovarian irregularities. Leukocyte participations in ovarian activities are unstudied in AD-hens. In contrast to feed-restricted hens (R-hens), ovulatory process of the F1 follicle appeared delayed in AD-hens in association with reduced F1 follicle progesterone content, gelatinase A (MMP-2) and collagenase-3 (MMP-13) activities coincident with elevated IL-1β and no production (P<0.05), and increased leukocyte infiltration of inflamed necrotic follicle walls. Extracts of AD-hen F1 follicle walls induced greater leukocyte migration than extracts from F1 follicle wall extracts of R-hens (P<0.05). Co-cultures of granulosa cells with increasing numbers of leukocytes from either AD-hens or R-hens exhibited dose dependent reductions in progesterone production and increases in cell death. AD-hen leukocytes were less proapoptotic than their R counterparts (P<0.05). Granulosa MMP-13 and MMP-2 activities were also suppressed in the co-cultures with heterophils or monocytes in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). AD heterophils and R monocytes had a greater inhibitory effect on MMP activities in the co-cultures than their respective counterparts (P<0.05). Both basal and LPS-induced IL-1β secretion and MMP-22 or MMP-2 activities in freshly isolated AD-hen leukocytes were reduced (P<0.05). Exposure of AD or R leukocytes to 0.5mM palmitate impaired IL-1β secretion and MMP-22 or MMP-2 activity. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis with FB1 and ROS production with n-MPG scavenging rescued MMP activity and IL-1β production in palmitate treated heterophils, but exacerbated monocyte suppression. These latter findings suggest that intracellular lipid dysregulation in leukocytes contributes to ovarian dysfunction in AD-hens. PMID:26874430

  19. Ocular lesions associated with attachment of the copepod Ommatokoita elongata (Lernaeopodidae: Siphonostomatoida) to corneas of Pacific sleeper sharks Somniosus pacificus captured off Alaska in Prince William Sound.

    PubMed

    Benz, George W; Borucinska, Joanna D; Lowry, Lloyd F; Whiteley, Herbert E

    2002-06-01

    Twenty eyes from 10 Pacific sleeper sharks Somniosus pacificus, infected with the copepod Ommatokoita elongata, were collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and the eyes of an additional 18 S. pacificus captured in the same area were inspected for copepods. Prevalence of infection by adult female O. elongata was 97% (n = 28); mean intensity of infection was 1.89 (+/-1SD = 0.32) adult female copepods per infected shark and 1.0 (+/- 1SD = 0.0) adult female copepods per infected eye. Five of the 20 collected eyes were infected by O. elongata chalimi, and 9 of 20 eyes had 1 to several remnants of bullae embedded in the cornea. Bullae were each associated with a corneal opacity, and anchoring plugs of chalimi were associated with pinpoint lesions in the cornea or conjunctiva. All eyes exhibited marked edema and erosion of the bulbar conjunctiva, and this torus-shaped lesion corresponded to each O. elongata adult female's presumed feeding and abrasion radius. Histological examinations revealed lesions in the anterior segment of eyes to be generally similar, but graded, in severity, and in all eyes they involved the conjunctiva, cornea, filtration angle, and iris. Epithelial lesions were characterized by corneal ulceration, dysplasia, hyperplasia, and heterophilic keratitis, and by ulcerative conjunctivitis accompanied by epithelial hyperplasia with rete peg formation. Disorganization of fibers, necrosis, mineralization, minimal heterophilic influx, and perilimbic neovascularization were associated with bullae in the corneal stroma. Within the limbus there was diffuse histiocytic and lymphocytic inflammation and marked lymphofollicular hyperplasia. Heterophilic and mononuclear anterior uveitis affecting the filtration angle and anterior surface of the iris was also observed in most eyes. One eye had a partial transcorneal prolapse of a ruptured lens, with degenerative changes in the ruptured lens and severe keratitis associated with the anchoring devices of an adult copepod and several chalimi. Fourteen eyes exhibited 1 to several, randomly distributed, small, round to irregular, corneal opacities or pits that were not associated with copepods, and it is likely that these opacities represented lesions associated with adult female or larval anchoring devices from past infections. The avascular cornea represents a niche that is somewhat shielded from host immune reactions, and this, and the fact that the general body surface of sleeper sharks is covered by tall and sharp placoid scales, may partially explain the corneal attachment of O. elongata adult females. It was concluded that O. elongata infections can lead to severe vision impairment in Pacific sleeper sharks but that these infections do not significantly debilitate hosts because they probably do not need to rely on acute vision for their survival. PMID:12099414

  20. Skill complementarity enhances heterophily in collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical evidence shows that individuals usually exhibit significant homophily in social networks. We demonstrate, however, skill complementarity enhances heterophily in the formation of collaboration networks, where people prefer to forge social ties with people who have professions different from their own. We construct a model to quantify the heterophily by assuming that individuals choose collaborators to maximize utility. Using a huge database of online societies, we find evidence of heterophily in collaboration networks. The results of model calibration confirm the presence of heterophily. Both empirical analysis and model calibration show that the heterophilous feature is persistent along the evolution of online societies. Furthermore, the degree of skill complementarity is positively correlated with their production output. Our work sheds new light on the scientific research utility of virtual worlds for studying human behaviors in complex socioeconomic systems.

  1. Therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressants by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McShane, Adam J; Bunch, Dustin R; Wang, Sihe

    2016-02-15

    Immunosuppressant medications allow the transplantation of tens of thousands of allografts per year and consequently have great potential to decrease patient morbidity and mortality. However, some medications have great risk associated with over- and under-dosing leading to adverse effects or allograft rejection, respectively. This necessitates immunosuppressant therapeutic drug monitoring accomplished by immunoassay or liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The former's accuracy can be hindered by metabolites of immunosuppressant medications, antibodies against these medications and heterophilic antibodies. Although LC-MS/MS has superior specificity which allows it to be less susceptible to interference, this methodology lacks standardization and the necessary throughput. Recent developments in LC-MS/MS quantitation, however, include patient-friendly sample submission as dried blood spots, higher sample throughput and commercialization. Here we critically review recent LC-MS/MS publications (January 2010 to July 2015) on the quantitation of cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, sirolimus and everolimus. PMID:26721314

  2. Skill complementarity enhances heterophily in collaboration networks

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical evidence shows that individuals usually exhibit significant homophily in social networks. We demonstrate, however, skill complementarity enhances heterophily in the formation of collaboration networks, where people prefer to forge social ties with people who have professions different from their own. We construct a model to quantify the heterophily by assuming that individuals choose collaborators to maximize utility. Using a huge database of online societies, we find evidence of heterophily in collaboration networks. The results of model calibration confirm the presence of heterophily. Both empirical analysis and model calibration show that the heterophilous feature is persistent along the evolution of online societies. Furthermore, the degree of skill complementarity is positively correlated with their production output. Our work sheds new light on the scientific research utility of virtual worlds for studying human behaviors in complex socioeconomic systems. PMID:26743687

  3. Hematologic, protein electrophoresis, biochemistry, and cholinesterase values of free-living black stork nestlings (Ciconia nigra).

    PubMed

    Lanzarot, M Pilar; Barahona, M Victoria; Andrs, Manuel I San; Fernndez-Garca, Manuel; Rodrguez, Casilda

    2005-04-01

    Hematologic, protein electrophoresis, serum biochemistry, and cholinesterase values were determined in 36 free-living black stork nestlings (Ciconia nigra) between 25 and 53 days of age in order to establish normal reference values for this population. The following values were evaluated: white blood cell counts, red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, prealbumin, albumin, alpha-globulin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, calcium, phosphorus, iron, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total solids, bile acids, and butyrylcholinesterase. Sex-dependent differences were observed in hemoglobin, prealbumin, albumin, gamma-globulin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, and triglycerides. Packed cell volume, butyrylcholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and creatinine increased with age, whereas albumin, mean cell volume, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, and total solids decreased with age. These hematologic and serum biochemistry values can be used as reference ranges in free-living black stork nestlings. PMID:16107673

  4. TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma: benefits of pre-operative octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Healy, E; Cooke, R S; Ellis, P K; Harper, R; Hunter, S J

    2015-01-01

    Summary TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and the optimal investigation and management is uncertain. We describe a case of a 43 year-old woman with a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, highlighting diagnostic testing and our use, pre-operatively of somatostatin analogue therapy, which induced biochemical euthyroidism and a reduction in tumour size. Learning points The differential diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate TSH secretion is non-thyroidal illness, medications, assay interference due to heterophilic antibodies, thyroid hormone resistance and TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.TRH stimulation test and triiodothyronine suppression test assist in differentiating thyroid hormone resistance and TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.Somatostatin analogue therapy can induce biochemical euthyroidism and reduce tumour size. PMID:26113979

  5. Pathogenicity of Haemoproteus danilewskyi, Kruse, 1890, in blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata).

    PubMed

    Garvin, Mary C; Homer, Bruce L; Greiner, Ellis C

    2003-01-01

    Although the impact of blood parasite infections on passerine birds is potentially great, little is known of their pathologic effects. We studied Haemoproteus danilewskyi in experimentally infected captive and naturally infected free-ranging blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) to determine patterns of infection and examine the pathologic effects of the parasite on the host. Physiologic changes, such as elevated numbers of lymphocytes, heterophils, basophils, eosinophils, and monocytes and decreased packed cell volume in the peripheral blood were associated with the erythrocytic phase of experimental infections of captive juvenile jays. Sublethal pathologic changes associated with the pre-erythrocytic phase of infections were observed in the liver, lung, and spleen. Schizonts were observed in the pulmonary capillaries of a 1 yr old jay necropsied 31 days post-inoculation, but not in 20 juvenile jays necropsied 57 days post-inoculation. In free-ranging naturally infected jays plasma protein concentration increased with density of natural infections. PMID:12685080

  6. Antinuclear antibodies in the sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Takimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Masuda, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshizaki, T.; Umeda, R. )

    1989-11-01

    We studied the production of heterophile antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the sera of 50 patients, 20 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 30 with other head and neck cancers (laryngeal cancer and maxillary cancer), before and after radiation therapy. A higher incidence of ANAs was found in the sera of patients with NPC and ANA production in these patients was higher after radiation therapy. We therefore performed in vitro experiments to explore the mechanisms of ANA production in the serum of postirradiated NPC patients. X-ray-irradiated NPC-derived cells (NPC-KT) produced a large amount of Epstein-Barr virus (NPC EBV) compared with non-irradiated NPC-KT cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma EBV-infected lymphocytes produced high levels of ANAs. These data suggest that lymphocytes infected by EBV from NPC cells may produce ANAs in the sera of NPC patients.

  7. FLRT Structure: Balancing Repulsion and Cell Adhesion in Cortical and Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Seiradake, Elena; delToro, Daniel; Nagel, Daniel; Cop, Florian; Hrtl, Ricarda; Ruff, Tobias; Seyit-Bremer, Gnl; Harlos, Karl; Border, EllenClare; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Jones, E.Yvonne; Klein, Rdiger

    2014-01-01

    Summary FLRTs are broadly expressed proteins with the unique property of acting as homophilic cell adhesion molecules and as heterophilic repulsive ligands of Unc5/Netrin receptors. How these functions direct cell behavior and the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. Here we use X-ray crystallography to reveal the distinct structural bases for FLRT-mediated cell adhesion and repulsion in neurons. We apply this knowledge to elucidate FLRT functions during cortical development. We show that FLRTs regulate both the radial migration of pyramidal neurons, as well as their tangential spread. Mechanistically, radial migration is controlled by repulsive FLRT2-Unc5D interactions, while spatial organization in the tangential axis involves adhesive FLRT-FLRT interactions. Further, we show that the fundamental mechanisms of FLRT adhesion and repulsion are conserved between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. Our results reveal FLRTs as powerful guidance factors with structurally encoded repulsive and adhesive surfaces. PMID:25374360

  8. Anisakiasis with proventricular perforation in a greater shearwater (Puffinus gravis) off the coast of Georgia, United States.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Yabsley, Michael; Keel, M Kevin

    2012-06-01

    A juvenile male greater shearwater (Puffinus gravis) found off the Georgia coast, United States, was lethargic, hypothermic, dehydrated, and emaciated. It was provided with supportive care but subsequently died. The coelomic cavity contained fibrinous fluid intermixed with hundreds of nematodes, some of which protruded through a perforation in the proventriculus. Nematodes were embedded in the wall of the proventriculus from the lamina propria to the serosal surface and were surrounded by granulocytes, epithelioid macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, lymphocytes, and fibroplasia. A full-thickness tear in the proventriculus was lined by heterophils and multinucleate giant cells. The nematode histomorphology was consistent with Anisakis spp. The definitive hosts of Anisakis spp. are marine mammals, which are infected through ingestion of parasitized fish and crustaceans. Marine birds are aberrant hosts of Anisakis spp., and young, inexperienced, immunocompromised birds might be more susceptible to severe infestations. Fatal anisakiasis is rarely reported in birds. PMID:22779252

  9. Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 infection in two Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis): clinical presentation and pathology.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, Alessandra; Mazzariol, Sandro; Caliari, Diego; Menandro, Maria Luisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports on two fatal cases of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 infection in Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) from a zoological collection in Italy. No previous clinical signs were observed in birds before death, except for anorexia and mild diarrhea in one bird. At post mortem, necrotic foci surrounded by a hyperemic halo were observed in lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine. Microscopically, heterophils and macrophages with rare lymphocyte infiltration associated with gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria aggregates were detected in necrotic foci. Bacteriology confirmed the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 in the tissues of birds. The source of Salmonella Typhimurium in these birds remains unknown, but the authors emphasize the need to better control Salmonella infections in these avian species because they are important zoonotic agents and responsible for disease in animals and humans. This is the first documentation of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 infection in Moluccan cockatoos. PMID:20408412

  10. Skill complementarity enhances heterophily in collaboration networks.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical evidence shows that individuals usually exhibit significant homophily in social networks. We demonstrate, however, skill complementarity enhances heterophily in the formation of collaboration networks, where people prefer to forge social ties with people who have professions different from their own. We construct a model to quantify the heterophily by assuming that individuals choose collaborators to maximize utility. Using a huge database of online societies, we find evidence of heterophily in collaboration networks. The results of model calibration confirm the presence of heterophily. Both empirical analysis and model calibration show that the heterophilous feature is persistent along the evolution of online societies. Furthermore, the degree of skill complementarity is positively correlated with their production output. Our work sheds new light on the scientific research utility of virtual worlds for studying human behaviors in complex socioeconomic systems. PMID:26743687

  11. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, G.H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  12. Expression of Forssman antigen of avian lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed by Marek's disease virus or avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, K; Kitamoto, N; Shoji, H; Kato, S; Naiki, M

    1981-01-01

    The expression of Forssman-type heterophile antigen on Marek's disease (MD) virus (MDV)-transformed cell lines, MDCC-MSBI 1, -HP1, -RP1 and -BP1, and avian leukosis virus (ALV)-transformed cell lines, LSCC-1104B1 and -1104X5 was investigated by membrane immunofluorescence and complement-dependent antibody cytotoxicity tests. Forssman antigen was detected on a high percentage of the cells in two ALV-transformed cell lines and on a smaller percentage of splenic lymphocytes from normal chicken. Of the MDV-transformed cell lines tested only the RP1 and BP1 cell lines, derived from transplantable MD tumours, expressed Forssman antigen, while the MSB1 and HP1 cell lines, derived from MD lymphomas, did not. Forssman antigen appears to be unrelated to MD tumour-associated surface antigen (MATSA). PMID:6267170

  13. Relationship of in vitro immune responses to Epstein-Barr herpesvirus and severity of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, K; Lai, P K; Lightfoote, M; Andrese, A P; Fuccillo, D; Connor, R J; Levine, P H

    1980-01-01

    Immune responses to Epstein-Barr herpesvirus (EBV) and EBV-related antigens were studied serially in 18 patients with heterophil antibody-positive infectious mononucleosis and in 18 control subjects. Enhanced cellular immune responses to EBV particles and to EBV intracellular soluble antigens were found in the patients at convalescence, suggesting that the development of specific cellular immune responses was associated with apparent control of the virus infection. In addition, a correlation between severity of disease and specific cellular immune response was found. Patients with severe clinical signs were found to have a more active cellular immune response to EBV intracellular soluble antigens early in the infection compared with patients with mild disease. This suggests that an increased immune reactivity to intracellular antigens during the early part of the illness is related to the severity of clinical manifestations in infectious mononucleosis. Serum antibody to viral capsid antigen and early antigen was not related to the severity of clinical disease. PMID:6253402

  14. Persistent falsely positive rapid tests for infectious mononucleosis. Report of five cases with four--six-year follow-up data.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, C A; Henle, W; Henle, G; Penn, G; Hoffman, N; Ward, P C

    1979-11-01

    In many laboratories, rapid slide tests incorporating differential absorption have replaced heterophil antibody tube tests in the investigation of suspect infectious mononucleosis. The present report describes serologic data from five individuals whose Monospot tests remained falsely positive for four years or more without other evidence of infectious mononucleosis or underlying disease states. Three of the five had never been infected with the Epstein-Barr virus. All five had negative results when studied with the ox cell hemolysin and the horse cell differential absorption tube tests. False-positive test results have also been encountered in healthy controls, as frequently as in patients with underlying disease states. The authors are unable to attach any clinical significance to the findings of an isolated falsely positive Monospot test even when it persists for many months or years. PMID:228546

  15. Adenovirus type 2 encephalitis and concurrent Epstein-Barr virus infection in an adult man.

    PubMed

    West, T E; Papasian, C J; Park, B H; Parker, S W

    1985-08-01

    A 30-year-old bisexual male prisoner with a history of intravenous drug abuse manifested encephalitis. Adenovirus type 2 was isolated from brain tissue obtained by a biopsy and there was a concurrent fourfold rise in the antibody titer. In addition, an initial negative result from a slide test for infectious mononucleosis heterophil antibodies (Monospot) test converted to positive and there was an increase in the IgG antibody titer to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen. Although he was anergic to skin test antigens, T-cell subsets and lymphocyte transformation study results were normal. This case demonstrated a rare adenovirus encephalitis with a simultaneous EBV infection in a patient at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, who had minimal evidence of T-cell deficiency. PMID:2992429

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Bailey, R E

    1994-03-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and most commonly affects young adults from 15 to 35 years of age. The diagnosis is made by accurate assessment of clinical, hematologic and serologic manifestations of the illness. Manifestations include the classic triad of fever, pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenopathy; lymphocytosis with a predominance of atypical lymphocytes; a positive heterophil (Monospot) antibody test; and in some cases, serologic evidence of EBV-specific antibodies produced against antigens related to the virus. The most valuable serologic finding is the presence of IgM antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen, which is found during acute primary EBV infection. Infectious mononucleosis is considered a self-limited illness, but it may result in serious complications involving the pulmonary, ophthalmologic, neurologic and hematologic systems. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms, unless more severe disease involving other organ systems occurs. The most common potentially fatal complication is splenic rupture. PMID:8116521

  17. NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM: cell adhesion molecule with a role in neuronal compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Winther, Malene; Berezin, Vladimir; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2012-03-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules 2 (NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM), is a paralog of NCAM1. The protein exists in a transmembrane and a lipid-anchored isoform, and has an ectodomain consisting of five immunoglobulin modules and two fibronectin type 3 homology modules. Structural models of the NCAM2 ectodomain reveal that it facilitates cell adhesion through reciprocal interactions between the membrane-distal immunoglobulin modules. There are no known heterophilic NCAM2 binding partners, and NCAM2 is not glycosylated with polysialic acid, a posttranslational modification known to be a major modulator of NCAM1-mediated processes. This suggests that NCAM2 has a function or mode of action distinctly different from that of NCAM1. NCAM2 is primarily expressed in the brain, where it is believed to stimulate neurite outgrowth and to facilitate dendritic and axonal compartmentalization. PMID:22155300

  18. Extracellular architecture of the SYG-1/SYG-2 adhesion complex instructs synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Engin; Chia, Poh Hui; Wang, RuiqiRachel; Goriatcheva, Natalia; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Walz, Thomas; Shen, Kang; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    SYG-1 and SYG-2 are multi-purpose cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that have evolved across all major animal taxato participate indiverse physiological functions, ranging from synapse formation to formation of the kidney filtration barrier. In the crystal structures of several SYG-1 and SYG-2 orthologs and their complexes, we find thatSYG-1 orthologshomodimerizethrough a common, bi-specific interface thatsimilarlymediatesan unusual orthogonal docking geometry in theheterophilicSYG-1/SYG-2 complex.C. elegansSYG-1’s specification of proper synapse formation in vivoclosely correlates withthe heterophilic complex affinity, which appears to be tuned for optimal function. Furthermore, replacement of the interacting domains of SYG-1 and SYG-2 with those from CAM complexes that assume alternative docking geometries, or the introduction of segmental flexibility, compromised synaptic function. These results suggestthat SYGextracellular complexes do not simply act as “molecular velcro”, but their distinct structural features are important in instructing synaptogenesis. PMID:24485456

  19. First identification of a ranavirus from green pythons (Chondropython viridis).

    PubMed

    Hyatt, A D; Williamson, M; Coupar, B E H; Middleton, D; Hengstberger, S G; Gould, A R; Selleck, P; Wise, T G; Kattenbelt, J; Cunningham, A A; Lee, J

    2002-04-01

    Ten juvenile green pythons (Chondropython viridis) died or were euthanized shortly after having been illegally imported into Australia from Indonesia in 1998. Histologic examination of two of the three snakes that died revealed moderately severe chronic ulceration of the nasal mucosa and focal or periacinar degeneration and necrosis of the liver. In addition there was severe necrotizing inflammation of the pharyngeal submucosa accompanied by numerous macrophages, heterophils, and edema. An iridovirus was isolated in culture from several tissues and characterized by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, restriction endonuclease digestion, and DNA hybridization. This is the first report of a systemic ranavirus infection in any species of snake and is a new member of the genus, Ranavirus. PMID:12038121

  20. An accidental fatal attack on domestic pigeons by honey bees in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Lee, Sei-Jin; Kim, Gi-Beum; Yang, Dong Kwon; Alam, Md Rafiqul; Kim, Shang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Fatalities among avian species due to multiple bee stings are rare. Sixteen pigeons on a farm in Bangladesh each suffered multiple bee stings. Ten of the pigeons died before treatment, 5 (4-11 stings) died within 12 hr after treatment, and 1 pigeon (only 3 stings) survived. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, MCV, MCH and MCHC decreased significantly after the incident, but leucocytes, heterophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, ALT, AST, LDH, CK, creatinine, BUN and UA increased markedly. Overall, the hematological and biochemical changes in the bee-stung pigeons were similar to those of mammals; however, avian species may be more sensitive to bee stings than mammals. PMID:26028022

  1. Salt gland adenitis as only cause of stranding of loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta.

    PubMed

    Ors, J; Camacho, M; Calabuig, P; Arencibia, A

    2011-06-16

    The present study describes pathological and microbiological findings in 9 stranded loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta, whose only observed lesion was bilateral purulent salt gland adenitis. Histological lesions ranged from the presence of abundant eosinophilic material associated with bacterial colonies in the lumen of the central ducts of the glandular lobules to the destruction of the glandular tissue and presence of abundant eosinophilic material composed of heterophils and cell debris, lined by multinucleated giant cells. Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus sp., and Vibrio alginolyticus were the bacteria most frequently isolated. Plasma concentrations of sodium and chloride and plasma osmolality from 2 turtles suffering from salt gland adenitis were, respectively 45.7, 69.2, and 45.7% higher than the mean value for healthy turtles. These cases suggest that failure to maintain homeostasis due to severe lesions in the salt glands can cause stranding and/or death of loggerhead sea turtles. PMID:21848124

  2. Crystal structure of murine coronavirus receptor sCEACAM1a[1,4],a member of the carcinoembtyonic antigen family

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Zelus, B. D.; Meijers, R.; Liu, J.-H.; Bergelson, J. M.; Zhang, R.; Duke, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Holmes, K. V.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    CEACAM1 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Isoforms of murine CEACAM1 serve as receptors for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Here we report the crystal structure of soluble murine sCEACAM1a[1,4], which is composed of two Ig-like domains and has MHV neutralizing activity. Its N-terminal domain has a uniquely folded CC' loop that encompasses key virus-binding residues. This is the first atomic structure of any member of the CEA family, and provides a prototypic architecture for functional exploration of CEA family members. We discuss the structural basis of virus receptor activities of murine CEACAM1 proteins, binding of Neisseria to human CEACAM1, and other homophilic and heterophilic interactions of CEA family members.

  3. Steatitis in egrets and herons from Japan.

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Arii, Suzue; Udagawa, Mai; Onuma, Manabu; Odaya, Yoshiya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tenpaku, Makio; Hayama, Hisayo; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mizukami, Masaya; Murata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    More than 70 egrets and herons were found sick or dead at an agricultural water reservoir in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan between September and October 2008. The birds showed weakness, lethargy, and inability to fly before death. Postmortem findings included large amounts of firm subcutaneous and cavitary fat comprised of necrotic adipose tissues with infiltrates of heterophils and macrophages. The birds were diagnosed with steatitis on the basis of the gross lesions and histopathology. Egrets with steatitis had low blood levels of vitamin E. High counts of cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were found in the reservoir concurrent with the outbreak of steatitis. No microcystin was detected in the reservoir water or the livers from the egrets. This is the first report of steatitis in wild birds in Japan. PMID:21269996

  4. [Histogenesis of granulation tissue in wound healing by second intention in horses and cattle].

    PubMed

    Dinev, D; Dzhurov, A

    1987-01-01

    An experiment in comparative developmental aspect was carried out with 5 horses and 5 cattle having a total of 60 skin and muscular wounds. Light microscopic studies on hematoxylin-eosin stained preparations revealed that the dystrophic changes in the underlying tissues were more strongly manifested in horses. This had to be taken into consideration in the surgical treatment of wounds with this animal species. The basic differences comprised the better manifested leukocytic reaction in horses and the more strongly expressed processes of growth and differentiation on the part of the connective tissue after the tenth day of wounding in cattle. The definitive formation of granular tissue in horses took place in shorter terms than in cattle. In the fully developed new tissue in horses three different layers were found: leukocytic, vascular-fibroblastic, and a maturing one, while in cattle the layers found were four: fibrous tissue, heterophilic-leukocytic, vascular-fibroblastic, and a maturing one. PMID:3617469

  5. Relating tumor score to hematology in green turtles with fibropapillomatosis in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between hematologic status and severity of tumor affliction in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomatosis (FP) was examined. During 1 wk periods in July 1997 and July 1998, we bled 108 free-ranging green turtles from Pala'au (Molokai, Hawaii, USA) where FP is endemic. Blood was analyzed for hematocrit, estimated total solids, total white blood cell (WBC) count and differential WBC count. Each turtle was assigned a subjective tumor score ranging from 0 (no visible external tumors) to 3 (heavily tumored) that indicated the severity of FP. There was a progressive increase in monocytes and a decrease in all other hematologic parameters except heterophils and total numbers of white blood cells as tumor score increased. These data indicate that tumor score can relate to physiologic status of green turtles afflicted with FP, and that tumor score is a useful field monitor of severity of FP in this species.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Margeta, Milica A.; Shen, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Synapses are specialized junctions that mediate information flow between neurons and their targets. A striking feature of the nervous system is the specificity of its synaptic connections: an individual neuron will form synapses only with a small subset of available presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. Synaptic specificity has been classically thought to arise from homophilic or heterophilic interactions between adhesive molecules acting across the synaptic cleft. Over the past decade, many new mechanisms giving rise to synaptic specificity have been identified. Synapses can be specified by secreted molecules that promote or inhibit synaptogenesis, and their source can be a neighboring guidepost cell, not just presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Furthermore, lineage, fate, and timing of development can also play critical roles in shaping neural circuits. Future work utilizing large-scale screens will aim to elucidate the full scope of cellular mechanisms and molecular players that can give rise to synaptic specificity. PMID:19969086

  7. SELECTED HEMATOLOGIC AND PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYSIS OF FERRUGINOUS DUCKS (AYTHYA NYROCA) IN ISRAEL.

    PubMed

    Avni-Magen, Nili; Gancz, Ady Y; Beaufrère, Hugues; Lublin, Avishai; Eshar, David

    2016-03-01

    The ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca) is a medium-sized chestnut-colored diving duck that inhabits wetlands of Europe and Asia. In recent years, this species has been declining throughout much of Europe-a decline that is attributed mainly to destruction of natural habitats, and to hunting and pollution. The ferruginous duck is listed as "near threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, and as a critically endangered nesting species in Israel. In 2009, a captive-breeding/reintroduction program was established in Israel, aiming to increase the species' population. The objective of this study was to collect data on normal hematology and plasma biochemistry analytes of ferruginous ducks in order to promote the species' conservation. Blood was collected from 49 birds, and 27 analytes were quantified. Compared to most other anseriformes studied, the ferruginous ducks in this study had lower white blood cell counts, which were dominated by heterophils rather than by lymphocytes. PMID:27010302

  8. [Investigations on the influence of selected compulsory measures on clinically relevant haematological and blood-chemical parameters of racing pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.)].

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M E; Bartels, T; Richter, A; Pees, M

    2006-10-01

    In the presented study the influence of stress and environmental factors on selected haematological and blood-chemical parameters in racing pigeons was examined. Blood was taken at three defined days and haematological as well as blood-chemical parameters of clinical relevance were determined. In comparison to reference values published for pigeons, the majority of the values obtained in this study were within physiological borders. The daily handling of the pigeons did not have any significant effect on the examined parameters. Also the heterophile/lymphocyte ratio did not show any changes characteristic of a stress reaction. In contrast, after change of the housing dies with pigeons originating normally from a flock, the first blood sampling should be performed after a 4 or 5-day lasting period of acclimatisation to the the individual housing conditions. PMID:17078530

  9. [Cell count of the milk from sheep in machine milking].

    PubMed

    Vitkov, M; Vitanov, S

    1980-01-01

    A number of microbiological and parallel direct and indirect cytological studies were carried out on sheep milk, obtained by machine-milking. It was established that the sheep milk containing up to 183,000 somatic cells per cm3 showed a negative reaction if Bernburg's mastite test was applied. Samples of cellular elements from 200,000 up to 400,000 per cm3 showed a weak positive reaction of the test, and above 420,000 per cm3 proved to be strongly positive. Polynuclear heterophils and a high percentage of infected samples were found in a quantity of cells above 500,000 per cm3. The data obtained showed good correlation between the bacterial find and the cell contents and are a reliable prerequisite for the application of Bernburg's test in studying sheep milk. PMID:7193942

  10. An experimental study on the effects of polymorphiasis in common eider ducklings.

    PubMed

    Hollmén, T; Lehtonen, J T; Sankari, S; Soveri, T; Hario, M

    1999-07-01

    Eight common eider (Somateria mollissima) ducklings were experimentally infected from 1 June through 13 June, 1995 with acanthocephalans (Polymorphus minutus) by allowing the birds to feed on Gammarus spp. (Gammarus oceanicus, G. salinus, G. zaddachi, and G. lacustris) containing acanthocephalan cystacanths. Uninfected Gammarus spp. were fed to a control group of seven ducklings. No mortality of ducklings occurred during the experiment. However, the infected ducklings gained weight more slowly than the control birds. After the 2 wk study period, the mean serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, fructosamine and creatine kinase were lower in the infected group than in the controls. The mean (+/-SE) number of acanthocephalans in the intestine of the infected ducklings was 21 (+/-4). The parasites were attached to the mucosa of the posterior small intestine of the infected ducklings with a mixed inflammatory reaction consisting of heterophils and mononuclear lymphocytes surrounding the attachment sites. PMID:10479080

  11. Intestinal brush border assembly driven by protocadherin-based intermicrovillar adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Scott W.; Shifrin, David A.; Grega-Larson, Nathan E.; McConnell, Russell E.; Benesh, Andrew E.; Mao, Suli; Zheng, Yuxi; Zheng, Qing Yin; Nam, Ki Taek; Millis, Bryan A.; Kachar, Bechara; Tyska, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Transporting epithelial cells build apical microvilli to increase membrane surface area and enhance absorptive capacity. The intestinal brush border provides an elaborate example, with tightly packed microvilli that function in nutrient absorption and host defense. Although the brush border is essential for physiological homeostasis, its assembly is poorly understood. We found that brush border assembly is driven by the formation of Ca2+-dependent adhesion links between adjacent microvilli. Intermicrovillar links are composed of protocadherin-24 and mucin-like protocadherin, which target to microvillar tips and interact to form a trans heterophilic complex. The cytoplasmic domains of microvillar protocadherins interact with the scaffolding protein, harmonin, and myosin-7b, which promote localization to microvillar tips. Finally, a mouse model of Usher syndrome lacking harmonin exhibits microvillar protocadherin mislocalization and severe defects in brush border morphology. These data reveal an adhesion-based mechanism for brush border assembly and illuminate the basis of intestinal pathology in Usher syndrome patients. PMID:24725409

  12. An accidental fatal attack on domestic pigeons by honey bees in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Md. Mahbubur; LEE, Sei-Jin; KIM, Gi-Beum; YANG, Dong Kwon; ALAM, Md. Rafiqul; KIM, Shang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Fatalities among avian species due to multiple bee stings are rare. Sixteen pigeons on a farm in Bangladesh each suffered multiple bee stings. Ten of the pigeons died before treatment, 5 (4–11 stings) died within 12 hr after treatment, and 1 pigeon (only 3 stings) survived. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, MCV, MCH and MCHC decreased significantly after the incident, but leucocytes, heterophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, ALT, AST, LDH, CK, creatinine, BUN and UA increased markedly. Overall, the hematological and biochemical changes in the bee-stung pigeons were similar to those of mammals; however, avian species may be more sensitive to bee stings than mammals. PMID:26028022

  13. Effect of exposure to operant-controlled microwaves on certain blood and immunological parameters in the young chick

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, L.A.; Morrison, W.D.; Bate, L.; Otten, L.; Hunter, B.; Pei, D.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Twenty-two 1-wk-old broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus) were housed at 16 C and operantly conditioned to activate either a 250-W infrared bulb (control) or a microwave generator delivering 13 mW/cm2 (treated). Plasma corticosterone concentration did not differ between groups (P greater than .05) at 4 wk of age. At that time the birds were killed, and post-mortem examination revealed no treatment differences in gross morphology of the chicks or in weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius (P greater than .05). Histological study of comparable segments of spleen, bursa, adrenal, and thyroid tissue did not show differences in any of the chosen parameters (P greater than .05). Heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein content were similar between groups (P greater than .05). These results suggest that operant exposure to low density microwave radiation did not result in stress or immunological disturbances.

  14. Antigen presenting cells in a non-mammalian model system, the chicken.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiguang; Kaiser, Pete

    2011-11-01

    The chicken has a different repertoire of tissues, cells and genes of the immune response compared to mammals, yet generally survives infection with viral, bacterial, protozoal and fungal pathogens, and also worms and ectoparasites, just like mammals. Poultry are also probably the most heavily vaccinated group of farmed animals. Antigen presentation to the adaptive immune response therefore obviously normally occurs efficiently in birds. Although comparatively much is known about macrophages and B cells in the chicken, there is as yet little work on the other, professional, antigen-presenting cells, the dendritic cells (DC). Birds also have at least two other sets of phagocytic cells, heterophils and thrombocytes, which may also have the ability to present antigen. Here we review the current state of knowledge about antigen presenting cells in the chicken, concentrating mainly on recent advances in our knowledge of DC. PMID:21719145

  15. False positivity of monospot test in an immunocompetent elderly woman with acute cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Thamcharoen, Natanong; Sornprom, Suthanya; Permpalung, Nitipong; Hyman, Charles L

    2015-10-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented with altered mental status, septic picture, and influenza-like symptoms. Initial investigations revealed atypical lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, and a positive monospot test result. Further investigation showed the Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antibody IgM/IgG and Epstein-Barr virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction to be negative; however, interestingly her cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM and IgG were positive, suggesting that her mononucleosis-like syndrome was due to acute CMV infection. Herein, we report the first case of a heterophile-positive mononucleosis syndrome caused by acute CMV infection in an elderly immunocompetent woman. This case conveys that monospot test can yield false-positive result in the setting of acute CMV infection. PMID:26275628

  16. Inequality measures perform differently in global and local assessments: An exploratory computational experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yen-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Inequality measures are widely used in both the academia and public media to help us understand how incomes and wealth are distributed. They can be used to assess the distribution of a whole society-global inequality-as well as inequality of actors' referent networks-local inequality. How different is local inequality from global inequality? Formalizing the structure of reference groups as a network, the paper conducted a computational experiment to see how the structure of complex networks influences the difference between global and local inequality assessed by a selection of inequality measures. It was found that local inequality tends to be higher than global inequality when population size is large; network is dense and heterophilously assorted, and income distribution is less dispersed. The implications of the simulation findings are discussed.

  17. Infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Balfour, Henry H; Dunmire, Samantha K; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by pharyngitis, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever, which results most often from a primary EpsteinBarr virus (EBV) infection. EBV, a lymphocrytovirus and a member of the ?-herpesvirus family, infects at least 90% of the population worldwide, the majority of whom have no recognizable illness. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among adolescents, but how preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. During the incubation period of approximately 6 weeks, viral replication first occurs in the oropharynx followed by viremia as early as 2 weeks before onset of illness. The acute illness is marked by high viral loads in both the oral cavity and blood accompanied by the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen and an extraordinary expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes directed against EBV-infected B cells. During convalescence, CD8+ T cells return to normal levels and antibodies develop against EBV nuclear antigen-1. A typical clinical picture in an adolescent or young adult with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients especially young children. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, long-term consequences are linked to infectious mononucleosis, especially Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. There is no licensed vaccine for prevention and no specific approved treatment. Future research goals are development of an EBV vaccine, understanding the risk factors for severity of the acute illness and likelihood of developing cancer or autoimmune diseases, and discovering anti-EBV drugs to treat infectious mononucleosis and other EBV-spurred diseases. PMID:25774295

  18. BLOOD GAS, LACTATE, AND HEMATOLOGY EFFECTS OF VENIPUNCTURE TIMING AND LOCATION AFTER MIST-NET CAPTURE OF MOURNING DOVES (ZENAIDA MACROURA), BOAT-TAILED GRACKLES (QUISCALUS MAJOR), AND HOUSE SPARROWS (PASSER DOMESTICUS).

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jinks, Maggie R; Harms, Ronald V

    2016-04-01

    Venous blood gas partial pressures, pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentrations, packed cell volume, white blood cell differential counts, and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios were measured from Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Boat-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus major), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). Birds were bled promptly after mist-net capture and banding or following a targeted delay of 45-60 min, in order to assess the impacts of a brief holding period commonly practiced in large-scale bird banding operations. Additionally, effects of venipuncture location (basilic [=ulnar] vein versus jugular vein) were evaluated in male Boat-tailed Grackles sampled promptly after capture and banding. All comparisons were with unpaired samples; no birds were subjected to more than one venipuncture. All three species exhibited moderate improvements in blood gas and acid-base status after the delay, with reductions in lactate concentrations with or without concurrent increases in pH and bicarbonate. Boat-tailed Grackles exhibited an increased proportion of heterophils in the differential white blood cell count following a delay in sampling, suggestive of a stress leukogram. There were no significant differences between basilic and jugular venipuncture results from male Boat-tailed Grackles. Most metabolic, respiratory, and acid-base alterations were minor, but a small number of birds exhibited values (e.g., temperature-corrected pH <7.3, lactate >10 mmol/L) that could be of concern if combined with other adverse conditions. For such birds, a short delay between capture and processing could benefit their blood gas and acid-base status, although loss of time foraging or feeding young and greater activation of the hypophyseal-pituitary-adrenal axis are additional considerations. PMID:26845300

  19. Comparison of blood values and health status of Floreana Mockingbirds (Mimus trifasciatus) on the islands of Champion and Gardner-by-Floreana, Galpagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Deem, Sharon L; Parker, Patricia G; Cruz, Marilyn B; Merkel, Jane; Hoeck, Paquita E A

    2011-01-01

    The Floreana Mockingbird (Mimus trifasciatus) is one of the rarest bird species in the world, with an estimated 550 individuals remaining on two rocky islets off the coast of Floreana, Galpagos, Ecuador, from which the main population was extirpated more than 100 yr ago. Because they have been listed in critical danger of extinction, a plan to reintroduce this species to Floreana has been initiated. Determining the health status of the source mockingbird populations is a top priority within the reintroduction plan. We report the health status, over the course of 4 yr, of 75 Floreana Mockingbirds on Champion Island and 160 Floreana Mockingbirds on Gardner-by-Floreana, based on physical examinations, hematology, hemolysis-hemagglutination assay, exposure to selected infectious disease agents, and ecto- and endoparasite counts. Birds on Gardner-by-Floreana had higher body condition index scores, packed cell volumes, total solids, and lymphocyte counts. Additionally, Gardner-by-Floreana birds had lower heterophil counts, eosinophil counts, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. No Chlamydophila psittaci DNA or antibodies to paramyxovirus-I, adenovirus-II, or Mycoplasma gallisepticum were found in any of the mockingbirds tested. Ectoparasites were present on birds from both islands, although species varied between islands. A coccidian species was found in eight of the 45 fecal samples from birds on Gardner-by-Floreana, but none of 33 birds examined from Champion. Birds on Gardner-by-Floreana were classified as healthier than those on Champion based on clinical and laboratory findings. These health data will be analyzed in conjunction with genetics, population structure, and disease presence on Floreana for developing recommendations for the Floreana Mockingbird reintroduction plan. PMID:21270000

  20. Response to dietary supplementation of L-glutamine and L-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density. PMID:25143595

  1. Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Melanie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    When wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. The suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. We examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) in wild birds (house finches Haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring infection (Mycoplasma gallisepticum) to determine whether infection alters the typical immune response to stress. Birds were captured and bled within 3 min (baseline sample) and then held in paper bags for 2 h and bled again (stress sample). From blood smears made at both time points, we obtained estimates of total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative numbers of each cell. We also measured BKA of plasma at both time points. In uninfected birds (n = 26), total WBC count decreased by 30% over time, while in infected birds (n = 9), it decreased by 6%. Relative numbers of heterophils did not change over time in uninfected birds but increased in infected birds. Combined with a reduction in lymphocyte numbers, this led to a threefold increase in heterophil-lymphocyte values in infected birds after the stressor, compared to a twofold increase in uninfected birds. There was a nonsignificant tendency for BKA to decline with stress in uninfected birds but not in diseased birds. Collectively, these results suggest that infections can buffer the negative effects of acute stress on innate immunity. PMID:24642543

  2. Limitations of available tests for diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, G R; Collins, M; Fager, S

    1983-04-01

    Among 500 students seen at a university health service for illnesses resembling infectious mononucleosis (IM), the diagnosis of IM was established in 124 (25%) on the basis of the initial presence or subsequent emergence of the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies characteristic of a primary EBV infection. Of these 124 patients, 113 had an EBV-specific antibody pattern in the initial serum indicative of current primary infection; however, 11 (9%) had no detectable immunoglobulin G antibodies to EBV-specific antigens in their first serum. The sensitivity of this panel of EBV antibody assays was 91% and the specificity was 100%. Initial sera had detectable heterophil antibodies for 107 (86%) of the 124 students with IM and for 2 with other illnesses. Among our patients, the Monospot (Ortho Diagnostics Inc.) test had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 99%. Reliance on hematological criteria (lymphocyte count greater than or equal to 50% and atypical lymphocyte count greater than or equal to 10%) gave a sensitivity of only 39%, but a specificity of 99%. Students with IM who showed a delayed emergence of the spectrum of EBV-specific antibodies characteristic of an acute infection were compared with control patients who had such antibodies at the time of their initial visit to the health service. They were found to have a briefer duration of illness (P greater than 0.05), lower leukocyte (P less than 0.005), lymphocyte (P less than 0.005), and atypical lymphocyte (P less than 0.05) counts, and a less frequent occurrence of heterophil antibodies (P less than 0.05). PMID:6304142

  3. The PHA Test as an Indicator of Phagocytic Activity in a Passerine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Salaberria, Concepcin; Muriel, Jaime; de Luna, Mara; Gil, Diego; Puerta, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Several techniques in ecological immunology have been used to assess bird immunocompetence thus providing useful information to understand the contribution of the immunological system in life-history decisions. The phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-skin test has been the most widely employed technique being interpreted as the sole result of T lymphocytes proliferation and hence used to evaluate acquired immunological capacity. However, the presence of high numbers of phagocytic cells in the swelling point has cast some doubt about such an assumption. To address this issue, we collected blood from 14 days-old nestlings of spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor), administered subcutaneous PHA immediately after and then measured the swelling response 24 hours later. Differential counts of white blood cells suggested that an intense development of acquired immunological defences was taking place. The phagocytic activity of both heterophiles and monocytes was also very intense as it was the swelling response. Moreover, our results show, for the first time in birds, a positive relationship between the phagocytic activity of both kinds of cells and the swelling response. This broadens the significance of the PHA test from reflecting T lymphocytes proliferation -as previously proposed but still undetermined in vivo- to evaluate phagocytosis as well. In other words, our data suggest that the PHA swelling response may not be considered as the only consequence of processes of specific and induced immunity T lymphocytes proliferation- but also of constitutive and nonspecific immunity heterophiles and monocytes phagocytosis. We propose the extensive use of PHA-skin test as an optimal technique to assess immunocompetence. PMID:24391896

  4. Immune Responses in Broiler Chicks Fed Propolis Extraction Residue-supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Eyng, C.; Murakami, A. E.; Santos, T. C.; Silveira, T. G. V.; Pedroso, R. B.; Lourenço, D. A. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of propolis extraction residue in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age on phagocytic activity of macrophages, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin, antibody production against Newcastle disease, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile and to determine the optimal level of inclusion. 120 chicks, reared in metabolism cages until 21 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of propolis residue) and six replications. The relative weight of thymus and monocyte percentage were affected by propolis residue, with a quadratic response (p<0.05) and lowest values estimated at 2.38% and 2.49%, respectively. Changes in relative weight of cloacal bursa and spleen, percentage of lymphocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, antibody production against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity of macrophages and the average number of phagocytosed erythrocytes were not observed. The nitric oxide production with regard to positive control (macrophages+erythrocytes) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased doses of propolis residue. The remaining variables of nitric oxide production (negative control – macrophages, and difference between the controls) were not affected by propolis residue. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin as determined by the increase in interdigital skin thickness exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.05), which predicted a lower reaction response at a dose of 2.60% of propolis residue and highest reaction response after 43.05 hours of phytohemagglutinin injection. The inclusion of 1% to 4% of propolis extraction residue in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days of age was not able to improve the immune parameters, despite the modest changes in the relative weight in thymus, blood monocyte percentage, nitric oxide concentration, and interdigital reaction to phytohemagglutinin. PMID:25557685

  5. Healing of cutaneous wounds in the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D A; Barker, I K

    1988-01-01

    Healing of cutaneous wounds was studied in groups of common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) held at 13.5 degrees C, 21 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Linear unsutured incisions and circular excisional wounds were evaluated two, five, and ten days after surgery, while linear sutured and unsutured incisions and circular and square excisional wounds were studied three and six weeks after wound production. The sequence of events during healing was the same for all experimental situations. The epithelial margins of the wounds moved freely over exposed epaxial muscle until an exudate of fibrin and inflammatory cells caused adhesion. Heterophils and macrophages were present two days after wounding. Heterophils were present throughout the wound while macrophages were concentrated in areas containing fibrin and proteinaceous exudate. Fibroblasts moved laterally into the wound from the adjacent dermis producing a flat dermal scar oriented parallel to the wound surface. Epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia occurred in a zone extending up to 1.5 mm from the margin of the wound. A tongue of flattened epithelial cells extended across the wound surface, mingling with the superficial crust and migrating over eosinophilic fibrillar material. Maturation of the new epithelium, indicated by formation of a distinct basal layer, rounding of superficial cells and keratin production, began at the wound margins before the epithelial spurs linked. The epithelium over healed wounds appeared normal, but the dermis did not reorganize to form scales. Reptilian and mammalian healing differ in the character of the inflammatory reaction, the pattern of fibroplasia, and the interaction between epithelial and dermal repair. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:3349388

  6. Infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Balfour, Henry H; Dunmire, Samantha K; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2015-02-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by pharyngitis, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever, which results most often from a primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV, a lymphocrytovirus and a member of the ?-herpesvirus family, infects at least 90% of the population worldwide, the majority of whom have no recognizable illness. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among adolescents, but how preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. During the incubation period of approximately 6 weeks, viral replication first occurs in the oropharynx followed by viremia as early as 2 weeks before onset of illness. The acute illness is marked by high viral loads in both the oral cavity and blood accompanied by the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen and an extraordinary expansion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes directed against EBV-infected B cells. During convalescence, CD8(+) T cells return to normal levels and antibodies develop against EBV nuclear antigen-1. A typical clinical picture in an adolescent or young adult with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients especially young children. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, long-term consequences are linked to infectious mononucleosis, especially Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. There is no licensed vaccine for prevention and no specific approved treatment. Future research goals are development of an EBV vaccine, understanding the risk factors for severity of the acute illness and likelihood of developing cancer or autoimmune diseases, and discovering anti-EBV drugs to treat infectious mononucleosis and other EBV-spurred diseases. PMID:25774295

  7. Effect of oligosaccharides extract from palm kernel expeller on growth performance, gut microbiota and immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Siamak; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Zulkifli, Idrus; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract from palm kernel expeller (OligoPKE) on growth performance, cecal microbiota and immune response of broiler chickens. A total of ninety 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of six pens (replicates) with five birds per pen. Dietary treatments were: (i) basal diet as control, (ii) basal diet plus 0.5% OligoPKE, and (iii) basal diet plus 1% OligoPKE. Birds growth traits (ADG, ADFI and G:F) were measured during the starter (1-21 day), finisher (22-35 day) and the entire experimental periods. Blood and cecal digesta samples were collected from chickens at 21 and 35 days of age (DOA). Microbial quantification of the digesta samples, white blood cells including heterophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil counts and immunoglobulin (IgA and IgM) were also determined. OligoPKE had no effect on ADG and ADFI throughout the study period, but chickens fed OligoPKE supplemented diet had better (P < 0.05) G:F during finisher and overall rearing periods. Supplementing OligoPKE did not significantly alter the birds' microbiota of the cecal digesta. At 21 DOA, blood IgA concentration increased significantly when birds fed 1% OligoPKE in diet recorded compared to the control treatment. Similar observations were also recorded in birds at 35 DOA. Hematological data showed that heterophil and basophil counts of chickens fed OligoPKE supplement were lower than those in control group at 21 DOA. Our findings suggested that OligoPKE improved immune responses in broiler chickens, especially at younger age when the immune system is not still fully developed. PMID:26240398

  8. Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Kamyab, A

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density. Experimental treatments consisted of a 2 2 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of prebiotic (with or without prebiotic), 2 levels of dietary CP [NRC-recommended or low CP level (85% of NRC-recommended level)], and 2 levels of stocking density (10 birds/m(2) as the normal density or 16 birds/m(2) as the high density), for a total of 8 treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates (cages). Birds were reared in 3-tiered battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural tropical conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all treatment groups. Starter and finisher diets in mash form were fed from 1 to 21 d and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively. Supplementation with a prebiotic had no significant effect on performance, immunity, and stress indicators (blood glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio). Protein level significantly influenced broiler performance but did not affect immunity or stress indicators (except for cholesterol level). The normal stocking density resulted in better FCR and also higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease compared with the high stocking density. However, density had no significant effect on blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Significant interactions between protein level and stocking density were observed for BW gain and final BW. The results indicated that, under the conditions of this experiment, dietary addition of a prebiotic had no significant effect on the performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers. PMID:22252353

  9. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 μg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 μg/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 μg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

  10. Associations of Forest Type, Parasitism and Body Condition of Two European Passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla

    PubMed Central

    Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth KV.; Schaefer, H. Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C.

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs. PMID:24339923

  11. Changes in selected biochemical indices, leukocyte profile, and pterins as biomarkers of immune system activity due to antipecking measures in pheasants.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Pistekova, V; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J

    2013-07-01

    The physiological changes in response to beak trimming and spectacle usage as antipecking measures were monitored in 10-mo-old common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Short-term analysis conducted before the beginning of the laying period showed immediate increases of plasma corticosterone (P < 0.05) and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001) concentrations and decrease of plasma triglycerides (P < 0.01) levels in response to both beak trimming and the application of spectacles. Beak-trimmed pheasants exhibited higher plasma corticosterone concentrations than pheasants fitted with spectacles (P < 0.001). To assess long-term changes, blood samples for biochemical (neopterin and biopterin determination) and hematological (leukocyte profile determination) examinations were taken from beak-trimmed, spectacles-fitted, and control pheasant hens housed in cages during their laying period. At the end of the laying period, hens fitted with spectacles exhibited lower concentrations of plasma neopterin (P = 0.005) and biopterin (P = 0.005) than beak-trimmed pheasant hens. Our findings suggest that the immune system was suppressed in spectacles-fitted pheasant hens as a result of chronic stress, as also indicated by the higher heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.001) compared with beak-trimmed hens. Our study found a negative correlation (r = -0.31, P = 0.019) between the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and plasma neopterin concentration. This study demonstrated that both beak trimming and use of spectacles are not only stressful procedures for pheasants, but long-term effects may also include a negative impact on the immune system. PMID:23776255

  12. Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Effects of zebra mussels, obtained from Lake Erie and St Lawrence River, as a food source on immune system of lesser scaup

    SciTech Connect

    Flipo, D.; Fournier, M.; Beaulieu, C.; Tessier, C.

    1995-12-31

    A feeding study was undertaken to assess the influence of a zebra mussel diet from Lake Erie and the St.Lawrence river on the immune system of lesser scaup. The Great lakes and the St.Lawrence river are known to be among the most contaminated waters found in the country. Analytical studies have shown that zebra mussels are contaminated by organochlorines and other pollutants. The occurrence of these toxicants in the food diet of lesser scaup can cause serious injuries. The immune system, in its capacity to destroy foreign particles and protect the host against diseases, can serve as a useful sentinel of the health status of these environmentally stressed organisms. Immune parameters of lesser scaup fed with zebra mussels from Lake Erie or the St. Lawrence river were evaluated. The duration of the feeding trial was nine weeks. Phagocytic activity and oxidative bursts of heterophils were evaluated by flow cytometry. Intracellular thiol levels of lymphocytes and heterophils were also determined by flow cytometry. The results showed a dimunition of phagocytic activity and bactericidal potential after 6 weeks of the zebra mussel diet compared to the control. These results may be associated with pathology problems encountered in treated groups at the end of the diet. Birds from the St. Lawrence River group (40%) and the Lake Erie group (40%) demonstrated variable degrees of pododermatitis compared to the control group. The intracellular level of thiol was consistently found to be elevated in lymphocytes and heterophyls from birds feeding with on the St. Lawrence River. In conclusion, flow cytometry assays like phagocytosis, oxidative burst and thiol staining can serve as biomarkers of the immune status of birds and can give important information for evaluating the health of birds exposed to environmental contamination.

  14. Effects of different sulphur amino acids and dietary electrolyte balance levels on performance, jejunal morphology, and immunocompetence of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Nikoofard, V; Mahdavi, A H; Samie, A H; Jahanian, E

    2016-02-01

    As alterations of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) can influence amino acid metabolism via changes the ions incur in their configurations, performance and immunological responses of broiler chicks might be affected. So, the current study was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of sulphur amino acids (SAA) and DEB on performance, jejunal morphology and immunocompetence of broiler chicks. A total of 360 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine experimental treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of three levels of SAA (100, 110, and 120% of NRC recommendation, provided by methionine supplementation in diets with the same cysteine level) and three levels of DEB (150, 250, and 350 mEq/kg) that were fed during the entire of trial in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that the relative weights of intestine and abdominal fat were decreased markedly (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of SAA and DEB respectively. Antibody titre against sheep red blood cell was neither individually nor in combination influenced by supplementation of SAA or DEB. Nevertheless, a decrease in DEB level led to a suppression in heterophile (p < 0.05) and an increase in lymphocyte counts (p = 0.06); consequently, heterophile to lymphocyte ratio was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by decremental levels of DEB. Albumin to globulin ratio was increased after inclusion of at least 10% SAA (p < 0.001) and 150 mEq DEB/kg in the diet (p = 0.11). Although feeding high-DEB level led to a remarkable decrease in villus height (p < 0.01) and goblet cell numbers (p < 0.001), supplementing the highest level of SAA improved the height of jejunal villus. During the entire trial period, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased by incremental SAA levels (p < 0.05). However, inclusion of 150 mEq/kg led to not only a remarkable increase (p < 0.0001) in both ADFI and average daily weight gain (ADWG) but also to improved (p < 0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR) both during the growing and over the entire trial periods. The present findings indicated that inclusion of low DEB decreased the heterophile to lymphocyte ratio and improved both the albumin to globulin ratio and intestinal health indices. The best growth performance was obtained with 150 mEq DEB/kg in the diet for each level of SAA. PMID:25808567

  15. Relationship of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response with hematological and serum biochemical values in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Soria, Mario Alberto; Bonnet, Mara Agustina; Bueno, Dante Javier

    2015-06-15

    There are few studies about the blood serum of laying hens infected with Salmonella. The differential leukocyte count and blood chemistry values are an important aid in the diagnosis of human diseases, but blood parameters in the avian species are not well known. On the other hand, invasive forms of bacterial gastroenteritis, like Salmonella, often cause intestinal inflammation so this study was undertaken to find a biomarker of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response in the hematological or serum biochemical parameters in laying hens. Furthermore, we evaluated the association of some farm characteristics with Salmonella infection and fecal leukocytes (FL). A fecal sample with at least one fecal leukocyte per field was considered positive for inflammatory intestinal response. False positive serum reactions for Salmonella infection, by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, were reduced by heating the sample to 56C for 30 min and then diluting it 5-fold. The range of hematological and biochemical parameter values was very wide, in addition, there was a poor agreement between the SPA and FL results. Comparison of the positive and negative samples in SPA and FL showed that 1.3% and 79.8% of the laying hens were positive and negative in both tests, respectively. Hens with a positive SPA result showed a higher percentage of monocytes than those with a negative SPA result. Hens with a positive FL test had a higher percentage of heterophils, ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes and aspartate aminotransferase values, while the percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those with a negative FL test. The risk of Salmonella infection increased when the age of laying hens and the number of hens per poultry house was greater than or equal to 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, compared to less than 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, respectively. On the other hand, the risk of inflammatory intestinal response was higher in laying hens ? 18 months old than in hens < 18 months old. Despite the fact that we did not find any specific biomarker of Salmonella infection, this is the first report about the change of Salmonella infection and inflammatory response in hematological/serum biochemical values for laying hens. PMID:25912484

  16. Empirical evidence of cold stress induced cell mediated and humoral immune response in common myna (Sturnus tristis).

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Mansur A; Zaib, Anila; Anjum, Muhammad S; Qayyum, Mazhar

    2015-11-01

    Common myna (Sturnus tristis) is a bird indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that has invaded many parts of the world. At the onset of our investigation, we hypothesized that the immunological profile of myna makes it resistant to harsh/new environmental conditions. In order to test this hypothesis, a number of 40 mynas were caught and divided into two groups, i.e., 7 and 25 °C for 14 days. To determine the effect of cold stress, cell mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed. The macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at 25 °C rather than 7 °C either co-incubated with opsonized or unopsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Macrophage engulfment/cell and nitric oxide production behaved in a similar manner. However, splenic cells plaque formation, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and serum IgM or IgG production remained non-significant. There was a significant increase of IgG antibody production after a second immunization by SRBC. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been reported in the progression of this bird's invasion in frosty areas of the world. The results revealed a strengthened humoral immune response of myna and made this bird suitable for invasion in the areas of harsh conditions. PMID:25663442

  17. Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16. PMID:25115040

  18. Neurexin-neuroligin transsynaptic interaction mediates learning-related synaptic remodeling and long-term facilitation in aplysia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Beom; Li, Hsiu-Ling; Kassabov, Stefan R; Jin, Iksung; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V; Karl, Kevin A; Lu, Yang; Kim, Joung-Hun; Bailey, Craig H; Kandel, Eric R

    2011-05-12

    Neurexin and neuroligin, which undergo heterophilic interactions with each other at the synapse, are mutated in some patients with autism spectrum disorder, a set of disorders characterized by deficits in social and emotional learning. We have explored the role of neurexin and neuroligin at sensory-to-motor neuron synapses of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia, which undergoes sensitization, a simple form of learned fear. We find that depleting neurexin in the presynaptic sensory neuron or neuroligin in the postsynaptic motor neuron abolishes both long-term facilitation and the associated presynaptic growth induced by repeated pulses of serotonin. Moreover, introduction into the motor neuron of the R451C mutation of neuroligin-3 linked to autism spectrum disorder blocks both intermediate-term and long-term facilitation. Our results suggest that activity-dependent regulation of the neurexin-neuroligin interaction may govern transsynaptic signaling required for the storage of long-term memory, including emotional memory that may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:21555073

  19. Biological response of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) induced by corticosterone and a bacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Shini, Shaniko; Kaiser, Pete; Shini, Agim; Bryden, Wayne L

    2008-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with chickens exposed to corticosterone and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli, with the aim of evaluating and differentiating their effects on endocrine, metabolic and immune response. Both, corticosterone and LPS significantly elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios 1 h, 3 h and 24 h post-treatments. Repeated exposure to corticosterone caused a prolonged elevation of plasma corticosterone concentration and H/L ratio. Data on blood metabolites demonstrated that corticosterone stimulated hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, LPS induced hypocholesterolemia and hypotriglyceridemia at 24 h post-injection. Weight gain and relative weight of the spleen and bursa were reduced in chickens treated with corticosterone. The LPS did not show any significant effect on weekly weight gain, but stimulated an increase in the relative weight of the spleen. Corticosterone initially stimulated antibody responsiveness to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccination, but thereafter the titres decreased. This was in contrast to LPS which depressed the antibody titre to IBV vaccination. It was concluded that the biological response of chickens induced by corticosterone could be differed from the response to LPS. The major difference occurred in metabolic, growth and immune activities. It appears that, both corticosterone and LPS differently alter physiological, metabolic and immunological responses of chickens through an activation of different molecular components (cytokines and chemokines) and neuroendocrine-immune network systems. PMID:18024213

  20. The desmosome and pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Desmosomes are patch-like intercellular adhering junctions (“maculae adherentes”), which, in concert with the related adherens junctions, provide the mechanical strength to intercellular adhesion. Therefore, it is not surprising that desmosomes are abundant in tissues subjected to significant mechanical stress such as stratified epithelia and myocardium. Desmosomal adhesion is based on the Ca2+-dependent, homo- and heterophilic transinteraction of cadherin-type adhesion molecules. Desmosomal cadherins are anchored to the intermediate filament cytoskeleton by adaptor proteins of the armadillo and plakin families. Desmosomes are dynamic structures subjected to regulation and are therefore targets of signalling pathways, which control their molecular composition and adhesive properties. Moreover, evidence is emerging that desmosomal components themselves take part in outside-in signalling under physiologic and pathologic conditions. Disturbed desmosomal adhesion contributes to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as pemphigus, which is caused by autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins. Beside pemphigus, desmosome-associated diseases are caused by other mechanisms such as genetic defects or bacterial toxins. Because most of these diseases affect the skin, desmosomes are interesting not only for cell biologists who are inspired by their complex structure and molecular composition, but also for clinical physicians who are confronted with patients suffering from severe blistering skin diseases such as pemphigus. To develop disease-specific therapeutic approaches, more insights into the molecular composition and regulation of desmosomes are required. PMID:18386043

  1. A Genetically Encoded Tag for Correlated Light and Electron Microscopy of Intact Cells, Tissues, and Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaokun; Lev-Ram, Varda; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Qi, Yingchuan; Ramko, Ericka B.; Davidson, Michael W.; Jin, Yishi; Ellisman, Mark H.; Tsien, Roger Y.

    2011-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) achieves the highest spatial resolution in protein localization, but specific protein EM labeling has lacked generally applicable genetically encoded tags for in situ visualization in cells and tissues. Here we introduce miniSOG (for mini Singlet Oxygen Generator), a fluorescent flavoprotein engineered from Arabidopsis phototropin 2. MiniSOG contains 106 amino acids, less than half the size of Green Fluorescent Protein. Illumination of miniSOG generates sufficient singlet oxygen to locally catalyze the polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product resolvable by EM. MiniSOG fusions to many well-characterized proteins localize correctly in mammalian cells, intact nematodes, and rodents, enabling correlated fluorescence and EM from large volumes of tissue after strong aldehyde fixation, without the need for exogenous ligands, probes, or destructive permeabilizing detergents. MiniSOG permits high quality ultrastructural preservation and 3-dimensional protein localization via electron tomography or serial section block face scanning electron microscopy. EM shows that miniSOG-tagged SynCAM1 is presynaptic in cultured cortical neurons, whereas miniSOG-tagged SynCAM2 is postsynaptic in culture and in intact mice. Thus SynCAM1 and SynCAM2 could be heterophilic partners. MiniSOG may do for EM what Green Fluorescent Protein did for fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21483721

  2. The effect of different degrees of feed restriction on heat shock protein 70, acute phase proteins, and other blood parameters in female broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Kashiani, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the physiological response to feed restriction in female broiler breeders using a range of conventional and novel indicators. One hundred female breeders were subjected to one of five feeding regimens from d 28 to 42 as follows (i) ad libitum feeding (AL), (ii-v) 75, 60, 45, and 30% of ad libitum feed intake. Blood heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR), and plasma circulating corticosterone (CORT), ghrelin (GHR), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) and serum acute phase proteins (APP) concentrations together with brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 level were measured. The results showed a significant effect of feed restriction on blood HLR and plasma CORT, GHR, 5-HT, DA, and brain HSP 70 levels. However, feed restriction had no effect on serum levels of APP of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and ceruloplasmin. Serum levels of 5-HT and GHR varied curvilinearly with the feed restriction level. The relationship between brain HSP 70 and level of feed restriction was negligible. However, significant linear relationships between HLR, CORT, DA, and the level of feed restriction were noted. Thus, these 3 parameters appear to represent a straight forward relation with severity of feed restriction. PMID:26316343

  3. Immunotoxicity of commercial-mixed glyphosate in broad snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).

    PubMed

    Siroski, Pablo A; Poletta, Gisela L; Latorre, María A; Merchant, Mark E; Ortega, Hugo H; Mudry, Marta D

    2016-01-25

    The expansion and intensification of agriculture during the past 50 years is unprecedented, and thus environmental problems have been triggered at different scales. These transformations have caused the loss of habitat and biodiversity, and disruption of the structure and functioning of ecosystems. As a result of the expansion of the agricultural frontier in the recent past, many areas of the natural geographic distribution of the local wildlife, among them crocodilians and particularly the broad snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), are being exposed to contaminants. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of commercially-mixed glyphosate (RU) on some parameters of the immune system of C. latirostris. Two groups of caimans were exposed for two months to different concentrations of RU recommended for its application in the field, while one group was maintained as an unexposed control. The RU concentration was progressively decreased through the exposure period to simulate glyphosate degradation in water. After exposure, total and differential white blood cell (WBC), and complement system activity (CS) were determined. In addition, the animals were injected with a solution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli to trigger an immune response and evaluate the parameters associated with it. The results showed that an effect of the herbicide on CS was observed, as animals exposed to RU showed a lower CS activity than animals from the negative control (NC) but not in total WBC. In the case of leukocyte population counts, differences were only found for heterophils and lymphocytes. PMID:26658029

  4. Mercury levels, reproduction, and hematology in western grebes from three California Lakes, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Elbert, R.A.; Anderson, D.W.

    1998-02-01

    Twenty-three healthy adult western and Clark`s grebes (Aechmorphorus occidentalis and Aechmorphorus clarkii) were collected at three study sites in California, USA, in 1992: Clear Lake, Lake County; Eagle Lake, Lassen County; and Tule Lake, Siskiyou County. Liver, kidney, breast muscle, and brain were analyzed for total mercury (Hg) concentration (ppm wet weight), and blood was analyzed for various blood parameters. Clear Lake birds had greater Hg concentrations in kidney, breast muscle, and brain than birds from the other two lakes whereas liver concentrations were not statistically different. Average concentrations for Clear Lake birds were 2.74 ppm for liver, 2.06 ppm for kidney, 1.06 ppm for breast muscle, and 0.28 ppm for brain. The tissue levels of kidney, breast muscle, and brain at the other two study sites were one half the levels found at Clear Lake. These mean tissue levels were near, but below, those known to cause adverse effects. When data from all sites were merged, kidney, breast muscle, and brain concentrations are positively correlated to each other. Liver concentrations were not correlated to any other value. Brain Hg concentrations were also negatively correlated to blood potassium and blood phosphorus levels. Kidney Hg levels were positively correlated to percent blood heterophils and negatively correlated to percent eosinophils, suggesting that mercury levels might be affecting immune function. These biomarkers could not be related to any obvious ecological effects.

  5. From Split to Sibenik: The Tortuous Pathway in the Cholinesterase Field

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Palmer

    2010-01-01

    The interim between the first and tenth International Cholinesterase meetings has seen remarkable advances associated with the applications of structural biology and recombinant DNA methodology to our field. The cloning of the cholinesterase genes led to the identification of a new super family of proteins, termed the ?,?hydrolase fold; members of this family possess a four helix bundle capable of linking structural subunits to the functioning globular protein. Sequence comparisons and three dimensional structural studies revealed unexpected cousins possessing this fold that, in turn, revealed three distinct functions for the ?,?-hydrolase proteins. These encompass: (1) a capacity for hydrolytic cleavage of a great variety of substrates, (2) a heterophilic adhesion function that results in trans-synaptic associations in linked neurons, (3) a chaperone function leading to stabilization of nascent protein and its trafficking to an extracellular or secretory storage location. The analysis and modification of structure may go beyond understanding mechanism, since it may be possible to convert the cholinesterases to efficient detoxifying agents of organophosphatases assisted by added oximes. Also, the study of the relationship between the ?,?hydrolase fold proteins and their biosynthesis may yield means by which aberrant trafficking may be corrected, enhancing expression of mutant proteins. Those engaged in cholinesterase research should take great pride in our accomplishments punctuated by the series of ten meetings. The momentum established and initial studies with related proteins all hold great promise for the future. PMID:20493179

  6. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  7. The Gametocytes of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi Infect Chicken Thrombocytes, Not Other Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenting; Liu, Jianwen; Xu, Ruixue; Zhang, Cui; Pang, Qin; Chen, Xin; Liu, Shengfa; Hong, Lingxian; Yuan, Jing; Li, Xiaotong; Chen, Yixin; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2015-01-01

    Leucocytozoon parasites infect a large number of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and cause significant economical loss to the poultry industry. Although the transmission stages of the parasites were observed in avian blood cells more than a century ago, the specific host cell type(s) that the gametocytes infect remain uncertain. Because all the avian blood cells, including red blood cells (RBCs), are nucleated, and the developing parasites dramatically change the morphology of the infected host cells, it has been difficult to identify Leucocytozoon infected host cell(s). Here we use cell-type specific antibodies to investigate the identities of the host cells infected by Leucocytozoon sabrazesi gametocytes. Anti-RBC antibodies stained RBCs membrane strongly, but not the parasite-infected cells, ruling out the possibility of RBCs being the infected host cells. Antibodies recognizing various leukocytes including heterophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages did not stain the infected cells either. Antisera raised against a peptide of the parasite cytochrome B (CYTB) stained parasite-infected cells and some leukocytes, particularly cells with a single round nucleus as well as clear/pale cytoplasm suggestive of thrombocytes. Finally, a monoclonal antibody known to specifically bind chicken thrombocytes also stained the infected cells, confirming that L. sabrazesi gametocytes develop within chicken thrombocytes. The identification of L. sabrazesi infected host cell solves a long unresolved puzzle and provides important information for studying parasite invasion of host cells and for developing reagents to interrupt parasite transmission. PMID:26218846

  8. Pododermatitis in Captive and Free-Ranging Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus).

    PubMed

    Wyss, F; Schumacher, V; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Gobeli, S; Arnaud, A; Engels, M; Friess, M; Lange, C E; Stoffel, M H; Robert, N

    2015-11-01

    Pododermatitis is frequent in captive flamingos worldwide, but little is known about the associated histopathologic lesions. Involvement of a papillomavirus or herpesvirus has been suspected. Histopathologic evaluation and viral assessment of biopsies from 19 live and 10 dead captive greater flamingos were performed. Selected samples were further examined by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Feet from 10 dead free-ranging greater flamingos were also evaluated. The histologic appearance of lesions of flamingos of increasing age was interpreted as the progression of pododermatitis. Mild histologic lesions were seen in a 3-week-old flamingo chick with no macroscopic lesions, and these were characterized by Micrococcus-like bacteria in the stratum corneum associated with exocytosis of heterophils. The inflammation associated with these bacteria may lead to further histologic changes: irregular columnar proliferations, papillary squirting, and dyskeratosis. In more chronic lesions, hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes, epidermal hyperplasia, and dyskeratosis were seen at the epidermis, as well as proliferation of new blood vessels and increased intercellular matrix in the dermis. Papillomavirus DNA was not identified in any of the samples, while herpesvirus DNA was seen only in a few cases; therefore, these viruses were not thought to be the cause of the lesions. Poor skin health through suboptimal husbandry may weaken the epidermal barrier and predispose the skin to invasion of Micrococcus-like bacteria. Histologic lesions were identified in very young flamingos with no macroscopic lesions; this is likely to be an early stage lesion that may progress to macroscopic lesions. PMID:25617345

  9. Neuropathogenic Capacity of Lentogenic, Mesogenic, and Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strains in Day-Old Chickens.

    PubMed

    Moura, V M B D; Susta, L; Cardenas-Garcia, S; Stanton, J B; Miller, P J; Afonso, C L; Brown, C C

    2016-01-01

    Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have different abilities to elicit neurologic signs. To determine the capacity of different NDV strains to replicate and cause lesions in the brain, independently of their peripheral replication, 1-day-old chickens were inoculated in the subdural space with 7 NDV strains of different virulence (4 velogenic, 2 mesogenic, 1 lentogenic). Velogenic strains induced severe necrotizing and heterophilic ventriculitis and meningitis, as well as edema of the neuroparenchyma, and replicated extensively in the nervous tissue by day 2 postinfection, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, when all infected birds died. Clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and viral replication were delayed (days 3 and 4 postinfection) with mesogenic strains. Velogenic and mesogenic NDV strains replicated mainly in neurons, and immunolabeling was first detected in surface-oriented areas (periventricular and submeningeal), possibly as a reflection of the inoculation route. The lentogenic NDV strain did not cause death of infected birds; replication was confined to the epithelium of the ependyma and choroid plexuses; and lesions consisted of lymphoid aggregates limited to the choroid plexuses. Results show that extensive NDV replication in the brain is typical of velogenic and mesogenic, but not lentogenic, NDV strains. In addition, this study suggests that differences in the rate of NDV replication in nervous tissue, not differences in neurotropism, differentiate velogenic from mesogenic NDV strains. This study indicates that intracerebral inoculation might be used as an effective method to study the mechanisms of NDV neuropathogenesis. PMID:26395462

  10. Ectonucleotidases and adenosine deaminase activity in laying hens naturally infected by Salmonella Gallinarum and their effects on the pathogenesis of the disease.

    PubMed

    Boiago, Marcel M; Baldissera, Matheus D; Doleski, Pedro H; Bottari, Nathieli B; do Carmo, Guilherme M; Araujo, Denise N; Giuriatti, Jessica; Baggio, Vanessa; Leal, Daniela B R; Casagrande, Renata A; Wisser, Cláudia S; Stefani, Lenita M; da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella Gallinarum is the etiologic agent of fowl typhoid that affects chickens and turkeys causing egg production drops, infertility, lower hatchability, high mortality, and as a consequence severe economic losses to the poultry industry. The alterations in NTPDase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities have been demonstrated in several inflammatory conditions; however, there are no data in the literature associated with this infection. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activities of NTPDase, 5'nucleotidase, and ADA in serum and hepatic tissue of laying hens naturally infected by Salmonella Gallinarum. Liver and serum samples were collected of 27 laying hens (20 S. Gallinarum infected and 7 uninfected). NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities in serum were increased (P < 0.001) in infected animals to hydrolysis of substrate ATP, ADP and AMP. In addition, it was observed decreased (P < 0.001) in ADA activity in serum of laying hens naturally infected by S. Gallinarum; as well as increased (P < 0.001) ADA activity in liver tissue of infected laying hens. Histopathological analyses revealed that S. Gallinarum caused fibrinoid necrosis in liver and spleen associated with infiltrates of heterophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Considering that NTPDase and ADA are involved in the cell-mediated immunity, this study suggests that activities of these enzymes could be important biomarkers to determine the severity of inflammatory and immune responses in salmonellosis, contributing to clarify the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26911648

  11. Interactions by the Fungal Flo11 Adhesin Depend on a Fibronectin Type III-like Adhesin Domain Girdled by Aromatic Bands.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Timo; Brckner, Stefan; Veelders, Maik; Rhinow, Daniel; Schreiner, Franka; Birke, Raphael; Pagenstecher, Axel; Msch, Hans-Ulrich; Essen, Lars-Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbors a family of GPI-anchored cell wall proteins for interaction with its environment. The flocculin Flo11, a major representative of these fungal adhesins, confers formation of different types of multicellular structures such as biofilms, flors, or filaments. To understand these environment-dependent growth phenotypes on a molecular level, we solved the crystal structure of the N-terminal Flo11A domain at 0.89- resolution. Besides a hydrophobic apical region, the Flo11A domain consists of a ? sandwich of the fibronectin type III domain (FN3). We further show that homophilic Flo11-Flo11 interactions and heterophilic Flo11-plastic interactions solely depend on the Flo11A domain and are strongly pH dependent. These functions of Flo11A involve an apical region with its surface-exposed aromatic band, which is accompanied by acidic stretches. Together with electron microscopic reconstructions of yeast cell-cell contact sites, our data suggest that Flo11 acts as a spacer-like, pH-sensitive adhesin that resembles a membrane-tethered hydrophobin. PMID:25960408

  12. Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.

    1989-11-01

    Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.

  13. Structures of CD6 and Its Ligand CD166 Give Insight into Their Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Paul E.; Garner, Lee I.; Yan, Jun; Metcalfe, Clive; Hatherley, Deborah; Johnson, Steven; Robinson, Carol V.; Lea, Susan M.; Brown, Marion H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary CD6 is a transmembrane protein with an extracellular region containing three scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) domains. The membrane proximal domain of CD6 binds the N-terminal immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domain of another cell surface receptor, CD166, which also engages in homophilic interactions. CD6 expression is mainly restricted to T cells, and the interaction between CD6 and CD166 regulates T-cell activation. We have solved the X-ray crystal structures of the three SRCR domains of CD6 and two N-terminal domains of CD166. This first structure of consecutive SRCR domains reveals a nonlinear organization. We characterized the binding sites on CD6 and CD166 and showed that a SNP in CD6 causes glycosylation that hinders the CD6/CD166 interaction. Native mass spectrometry analysis showed that there is competition between the heterophilic and homophilic interactions. These data give insight into how interactions of consecutive SRCR domains are perturbed by SNPs and potential therapeutic reagents. PMID:26146185

  14. Superoxide dismutase expression and oxidative damage in a case of myopathy in brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Giri, Dipak K; Miller, Debra L; Thompson, Larry J; Mailler, Lesley; Styer, Eloise; Baldwin, Charles

    2007-05-01

    Four brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) housed at a rehabilitation facility were found dead after a 3-day history of muscle weakness and after being fed for about 2 weeks from a recent shipment of fish. The birds had pale streaking of the skeletal and heart muscles. Microscopically, the skeletal muscle, and to a lesser extent the cardiac muscle, had severe myocyte degeneration and necrosis characterized by microvacuolation with loss of cross-striations, condensation of cytoplasm, fragmentation, mineralization, and inflammatory cell infiltrates consisting of multinucleated cells, macrophages, and few heterophils. The findings were consistent with myopathy, and a nutritional myopathy caused by eating rancid fish was suspected. Immunohistochemical staining revealed abundant immunoreactive copper zinc superoxide dismutase and manganese superoxide dismutase either as diffuse homogeneous precipitates or granular aggregates in the cytoplasm of affected cells. Immunoreactivity was directly related to degree of cellular damage as estimated by light microscopic examination. We suggest that the lack of protection, despite upregulation of superoxide dismutase, is most likely attributable to supersaturation of oxidants beyond the capacity of superoxide dismutases to scavenge. PMID:17459863

  15. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jennifer L; Whittington, Julia K; Wilmes, Christine M; Messick, Joanne B

    2009-03-01

    A free-ranging adult female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was presented to the Wildlife Medical Clinic at the University of Illinois after being observed with anorexia and decreased activity. A severe leukocytosis (212 400 cells/microl), primarily comprised of mature heterophils, was found at presentation. Results of various diagnostic tests including radiographs, Chlamydophila serologic testing, measurement of Aspergillus antibody and antigen titers, plasma protein electrophoresis, fecal culture and acid-fast staining, coelioscopy, endoscopy, tracheoscopy, exploratory coelomotomy, nuclear scintigraphy, tissue cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and histopathology revealed no underlying cause for the persistent leukocytosis. No response to treatment with antibiotics or antifungal agents was observed, although a transient, significant decrease in the leukocyte count (6200 cells/microl) was observed after treatment with fenbendazole. A presumptive diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia was made based on 3 factors: disease duration of greater than 3 months, a lack of identifiable foci of inflammation, and a lack of response to conventional therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed based on postmortem examination and testing 177 days after initial presentation. PMID:19530405

  16. Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fahimeh; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Golian, Abolghasem; Nassiri-Moghaddam, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    The effect of dietary thyme-oil extract (TOE) supplementation on immune functions of broilers were assessed by feeding graded levels (50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm) of TOE to male broiler chicks during a 42-d feeding trial compared with negative- or positive-control diets. Dietary control treatments included a negative-control diet with no feed-additive supplementation and 2 positive-control groups supplemented with either virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin. In total, 300 1-day-old Ross × Ross male broilers were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments that consisted of 5 replicates of 10 birds each. On d 21 and 42, 2 birds from each replicate were killed by cervical cutting to measure the relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. At 25 d of age, chicks were injected with 0.5 mL of 10% SRBC suspension. Broilers fed with 200 ppm of TOE had heavier weights of bursa of Fabricius than those fed other dietary treatments at d 42 of age. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of 100 ppm of TOE resulted in higher (P < 0.05) total immunoglobulin response in primary antibody titer against sheep erythrocytes compared with other dietary treatments. On the other hand, diet modifications had no significant effect on blood leukocyte subpopulations and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with TOE, especially at the level of 100 ppm, can improve immunological responses of broiler chicks. PMID:26362978

  17. Using haematological parameters to infer the health and nutritional status of an endangered black-necked swan population.

    PubMed

    Artacho, Paulina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Verdugo, Claudio; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2007-08-01

    Living organisms are continuously faced with several forms of environmental perturbation, one of the most important being human activity. In this scenario, the role of physiological studies on wildlife has proved to be important given that in vivo physiological variables reflect a great deal how sensitive animals are to acute environmental changes. We studied the haematological parameters in black-necked swans (Cygnus melanocoryphus) at the Ramsar site at the Carlos Anwandter Sanctuary, which were experiencing a drastic population decrease. Through seven months, body mass (body mass corrected by total length) was reduced 30%, which was followed by significant reductions of haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and red blood cell count. Mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin concentration did not change with time, whereas there was a significant increase of the white blood cells and heterophile / lymphocyte ratio. Our results, together with the published evidence, suggests that the proximal factors associated with the mass mortality and emigration of the black - necked swan population at the "Carlos Anwandter Sanctuary" was a drastic nutritional deficiency, and the potentially toxic effects of iron pollution in the waters of the Ramsar site. PMID:17448718

  18. Different roles of cadherins in the assembly and structural integrity of the desmosome complex

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, M.; Rakshit, S.; Shafraz, O.; Borghi, N.; Harmon, R. M.; Green, K. J.; Sivasankar, S.; Nelson, W. J.

    2014-05-15

    Adhesion between cells is established by the formation of specialized intercellular junctional complexes, such as desmosomes. Desmosomes comprise two members of the cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins, desmocollin (Dsc) and desmoglein (Dsg), but their combinatorial roles in desmosome assembly is not understood. To uncouple desmosome assembly from other cell-cell adhesion complexes, we used micro-patterned substrates of Dsc2aFc and/or Dsg2Fc and collagen IV; we show that Dsc2aFc, but not Dsg2Fc, was necessary and sufficient to recruit desmosome-specific desmoplakin into desmosome puncta and produce strong adhesive binding. Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy showed that monomeric Dsc2a, but not Dsg2, formed Ca2+-dependent homophilic bonds, and that Dsg2 formed Ca2+-independent heterophilic bonds with Dsc2a. A W2A mutation in Dsc2a inhibited Ca2+-dependent homophilic binding, similar to classical cadherins, and Dsc2aW2A, but not Dsg2W2A, was excluded from desmosomes in MDCK cells. These results indicate that Dsc2a, not Dsg2, is required for desmosome assembly via homophilic Ca2+- and W2/strand swap-dependent binding, and that Dsg2 may be involved later in regulating a switch to Ca2+-independent adhesion in mature desmosomes.

  19. Monoubiquitination of ancient ubiquitous protein 1 promotes lipid droplet clustering.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Daniel; Spandl, Johanna; Stevanovic, Ana; Schoene, Mario; Philippou-Massier, Julia; Thiele, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplets, the intracellular storage organelles for neutral lipids, exist in a wide range of sizes and of morphologically distinct organization, from loosely dispersed lipid droplets to tightly packed lipid droplet clusters. We show that the lipid droplet protein AUP1 induces cluster formation. A fraction of AUP1 is monoubiquitinated at various lysine residues. This process depends on its internal CUE domain, which is a known ubiquitin-binding domain. AUP1 with a deleted or point mutagenized CUE domain, as well as a lysine-free mutant, are not ubiquitinated and do not induce lipid droplet clustering. When such ubiquitination deficient mutants are fused to ubiquitin, clustering is restored. AUP1 mutants with defective droplet targeting fail to induce clustering. Also, another lipid droplet protein, NSDHL, with a fused ubiquitin does not induce clustering. The data indicate that monoubiquitinated AUP1 on the lipid droplet surface specifically induces clustering, and suggest a homophilic interaction with a second AUP1 molecule or a heterophilic interaction with another ubiquitin-binding protein. PMID:24039768

  20. Giant cadherins Fat and Dachsous self-bend to organize properly spaced intercellular junctions.

    PubMed

    Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Nagae, Shigenori; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Tanoue, Takuji; Iwasaki, Kenji; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2014-11-11

    The cadherins Fat and Dachsous regulate cell polarity and proliferation via their heterophilic interactions at intercellular junctions. Their ectodomains are unusually large because of repetitive extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, which raises the question of how they fit in regular intercellular spaces. Cadherins typically exhibit a linear topology through the binding of Ca(2+) to the linker between the EC domains. Our electron-microscopic observations of mammalian Fat4 and Dachsous1 ectodomains, however, revealed that, although their N-terminal regions exhibit a linear configuration, the C-terminal regions are kinked with multiple hairpin-like bends. Notably, certain EC-EC linkers in Fat4 and Dachsous1 lost Ca(2+)-binding amino acids. When such non-Ca(2+)-binding linkers were substituted for a normal linker in E-cadherin, the mutant E-cadherins deformed more extensively than the wild-type molecule. To simulate cadherin structures with non-Ca(2+)-binding linkers, we used an elastic network model and confirmed that bent configurations can be generated by deformation of non-Ca(2+)-binding linkers. These findings suggest that Fat and Dachsous self-bend due to the loss of Ca(2+)-binding amino acids from specific EC-EC linkers, and can therefore adapt to confined spaces. PMID:25355906

  1. Binding between the neural cell adhesion molecules axonin-1 and Nr- CAM/Bravo is involved in neuron-glia interaction

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily mediate cellular interactions via homophilic binding to identical molecules and heterophilic binding to other family members or structurally unrelated cell-surface glycoproteins. Here we report on an interaction between axonin-1 and Nr-CAM/Bravo. In search for novel ligands of axonin-1, fluorescent polystyrene microspheres conjugated with axonin-1 were found to bind to peripheral glial cells from dorsal root ganglia. By antibody blockage experiments an axonin-1 receptor on the glial cells was identified as Nr-CAM. The specificity of the interaction was confirmed with binding studies using purified axonin-1 and Nr-CAM. In cultures of dissociated dorsal root ganglia antibodies against axonin-1 and Nr-CAM perturbed the formation of contacts between neurites and peripheral glial cells. Together, these results implicate a binding between axonin-1 of the neuritic and Nr-CAM of the glial cell membrane in the early phase of axon ensheathment in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:7490283

  2. How, with whom and when: an overview of CD147-mediated regulatory networks influencing matrix metalloproteinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Grass, G. Daniel; Toole, Bryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of 23 zinc-dependent enzymes involved in various pathologic and physiologic processes. In cancer, MMPs contribute to processes from tumour initiation to establishment of distant metastases. Complex signalling and protein transport networks regulate MMP synthesis, cell surface presentation and release. Earlier attempts to disrupt MMP activity in patients have proven to be intolerable and with underwhelming clinical efficacy; thus targeting ancillary proteins that regulate MMP activity may be a useful therapeutic approach. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was originally characterized as a factor present on lung cancer cells, which stimulated collagenase (MMP-1) production in fibroblasts. Subsequent studies demonstrated that EMMPRIN was identical with several other protein factors, including basigin (Bsg), all of which are now commonly termed CD147. CD147 modulates the synthesis and activity of soluble and membrane-bound [membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs)] in various contexts via homophilic/heterophilic cell interactions, vesicular shedding or cell-autonomous processes. CD147 also participates in inflammation, nutrient and drug transporter activity, microbial pathology and developmental processes. Despite the hundreds of manuscripts demonstrating CD147-mediated MMP regulation, the molecular underpinnings governing this process have not been fully elucidated. The present review summarizes our present knowledge of the complex regulatory systems influencing CD147 biology and provides a framework to understand how CD147 may influence MMP activity. PMID:26604323

  3. Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquarium.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Allison D; Andreadis, Theodore G; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2005-06-15

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was diagnosed in a flock of African penguins. Diagnosis was based on history and clinical signs and confirmed via serologic testing, virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and histologic examination. Clinical signs in penguins included anorexia, behavior changes, depression, regurgitation, ataxia, recumbency, and seizures, and some penguins did not have any clinical signs. Mean +/- SD number of days that affected penguins had clinical signs was 12 +/- 5 days. Abnormalities initially detected on CBC included heterophilic leukocytosis and anemia; lymphocytosis and monocytosis were detected later. Plasma biochemical abnormalities included high activities of aspartate amino-transferase and creatine kinase, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hyperglycemia, and high concentrations of globulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Mean +/- SD number of days required for resolution of CBC and plasma biochemical abnormalities was 67 +/- 24 days after the onset of clinical signs. Treatment consisted of supportive therapy. All penguins survived with the exception of one that was euthanatized; histopathologic findings were consistent with encephalitis. Results of RT-PCR assays performed on tissue from the right cerebrum of the penguin that was euthanatized were positive for EEE viral RNA. An inability to isolate virus several weeks after illness suggested successful viral clearance in recovered penguins. To the authors' knowledge, EEE infection in any penguin species has not been reported. PMID:15989191

  4. Comparison of Hematologic and Biochemical Test Results in Blood Samples Obtained by Jugular Venipuncture Versus Nail Clip in Moluccan Cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tracy D; Lejnieks, Daniel V; Koepke, Hoyt; Grimson, Fiona; Szucs, Jennifer; Omaits, Kerri; Lane, Rosalie

    2015-12-01

    In birds, blood samples are often collected from the jugular, medial metatarsal, and basilic vein. Samples are sometimes collected by toe nail clip, but concerns to avoid drawing blood from the nail include pain after nail clips for blood collection, potential differences in complete blood count (CBC) results, and potential contamination with uric acid values. To compare differences in biochemical and hematologic values in blood samples obtained by jugular venipuncture versus toenail clip, blood samples were collected from Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) (N = 23) and sent to a commercial laboratory for routine CBCs and serum biochemical analysis. Results showed good agreement between venipuncture and nail clip blood samples in red blood cell count, packed cell volume, heterophil count and percentage, lymphocyte count and percentage, aspartate aminotransferase, chloride, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and uric acid values. Constant bias was found in values of bile acids, cholesterol, and hemoglobin. Proportional bias toward higher values in the jugular sample were found in total white blood cell (WBC) count and inorganic phosphorus. Serum calcium plots revealed a proportional bias toward higher values in the toe nail blood when values were increased. Results suggest some differences in WBC count, bile acids, calcium, cholesterol, hemoglobin, and phosphorus values between blood samples collected by jugular venipuncture and samples collected by toe nail clip, but the differences are mostly minor and, with the possible exception of inorganic phosphorus and marginally elevated or very low WBC counts, are unlikely to affect the use or interpretation of the avian blood panel. PMID:26771320

  5. Evidence of a dominance hierarchy in captive Caribbean flamingos and its relation to pair bonding and physiological measures of health.

    PubMed

    Royer, Erica A; Anderson, Matthew J

    2014-06-01

    Caribbean flamingo social structure, how pair bonds affect the structure of the flock, and how social stress affects health measured by heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (H/L) were investigated at the Philadelphia Zoo. It was hypothesized that a hierarchy may become apparent by analyzing agonistic interactions and that paired individuals would share similar places within the hierarchy. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that a negative relationship between H/L ratio and dominance would exist. Forty observations were conducted and in 70% of interactions instigating bird(s) won the encounter, suggesting either some advantage for instigating birds or a prior expectation of an encounter's outcome based upon an understanding of the flock's hierarchy. The flock possessed a semi-linear hierarchy (in terms of wins/losses) and birds with higher pair-bond strengths maintained dominant positions, suggesting that pair-bonding may help individuals become more successful in agonistic encounters. Birds who won more often had higher lymphocytes percentages and analyses suggested a trend indicating dominant birds may be less stressed. A semi-linear hierarchy was also found in terms of initiation/being targeted, and a bird's rank on the dominance (wins/losses) and initiate/target hierarchies were positively correlated, suggesting that subdominant birds were targeted by dominant birds more frequently than vice versa. PMID:24670555

  6. Cell-surface antigens of melanoma recognized by human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, H; Furukawa, K; Fortunato, S R; Livingston, P O; Lloyd, K O; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1987-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were derived from lymph node lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with melanoma. Four methods for generating human mAbs were compared: fusion with human [LICR-LON-HMy-2 (LICR-2)] or mouse (NS-1) cells; transformation by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); and EBV transformation followed by NS-1 fusion. NS-1 fusion with lymph node lymphocytes resulted in a higher number of growing hybrids than LICR-2 fusion. Virtually no hybrids were obtained from NS-1 or LICR-2 fusions with PBL. EBV transformed lymphocytes from lymph node and peripheral blood with equal efficiency, and the yield of proliferating cultures for antibody screening was more than 10- to 30-fold greater than that obtained by fusion techniques. However, once antibody-producing cultures had been identified, stability and clonability of EBV-transformed cells were poorer than that of NS-1 hybrid cells. To combine the strengths of both methods, cultures of EBV-transformed cells were fused with NS-1; and hybrid clones were isolated that showed vigorous growth, clonability, and stable antibody secretion. Detailed specificity analysis of the mAbs produced by six of these clones indicated detection of a class 1 (unique) melanoma antigen, a class 3 melanoma antigen, and four ganglioside antigens (GD3, GM3, and two other, as yet uncharacterized, heterophile antigens). Images PMID:3031684

  7. Structure of CD84 Provides Insight into SLAM Family Function

    SciTech Connect

    Yan,Q.; Malashkevich, V.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Cao, E.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. These receptors share a common ectodomain organization: a membrane-proximal immunoglobulin constant domain and a membrane-distal immunoglobulin variable domain that is responsible for ligand recognition. CD84 is a homophilic family member that enhances IFN-{gamma} secretion in activated T cells. Our solution studies revealed that CD84 strongly self-associates with a K{sub d} in the submicromolar range. These data, in combination with previous reports, demonstrate that the SLAM family homophilic affinities span at least three orders of magnitude and suggest that differences in the affinities may contribute to the distinct signaling behavior exhibited by the individual family members. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human CD84 immunoglobulin variable domain revealed an orthogonal homophilic dimer with high similarity to the recently reported homophilic dimer of the SLAM family member NTB-A. Structural and chemical differences in the homophilic interfaces provide a mechanism to prevent the formation of undesired heterodimers among the SLAM family homophilic receptors. These structural data also suggest that, like NTB-A, all SLAM family homophilic dimers adopt a highly kinked organization spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}140 {angstrom}. This common molecular dimension provides an opportunity for all two-domain SLAM family receptors to colocalize within the immunological synapse and bridge the T cell and antigen-presenting cell.

  8. The Cell Adhesion Molecules Roughest, Hibris, Kin of Irre and Sticks and Stones Are Required for Long Range Spacing of the Drosophila Wing Disc Sensory Sensilla

    PubMed Central

    Linneweber, Gerit Arne; Winking, Mathis; Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Most animal tissues and organ systems are comprised of highly ordered arrays of varying cell types. The development of external sensory organs requires complex cell-cell communication in order to give each cell a specific identity and to ensure a regular distributed pattern of the sensory bristles. This involves both long and short range signaling mediated by either diffusible or cell anchored factors. In a variety of processes the heterophilic Irre Cell Recognition Module, consisting of the Neph-like proteins: Roughest, Kin of irre and of the Nephrin-like proteins: Sticks and Stones, Hibris, plays key roles in the recognition events of different cell types throughout development. In the present study these proteins are apically expressed in the adhesive belt of epithelial cells participating in sense organ development in a partially exclusive and asymmetric manner. Using mutant analysis the GAL4/UAS system, RNAi and gain of function we found an involvement of all four Irre Cell Recognition Module-proteins in the development of a highly structured array of sensory organs in the wing disc. The proteins secure the regular spacing of sensory organs showing partial redundancy and may function in early lateral inhibition events as well as in cell sorting processes. Comparisons with other systems suggest that the Irre Cell Recognition module is a key organizer of highly repetitive structures. PMID:26053791

  9. Are peripheral Mott cells an indication of stress or inefficient immunity?

    PubMed

    Cotter, Paul F

    2015-07-01

    Atypical plasmacytes having distinctive cytoplasmic vacuoles (Mott cells) were detected in 77/1,000 (7.7%) of commercial hens housed conventionally, in aviaries, or in enriched environments. The earliest Mott positive peripheral blood samples were at placement (18 wk) from 2 consecutive commercial flocks. Additional samples obtained at 32, 48, 56, and 77 wk were positive. Most Mott cells came from hens with high total white blood cell counts as a component of leukocytosis. However, Mott cells were found in hens with low total white blood cell counts, and low heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. Phagocytosis of bacteria by some Mott cells was a remarkable feature. Many of the Mott positive hens had polymicrobial bacteremia and a few had fungemia likely accounting for the leukocytosis. In other cases, free-swimming bacteria were located near to a Mott cell. These atypical cells were in the peripheral blood samples from other poultry; a tom at slaughter (17 wk), experimental toms (10 wk), and experimental ducklings. Examples are included.As descriptions of avian Mott cells are few, the purpose of describing these cells is their contribution to hematology, immunology, and cytology. Mott cells like other atypia are sentinels, frank cytological indicators of an unusual hemogram, and consequently infer stress. Therefore, they bear directly on welfare issues. PMID:25725075

  10. Effect of dexamethasone on bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2015-08-15

    Stress has been shown to affect the immune system of turkeys making them more susceptible to bacterial infections. Five-week-old male and female turkeys were treated with 3 intra-muscular injections of dexamethasone (Dex) at 0, 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg body weight. Twenty-four hours after the third injection birds were bled and white blood cell (WBC) differentials and bacteriostatic activity of monocytes were measured. Dex at both 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg decreased phagocytic activity in females only. Bacteriostatic activity was decreased at both concentrations of Dex at 8 and 16 h post-infection in both sexes and was lower in males as compared to females. Total WBC counts were increased in females at both concentrations of Dex whereas male total WBC counts were unaffected. Both males and females had an increase in the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Within the same study, replicate pens of turkeys were challenged with intra-air sac inoculation of 100 cfu of Escherichia coli. Isolation of E. coli was significantly increased by both Dex and E. coli challenge, but there were no differences between sexes. These results suggest that stress can compromise the bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and increase bacterial colonization of blood and tissues, potentially affecting food safety. PMID:26099808

  11. NCAM function in the adult brain: lessons from mimetic peptides and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Dallrac, Glenn; Rampon, Claire; Doyre, Valrie

    2013-06-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) are complexes of transmembranal proteins critical for cell-cell interactions. Initially recognized as key players in the orchestration of developmental processes involving cell migration, cell survival, axon guidance, and synaptic targeting, they have been shown to retain these functions in the mature adult brain, in relation to plastic processes and cognitive abilities. NCAMs are able to interact among themselves (homophilic binding) as well as with other molecules (heterophilic binding). Furthermore, they are the sole molecule of the central nervous system undergoing polysialylation. Most interestingly polysialylated and non-polysialylated NCAMs display opposite properties. The precise contributions each of these characteristics brings in the regulations of synaptic and cellular plasticity in relation to cognitive processes in the adult brain are not yet fully understood. With the aim of deciphering the specific involvement of each interaction, recent developments led to the generation of NCAM mimetic peptides that recapitulate identified binding properties of NCAM. The present review focuses on the information such advances have provided in the understanding of NCAM contribution to cognitive function. PMID:23494903

  12. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A.

    PubMed

    Esquinas, Paula; Botero, Luca; Patio, Mara Del Pilar; Gallego, Carolina; Iregui, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n = 2); healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n = 2); healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n = 2); diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n = 3). The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide. PMID:23577280

  13. Pro-inflammatory effects of uric acid in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Crane, John K.; Mongiardo, Krystin M.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid can be generated in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the breakdown of nucleotides ingested in the diet or from purines released from host cells as a result of pathogen-induced cell damage. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine or xanthine into uric acid, a reaction that also generates hydrogen peroxide. It has been assumed that the product of XO responsible for the pro-inflammatory effects of this enzyme is hydrogen peroxide. Recent literature on uric acid, however, has indicated that uric acid itself may have biological effects. We tested whether uric acid itself has detectable pro-inflammatory effects using an in vivo model using ligated rabbit intestinal segments (loops) as well as in vitro assays using cultured cells. Addition of exogenous uric acid increased the influx of heterophils into rabbit intestinal loops, as measured by myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, white blood cells adhered avidly to uric acid crystals, forming large aggregates of cells. Uric acid acts as a leukocyte chemoattractant in the GI tract. The role of uric acid in enteric infections and in non-infectious disorders of the GI tract deserves more attention. PMID:24377830

  14. Ultrastructural immunolocalization of beta-defensin-27 in granulocytes of the dermis and wound epidermis of lizard suggests they contribute to the anti-microbial skin barrier

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The high resistance to infections in lizard wounds suggests that these reptiles possess effective antimicrobial peptides in their tissues. The present immunocytochemical study shows the cellular localization of beta-defensin 27 in tail tissues and in the blood, a defensin previously identified in the lizard Anolis carolinensis through biomolecular methods. Beta-defensin-27 immunoreactivity is only observed in some large granules mainly contained in heterophilic granulocytes that are sparse within the dermis of the skin or in the isolated blood. This peptide is absent in other cell types of the skin, in keratinocytes and in subdermal muscle tissue of the tail in normal conditions. Pre-corneous keratinocytes of the regenerating tail epidermis are unlabeled or show a weak labeling for the peptide only in sparse cytoplasmic areas or in the extracellular spaces among corneocytes of the wound and regenerating epidermis. The study suggests that beta-defensin 27 is normally stored in granulocytes present in the blood or in connective tissues while in the epidermis keratinocytes do not show the presence of this peptide unless these cells are stimulated from injury to produce and likely release beta-defensins. PMID:24386597

  15. Physiological indices of stress in wild and captive garter snakes: correlations, repeatability, and ecological variation.

    PubMed

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M; Williams, Shelby; Parsai, Shikha; Manhart, Whitney; Palacios, Maria G

    2014-08-01

    Glucocorticoids and leukocyte ratios have become the most widespread variables employed to test hypotheses regarding physiological stress in wild and captive vertebrates. Little is known, however, regarding how these two indices of stress covary in response to stressors, their repeatability within individuals, and differences in response time upon capture. Furthermore, few studies compare stress indices between captive and wild populations, to assess potential alteration of stress physiology in captivity. To address these issues, we examined corticosterone (CORT) and heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios in two ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans. We found that CORT and H:L ratios were not correlated within individuals, and both variables showed little or no repeatability over a period of months. CORT levels, but not H:L ratios, were higher for individuals sampled after 10min from the time of capture. However, both variables showed similar patterns of ecotypic variation, and both increased over time in gravid females maintained in captivity for four months. We suggest that CORT and H:L ratios are both useful, but disparate indices of stress in this species, and may show complex relationships to each other and to ecological and anthropogenic variables. PMID:24713520

  16. Scholarly tailgating defined: A diverse, giant network.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Scholarly tailgating and developmental relationships can soar professional identity, advance one's scholarly career and foster cultural diversity in healthcare. This paper provides the definition and basis of scholarly tailgating for scholars who wish to propel their careers and help enable diverse cultural approaches. The concept of scholarly tailgating explains the use of homophilic and diverse, multidisciplinary network relationships to foster an intellectual community in healthcare, and to benefit healthcare consumer. Scholars can benefit from standing on the shoulders of giants and allowing the aerodynamic wind to propel them to soaring career heights. Prudent scholars, apart from utilizing homophilic relationships and balancing these relationships with diverse heterophilic relationships, are able to lead in the professional academy, and become innovators who practice with cultural relevance. Multi-ethnic, diverse scholars working collaboratively can assist in igniting conversation and actions that reduce disparities, which are indigenous to those who are most vulnerable. Purposeful strategic planning and development of diverse networks that support scholarly advancement can best achieve these career accomplishments. PMID:23589967

  17. Cardiac repair and regenerative potential in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart?

    PubMed Central

    Roell, Julia; Das, Tanmoy L.; Brown, Evelyn; Burns, Alan R.; Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable ability of the heart to regenerate has been demonstrated in the zebrafish and giant danio, two fish members of the cyprinid family. Here we use light and electron microscopy to examine the repair response in the heart of another cyprinid, the goldfish (Carassius auretus), following cautery injury to a small portion of its ventricular myocardium. We observed a robust inflammatory response in the first two weeks consisting primarily of infiltrating macrophages, heterophils, and melanomacrophages. These inflammatory cells were identified in the lumen of the spongy heart, within the site of the wound, and attached to endocardial cells adjacent to the site of injury. Marked accumulation of collagen fibers and increased connective tissue were also observed during the first and second week in a transition zone between healthy and injured myocardium as well as in adjacent sub-epicardial regions. The accumulation of collagen and connective tissue however did not persist. The presence of capillaries was also noted in the injured area during repair. The replacement of the cauterized region of the ventricle by myocardial tissue was achieved by 6 weeks. The presence of ethynyl deoxyuridine-positive cardiac myocytes and partially differentiated cardiac myocytes during repair suggest effective cardiac myocyte driven regeneration mechanisms also operate in the injured goldfish heart, and are similar to those observed in zebrafish and giant danio. Our data suggest the ability for cardiac regeneration may be widely conserved among cyprinids. PMID:24548889

  18. Substrate-dependent modulation of 3D spheroid morphology self-assembled in mesenchymal stem cell-endothelial progenitor cell coculture.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shan-hui; Ho, Tung-Tso; Huang, Nien-Chi; Yao, Chao-Ling; Peng, Luen-Hau; Dai, Niann-Tzyy

    2014-08-01

    The structural evolution of three-dimensional spheroids self-assembled from two different types of cells on selective biomaterials is demonstrated in this study. The two types of cells involved in the self-assembly are human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). When seeded in different population ratios, they can create a variety of cellular patterns on different biomaterial substrates. When the two populations are matched in initial numbers, they are self-assembled in co-spheroids with different morphologies (i.e. randomly mixed, bumped, or concentric spheroids). The morphologies are influenced by the specific cell-substrate interaction possibly through integrin signaling, as well as a substrate-dependent regulation of heterophilic cell-cell interaction possibly through Notch signaling. In particular, the self-assembled core-shell concentric spheroids from adipose-derived MSCs and EPCs show a greater angiogenic effect invitro. This study reveals the possibility to modulate the self-assembled morphology as well as the effect of cocultured cells by changing the cell culture substratum. PMID:24909102

  19. Low temperatures reduce skin healing in the Jacar do Pantanal (Caiman yacare, Daudin 1802)

    PubMed Central

    Pressinotti, Leandro Nogueira; Borges, Ricardo Moraes; Alves De Lima, Angela Paula; Aleixo, Victor Manuel; Iunes, Renata Stecca; Borges, Joo Carlos Shimada; Cogliati, Bruno; Cunha Da Silva, Jos Roberto Machado

    2013-01-01

    Summary Studies of skin wound healing in crocodilians are necessary given the frequent occurrence of cannibalism in intensive farming systems. Air temperature affects tissue recovery because crocodilians are ectothermic. Therefore, the kinetics of skin wound healing in Caiman yacare were examined at temperatures of 33C and 23C. Sixteen caiman were selected and divided into two groups of eight maintained at 23C or 33C. The studied individuals' scars were photographed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days of the experimental conditions, and samples were collected for histological processing after 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Macroscopically, the blood clot (heterophilic granuloma) noticeably remained in place covering the wound longer for the caiman kept at 23C. Microscopically, the temperature of 23C slowed epidermal migration and skin repair. Comparatively, new blood vessels, labeled using von Willebrand factor (vWF) antibody staining, were more frequently found in the scars of the 33C group. The collagen fibers in the dermis were denser in the 33C treatment. Considering the delayed healing at 23C, producers are recommended to keep wounded animals at 33C, especially when tanks are cold, to enable rapid wound closure and better repair of collagen fibers because such lesions tend to compromise the use of their skin as leather. PMID:24244853

  20. Insights into the posttranslational structural heterogeneity of thyroglobulin and its role in the development, diagnosis, and management of benign and malignant thyroid diseases.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ana Carolina W; Maciel, Rui M B; Vieira, José Gilberto H; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus R; Martins, João R M

    2016-02-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) is the major glycoprotein produced by the thyroid gland, where it serves as a template for thyroid hormone synthesis and as an intraglandular store of iodine. Measurement of Tg levels in serum is of great practical importance in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), a setting in which elevated levels after total thyroidectomy are indicative of residual or recurrent disease. The most recent methods for serum Tg measurement are monoclonal antibody-based and are highly sensitive. However, major challenges remain regarding the interpretation of the results obtained with these immunometric methods, particularly in patients with endogenous antithyroglobulin antibodies or in the presence of heterophile antibodies, which may produce falsely low or high Tg values, respectively. The increased prevalence of antithyroglobulin antibodies in patients with DTC, as compared with the general population, raises the very pertinent possibility that tumor Tg may be more immunogenic. This inference makes sense, as the tumor microenvironment (tumor cells plus normal host cells) is characterized by several changes that could induce posttranslational modification of many proteins, including Tg. Attempts to understand the structure of Tg have been made for several decades, but findings have generally been incomplete due to technical hindrances to analysis of such a large protein (660 kDa). This review article will explore the complex structure of Tg and the potential role of its marked heterogeneity in our understanding of normal thyroid biology and neoplastic processes. PMID:26909485

  1. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  2. Monoubiquitination of Ancient Ubiquitous Protein 1 Promotes Lipid Droplet Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Daniel; Spandl, Johanna; Stevanovic, Ana; Schoene, Mario; Philippou-Massier, Julia; Thiele, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplets, the intracellular storage organelles for neutral lipids, exist in a wide range of sizes and of morphologically distinct organization, from loosely dispersed lipid droplets to tightly packed lipid droplet clusters. We show that the lipid droplet protein AUP1 induces cluster formation. A fraction of AUP1 is monoubiquitinated at various lysine residues. This process depends on its internal CUE domain, which is a known ubiquitin-binding domain. AUP1 with a deleted or point mutagenized CUE domain, as well as a lysine-free mutant, are not ubiquitinated and do not induce lipid droplet clustering. When such ubiquitination deficient mutants are fused to ubiquitin, clustering is restored. AUP1 mutants with defective droplet targeting fail to induce clustering. Also, another lipid droplet protein, NSDHL, with a fused ubiquitin does not induce clustering. The data indicate that monoubiquitinated AUP1 on the lipid droplet surface specifically induces clustering, and suggest a homophilic interaction with a second AUP1 molecule or a heterophilic interaction with another ubiquitin-binding protein. PMID:24039768

  3. A novel PI3K/AKT signaling axis mediates Nectin-4-induced gallbladder cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijian; Liu, Shibo; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yaoshi; Hao, Jiaqi; Wang, Zheng; Lu, Wei; Wang, Xu-An; Zhang, Fei; Cao, Yang; Liang, Haibin; Li, Huaifeng; Ye, Yuanyuan; Ma, Qiang; Zhao, Shuai; Shu, Yijun; Bao, Runfa; Jiang, Lin; Hu, Yunping; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Lei; Liu, Yingbin

    2016-05-28

    Nectin-4 is a Ca(2+)-independent immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule which has diverse functions in cell-cell adhesion via homophilic and heterophilic interactions. Cell-cell adhesive processes are central to cell polarization, differentiation, proliferation, survival and movement. Here we report that Nectin-4 is substantially overexpressed in gallbladder cancer (GBC), the most common biliary tract malignancy with a high risk of local tumor spread and invasion. Further, Nectin-4 high expression in GBC patients was associated with pathologic T stage and lymph node metastasis status, and the expression level of the downstream target Rac1 and poor prognoses were also correlated with Nectin-4. Ectopic expression of Nectin-4 promoted GBC cell growth, motility and tumor growth in a mouse model. The depletion of Nectin-4 inhibited GBC cell proliferation and migration both in cell culture and in mice. Our data suggest that activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway was involved in the oncogenic function of Nectin-4 to activate Rac1 in GBC. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT with LY294002 and/or Rac1 with NSC23766 impaired Nectin-4-mediated GBC cell proliferation and motility. We hypothesize that Nectin-4 is critical for GBC progression via PI3K/AKT pathway activation of Rac1. Nectin-4 may be a novel prognostic factor and therapeutic target in GBC patients. PMID:26949052

  4. Serological diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection: Problems and solutions

    PubMed Central

    De Paschale, Massimo; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2012-01-01

    Serological tests for antibodies specific for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens are frequently used to define infection status and for the differential diagnosis of other pathogens responsible for mononucleosis syndrome. Using only three parameters [viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM and EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1 IgG],it is normally possible to distinguish acute from past infection: the presence of VCA IgM and VCA IgG without EBNA-1 IgG indicates acute infection, whereas the presence of VCA IgG and EBNA-1 IgG without VCA IgM is typical of past infection. However, serological findings may sometimes be difficult to interpret as VCA IgG can be present without VCA IgM or EBNA-1 IgG in cases of acute or past infection, or all the three parameters may be detected simultaneously in the case of recent infection or during the course of reactivation. A profile of isolated EBNA-1 IgG may also create some doubts. In order to interpret these patterns correctly, it is necessary to determine IgG avidity, identify anti-EBV IgG and IgM antibodies by immunoblotting, and look for heterophile antibodies, anti-EA (D) antibodies or viral genome using molecular biology methods. These tests make it possible to define the status of the infection and solve any problems that may arise in routine laboratory practice. PMID:24175209

  5. [Serologic diagnosis of acute infectious mononucleosis].

    PubMed

    Sevi?, S

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with data on 48 patients with diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis hospitalized at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Novi Sad in the period October 1995 to October 1996. Tests like Paul-Bunnell-Davidson's, Monospot and ELISA were performed on samples of acute serum taken from every patient. Analyzing these results it has been established that majority of patients were 16-20 years of age, that the disease occurs in both sexes equally, and that most patients had a severe clinical picture with a typhoid form of the disease. Paul-Bunnell's test was positive in 50.49% of patients, Monospot in 56.25%, while all 48 patients had positive IgM EBV VCA. 11 patients had a positive IgG EBV VCA too, while none of the examined patients was IgG EBV NA positive. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in reliability of diagnosis made by specific serologic tests and tests which confirm the existence of heterophile antibodies. Characteristic changes of the differential blood picture, such as lymphomonocytosis with virocytes have been found only in 28 (58.33%) patients, so that in diagnosis of this disease hematological findings must be questioned. PMID:9471540

  6. Hemorrhagic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Levy, S; Brodsky, L; Stanievich, J

    1989-01-01

    Eleven patients with acute and/or chronic tonsillitis, who presented with a spontaneous tonsillar hemorrhage are reported and discussed. Two patterns of hemorrhage were noted: 1. diffuse, parenchymal bleeding and 2. localized bleeding from dilated surface vessels. Pharyngeal culture for group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus was positive in six patients (55%). Monospot, heterophile antibodies, complete blood cell count, prothombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and viral studies did not consistently demonstrate any abnormality. Two patients, however, did have an elevation in liver enzymes. In five patients, the bleeding stopped spontaneously; in five patients the bleeding was controlled with local chemical cautery. In two patients, Avitene was used for hemostasis. One other patient's bleeding was controlled by electrocautery while the patient was under anesthesia for endoscopic evaluation of hemoptysis. Two patients required blood transfusions; one of these patients had a history of factor IX deficiency. Four case histories are discussed in detail to illustrate the varied clinical presentation and some pitfalls in diagnosing and managing this rarely reported complication of tonsillitis. Possible mechanisms for the pathophysiology include increased tonsillar blood flow, necrosis of tonsillar surface cells, and trauma to dilated surface vessels. No common bacterial or viral etiology could be determined in this rare, but potentially serious, complication of tonsillitis. PMID:2909817

  7. Hepatitis in fatal infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Markin, R S; Linder, J; Zuerlein, K; Mroczek, E; Grierson, H L; Brichacek, B; Purtilo, D T

    1987-12-01

    A detailed clinicopathologic analysis of 30 patients with sporadic fatal infectious mononucleosis and 31 males with fatal infectious mononucleosis and the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome was performed to determine the extent of hepatic dysfunction in these cases. At death, the median age of patients with sporadic infectious mononucleosis was 10.7 yr vs. 2.4 yr for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. The median survival time was 8 wk for sporadic infectious mononucleosis and only 4 wk for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. The male to female ratio was 3:2 in sporadic infectious mononucleosis; all patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome were males. Fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were prominent findings. Hepatic dysfunction was uniformly present and caused death in 13 of 30 sporadic infectious mononucleosis cases and 18 of 31 X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome cases. Diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis was confirmed by heterophile antibody titers or Monospot, Epstein-Barr virus antibody studies, viral culture, molecular hybridization studies, clinical and histologic findings, and pedigree analysis. PMID:3678738

  8. Non-A, non-B viral hepatitis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Darwish, M A; Shaker, M; al-Kady, A M

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out on 200 patients of ages 20-40 years suffering from acute viral hepatitis. Sera were tested for markers of hepatitis B (HBsAg, and IgM anti-HBc) and hepatitis A (IgM-anti-HAV) by the ELISA technique. Sera negative for the markers of both viruses: Hepatitis A (HAV) and Hepatitis B (HBV) were subsequently tested for IGM Heterophil antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by the Monospot slide test to diagnose acute infectious mononucleosis and tested for anti-CMV (IgM) by ELISA technique for the diagnosis of acute Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANB) was diagnosed by exclusion. The results of the study showed that 133 (66.5%) patients had evidence of HBV infection, while only 9(4.5%) were diagnosed as HAV infection. EBV and CMV were the possible etiological agents of acute viral hepatitis in (3.5%) and 1%) respectively. Accordingly the Non-A, non-B hepatitis in this study amounts to (24.5%) of the acute viral hepatitis. PMID:1295944

  9. Transfusion-associated cytomegalovirus mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Lerner, P I; Sampliner, J E

    1977-04-01

    Transfusion-associated cytomegalovirus mononucleosis is generally considered only as a complication of extracorporeal circulation following cardiac surgery. Three cases following trauma were recognized in less than one year. Both massive and limited volume blood transfusions were involved. Hectic fever was a characteristic feature in these otherwise remarkably asymptomatic individuals, without the classic features of heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis. Since the illness developed several weeks into the post-operative period after extensive thoracic or abdominal trauma surgery, the presence of an undrained abscess was naturally the major diagnostic concern. Atypical lymphocytosis, markers of altered immunity (cold agglutinins, rheumatoid factor) and moderate hepatic dysfunction were important laboratory clues. In one case, focal isotope defects in the spleen scan misleadingly suggested a septic complication. A false-positive monospot test initially obscured the correct serologic diagnosis in the same patient. Failure to consider this selflimited viral infection may be a critical factor leading to unnecessary surgery. Other viral agents capable of eliciting a similar syndrome are cited. PMID:190955

  10. Amalgam, an axon guidance Drosophila adhesion protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily: over-expression, purification and biophysical characterization.

    PubMed

    Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Tzviya; Paz, Aviv; Peleg, Yoav; Toker, Lilly; Wolf, Sharon G; Rydberg, Edwin H; Sussman, Joel L; Silman, Israel

    2009-02-01

    Amalgam, a multi-domain member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, possesses homophilic and heterophilic cell adhesion properties. It is required for axon guidance during Drosophila development in which it interacts with the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein, neurotactin, to promote adhesion. Amalgam was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the secreted protein product, bearing an NH(2)-terminal His(6)Tag, was purified from the growth medium by metal affinity chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography separated the purified protein into two fractions: a major, multimeric fraction and a minor, dimeric one. Two protocols to reduce the percentage of multimers were tested. In one, protein induction was performed in the presence of the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS, yielding primarily the dimeric form of amalgam. In a second protocol, agitation was gradually reduced during the course of the induction and antifoam was added daily to reduce the air/liquid interfacial foam area. This latter protocol lowered the percentage of multimer 2-fold, compared to constant agitation. Circular dichroism measurements showed that the dimeric fraction had a high beta-sheet content, as expected for a protein with an immunoglobulin fold. Dynamic light scattering and sedimentation velocity measurements showed that the multimeric fraction displays a monodisperse distribution, with R(H)=16 nm. When co-expressed together with amalgam the ectodomain of neurotactin copurified with it. Furthermore, both purified fractions of amalgam were shown to interact with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase, a structural homolog of neurotactin. PMID:18938249

  11. Preliminary study of joint disease in poultry by the analysis of synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Corr, S A; Maxwell, M; Gentle, M J; Bennett, D

    2003-05-01

    Samples of synovial fluid and synovial membrane were obtained from the hock joints of several groups of broilers, including lame birds and two strains of broilers raised on different feeding regimens and given different drug treatments (carprofen or placebo). There were more significant differences between the groups on the basis of the analysis of the synovial fluid samples than the synovial membrane samples. Experimental birds fed ad libitum had the highest median red blood cell counts and median ghost cell counts of all of the groups, but there were no differences between the groups in the thickness of the synovial lining cell layer or the degree of cellular infiltrate in the synovial membrane. The synovial fluid from the broilers and lame birds fed ad libitum was more turbid, suggestive of intra-articular pathology, and the large numbers of heterophils in samples from the lame birds indicated an inflammatory arthropathy. The birds fed ad libitum which were treated with carprofen had more cells in the synovial fluid than the birds given the placebo. A large number of the samples of synovial fluid from the ad libitum-fed broilers contained blood. PMID:12751605

  12. How, with whom and when: an overview of CD147-mediated regulatory networks influencing matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Grass, G Daniel; Toole, Bryan P

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of 23 zinc-dependent enzymes involved in various pathologic and physiologic processes. In cancer, MMPs contribute to processes from tumour initiation to establishment of distant metastases. Complex signalling and protein transport networks regulate MMP synthesis, cell surface presentation and release. Earlier attempts to disrupt MMP activity in patients have proven to be intolerable and with underwhelming clinical efficacy; thus targeting ancillary proteins that regulate MMP activity may be a useful therapeutic approach. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was originally characterized as a factor present on lung cancer cells, which stimulated collagenase (MMP-1) production in fibroblasts. Subsequent studies demonstrated that EMMPRIN was identical with several other protein factors, including basigin (Bsg), all of which are now commonly termed CD147. CD147 modulates the synthesis and activity of soluble and membrane-bound [membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs)] in various contexts via homophilic/heterophilic cell interactions, vesicular shedding or cell-autonomous processes. CD147 also participates in inflammation, nutrient and drug transporter activity, microbial pathology and developmental processes. Despite the hundreds of manuscripts demonstrating CD147-mediated MMP regulation, the molecular underpinnings governing this process have not been fully elucidated. The present review summarizes our present knowledge of the complex regulatory systems influencing CD147 biology and provides a framework to understand how CD147 may influence MMP activity. PMID:26604323

  13. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

    PubMed Central

    Esquinas, Paula; Botero, Luca; Patio, Mara del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n = 2); healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n = 2); healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n = 2); diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n = 3). The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide. PMID:23577280

  14. Comparison of three automated immunoassay methods for the determination of Epstein-Barr virus-specific immunoglobulin M.

    PubMed

    Berth, Mario; Bosmans, Eugene

    2010-04-01

    In this study we compared the performances of three commercially available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) assays on highly automated immunoassay platforms: BioPlex 2200 (Bio-Rad Laboratories), Immulite 2000 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), and Liaison (DiaSorin). As a confirmatory method, immunoblotting was performed. The specificity of the three EBV IgM assays was evaluated by testing 293 selected sera from patients with various infectious and noninfectious diseases. After the exclusion of 30 samples, the specificities were 96.2% for Liaison, 98.1% for Immulite, and 97.0% for BioPlex. For evaluation of the sensitivity, samples from 70 consecutive patients with a positive heterophile antibody test were examined, irrespective of clinical or biological findings. After the exclusion of six samples, the sensitivities were 89.1% for Liaison, 84.4% for Immulite, and 89.1% for BioPlex. Finally, in a prospective study performed with 500 samples obtained from consecutive patients and sent in by general practitioners, we also determined Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen IgG and viral capsid antigen IgG in a two-phase approach. Concordance of the EBV serologic status was 96.2% between Liaison and Immulite, 96.4% between Immulite and BioPlex, and 97.8% between BioPlex and Liaison. The three EBV IgM immunoassays that we evaluated have acceptable and comparable performances. PMID:20147496

  15. Chickens treated with a nitric oxide inhibitor became more resistant to Plasmodium gallinaceum infection due to reduced anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a serious infectious disease caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus that affect different vertebrate hosts. Severe malaria leads to host death and involves different pathophysiological phenomena such as anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule in this disease, but little is known about its role in avian malaria models. Plasmodium gallinaceum- infected chickens were treated with aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, to observe the role of NO in the pathogenesis of this avian model. AG increased the survival of chickens, but also induced higher parasitemia. Treated chickens demonstrated reduced anemia and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, erythrocytes at different stages of maturation, heterophils, monocytes and thrombocytes were infected by Plasmodium gallinaceum and animals presented a generalized leucopenia. Activated leukocytes and thrombocytes with elongated double nuclei were observed in chickens with higher parasitemia; however, eosinophils were not involved in the infection. AG reduced levels of hemozoin in the spleen and liver, indicating lower inflammation. Taken together, the results suggest that AG reduced anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation, explaining the greater survival rate of the treated chickens. PMID:23398940

  16. Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M

    2010-01-01

    Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development. PMID:19929638

  17. Immune function, sex ratios, and gonadal histopathology in double-crested cormorant chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Burull, E.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Sileo, L.; Dale, T.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Larson, J.X.; Fry, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    There is evidence that environmental contaminants may be associated with endocrine and reproductive system abnormalities in colonial water birds. Little information is available on immune system response in chicks. Two double-crested cormorant (Phalocrocrozax auritus) colonies were monitored in 1993 for a comparative immune function study. Higher concentrations of organochlorines occurred in one colony. Parameters measured included: CBC, T and B-cell function, heterophil phagocytosis, lymphoid organ size and histopathology, and selected serum hormone analysis. Significant differences at the contaminated site included marked dysplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid gland, higher T3, lower cortisol, lower eosinophil counts, and increase phagocytosis at the contaminated site. Gonads of 101 deformed (cross-bill) chicks, siblings, and normal control chicks collected in 1992 and 1993 were examined microscopically because a sex-ration skewed towards females had been noted. Cross-billed chicks aged 12 to 15 days had disorganized or delayed follicular development which normalized by 20 days of age. Cross-billed or otherwise abnormal chicks aged 18 to 23 days had hypertrophic seminiferous tubules, a decreased interstitium, and decreased evidence of active Leydig cells.

  18. Synergistic action of nectins and cadherins generates the mosaic cellular pattern of the olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Katsunuma, Sayaka; Honda, Hisao; Shinoda, Tomoyasu; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Miyata, Takaki; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Abe, Takaya; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Takai, Yoshimi; Togashi, Hideru

    2016-02-29

    In the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory cells (OCs) and supporting cells (SCs), which express different cadherins, are arranged in a characteristic mosaic pattern in which OCs are enclosed by SCs. However, the mechanism underlying this cellular patterning is unclear. Here, we show that the cellular pattern of the OE is established by cellular rearrangements during development. In the OE, OCs express nectin-2 and N-cadherin, and SCs express nectin-2, nectin-3, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin. Heterophilic trans-interaction between nectin-2 on OCs and nectin-3 on SCs preferentially recruits cadherin via α-catenin to heterotypic junctions, and the differential distributions of cadherins between junctions promote cellular intercalations, resulting in the formation of the mosaic pattern. These observations are confirmed by model cell systems, and various cellular patterns are generated by the combinatorial expression of nectins and cadherins. Collectively, the synergistic action of nectins and cadherins generates mosaic pattern, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism. PMID:26929452

  19. Avian blood parasite infection during the non-breeding season: an overlooked issue in declining populations?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogens and parasites can have major impacts on host population dynamics, both through direct mortality and via indirect effects. Both types of effect may be stronger in species whose populations are already under pressure. We investigated the potential for blood parasites to impact upon their hosts at the immunological, physiological and population level during the non-breeding season using a declining population of yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella as a model. Results Yellowhammers infected by Haemoproteus spp. showed both a reduced heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, and an elevated standardised white blood cell (WBC) count compared to uninfected birds, indicating an immunological response to infection. Infected birds had shorter wings during the first winter of sampling but not during the second, colder, winter; survival analysis of 321 birds sampled across four winters indicated that increased wing length conferred a survival advantage. Conclusions We suggest that the potential impacts of blood parasite infections on over-wintering birds may have been underestimated. Further research should consider the potential impacts of sub-clinical parasite infections on the dynamics of vulnerable populations, and we suggest using declining populations as model systems within which to investigate these relationships as well as examining interactions between sub-clinical disease and other environmental stressors. JEL Code Q5 PMID:24011390

  20. Stepping stone: a cytohesin adaptor for membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangshu; Lee, Donghoon M; Yu, Cao Guo; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J C

    2015-02-15

    Cytohesin Arf-GEFs are conserved plasma membrane regulators. The sole Drosophila cytohesin, Steppke, restrains Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton activity at the base of plasma membrane furrows of the syncytial embryo. By mass spectrometry, we identified a single major Steppke-interacting protein from syncytial embryos, which we named Stepping stone (Sstn). By sequence, Sstn seems to be a divergent homologue of the mammalian cytohesin adaptor FRMD4A. Our experiments supported this relationship. Specifically, heterophilic coiled-coil interactions linked Sstn and Steppke in vivo and in vitro, whereas a separate C-terminal region was required for Sstn localization to furrows. Sstn mutant and RNAi embryos displayed abnormal, Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton expansion from the base of pseudocleavage and cellularization furrows, closely mimicking Steppke loss-of-function embryos. Elevating Sstn furrow levels had no effect on the steppke phenotype, but elevating Steppke furrow levels reversed the sstn phenotype, suggesting that Steppke acts downstream of Sstn and that additional mechanisms can recruit Steppke to furrows. Finally, the coiled-coil domain of Steppke was required for Sstn binding and in addition homodimerization, and its removal disrupted Steppke furrow localization and activity in vivo. Overall we propose that Sstn acts as a cytohesin adaptor that promotes Steppke activity for localized membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. PMID:25540427

  1. Assessment of the stresses imposed on adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) during handling, loading, transportation and unloading.

    PubMed

    Minka, N S; Ayo, J O

    2008-06-28

    The stresses imposed during the handling, loading and unloading of 250 adult ostriches (Struthio camelus) transported by road were evaluated, weighted, scored and later compared with some objective physiological indices of stress measured after the journey. During handling, the numbers of slips and falls, incidents of aggressive behaviour, the calculated behavioural points, the number of injuries recorded per ostrich and the time spent were significantly (P<0.01) greater than the values recorded during loading and unloading. During handling and loading, 45 per cent of the ostriches had a good score (1.1 to 2 points), 15.5 per cent had a fair score (2.1 to 3 points) and 39.4 per cent had a poor or bad score (more than 3 points). The behavioural scores were significantly and positively correlated with the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, the rectal temperature and the number of injuries sustained by the ostriches. The results showed that the poorer the behavioural score, the higher the level of stress suffered by the ostriches during handling and loading. PMID:18587061

  2. Virulence potential of five major pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 to SPI-5) of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis for chickens

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Salmonella is a highly successful parasite of reptiles, birds and mammals. Its ability to infect and colonise such a broad range of hosts coincided with the introduction of new genetic determinants, among them 5 major pathogenicity islands (SPI1-5), into the Salmonella genome. However, only limited information is available on how each of these pathogenicity islands influences the ability of Salmonella to infect chickens. In this study, we therefore constructed Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with each SPI deleted separately, with single individual SPIs (i.e. with the remaining four deleted) and a mutant with all 5 SPIs deleted, and assessed their virulence in one-day-old chickens, together with the innate immune response of this host. Results The mutant lacking all 5 major SPIs was still capable of colonising the caecum while colonisation of the liver and spleen was dependent on the presence of both SPI-1 and SPI-2. In contrast, the absence of SPI-3, SPI-4 or SPI-5 individually did not influence virulence of S. Enteritidis for chickens, but collectively they contributed to the colonisation of the spleen. Proinflammatory signalling and heterophil infiltration was dependent on intact SPI-1 only and not on other SPIs. Conclusions SPI-1 and SPI-2 are the two most important pathogenicity islands of Salmonella Enteritidis required for the colonisation of systemic sites in chickens. PMID:20021686

  3. Structural insights into the exquisite selectivity of neurexin/neuroligin synaptic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Philippe; Comoletti, Davide; Ferracci, Graldine; Conrod, Sandrine; Garcia, Simon U; Taylor, Palmer; Bourne, Yves; Marchot, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular domains of neuroligins and neurexins interact through Ca2+ to form flexible trans-synaptic associations characterized by selectivity for neuroligin or neurexin subtypes. This heterophilic interaction, essential for synaptic maturation and differentiation, is regulated by gene selection, alternative mRNA splicing and post-translational modifications. A new, 2.6 -resolution crystal structure of a soluble neurexin-1?neuroligin-4 (Nrx1?NL4) complex permits a detailed description of the Ca2+-coordinated interface and unveils concerted positional rearrangements of several residues of NL4, not observed in neuroligin-1, associated with Nrx1? binding. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of the binding of structure-guided Nrx1? mutants towards NL4 and neuroligin-1 shows that flexibility of the Nrx1?-binding site in NL4 is reflected in a greater dissociation constant of the complex and higher sensitivity to ionic strength and pH variations. Analysis of neuroligin mutants points to critical functions for two respective residues in neuroligin-1 and neuroligin-2 in governing the affinity of the complexes. Although neuroligin-1 and neuroligin-2 have pre-determined conformations that respectively promote and prevent Nrx1? association, unique conformational reshaping of the NL4 surface is required to permit Nrx1? association. PMID:20543817

  4. Dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet to heat-stressed broiler chickens and its effect on heat shock protein 70 expression, blood parameters and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Hasheimi, S R; Zulkifli, I; Somchit, M N; Zunita, Z; Loh, T C; Soleimani, A F; Tang, S C

    2013-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. PMID:22533311

  5. Schistosoma japonicum soluble egg antigens activate naive B cells to produce antibodies: definition of parasite mechanisms of immune deviation.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, T; Watanabe, T; Saito, S; Araki, Y; Sendo, F

    1993-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of Schistosoma japonicum egg antigens (SEA) on the activation of lymphocytes from naive mice. T cells were found to be unaffected by SEA. B cells, however, were activated by SEA without participation of adherent cells such as macrophages. B-cell activating factor(s) in SEA were distributed into a fraction of M(r) 120,000 and a fraction of M(r) 650,000 by gel filtration. However, a fraction of M(r) 120,000 demonstrated the presence of a limited number of components by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under non-denaturing conditions. These activating factor(s) were destroyed by peroxidase oxidation, heat treatment, chymotrypsin and trypsin digestion. These results indicate that the B-cell activating factor(s) in SEA contain both carbohydrate and protein. IgM antibodies were detected in the culture supernatant of SEA-activated B cells after 48 hr in culture, but IgG antibodies were undetected in culture. These antibodies did not react with SEA but reacted with sheep, horse, mouse red blood cells, carbonic anhydrase and autoantigens in myelinated nerve fibres of cerebrum as well as luminal surface and parietal cells of the stomach of naive mice. Thus our data demonstrated that SEA directly stimulates naive B cells to produce antibodies against heterophile and autologous antigens. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8344698

  6. Empirical evidence of cold stress induced cell mediated and humoral immune response in common myna ( Sturnus tristis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Mansur A.; Zaib, Anila; Anjum, Muhammad S.; Qayyum, Mazhar

    2015-11-01

    Common myna ( Sturnus tristis) is a bird indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that has invaded many parts of the world. At the onset of our investigation, we hypothesized that the immunological profile of myna makes it resistant to harsh/new environmental conditions. In order to test this hypothesis, a number of 40 mynas were caught and divided into two groups, i.e., 7 and 25 °C for 14 days. To determine the effect of cold stress, cell mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed. The macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher at 25 °C rather than 7 °C either co-incubated with opsonized or unopsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Macrophage engulfment/cell and nitric oxide production behaved in a similar manner. However, splenic cells plaque formation, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and serum IgM or IgG production remained non-significant. There was a significant increase of IgG antibody production after a second immunization by SRBC. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been reported in the progression of this bird's invasion in frosty areas of the world. The results revealed a strengthened humoral immune response of myna and made this bird suitable for invasion in the areas of harsh conditions.

  7. Interpreting indices of physiological stress in free-living vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Christopher P; Reina, Richard D; Lill, Alan

    2012-10-01

    When vertebrate physiological ecologists use the terms 'stress' or 'physiological stress', they typically mean the level of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activation. Measurements of stress hormone concentrations (e.g. glucocorticoids in blood, urine or faeces), leukocytes (e.g. the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio or heterophil equivalent), immunofunction (e.g. innate, cell-mediated or humoral immunity measures) and regenerative anaemia (e.g. mean erythrocyte volume and red blood cell distribution width) have all been used to estimate HPA-axis activity in free-living vertebrates. Stress metrics have provided insights into aspects of autecology or population regulation that could not have been easily obtained using other indices of population wellbeing, such as body condition or relative abundance. However, short- and long-term stress (often problematically termed acute and chronic stress, respectively) can interact in unpredictable ways. When animals experience trapping and handling stress before blood, faeces and/or urine is sampled, the interaction of short- and long-term stress can confound interpretation of the data, a fact not always acknowledged in studies of stress in free-living vertebrates. This review examines how stress metrics can be confounded when estimates of HPA-axis activation are collected for free-living vertebrates and outlines some approaches that can be used to help circumvent the influence of potentially confounding factors. PMID:22415475

  8. Ecological immunology in a fluctuating environment: an integrative analysis of tree swallow nestling immune defense

    PubMed Central

    Pigeon, Gabriel; Blisle, Marc; Garant, Dany; Cohen, Alan A; Pelletier, Fanie

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary ecologists have long been interested by the link between different immune defenses and fitness. Given the importance of a proper immune defense for survival, it is important to understand how its numerous components are affected by environmental heterogeneity. Previous studies targeting this question have rarely considered more than two immune markers. In this study, we measured seven immune markers (response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), hemolysis capacity, hemagglutination capacity, plasma bactericidal capacity, percentage of lymphocytes, percentage of heterophils, and percentage of eosinophils) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings raised in two types of agro-ecosystems of contrasted quality and over 2 years. First, we assessed the effect of environmental heterogeneity (spatial and temporal) on the strength and direction of correlations between immune measures. Second, we investigated the effect of an immune score integrating information from several immune markers on individual performance (including growth, mass at fledging and parasite burden). Both a multivariate and a pair-wise approach showed variation in relationships between immune measures across years and habitats. We also found a weak association between the integrated score of nestling immune function and individual performance, but only under certain environmental conditions. We conclude that the ecological context can strongly affect the interpretation of immune defenses in the wild. Given that spatiotemporal variations are likely to affect individual immune defenses, great caution should be used when generalizing conclusions to other study systems. PMID:23610646

  9. Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRT as a regulator of synaptic formation and neuronal development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Ran

    2015-01-01

    PTPRT/RPTP? is the most recently isolated member of the type IIB receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase family and its expression is restricted to the nervous system. PTPRT plays a critical role in regulation of synaptic formation and neuronal development. When PTPRT was overexpressed in hippocampal neurons, synaptic formation and dendritic arborization were induced. On the other hand, knockdown of PTPRT decreased neuronal transmission and attenuated neuronal development. PTPRT strengthened neuronal synapses by forming homophilic trans dimers with each other and heterophilic cis complexes with neuronal adhesion molecules. Fyn tyrosine kinase regulated PTPRT activity through phosphorylation of tyrosine 912 within the membrane-proximal catalytic domain of PTPRT. Phosphorylation induced homophilic cis dimerization of PTPRT and resulted in the inhibition of phosphatase activity. BCR-Rac1 GAP and Syntaxin-binding protein were found as new endogenous substrates of PTPRT in rat brain. PTPRT induced polymerization of actin cytoskeleton that determined the morphologies of dendrites and spines by inhibiting BCR-Rac1 GAP activity. Additionally, PTPRT appeared to regulate neurotransmitter release through reinforcement of interactions between Syntaxin-binding protein and Syntaxin, a SNARE protein. In conclusion, PTPRT regulates synaptic function and neuronal development through interactions with neuronal adhesion molecules and the dephosphorylation of synaptic molecules. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(5): 249-255] PMID:25748173

  10. Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gregory H

    2003-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a prevalent viral pathogen. The majority of persons with acute CMV will experience an inapparent infection. Primary CMV infection will cause up to 7 percent of cases of mononucleosis syndrome and will manifest symptoms almost indistinguishable from those of Epstein-Barr virus-induced mononucleosis. CMV, or heterophil-negative mononucleosis, is best diagnosed using a positive IgM serology. Complications of acute CMV infection in immunocompetent persons are rare, except in newborns. The virus usually is spread through close personal contact; transmission risk can be reduced by following simple hygienic and handwashing techniques. Severe illness can occur after reactivation of the latent virus in immunosuppressed persons. The retina is the most common site of CMV-induced pathology in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have decreased the incidence of CMV retinitis but have resulted in a new set of ophthalmologic complications induced by restoration of immune competency and the pro-inflammatory response of the patient to CMV. If HAART restores the patient's CD4 cell count to above 100 to 150 per mm3 (100 to 150 x 10(6) per L), it may preclude lifelong treatment for CMV retinitis. PMID:12588074

  11. [Infectious mononucleosis].

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, A

    2001-10-01

    Infectious mononucleosis(IM) is a primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infection. Since heterophil antibody negative IM is common in Japan, EBV antibody(presence of VCA-IgM or anti-EA, high titers of VCA-IgG in the absence of anti-EBNA) is useful for serologic diagnosis of IM. Although EBV causes the continuous growth of lymphoid cell lines in vitro and causes malignant diseases such as Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer and malignant lymphomas in immunocompromised patients, IM is usually self-limiting, and after primary infection EBV persists in B cells throughout life without producing symptoms. In the present study, we studied CD8+ lymphocytes of patients with IM and demonstrate an increase in lymphocytes expressing HLA-DR and CD45RO, increase of intracellular pH, elevated plasma levels of sCD8, indicating activation of the subset. We also demonstrate activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes and gamma delta T lymphocytes. Activation of these immune systems in response to EBV is supposed to play an important role in assuring the benign course of IM. PMID:11769479

  12. NPPD: A Protein-Protein Docking Scoring Function Based on Dyadic Differences in Networks of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Amino Acid Residues

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Edward S. C.; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein docking (PPD) predictions usually rely on the use of a scoring function to rank docking models generated by exhaustive sampling. To rank good models higher than bad ones, a large number of scoring functions have been developed and evaluated, but the methods used for the computation of PPD predictions remain largely unsatisfactory. Here, we report a network-based PPD scoring function, the NPPD, in which the network consists of two types of network nodes, one for hydrophobic and the other for hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the nodes are connected when the residues they represent are within a certain contact distance. We showed that network parameters that compute dyadic interactions and those that compute heterophilic interactions of the amino acid networks thus constructed allowed NPPD to perform well in a benchmark evaluation of 115 PPD scoring functions, most of which, unlike NPPD, are based on some sort of protein-protein interaction energy. We also showed that NPPD was highly complementary to these energy-based scoring functions, suggesting that the combined use of conventional scoring functions and NPPD might significantly improve the accuracy of current PPD predictions. PMID:25811640

  13. Effects of in vivo exposure to Roundup on immune system of Caiman latirostris.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Mara Agustina; Lpez Gonzlez, Evelyn Cecilia; Larriera, Alejandro; Poletta, Gisela Laura; Siroski, Pablo Ariel

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Roundup() (RU, glyphosate-based formulation) on some parameters of the immune system and growth of Caiman latirostris. Seventy-two caimans (20-day-old) from Proyecto Yacar (Gob. Santa Fe/MUPCN) were used. Two groups were exposed for 2 months to different concentrations of RU (11 or 21?mg/L; taking into account the concentration recommended for its application in the field), while one group was maintained as control. The RU concentration was progressively decreased through the exposure period to simulate glyphosate degradation in water. Animals were measured and weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment, and blood samples taken after exposure to determine total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts as well as total protein concentration (TPC), and for performing protein electrophoresis. The results showed that, compared against control hosts, there was a decrease in WBC counts, a higher percentage of heterophils, a higher TPC (with a low percentage of F2 protein fraction), and a negative effect on growth in the young caimans exposed to RU. These results demonstrate that in vivo exposure to RU induced alterations in the selected immune parameters, plasma proteins, and growth of caimans, thereby providing relevant information about the effects of this type of pesticide in this important species in the Argentinian wetlands. PMID:23244546

  14. Retrobulbar adenocarcinoma in an Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis).

    PubMed

    Watson, Victoria E; Murdock, Jessica H; Cazzini, Paola; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Divers, Stephen J; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2013-03-01

    Retrobulbar neoplasms are not common in mammals and are even more infrequently seen in nonmammalian species. The current report describes a retrobulbar mass creating exophthalmia and neurologic signs in a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis). A 27-year-old female parrot presented for a 3-day history of anorexia and a 2-week history of periocular soft tissue swelling and exophthalmia of the right eye. Physical examination revealed 9% dehydration and right eye exophthalmia with inability to retropulse the globe. A fine-needle aspirate was performed, and cytologic evaluation revealed necrotic debris with scattered clusters of epithelial cells, moderate numbers of macrophages, and few heterophils. Given the possibility of neoplasia and paucity of treatment options, the owners elected euthanasia and submitted the body for necropsy. A large, fluctuant, friable, red, retrobulbar mass with multiple areas of hemorrhage, on cut surface, was noted at necropsy. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic, cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells, forming rosette-like glandular structures, admixed with abundant necrotic debris. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) by immunohistochemistry. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, the mass was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma. PMID:23404475

  15. Hematologic and Total Plasma Protein Values in Free-Living Red-tailed Amazon Parrot Nestlings (Amazona brasiliensis) in Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Frederico F; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Sipinski, Elenise A B; Abbud, Maria C; Sezerban, Rafael M; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Dittrich, Jaqueline; Cavalheiro, Maria L

    2015-09-01

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered psittacid species that is endemic in the south and southeast Brazilian Atlantic coastal region. Hematologic evaluation is important to monitor the health of these birds, and information about laboratory values for this species is scarce. Hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for 33 free-living nestling parrots in Paraná state, Brazil. Parrots were temporarily removed from the nest and manually restrained to record body weight and collect blood samples. Mean body weight was <400 g in 13 birds (group 1) and >400 g in 20 birds (group 2). Significantly higher levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, monocytes, and basophils were observed in younger birds (group 1). A stress leukogram (high white blood cell and heterophil count) was found in all nestlings, suggesting stress induced by capture and restraint. Parameters obtained in this study will be essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild parrots, to evaluate the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation efforts of this endangered species. PMID:26378664

  16. Histopathology of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elizabeth M.; Pali?, Duan

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxylated fullerenes are reported to be very strong antioxidants, acting to quench reactive oxygen species, thus having strong potential for important and widespread applications in innovative therapies for a variety of disease processes. However, their potential for toxicological side effects is still largely controversial and unknown. Effects of hydroxylated fullerenes C60(OH)24 on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were investigated microscopically after a 72-hour (acute) exposure by intraperitoneal injection of 20 ppm of hydroxylated fullerenes per gram of body mass. Cumulative, semi-quantitative histopathologic evaluation of brain, liver, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin, coelom, gills and the vestibuloauditory system revealed significant differences between control and hydroxylated fullerene-treated fish. Fullerene-treated fish had much higher cumulative histopathology scores. Histopathologic changes included loss of cellularity in the interstitium of the kidney, a primary site of haematopoiesis in fish, and loss of intracytoplasmic glycogen in liver. In the coelom, variable numbers of leukocytes, including many macrophages and fewer heterophils and rodlet cells, were admixed with the nanomaterial. These findings raise concern about in vivo administration of hydroxylated fullerenes in experimental drugs and procedures in human medicine, and should be investigated in more detail. PMID:23883179

  17. Stepping stone: a cytohesin adaptor for membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangshu; Lee, Donghoon M.; Yu, Cao Guo; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cytohesin Arf-GEFs are conserved plasma membrane regulators. The sole Drosophila cytohesin, Steppke, restrains Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton activity at the base of plasma membrane furrows of the syncytial embryo. By mass spectrometry, we identified a single major Steppke-interacting protein from syncytial embryos, which we named Stepping stone (Sstn). By sequence, Sstn seems to be a divergent homologue of the mammalian cytohesin adaptor FRMD4A. Our experiments supported this relationship. Specifically, heterophilic coiled-coil interactions linked Sstn and Steppke in vivo and in vitro, whereas a separate C-terminal region was required for Sstn localization to furrows. Sstn mutant and RNAi embryos displayed abnormal, Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton expansion from the base of pseudocleavage and cellularization furrows, closely mimicking Steppke loss-of-function embryos. Elevating Sstn furrow levels had no effect on the steppke phenotype, but elevating Steppke furrow levels reversed the sstn phenotype, suggesting that Steppke acts downstream of Sstn and that additional mechanisms can recruit Steppke to furrows. Finally, the coiled-coil domain of Steppke was required for Sstn binding and in addition homodimerization, and its removal disrupted Steppke furrow localization and activity in vivo. Overall we propose that Sstn acts as a cytohesin adaptor that promotes Steppke activity for localized membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. PMID:25540427

  18. Changes in blood chemistry, hematology, and histology caused by a selenium/vitamin E deficiency and recovery in chicks.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, A; Latshaw, D; Swayne, D E

    1998-01-01

    Exudative diathesis, a condition caused by a selenium (Se)/vitamin E deficiency, was studied in chicks. Trios of chicks that showed clinical signs of exudative diathesis were matched for severity. One was injected subcutaneously with 0.5 mL distilled water, and the other two received 15 microg of Se in 0.5 mL distilled water. A chick fed a diet with supplemental Se also received 0.5 mL distilled water. Blood was collected from three chicks 2 d after injection, and from the other chick, 6 d after injection. After blood was collected, pectoral muscle and bone marrow were collected. Deficient chicks showed varying degrees of necrosis in pectoral muscle, whereas recovering chicks had extensive fibrosis in pectoral muscle. An analysis of blood showed differences in CO2, glucose, Se, glutathione peroxidase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Heterophils and monocytes were increased in deficient chicks; lymphocytes, basophils, and hemoglobin decreased. After 6 d of recovery, all of the changes noted above were correcting toward normal. Eosinophils, in contrast, were unaffected by a deficiency, but increased in recovering chicks. It is hypothesized that cytokines associated with the inflammatory response accentuate the clinical signs of exudative diathesis. PMID:9630419

  19. Body condition and immune response in wild zebra finches: effects of capture, confinement and captive-rearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewenson, Erynne; Zann, Richard; Flannery, Graham

    2001-08-01

    Behavioural ecologists attempt to predict fitness in birds from estimates of body condition and immune capacity. We investigated how the stresses associated with capture, confinement and captive-rearing of wild zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) affected different elements of the immune system and body condition. Wild birds had higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and total leucocyte counts than aviary birds, presumably an outcome of mounting specific resistance to pathogens, but this response diminished significantly within 10 days of confinement. Wild birds had lower phytohaemagglutinin-A (PHA) responses than their aviary-bred counterparts possibly because energetic costs limited a general resistance response. Wild birds were heavier and had higher haematocrits than their aviary counterparts, but had less fat, although just 10 days of captivity significantly increased fat levels. Measures of body condition were of limited use for predicting immune responsiveness. We conclude that the different elements of the immune system and body condition respond independently, and often unpredictably, to many ecological and behavioural stressors.

  20. Pre-existing Antibody: Biotherapeutic Modality-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Gorovits, Boris; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Birchler, Mary; Liang, Meina; Myler, Heather; Peng, Kun; Purushothama, Shobha; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj; Salazar-Fontana, Laura; Sung, Crystal; Xue, Li

    2016-03-01

    Pre-existing antibodies to biotherapeutic drugs have been detected in drug-naïve subjects for a variety of biotherapeutic modalities. Pre-existing antibodies are immunoglobulins that are either specific or cross-reacting with a protein or glycan epitopes on a biotherapeutic compound. Although the exact cause for pre-existing antibodies is often unknown, environmental exposures to non-human proteins, glycans, and structurally similar products are frequently proposed as factors. Clinical consequences of the pre-existing antibodies vary from an adverse effect on patient safety to no impact at all and remain highly dependent on the biotherapeutic drug modality and therapeutic indication. As such, pre-existing antibodies are viewed as an immunogenicity risk factor requiring a careful evaluation. Herein, the relationships between biotherapeutic modalities to the nature, prevalence, and clinical consequences of pre-existing antibodies are reviewed. Initial evidence for pre-existing antibody is often identified during anti-drug antibody (ADA) assay development. Other interfering factors known to cause false ADA positive signal, including circulating multimeric drug target, rheumatoid factors, and heterophilic antibodies, are discussed. PMID:26821802

  1. Mucosal injury and. gamma. -irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M. )

    1991-05-01

    A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and {gamma}-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. {gamma}-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment.

  2. Immune function, stress response, and body condition in arctic-breeding common eiders in relation to cadmium, mercury, and selenium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wayland, M; Gilchrist, H G; Marchant, T; Keating, J; Smits, J E

    2002-09-01

    We examined relationships between trace metal concentrations in tissues of common eider ducks (cadmium, mercury, and selenium) and selected biomarkers of health (stress response, immune function, and body condition). This study was conducted at an eider nesting colony in the Canadian arctic in 1998 and 1999. Capture-induced stress, measured as the rise in corticosterone concentrations following capture, was positively related (P=0.03) to renal cadmium concentration in 1998 when incubating eiders were sampled, but not in 1999 when prenesting eiders were sampled. Stress response was inversely related (P=0.02) to selenium concentrations in 1999. Following capture and blood sampling in 1999, eiders were placed in a flight pen on-site for eight days in order to examine immune function. Cell-mediated immunity, measured as the skin-swelling response to an intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin-P, (PHA-P), was positively related (P=0.003) to hepatic selenium. The heterophil:lymphocyte ratio was inversely related (P=0.08) to hepatic selenium. In 1998, selenium was positively related to body mass (P=0.01), abdominal fat mass (P=0.07), kidney mass (P=0.03), and liver mass (P=0.07). In 1999, hepatic mercury was negatively related to abdominal fat mass (P=0.01), spleen mass (P=0.07) and body mass at capture (P=0.09) in prenesting eiders. PMID:12359190

  3. Different roles of cadherins in the assembly and structural integrity of the desmosome complex

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, Molly; Rakshit, Sabyasachi; Shafraz, Omer; Borghi, Nicolas; Harmon, Robert M.; Green, Kathleen J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Nelson, W. James

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adhesion between cells is established by the formation of specialized intercellular junctional complexes, such as desmosomes. Desmosomes contain isoforms of two members of the cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins, desmocollins (Dsc) and desmogleins (Dsg), but their combinatorial roles in desmosome assembly are not understood. To uncouple desmosome assembly from other cellcell adhesion complexes, we used micro-patterned substrates of Dsc2aFc and/or Dsg2Fc and collagen IV; we show that Dsc2aFc, but not Dsg2Fc, was necessary and sufficient to recruit desmosome-specific desmoplakin into desmosome puncta and produce strong adhesive binding. Single-molecule force spectroscopy showed that monomeric Dsc2a, but not Dsg2, formed Ca2+-dependent homophilic bonds, and that Dsg2 formed Ca2+-independent heterophilic bonds with Dsc2a. A W2A mutation in Dsc2a inhibited Ca2+-dependent homophilic binding, similar to classical cadherins, and Dsc2aW2A, but not Dsg2W2A, was excluded from desmosomes in MDCK cells. These results indicate that Dsc2a, but not Dsg2, is required for desmosome assembly through homophilic Ca2+- and W2-dependent binding, and that Dsg2 might be involved later in regulating a switch to Ca2+-independent adhesion in mature desmosomes. PMID:24610950

  4. Amelioration of hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin using citrus fruit oil in broilers (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Senthil; Rao, Suguna; Satyanarayana, M L; Kumar, Pg Pradeep; Anitha, N

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of citrus fruit oil (CFO; 2.5gkg(-1)) on the clinicopathological changes in broilers fed with diets containing 1ppm of aflatoxin (AF). A total of 160 Ross 308 broiler chicks of 1-day-old were procured from a commercial hatchery, divided randomly on 7th day of age into four groups with two replicates of 20 birds each and fed with basal diet (group A), basal diet+CFO (group B), basal diet+AF (group C) and CFO+basal diet+AF (group D). The gross and histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were investigated and relative organ weights were calculated. Slight to moderate hydropic degeneration, fatty change with the formation of cyst in some cases, periportal necrosis, infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells and bile duct hyperplasia were observed in chicks fed with 1ppm AF-containing diet. The addition of CFO to AF-containing diet moderately decreased the magnitude and severity of lesions (hydropic degeneration and bile duct hyperplasia) in the liver. The supplementation of CFO to the basal diet did not produce any adverse effects in birds. PMID:23589408

  5. Different concentrations and sources of dietary fibre may improve the welfare of female broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Hocking, P M; Zaczek, V; Jones, E K M; Macleod, M G

    2004-02-01

    1. Broiler breeder females were fed restricted allocations of food to meet target body weights. They were fed on a standard wheat-soy ration or on one of three series of rations containing 50, 100 or 200 g/kg of ground oat hulls, ground unmolassed sugar beet pulp or sunflower meal. Changes in behaviour and heterophil-lymphocyte ratio (HLR) were measured at 5, 10 and 15 weeks of age. 2. Body weight at 15 weeks of age decreased in a linear manner with increasing concentrations of the experimental ingredients. 3. Decreased spot pecking was observed in birds fed on the rations containing 50 g/kg of sugar beet pulp and 200 g/kg of oat hulls. 4. The HLR was higher in birds fed on the control diet and diets containing 50 g/kg of the high fibre ingredients. 5. Rations containing sugar beet pulp were associated with higher water contents in the gastrointestinal tract and it is proposed that this improved satiety and welfare. PMID:15115195

  6. The Pattern of Disulfide Linkages in the Extracellular Loop Regions of Connexin 32 Suggests a Model for the Docking Interface of Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Cynthia I.; Zhou, Lan; Zhu, Xing; Nicholson, Bruce J.

    1998-01-01

    Connexins, like true cell adhesion molecules, have extracellular domains that provide strong and specific homophilic, and in some cases, heterophilic interactions between cells. Though the structure of the binding domains of adhesion proteins have been determined, the extracellular domains of connexins, consisting of two loops of ?3437 amino acids each, are not easily studied in isolation from the rest of the molecule. As an alternative, we used a novel application of site-directed mutagenesis in which four of the six conserved cysteines in the extracellular loops of connexin 32 were moved individually and in all possible pairwise and some quadruple combinations. This mapping allowed us to deduce that all disulfides form between the two loops of a single connexin, with the first cysteine in one loop connected to the third of the other. Furthermore, the periodicity of movements that produced functional channels indicated that these loops are likely to form antiparallel ? sheets. A possible model that could explain how these domains from apposed connexins interact to form a complete channel is discussed. PMID:9490731

  7. Shiga toxin 2-induced intestinal pathology in infant rabbits is A-subunit dependent and responsive to the tyrosine kinase and potential ZAK inhibitor imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Samuel M.; Thorpe, Cheleste M.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Rogers, Arlin B.; Obata, Fumiko; Vozenilek, Aimee; Kolling, Glynis L.; Kane, Anne V.; Magun, Bruce E.; Jandhyala, Dakshina M.

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of food-borne illness worldwide. However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis (HC) is lacking. One of the obstacles to understanding the role of Shiga toxins to STEC-mediated intestinal pathology is a deficit in small animal models that perfectly mimic human disease. Infant rabbits have been previously used to study STEC and/or Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. We demonstrate using infant rabbits that Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage requires A-subunit activity, and like the human colon, that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb3. We also demonstrate that Shiga toxin treatment of the infant rabbit results in apoptosis and activation of p38 within colonic tissues. Finally we demonstrate that the infant rabbit model may be used to test candidate therapeutics against Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage. While the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the ZAK inhibitor DHP-2 were ineffective at preventing Shiga toxin-mediated damage to the colon, pretreatment of infant rabbits with the drug imatinib resulted in a decrease of Shiga toxin-mediated heterophil infiltration of the colon. Therefore, we propose that this model may be useful in elucidating mechanisms by which Shiga toxins could contribute to intestinal damage in the human. PMID:23162799

  8. Jamb and jamc are essential for vertebrate myocyte fusion.

    PubMed

    Powell, Gareth T; Wright, Gavin J

    2011-12-01

    Cellular fusion is required in the development of several tissues, including skeletal muscle. In vertebrates, this process is poorly understood and lacks an in vivo-validated cell surface heterophilic receptor pair that is necessary for fusion. Identification of essential cell surface interactions between fusing cells is an important step in elucidating the molecular mechanism of cellular fusion. We show here that the zebrafish orthologues of JAM-B and JAM-C receptors are essential for fusion of myocyte precursors to form syncytial muscle fibres. Both jamb and jamc are dynamically co-expressed in developing muscles and encode receptors that physically interact. Heritable mutations in either gene prevent myocyte fusion in vivo, resulting in an overabundance of mononuclear, but otherwise overtly normal, functional fast-twitch muscle fibres. Transplantation experiments show that the Jamb and Jamc receptors must interact between neighbouring cells (in trans) for fusion to occur. We also show that jamc is ectopically expressed in prdm1a mutant slow muscle precursors, which inappropriately fuse with other myocytes, suggesting that control of myocyte fusion through regulation of jamc expression has important implications for the growth and patterning of muscles. Our discovery of a receptor-ligand pair critical for fusion in vivo has important implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for myocyte fusion and its regulation in vertebrate myogenesis. PMID:22180726

  9. Generation and Nuclear Translocation of Sumoylated Transmembrane Fragment of Cell Adhesion Molecule L1

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, David; Wolters-Eisfeld, Gerrit; Joshi, Gunjan; Djogo, Nevena; Jakovcevski, Igor; Schachner, Melitta; Kleene, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The functions of the cell adhesion molecule L1 in the developing and adult nervous system are triggered by homophilic and heterophilic interactions that stimulate signal transductions that activate cellular responses. Here, we show that stimulation of signaling by function-triggering L1 antibodies or L1-Fc leads to serine protease-dependent cleavage of full-length L1 at the plasma membrane and generation of a sumoylated transmembrane 70-kDa fragment comprising the intracellular and transmembrane domains and part of the extracellular domain. The 70-kDa transmembrane fragment is transported from the plasma membrane to a late endosomal compartment, released from endosomal membranes into the cytoplasm, and transferred from there into the nucleus by a pathway that depends on importin and chromatin-modifying protein 1. Mutation of the sumoylation site at Lys1172 or of the nuclear localization signal at Lys1147 abolished L1-stimulated generation or nuclear import of the 70-kDa fragment, respectively. Nuclear import of the 70-kDa fragment may activate cellular responses in parallel or in association with phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. Alterations in the levels of the 70-kDa fragment during development and in the adult after spinal cord injury or in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease suggest that this fragment is functionally implicated in development, regeneration, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis, and possibly synaptic plasticity in the mature nervous system. PMID:22431726

  10. Supplementation with imuno-2865 in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758): Effects on hematological and antioxidant parameters.

    PubMed

    upan, Ivan; Tkal?i?, Suzana; ari?, Tomislav; ?o-Rakovac, Rozalindra; Strunjak-Perovi?, Ivan?ica; Topi?-Popovi?, Natalija; Kardum, Matko; Kanski, Danijel; Ljubi?, Blanka Beer; Matijatko, Vesna; Polji?ak-Milas, Nina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMUNO-2865() on hematological and antioxidative parameters in sea bream. Total of 640 sea bream were fed with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 (Group 4) g of IMUNO-2865() kg(-1) feed during 90 days. Samples were taken each month and three months after the supplementation. A significant heterophils increase was observed in group 4 compared to group 1 after two months, and an increase in monocytes number was observed in group 4 compared to the other groups after one month. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) were significantly increased in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control group three months into the experiment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased in group 4 compared to the control group from day 60 until the end of the experiment, and in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control after three months. Based on the differences in the cellular immunity and oxidative stress parameters, with an overall absence of mortality, the results of this study suggest that the use of IMUNO-2865() in aquaculture is safe and possess a cumulative immunostimulatory effect on sea bream. PMID:26455665

  11. Structural and energetic determinants of adhesive binding specificity in type I cadherins

    PubMed Central

    Vendome, Jeremie; Felsovalyi, Klara; Song, Hang; Yang, Zhongyu; Jin, Xiangshu; Brasch, Julia; Harrison, Oliver J.; Ahlsen, Goran; Bahna, Fabiana; Kaczynska, Anna; Katsamba, Phinikoula S.; Edmond, Darwin; Hubbell, Wayne L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Type I cadherin cell-adhesion proteins are similar in sequence and structure and yet are different enough to mediate highly specific cell–cell recognition phenomena. It has previously been shown that small differences in the homophilic and heterophilic binding affinities of different type I family members can account for the differential cell-sorting behavior. Here we use a combination of X-ray crystallography, analytical ultracentrifugation, surface plasmon resonance and double electron-electron resonance (DEER) electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify the molecular determinants of type I cadherin dimerization affinities. Small changes in sequence are found to produce subtle structural and dynamical changes that impact relative affinities, in part via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, and in part through entropic effects because of increased conformational heterogeneity in the bound states as revealed by DEER distance mapping in the dimers. These findings highlight the remarkable ability of evolution to exploit a wide range of molecular properties to produce closely related members of the same protein family that have affinity differences finely tuned to mediate their biological roles. PMID:25253890

  12. Recent human-to-poultry host jump, adaptation, and pandemic spread of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, Bethan V.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Conway-Morris, Andrew; Cartwright, Robyn A.; Simpson, A. John; Rambaut, Andrew; Nbel, Ulrich; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2009-01-01

    The impact of globalization on the emergence and spread of pathogens is an important veterinary and public health issue. Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious human pathogen associated with serious nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In addition, S. aureus is a major cause of animal diseases including skeletal infections of poultry, which are a large economic burden on the global broiler chicken industry. Here, we provide evidence that the majority of S. aureus isolates from broiler chickens are the descendants of a single human-to-poultry host jump that occurred approximately 38 years ago (range, 30 to 63 years ago) by a subtype of the worldwide human ST5 clonal lineage unique to Poland. In contrast to human subtypes of the ST5 radiation, which demonstrate strong geographic clustering, the poultry ST5 clade was distributed in different continents, consistent with wide dissemination via the global poultry industry distribution network. The poultry ST5 clade has undergone genetic diversification from its human progenitor strain by acquisition of novel mobile genetic elements from an avian-specific accessory gene pool, and by the inactivation of several proteins important for human disease pathogenesis. These genetic events have resulted in enhanced resistance to killing by chicken heterophils, reflecting avian host-adaptive evolution. Taken together, we have determined the evolutionary history of a major new animal pathogen that has undergone rapid avian host adaptation and intercontinental dissemination. These data provide a new paradigm for the impact of human activities on the emergence of animal pathogens. PMID:19884497

  13. Effect of prolonged administration of dietary capsaicin on Salmonella enteritidis infection in leghorn chicks.

    PubMed

    Tellez, G I; Jaeger, L; Dean, C E; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Williams, J D; Hargis, B M

    1993-01-01

    The effect of 14 or 19 days of dietary capsaicin (18 ppm) on Salmonella enteritidis infection and histological, morphometric, and pH changes of the ceca was investigated. At day 13 or day 18, chicks were challenged with 10(8) colony-forming units of S. enteritidis. Chicks were killed and cultured 24 hours later. The total number of S. enteritidis-organ-culture-positive chicks was significantly lower among chicks fed capsaicin for either 14 or 19 days than among controls (P < 0.05). Subjective histological examination revealed a mild to moderate infiltration of mononuclear cells and heterophils in lamina propria of ceca, as well as epithelial cell proliferation in chicks following either 14 or 19 days of capsaicin administration. Using morphometric analysis, the mean lamina propria thickness and mean epithelial cell thickness in chickens fed capsaicin for 14 or 19 days were significantly greater than in controls (P < 0.05). Capsaicin significantly decreased luminal pH in both trials (P < 0.05). These data indicate that the observed capsaicin-induced resistance to S. enteritidis organ invasion is associated with measurable pH and morphological changes of the cecal mucosa. PMID:8452490

  14. Evolutionary Dynamics of Homophily and Heterophily

    PubMed Central

    Ramazi, Pouria; Cao, Ming; Weissing, Franz J.

    2016-01-01

    Most social interactions do not take place at random. In many situations, individuals choose their interaction partners on the basis of phenotypic cues. When this happens, individuals are often homophilic, that is, they tend to interact with individuals that are similar to them. Here we investigate the joint evolution of phenotypic cues and cue-dependent interaction strategies. By a combination of individual-based simulations and analytical arguments, we show that homophily evolves less easily than earlier studies suggest. The evolutionary interplay of cues and cue-based behaviour is intricate and has many interesting facets. For example, an interaction strategy like heterophily may stably persist in the population even if it is selected against in association with any particular cue. Homophily persisted for extensive periods of time just in those simulations where homophilic interactions provide a lower (rather than a higher) payoff than heterophilic interactions. Our results indicate that even the simplest cue-based social interactions can have rich dynamics and a surprising diversity of evolutionary outcomes. PMID:26951038

  15. Methodological Issues in Cytokine Measurement in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Koola, Maju Mathew

    2016-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that inflammation is a major factor in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Inflammatory status is commonly ascertained by measuring peripheral cytokine concentrations. An issue concerning research on inflammation and schizophrenia relates to assay methodology. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used and the gold standard method used to measure cytokine concentrations. ELISA has a number of limitations. Both ELISA and multiplex are limited by not being able to distinguish between bioactive and inactive molecules and the matrix and heterophilic (auto-) antibody interference. Multiplex assays when combined with gene expression analysis and flow cytometry techniques such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting may be useful to detect abnormalities in specific immune pathways. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures, to evaluate in vitro lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production, may be a better technology than measuring cytokines in the serum. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on major methodological issues that need to be addressed in order to advance the study of cytokines in schizophrenia. We make a few recommendations on how to address these issues. PMID:27011395

  16. rFN/Cad-11-Modified Collagen Type II Biomimetic Interface Promotes the Adhesion and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Zhengsheng; Kang, Fei; Yang, Bo; Kang, Xia; Wen, Can; Yan, Yanfei; Jiang, Bo; Fan, Yujiang

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the cell-material interface are determining factors in the successful function of cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Currently, cell adhesion is commonly promoted through the use of polypeptides; however, due to their lack of complementary or modulatory domains, polypeptides must be modified to improve their ability to promote adhesion. In this study, we utilized the principle of matrix-based biomimetic modification and a recombinant protein, which spans fragments 7–10 of fibronectin module III (heterophilic motif ) and extracellular domains 1–2 of cadherin-11 (rFN/Cad-11) (homophilic motif ), to modify the interface of collagen type II (Col II) sponges. We showed that the designed material was able to stimulate cell proliferation and promote better chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro than both the FN modified surfaces and the negative control. Further, the Col II/rFN/Cad-11-MSCs composite stimulated cartilage formation in vivo; the chondrogenic effect of Col II alone was much less significant. These results suggested that the rFN/Cad-11-modified collagen type II biomimetic interface has dual biological functions of promoting adhesion and stimulating chondrogenic differentiation. This substance, thus, may serve as an ideal scaffold material for cartilage tissue engineering, enhancing repair of injured cartilage in vivo. PMID:23919505

  17. Organochlorine-induced immunosuppression in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Grasman, K.A.; Scanlon, P.F.; Fox, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    This investigation studied the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes and evaluated the use of immunological tests as biomarkers for contaminant exposure in wild birds. During 1991--1994, specific immune functions and general hematological parameters were measured in herring gull (Larus argentatus) and Caspian tern (Stema caspia) chicks. Study sites were chosen across a wide range of organochlorine contamination caused primarily by PCBs. In herring gull adults, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio decreased as liver EROD, an index of contaminant exposure, increased, In herring gull chicks, thymus mass decreased as EROD increased. At highly contaminated sites, gull and tern chicks showed a marked reduction in T cell-mediated immunity as measured by the phytohemagglutinin skin test. The thymic atrophy and T cell suppression were consistent with documented effects of PCBs in laboratory animals during development and growth. In both species, chicks exhibited biologically significant differences in antibody production among sites, but any relationships to contaminants or other factors remain unclear. In laboratory animals, PCBs exhibit variable effects on antibody production. Structural and functional parameters related to the immune system are useful biomarkers for assessing the effects of contaminants on wild birds.

  18. Processing of Cholinesterase-like ?/?-Hydrolase Fold Proteins: Alterations Associated with Congenital Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Jaco, Antonella; Comoletti, Davide; Dubi, Noga; Camp, Shelley; Taylor, Palmer

    2016-01-01

    The ?/? hydrolase fold family is perhaps the largest group of proteins presenting significant structural homology with divergent functions, ranging from catalytic hydrolysis to heterophilic cell adhesive interactions to chaperones in hormone production. All the proteins of the family share a common three-dimensional core structure containing the ?/?-hydrolase fold domain that is crucial for proper protein function. Several mutations associated with congenital diseases or disorders have been reported in conserved residues within the ?/?-hydrolase fold domain of cholinesterase-like proteins, neuroligins, butyrylcholinesterase and thyroglobulin. These mutations are known to disrupt the architecture of the common structural domain either globally or locally. Characterization of the natural mutations affecting the ?/?-hydrolase fold domain in these proteins has shown that they mainly impair processing and trafficking along the secretory pathway causing retention of the mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Studying the processing of ?/?-hydrolase fold mutant proteins should uncover new functions for this domain, that in some cases require structural integrity for both export of the protein from the ER and for facilitating subunit dimerization. A comparative study of homologous mutations in proteins that are closely related family members, along with the definition of new three-dimensional crystal structures, will identify critical residues for the assembly of the ?/?-hydrolase fold. PMID:21933121

  19. Afadin requirement for cytokine expressions in keratinocytes during chemically induced inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Takanori; Takai, Yoshimi; Birchmeier, Walter; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-11-01

    Afadin is a filamentous actin-binding protein and a mediator of nectin signaling. Nectins are Ig-like cell adhesion molecules, and the nectin family is composed of four members, nectin-1 to nectin-4. Nectins show homophilic and heterophilic interactions with other nectins or proteins on adjacent cells. Nectin signaling induces formation of cell-cell junctions and is required for the development of epithelial tissues, including skin. This study investigated the role of afadin in epithelial tissue development and established epithelium-specific afadin-deficient (CKO) mice. Although showing no obvious abnormality in the skin development and homeostasis, the mice showed the reduced neutrophil infiltration into the epidermis during chemical-induced inflammation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the expression levels of cytokines including Cxcl2, Il-1? and Tnf-? were reduced in CKO keratinocytes compared with control keratinocytes during TPA-induced inflammation. Primary-cultured skin keratinocytes from CKO mice also showed reduced expression of these cytokines and weak activation of Rap1 compared with those from control mice after the TPA treatment. These results suggested a remarkable function of afadin, which was able to enhance cytokine expression through Rap1 activation in keratinocytes during inflammation. PMID:25297509

  20. Hematological and plasma biochemical reference ranges of Alaskan seabirds: Their ecological significance and clinical importance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, S.H.; Piatt, J.F.; White, J.

    1997-01-01

    Blood was analyzed from 151 pelagic marine birds to establish reference ranges for hematological and plasma biochemical parameters from healthy, wild populations of Pacific seabirds. Of the 13 species examined, 9 were from the Family Alcidae (N = 122 individuals) and the remainder (N = 29) from the Families Phalacrocoracidae, Laridae, and Procellariidae. Three of 8 hematological parameters (total white blood cell count, lymphocyte count and eosinophil count) differed significantly among species, as did 9 of 13 plasma biochemical parameters (alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, cholesterol, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, total protein and field total protein). There were no differences among species for packed cell volume, buffy coat, cell counts of heterophils, monoqtes and basophils, or for concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, uric acid and calcium. Plasma calcium concentration, triglyceride levels and field total protein varied significantly between sexes, with females having higher mean concentrations of all 3 parameters. However, no significant relationships between measures of breeding condition (brood patch size, subcutaneous and mesenteric fat deposits, or ovarian follicle size and ovary weight) and calcium or alkaline phosphatase concentrations in female birds could be identified. Alanine aminotransferase and uric acid were the only analytes which did not differ significantly between species or sexes.

  1. The effects of hurricane Rita and subsequent drought on alligators in southwest Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Lance, Valentine A; Elsey, Ruth M; Butterstein, George; Trosclair, Phillip L; Merchant, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Hurricane Rita struck the coast of southwest Louisiana in September 2005. The storm generated an enormous tidal surge of approximately four meters in height that inundated many thousands of acres of the coastal marsh with full strength seawater. The initial surge resulted in the deaths of a number of alligators and severely stressed those who survived. In addition, a prolonged drought (the lowest rainfall in 111 years of recorded weather data) following the hurricane resulted in highly saline conditions that persisted in the marsh for several months. We had the opportunity to collect 11 blood samples from alligators located on Holly Beach less than a month after the hurricane, but were unable to collect samples from alligators on Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge until February 2006. Conditions at Rockefeller Refuge did not permit systematic sampling, but a total of 201 samples were collected on the refuge up through August 2006. The blood samples were analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolality, and corticosterone. Blood samples from alligators sampled on Holly Beach in October 2005, showed a marked elevation in plasma osmolality, sodium, chloride, potassium, corticosterone, and an elevated heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. Blood samples from alligators on Rockefeller Refuge showed increasing levels of corticosterone as the drought persisted and elevated osmolality and electrolytes. After substantial rainfall in July and August, these indices of osmotic stress returned to within normal limits. PMID:19937751

  2. Clinical, gross, and histological findings in herring gulls and Atlantic puffins that ingested Prudhoe Bay crude oil.

    PubMed

    Leighton, F A

    1986-05-01

    Oral doses of 0, 1, 4, 5, 10, or 20 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil/kg body weight/day were given to herring gull and Atlantic puffin nestlings for 5 to 7 consecutive days. Gulls defecated substantial amounts of oil within 10 to 15 minutes after receiving a dose. Clinical signs and lesions occurred only in birds given greater than or equal to 10 ml oil/kg body weight/day. Gulls consumed less food and lost weight. Two categories of lesions were observed: those considered secondary to a primary toxic hemolytic disease, and those considered nonspecific reactions to stress. The former included phagocytosis of degenerate erythrocytes in the liver and spleen, hemoglobin resorption droplets in renal proximal tubule cells, and erythroid hyperplasia in the bone marrow; the latter included lymphocyte depletion in primary lymphoid tissues, an increase in heterophil: lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood, lipid depletion and necrosis in adrenal steroidogenic cells, and an increased prevalence and severity of lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. These findings indicated that the primary target of oil toxicity was the peripheral red blood cell, but that significant stress-related lesions were also associated with ingestion of oil. PMID:3727312

  3. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  4. Postsynaptic Receptors for Amyloid-? Oligomers as Mediators of Neuronal Damage in Alzheimers Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dinamarca, Margarita C.; Ros, Juvenal A.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic effect of amyloid-? peptide (A?) over the central synapses has been described and is reflected in the decrease of some postsynaptic excitatory proteins, the alteration in the number and morphology of the dendritic spines, and a decrease in long-term potentiation. Many studies has been carried out to identify the putative A? receptors in neurons, and is still no clear why the A? oligomers only affect the excitatory synapses. A? oligomers bind to neurite and preferentially to the postsynaptic region, where the postsynaptic protein-95 (PSD-95) is present in the glutamatergic synapse, and interacts directly with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and neuroligin (NL). NL is a postsynaptic protein which binds to the presynaptic protein, neurexin to form a heterophilic adhesion complex, the disruption of this interaction affects the integrity of the synaptic contact. Structurally, NL has an extracellular domain homolog to acetylcholinesterase, the first synaptic protein that was found to interact with A?. In the present review we will document the interaction between A? and the extracellular domain of NL-1 at the excitatory synapse, as well as the interaction with other postsynaptic components, including the glutamatergic receptors (NMDA and mGluR5), the prion protein, the neurotrophin receptor, and the ?7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We conclude that several A? oligomers receptors exist at the excitatory synapse, which could be the responsible for the neurotoxic effect described for the A? oligomers. The characterization of the interaction between A? receptors and A? oligomers could help to understand the source of the neurologic damage observed in the brain of the Alzheimers disease patients. PMID:23267328

  5. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Djurdjevi?, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sunik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S.trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern formation of trout are proposed. PMID:26467239

  6. Carotenoid-based bill and eye ring coloration as honest signals of condition: an experimental test in the red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prez-Rodrguez, Lorenzo; Viuela, Javier

    2008-09-01

    Carotenoid pigments cannot be synthesized by vertebrates but must be ingested through the diet. As they seem to be a limited resource, carotenoid-based ornaments are particularly interesting as possible honest signals of individual quality, in particular of foraging efficiency and nutritional status. Some studies have demonstrated the condition dependence of carotenoid-based plumage in birds. However, many other carotenoid-pigmented bare parts (i.e. skin, caruncles, bills, cere, and tarsi) are present in birds but, in comparison with plumage, little is known about these traits as indicators of individual quality. Here, we show that the eye ring pigmentation and bill redness of the red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa) are positively associated to body condition and recent changes in body mass. Also, we found a negative relationship between these two traits and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of physiological stress (the relationship with bill redness being significant only for males). In an experiment, we found that after a period of reduction in food intake (with the consequent loss of body mass), food-restricted birds showed lower eye ring pigmentation than ad-libitum-fed birds. Therefore, different ornaments seem to reflect changes in body condition but at different speeds or intensities (eye ring, a fleshy ornament, appears to respond more rapidly to changes in the nutritional status than a keratinized structure as the bill). These results indicate that carotenoid-based ornaments are condition-dependent traits in the red-legged partridge, being therefore susceptible to be employed as honest signals of quality in sexual selection.

  7. Coxiella-like infection in psittacines and a toucan.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H L; Cadenas, M B; Diab, S S; Nordhausen, R; Bradway, D; Crespo, R; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2008-09-01

    Seven psittacine birds and a toucan (Ramphastos toco) were diagnosed as infected with Coxiella-like bacteria, based on polymerase chain reaction and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence obtained from each bird's liver tissue. Most of the birds exhibited lethargy and weakness for several days prior to death. Gross lesions included mild to moderate emaciation and severely enlarged and mottled pale livers and spleens. Microscopically, there was multifocal necrosis of hepatocytes with infiltration of a mixed population of inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, heterophils, plasma cells, and macrophages randomly scattered throughout in most birds. In several birds within the macrophages there were vacuoles containing basophilic small cocco-bacilli organisms measuring about 0.5-1 microm. The spleens had increased numbers of mononuclear phagocytic system cells, some of which had vacuoles that contained similar organisms, as observed in the liver. There was inflammation in the epicardium and endocardium, interstitium of the lungs, kidney, adrenal and thyroid glands, lamina propria of the intestine, and in occasional birds in the brain, bursa of Fabricius, and bone marrow associated with similar organisms in the macrophages. Transmission electron microscopy of the liver and lungs in most birds and in the thyroid glands of one bird revealed pleomorphic round to elongated bacteria measuring about 0.45 microm in diameter and more than 1.0 microm in length. Most of these organisms contained a peripheral zone of loosely arranged electron dense material that was located immediately beneath a trilaminar membrane. Occasional organisms contained nucleoids. This is the first documentation of disease presumptively associated with Coxiella-like bacteria in birds. PMID:18939630

  8. Immune status of free-ranging green turtles with fibropapillomatosis from Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.; Balazs, G.H.; Cray, C.; Chang, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Cell-mediated and humoral immune status of free-ranging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii (USA) with and without fibropapillornatosis (FP) were assessed. Tumored and non-tumored turtles from Kaneohe Bay (KB) on the island of Oahu and from FP-free areas on the west (Kona/Kohala) coast of the island of Hawaii were sampled from April 1998 through February 1999. Turtles on Oahu were grouped (0-3) for severity of tumors with 0 for absence of tumors, 1 for light, 2 for moderate, and 3 for most severe. Turtles were weighed, straight carapace length measured and the regression slope of weight to straight carapace length compared between groups (KB0, KB1, KB2, KB3, Kona). Blood was assayed for differential white blood cell count, hematocrit, in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A (ConA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and protein electrophoresis. On Oahu, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio increased while eosinophil/monocyte ratio decreased with increasing tumors score. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation indices for ConA and PHA were significantly lower for turtles with tumor scores 2 and 3. Tumor score 3 turtles (KB3) had significantly lower hematocrit, total protein, alpha 1, alpha 2, and gamma globulins than the other four groups. No significant differences in immune status were seen between non-tumored (or KB1) turtles from Oahu and Hawaii. There was no significant difference between groups in regression slopes of body condition to carapace length. We conclude that turtles with severe FP are imunosuppressed. Furthermore, the lack of significant difference in immune status between non-tumored (and KB1) turtles from Oahu and Kona/Kohala indicates that immunosuppression may not be a prerequisite for development of FP.

  9. Stress assessment in captive greylag geese (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Scheiber, I B R; Sterenborg, M; Komdeur, J

    2015-05-01

    Chronic stress--or, more appropriately, "allostatic overload"--may be physiologically harmful and can cause death in the most severe cases. Animals in captivity are thought to be particularly vulnerable to allostatic overload due to artificial housing and group makeup. Here we attempted to determine if captive greylag geese (Anser anser), housed lifelong in captivity, showed elevated levels of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (CORT) and ectoparasites in dropping samples as well as some hematological parameters (hematocrit, packed cell volume, total white blood cell count [TWBC], and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio [H:L]). All of these have been measured as indicators of chronic stress. Furthermore, we correlated the various stress parameters within individuals. Captive geese showed elevated values of CORT and ectoparasites relative to a wild population sampled in the vicinity of the area where the captive flock is held. The elevated levels, however, were by no means at a pathological level and fall well into the range of other published values in wild greylag geese. We found no correlations between any of the variables measured from droppings with any of the ones collected from blood. Among the blood parameters, only the H:L negatively correlated with TWBC. We examine the problem of inferring allostatic overload when measuring only 1 stress parameter, as there is no consistency between various measurements taken. We discuss the different aspects of each of the parameters measured and the extensive individual variation in response to stress as well as the timing at which different systems respond to a stressor and what is actually measured at the time of data collection. We conclude that measuring only 1 stress parameter often is insufficient to evaluate the well-being of both wild and captively housed animals and that collecting behavioral data on stress might be a suitable addition. PMID:26020308

  10. Development of Snake Fungal Disease after Experimental Challenge with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorous).

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Baker, Sarah; Wylie, Daniel; Loper, Daniel; Dreslik, Michael J; Phillips, Christopher A; Maddox, Carol; Driskell, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is a clinical syndrome associated with dermatitis, myositis, osteomyelitis, and pneumonia in several species of free-ranging snakes in the US. The causative agent has been suggested as Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, but other agents may contribute to the syndrome and the pathogenesis is not understood. To understand the role of O. ophiodiicola in SFD, a cottonmouth snake model of SFD was designed. Five cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorous) were experimentally challenged by nasolabial pit inoculation with a pure culture of O. ophiodiicola. Development of skin lesions or facial swelling at the site of inoculation was observed in all snakes. Twice weekly swabs of the inoculation site revealed variable presence of O. ophiodiicola DNA by qPCR in all five inoculated snakes for 3 to 58 days post-inoculation; nasolabial flushes were not a useful sampling method for detection. Inoculated snakes had a 40% mortality rate. All inoculated snakes had microscopic lesions unilaterally on the side of the swabbed nasolabial pit, including erosions to ulcerations and heterophilic dermatitis. All signs were consistent with SFD; however, the severity of lesions varied in individual snakes, and fungal hyphae were only observed in 3 of 5 inoculated snakes. These three snakes correlated with post-mortem tissue qPCR evidence of O. ophiodiicola. The findings of this study conclude that O. ophiodiicola inoculation in a cottonmouth snake model leads to disease similar to SFD, although lesion severity and the fungal load are quite variable within the model. Future studies may utilize this model to further understand the pathogenesis of this disease and develop management strategies that mitigate disease effects, but investigation of other models with less variability may be warranted. PMID:26469977

  11. Development of Snake Fungal Disease after Experimental Challenge with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorous)

    PubMed Central

    Allender, Matthew C.; Baker, Sarah; Wylie, Daniel; Loper, Daniel; Dreslik, Michael J.; Phillips, Christopher A.; Maddox, Carol; Driskell, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is a clinical syndrome associated with dermatitis, myositis, osteomyelitis, and pneumonia in several species of free-ranging snakes in the US. The causative agent has been suggested as Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, but other agents may contribute to the syndrome and the pathogenesis is not understood. To understand the role of O. ophiodiicola in SFD, a cottonmouth snake model of SFD was designed. Five cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorous) were experimentally challenged by nasolabial pit inoculation with a pure culture of O. ophiodiicola. Development of skin lesions or facial swelling at the site of inoculation was observed in all snakes. Twice weekly swabs of the inoculation site revealed variable presence of O. ophiodiicola DNA by qPCR in all five inoculated snakes for 3 to 58 days post-inoculation; nasolabial flushes were not a useful sampling method for detection. Inoculated snakes had a 40% mortality rate. All inoculated snakes had microscopic lesions unilaterally on the side of the swabbed nasolabial pit, including erosions to ulcerations and heterophilic dermatitis. All signs were consistent with SFD; however, the severity of lesions varied in individual snakes, and fungal hyphae were only observed in 3 of 5 inoculated snakes. These three snakes correlated with post-mortem tissue qPCR evidence of O. ophiodiicola. The findings of this study conclude that O. ophiodiicola inoculation in a cottonmouth snake model leads to disease similar to SFD, although lesion severity and the fungal load are quite variable within the model. Future studies may utilize this model to further understand the pathogenesis of this disease and develop management strategies that mitigate disease effects, but investigation of other models with less variability may be warranted. PMID:26469977

  12. Is oxidative status influenced by dietary carotenoid and physical activity after moult in the great tit (Parus major)?

    PubMed

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Decencière, Beatriz; Perret, Samuel; Karadas, Filiz; Meylan, Sandrine; Biard, Clotilde

    2015-07-01

    In the context of sexual and natural selection, an allocation trade-off for carotenoid pigments may exist because of their obligate dietary origin and their role both in the antioxidant and immune systems and in the production of coloured signals in various taxa, particularly birds. When birds have expended large amounts of carotenoids to feather growth such as after autumn moult, bird health and oxidative status might be more constrained. We tested this hypothesis in a bird species with carotenoid-based plumage colour, by manipulating dietary carotenoids and physical activity, which can decrease antioxidant capacity and increase reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) concentration. Great tits were captured after moult and kept in aviaries, under three treatments: physical handicap and dietary supplementation with carotenoids, physical handicap and control diet, and no handicap and control diet. We measured plasma composition (antioxidant capacity, ROM concentration, and vitamin A, vitamin E and total carotenoid concentrations), immune system activation (blood sedimentation) and stress response (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) and predicted that handicap treatment should influence these negatively and carotenoid supplementation positively. Coloration of yellow feathers was also measured. Carotenoid supplementation increased total plasma carotenoid concentration, decreased feather carotenoid chroma and marginally increased ROM concentration. Handicap increased blood sedimentation only in males but had no clear influence on oxidative stress, which contradicted previous studies. Further studies are needed to investigate how physical activity and carotenoid availability might interact and influence oxidative stress outside the moult period, and their combined potential influence on attractiveness and reproductive investment later during the breeding season. PMID:25964421

  13. Interferences in Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Substances that alter the measurable concentration of the analyte or alter antibody binding can potentially result in immunoassay interference. Interfering, endogenous substances that are natural, polyreactive antibodies or autoantibodies (heterophiles), or human anti-animal antibodies together with other unsuspected binding proteins that are unique to the individual, can interfere with the reaction between analyte and reagent antibodies in immunoassay. Lipaemia, cross-reactivity, and exogenous interferences due to pre-analytical variation, matrix and equipment reaction also affect immunoassay. Interfering substances may lead to falsely elevated or falsely low analyte concentration in one or more assay systems depending on the site of the interference in the reaction and possibly result in discordant results for other analytes. The prevalence of interference is generally low in assays containing blocking agents that neutralise or inhibit the interference but is often higher in new, untested immunoassays. A wide range of analytes measured by immunoassay including hormones, tumour markers, drugs, cardiac troponin and microbial serology may be affected. Interference in immunoassay may lead to the misinterpretation of a patient's results by the laboratory and the wrong course of treatment being given by the physician. Laboratories should put processes in place to detect, test and report suspected interferences. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of discordance between the clinical and the laboratory data to the laboratory. The detection of interference may require the use of an alternate assay or additional measurements, before and after treatment with additional blocking reagent, or following dilution of the sample in non-immune serum. It is imperative that laboratories inform physicians of the follow-up procedure and report on the presence of any interference. The establishment of on-going laboratory-physician contact is essential to the continuing awareness of wrong patient results due to interference. PMID:18458713

  14. Altered Functionality of Anti-Bacterial Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Anne; Long, Ronald E.; Comunale, Mary Ann; Hafner, Julie; Rodemich-Betesh, Lucy; Wang, Mengjun; Marrero, Jorge; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Background Using comparative glycoproteomics, we have previously identified a glycoprotein that is altered in both amount and glycosylation as a function of liver cirrhosis. The altered glycoprotein is an agalactosylated (G0) immunoglobulin G molecule (IgG) that recognizes the heterophilic alpha-gal epitope. Since the alpha gal epitope is found on gut enterobacteria, it has been hypothesized that anti-gal antibodies are generated as a result of increased bacterial exposure in patients with liver disease. Methods The N-linked glycosylation of anti-gal IgG molecules from patients with fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined and the effector function of anti-bacterial antibodies from over 100 patients examined. In addition, markers of microbial exposure were determined. Results Surprisingly, the subset of agalactosylated anti-gal antibodies described here, was impaired in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis and inhibited the complement-mediated destruction of common gut bacteria. In an analysis of serum from more than 100 patients with liver disease, we have shown that those with increased levels of this modified anti-gal antibody had increased levels of markers of bacterial exposure. Conclusions Anti-gal antibodies in patients with liver cirrhosis were reduced in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis of target cells. As bacterial infection is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial products such as LPS are thought to play a major role in the development and progression of liver fibrosis, this finding has many clinical implications in the etiology, prognosis and treatment of liver disease. PMID:23750224

  15. Effects of Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing known levels of fumonisin B1 on progress of Salmonella Gallinarum infection in Japanese quail: clinical signs and hematologic studies.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, S; Asrani, R K; Jindal, N; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Sharma, M; Singh, S P

    2005-06-01

    To study the individual and combined effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) toxicity and Salmonella serotype Gallinarum infection, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed Fusarium moniliforme culture material (2.5%), 150 mg FB1/kg ration, and were subsequently challenged orally with Salmonella Gallinarum organisms (2 x 10(4) colony-forming units) at 21 days of age. The chicks were fed culture material containing FB1 from day 5 till the end of the experiment. After being infected with Salmonella Gallinarum, observations were made 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days postinfection. The clinical signs of diarrhea with bloody discharges were more pronounced in the Salmonella-infected birds on the FB1 diet. Mortality caused by Salmonella Gallinarum increased by 12% in the presence of FB1. Mean body weights in both the Salmonella-infected and FB1-fed groups were significantly lower than those of the controls at almost all intervals. Mean values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and total erythrocyte count were slightly higher in birds fed FB1 but were lower in the Salmonella Gallinarum groups fed FB1 and plain chick mash. Anemia was evident, between 5 and 10 days postinfection, in quail chicks infected with Salmonella Gallinarum alone. Total leukocyte counts were higher in Salmonella-infected and FB1-fed groups because of an increase in the number of heterophils and lymphocytes. However, the increase in lymphocyte response to infection was lower by 4.27%-30.09% between 3 and 21 days postinfection in the FB1-fed chicks compared with chicks infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. Alanine transaminase and total serum protein were slightly higher in both the infected and FB1-fed groups. This study revealed that the continuous presence of fumonisins in the diets of quail chicks might increase the susceptibility to or the severity of Salmonella Gallinarum infection. PMID:16094834

  16. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

    2014-06-01

    Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Etvs Lornd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

  17. Immunolocalization indicates that both original and regenerated lizard tail tissues contain populations of long retaining cells, putative stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    The regeneration of the tail in lizards is likely sustained by stem/progenitor cells located in the stump after amputation of the tail. This microscopic and ultrastructural study shows the localization of 5-bromo-deoxy-uridine (5BrdU)-long retaining labeled cells in different tissues of the tail stump. These putative stem/progenitor cells are sparsely detected in the epidermis of scales, adipose tissue, intermuscle connective septa, myosatellite cells, and perichondrion of the vertebrae. Most of 5BrdU-labeled cells are present in the bone marrow of vertebrae as hemocytoblasts and reticulate cells, whereas more numerous myelocytes and polychromatophilic erythroblasts show a variable level of nuclear labeling. 5BrdU and tritiated-thymidine labeled and unlabeled hemopoietic cells are seen in circulating vessels and in the blastema where their maturation is completed. This observation indicates that the entire differentiation span of both white and red blood cells, at least during tail regeneration, lasts longer than 4 weeks. Labeled polychromatophilic erythroblasts and heterophilic and basophilic myelocytes are present in the synusoidal vessels of the regenerating tail. This study indicates that extravasating blood cells involved in immunity make large part of the forming blastema cell population, but are replaced by mesenchymal cells of different origin. The presence of long retaining labeled cells in tissues of the tail stump is likely connected to the production of blastema mesenchymal cells. Although no direct cell-lineage study has been done, histological, immunocytochemical, and autoradiographic studies have indicated that it is from these tissues that proliferating cells appear mainly localized after tail amputation and blastema formation. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:1032-1045, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26415629

  18. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird

    PubMed Central

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H.; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage) such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous interpretation of condition indices as surrogates for individual quality and fitness. PMID:26305457

  19. Meta-analysis of the relationship of mycotoxins with biochemical and hematological parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Lovatto, P A

    2012-02-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with hematological and biochemical profiles in broilers. Ninety-eight articles published between 1980 and 2009 were used in the database, totaling 37,371 broilers. The information was selected from the Materials and Methods and Results sections in the selected articles and then tabulated in a database. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphic, correlation, and variance-covariance. Mycotoxins reduced (P < 0.05) the hematocrit (-5%), hemoglobin (-15%), leukocytes (-25%), heterophils (-2%), lymphocytes (-2%), uric acid (-31%), creatine kinase (-27%), creatinine (-23%), triglycerides (-39%), albumin (-17%), globulin (-1%), total cholesterol (-14%), calcium (-5%), and inorganic phosphorus (-12%). Mycotoxins also altered (P < 0.05) the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. A quadratic effect was observed on the relationship between the concentration of aflatoxin in diets and the serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. The total protein concentration in blood was 18% lower (P < 0.05) in broilers challenged by aflatoxins compared with that of the unchallenged ones. The inclusion of antimycotoxin additives in diets with aflatoxins altered (P < 0.05) some variables (uric acid, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and ?-glutamyl transferase) in relation to the group that received diets with the mycotoxin and without the additive. The meta-analysis performed in this study allowed us to address and quantify systematically the relationship of mycotoxins with alterations in hematologic and biochemical profiles in broilers. PMID:22252351

  20. F3/contactin, a neuronal cell adhesion molecule implicated in axogenesis and myelination.

    PubMed

    Falk, Julien; Bonnon, Carine; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Faivre-Sarrailh, Catherine

    2002-10-01

    A general feature of the cell adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin family (Ig-CAMs) is to display a modular structure that provides a framework for multiple binding sites for other recognition molecules. Among this family, F3/contactin is a glycan phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchored molecule expressed by neurons that displays the distinctiveness to exert heterophilic but no homophilic binding activities. The Ig domains of F3/contactin were shown to interact with the L1 family of Ig-CAMs, including L1, NrCAM, and neurofascin. Binding between F3/contactin and NrCAM is known to modulate axonal elongation of the cerebellar granule cells and to control sensory axon guidance. F3/contactin mediates neuron-glial contacts through its association with extracellular matrix components (tenascin-R, tenascin-C) and RPTPbeta/phosphacan, influencing axonal growth and fasciculation. Another major role of F3/contactin is to organize axonal subdomains at the node of Ranvier of myelinated fibers in interplay with other Ig-CAMs, through its binding with caspr/paranodin at paranodes and the voltage-gated sodium channels in the nodal region. The F3/contactin deficient mice display a severe ataxia correlated with defects in axonal and dendritic projections in the cerebellum. These mice also display defects in nerve influx conduction due to the disruption of the axo-glial contacts at paranodes. Finally, the recent identification of a Drosophila homologue of F3/contactin indicated that this family of GPI-anchored CAMs plays a conserved function in axonal insulation. PMID:12500940

  1. Atypical lymphocytes and leukocytes in the peripheral circulation of caged hens.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Paul F

    2015-07-01

    Lymphocytes comprise a family of cells descended from bursa and thymus progenitors whose differentiation is not possible by standard hematology. However, if they are small with a nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio near 1, they are "resting" at least in the microscopic sense. Activation, increases their size, and decreases the nuclear:cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio. Reactive cells are infrequent in healthy animal blood. Their presence indicates an immune response in progress, inflammation, stress, or other pathology. Here the purpose is to describe unusual leukocytes and lymphocytes found in the periphery of commercial hens. Samples of Wright stained blood films obtained from commercial hens housed in modern cages are the data source. Photomicroscopy used an Olympus CX41 light microscope equipped with an Infinity-2 1.4 megapixel charge-coupled device (CCD) Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2.0 camera, at 100 (oil) magnification. Collectively these cells illustrate a continuum between mildly "reactive" to grossly "atypical" states. The description begins with normal resting cells, proceeds to mildly atypical, and concludes with grossly abnormal cells. Bone marrow cells, a source of plasmacytes, are included for comparison. Examples of circulating plasmacytes, large plasmacytoid lymphocytes (LPL), foam cells, and cells expressing properties of more than one lineage are included. The importance of these observations lies in their contribution to cytology, hematology, and immunology. Last, because of the wide use of heterophil:lymphocyte ratios (H:L) as a stress measure they bear directly the welfare issues of caged animals. When cells similar to the types described here are in blood, they indicate stress independent of H:L or other standard measures. PMID:26038581

  2. The effect of dietary fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and immune responses in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yue; Regassa, Alemu; Kim, Ji Hyuk; Kim, Woo Kyun

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, lymphoid organ weight, intestinal morphology, and immunological status in broilers (n=180) challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Birds were randomly assigned into a 32 factorial arrangement that included 1) 3 dietary treatments from d one to 21: positive control (PC), wheat-corn-soybean meal based diet contained antibiotics (virginiamycin and monensin); negative control (NC), as PC without antibiotics; and NC+FOS, as NC supplemented with 0.5% FOS, and 2) 2 intraperitoneal injections: 2 mg/kg Salmonella Enteritidis LPS or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on d 21. Growth performance and relative lymphoid organ weight were not significantly different among the treatments. Villus height, crypt depth, and total mucosa thickness were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the ileum of broiler chickens fed NC+FOS when compared to PC and NC. Birds in NC+FOS treatment had reduced heterophil but increased monocyte count when compared to NC (P<0.05). Significant dietchallenge interaction was observed on natural IgY levels (P<0.0001), and a significant dietary effect was observed on specific IgY levels in chickens fed NC+FOS (P=0.003). Supplementation of FOS also increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, -10, and interferon (IFN)-? mRNA in the ileum of the birds. In summary, Salmonella Enteritidis LPS challenge established significant differences in the immune responses in broiler chickens. FOS supplementation increased ileal mucosa thickness and elevated the expressions of certain cytokine genes. It also led to the alteration of leukocyte compositions and serum IgY levels in response to LPS challenge, suggesting FOS supplementation may be effective to induce protective outcomes in gut health and immunity of broiler chickens. PMID:26467012

  3. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens. PMID:24498179

  4. Does Exurban Housing Development Affect the Physiological Condition of Forest-Breeding Songbirds? A Case Study of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) in the Largest Protected Area in the Contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Seewagen, Chad L; Glennon, Michale; Smith, Susan B

    2015-01-01

    Exurban development (low-density development in rural areas) can significantly alter wildlife community composition, but it is largely unknown whether it also affects wildlife at the individual level. We investigated individual-level impacts of exurban development in New York State's Adirondack Park by comparing the physiological condition of 62 male ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) breeding in forests with low-density housing development with those in contiguous forests. We used hematocrit (HCT) volume and plasma triglyceride (TRIG) levels to compare energetic condition, plasma uric acid (UA) and total plasma protein (TPP) levels to compare diet quality, and heterophil?lymphocyte ratios (H?L) to compare chronic stress. HCT was the only parameter to differ, with birds near houses exhibiting lower values. The comparable TRIG, UA, and TPP that we found between treatment types suggest that ovenbird food quality and availability are unaffected by exurban development in our study area. Similar H?L suggests that homeowner activities do not significantly change chronic stressors faced by breeding male ovenbirds. We also found no difference in body mass, body size, or age ratio to indicate that habitats in either treatment type were in higher demand or more difficult to acquire. Although our results suggest that exurban development does not reduce habitat quality for male ovenbirds in a way that affects their condition, we caution that it may still ultimately reduce fitness by attracting synanthropic predators. Further work is needed to better understand the impacts of exurban development on wildlife at all levels and provide science-based information needed to meet conservation challenges in rapidly developing exurban areas. PMID:26052638

  5. Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P = 0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P = 0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ρ <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research investigations and in clinical diagnosis and to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:25402479

  6. Nonspecific Cytotoxic Cell Antimicrobial Protein (NCAMP-1): A Novel Alarmin Ligand Identified in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Monette, Margaret Mariscal; Evans, Donald Lee; Krunkosky, Thomas; Camus, Alvin; Jaso-Friedmann, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Cells from the coelomic cavity of adult zebrafish (zf) were used to study the alarmin-like activities of nonspecific cytotoxic cell antimicrobial protein-1 (NCAMP-1). Immunohistochemistry studies using polyclonal anti-NCAMP-1 identified constitutive NCAMP-1 in epithelial cells of the zf anterior kidney, in liver parenchyma and in the lamina propria of the intestine. NCAMP-1 was also located in the cytosol of mononuclear cells in these tissues. Cytosolic NCAMP-1 was detected in a diverse population of coelomic cells (CC) using confocal microscopy and polyclonal anti-NCAMP-1 staining. Large mononuclear and heterophil-like CC had intracellular NCAMP-1. These studies indicated that NCAMP-1 is constitutively found in epithelial cells and in ZFCC. To establish a relationship between NCAMP-1 and the alarmin functions of ATP, a stimulation-secretion model was initiated using zf coelomic cells (ZFCC). ZFCCs treated with the alarmin ATP secreted NCAMP-1 into culture supernatants. Treatment of ZFCC with either ATP or NCAMP-1 activated purinergic receptor induced pore formation detected by the ZFCC uptake of the dye YO-PRO-1. ATP induced YO-PRO-1 uptake was inhibited by antagonists oxidized-ATP, KN62, or CBB. These antagonists did not compete with NCAMP-1 induced YO-PRO-1 uptake. Binding of ZFCC by both ATP and NCAMP-1 produced an influx of Ca2+. Combined treatment of ZFCC with ATP and NCAMP-1 increased target cell cytotoxicity. Individually NCAMP-1 or ATP treatment did not produce target cell damage. Similar to ATP, NCAMP-1 activates cellular pore formation, calcium influx and cytotoxicity. PMID:25689842

  7. Necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis in slaughtered broilers.

    PubMed

    Supartika, I K E; van der Stroom-Kruyswijk, J H; Toussaint, M J M; Gruys, E

    2007-06-01

    The present study describes a subclinical necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis in normal broilers routinely slaughtered in a medium-sized (72,000 birds per day) abattoir in the Netherlands. An exploratory investigation was scheduled on line during 20-min periods for 82 flocks (3000 birds examined per period). Liver and duodenum samples were collected for histopathology from 365 birds with liver pathology. Bacteriology was performed from 240 livers with lesions and 80 control livers. In addition to the hepatic pathology, other gross lesions of the carcasses, such as footpad dermatitis and broken legs/wings, were noted. The average prevalence for gross liver lesions was 0.16% (ranging from 0% to 0.63% per flock); 89.59% of the livers were enlarged, had a firm consistency, and revealed multifocal necrotic spots. Microscopically, 51.66% showed a granulomatous reaction in addition to the necrosis. There was no consistent anaerobic or aerobic bacterial growth in comparison to normal livers. A large proportion of the livers revealed growth of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., and this was often with more than one type of bacterial colony. The duodenum mucosa grossly showed some redness with a mucous mass on its surface. Microscopically (n = 176) in 5.70% there were no changes in anatomy and cellular activities; 64.20% had a mildly increased number of lymphoid cells and heterophils in the lamina propria and between villus epithelial cells. The remaining 30.10% had moderate degenerative changes of villus epithelium with a mixed cellular infiltration in the lamina propria; 23.29% of the duodenum samples contained coccidia (infestation stage: mild to moderate). Signs of overgrowth with Clostridium spp. were not observed. There was a small, but significant correlation (rs = 0.30; P = 0.006) between prevalence of liver pathology and footpad dermatitis. PMID:17626499

  8. Involvement of a neutral glycolipid in differential cell adhesion in the Xenopus blastula.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, A P; Brown, D; Heasman, J; Cook, G M; Evans, J; Vickers, L; Wylie, C C

    1992-01-01

    Many different molecular species mediate cell adhesion during embryonic development. These can have either protein or carbohydrate functional groups, which can act in either a homophilic or a heterophilic manner, and often in concert. We report here that a monoclonal antibody, M4B, raised against Xenopus blastomere membranes, inhibits the calcium-dependent adhesion of dissociated blastomeres. M4B maintains its inhibitory effect on adhesion when converted into univalent fragments, and specifically affects calcium-dependent adhesion. The antigen is regulated in both space and time during early development. It is found on cell surfaces throughout the egg to blastula stages, but is more concentrated on cells in the animal and marginal zones of the blastula. It is dramatically downregulated during gastrulation, and becomes largely restricted to gut epithelium by the larval stages. We show also that M4B function is spatially differentiated at the blastula stage, since it inhibits the aggregation of dissociated animal cells to a greater extent than vegetal cells. This membrane antigen may therefore play a role in the differential adhesion observed between different regions of the blastula, and which we presume to underlie the segregation of the primary germ layers during gastrulation. M4B recognizes a complex of plasma membrane glycolipids. Periodate treatment destroys the ability of these glycolipids to react with the antibody, indicating that the epitope resides in the carbohydrate moiety of the glycolipids. Chemical characterization shows that it is a neutral glycolipid, and that the major component is of the glycoglycerolipid, rather than the more common glycosphingolipid class. Blocking experiments with oligosaccharides of defined structure, and antibody crossreactivity show that the M4B antibody does not recognize several known embryonic carbohydrate antigens. These results demonstrate that M4B antibody recognizes a novel group of developmentally regulated glycolipids which function in calcium-dependent cell--cell adhesion in the Xenopus blastula. Images PMID:1396578

  9. Synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 is a target for polysialylation in postnatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Galuska, Sebastian P; Rollenhagen, Manuela; Kaup, Moritz; Eggers, Katinka; Oltmann-Norden, Imke; Schiff, Miriam; Hartmann, Maike; Weinhold, Birgit; Hildebrandt, Herbert; Geyer, Rudolf; Mhlenhoff, Martina; Geyer, Hildegard

    2010-06-01

    Among the large set of cell surface glycan structures, the carbohydrate polymer polysialic acid (polySia) plays an important role in vertebrate brain development and synaptic plasticity. The main carrier of polySia in the nervous system is the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. As polySia with chain lengths of more than 40 sialic acid residues was still observed in brain of newborn Ncam(-/-) mice, we performed a glycoproteomics approach to identify the underlying protein scaffolds. Affinity purification of polysialylated molecules from Ncam(-/-) brain followed by peptide mass fingerprinting led to the identification of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 as a so far unknown polySia carrier. SynCAM 1 belongs to the Ig superfamily and is a powerful inducer of synapse formation. Importantly, the appearance of polysialylated SynCAM 1 was not restricted to the Ncam(-/-) background but was found to the same extent in perinatal brain of WT mice. PolySia was located on N-glycans of the first Ig domain, which is known to be involved in homo- and heterophilic SynCAM 1 interactions. Both polysialyltransferases, ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV, were able to polysialylate SynCAM 1 in vitro, and polysialylation of SynCAM 1 completely abolished homophilic binding. Analysis of serial sections of perinatal Ncam(-/-) brain revealed that polySia-SynCAM 1 is expressed exclusively by NG2 cells, a multifunctional glia population that can receive glutamatergic input via unique neuron-NG2 cell synapses. Our findings sug-gest that polySia may act as a dynamic modulator of SynCAM 1 functions during integration of NG2 cells into neural networks. PMID:20479255

  10. Limitations of immunofluorescence tests in the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Joncas, J H; Gilker, J C; Chagnon, A

    1974-04-01

    The relative value of heterophil agglutinins (HA) and of specific EBV antibodies in the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (IM) was assessed in 108 cases of the disease and in 280 controls. Among the 108 cases 93 were HA-positive by sheep cells in at least one of their sera, while 15 were HA-negative by the same test. Among the 280 controls false-positive HA tests were not encountered except in eight cases with the horse cell microtitre tests. With one of the two slide tests at least two false-positive tests and 12 false-negative tests were also found but these sera had low titres in microtitre tests. The HA life-span was found to be unexpectedly long in a few cases, sheep cell HA lasting up to 8 to 10 months and horse cell HA up to 21 to 23 months.Many false-positive tests may therefore not be true false-positives and may result from the persistence of HA following unrecognized mononucleosis months before. Virtually all cases of IM had (or developed) antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA), whereas only half of the controls were EBV-VCA-positive. The comparative analysis of nonspecific and specific test results in mononucleosis allows the following conclusions: (1) horse cell microtitre tests and the monospot test are more sensitive than sheep cell microtitre tests and the monotest; (2) false-negative results are occasionally seen with the latter tests but not with the former; (3) more false-positive results, however, are probably seen with the former tests; and (4) specific EBV-IgM and EBV-EA antibody tests are useful in the diagnosis of selected borderline cases of mononucleosis. PMID:4363398

  11. N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

    2011-12-31

    Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

  12. Diagnostic and biological implications of mel-CAM expression in mesenchymal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Shih, I M; Wang, T L; Westra, W H

    1996-03-01

    Mel-CAM (previously MUC18) is an integral membrane glycoprotein involved in heterophilic intercellular adhesions. Mel-CAM is expressed specifically in certain normal mesenchymal tissues, including smooth muscle, endothelium, and Schwann cells. As a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), Mel-CAM may play a pivotal role in the normal differentiation and functional activity of these tissues. To determine the distribution of Mel-CAM in mesenchymal neoplasms and to investigate its potential role as a factor in tumor progression, we evaluated a spectrum of mesenchymal neoplasms by immunohistochemistry using a Mel-CAM-specific polyclonal antibody on formalin-fixed tissues. Mel-CAM positivity was observed in 5 (100%) of 5 leiomyomas, 29 (91%) of 32 leiomyosarcomas, 5 (100%) of 5 hemangiomas, 5 (100%) of 5 angiosarcomas, 3 (100%) of 3 Kaposi's sarcomas, 8 (100%) of 8 schwannomas, 10 (100%) of 10 neurofibromas, 0 (0%) of 8 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 2 (15%) of 13 malignant fibrous histiocytomas, 0 (0%) of 8 fibrosarcomas, 0 (0%) of 7 synovial sarcomas, and 0 (0%) of 6 liposarcomas. These results show that Mel-CAM is expressed consistently in neoplasms of smooth muscle and vascular origin, and that immunostaining for Mel-CAM may serve as a useful adjunct in differentiating leiomyosarcomas, angiosarcomas, and Kaposi's sarcomas from other spindle cell neoplasms. Furthermore, the observation that Mel-CAM is expressed consistently in schwannomas and neurofibromas but not in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors implicates Mel-CAM as a potential modulator of malignant transformation in peripheral nerve tumors. PMID:9816205

  13. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter "flycatcher") is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in saltcedar habitats exhibit poorer nutritional condition or are suffering negative physiological affects. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2005.

  14. Thyroid hormone suppression and cell-mediated immunomodulation in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to PCBs.

    PubMed

    Smits, J E; Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Marchant, T A

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants can induce physiological changes in animals through various mechanisms. One manifestation of subclinical toxicity from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure is the disruption of normal immune function described in numerous species, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius). In 1998, 152 mature male and female kestrels were fed either a mixture of Aroclor 1248:1254:1260 (approximately 7 mg/kg kestrel/day) through their food items, or control diets. Offspring produced by 50 breeding pairs (thus, half received in ovo PCB exposure only) were also studied. Total and differential white blood cell counts, the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response, as well as thyroid hormone levels were tested in vivo in nonbreeding adults (1998 only) and nestlings (1998 and 1999). In 1999, nestlings came from three parental groups; adults exposed in 1998, birds produced by PCB-exposed parents, and unexposed birds. In 1998, directly exposed males but not females had increased total white blood cell counts driven by lymphocytosis, plus a decreased heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio relative to controls. PCB-exposed birds had a significantly greater response to PHA than did controls, with sex as a significant factor and plasma triiodothyonine (T(3)) as a significant covariate. Levels of T(3) were significantly depressed in PCB-exposed birds of both sexes. The 1999 nestlings (F1 generation with respect to PCB exposure) did not show any effect of parental treatment group on the PHA skin response, yet T(3) remained as a significant covariate. Immunological effects are discussed in light of the antibody-mediated immunotoxicity found in the same birds and reported previously. PMID:12202931

  15. Toxicity and pharmacokinetics of 2-(2-dimethylaminoethoxy)ethanol following cutaneous dosing.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Frantz, S W; Ballantyne, B

    2002-07-01

    A 9-day repeated cutaneous toxicity study in the New Zealand White rabbit was conducted using 6-h occluded contact with 0 (water control), 50, 250 and 500 mg dimethylaminoethoxyethanol (DMEE)/kg. There were no clinical signs, and no effects on body weight, food consumption or serum chemistry. Hematological effects were limted to increased leukocyte count due to heterophil leukocytosis, increased platelet count, and decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit at the high dose. These findings are typical of the response of cutaneous inflammation. Histopathological findings were limited to the DMEE-treated skin, and consisted of acanthosis and ulcerative/necrotizing dermatitis. Thus, there was no evidence for cumulative percutaneous systemic toxicity for DMEE. The pharmacokinetics of DMEE was investigated in the Fischer 344 rats. Rats were given an intravenous dose of 15 or 150 mg/kg, or an occluded cutaneous dose of 150 mg/kg [14C]DMEE, and its fate was followed for 48-72 h. DMEE was readily absorbed through the skin (bioavailability=72-80%). Concentration in plasma rose steadily to a maximum at about 3.5 h after dosing, and then declined in a biphasic manner. 14C-DMEE-derived radioactivity was distributed throughout the body, with no apparent sequestration in any particular organ. The highest concentrations were observed in the kidney, liver and lung, and the lowest concentrations were found in the brain and fat. Urine was the major route of excretion, with minor amounts eliminated in the feces and as expired CO(2). The rate of excretion was moderate, with about 30% of the applied dose eliminated in the first 12 h, and by 72 h after dosing, less than 4% of the dose remained in the carcass. Unchanged DMEE was the principal component detected in the urine. This observation, together with the less than 1% of the dose excreted as CO(2), showed that metabolism was not an important process in the elimination of DMEE in the rat. PMID:12065226

  16. Association of Beta2-Positive Clostridium perfringens Type A With Focal Duodenal Necrosis in Egg-Laying Chickens in the United States.

    PubMed

    França, M; Barrios, M A; Stabler, L; Zavala, Guillermo; Shivaprasad, H L; Lee, M D; Villegas, A M; Uzal, Francisco A

    2016-03-01

    Focal duodenal necrosis (FDN) is a poorly understood intestinal disease of egg layers, and has been associated with drops in egg production and decreased egg weights. The etiology of this disease is still unknown, but the condition has been associated with Clostridium colinum and Clostridium perfringens. In order to investigate the etiology, duodenal samples were taken from hens with FDN. The hens originated from table egg layer farms in three states. The samples were examined by histopathology, bacteriology, and immunohistochemistry. Macroscopically, all samples contained focal to multifocal, variably sized, reddened or brownish gray areas of mucosal erosion. Histopathology revealed mild to severe heterophilic and lymphoplasmacytic enteritis with loss of enterocytes at the villous tips, luminal fibrinonecrotic exudate, and variable numbers of Gram-positive and Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria within the lesions in 16/30 samples. Clostridium perfringens was isolated by anaerobic bacteriology from 4/13 samples that had characteristic microscopic lesions of FDN. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that all four isolates were Type A C. perfringens, positive for beta2 gene and negative for necrotic enteritis toxin B and enterotoxin genes. PCR for Clostridium colinum applied to DNA extracted from frozen intestinal samples yielded negative results in 14/14 duodenal samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for 7C. perfringens, alpha and beta2 toxins stained a few to numerous long rod-shaped bacteria present in the lesions. IHC for alpha and beta2 toxins also stained enterocytes at the villous tips, inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, as well as degenerated and sloughed enterocytes present within the luminal exudate. These findings suggest that C. perfringens may play a role in the development of FDN. Experimental challenge studies with these isolates still need to be performed in order to reproduce the disease and fulfill Koch's postulates. PMID:26953942

  17. Induction of protective immunity to Haemophilus ducreyi in the temperature-dependent rabbit model of experimental chancroid.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E J; Lumbley, S R; Richardson, J A; Purcell, B K; Stevens, M K; Cope, L D; Datte, J; Radolf, J D

    1994-01-01

    The temperature-dependent rabbit model for chancroid, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the fastidious Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi, was used to investigate the abilities of previous infection and immunization with an acellular preparation of H. ducreyi to induce protective immunity. In the first set of experiments, animals were infected intradermally with either the 35000 or Cha-1 strains of H. ducreyi and then rechallenged 30 days later with both the homologous and heterologous strains. In animals infected with the 35000 strain, statistically significant protective immunity occurred only against the homologous strain, whereas protection against both homologous and heterologous challenge was obtained in rabbits previously infected with strain Cha-1. In a separate series of experiments, rabbits were immunized with cell envelopes from either strain 35000 or strain Cha-1 and then challenged with both the homologous and heterologous strains. In rabbits immunized with strain 35000 cell envelopes, significant protective immunity was observed only against challenge with the homologous strain. In animals immunized with strain Cha-1 cell envelopes, protection was obtained against both homologous and heterologous challenge. Histopathologic analysis of sites inoculated with strain 35000 (10(5) CFU) demonstrated that the inflammatory response in control animals was predominantly suppurative (i.e., heterophilic), whereas that of immunized animals was predominantly mononuclear and, at later time points, largely histiocytic. ELISA and Western blot analyses revealed that immunization produced a better humoral immune response than did infection and provided evidence for antigenic cross-reactivity between these two strains. These results provide the experimental basis for continued efforts to identify potential H. ducreyi vaccinogens. PMID:8254191

  18. A new Mel-CAM (CD146)-specific monoclonal antibody, MN-4, on paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Shih, I M; Nesbit, M; Herlyn, M; Kurman, R J

    1998-11-01

    Mel-CAM (also termed CD146 or MUC18) is a cell-adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. It mediates cell-cell interaction through heterophilic Mel-CAM/ligand adhesion. Previous studies showed Mel-CAM immunoreactivity in normal and neoplastic human tissues, but an extensive assessment of Mel-CAM distribution was not performed because of the lack of a Mel-CAM-specific monoclonal antibody that could be used in routinely processed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Therefore, we developed a mouse monoclonal antibody, MN-4, that specifically recognized a fixation-resistant epitope in the second extracellular (C2) domain of Mel-CAM. We performed immunohistochemical staining on 467 paraffin-embedded tissue samples with this MN-4 antibody and avidin-biotin peroxidase. MN-4 immunoreactivity was seen in normal tissues, including endothelium, smooth muscle, epithelial and myoepithelial cells of the breast, Schwann cells, ganglion cells, cerebellar cortex, implantation-site intermediate trophoblast, external root sheath of hair follicles, basal cells of bronchial epithelium, parathyroid glands, subcapsular epithelium of thymus, follicular dendritic reticulum cells, skeletal muscles, epithelium of lens, and glial cell fibers in the central nervous system in early embryos. In malignant tumors, MN-4 immunostaining was consistently present in all melanomas, angiosarcomas, Kaposi's sarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas of salivary gland, placental-site trophoblastic tumors, and choriocarcinomas. Three of 8 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 of 2 small cell carcinomas of the lung, 2 of 11 of infiltrating breast carcinomas, and 4 of 11 of germinomas were focally and weakly positive for MN-4 antibody. In contrast, a wide variety of other carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, leukemias, and neuroendocrine tumors failed to show MN-4 immunoreactivity. In conclusion, MN-4 is a specific monoclonal antibody that recognizes Mel-CAM on paraffin sections. This antibody is useful in retrospective studies of Mel-CAM expression in archival tissue sections and might provide a diagnostic and prognostic marker for human neoplasms. PMID:9831208

  19. Infectious Mononucleosis and Mononucleosis Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Milan; Heiner, Douglas C.; Turner, Jerrold A.; Rosenbloom, Barry; Guze, Lucien B.

    1977-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis are caused by a primary infection with related viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and CMV. Despite the similarity of clinical manifestations, basic differences exist: (1) The heterophil antibody (HA) response is absent in CMV mononucleosis, whereas it is present in IM. (2) In IM atypical lymphocytosis reflects proliferation of B cells early and of T cells later in the disease course; in CMV mononucleosis the situation appears complex. (3) In blood, EBV is restricted to B lymphocytes, whereas CMV is found in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (4) Complications of CMV mononucleosis such as hepatitis and pneumonitis may be due to virus cytopathic effect in target organs. Prominent tonsillopharyngitis with adenopathy, and visceral complications of IM are related to lymphoproliferation which is self-limited except in males with a rare familial defect in defense against EBV. Immune complex-mediated pathology may occur in both diseases. (5) CMV is frequently transmitted to a fetus in utero or to an infant during or after birth, and this occasionally leads to severe cytomegalic inclusion disease; vertical transmission of EBV appears to be exceptional. (6) Secondary EBV infections are associated with certain malignancies whereas such an association has not been recognized in the case of CMV. Toxoplasma gondii is another cause of HA-negative mononucleosis. Its complications in the heart, in skeletal muscle and in the central nervous system are related to direct invasion by the parasite. Cellular immunity plays an important role in defense against all three agents. PMID:195404

  20. Diagnostic validation of selected serological tests for detecting scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Koraluru, Munegowda; Bairy, Indira; Varma, Muralidhar; Vidyasagar, Sudha

    2015-07-01

    Clinical diagnosis of scrub typhus is often difficult because the symptoms are very similar to those of other febrile illness such as dengue, leptospirosis, malaria and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Though better diagnostic tests are available for rickettsial diseases and scrub typhus elsewhere, the Weil-Felix test is still commonly used in India, mainly because microimmunofluorescence assays (M-IFA) were not available in India till recently and relevant staff had insufficient training. The present study was performed to investigate the performance of M-IFA, IgM ELISA, and Weil-Felix test on 546 non-repeated serum samples from subjects suspected of having scrub typhus. One hundred and forty-three of these 546 samples were positive by M-IFA; these cases were also confirmed clinically to have scrub typhus based on their dramatic responses to doxycycline therapy. IgM ELISA was positive in 122 of the 143 M-IFA positive cases and the Weil-Felix test in 96. Though the Weil-Felix test is a heterophile agglutination test, it was found in this study to have good specificity but far too little sensitivity to use as a routine diagnostic test. IgM ELISA can be a good substitute for M-IFA. Incorporation of multiple prototype antigens on M-IFA slides is likely one of the reasons for its superior performance. As newer and better diagnostic assays become available for scrub typhus diagnosis in developed countries, it will be imperative to also use such tests in other endemic countries to prevent over- or under-diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:26011315

  1. COMPARISON OF TOTAL LEUKOCYTE QUANTIFICATION METHODS IN FREE-LIVING GALAPAGOS TORTOISES (CHELONOIDIS SPP.).

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Julie D; Stacy, Nicole I; Blake, Stephen; Cabrera, Fredy; Deem, Sharon L

    2016-03-01

    Reptile hematologic data provide important health information for conservation efforts of vulnerable wildlife species such as the Galapagos tortoise ( Chelonoidis spp.). Given the reported discrepancies between manual leukocyte counts for nonmammalian species, two manual leukocyte quantification methods, the Natt and Herrick's (NH) and the Eopette (EO), were compared to white blood cell (WBC) estimates from blood films of 42 free-living, clinically healthy, adult female Galapagos tortoises. To investigate the effects of delay in sample processing, estimated WBC counts and leukocyte differentials were compared for blood films prepared at time of collection under field conditions (T0) to blood films prepared from samples that were stored for 18-23 hr at 4°C in the laboratory (T1). Passing-Bablok regression analysis revealed no constant or proportional error between the NH and WBC estimates (T0 and T1) with slopes of 1.1 and 0.9, respectively. However both constant and proportional errors were present between EO and WBC estimates (T0 and T1) with slopes of 3.1 and 2.7, respectively. Bland Altman plots also showed agreement between the NH and WBC estimates where the points fell within the confidence-interval limit lines and were evenly distributed about the mean. In contrast, the EO and WBC estimate comparisons showed numerous points above the upper limit line, especially at higher concentrations. WBC estimates obtained from T0 and T1 films were in agreement, whereas heterophil and monocyte percentages based on differentials were not. Cell morphology and preservation were superior in T0 blood films because thrombocytes exhibited swelling after storage, becoming difficult to differentiate from lymphocytes. In this study, the highest quality and most reliable hematologic data in Galapagos tortoises were obtained by combining immediate blood film preparation with the NH leukocyte quantification method and a confirmatory WBC estimate from the blood film. PMID:27010280

  2. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions. PMID:26953950

  3. The effect of feeding rations with different ratios of concentrate to alfalfa hay on blood hematological and biochemical parameters of farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Kazemi-Bonchenari, Mehdi; Khaltabadi-Farahani, Amir Hossein; Khodaei Motlagh, Mahdi

    2013-10-01

    A two-month trial was conducted to investigate the effects of pelleting rations with 70:30, 65:35, and 60:40 concentrate to high-quality roughage (alfalfa hay) ratios on hematological and biochemical parameters of ostriches. A total of 18 seven-month-old male ostrich chicks, initially weighing an average of 60-70 kg, were distributed into three different outdoor paddocks at a stocking density of six birds per paddock. In the morning, blood collection was made from the wing vein after about 12 h of fasting. All rations resulted in no significant change in hematological parameters. However, with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio tended to be lower (P = 0.089); whereas the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) tended to be higher (P values 0.069, 0.072 and 0.094, respectively). In terms of plasma biochemical parameters, increasing the ratio of concentrate to alfalfa hay in ostrich diets resulted in significant (P < 0.05) depression in the values of glucose (up to 20.2 %), total cholesterol (up to 19.2 %), creatine kinase (up to 27.9 %), and aspartate aminotransferase (up to 29.9 %). Additionally, the 65:35 or 60:40 rations caused a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (27.9 and 42 %, respectively; P = 0.008) compared to the 70:40 ration. Without exception, no rations affected the values of leukocyte subsets, total protein, albumin, globulin, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein. Based on our results, the concentrate to alfalfa ratio of 60:40 could be suggested as optimum ratio for good health conditions of juvenile ostriches. PMID:23575919

  4. Comparisons of Highly Virulent H5N1 Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Humans and Chickens from Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, David L.; Perdue, Michael L.; Cox, Nancy; Rowe, Thomas; Bender, Catherine; Huang, Jing; Swayne, David E.

    1998-01-01

    Genes of an influenza A (H5N1) virus from a human in Hong Kong isolated in May 1997 were sequenced and found to be all avian-like (K. Subbarao et al., Science 279:393–395, 1998). Gene sequences of this human isolate were compared to those of a highly pathogenic chicken H5N1 influenza virus isolated from Hong Kong in April 1997. Sequence comparisons of all eight RNA segments from the two viruses show greater than 99% sequence identity between them. However, neither isolate’s gene sequence was closely (>95% sequence identity) related to any other gene sequences found in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the nucleotide sequences of at least four of the eight RNA segments clustered with Eurasian origin avian influenza viruses. The hemagglutinin gene phylogenetic analysis also included the sequences from an additional three human and two chicken H5N1 virus isolates from Hong Kong, and the isolates separated into two closely related groups. However, no single amino acid change separated the chicken origin and human origin isolates, but they all contained multiple basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin cleavage site, which is associated with a highly pathogenic phenotype in poultry. In experimental intravenous inoculation studies with chickens, all seven viruses were highly pathogenic, killing most birds within 24 h. All infected chickens had virtually identical pathologic lesions, including moderate to severe diffuse edema and interstitial pneumonitis. Viral nucleoprotein was most frequently demonstrated in vascular endothelium, macrophages, heterophils, and cardiac myocytes. Asphyxiation from pulmonary edema and generalized cardiovascular collapse were the most likely pathogenic mechanisms responsible for illness and death. In summary, a small number of changes in hemagglutinin gene sequences defined two closely related subgroups, with both subgroups having human and chicken members, among the seven viruses examined from Hong Kong, and all seven viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens and caused similar lesions in experimental inoculations. PMID:9658115

  5. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions.During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70% (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:24122339

  6. Effects of artemisinin in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella in battery trials.

    PubMed

    Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; T B Ran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-12-15

    Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina(1×10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5×10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1×10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2×10(4)Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p≤0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated. PMID:26518641

  7. How salinity and temperature combine to affect physiological state and performance in red knots with contrasting non-breeding environments.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Soriano-Redondo, Andrea; Dekinga, Anne; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Masero, José A; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-08-01

    Migratory shorebirds inhabit environments that may yield contrasting salinity-temperature regimes-with widely varying osmoregulatory demands, even within a given species-and the question is: by which physiological means and at which organisational level do they show adjustments with respect to these demands? Red knots Calidris canutus winter in coastal areas over a range of latitudes. The nominal subspecies winters in salty areas in the tropics, whereas the subspecies Calidris canutus islandica winters in north-temperate regions of comparatively lower salinities and temperatures. In this study, both subspecies of red knot were acclimated to different salinity (28/40‰)-temperature (5/35 °C) combinations for 2-week periods. We then measured food/salt intakes, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass and temperature, fat and salt gland scores, gizzard mass, heat-shock proteins, heterophils/lymphocytes (H/L) ratio and plasma Na(+) to assess the responses of each taxon to osmoregulatory challenges. High salinity (HS)-warm-acclimated birds reduced food/salt intake, BMR, body mass, fat score and gizzard mass, showing that salt/heat loads constrained energy acquisition rates. Higher salt gland scores in saltier treatments indicated that its size was adjusted to higher osmoregulatory demands. Elevated plasma Na(+) and H/L ratio in high-salinity-warm-acclimated birds indicated that salt/heat loads might have a direct effect on the water-salt balance and stress responses of red knots. Subspecies had little or no effect on most measured parameters, suggesting that most adjustments reflect phenotypic flexibility rather than subspecific adaptations. Our results demonstrate how salinity and temperature affect various phenotypic traits in a migrant shorebird, highlighting the importance of considering these factors jointly when evaluating the environmental tolerances of air-breathing marine taxa. PMID:25851406

  8. Mycoplasma corogypsi associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (Coragyps atratus)

    PubMed Central

    Van Wettere, A. J.; Ley, D. H.; Scott, D. E.; Buckanoff, H. D.; Degernes, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs. Necropsy and histological examination demonstrated a chronic lymphoplasmacytic arthritis involving multiple joints and gastrocnemius tenosynovitis. Articular lesions varied in severity and ranged from moderate synovitis and cartilage erosion and fibrillation to severe synovitis, diffuse cartilage ulceration, subchondral bone loss and/or sclerosis, pannus, synovial cysts, and epiphyseal osteomyelitis. No walled bacteria were observed or isolated from the joints. However, mycoplasmas polymerase chain reactions were positive in at least 1 affected joint from each bird. Mycoplasmas were isolated from joints of 1 vulture that did not receive antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from joint samples and the mycoplasma isolate identified Mycoplasma corogypsi in 2 vultures and was suggestive in the third vulture. Mycoplasma corogypsi identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma isolates. This report provides further evidence that M. corogypsi is a likely cause of arthritis and tenosynovitis in American black vultures. Cases of arthritis and tenosynovitis in New World vultures should be investigated for presence of Mycoplasma spp, especially M. corogypsi. PMID:22903399

  9. Effects of a premolt calcium and low-energy molt program on laying hen performance, egg quality, and economics.

    PubMed

    Dickey, E R; Johnson, A K; Stalder, K J; Bregendahl, K

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the effects of production, physiology, egg quality, and economics of laying hens housed in a cage system when offered a calcium premolt treatment and low-energy molt diets versus a traditional feed withdrawal (FW) treatment during and after molt. In total, 981 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens (85 wk of age) housed 3 per cage were used. Six treatments were compared in a 2 3 factorial design with 2 calcium premolt treatments (fine and coarse) and 3 molt diets (FW, soybean hulls, and wheat middlings). The coarse Ca was a 50:50 mix of fine (0.14-mm mean diameter) and coarse (2.27-mm mean diameter) CaCO(3), whereas the fine Ca was an all-fine CaCO(3). Both diets were formulated to contain 4.6% Ca, such that only the particle size of the CaCO(3) differed. Production parameters in experiment 1 included egg production, egg weight and mass, specific gravity, Haugh units, egg components, feed consumption and utilization, and BW. Physiological parameters in experiment 2 included ovary and oviduct weights, femur- and humerus-ash percentages, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma Ca and inorganic P concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase activity. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and P < 0.05 was significant. The fine-Ca premolt treatment was more effective than the coarse-Ca treatment at decreasing egg production during molt and increasing it postmolt, regardless of the molt diet. The FW molt diet resulted in the greatest decrease in production, but the soybean hulls diet resulted in lower production and ovary and oviduct weights during molt compared with those of the wheat middlings molt diet. Therefore, a fine-Ca premolt treatment and a low-energy molt diet, particularly soybean hulls, can be useful alternatives to a FW molt. PMID:22252340

  10. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks. PMID:19156582

  11. Development and characterization of a panel of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated using H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-yan; Tang, Yi-gui; Qi, Zong-li; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xiang-rong; Huo, Xue-ping; Li, Yan; Feng, Qing; Zhao, Peng-hua; Wang, Xin; Li, Yuan; Wang, Hai-fang; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Xin-jian

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the antigenic epitopes of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of H1N1 influenza virus, a panel consisting of 84 clones of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated using the HA proteins from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine lysate and the seasonal influenza H1N1(A1) vaccines. Thirty-three (39%) of the 84 mAbs were found to be strain-specific, and 6 (7%) of the 84 mAbs were subtype-specific. Twenty (24%) of the 84 mAbs recognized the common HA epitopes shared by 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal A1 (H1N1), and A3 (H3N2) influenza viruses. Twenty-five of the 84 clones recognized the common HA epitopes shared by the 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal A1 (H1N1) and A3 (H3N2) human influenza viruses, and H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. We found that of the 16 (19%) clones of the 84 mAbs panel that were cross-reactive with human respiratory pathogens, 15 were made using the HA of the seasonal A1 (H1N1) virus and 1 was made using the HA of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue microarray (TMA) showed that 4 of the 84 mAb clones cross-reacted with human tissue (brain and pancreas). Our results indicated that the influenza virus HA antigenic epitopes not only induce type-, subtype-, and strain-specific monoclonal antibodies against influenza A virus but also cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies against human tissues. Further investigations of these cross-reactive (heterophilic) epitopes may significantly improve our understanding of viral antigenic variation, epidemics, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and adverse effects of influenza vaccines. PMID:25708705

  12. Minor differences in body condition and immune status between avian influenza virus-infected and noninfected mallards: a sign of coevolution?

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Fouchier, Ron A M; Klaassen, Marcel; Matson, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife pathogens can alter host fitness. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection is thought to have negligible impacts on wild birds; however, effects of infection in free-living birds are largely unstudied. We investigated the extent to which LPAIV infection and shedding were associated with body condition and immune status in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), a partially migratory key LPAIV host species. We sampled mallards throughout the species' annual autumn LPAIV infection peak, and we classified individuals according to age, sex, and migratory strategy (based on stable hydrogen isotope analysis) when analyzing data on body mass and five indices of immune status. Body mass was similar for LPAIV-infected and noninfected birds. The degree of virus shedding from the cloaca and oropharynx was not associated with body mass. LPAIV infection and shedding were not associated with natural antibody (NAbs) and complement titers (first lines of defense against infections), concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp), ratios of heterophils to lymphocytes (H:L ratio), and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibody concentrations. NAbs titers were higher in LPAIV-infected males and local (i.e., short distance) migrants than in infected females and distant (i.e., long distance) migrants. Hp concentrations were higher in LPAIV-infected juveniles and females compared to infected adults and males. NAbs, complement, and Hp levels were lower in LPAIV-infected mallards in early autumn. Our study demonstrates weak associations between infection with and shedding of LPAIV and the body condition and immune status of free-living mallards. These results may support the role of mallards as asymptomatic carriers of LPAIV and raise questions about possible coevolution between virus and host. PMID:25691969

  13. Towards the selection of chickens resistant to Salmonella and Campylobacter infections.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, P; Howell, M M J; Fife, M; Sadeyen, J-R; Salmon, N; Rothwell, L; Young, J; Poh, T-Y; Stevens, M; Smith, J; Burt, D; Swaggerty, C; Kogut, M

    2009-01-01

    Resistance to infection with enteric pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be at many levels and include both non-immune and immune mechanisms. Immune resistance mechanisms can be specific, at the level of the adaptive immune response, or non-specific, at the level of the innate immune response. Whilst we can extrapolate to some degree in birds from what is known about immune responses to these pathogens in mammals, chickens are not "feathered mice", but have a different repertoire of genes, molecules, cells and organs involved in their immune response compared to mammals. Fundamental work on the chicken's immune response to enteric pathogens is therefore still required. Our studies focus particularly on the innate immune response, as responses of heterophils (the avian neutrophil equivalent) from commercial birds, and macrophages from inbred lines of chickens, correlate with resistance or susceptibility to Salmonella infection with a variety of Salmonella serovars and infection models. We work on two basic resistance mechanisms - resistance to colonization with Salmonella or Campylobacter, and resistance to systemic salmonellosis (or fowl typhoid). To map genes involved in resistance to colonization with Salmonella and Campylobacter, we are using a combination of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) from microarray studies, allied with whole genome SNP arrays (WGA), a candidate gene approach and analysis of copy number variation across the genome. For resistance to systemic salmonellosis, we have refined the location ofa novel resistance locus on Chromosome 5, designated SAL1, using high density SNP panels, combined with advanced back-crossing of resistant and susceptible lines. Using a 6th generation backcross mapping population we have confirmed and refined the SAL1 locus to 8-00 kb of Chromosome 5. This region spans 14 genes, including two very striking functional candidates; CD27-binding protein (Siva) and the RAC-alpha serine/threonine protein kinase homologue, AKT1. PMID:19718951

  14. Immune responsiveness of Japanese quail selected for egg yolk testosterone content under severe protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Kankova, Zuzana; Okuliarova, Monika; Zeman, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Yolk testosterone concentrations vary in response to environmental conditions and different testosterone contents can subsequently modify the phenotypic traits of offspring. Apart from effects on growth, proactive behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics, the possible negative impacts of maternal testosterone on the immune system are often considered a limitation for its deposition. The effects of maternal testosterone can be modulated by postnatal environmental conditions, such as the availability of food resources. However, the majority of studies considering the effects of maternal testosterone on the immune system have been conducted under optimum conditions. We evaluated the influence of genetic selection for high (HET) and low (LET) egg testosterone content in Japanese quail on immune responsiveness of offspring to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation under severe protein restriction. Protein restriction negatively influenced body weight and performance in the PHA-test. We observed an increase in Cort (corticosterone) and He/Ly (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) after LPS, while no changes occurred in total IgY levels in the protein-restricted group. HET quails showed higher body mass and total IgY levels and lower He/Ly ratio than LET quails, while the PHA index and Cort concentration did not differ between lines. No interactions were found between protein restriction and genetic line. In conclusion, the immune response was not compromised under conditions of severe protein restriction in the faster growing HET line compared with the LET line. We hypothesise that the immune responsiveness of birds with higher yolk testosterone may be linked with other maternally-derived substances in a context-dependent manner. PMID:25086332

  15. Probing the cis-arrangement of prototype tight junction proteins claudin-1 and claudin-3.

    PubMed

    Milatz, Susanne; Piontek, Jörg; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Blasig, Ingolf E; Fromm, Michael; Günzel, Dorothee

    2015-06-15

    Claudins form a large family of TJ (tight junction) proteins featuring four transmembrane segments (TM1-TM4), two extracellular loops, one intracellular loop and intracellular N- and C-termini. They form continuous and branched TJ strands by homo- or heterophilic interaction within the same membrane (cis-interaction) and with claudins of the opposing lateral cell membrane (trans-interaction). In order to clarify the molecular organization of TJ strand formation, we investigated the cis-interaction of two abundant prototypic claudins. Human claudin-1 and claudin-3, fused to ECFP or EYFP at the N- or C-terminus, were expressed in the TJ-free cell line HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293. Using FRET analysis, the proximity of claudin N- and C-termini integrated in homopolymeric strands composed of claudin-3 or of heteropolymeric strands composed of claudin-1 and claudin-3 were determined. The main results are that (i) within homo- and heteropolymers, the average distance between the cytoplasmic ends of the TM1s of cis-interacting claudin molecules is shorter than the average distance between their TM4s, and (ii) TM1 segments of neighbouring claudins are oriented towards each other as the cytoplasmic end of TM1 is in close proximity to more other TM1 segments than TM4 is to other TM4 segments. The results indicate at least two different cis-interaction interfaces within claudin-3 homopolymers as well as within claudin-1/claudin-3 heteropolymers. The data provide novel insight into the molecular TJ architecture consistent with a model with an antiparallel double-row cis-arrangement of classic claudin protomers within strands. PMID:25849148

  16. Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 1. Effects on growth and slaughter performance, haematological and serum traits.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, L; Salamano, G; Mellia, E; Gennero, M S; Doglione, L; Cavallarin, L; Tarantola, M; Forneris, G; Schiavone, A

    2013-05-01

    The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC, suggests that the maximum level of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds should be set at 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six one-day-old male Hubburd broiler chickens were divided into two groups, a Control (basal diet) and an Ochratoxin A (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The growth and slaughter performance traits were recorded. The liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus weights were measured. The erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers were assayed in blood samples, and the heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L) ratio was determined. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), lysozyme, the total protein and the electrophoretic pattern were evaluated in serum samples. Liver enzymes (alanino aminotransferase, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase, AST) and kidney function parameters (uric acid and creatinine) were quantified. The results revealed that feeding a 0.1 mg OTA/kg contaminated diet to chicks caused a decrease in the absolute thymus weight (p < 0.05) and a lower total protein (p < 0.01), albumin (p < 0.01), alpha (p < 0.05), beta (p = 0.001) and gamma (p = 0.001) globulins serum concentration in the Ochratoxin A group. Moreover, the albumin-to-globulin (A/G) ratio of the OTA-treated animals resulted to be higher (p < 0.05). Feeding broiler chickens, a diet contaminated with the maximum level admitted by the European Commission Recommendation (0.1 mg OTA/kg), did not affect the animal performance, slaughter traits, organ weights, haematological parameters, liver enzyme or renal function parameters concentrations but had an overall immunosuppressant effect, with reduction in the thymus weight and of the total serum protein, albumin, alpha, beta and gamma globulins concentration. PMID:23639013

  17. Mycoplasma corogypsi-associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (Coragyps atratus).

    PubMed

    Van Wettere, A J; Ley, D H; Scott, D E; Buckanoff, H D; Degernes, L A

    2013-03-01

    Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs. Necropsy and histological examination demonstrated a chronic lymphoplasmacytic arthritis involving multiple joints and gastrocnemius tenosynovitis. Articular lesions varied in severity and ranged from moderate synovitis and cartilage erosion and fibrillation to severe synovitis, diffuse cartilage ulceration, subchondral bone loss and/or sclerosis, pannus, synovial cysts, and epiphyseal osteomyelitis. No walled bacteria were observed or isolated from the joints. However, mycoplasmas polymerase chain reactions were positive in at least 1 affected joint from each bird. Mycoplasmas were isolated from joints of 1 vulture that did not receive antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from joint samples and the mycoplasma isolate identified Mycoplasma corogypsi in 2 vultures and was suggestive in the third vulture. Mycoplasma corogypsi identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma isolates. This report provides further evidence that M. corogypsi is a likely cause of arthritis and tenosynovitis in American black vultures. Cases of arthritis and tenosynovitis in New World vultures should be investigated for presence of Mycoplasma spp, especially M. corogypsi. PMID:22903399

  18. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  19. Insights on the Host Stress, Fear and Growth Responses to the Deoxynivalenol Feed Contaminant in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A.; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E.; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens. PMID:24498179

  20. Associations between Organochlorine Contaminant Concentrations and Clinical Health Parameters in Loggerhead Sea Turtles from North Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R.; Stamper, M. Andrew; Harms, Craig A.; McClellan-Green, Patricia D.

    2004-01-01

    Widespread and persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, are known to have broad-ranging toxicities in wildlife. In this study we investigated, for the first time, their possible health effects on loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Nonlethal fat biopsies and blood samples were collected from live turtles for OC contaminant analysis, and concentrations were compared with clinical health assessment data, including hematology, plasma chemistry, and body condition. Concentrations of total PCBs (∑PCBs), ∑DDTs, ∑chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex were determined in 44 fat biopsies and 48 blood samples. Blood concentrations of ∑chlordanes were negatively correlated with red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, indicative of anemia. Positive correlations were observed between most classes of OC contaminants and white blood cell counts and between mirex and ∑TCDD-like PCB concentrations and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, suggesting modulation of the immune system. All classes of OCs in the blood except dieldrin were correlated positively with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, indicating possible hepatocellular damage. Mirex and ∑TCDD-like PCB blood concentrations were negatively correlated with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Significant correlations to levels of certain OC contaminant classes also suggested possible alteration of protein (↑blood urea nitrogen, ↓albumin:globulin ratio), carbohydrate (↓glucose), and ion (↑sodium, ↓magnesium) regulation. These correlations suggest that OC contaminants may be affecting the health of loggerhead sea turtles even though sea turtles accumulate lower concentrations of OCs compared with other wildlife. PMID:15238280

  1. Hematologic reference values for clinically healthy captive golden conures (Guaruba guarouba).

    PubMed

    Prioste, Fabola Eloisa Setim; Zwarg, Ticiana; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Rocha, Arnaldo; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2012-12-01

    Golden conures or ararajubas (Guaruba guarouba) are endangered parrots endemic to the Brazilian Amazon forest. Body mass, blood cell counts, and total plasma protein were determined for 70 clinically healthy golden conures captive at zoologic parks and private breeder facilities in Brazil. Hematologic results (mean +/- SD) were: Erythrocytes 3.6 +/- 0.5 x 10(6) cells/mm3, hemoglobin 12.8 +/- 1.4 g/dl, packed cell volume 46 +/- 3.8%, mean corpuscular volume 132 +/- 20 fl, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 36 +/- 5.7 pg, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 28 +/- 3.5%, thrombocytes 26.3 +/- 9.3 x 10(3) cells/mm3, leukocytes 11.9 +/- 4.5 x 10(3) cells/mm3, heterophils 6284 +/- 2715 cells/mm3, lymphocytes 5473 +/- 2408 cells/ mm3, monocytes 113 +/- 162 cells/mm3, eosinophils 10 +/- 42 cells/mm3, basophils 27 +/- 64 cells/mm3. Body mass was 254 +/- 24.9 g and total plasma protein (TPP) was 3.54 +/- 0.58 g/dl. No statistical differences were observed between genders within age groups. Differences between juveniles (J) and adults (A) were identified for TPP (J < A), MCH (J > A), and MCHC (J > A). These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic results for the species. Hematology may be an important tool for population health investigations on free-ranging golden conure populations and will also be essential to survey the health of release candidates in future reintroduction programs. PMID:23397841

  2. Assembly of the TgrB1-TgrC1 cell adhesion complex during Dictyostelium discoideum development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Xu, Xiaoqun; Wu, Xiangfu; Thomson, Alexander; Siu, Chi-Hung

    2014-04-15

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, TgrB1 and TgrC1 are partners of a heterophilic cell-adhesion system. To investigate its assembly process, the split GFP complementation assay was used to track the oligomeric status of both proteins. The ability of TgrC1 to form cis-homodimers spontaneously was demonstrated by fluorescence complementation studies and confirmed by chemical cross-linking. In contrast, TgrB1 failed to form cis-homodimers in the absence of TgrC1. Treatment of cell aggregates with antibodies against TgrB1 or TgrC1 did not affect TgrC1 dimerization, but inhibited TgrB1 dimer formation, suggesting that TgrB1 cis-homodimerization is dependent on trans-interaction with TgrC1. When TgrB1 and TgrC1 conjugated with the complementary halves of GFP were co-expressed in cells, cis-heterodimers were not detected. However, weak FRET signals were detected in cells expressing TgrB1-RFP and TgrC1-GFP, suggesting that TgrB1 dimers and TgrC1 dimers were arranged juxtapose to each other in the adhesion complex. The results of the present study suggest that the assembly process is initiated upon trans-interaction of monomeric TgrB1 with TgrC1 homodimers on adjacent cells, which triggers the formation of TgrB1 dimers. The homodimerization of TgrB1in turn induces the clustering of TgrB1 and TgrC1, and the coalescence of TgrB1-TgrC1 clusters results in the formation of large adhesion complexes. PMID:24490801

  3. Immuno-phenotypic and functional characterization of rabbit pulmonary intravascular macrophages.

    PubMed

    Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Singh-Suri, Sarabjeet; Kajikawa, Osamu; Caldwell, Sarah; Charavaryamath, Chandarshekhar; Singh, Baljit

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) are present in species such as cattle, sheep and horse and promote acute lung inflammation (ALI). Rabbits are often used as a model of ALI but there is controversy about the presence of PIMs in these species. Rabbits were treated with 10mg/kg of gadolinium chloride intravenously (GC; n?=?6) or saline (n?=?6) followed by euthanasia at 48h post-treatment to determine the presence of PIMs. In a subsequent study, rabbits were pre-treated with GC or 0.9% saline followed by 100?g/kg of E. coli lipopolysaccharide intravenously 48h later. Rabbits were euthanized 24h post-LPS treatment. Light and electron microscopy showed that PIMs attached to the capillary endothelium and were positive for RAM-11 anti-macrophage antibody. While GC treatment induced apoptotic PIMs, there was no difference in the PIM number between control and GC-treated rabbits. Rabbits administered with LPS were 3.5 times more likely to die before the end of the 24-h period than those pre-treated with GC. Lung heterophil accumulation and IL-1?, TNF? and IL-6 mRNA expression were significantly higher in rabbits administered with LPS compared to those administered with GC before the LPS injection. PIMs from the LPS-treated rabbits were positive for TNF?. Lung, BAL and serum IL-8 and MCP-1 expression was not different between LPS rabbits with or without pre-treatment with GC. We conclude that rabbit lungs contain PIMs and that their depletion reduces endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. The presence of PIMs in rabbit lungs may need to be considered while using rabbit to model acute lung injury. PMID:23073615

  4. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions.

  5. Marek's disease virus (MDV) encodes an interleukin-8 homolog (vIL-8): characterization of the vIL-8 protein and a vIL-8 deletion mutant MDV.

    PubMed

    Parcells, M S; Lin, S F; Dienglewicz, R L; Majerciak, V; Robinson, D R; Chen, H C; Wu, Z; Dubyak, G R; Brunovskis, P; Hunt, H D; Lee, L F; Kung, H J

    2001-06-01

    Chemokines induce chemotaxis, cell migration, and inflammatory responses. We report the identification of an interleukin-8 (IL-8) homolog, termed vIL-8, encoded within the genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV). The 134-amino-acid vIL-8 shares closest homology to mammalian and avian IL-8, molecules representing the prototype CXC chemokine. The gene for vIL-8 consists of three exons which map to the BamHI-L fragment within the repeats flanking the unique long region of the MDV genome. A 0.7-kb transcript encoding vIL-8 was detected in an n-butyrate-treated, MDV-transformed T-lymphoblastoid cell line, MSB-1. This induction is essentially abolished by cycloheximide and herpesvirus DNA polymerase inhibitor phosphonoacetate, indicating that vIL-8 is expressed with true late (gamma2) kinetics. Baculovirus-expressed vIL-8 was found to be secreted into the medium and shown to be functional as a chemoattractant for chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not for heterophils. To characterize the function of vIL-8 with respect to MDV infection in vivo, a recombinant MDV was constructed with a deletion of all three exons and a soluble-modified green fluorescent protein (smGFP) expression cassette inserted at the site of deletion. In two in vivo experiments, the vIL-8 deletion mutant (RB1BvIL-8DeltasmGFP) showed a decreased level of lytic infection in comparison to its parent virus, an equal-passage-level parent virus, and to another recombinant MDV containing the insertion of a GFP expression cassette at the nonessential US2 gene. RB1BvIL-8DeltasmGFP retained oncogenicity, albeit at a greatly reduced level. Nonetheless, we have been able to establish a lymphoblastoid cell line from an RB1BvIL-8DeltasmGFP-induced ovarian lymphoma (MDCC-UA20) and verify the presence of a latent MDV genome lacking vIL-8. Taken together, these data describe the identification and characterization of a chemokine homolog encoded within the MDV genome that is dispensable for transformation but may affect the level of MDV in vivo lytic infection. PMID:11333897

  6. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, zcan; Kksal, Bekir H; Tatl?, Onur; Sevim, mer; Ahsan, Umair; ner, Aykut G; Uluta?, P?nar A; Beyaz, Devrim; Bykyrk, Sad?k; Yakan, Ak?n; nol, Ahmet G

    2015-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic supplementation and stocking density on the performance, relative carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 480) were allocated to 4 experimental groups for 42 d. Each treatment had 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. Two groups were subjected to a high stocking density (HSD) of 20 birds/m and the other 2 groups were kept at low stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m. A basal diet supplemented with probiotic 1 and 0.5 g/kg of diet (in starter and finisher diets, respectively) was fed to 2 treatments, one with HSD and the other with LSD, thereby making a 2 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between stocking density (LSD and HSD) and dietary probiotic (supplemented and unsupplemented) for all the variables. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly low and feed conversion ratio was poor in broilers at HSD. Dietary probiotic significantly enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in starter phase only. Dietary probiotic supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on total aerobs, Salmonella sp., and Lactobacilli populations in the intestines of broilers. However, HSD reduced the Lactobacilli population only (P < 0.05). Relative breast yields were significantly higher in broilers reared at LSD than HSD. Thigh meat yield was higher in broilers in HSD group compared to LSD. Dietary probiotic did not affect the relative carcass yield and weight of lymphoid organs. Serum malondialdehyde, corticosterone, nitric oxide, and plasma heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected either by stocking density or dietary probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, HSD negatively affected the performance and intestinal Lactobacilli population of broilers only, whereas probiotic supplementation enhanced the performance of broilers during the starter phase only. Total aerobes, Salmonella, Lactobacilli carcass yield, and stress indicators of broilers were not affected by the dietary supplementation of probiotic under the conditions of the present study. PMID:26240393

  7. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2015-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers for secondary antibody response to sheep red blood cells and titer against Newcastle disease virus and increased the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. The supplementation with 5 % of DTP completely alleviated the negative effects of HS on immune responses. The ash, Ca, and P contents of the tibia bone were decreased under HS. The ash and Ca contents of the tibia were not significantly different between thermoneutral and heat-stressed broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of DTP, particularly 5 % DTP, to broiler diet attenuated the detrimental effects of HS on the activities of serum enzymes, oxidative status, immune response, and bone composition.

  8. Evaluation of the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and surgical steel 316L in vivo: a comparative study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown the potential suitability of magnesium alloys as biodegradable implants. The aim of the present study was to compare the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and commonly used surgical steel in vivo. Methods A biodegradable magnesium calcium alloy (MgCa0.8) and surgical steel (S316L), as a control, were investigated. Screws of identical geometrical conformation were implanted into the tibiae of 40 rabbits for a postoperative follow up of two, four, six and eight weeks. The tibialis cranialis muscle was in direct vicinity of the screw head and thus embedded in paraffin and histologically and immunohistochemically assessed. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify macrophages, giant cells and heterophil granulocytes as well as the extent of tissue fibrosis and necrosis. Mouse anti-CD79? and rat anti-CD3 monoclonal primary antibodies were used for B- and T-lymphocyte detection. Evaluation of all sections was performed by applying a semi-quantitative score. Results Clinically, both implant materials were tolerated well. Histology revealed that a layer of fibrous tissue had formed between implant and overlying muscle in MgCa0.8 and S316L, which was demarcated by a layer of synoviocyte-like cells at its interface to the implant. In MgCa0.8 implants cavities were detected within the fibrous tissue, which were surrounded by the same kind of cell type. The thickness of the fibrous layer and the amount of tissue necrosis and cellular infiltrations gradually decreased in S316L. In contrast, a decrease could only be noted in the first weeks of implantation in MgCa0.8, whereas parameters were increasing again at the end of the observation period. B-lymphocytes were found more often in MgCa0.8 indicating humoral immunity and the presence of soluble antigens. Conversely, S316L displayed a higher quantity of T-lymphocytes. Conclusions Moderate inflammation was detected in both implant materials and resolved to a minimum during the first weeks indicating comparable biocompatibility for MgCa0.8 and S316L. Thus, the application of MgCa0.8 as biodegradable implant material seems conceivable. Since the inflammatory parameters were re-increasing at the end of the observation period in MgCa0.8 it is important to observe the development of inflammation over a longer time period in addition to the present study. PMID:20974008

  9. Effects of prolonged oral administration of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Del Bianchi, M; Oliveira, C A F; Albuquerque, R; Guerra, J L; Correa, B

    2005-12-01

    The effects of prolonged oral administration of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) mycotoxins were evaluated in broiler chickens from 21 to 42 d of age. A total of 192 birds were housed in experimental batteries and assigned to 32 cages, 6 birds per cage. The following treatments were applied: 1) 0 mycotoxins (control), 2) 10 mg of FB1, 3) 50 microg of AFB1, 4) 50 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1, 5) 350 microg of AFB1, 6) 350 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1, 7) 2,450 microg of AFB1, 8) 2,450 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1/kg of feed. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 6 birds each. At the end of the trial, blood samples from 12 birds per treatment were collected, and the birds were necropsied. Compared with controls, the percentage of heterophils was lower (P < 0.05) in birds from groups receiving 50 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/ kg and 2450 microg of AFB1/kg alone or in combination with FB1. A higher percentage of lymphocytes (P < 0.05) was observed in birds fed 50 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/ kg, 350 microg of AFB1/kg, and 2,450 microg of AFB1/kg. A decrease in plasma albumin was observed only in birds fed 2,450 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/kg. The liver of AFB1-treated birds had focal areas of necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. In birds fed rations containing only 10 mg of FB1/kg, bile duct hyperplasia with fibrosis and a mononuclear infiltrate accompanied by trabecular derangement were observed. In contrast, in treatments in which FB1 was administered in combination, hepatic vacuolar degeneration was observed, and renal tissue presented corpuscles with increased cellular agglomeration, characterizing glomerulonephritis, and a clearly visible tubular epithelium with areas of degeneration and necrosis. The FB1 residues were detected in liver and in excreta of all FB1-treated groups, at levels that ranged from 0.013 to 0.051 mg/kg and from 1.19 to 2.79 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated that FB1 and AFB1, singly or in combination at the levels evaluated, do not change markedly the hematological and serological parameters of broiler chickens, but may cause relevant lesions in liver and in kidneys. PMID:16479938

  10. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:25056125

  11. Bacteriological and pathological studies of egg peritonitis in commerciallayer chicken in Namakkal area

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Palani; Balasubramaniam, Gurusamypalayam Amirthalingam; Murthy, Thippichettipalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Balachandran, Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the various bacteriological agents and pathological changes in commercial layer chicken affected with egg yolk peritonitis in Namakkal region of India. Methods A total of 6?572 layer chicken from 85 commercial farms were subjected for the study, out of which 1?715 showed various types of oviduct abnormalities. Among the 1?715, 264 birds from six farms were identified as egg peritonitis on the basis of postmortem examination. Trachea, lung, heart blood, liver, peritoneal exudate, oviduct (infundibulum, magnum, uterus) and cloacal swabs were collected from the 264 birds with egg peritonitis lesion for screening of bacterial agents. Signalment, clinical signs and pathological changes were recorded in the affected flocks. Result The results of the present investigation indicated that the E. coli associated egg peritonitis was responsible for 15.39% of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 week of age. In the affected flocks egg production drop and mortality varied from 3% to 20% and 0.5% to 7.0% respectively. It was noticed during peak egg production (21 to 60 week) and southwest monsoon season (58%). Statistical analysis of age, season and egg production by Chi square test of independence revealed highly significant difference. E. coli was isolated as a pure culture and concurrent with other bacterial agents in 226 and 38 birds respectively. Among the fifteen E. coli serotypes identified serotype O166, O64 and O111 were predominant. Necropsy examination of affected birds revealed the presence of amorphous or insipissiated yolk material in the abdominal cavity with inflammatory changes in the ovary, oviduct and intestine. Microscopically the oviduct surface epithelium showed degeneration and desquamation, moderate to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophils and lymphocytes in various regions and lumen contained serofibrinous exudate, inflammatory and desquamated epithelial cells with bacterial microcolonies. Ovarian follicles revealed hyperemia, degeneration of granulosa cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Intestine showed degenerative, necrotic and inflammatory lesion. Conclusion The findings of this study showed that the egg peritonitis might be caused by either the translocation of intestinal E. coli into the peritoneal cavity or by the movement of cloacal E. coli into the oviduct followed by ascension of these bacteria up the oviduct, through the infundibulum, and into the peritoneal cavity. To control the egg peritonitis faecal contamination with E. coli should be minimized. PMID:24093792

  12. Ascorbic Acid Differentially Affects Stress Response and Resistance to Colibacillosis in Turkeys from Genetic Lines Differing in Growth Rate.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Anthony, N B; Nestor, K E

    2015-06-01

    Genetic selection for fast growth can affect the ability of male turkeys to cope with stressors, resulting in decreased immunity to opportunistic bacterial infection. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of ascorbic acid (AA) on the stress response and resistance to Escherichia coli challenge of birds selected for increased 16-wk body weight (BW; F-line) with their random-bred parent line (RBC2). Male turkeys were raised in duplicate floor pens in a two linetwo AA treatmenttwo stress challenge (SC) design. At 5 wk of age, AA (1200 ppm) was provided in drinking water for a 24-hr period, during which all birds were weighed. After AA treatment, the SC group was subjected to a transport stress protocol. Six hours after the start of transport, SC birds were also inoculated in the thoracic air sac with 110(4) colony-forming units of E. coli. The following morning four birds from each pen were bled, and all birds were weighed and necropsied 2 days later. BW and gain after SC were decreased in the F-line but not the RBC2 line, and there were no AA effects on BW. The weight of the bursa of Fabricius relative to BW was higher in the RBC2 line than in the F-line, was decreased by SC, and was not affected by AA. The heterophil?lymphocyte ratio was higher in the SC F-line as compared to the SC RBC2 and was decreased by AA only in the SC F-line. Corticosterone (C) levels were increased by SC only in the F-line, and AA decreased C levels only in the RBC2 line. Airsacculitis scores were increased in the F-line SC birds. The challenge strain of E. coli was only detected in the air sac and liver of the AA-treated F-line SC birds and in the liver of the no-AA F-line birds. These results suggest that SC at 5 wk of age had a more deleterious effect on the fast-growing F-line than on its parent line and that AA may have increased susceptibility to colibacillosis in the SC F-line birds. PMID:26473685

  13. The functions of sound production in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus, and effects of loud ambient noise on its behavior and physiology in captive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul August

    Loud noise in aquaria represents a cacophonous environment for captive fishes. I tested the effects of loud noise on acoustic communication, feeding behavior, courtship behavior, and the stress response of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Total Root Mean Square (RMS) power of ambient noise to which seahorses are exposed in captivity varies widely but averages 126.1 +/- 0.8 deciBels with reference to one micropascal (dB re: 1 muPa) at the middle of the water column and 133.7 +/- 1.1 dB at the tank bottom, whereas ambient noise in the wild averages 119.6 +/- 3.5 dB. Hearing sensitivity of H. erectus, measured from auditory evoked potentials, demonstrated maximum spectrum-level sensitivities of 105.0 +/- 1.5 dB and 3.5 x 10-3 + 7.6 x 10-4 m/s2 at 200 Hz; which is characteristic of hearing generalists. H. erectus produces acoustic clicks with mean peak spectrum-level amplitudes of 94.3 +/- 0.9 dB at 232 +/- 16 Hz and 1.5 x 10 -3 +/- 1.9 x 10-4 m/s2 at 265 +/- 22 Hz. Frequency matching of clicks to best hearing sensitivity, and estimates of audition of broadband signals suggest that seahorses may hear conspecific clicks, especially in terms of particle motion. Behavioral investigations revealed that clicking did not improve prey capture proficiency. However, animals clicked more often as time progressed in a courtship sequence, and mates performed more courtship behaviors with control animals than with muted animals, lending additional evidence to the role of clicking as an acoustic signal during courtship. Despite loud noise and the role of clicking in communication, masking of the acoustic signal was not demonstrated. Seahorses exposed to loud noise in aquaria for one month demonstrated physiological, chronic stress responses: reduced weight and body condition, and increased heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Behavioral alterations were characterized by greater mean and variance of activity among animals housed in loud tanks in the first week, followed by habituation. By week four, animals in loud tanks demonstrated variable performance of clicking and piping, putative distress behaviors. Despite the physiological stress response, animals in loud tanks did not reduce feeding response or courtship behavior, suggesting allostasis.

  14. Arginine and vitamin E improve the immune response after a Salmonella challenge in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Byrd, J A; Farnell, M; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2014-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Arg, vitamin E (VE), and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the immune response and clearance of Salmonella in broiler chickens. In each experiment, 1-d-old chicks (n = 160) were randomly distributed into 4 groups: antibiotic-free diet (negative control, CTL-), antibiotic-supplemented diet (positive control, CTL+), antibiotic free-diet plus Arg and VE (AVE), or antibiotic-free diet plus Arg, VE, and MOS (AVM). Birds were orally challenged with 10(6) cfu of a novobiocyn and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain at d 7 (experiment 1) or at d 3 (experiment 2). Heterophil- (HOB) and monocyte- (MOB) oxidative burst and lymphocyte proliferation (LPR), antibody titers, and Salmonella content in the ceca were measured at several intervals postinfection (PI). In experiment 1, both AVM and AVE decreased HOB compared with the controls 5 and 9 d PI, but increased LPR 9 d PI. In the same experiment, birds fed the AVE diet had higher MOB than birds fed CTL+ or the AVM diet at 7 d PI, whereas 9 d PI birds fed the AVM diet had the highest MOB. In experiment 2, birds fed the AVE diet had higher MOB, HOB, and LPR than birds in the other treatments 7 and 14 d PI, except at 7 d PI, when MOB was not different among treatments. Birds fed the AVM diet had the highest IgA antibody titer, and a higher IgM antibody titer than the CTL+ birds. In experiment 1, Salmonella Typhimurium content in the ceca was lower in birds fed the AVM diet compared with birds fed the CTL- diet 3 d PI, but later on (10 and 17 d PI), and in experiment 2 (7, 14, and 21 d PI), Salmonella Typhimurium concentrations were not different among treatments. Thus, Arg and VE improved immune response after a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge in young chicks, and although they did not reduce Salmonella Typhimurium concentrations in the ceca, they may improve bacterial resistance against other pathogens in commercial growing conditions. PMID:24706965

  15. Comparison of Two LED Light Bulbs to a Dimmable CFL and their Effects on Broiler Chicken Growth, Stress, and Fear.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-09-01

    The poultry industry is currently undergoing a shift to alternative lighting sources as incandescent lights become less available. While LED and CFL bulbs both have associated increased energy savings, they may affect the bird's growth and well-being differently as they output different light spectrums. To determine how different LED bulbs and a CFL bulb affected broiler performance, behavior, stress, and overall well-being, we conducted an experiment using Cobb broiler chickens (N=360). A NextGen LED bulb (NextGen), a Once Innovations LED bulb (Once), and a dimmable CFL (CFL) were used, all of which had different spectral outputs. Growth and feed conversion, several stress measures, fear tests, organ characteristics, and animal welfare assessment parameters were collected to determine how each light type affected animal well-being. LED treatments had shorter (P<0.05) latency to right during tonic immobility testing when compared to the CFL treatment; however, no other differences (P>0.05) were seen in the other fear tests. The Once treatment resulted in lower composite physical asymmetry, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and basal plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to the other treatments (P<0.05). Differences were observed in some organ measures; notably in the eye dimensions of the Once treatment. The Once treatment also had lower (P<0.05) plumage, hock, and footpad scores when compared to CFL treatment, while the Nextgen treatment had lower (P<0.05) plumage and hock scores than the CFL treatment but no difference between the two was seen in foot pad scores. Weight at the end of the growout was not affected by bulb type, however, both LED treatments had increased feed conversion (P<0.05). These results indicate that LEDs can result in better well-being and feed conversion when compared to CFLs. It is also notable that the LEDs did not have the same effects and this is likely due to the spectrum of light each creates. LEDs were shown to improve production and well-being of broiler chickens compared to CFLs. PMID:26201348

  16. Turkey osteomyelitis complex.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Balog, J M

    2000-07-01

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is defined by the US Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) to include normal-appearing processed turkey carcasses that contain lesions including green discoloration of the liver, arthritis/synovitis, soft-tissue abscesses, and osteomyelitis of the proximal tibia. The lesions are associated with many different opportunistic organisms, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, suggesting that TOC incidence may be influenced more by deficiencies in the host immune response rather than by the virulence of any one organism. This syndrome is primarily a disease of adolescent male turkeys, and birds with TOC lesions have decreased indices of cell-mediated immunity, leading to the hypothesis that defects in the immune response of individuals within flocks of male turkeys may be responsible for the occurrence of these opportunistic infections. We have developed an experimental model for this disease in which treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), either with or without air sac inoculation with Escherichia coli, produces all of the lesions associated with TOC. These studies suggest that TOC is a result of stress-induced immunosuppression in a subpopulation of male turkeys that respond to the stressors in modern poultry production in a detrimental manner. Supplemental vitamin D3 treatment protected male turkeys from the immunosuppression induced by multiple treatments with DEX and resulted in decreased incidence of mortality, TOC, green liver, and isolation of bacteria from tissues, lower air sacculitis scores, and lower heterophil to lymphocyte ratios than nonsupplemented controls. Vitamin D3 also protected BW; relative weights of the liver, heart, spleen, and bursa; and clinical chemistry values from the effects of DEX treatment. The ability of vitamin D3 supplementation to protect turkeys from the immunosuppressive effects of severe stress emphasizes its role as a prohormone that affects health and disease resistance in turkeys and suggests that variation in the vitamin D receptor genotype may be involved in this disease process. This model has potential value in the identification of other nutritional and physiological immunomodulators that can decrease TOC incidence and will provide a means for the divergent selection of birds more resistant to the stressors of turkey production. In addition, this model will provide justification for management options designed to minimize stress. PMID:10901209

  17. The effect of vitamin D3 on resistance to stress-related infection in an experimental model of turkey osteomyelitis complex.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Balog, J M; Rath, N C

    2000-05-01

    Male turkeys immunosuppressed by injection with dexamethasone (DEX) were given supplemental vitamin D3 in their drinking water in two experiments. In Experiment 1, vitamin D3 was supplemented at a dosage of either 2,064 IU/kg (low level) or 4,128 IU/kg (high level) in drinking water provided ad libitum only from Days 1 through 5 after hatch. In Experiment 2, vitamin D3 was provided at the low dosage for the first 5 d after hatch, followed by treatment with the high dosage for 12 h before and 12 h after each stressful event, which included weekly weighings and two DEX treatments. In both experiments, at 5 wk of age half of the birds were given intramuscular injections of 2 mg/kg DEX on 3 alternating d. In Experiment 1, 100 cfu of Escherichia coli was inoculated into the left thoracic airsac at the time of the third DEX injection. All mortalities were examined, and 10 birds per pen were necropsied 2 wk after treatment and examined for lesions of airsacculitis and turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC). Four birds per pen were bled before necropsy, and white blood cell total counts, differential white blood cell counts, and clinical chemistry values were determined. In Experiment 2, healthy surviving birds were grown for an additional 5-wk period, after which the DEX-treated birds were given a second series of DEX injections and were bled and necropsied 2 wk later. There were no significant effects of vitamin D3 treatment in combined general linear models analysis of Experiment 1; however, when birds not treated with DEX or E. coli were compared with those treated with both DEX and E. coli, supplementation with the low level of vitamin D3 significantly decreased TOC incidence. There were no significant effects of vitamin D3 treatment in birds treated with DEX at 5 wk of age in Experiment 2. However, when surviving birds were given a second DEX treatment at 12 wk, vitamin D3 treatment resulted in significantly lower incidence of mortality, TOC, green liver, isolation of bacteria from tissues, and lower airsacculitis scores and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios than controls. Vitamin D3 also improved BW, relative weights of the liver and heart, and serum levels of glucose and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of birds receiving two treatments with DEX. The ability of vitamin D3 supplementation to protect turkeys from the immunosuppressive effects of multiple DEX treatments emphasizes the role of vitamin D3 as a prohormone that affects health and disease resistance in turkeys. PMID:10824955

  18. Systemic toxicity from repeated cutaneous contact with 2,4-pentanedione.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, B

    2001-02-01

    2,4-Pentanedione (2,4 PD; CAS Number 123-54-6) is an industrial chemical with potential for skin contact. Repeated exposure studies by peroral and inhalation routes have shown central neurotoxicity and possible effects on the immune system. To determine the likelihood for systemic toxicity by cutaneous contact with 2,4-PD, a short-term repeated skin contact study was conducted in New Zealand white rabbits. The planned protocol was for dosing, with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ml undiluted 2,4-PD by 6 h occlusive contact/d for 9 d; these were equivalent to dosages of 244, 975 and 1463 mg/kg/d. A dosage-related skin irritation was seen macroscopically and by light microscopy, which was minimal at the low dosage. Mortalities occurred at the mid (1/6 males, 3/6 females) and high dosages (5/12 males, 7/12 females), with deaths between the 2nd and 5th dosing day. In view of these mortalities and signs, dosing of the mid and high dose animals was discontinued, and survivors were kept to the end of the dosing period. Signs at the mid and high dosage included hypoactivity, tremors, convulsions, uncoordinated movements and prostration, and appeared between the 2nd and 4th dose. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced for the mid and high dosage groups. Increased hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocyte counts may have been associated with dehydration, and increased heterophil count with cutaneous inflammation. Several serum biochemical changes reflected cutaneous irritation, and high creatine kinase activity was probably a consequence of convulsions. Immune effects included decreased lymphocyte counts and lymphoid necrosis in spleen and thymus. Central neuropathology in the mid and high dosages was seen as hemorrhages and neuronal degeneration, the latter principally in piriform cortex, globus pallidus and hippocampus. No peripheral neuropathy was present. 244 mg/kg/d was the no-effects dosage for systemic toxicity. This study confirmed a potential for systemic toxicity, principally central neurotoxicity, from percutaneous absorption of 2,4-PD. PMID:11205070

  19. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality.

    PubMed

    Loyau, T; Berri, C; Bedrani, L; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Collin, A

    2013-08-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8°C, 56% relative humidity; RH) or exposed to thermal manipulation (TM; 12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH) from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis. This study was planned in a pedigree design to identify possible heritable characters for further selection of broiler chickens to improve thermotolerance. Thermal manipulation did not affect hatchability but resulted in lower Tb at hatching and until d 28 post-hatch, with associated changes in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. At d 34, chickens were exposed to a moderate heat challenge (5 h, 32°C). Greater O2 saturation and reduced CO2 partial pressure were observed (P < 0.05) in the venous blood of TM than in that of control chickens, suggesting long-term respiratory adaptation. At slaughter age, TM chickens were 1.4% lighter and exhibited 8% less relative abdominal fat pad than controls. Breast muscle yield was enhanced by TM, especially in females, but without significant change in breast meat characteristics (pH, color, drip loss). Plasma glucose/insulin balance was affected (P < 0.05) by thermal treatments. The heat challenge increased the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in controls (P < 0.05) but not in TM birds, possibly reflecting a lower stress status in TM chickens. Interestingly, broiler chickens had moderate heritability estimates for the plasma triiodothyronine/thyroxine concentration ratio at d 28 and comb temperature during the heat challenge on d 34 (h(2) > 0.17). In conclusion, TM of the embryo modified the physiology of broilers in the long term as a possible adaptation for heat tolerance, without affecting breast meat quality. This study highlights the value of 2 new heritable characters involved in thermoregulation for further broiler selection. PMID:23736053

  20. CEACAM1 regulates TIM–3–mediated tolerance and exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zhu, Chen; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Anderson, Ana C.; Gandhi, Amit; Russell, Andrew; Dougan, Stephanie K.; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Melum, Espen; Pertel, Thomas; Clayton, Kiera L.; Raab, Monika; Chen, Qiang; Beauchemin, Nicole; Yazaki, Paul J.; Pyzik, Michal; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Rudd, Christopher E.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Franke, Andre; Petsko, Gregory A.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3, also known as HAVCR2) is an activation-induced inhibitory molecule involved in tolerance and shown to induce T-cell exhaustion in chronic viral infection and cancers1–5. Under some conditions, TIM-3 expression has also been shown to be stimulatory. Considering that TIM-3, like cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), is being targeted for cancer immunotherapy, it is important to identify the circumstances under which TIM-3 can inhibit and activate T-cell responses. Here we show that TIM-3 is co-expressed and forms a heterodimer with carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), another well-known molecule expressed on activated T cells and involved in T-cell inhibition6–10. Biochemical, biophysical and X-ray crystallography studies show that the membrane-distal immunoglobulin-variable (IgV)-like amino-terminal domain of each is crucial to these interactions. The presence of CEACAM1 endows TIM-3 with inhibitory function. CEACAM1 facilitates the maturation and cell surface expression of TIM-3 by forming a heterodimeric interaction in cis through the highly related membrane-distal N-terminal domains of each molecule. CEACAM1 and TIM-3 also bind in trans through their N-terminal domains. Both cis and trans interactions between CEACAM1 and TIM-3 determine the tolerance-inducing function of TIM-3. In a mouse adoptive transfer colitis model, CEACAM1-deficient T cells are hyper-inflammatory with reduced cell surface expression of TIM-3 and regulatory cytokines, and this is restored by T-cell-specific CEACAM1 expression. During chronic viral infection and in a tumour environment, CEACAM1 and TIM-3 mark exhausted T cells. Co-blockade of CEACAM1 and TIM-3 leads to enhancement of anti-tumour immune responses with improved elimination of tumours in mouse colorectal cancer models. Thus, CEACAM1 serves as a heterophilic ligand for TIM-3 that is required for its ability to mediate T-cell inhibition, and this interaction has a crucial role in regulating autoimmunity and anti-tumour immunity. PMID:25363763

  1. Effect of Scrophularia striata and Ferulago angulata, as alternatives to virginiamycin, on growth performance, intestinal microbial population, immune response, and blood constituents of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Farhad; Ghasemi, Hossein A; Taherpour, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the comparative effect of Scrophularia striata, Ferulago angulata, and virginiamycin (VM) on performance, intestinal microbial population, immune response, and blood constituents of broilers. A total of 300 Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 5 replicates/treatment (10 chickens/pen). Birds were fed either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg VM; 4 g/kg S. striata (SS1); 8 g/kg S. striata (SS2); 4 g/kg F. angulata (FA1); or 8 g/kg F. angulata (FA2). After 6 wk, the BW, ADG, and feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) of the VM, SS1, and FA1 groups were better (P<0.01) compared with the control group. At 42 d, cecal lactobacillus counts were higher (P=0.032) in SS2 and FA2 groups compared with the control and VM groups. In addition, broilers fed any of the diets exhibited lower coliform counts (P<0.05) in the ileum and ceca than those fed the control diet. Total and IgG antibody titers against SRBC for secondary responses, relative spleen weight, and lymphocyte counts were higher (P<0.05) in birds fed the SS2 or FA2 diet compared with the control group. Moreover, feeding the SS2 or FA2 diet decreased (P<0.05) the blood heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and plasma triglyceride level, whereas only the SS2 diet increased (P=0.037) the white blood cell counts compared with the control diet. All diets, except for the VM diet, decreased (P=0.009) the plasma cholesterol level compared to the control treatment. The plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was also increased (P=0.042) in the SS2 and FA2 groups. In conclusion, dietary S. striata or F. angulata at a level of 4 g/kg diet enhanced growth performance, which was comparable to that of VM used as an antibiotic growth promoter. Furthermore, a high dose of both herbs (8 g/kg diet) could beneficially affect the intestinal health and immune status of broilers. PMID:26217029

  2. Comparison of the effect of different methods of molt: production and welfare evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mazzuco, H; Avila, V S; Coldebella, A; Mores, R; Jaenisch, F R F; Lopes, L S

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alternative molting protocols assessing hen welfare and performance during and after molt. Hyline W-36 pullets were housed at 15 wk of age, and their egg production was obtained during this first cycle. When birds were 80 wk, the following molting treatments were applied: a conventional molt consisting of 10 d of fasting followed by cracked corn for 8 d and a pullet developer diet for 10 d; and 4 alternative molting programs: a soy hulls-based diet (12% CP, 1,455 kcal/kg of ME, and 1.38% Ca) offered for 14 d followed by cracked corn for 4 d and a pullet developer diet for 10 d; and the other 3 molt regimens consisted of feeding soy hulls for 4, 8, or 12 d followed by 10, 6, or 2 d, respectively, of a soy hulls-based diet and 4 d of cracked corn plus 10 d of a pullet developer diet. A nonmolted group of birds was fed a laying hen diet during the experimental period. Hen-day egg number was recorded daily for 56 wk (through 80-136 wk of age). The nonmolted hens showed lower hen-day production and fewer intact eggs and a higher number of cracked and shell-less eggs compared with those of the molted hens (P < 0.0001). A significant treatment by age effect (P < 0.0001) was observed for the variables of high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides. Control hens showed the lowest high-density lipoprotein concentration and the highest triglyceride levels at 84 wk of age when compared with all treatments. The lack of difference in heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio during molt suggests little influence of molting protocols on this variable. Regardless of the treatments, molting was deleterious to bone quality. A high mobilization of Ca through bone resorption for eggshell formation could explain the results obtained. Behavioral patterns coincided with a decline in frustration activities and an increase in alertness as molt proceeded until 83 wk of age. Alternative molting diets consisting of soybean hulls were successful in providing acceptable postmolt egg production performance. PMID:22080033

  3. Practice Trends in Patients with Persistent Detectable Thyroglobulin and Negative Diagnostic Radioiodine Whole Body Scans: A Survey of American Thyroid Association Members

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Nancy; Bernet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of patients with thyroglobulin (Tg)-positive/scan-negative thyroid cancer remains challenging. American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines recommend potential use of empiric 131I therapy and various scanning modalities, but no standard for managing such cases exists. Methods: We surveyed ATA members to assess current practice in management of patients with Tg-positive/scan-negative disease. Members participated in a web-based survey of six case scenarios of Tg elevations but iodine scan negativity. Results: A total of 288 ATA members (80% male) participated. Patient age, sex, and basal and stimulated Tg varied between the cases. Respondents were asked their opinion regarding empiric 131I therapy use, including 131I dose, use and duration of low-iodine diet, thyroxine withdrawal or recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH), and utilization of additional imaging (neck ultrasound (US) or positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)) and reconsideration of 131I therapy. Between 16% and 51% recommended initial use of empiric 131I for the various scenarios. The majority chose a 131I dose between 75 and 150 mCi, and 73% employed a low-iodine diet for two or more weeks. Preference between thyroxine withdrawal versus rhTSH was evenly split. More than 98% obtained a neck US if empiric 131I was not given; 5289% would proceed to PET/CT if US was negative. Only 44% used rhTSH stimulation in PET scan preparation. 131I use was more common with stimulated Tg significantly >10?ng/mL. 131I therapy was slightly more likely with PET-positive (56%) than PET-negative status (45%). Respondents were split regarding empiric 131I if basal and stimulated Tg increased ?150% over two years. Providers in North America less commonly utilized 131I treatment than those from other areas. In the face of possible heterophilic antibody interference in the Tg assay, the majority did not recommend 131I therapy. Conclusions: Empiric 131I therapy is still utilized for patients with Tg-positive/scan-negative disease. Neck US is frequently used to further evaluate such cases as 18FDG-PET/CT, albeit the latter is used somewhat less often. Use of 131I therapy correlated with the degree of Tg elevation or development of Tg antibodies, and was recommended more commonly with PET-positive than PET-negative status in patients with lower Tg levels. 131I was less commonly used by providers within North America. PMID:25058708

  4. Effect of dexamethasone in feed on intestinal permeability, differential white blood cell counts, and immune organs in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Galarza-Seeber, R; Latorre, J D; Faulkner, O B; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G; Bielke, L R

    2015-09-01

    We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by poorly digested diets or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Three experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on systemic fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D; 3-5 kDa) levels, indicative of increased gut epithelial leakage. Experiment 1 compared DEX injections of 1 mg/kg, once per day on d 3, 5, and 9, with feed administration at 0.57, 1.7, or 5.1 ppm d 4 to 10, with FITC-D serum concentrations 2.5 h after gavage with 4.16 mg/kg FITC-D. All DEX treatments resulted in marked (2 to 6X; P<0.05) increased serum FITC-D levels. Feed DEX administration resulted in greater (P<0.05) gut permeability than injection at any dose, with numerically optimal effects at the lowest dose tested. In experiments 2 and 3, chicks were randomly assigned to a starter ration containing either control (CON) or DEX treated feed (0.57 ppm/kg; d 3 to 10 experiment 2, d 4 to 10 experiment 3). At d 10, all chicks were treated by oral gavage with FITC-D and serum samples were obtained as described above. Samples of the liver were aseptically collected, homogenized, diluted 1:4 wt/vol in sterile saline, and serial dilutions were plated on tryptic soy agar to evaluate total numbers of aerobic bacteria in the liver as an index of bacterial translocation (BT). In both experiments, FITC-D absorption was significantly enhanced (P<0.05) in DEX-treated chicks, again indicating increased paracellular leakage across the gut epithelium associated with dissolution of tight junctions. Experiment 2 differential cell counts showed an increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and immune organ (spleen and bursa of Fabricius) weights for experiments 2 and 3 were decreased (P<0.05) from controls. In experiments 2 and 3, dietary DEX administration resulted in numerically (experiment 2) or significantly (P<0.05) increased enteric BT to the liver, supporting the observation that dietary DEX causes a stress-like inflammatory GI response, which may contribute to subclinical or clinical disease, and may be a useful model for ongoing disease mitigation research related to stress-related diseases of GIT origin. PMID:26195804

  5. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2??2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P?

  6. Effect of calcium with and without probiotic, lactose, or both on organ and body weights, immune response and caecal microbiota in moulted laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dastar, B; Khosravi, A; Boldajie, F; Ghoorchi, T

    2016-04-01

    A total of 72 laying hens were used to investigate the effect of probiotic and lactose on body weight loss, tibia ash, antibody production against sheep red blood cell (SRBC), heterophile-to-lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and gut microbiota in a common moulting method for 14 d. Hens were randomly allocated to 6 experimental groups consisting of (i) full feed (FF), (ii) feed withdrawal (FW), (iii) FW with calcium (Ca), (iv) FW with Ca and offering 7 g/lit lactose in drinking water (CaL), (v) FW with Ca and offering 1 g/lit probiotic in drinking water (CaP), and (vi) FW with Ca and offering a mixture of lactose and probiotic in drinking water (CaLP). The results showed body weight loss in all FW groups were more than 25% that was significantly higher than FF group (p < 0.05). The relative organ weights of hens in FW groups were lower than FF group; especially, it was significant for liver and ovary (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between all groups for tibia ash. The highest H/L ratio was related to FW group and offering Ca and lactose numerically and probiotic alone significantly resulted in decrease of this ratio (p < 0.05). The results also showed no significant difference for antibody production against SRBC among experimental groups. The highest coliform bacteria numeration observed in FW group and lactose could significantly reduce this population (p < 0.05). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numeration demonstrated a significant difference among treatments, so that FF hens had higher LAB than others (p < 0.05). In addition, FW moulted hens had significantly lower LAB compared to other moulted hens (p < 0.05), except for Ca group. In conclusion, probiotic and lactose was effective in maintaining caecal microbiota balance and improving immunity in hens exposed to moulting. PMID:26122928

  7. Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7 % sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS ( P < 0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se ( P > 0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS ( P < 0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio ( P < 0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers ( P < 0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se ( P < 0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions ( P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were increased but serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in HS broilers ( P < 0.05).

  8. The Effect of Cooled Perches on Immunological Parameters of Caged White Leghorn Hens during the Hot Summer Months

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Rebecca A.; Hester, Patricia Y.; Eicher, Susan D.; Hu, Jiaying; Cheng, Heng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if thermally cooled perches improve hen immunity during hot summer. White Leghorn pullets at 16 week of age were randomly assigned to 18 cages of 3 banks at 9 hens per cage. Each bank was assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments up to 32 week of age: 1) thermally cooled perches, 2) perches with ambient air, and 3) cages without perches. Hens were exposed to natural ambient temperatures from June through September 2013 in Indiana with a 4 h acute heat episode at 27.6 week of age. The packed cell volume, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, plasma concentrations of total IgG, and cytokines of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, plus lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor were measured at both 27.6 and 32 week of age. The mRNA expressions of these cytokines, toll-like receptor-4, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also examined in the spleen of 32 week-old hens. Except for H/L ratio, thermally cooled perches did not significantly improve currently measured immunological indicators. These results indicated that the ambient temperature of 2013 summer in Indiana (24°C, 17.1 to 33.1°C) was not high enough and the 4 h heat episode at 33.3°C (32 to 34.6°C) was insufficient in length to evoke severe heat stress in hens. However, cooled perch hens had a lower H/L ratio than both air perch hens and control hens at 27.6 week of age and it was still lower compared to control hens (P < 0.05, respectively) at 32 week of age. The lowered H/L ratio of cooled perch hens may suggest that they were able to cope with acute heat stress more effectively than control hens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of thermally cooled perches on hen health under higher ambient temperatures. PMID:26495988

  9. A note on protein expression changes in chicken breast muscle in response to time in transit before slaughtering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims of the research were to devise a proteome map of the chicken Pectoralis superficialis muscle, as resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and to characterize protein expression changes in the soluble protein fraction in commercial conditions due to age and to time in transit before slaughtering. Broilers were reared under commercial conditions until they reached a mean 1.8 kg and 36 d, or 2.6 kg and 46 d of age. Transport to the slaughterhouse took 90 or 220 minutes. Transport-induced stress was assessed from blood metabolites and leukocyte cell counts, revealing significant changes in albumin, glucose and triglyceride concentrations, in heterophils and leukocyte counts for chickens in transit for longer, and in glucose depending mainly on age. The sarcoplasmic protein fractions were extracted from a total of 39 breast muscle samples, collected 15 min post mortem, for analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Image and statistical analyses enabled us to study the qualitative and quantitative differences between the samples. Twelve up- or down-regulated protein spots were detected (P < 0.05): 8 related to the age effect, 2 to time in transit, and 2 to the interaction between the two. Age and time in transit influenced the avian proteome regulating the biological processes linked to the cellular housekeeping functions, related mainly to metabolism, cell division and control of apoptosis. Principal component analysis clustering was used to assess differences between birds. Age difference discriminated between the chickens analyzed better than time in transit, which seemed to have less general impact on the proteome fraction considered here. Isolating and identifying the proteins whose expression changes in response to transport duration and age shed some light on the biological mechanisms underlying growth and stress-related metabolism in chickens. Our results, combined with a further characterization of the chicken proteome associated with commercial chicken slaughtering management, will hopefully inspire alternative strategies and policies, and action to reduce the impact of stress related to time in transit. PMID:23883180

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Sub-Cellular Asymmetry of Fat-Dachsous Heterodimer for Generation of Planar Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Sinha, Pradip

    2014-01-01

    Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) is an evolutionarily conserved characteristic of animal tissues marked by coordinated polarization of cells or structures in the plane of a tissue. In insect wing epithelium, for instance, PCP is characterized by en masse orientation of hairs orthogonal to its apical-basal axis and pointing along the proximal-distal axis of the organ. Directional cue for PCP has been proposed to be generated by complex sets of interactions amongst three proteins - Fat (Ft), Dachsous (Ds) and Four-jointed (Fj). Ft and Ds are two atypical cadherins, which are phosphorylated by Fj, a Golgi kinase. Ft and Ds from adjacent cells bind heterophilically via their tandem cadherin repeats, and their binding affinities are regulated by Fj. Further, in the wing epithelium, sub-cellular levels of Ft-Ds heterodimers are seen to be elevated at the distal edges of individual cells, prefiguring their PCP. Mechanisms generating this sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer in proximal and distal edges of cells, however, have not been resolved yet. Using a mathematical modeling approach, here we provide a framework for generation of this sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer. First, we explain how the known interactions within Ft-Ds-Fj system translate into sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer. Second, we show that this asymmetric localization of Ft-Ds heterodimer is lost when tissue-level gradient of Fj is flattened, or when phosphorylation of Ft by Fj is abolished, but not when tissue-level gradient of Ds is flattened or when phosphorylation of Ds is abrogated. Finally, we show that distal enrichment of Ds also amplifies Ft-Ds asymmetry. These observations reveal that gradient of Fj expression, phosphorylation of Ft by Fj and sub-cellular distal accumulation of Ds are three critical elements required for generating sub-cellular asymmetry of Ft-Ds heterodimer. Our model integrates the known experimental data and presents testable predictions for future studies. PMID:24841507

  11. Diarrhea induced by Treponema hyodysenteriae: a young chick cecal model for swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, M; Adachi, Y

    1990-10-01

    The experimental infection of 25 young chicks with Treponema hyodysenteriae was carried out. Treponemes were isolated from 21 of 25 chicks on day 21 after inoculation. The ceca of chicks infected with treponemes were atrophied. The lumen was filled with a white watery fluid instead of digested feed. In some infected chicks, a cecal core was observed with the fluid in the cecum. The cecal core was grayish, hard, and rod shaped. It consisted of eroded cells and debris of treponemes and resembled the pseudomembrane. Bloody mucus was also observed in one chick. The thickness of the mucosae in 17 of 25 chicks were markedly increased. The histological changes were classified into two types. In the case of regressive changes of epithelial cells which mean severe erosion, the laminae propriae were exposed. Hemorrhage, edema, and heterophil infiltration in the laminae propriae were also confirmed. Numerous treponemes were observed within the edematous area under the remaining epithelia and also invaded the epithelial cells and laminae propriae. In the other case, progressive changes, that is, hyperplasia of mucosal epithelial cells and elongation of the crypt, were observed. The epithelia consisted mainly of cuboidal basophilic cells, mitotic cells, and goblet cells. The mitotic cells increased in number and were also observed near the superficial luminal surface of the ceca. Mucous goblet cells were also considerably increased in number. The erosion of superficial luminal epithelial cells was not so severe, but edema in laminae propriae was frequently observed. Electron-microscopic observation demonstrated that the basophilic epithelial cells were polyribosome rich, mitochondria poor, and lipid droplet poor. Furthermore, tonofibril-like structures under the terminal web in cytoplasms were lost, and numerous membrane-bound vesicles at the terminal web with free ribosomes were observed. In places, a number of vesicles were observed between microvilli, and some vesicles were released from the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Microvilli also became scarce and irregular. The junctional complexes between cuboidal cells became unclear, the interdigitations between cuboidal cells became loose, and the intercellular spaces were widened. In conclusion, the appearance of numerous membrane-bound vesicles at the terminal web and the dilated intercellular space indicates increased secretion of water and electrolytes, and the abnormal proliferation of such immature epithelial cells indicates impaired absorption. On the basis of our findings, we can say that diarrhea induced by T. hyodysenteriae can be developed by synergism between impaired absorption and increased secretion by intestinal mucosae with hyperplastic immature epithelial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2205578

  12. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P<0.05) physical asymmetry (0.90±0.05 mm) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (0.279±0.021), indicating that they were less susceptible to stress than the DARK birds (1.16±0.07 mm and 0.347±0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry industry. PMID:26475072

  13. Testing a West Nile virus vaccine in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.; Docherty, D.; Sileo, L.

    2005-01-01

    Eight sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated with a commercial equine West Nile virus vaccine (Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, Iowa, USA) at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. Three doses of the vaccine were given, the first dose (day 0) was followed by a second 21 days later and the third dose 7 days after the second day 28 after the first dose). All doses were 0.50 ml. In addition, 5 sandhill cranes were given injections of similar amounts of sterile water on the same schedule. Blood for complete blood counts, serum chemistries, and serological testing was collected at weekly intervals. Ten weeks after the first injection of the vaccine and 6 weeks after the last of the 3 injections of the vaccine, the cranes were shipped to the USGS National Wildlife Heath Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. After a two-week adjustment period, 11 of these cranes were injected intramuscularly with one mosquito dose of West Nile virus. Two of the vaccinated cranes were not challenged and acted as uninfected controls. One week post challenge the only abnormal findings were slight weight loss (average 6% loss since the time of challenge with West Nile virus) and elevated white blood cell counts (heterophilic leukocytosis). There were no deaths and no clinically ill cranes (unvaccinated or vaccinated cranes) among the 11 challenged birds. All cranes were euthanized 6 weeks post challenge, and necropsies were performed. Pre-challenge titers showed no titer response to the vaccinations. However, when challenged, vaccinated cranes developed titers more quickly (within 7-10 days), and were viremic and shed virus via the cloaca for a shorter period of time than the unvaccinated cranes (2-7 days for vaccinated cranes versus 2-10 days for unvaccinated cranes). No remarkable lesions were noted in any of the cranes during the necropsy examinations. Histopathological findings are available for only four of the cranes at this time. Three of those had mild to moderate encephalitis, myelitis, and myocarditis. Initial histopathological findings also indicated a difference in the lesions found in the brains of the vaccinated versus unvaccinated cranes. The fourth crane was a vaccinated unchallenged control that had none of the lesions described. We concluded, based on the findings of no adverse reactions and the higher titers and reduced viremia seen in the cranes, that, indeed, the vaccine is safe for use in cranes and can be effective in reducing the severity of a natural infection. We would recommend this vaccine for use in adult cranes. A companion study is looking at the safety and efficacy of the vaccine for crane chicks as young as 7-10 days of age and that will be reported at a later date.

  14. A novel hypothesis for the etiology of Graves' disease: TSAb may be thyroid stimulating animal IgG-like hormone and TBAb may be the precursor of TSAb.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yukio; Kajita, Yoshihiro; Hachiya, Takashi; Hamaoki, Masaru

    2012-06-01

    There are doubtful points about the theory that autoimmunity with auto-antibody (Ab) to TSH receptor (R) causes hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease (GD). A main doubtful point is no curative effect of corticosteroid on Graves' hyperthyroidism in spite of curative effect of corticosteroid for all autoimmune diseases. Recently we demonstrated the immunological similarity of TSAb and TBAb-IgG to animal IgGs, except for human (h)IgG, by neutralization and purification of TSAb and TBAb-IgG using (1) heterophilic Ab to animal IgG in GD sera and (2) experimentally generated anti-animal IgG Abs [such as dog (d), bovine (b), porcine (p), and rabbit (rb)]. Furthermore, greater immunological similarity of Fab- and F(ab')(2)-portion of TSAb- and TBAb-IgG to bovine Fab, compared to hFab, was demonstrated using goat anti-bovine F(ab')(2) Ab. Existence of b and p TSH-like portions in the LATS-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion) was suggested by a previous report of neutralization of LATS activity by anti-b- or anti-p-TSH Ab. We suggested the existence of a mammalian animal-TSH-like structure, excepting hTSH, in the TSAb-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion), by discovery of anti-mammalian TSH Ab (such as d, b, p, guinea-pig, rat, whale, except h) in sera of GD. Lately, similar TSHR binding of H- and L-chain of human stimulating monoclonal TSHR Ab (M22)-Fab with TSH-α and-β subunit was reported. This evidence suggests that Fab portion of TSAb has a structure like mammalian TSH, but not hTSH. IgG-λ type of d, horse, b, p, goat, ovine is 95% and IgG-κ type is 5%, while human κ and λ chain is 60:40. Previous report that LATS (TSAb)-IgG composed of predominant λ type is supporting evidence that TRAb-IgG has immunological similarity with these animal IgGs compared to hIgG. We speculate that TSAb-IgG may be referred as a mermaid consisted in face (Fab) and trunk-leg (Fc). Face may be a kind of hormone with animal TSH-like structure and trunk-leg has animal IgG-like structure (in spite of no antibody function). There are many reports for co-existence of TSAb and TBAb-IgG in sera of GD. We reported conversion from TBAb (non-thyroid stimulating type IgG) to TSAb by co-incubation of anti-hIgG Ab (containing anti-animal IgG Ab as a cross-reaction) with TBAb-bound porcine thyroid cells. Thus, we suggest that TBAb may be the precursor form of TSAb. PMID:22472575