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Avian Heterophils in Inflammation and Disease Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterophils are the predominate granu- lated leukocyte in the acute inflammatory response in gallinaceous birds. Heterophils are highly phagocytic and are capable of a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They accumulate in inflamed tissue, causing tissue damage and forming heterophil granulomas that are morphologically similar to inflammatory lesions in reptiles. The avian heterophil lacks myeloperoxidase and depends primarily on nonoxidative



Drosophila neurotactin mediates heterophilic cell adhesion.  

PubMed Central

Neurotactin is a 135 kd membrane glycoprotein which consists of a core protein, with an apparent molecular weight of 120 kd, and of N-linked oligosaccharides. In vivo, the protein can be phosphorylated in presence of radioactive orthophosphate. Neurotactin expression in the larval CNS and in primary embryonic cell cultures suggests that it behaves as a contact molecule between neurons or epithelial cells. Electron microscopy studies reveal that neurotactin is uniformly expressed along the areas of contacts between cells, without, however, being restricted to a particular type of junction. It putative adhesive properties have been tested by transfecting non adhesive Drosophila S2 cells with neurotactin cDNA. Heat shocked transfected cells do not aggregate, suggesting that neurotactin does not mediate homophilic cell adhesion. However, these transfected cells bind to a subpopulation of embryonic cells which probably possess a related ligand. The location at cellular junctions between specific neurons or epithelial cells, the heterophilic binding to a putative ligand and the ability to be phosphorylated are consistent with the suggestion that neurotactin functions as an adhesion molecule. Images Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4 Fig.5 PMID:2120048

Barthalay, Y; Hipeau-Jacquotte, R; de la Escalera, S; Jiménez, F; Piovant, M



Heterophile binding of human antibodies to glycoproteins of retroviruses.  

PubMed Central

The binding of human immunoglobulin to Type C viruses has been analysed by radioimmunoassay. The assay is a double-antibody, solid-phase RIA, which has been optimized and calibrated using rabbit and human anti-MuLV sera. It detects varying concentrations of IgG binding to HL-23-V-1, a human Type C virus isolate, in all of a large number of human sera tested. As judged by inhibition with nonspecific glycoproteins, heterophile antigens and pure saccharides, this binding is to the glycoside moiety of the virus-envelope glycoproteins, in agreement with other recent reports. Nonspecific binding of this type stringently restricts the interpretation which can be placed on these and earlier data in man concerning antibodies to Type C viruses. It does not however exclude the possibility that Type C viruses do occur in man and do elicit antibody therein. Images Fig. 5 PMID:6263306

Cardoso, E. A.



Performance of a Revised Cardiac Troponin Method That Minimizes Interferences from Heterophilic Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent guidelines for use of cardiac tropo- nin to detect cardiac damage and for cardiovascular risk stratification have made increasingly sensitive troponin assays important. Troponin assays continue to be plagued by interferences caused by heterophilic anti- bodies (HAs). We evaluated the performance of a re- vised cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay designed to have increased analytical sensitivity and to

Wesley J. Kim; Omar F. Laterza; Karl G. Hock; James F. Pierson-Perry; Delores M. Kaminski; Martine Mesguich; Francois Braconnier; Regine Zimmermann; Martina Zaninotto; Mario Plebani; Atef Hanna; George S. Cembrowski; Mitchell G. Scott



Effects of genetic background and dietary immunomodulators on chicken heterophil function and Salmonella resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune responses in poultry can be influenced by genetic background, nutrition, environment and management, or any combination of the above. Chicken heterophils are the first line of defense that can launch a series of intra- and extracellular antimicrobial mechanisms. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a causative agent of a bacterial foodborne illness, commonly occurring after consumption of contaminated eggs

Phongsakorn Chuammitri



Functional Annotation of Proteomic Data from Chicken Heterophils and Macrophages Induced by Carbon Nanotube Exposure  

PubMed Central

With the expanding applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedicine and agriculture, questions about the toxicity and biocompatibility of CNT in humans and domestic animals are becoming matters of serious concern. This study used proteomic methods to profile gene expression in chicken macrophages and heterophils in response to CNT exposure. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified 12 proteins in macrophages and 15 in heterophils, with differential expression patterns in response to CNT co-incubation (0, 1, 10, and 100 ?g/mL of CNT for 6 h) (p < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins are associated with protein interactions, cellular metabolic processes, and cell mobility, suggesting activation of innate immune functions. Western blot analysis with heat shock protein 70, high mobility group protein, and peptidylprolyl isomerase A confirmed the alterations of the profiled proteins. The functional annotations were further confirmed by effective cell migration, promoted interleukin-1? secretion, and more cell death in both macrophages and heterophils exposed to CNT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that CNT exposure affects protein expression, leading to activation of macrophages and heterophils, resulting in altered cytoskeleton remodeling, cell migration, and cytokine production, and thereby mediates tissue immune responses. PMID:24823882

Li, Yun-Ze; Cheng, Chung-Shi; Chen, Chao-Jung; Li, Zi-Lin; Lin, Yao-Tung; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan



Functional annotation of proteomic data from chicken heterophils and macrophages induced by carbon nanotube exposure.  


With the expanding applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedicine and agriculture, questions about the toxicity and biocompatibility of CNT in humans and domestic animals are becoming matters of serious concern. This study used proteomic methods to profile gene expression in chicken macrophages and heterophils in response to CNT exposure. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified 12 proteins in macrophages and 15 in heterophils, with differential expression patterns in response to CNT co-incubation (0, 1, 10, and 100 µg/mL of CNT for 6 h) (p < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins are associated with protein interactions, cellular metabolic processes, and cell mobility, suggesting activation of innate immune functions. Western blot analysis with heat shock protein 70, high mobility group protein, and peptidylprolyl isomerase A confirmed the alterations of the profiled proteins. The functional annotations were further confirmed by effective cell migration, promoted interleukin-1? secretion, and more cell death in both macrophages and heterophils exposed to CNT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that CNT exposure affects protein expression, leading to activation of macrophages and heterophils, resulting in altered cytoskeleton remodeling, cell migration, and cytokine production, and thereby mediates tissue immune responses. PMID:24823882

Li, Yun-Ze; Cheng, Chung-Shi; Chen, Chao-Jung; Li, Zi-Lin; Lin, Yao-Tung; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan



BT cationic peptides: small peptides that modulate innate immune responses of chicken heterophils and monocytes.  


Neonatal poultry exhibit a transient susceptibility to infectious diseases during the first week of life that stems from inefficient host defense mechanisms. Yet, the initial host immune response to pathogens is a critical determinant of disease resistance and susceptibility. With this context in mind, novel ways to stimulate or modulate the hosts' natural immune response is emerging as an important area of interest for food animal producers including the poultry industry. Specifically, we have been investigating new modulation strategies tailored around the selective stimulation of the host's immune system, and particularly rapid acting innate immunity, as an alternative to direct targeting of microbial pathogens. One such approach that we have been investigating is the use of a group of cationic peptides produced by a Gram-positive soil bacterium, Brevibacillus texasporus (BT peptides). We have previously shown that, provided as a feed additive, BT peptides significantly induced a concentration-dependent protection against cecal colonization and extraintestinal colonization by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). This protection is not the result of direct antibacterial activity of the BT peptides on the SE since the concentrations used were below the minimum inhibitory concentration for SE. We also found that BT are not absorbed in the intestine, but still induce a significant up-regulation in the functional efficiency of peripheral blood heterophils and monocytes. The mechanisms of this immune modulation are unknown. Here, using in vitro models for measuring: (1) leukocyte oxidative burst, (2) changes in leukocyte cytokine and chemokines gene expression profiles, and (3) phosphorylation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in leukocytes, we evaluated the role of BT peptides as priming mediators for heterophil and monocyte responses at the level of cell function, gene transcription/expression, and cell phosphorylation following stimulation with inflammatory agonists. BT peptides primed both heterophils and monocytes for an increased oxidative burst and up-regulation in transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-6 and inflammatory chemokines CXCLi1 and CXCLi2 induced by inflammatory agonists. In addition, BT peptides induced a rapid (10min) phosphorylation and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 kinase pathways in primary chicken heterophils. Taken together, we conclude that BT peptides, acting through MAPK pathways, enhance leukocyte functional and pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene transcription activities. These small cationic peptides may prove useful as immune modulators in neonatal poultry. PMID:22129785

Kogut, Michael H; Genovese, Kenneth J; He, Haiqi; Swaggerty, Christina L; Jiang, Yi Wei



Reversible adrenal insufficiency and heterophile antibodies in a case of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 27-year-old male was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis and altered sensorium with slurring of speech and ataxia. He was managed with intravenous insulin and fluids and later shifted to basal bolus insulin regimen and during further evaluation was diagnosed to be suffering from primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. He was started on thyroxin replacement and steroids only during stress. After three months of follow up he was clinically euthyroid. His glycemic control was adequate on oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs and adrenal insufficiency recovered. However, his thyrotropin levels were persistently elevated on adequate replacement doses of thyroxin. His repeat TSH was estimated after precipitating serum with polyethylene glycol which revealed normal TSH. Here we report reversible adrenal insufficiency with hypothyroidism with falsely raised TSH because of presence of heterophile antibodies in a case of poly glandular endocrinopathy syndrome. PMID:24910843

Kharb, Sandeep; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Dutta, Manoj K.; Garg, M. K.



Severe histiolymphocytic and heterophilic bronchopneumonia as a reaction to in ovo fowlpox vaccination in broiler chicks.  


Broiler chickens on several farms from a single poultry company experienced neurological signs and mortality in chicks between 3 days and 10 days of age over a 3-week period after use of a fowlpox-vectored infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine in ovo. At necropsy the lungs contained numerous tan or gray, opaque to translucent, 0.5- to 2.0-mm nodules in the parenchyma. Microscopic lesions were a multifocal severe lymphohistiocytic and heterophilic bronchopneumonia. Immunohistochemistry was positive for fowlpox virus in macrophages and lymphocytes, and polymerase chain reaction on paraffin-embedded lung tissues was positive for a fowlpox vector virus commonly used as a vaccine. The cause of the neurological signs was not determined. PMID:20080499

Williams, S M; Smith, J A; Garcia, M; Brinson, D; Kiupel, M; Hofacre, C



Structure of a Heterophilic Adhesion Complex between the Human CD2 and CD58 (LFA-3) Counterreceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction between CD2 and its counterreceptor, CD58 (LFA-3), on opposing cells optimizes immune recognition, facilitating contacts between helper T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells as well as between cytolytic effectors and target cells. Here, we report the crystal structure of the heterophilic adhesion complex between the amino-terminal domains of human CD2 and CD58. A strikingly asymmetric, orthogonal, face-to-face interaction involving the

Jia-huai Wang; Alex Smolyar; Kemin Tan; Jin-huan Liu; Mikyung Kim; Zhen-yu J Sun; Gerhard Wagner; Ellis L Reinherz



Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a selection criterion for heat resistance in domestic fowls.  


1. Two experiments were conducted to examine the Heterophil/Lymphocyte ratio (H/L) as criterion for selection for resistance to heat stress and some aspects of general resistance in domestic fowls. 2. The first experiment on a small sample (n = 64) of light breed Iraqi local fowls showed that this ratio could be used as an indicator of heat stress resistance. 3. The second experiment on a large sample (n = 1160) of heavy parent stock confirmed the results. It showed that there was a different H/L ratio for the two strains and that there was much individual variability in the H/L ratio within-strain that could be utilised for individual selection for heat resistance. 4. The H/L ratio was highly heritable; Resistant and Sensitive groups, defining all individuals with an H/L ratio over the upper 95% confidence limit as 'Sensitive' and those below as 'Resistant' produced progeny with significantly different H/L ratios. 5. There were indications of differences in mortality between the progeny of the Resistant and the Sensitive groups. 6. The H/L indicator could be used as a criterion to select for heat stress resistance. PMID:9158890

al-Murrani, W K; Kassab, A; al-Sam, H Z; al-Athari, A M



Bacterial toll-like receptor agonists induce sequential NF-?B-mediated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 production in chicken heterophils.  


Studies of the response of the primary avian polymorphonuclear leukocyte, the heterophil, to microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through toll-like receptors (TLR) has concentrated on the activation of the respiratory burst, release of intracellular granules, and the induction of cytokine and chemokine expression. Virtually no studies have been described on the role of lipid mediators, leukotrienes and prostaglandins, as effectors of the avian inflammatory response. We have previously shown that flagellin (FLG), the bacterial lipoprotein mimic palmitoly-3-cysteine-serine-lysine-4 (PAM), and unmethylated CpG motifs of bacteria DNA (CpG) are all potent activators of the avian innate immune system. In the present studies, we hypothesized that FLG, PAM, and CpG are also capable of eliciting the production of these lipid mediators of inflammation by avian heterophils. Compared to non-stimulated control heterophils, all three TLR agonists were potent inducers (3-5-fold increase) of a rapid production (30 min) of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) followed by a later release (60-120 min) of prostaglandin (PGE(2)) by the heterophils. LTB(4) and PGE(2) production were derived from lipoxygenase-5 (5-LO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymatic activities, respectively, as the selective 5-LO (caffeic acid) and COX-2 (NS-398) inhibitors eliminated LTB(4) and PGE(2) production from the MAMP-stimulated heterophils. These results demonstrate that both the lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase pathways are operational in avian heterophils in response to bacterial MAMPs. Treatment of heterophils with either FLG, PAM, or CpG also induced a significant increase in DNA binding by NF-?B family members' p50, c-Rel, and RelB. Additionally, the production of LTB(4) and PGE(2) were inhibited following treatment of heterophils with the specific pharmacologic inhibitor of NF-?B (Bay 11-7086), thus suggesting that TLR pathway activation of NF-?B controls LTB(4) and PGE(2) production. This the first report of the production of lipid mediators of inflammation by avian heterophils in response to PAMPs. Since FLG, lipoproteins, and bacterial CpG DNA are abundant during bacterial infections, these data support their role in the inflammatory response mediated by avian heterophils. PMID:22119018

Kogut, Michael H; He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J



Comparative ability to tolerate heat between thai indigenous chickens, thai indigenous chickens crossbred and broilers by using heterophil/lymphocyte ratio.  


The effects of high environmental temperature on the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were determined for a comparison of the ability to tolerate heat between Thai indigenous chickens, crossbred Thai indigenous chickens and broilers. One kilogram of the representative males and females of each of the three breeds were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26 +/- 2 and 38 +/- 2 degrees C. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was investigated on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experimental period. The results revealed the following information: For those chickens maintained in an environmental temperature at 38 +/- 2 degrees C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was higher than that of chickens at 26 +/- 2 degrees C. With the environmental temperature at 38 +/- 2 degrees C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the broilers was significantly higher than that of the Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds and Thai indigenous chickens (p < 0.05), respectively. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the chickens for the environmental temperature of 38 +/- 2 degrees C was significantly increased on day 7 and then significantly decreased to day 14 and 21 of experimental period (p < 0.05). This finding indicated that when chickens were maintained in high environmental temperatures, they were under heat stress. Chickens could adapt to high environmental temperatures. Finally, Thai indigenous chickens and Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds tolerated higher environmental temperatures than the broilers. PMID:19086547

Aengwanich, W



The influence of naturally occurring heterophilic anti-immunoglobulin antibodies on direct measurement of serum proteins using sandwich ELISAs.  


Sandwich ELISAs have become a widely used method for the quantitative detection of serum proteins. However, they can be biased by a variety of interfering substances. As reported recently, we observed false-positive levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha and -beta in up to 27% of sera from healthy blood donors using commercial ELISAs. We now demonstrate that two different groups of naturally occurring heterophilic antibodies (IgG-type) are responsible for these titers. Group I (representing 85% of positive samples) binds to the Fab region of IgG from goat, mouse, rat, horse, and bovidae (but not rabbit). Group II (15%) recognizes an epitope in the Fc region of mouse, horse, bovine, and rabbit (but not goat or rat) immunoglobulins. The antibodies did not crossreact with human IgG subclasses but contributed to false-positive IgG rheumatoid factor levels obtained using a commercially available ELISA. To investigate the susceptibility of assays to these artifacts, various combinations of capture and detection antibodies have been tested. On this basis, we defined the relative risks that standard ELISAs might be influenced by heterophilic anti-immunoglobulin antibodies. In general, assays that use monoclonal antibodies for both capture and detection are less susceptible than others which include at least one polyclonal antiserum. However, only systems utilizing rabbit F(ab')(2) fragments have been found to be immune to this interference. PMID:10675759

Hennig, C; Rink, L; Fagin, U; Jabs, W J; Kirchner, H



Paul-Bunnell antigen and a possible mechanism of formation of heterophile antibodies in patients with infectious mononucleosis.  


Sera of patients with infectious mononucleosis contain heterophile anti-Paul- Bunnell (PB) antibodies to erythrocytes of numerous mammalian species. Evidence is presented that the corresponding antigen of bovine erythrocytes is not, as previously described, a single molecule, but a series of glycoproteins with glycans terminated with N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). The latter compound should be an important part of the PB epitope because, in agreement with the results of others, we found that desialylation of the PB antigen abolishes almost completely its activity. We examined three different preparations of GM3 ganglioside for their capacity to bind anti-PB and found that only GM3 from horse erythrocytes containing Neu5Gc exhibited a low although ELISA measurable PB activity. The other two GM3 preparations, from bovine milk and dog erythrocytes, containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) bound little if any anti-PB antibodies. This finding confirms a previous report that human erythrocyte Neu5Ac containing sialoglycoprotein with similar O-linked glycans as the PB-antigen of bovine erythrocytes exhibits only very low PB activity (Patarca & Fletcher, 1995, Crit Rev Oncogen., 6: 305). In conclusion, we present a hypothesis that anti-PB antibodies in patients with infectious mononucleosis are formed against infection-induced cell membrane glycoconjugates containing highly immunogenic Neu5Gc. PMID:14740007

Go?aszewska, Ewa; Kurowska, Ewa; Duk, Maria; Ko?cielak, Jerzy



Structure of Natural Killer Receptor 2B4 Bound to CD48 Reveals Basis for Heterophilic Recognition in Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family  

SciTech Connect

Natural killer (NK) cells eliminate virally infected and tumor cells. Among the receptors regulating NK cell function is 2B4 (CD244), a member of the signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) family that binds CD48. 2B4 is the only heterophilic receptor of the SLAM family, whose other members, e.g., NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A), are self-ligands. We determined the structure of the complex between the N-terminal domains of mouse 2B4 and CD48, as well as the structures of unbound 2B4 and CD48. The complex displayed an association mode related to, yet distinct from, that of the NTB-A dimer. Binding was accompanied by the rigidification of flexible 2B4 regions containing most of the polymorphic residues across different species and receptor isoforms. We propose a model for 2B4-CD48 interactions that permits the intermixing of SLAM receptors with major histocompatibility complex-specific receptors in the NK cell immune synapse. This analysis revealed the basis for heterophilic recognition within the SLAM family.

Velikovsky,C.; Deng, L.; Chlewicki, L.; Fernandez, M.; Kumar, V.; Mariuzza, R.



Evaluation of heterophilic antibody blocking agents in reducing false positive interference in immunoassays for IL-17AA, IL-17FF, and IL-17AF.  


IL-17AA, IL-17FF, and IL-17AF are proinflammatory cytokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to measure the levels of these cytokines in synovial fluid and serum samples from RA patients, immunoassays specific for IL-17AA, FF, and AF were developed. Although these assays could tolerate up to 50% pooled normal human serum, false positive reactivity was problematic in patient samples suggesting interference from heterophilic antibodies. We therefore evaluated the ability of several commercially available heterophilic antibody blocking agents to reduce false positive reactivity by testing them against samples that were confirmed as false positives in the IL-17AA, FF, and AF assays. Several of the blockers performed well, including HBR-1, HBR-9, HBR-11, HBR-Plus, Serum Cytokine Assay Diluent, and IIR. We chose to move forward using IIR blocker for sample analysis and verified that IIR had no effect on the assay standard curves and did not affect IL-17 quantitation in plasma from ex vivo stimulated human whole blood. IL-17FF and IL-17AF were below the limits of quantitation of the assays (12.3 and 10.5pg/ml, respectively) in synovial fluid and serum samples from patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA). For the more sensitive IL-17AA assay (1.6pg/ml limit of quantitation), low levels of IL-17AA were measurable in 48% of RA synovial fluid samples (mean, 7.9pg/ml; median, <1.6pg/ml; range, <1.6-29.7pg/ml; n=23) but not in synovial fluid from patients with OA (n=33). For serum samples, however, IL-17AA was below the limit of detection for both RA and OA patients. When these same serum samples were analyzed in the absence of a heterophilic antibody blocker, false positive reactivity yielded apparent mean IL-17AA levels of 43.3pg/ml (28% positive; n=50) and 14.8pg/ml (12% positive; n=50) for RA and OA patients, respectively, results that could potentially be interpreted as consistent with disease biology. These studies demonstrate the importance of ensuring that HAb interference is well controlled, particularly when measuring low concentrations of cytokines in samples from patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:20833179

DeForge, Laura E; Loyet, Kelly M; Delarosa, Donnie; Chinn, Jason; Zamanian, Fojan; Chuntharapai, Anan; Lee, James; Hass, Phil; Wei, Nathan; Townsend, Michael J; Wang, Jianyong; Wong, Wai Lee T



Muscle-specific transcriptional activation by CArG box requires either homophilic or heterophilic interactions of the CArG box binding factors.  


CArG boxes (CC(A/T)6GG sequences) are present in various promoters and are able to confer two different types of transcriptional responsiveness: serum inducibility and muscle-specific activation. Inserted upstream from the ubiquitous HSV thymidine kinase promoter, multimerized HCA1 boxes (human cardiac alpha-actin proximal CArG box) behave as strong muscle-specific activating elements. Transient expression assay was used to determine whether the muscle-specific transcriptional activation by the CArG boxes depends on the presence in the vicinity of other specific cis-acting DNA elements. Our results show that no specific association between different regulatory binding sites is required for the myogenic activity of a CArG box and that CArG elements are able to stimulate transcription in myogenic cells through either homophilic or heterophilic interactions of the CArG box binding factors. PMID:8395832

Soulez, M; Tuil, D; Kahn, A; Phan-Dinh-Tuy, F



Spatial and Temporal Variation in Heterophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratios of Nestling Passerine Birds: Comparison of Blue Tits and Great Tits  

PubMed Central

Environmental factors affecting trophic conditions act as stressors on nestling altricial birds. Access of parental birds to a sufficient supply of food in a limited period of the nestling stage differ in time and space, depending on nesting habitat, prey density and weather conditions. Heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (H/L) is considered as a reliable indicator of prolonged stress reaction in birds. In this study we examine if variation in H/L shows consistent spatio-temporal patterns in nestlings of two parids, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus and great tit Parus major. We found that blue tit nestlings had on average higher H/L than great tit nestlings, which corresponds with the ecological sensitivity of these species. In both species H/L was higher in a poor parkland habitat than in a high quality forest habitat. In nestling blue tits, higher H/L values occurred in years characterized by more extreme weather conditions and worse caterpillar availability. Such consistent patterns of variation in the H/L ratio of nestling blue tits and great tits suggest that, when age-dependent effects are controlled, the ratio can be used as an indicator of physiological stress that is generated by food-related stressors differing in space and time. In particular, elevated H/L ratios are indicative of human-induced changes in the structure of breeding habitats. PMID:24066123

Banbura, Jerzy; Skwarska, Joanna; Banbura, Miroslawa; Gladalski, Michal; Holysz, Magdalena; Kalinski, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Wawrzyniak, Jaroslaw; Zielinski, Piotr



Effects of auditory and physical enrichment on 3 measurements of fear and stress (tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry) in several breeds of layer chicks.  


The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of auditory enrichment (by means of classical music) or physical enrichment (by means of hanging colored string bunches and barley grains on the floor) on tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in chicks of several layer breeds. In experiment 1, 192 chicks from 8 Spanish breeds and 1 White Leghorn population were reared in cages with or without music auditory enrichment until 8 wk of age. The effect of music auditory enrichment was significant for heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). The ratios were higher in chicks reared without music than in those reared with music, suggesting that auditory enrichment from classical music reduces stress in chicks. There were significant differences in morphological trait measurements (relative asymmetry of wing length, leg width, and combined asymmetry; P < 0.05), being greater in chicks reared without music. This result suggests that FA is a good indicator for stress level in chicks, given that it follows the same trend as that found for heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. There was a significant treatment by breed interaction (P < 0.05) for tonic immobility duration, indicating no consistent effect by auditory enrichment on tonic immobility duration across breeds. In experiment 2, 180 chicks from 3 Spanish breeds were housed in pens with or without physical enrichment (colored plastic string bunches and barley grains on the floor) until 6 wk of age. The effect of physical enrichment on tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and FA was not significant, indicating no effect on fear and stress in layer chicks. In conclusion, auditory enrichment by means of classical music is a reliable method for reducing stress levels in several breeds of layer chicks. However, music auditory enrichment was not effective in reducing fearfulness in any of the layer breeds. Physical enrichment by means of colored plastic string bunches and floor barley grains does not appear to be an effective method for reducing stress and fear in layer chicks. PMID:22010229

Dávila, S G; Campo, J L; Gil, M G; Prieto, M T; Torres, O



Similarities between heterophilic and homophilic cadherin adhesion  

E-print Network

with chicken N-cadherin, canine E-cadherin, and Xenopus C-cadherin. Both qual- itative bead aggregation not intermix (14, 17). Electron microscopy studies similarly suggested that epithelial E-cadherin (E-CAD) a requires the cadherin family of calcium-dependent glycoproteins. A widely held view is that protein

Gardel, Margaret


Ontogeny of heterophil function in neonatal chicks by administration of Salmonella enteritidis-immune lymphokines  

E-print Network


Genovese, Lacy Lynne



BT Cationic Peptides: Small Peptides that Modulate Innate Immune Responses of Chicken Heterophils and Monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal poultry exhibit a transient susceptibility to infectious diseases during the first week of life that stems from inefficient host defense mechanisms. Yet, the initial host immune response to pathogens is a critical determinant of disease resistance and susceptibility. With this context in mind, novel ways to stimulate or modulate the hosts’ natural immune response is emerging as an important

Michael H. Kogut; Kenneth J. Genovese; Haiqi He; Christina L. Swaggerty; Yi Wei Jiang


Selective adsorption of heterophile polyglycerophosphate antigen from antigen extracts of Streptococcus mutans and other gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Hot saline extracts of Streptococcus mutans have been shown to contain antigenic substances which occasionally react nonspecifically with some antisera against whole cells of various serological groups and types of streptococci. Chromatography of the extract of S. mutans strain MT703 (serotype e) on a diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 column gave two principal antigens. One antigen was eluted without adsorption to the resin and was identified as the serotype-specific polysaccharide. The other antigen, which contained a large quantity of phosphorus, was absorbed to and released from the resin by gradient elution. It was reactive against the antisera specific for polyglycerophosphate (PGP) from group A Streptococcus pyogenes and/or S. mutans strain Ingbritt (type c). The PGP antigen was further purified by gel filtration with Sephadex G-75. Two peaks, PGP-1, and PGP-2, were obtained. Each possessed the same antigenic specificity to anti-PGP serum as shown by immunodiffusion. Chemical analyses revealed that the molar ratio of phosphorus to glycerol in both was about 1:1, although the protein content between the two was significantly different. PGP antigen was found to be widely distributed in hot saline extracts from various gram-positive bacteria, with a few exceptions. However, all gram-negative bacteria examined were free of PGP. The PGP in the hot saline extracts of various gram-positive bacteria possessed an essentially identical antigenic specificity. The addition of diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 resin to hot saline extracts successfully removed the cross-reacting PGP antigen. After adsorption of the extract from S. mutans, the supernatant contained only type-specific polysaccharide antigen, except type b, in which both type b-specific polysaccharide and PGP antigens were absorbed with the resin. This simple procedure should be useful for the removal of the PGP-type teichoic acid from antigen extracts of bacteria that contain uncharged polysaccharides. Images PMID:825468

Hamada, S; Tai, S; Slade, H D



The pathogenesis of and susceptibility to malabsorption syndrome in broilers is associated with heterophil influx into the intestinal mucosa and epithelial apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) in broilers is characterized by enteritis and reduced body weight gain. The pathogenesis of the intestinal lesions and the reasons for susceptibility differences between broiler lines are not clear. We studied the development of enteric lesions, epithelial apoptosis, and cell proliferation in relation to susceptibility. One-day-old chickens from two broiler lines were orally inoculated with intestinal homogenate

Bereket Zekarias; Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden; Jacob Post; Francis Balk; Cees van Reenen; Erik Gruys; Johanna M. J. Rebel



Transient decrease in blood heterophils and sustained liver damage caused by calicivirus infection of young rabbits that are naturally resistant to rabbit haemorrhagic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young rabbits are naturally resistant to rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) caused by the same calicivirus that kills, within 3 days, nearly all adult animals. We have investigated changes in blood leukocytes, and in the morphology and biochemistry of the liver (the organ where caliciviruses replicate) of young rabbits undergoing benign infection by the RHD virus. Four-week-old rabbits were infected with

P. G. Ferreira; A. Costa-e-Silva; E. Monteiro; M. J. R. Oliveira; A. P. Águas



Flagellin and lipopolysaccharide stimulate the MEK-ERK signaling pathway in chicken heterophils through differential activation of the small GTPases, Ras and Rap1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TLR agonists, flagellin (FLG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulate functional activation and cytokine gene expression via the extracellular signal regulated kinase 1\\/2 (ERK1\\/2) MAP kinase cascade. However, the upstream mechanisms of these signaling events remain unknown. In mammals, the small GTP-binding protein Ras mediates ERK1\\/2 activation through activation of downstream effectors Raf-1-MEK1\\/2-ERK1\\/2 in response to a variety of stimuli. It

M. H. Kogut; K. J. Genovese; H. He



The ancillary protein 1 of Streptococcus pyogenes FCT-1 pili mediates cell adhesion and biofilm formation through heterophilic as well as homophilic interactions  

PubMed Central

Summary Gram-positive pili are known to play a role in bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells and in the formation of biofilm microbial communities. In the present study we undertook the functional characterization of the pilus ancillary protein 1 (AP1_M6) from Streptococcus pyogenes isolates expressing the FCT-1 pilus variant, known to be strong biofilm formers. Cell binding and biofilm formation assays using S. pyogenes in-frame deletion mutants, Lactococcus expressing heterologous FCT-1 pili and purified recombinant AP1_M6, indicated that this pilin is a strong cell adhesin that is also involved in bacterial biofilm formation. Moreover, we show that AP1_M6 establishes homophilic interactions that mediate inter-bacterial contact, possibly promoting bacterial colonization of target epithelial cells in the form of three-dimensional microcolonies. Finally, AP1_M6 knockout mutants were less virulent in mice, indicating that this protein is also implicated in GAS systemic infection. PMID:22320452

Becherelli, Marco; Manetti, Andrea G O; Buccato, Scilla; Viciani, Elisa; Ciucchi, Laura; Mollica, Giulia; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Imma



Mode of Inheritance of Unselected Traits in Lines of Chickens Selected for High or Low Antibody Response to Sheep Red Blood Cells. 2. Heterophils, Lymphocytes, and Hematocrits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear lines for this experiment were White Leghorns that had undergone long-term selection for high (HH) or low (LL) antibody response to sheep red blood cell antigen(s). Sixteen progeny types consisting of parental lines, reciprocal F1 and F2 crosses, and backcrosses were produced in a single hatch from age-contemporary parents. At 30 d of age, blood was obtained from



Expression of the avian-specific toll-like receptor 15 in chicken heterophils is mediated by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, but not TLR agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the innate immune response of mammalian and avian species. While most mammalian TLRs have been well characterized, the chicken-specific TLR15 has not been extensively studied. We recently demonstrated that TLR15 is differentially expressed between Salmonella-susceptible-and-resistant chickens, indicating a potential role in the innate immune response to infection with Salmonella. The aim of

Jessica R. Nerren; Haiqi He; Kenneth Genovese; Michael H. Kogut



Mononucleosis spot test  


Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...


Oxygen radical production by avian leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Oxygen radical production by heterophils of red-tailed hawks and chickens, and by neutrophils of calves, was evaluated in a chemiluminescence microassay. Leukocytes were isolated by centrifugation of blood in capillary tubes and then challenged with opsonized zymosan in the presence of luminol. Avian heterophils produced significantly fewer oxygen radicals than did bovine neutrophils. PMID:1884301

Conlon, P; Smith, D; Gowlett, T



Patterns of variation in leucocyte counts of female tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor: Repeatability over time and relationships with condition and costs of reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterophil to lymphocyte (HL) ratio in the peripheral blood is increasingly being recognized as a reliable indicator of stress in birds. In this study we examined whether HL ratio, as well as the proportion of heterophils and lymphocytes, varied systematically with sampling time, date, age, climate conditions or with measures of maternal investment in female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

Courtney L. Ochs; Russell D. Dawson



What is your diagnosis? Blood smear from an injured red-tailed hawk.  


An injured juvenile red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. The hawk was quiet, alert, and emaciated, and had a closed comminuted, mid-diaphyseal ulnar fracture. CBC results included heterophilia with a left shift, monocytosis, and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration. The blood smear included rare heterophils containing small, dark blue inclusions approximately 1-2 mum in diameter that ranged from round to coccobacillary in shape and formed variably shaped aggregates; the morphology of the inclusions was suspicious for Chlamydophila or Ehrlichia spp. pathogens. The hawk died, and histopathologic examination of tissues obtained at necropsy found severe multifocal histiocytic and heterophilic splenitis in addition to chronic hepatitis, myocarditis and epicarditis, meningoencephalitis, and airsacculitis. Using immunohistochemistry the presence of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen within multiple tissues was confirmed. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was demonstrated in whole blood and fresh splenic tissue via real-time PCR. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of air-dried blood smears was positive in rare leukocytes for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen, and immunocytochemical staining of blood smears for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen was focally positive in rare heterophils. These findings may represent the first reported diagnosis of natural avian C. psittaci infection by visualization of organisms in peripheral blood heterophils. Immunocytochemical evaluation of blood smears was valuable in confirming the diagnosis and may be a useful antemortem test to discriminate between bacteria and other inclusions within heterophils. PMID:19228359

Johns, Jennifer L; Luff, Jennifer A; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Zehnder, Ashley M; Borjesson, Dori L



Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.  


Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P < 0.05). Granulosa cells from F1 follicles of AL hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P < 0.05) production, suggestive of slower maturation in ovulatory process and inflamed necrosis. Interestingly, while highly infiltrated with immune cells, particularly heterophils, IL-1beta, MMP-22-like, and gelatinase A activities were reduced in AL hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P < 0.05); however, AL monocytes showed an increase in phagocytosis rate (P < 0.05). Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates was also suppressed in AL heterophils but increased in AL monocytes (P < 0.05). In contrast to leukocyte-free control, both AL and R heterophils and monocytes suppressed progesterone production and increased cell death in a dose-dependent manner when coincubated with granulosa cells at different ratios (P < 0.05). AL monocytes suppressed progesterone production more, but AL heterophils were less proapoptotic when compared to their R counterparts (P < 0.05). Alterations of cellular ceramide content (P < 0.05) corresponded to the discrepancy between heterophil and monocyte functionality. In conclusion, leukocyte dysfunction contributes to impaired ovarian activities of overfed broiler hens. PMID:24829031

Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei



Cutaneous myelolipoma in a peach?faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of cutaneous myelolipoma in a 2.5?year?old female peach?faced lovebird is reported. Histopathologically, the subcutaneous mass on the tip of the left wing consisted of well circumscribed adipose tissue containing several aggregates of • haematopoietic cells. Heterophilic differentiation was most prominent in them.

K. Ozakt; H. Kinoshita; H. Kurasho; I. Narama



Screening tests for hepatitis B antigen and antibody in two colleges of education and studies on the relationship between nonspecific positive antibody tests and EB virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from 627 students entering Colleges of Education between 1969 and 1972 were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody. One was found positive for antigen, none for antibody. Six for 15 positive Hepanosticon results and two positive Hepatest results occurred in sera which also gave positive heterophil antibody tests indicative of current or recent EB virus infection. One

K G Ruparelia; J M Edwards




E-print Network

in broilers and its management by using multivitaminsand aspirin. The parameters studied were heterophil gain and minimum stress, while thé aspirin therapy did not show any significant différence. Key words/4 lit. of drinking water. c) Aspirin (Shamsi Pharma) containing acetyl salicylic acid. Dose: 180 mg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Studies on an ascitic syndrome in young broilers 1. haematology and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, the haematology and pathology of young broiler chicks with an ascitic syndrome were examined.Gross changes included cardiomegaly, ascites, congested lungs, shrunken livers, enlarged kidneys, dark breast muscle and congested intestines. Many blood parameters were significantly raised including the packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red (Rbc) and white blood cell (Wbc) counts. The heterophils and monocytes

M. H. Maxwell; G. W. Robertson; S. Spence



Alterations in the lung following the administration of ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabbits were exposed to 5 ppM Oâ for 3 hr. An increase in heterophils (from 2 to 3% to 34 to 50%) and ciliated epithelium cells (from 2 to 3% to 8 to 16%) in lung lavage was noted. Control lavage contained almost pure alveolar macrophages. RBC were also present in Oâ-exposed animal lavages. Essentially all macrophages and ciliated epithelial

G. L. Huber; R. J. Mason; M. LaForce; N. J. Spencer; D. E. Gardner; D. L. Coffin



Immune Function and Organochlorine Pollutants in Arctic Breeding Glaucous Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000

J. O. Bustnes; S. A. Hanssen; I. Folstad; K. E. Erikstad; D. Hasselquist; J. U. Skaare



Patterns of variation in leucocyte counts of female tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor: repeatability over time and relationships with condition and costs of reproduction.  


The heterophil to lymphocyte (HL) ratio in the peripheral blood is increasingly being recognized as a reliable indicator of stress in birds. In this study we examined whether HL ratio, as well as the proportion of heterophils and lymphocytes, varied systematically with sampling time, date, age, climate conditions or with measures of maternal investment in female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) over three breeding seasons. We found that HL ratios showed significant annual variation, which appeared to be driven by annual changes in the proportion of heterophils. HL ratios were higher among those females laying larger clutches, suggesting a potential cost of reproduction. Variation in body condition also appeared to affect stress levels of females, as decreases in body condition were associated with elevated HL ratios. Among females that we sampled over multiple breeding seasons, we were unable to detect significant repeatability for both HL ratios and proportion of heterophils, although proportion of lymphocytes showed low but significant repeatability within individuals. We therefore suggest that caution should be exercised in using these measures for illustrating the inherent quality or health of individuals over time frames beyond the current breeding attempt, or as predictors of future reproductive potential. PMID:18485771

Ochs, Courtney L; Dawson, Russell D



Body condition and immune response in wild zebra finches: effects of capture, confinement and captive-rearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural ecologists attempt to predict fitness in birds from estimates of body condition and immune capacity. We investigated how the stresses associated with capture, confinement and captive-rearing of wild zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) affected different elements of the immune system and body condition. Wild birds had higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and total leucocyte counts than aviary birds, presumably an outcome of

Erynne L. Ewenson; Richard A. Zann; Graham R. Flannery



HeterophiltoLymphocyteRatio CANT CBTHABTO NOMO HOSP  

E-print Network

* * * (Right) Differences in H:L ratio for 5 bird species across an urban-rural gradient and (below) between those with and without blood parasites. * sig. at P System Passeridae HOSPUS Pipilio CANT:L was used as an indicator of the innate immune response. Urban CBTHs had more heterophils (t=4.78, P=0

Hall, Sharon J.



Microsoft Academic Search

Hematological and blood chemical values were determined for wild and captive mallards, Anas p. platyrhynchos, for the late spring period prior to remige moult through early fall migration. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, as well as the number of heterophils and lymphocytes, declined significantly during and after remige moult compared to values recorded prior to remige



Neural cell adhesion molecule isoform 140 declines with rise of WHO grade in human gliomas and serves as indicator for the invasion zone of multiform glioblastomas and brain metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Gliomas are highly invasive neuroepithelial tumors with a propensity of malignant transformation and very restricted treatment\\u000a options. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) modulates cellular migration, proliferation, and synaptic plasticity by\\u000a homophilic and heterophilic interactions. Hereby, we investigated its relevance as a glioma tissue marker for the biological\\u000a aggressiveness of these tumors and compared these features with the carcinoma brain

Pedro Duenisch; Rupert Reichart; Ulrike Mueller; Michael Brodhun; Rolf Bjerkvig; Bernd Romeike; Jan Walter; Christian Herbold; Christian R. A. Regenbrecht; Rolf Kalff; Susanne A. Kuhn



Inactivation of the N-CAM gene in mice results in size reduction of the olfactory bulb and deficits in spatial learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

NEURAL-CELL adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily mediating homo- and heterophilic cell-cell interactions. N-CAM exists in various isoforms which are generated by alternative splicing1-3. During embryonic development, N-CAMs are expressed in derivatives of all three germ layers, whereas in the adult animal they are predominantly present in neural tissue. Processes like neurulation4, axonal outgrowth5, histogenesis of the

Harold Cremer; Rita Lange; Annette Christoph; Markus Plomann; Gaby Vopper; Jürgen Roes; Russell Brown; Stanley Baldwin; Philipp Kraemer; Stephen Scheff; Dagmar Barthels; Klaus Rajewsky; Wolfgang Wille



Fulminant Cytomegalovirus Myocarditis in an Immunocompetent Host: Resolution with Oral Valganciclovir  

PubMed Central

We report a case of fulminant myocarditis after a primary cytomegalovirus infection, in a previously healthy 72-year-old woman. The infection underwent clinical and immunologic resolution consequent to treatment with oral valganciclovir. In an immunocompetent host, the primary cytomegalovirus infection is usually asymptomatic or manifests itself as a heterophile-negative mononucleosis-like syndrome. Cytomegalovirus myocarditis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. After presenting our case, we review the literature on cytomegalovirus myocarditis in immunocompetent individuals.

Kumar, Anupam; Padala, Sandeep



Developmental stages and localization of peroxidatic activity in the leucocytes of three teleost species ( Cyprinus carpio L.; Tinca tinca L.; Salmo gairdneri Richardson)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The ultrastructural localization of peroxidase (PO) in the leucocytes of three teleosts (Cyprinus carpio L., Tinca tinca L., Salmo gairdneri R.) has been investigated using the 3,3-diaminobenzidine method. In the heterophilic granulocytes the granules show a species specific structure and are PO-positive at pH 7.6. They can be traced back to small granules arising near the Golgi apparatus (GA) in

E. Bielek



The Murine P84 Neural Adhesion Molecule Is SHPS-1, a Member of the Phosphatase-Binding Protein Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

P84 is a neuronal membrane glycoprotein that promotes the attachment and neurite outgrowth of cultured murine cerebellar cells. The heterophilic adhesive properties of P84 and its local- ization at sites of synaptogenesis suggest that it may be in- volved in regulation of synapse formation or maintenance. P84 is expressed in subsets of neurons throughout the CNS. By cloning the cDNA

S. Comu; W. Weng; S. Olinsky; P. Ishwad; Z. Mi; J. Hempel; S. Watkins; C. F. Lagenaur; V. Narayanan



The role of ultrasound in the management and diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis  

PubMed Central

Currently, infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinically diagnosed condition. According to the American Family Physician criteria for IM, splenomegaly is the key factor that distinguishes IM from other causes of sore throat. Though heterophile antibody tests are often ordered to confirm diagnosis of IM, this test has a high false-negative rate early in the course of the disease. This case report provides an example of how the use of ultrasound to diagnose splenomegaly and subsequently mononucleosis increases diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24580968



Hematological stress indices reveal no effect of radio-transmitters on wintering Hermit Thrushes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-telemetry is often used to track birds, and several investigators have examined the possible effects of radio-transmitters on birds. One approach to this question is to determine if transmitters induce physiological stress. Using hematological indicators of stress (heterophil-lymphocyte (H\\/L) ratios), studies of captive birds have revealed no evidence that radio-transmitters cause stress. However, studies in captivity may not reflect conditions

Andrew K. Davis; Nora E. Diggs; Robert J. Cooper; Peter P. Marra



Amalgam, an axon guidance Drosophila adhesion protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily: Over-expression, purification and biophysical characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amalgam, a multi-domain member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, possesses homophilic and heterophilic cell adhesion properties. It is required for axon guidance during Drosophila development in which it interacts with the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein, neurotactin, to promote adhesion. Amalgam was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the secreted protein product, bearing an NH2-terminal His6Tag, was purified from the

Tzviya Zeev-Ben-Mordehai; Aviv Paz; Yoav Peleg; Lilly Toker; Sharon G. Wolf; Edwin H. Rydberg; Joel L. Sussman; Israel Silman



Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

Olsen, Glenn H.



Regulation of the HPA axis is related to song complexity and measures of phenotypic quality in song sparrows.  


Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key component of the vertebrate stress response. Prior studies have found that variation in HPA responses were correlated to measures of fitness and physiological condition. In addition, sexually-selected traits have also been found to correlate to measures of condition. The proximate mechanisms responsible for such covariation between sexually selected traits and measures of quality are unclear, but could involve variation in HPA regulation. We investigated whether HPA activity is related to song complexity, body size/condition and leukocyte profiles in wild male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We characterized three aspects of HPA activity: 1) response to restraint stress; 2) negative feedback, assessed by the ability of exogenous dexamethasone to suppress corticosterone levels; and 3) adrenal sensitivity to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Birds with lower responses to restraint stress had more complex song and more heterophils and higher heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios. Birds with more effective negative feedback were larger and had fewer heterophils and lower H:L ratios, suggesting lower levels of physiological stress or infection. We observed no relationship between adrenal sensitivity to exogenous ACTH and any of the factors. These findings illustrate important relationships between HPA activity, song complexity, and morphological and physiological traits. Song complexity may thus provide receivers with information about the ability of the singer to cope with stressors. PMID:22418051

Schmidt, Kim L; Furlonger, Ainsley A; Lapierre, Janet M; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A



Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages  

PubMed Central

The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

Hrab?áková, Petra; Voslá?ová, Eva; Bedá?ová, Iveta; Pišt?ková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimír



Hematologic parameters and hemoparasites of nonmigratory Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from Greensboro, North Carolina, USA.  


Large flocks of wild, nonmigratory Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have established permanent residence throughout the eastern United States and have become a public concern. Few studies have assessed the hematologic parameters for these populations, which could provide useful information for monitoring individual and population health of Canada geese. This study measured the hematologic parameters and detected the presence of hemoparasites from 146 wild, nonmigratory Canada geese in central North Carolina, USA, during their annual molt. The age class, sex, and weight of each bird were recorded at capture. Values for packed cell volume (PCV), estimated white blood cell count, white blood cell differentials, and heterophil: lymphocyte ratios were calculated for each bird. Adults and female geese had higher estimated white blood cell counts compared with juveniles and males, respectively. The PCV increased with weight and age class. Adult geese had higher percentages of heterophils and heterophil: lymphocyte ratios, whereas juvenile geese had higher percentages of lymphocytes. Relative eosinophil counts in adults increased with decreasing bird weight, and relative monocyte counts in juveniles increased with increasing weight. Three percent of geese were infected with species of Hemoproteus blood parasites. Atypical lymphocyte morphology, including pseudopods, split nuclei, and cytoplasmic granules, was observed in 5% of the birds. The hematologic values reported for adult and juvenile nonmigratory Canada geese in this study may serve as reference intervals for ecological studies and veterinary care of wild and captive Canada geese. PMID:24881149

Charles-Smith, Lauren E; Rutledge, M Elizabeth; Meek, Caroline J; Baine, Katherine; Massey, Elizabeth; Ellsaesser, Laura N; DePerno, Christopher S; Moorman, Christopher E; Degernes, Laurel A



Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) in captivity.  


The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409

Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O



Discovery and characterization of cadherin domains in Saccharophagus degradans 2-40.  


Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 is a prominent member of newly discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycle complex polysaccharides. The S. degradans 2-40 genome codes for 15 extraordinary long polypeptides, ranging from 274 to 1,600 kDa. Five of these contain at least 52 cadherin (CA) and cadherin-like (CADG) domains, the types of which were reported to bind calcium ions and mediate protein/protein interactions in metazoan systems. In order to evaluate adhesive features of these domains, recombinant CA doublet domains (two neighboring domains) from CabC (Sde_3323) and recombinant CADG doublet domains from CabD (Sde_0798) were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for homophilic and heterophilic interactions. In addition, CA and CADG doublet domains were tested for adhesion to the surface of S. degradans 2-40. Results showed obvious homophilic and heterophilic, calcium ion-dependent interactions between CA and CADG doublet domains. Likewise, CA and CADG doublet domains adhered to the S. degradans 2-40 surface of cells that were grown on xylan from birch wood or pectin, respectively, as a sole carbon source. This research shows for the first time that bacterial cadherin homophilic and heterophilic interactions may be similar in their nature to cadherin domains from metazoan lineages. We hypothesize that S. degradans 2-40 cadherin and cadherin-like multiple domains contribute to protein-protein interactions that may mediate cell-cell contact in the marine environment. PMID:20023015

Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Weiner, Ronald M; Lamed, Raphael



Stress in broilers resulting from shackling.  


The aim of this study was to assess stress response of broilers to different periods of shackling. Stress effects of shackling were monitored in a group of male Ross 308 broilers (total number: 400) aged 42 d. Three shackling treatments were used in our experiment: shackling of broilers for 30 s (group T30), 60 s (group T60), and 120 s (group T120). Corticosterone plasma concentration was elevated in T60 broilers (P<0.05) and in T120 birds (P<0.01); glucose plasma concentration was increased (P<0.05) in both T60 and T120 broilers when compared with nonshackled control. Lactate concentrations increased in T30 birds (P<0.05) and in both T60 and T120 birds (P<0.01). Furthermore, T120 broilers exhibited an increase (P<0.01) in heterophil counts and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Duration of tonic immobility was increased (P<0.05) in T60 and T120 broilers. Number of attempts to induce tonic immobility decreased (P<0.01) in all test groups (T30, T60, T120). Duration of shackling period was positively correlated (P<0.001) with corticosterone, glucose and lactate level, tonic immobility duration, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. The number of inductions was negatively correlated (P<0.001) with duration of the shackling period. According to the results of our study, the act of shackling is a considerable traumatic procedure for broilers, and its stress effect is markedly dependent on duration of shackling period that the broiler chickens experience. It follows from our study that the optimal shackling period should be less than 60 s. PMID:17495074

Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Chloupek, P; Pistekova, V; Suchy, P; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Vecerek, V



Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).  


Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9?µg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9?µg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p?=?0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p?=?0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6?µg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p?=?0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p?=?0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p?heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (p?heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9?µg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported. PMID:21381084

Fallacara, Dawn M; Halbrook, Richard S; French, John B



Neopterin and biopterin as biomarkers of immune system activity associated with crating in broiler chickens.  


Neopterin and biopterin belong to a group of unconjugated pterin derivates. These biomolecules are present in many animal species and perform several functions. Pterin concentrations may provide additional information on the effect of stress on immune system activity. This study focused on an investigation of the effect of crating on plasma concentrations of neopterin and biopterin in broilers. The effects of 2 crating periods (2 and 4 h) were monitored in Hubbard broilers (n = 90) aged 42 d. After a given crating period, randomly selected chickens from each group were sampled immediately and the remaining chickens were sampled after 24 h. Plasma corticosterone increased (P < 0.001) immediately after 2 and 4 h crating, but no difference between the crated and the control noncrated broilers was found 24 h later. Immediately after crating, neopterin in 2- and 4-h broilers did not differ from the control, but 24 h later a decrease (P = 0.011) in plasma neopterin was found in 4-h broilers compared with the control. Simultaneously, 24 h after crating, neopterin levels in 2- and 4-h broilers decreased (P < 0.001) in comparison with the levels immediately after crating. Plasma biopterin was higher (P < 0.001) in 4-h broilers than in the control immediately after the crating. A time of sampling effect (P = 0.016) was found for the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, with heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio higher 24 h after crating in comparison with its level immediately after the crating. This study shows that crating may significantly affect the immune system of broiler chickens. This is corroborated by the increase in plasma biopterin concentrations in broilers immediately after crating and the decrease in plasma neopterin concentrations in broilers 24 h after crating. The correlations were found for widely used indicators of acute and chronic stress in birds [i.e., plasma corticosterone concentrations (biopterin) and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (neopterin), respectively]. PMID:25125562

Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Zelinska, G; Blahova, J; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J



Laboratory diagnosis of EB virus infection in some cases presenting as hepatitis.  

PubMed Central

In 1975 and 1976, 7580 serum specimens were tested for HBsAg by the passive haemagglutination test, Hepanosticon. Serum from 38 people gave a positive result after absorption with the absorbent provided, but the presence of HBsAg could not be confirmed by other tests. Tests for current infection with EB virus, namely, the presence of heterophil antibody and EB virus specific IgM, were performed and were positive in 11 of the 38. In six of these the clinical picture was of hepatitis rather than infectious mononucleosis. PMID:204666

Edwards, J M; Vandervelde, E M; Cohen, B J; McSwiggan, D A



Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma lipofaciens strain ML64, isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), for chicken embryos.  


Some Mycoplasma species are well-known avian pathogens and are of importance in poultry breeder flocks due to their pathogenic potential for embryos. Mycoplasmas are regularly detected in birds of prey, and a strain of Mycoplasma lipofaciens that was isolated from an egg of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) was examined for its pathogenicity in specific pathogen free chicken embryos since birds of prey eggs were not available for this purpose. The strain was found to be pathogenic, causing a high mortality as well as dwarfing, curled toes and infiltrations of heterophils in the liver, kidney, intestine and chorioallantoic membrane. PMID:17479376

Lierz, M; Stark, R; Brokat, S; Hafez, H M



Leucocytozoonosis in nestling bald eagles in Michigan and Minnesota.  


Thirteen of 21 nestling bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) examined for blood parasites in Michigan and Minnesota (USA) during June and July 1997 had patent infections of Leucocytozoon toddi. No other parasites were seen. The degree of parasitemia was light and varied from 1 to 2 on the Ashford Scale. Several of the infected nestlings appeared to have elevated levels of heterophils in their peripheral circulating blood. One of the infected nestlings also showed signs of severe anemia. We believe this is the first report of L. toddi in the bald eagle. PMID:10479102

Stuht, J N; Bowerman, W W; Best, D A



Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

Muńoz, Fernando Alberto; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseńor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris



Tight junction dynamics: the role of junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs).  


Junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are a family of adhesion molecules localized at the tight junction of polarized cells and on the cell surface of leukocytes. The last 20 years of research in this field has shown that several members of the family play an important role in the regulation of cell polarity, endothelium permeability and leukocytes migration. They mediate these pleiotropic functions through a multitude of homophilic and heterophilic interactions with intrafamily and extrafamily partners. In this article, we review the current status of the JAM family and highlight their functional role in tight junction dynamics and leukocyte transmigration. PMID:24595739

Garrido-Urbani, S; Bradfield, P F; Imhof, B A



Differential expression of Toll-like receptor mRNA in White Leghorn and indigenous chicken of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present experiment, the expression profile of Toll-like receptor mRNA in indigenous and pure line chickens was studied.\\u000a The expression of TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR7 were quantified in heterophils of Aseel, Kadaknath, Naked neck, Dwarf and White\\u000a Leghorn lines by Quantitative Real-time PCR. White Leghorns expressed significantly (P?

Kannaki T. Ramasamy; Maddula R. Reddy; Dhanutha N. Raveendranathan; Shanmugam Murugesan; Rudra N. Chatterjee; Rajkumar Ullengala; Santosh Haunshi



Survival and physiologic response of common Amakihi and Japanese white-eyes during simulated translocation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding in an aviary for 48 hr with overnight thermal support followed by transport for 4 hr prior to release. Trial 3 and 1 were identical except that overnight thermal support was provided during trial 3. We monitored survival, food consumption, weight change, and fecal production during captivity as well as changes in hematocrit, estimated total solids, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma uric acid, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) at capture and release. Survival was significantly lower for Amakihi during trial 1 (no thermal support). Birds that died lost significantly more weight than those that survived. Regardless of trial, birds responded to translocation by a combination of weight loss, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, uric acid, and CPK levels. The first 24 hr of captivity posed the greatest risk to birds regardless of whether transport or holding occurred first. Food consumption, fecal production, and weight all decreased at night, and overnight thermal support during holding was critical if ambient temperatures dipped to freezing. We recommend that if small passerines are to be held for > 12 hr, they be monitored individually for weight loss, food consumption, and fecal production.

Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S.; Banko, P.C.



Survival and physiologic response of Common Amakihi and Japanese White-eyes during simulated translocation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding in an aviary for 48 hr with overnight thermal support followed by transport for 4 hr prior to release. Trial 3 and 1 were identical except that overnight thermal support was provided during trial 3. We monitored survival, food consumption, weight change, and fecal production during captivity as well as changes in hematocrit, estimated total solids, heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, plasma uric acid, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) at capture and release. Survival was significantly lower for Amakihi during trial I (no thermal support). Birds that died lost significantly more weight than those that survived. Regardless of trial, birds responded to translocation by a combination of weight loss, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, uric acid, and CPK levels. The first 24 hr of captivity posed the greatest risk to birds regardless of whether transport or holding occurred first. Food consumption, fecal production, and weight all decreased at night, and overnight thermal support during holding was critical if ambient temperatures dipped to freezing. We recommend that if small passerines are to be held for > 12 hr, they be monitored individually for weight loss, food consumption, and fecal production.

Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Johnson, L.; Dougill, S.; Banko, P.C.



Friendship and natural selection  

PubMed Central

More than any other species, humans form social ties to individuals who are neither kin nor mates, and these ties tend to be with similar people. Here, we show that this similarity extends to genotypes. Across the whole genome, friends’ genotypes at the single nucleotide polymorphism level tend to be positively correlated (homophilic). In fact, the increase in similarity relative to strangers is at the level of fourth cousins. However, certain genotypes are also negatively correlated (heterophilic) in friends. And the degree of correlation in genotypes can be used to create a “friendship score” that predicts the existence of friendship ties in a hold-out sample. A focused gene-set analysis indicates that some of the overall correlation in genotypes can be explained by specific systems; for example, an olfactory gene set is homophilic and an immune system gene set is heterophilic, suggesting that these systems may play a role in the formation or maintenance of friendship ties. Friends may be a kind of “functional kin.” Finally, homophilic genotypes exhibit significantly higher measures of positive selection, suggesting that, on average, they may yield a synergistic fitness advantage that has been helping to drive recent human evolution. PMID:25024208

Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.



West Nile Virus in Farmed Alligators  

PubMed Central

Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the horsemeat collected during the 2002 outbreak but negative in the horsemeat collected after the outbreak. PMID:12890319

Mauel, Michael J.; Baldwin, Charles; Burtle, Gary; Ingram, Dallas; Hines, Murray E.; Frazier, Kendal S.



The ecology of host immune responses to chronic avian haemosporidian infection.  


Host responses to parasitism in the wild are often studied in the context of single host-parasite systems, which provide little insight into the ecological dynamics of host-parasite interactions within a community. Here we characterized immune system responses to mostly low-intensity, chronic infection by haemosporidian parasites in a sample of 424 individuals of 22 avian host species from the same local assemblage in the Missouri Ozarks. Two types of white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) were elevated in infected individuals across species, as was the acute-phase protein haptoglobin, which is associated with inflammatory immune responses. Linear discriminant analysis indicated that individuals infected by haemosporidians occupied a subset of the overall white blood cell multivariate space that was also occupied by uninfected individuals, suggesting that these latter individuals might have harbored other pathogens or that parasites more readily infect individuals with a specific white blood cell profile. DNA sequence-defined lineages of haemosporidian parasites were sparsely distributed across the assemblage of hosts. In one well-sampled host species, the red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus), heterophils were significantly elevated in individuals infected with one but not another of two common parasite lineages. Another well-sampled host, the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), exhibited no differences in immune response to different haemosporidian lineages. Our results indicate that while immune responses to infection may be generalized across host species, parasite-specific immune responses may also occur. PMID:25179282

Ellis, Vincenzo A; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E



The influence of fasting on blood and plasma composition of herring gulls (Larus argentatus).  


Populations of scavenging seabird species in the North Sea may fluctuate with an artificial food source: the availability of fishery waste. To document this impact, it is necessary to assess the birds' nutritional status during periods with decreased fishing activity. Reference data for this purpose was collected from 22 herring gulls investigated during laboratory fasting. After 6 d of food deprivation and body mass losses exceeding 15%, the first birds entered starvation phase 3. Comparatively, this is a rather weak fasting capacity. Plasma levels of total protein and thyroid hormones decreased and beta-hydroxybutyrate increased with fasting duration. The leucocyte proportions were shifted from lymphocytes to heterophils. After 3 d of refeeding, most of the fasting changes were reversed. Plasma enzyme activities increased and hematocrit, hemoglobin, and erythrocyte numbers decreased in both fasting and control birds, most likely as a result of experimental stress and repeated blood sampling. Glucose, cholesterol, monocytes, basophils, and glycosylated hemoglobin remained fairly constant. Triglycerides, free fatty acids, uric acid, and urea varied significantly, but changes were not as clearly a result of fasting. Therefore, total protein, beta-hydroxybutyrate, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and lymphocyte and heterophil percentages may be the most reliable indicators of the nutritional status and the condition of free-living herring gulls. PMID:10438680

Totzke, U; Fenske, M; Hüppop, O; Raabe, H; Schach, N



ALCAM/CD166 adhesive function is regulated by the tetraspanin CD9.  


ALCAM/CD166 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs) which mediates intercellular adhesion through either homophilic (ALCAM-ALCAM) or heterophilic (ALCAM-CD6) interactions. ALCAM-mediated adhesion is crucial in different physiological and pathological phenomena, with particular relevance in leukocyte extravasation, stabilization of the immunological synapse, T cell activation and proliferation and tumor growth and metastasis. Although the functional implications of ALCAM in these processes is well established, the mechanisms regulating its adhesive capacity remain obscure. Using confocal microscopy colocalization, and biochemical and functional analyses, we found that ALCAM directly associates with the tetraspanin CD9 on the leukocyte surface in protein complexes that also include the metalloproteinase ADAM17/TACE. The functional relevance of these interactions is evidenced by the CD9-induced upregulation of both homophilic and heterophilic ALCAM interactions, as reflected by increased ALCAM-mediated cell adhesion and T cell migration, activation and proliferation. The enhancement of ALCAM function induced by CD9 is mediated by a dual mechanism involving (1) augmented clustering of ALCAM molecules, and (2) upregulation of ALCAM surface expression due to inhibition of ADAM17 sheddase activity. PMID:23052204

Gilsanz, Alvaro; Sánchez-Martín, Lorena; Gutiérrez-López, María Dolores; Ovalle, Susana; Machado-Pineda, Yesenia; Reyes, Raquel; Swart, Guido W; Figdor, Carl G; Lafuente, Esther M; Cabańas, Carlos



Influence of stocking density on some behavioural, physiological and productivity traits of broilers.  


In order to investigate the influence of stocking density on broiler welfare, 17,616 Ross chickens were assigned to three different treatments: T1, T2 and T3 with a final stocking density of 27, 35 and 43 kg/m2, respectively (corresponding to an initial density of 12, 16 and 20 birds/m2). Animal welfare was assessed by measuring behavioural, physiological and productivity traits. Behavioural observations included the disturbance frequency of resting birds by other birds, the duration of the lying bouts and the standing/lying ratio. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratios were assessed from blood collected before departure to the slaughterhouse. Main productivity traits were the final live weight and carcass degradation due to foot and pad dermatitis and breast blisters. Most of the observed parameters were adversely affected by the highest density (P < 0.05). Between T1 and T2, some traits tended to demonstrate that a better degree of bird welfare existed in T1 (higher standing/lying postures ratio and final live weight, lower frequency of pododermatitis and hock lesions; P < 0.05) whereas other traits showed no differences (frequency of disturbances by other birds during resting, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio). In conclusion, a stocking density of 43 kg/m2 seemed to induce poor bird welfare whereas it was not clearly demonstrated that 27 kg/m2 was better than 35 kg/m2. PMID:9342823

Martrenchar, A; Morisse, J P; Huonnic, D; Cotte, J P



The effects of cooling large white turkey embryos on growth and white blood cell development.  


In each of two experiments, trays containing 15 developing turkey eggs were cooled for 1 h at 18 C on a specific day of incubation or left within the incubator (controls). Ten embryos from each treatment were bled on Day 23 of incubation, at which time all embryos were killed with CO2 gas, weighed, and sexed. Packed cell volumes and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were performed on all blood samples. A single, brief cooling episode during incubation did not significantly (P greater than .05) affect BW or hematocrit values in 23-day-old turkey embryos. Based on a differential classification of WBC in the blood smears of these turkey embryos, there were 82, 10, 8, less than 1, and less than 1% of heterophils, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and monocytes, respectively. Circulating heterophils, the most numerous WBC in turkey embryos, were significantly (P less than or equal to .05) reduced in all embryos cooled during the latter half of incubation. This effect was mirrored in the total WBC numbers counted. The effect of cooling on the other classes of turkey embryonic WBC, which represent about 20% of the circulating WBC, were more variable. PMID:1561212

Allsep, T; Wiggins, M; Birrenkott, G



Cryptosporidium sp.-associated enteritis without gastritis in rough green snakes (Opheodrys aestivus) and a common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).  


An epizootic of severe Cryptosporidium sp.-associated enteritis occurred in a group of 15 wild-caught juvenile rough green snakes (Opheodrys aestivus) at the Baltimore Zoo quarantine facility. All of the animals died with no premonitory signs. Histopathologic examination of the small and proximal large intestine of eight of the green snakes showed moderate to severe Cryptosporidium sp. infection and enteritis characterized by dense heterophilic and lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates throughout the lamina propria with epithelial necrosis. Cryptosporidium sp. was also found in feces of an adult common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) that was wild caught on zoo grounds and held in quarantine during the epizootic. After euthanasia, histologic examination of the garter snake showed a severe small intestinal Cryptosporidium sp. infection with only mild enteritis consisting of sparse heterophilic and lymphocytic infiltrates. There was no gross or histologic evidence of Cryptosporidium sp. gastritis in the nine snakes evaluated, and this is the first report of Cryptosporidium sp.-associated enteritis in snakes without gastric lesions. PMID:12790403

Brower, A I; Cranfield, M R



NTB-A Receptor Crystal Structure: Insights into Homophilic Interactions in the Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Receptor Family  

SciTech Connect

The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that regulate both innate and adaptive immunity. The ectodomains of most SLAM family members are composed of an N-terminal IgV domain and a C-terminal IgC2 domain. NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A) is a homophilic receptor that stimulates cytotoxicity in natural killer (NK) cells, regulates bactericidal activities in neutrophils, and potentiates T helper 2 (Th2) responses. The 3.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the complete NTB-A ectodomain revealed a rod-like monomer that self-associates to form a highly kinked dimer spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}100 {angstrom}. The NTB-A homophilic and CD2-CD58 heterophilic dimers show overall structural similarities but differ in detailed organization and physicochemical properties of their respective interfaces. The NTB-A structure suggests a mechanism responsible for binding specificity within the SLAM family and imposes physical constraints relevant to the colocalization of SLAM-family proteins with other signaling molecules in the immunological synapse.

Cao,E.; Ramagopal, U.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Yan, Q.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.



Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and ?-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.  


The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the ?-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone, and particularly in combination with phytase A, acted as a potent mediator of the response, whereas supplementary myo-inositol did not. PMID:23243248

Zy?a, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duli?ski, R; Starzy?ska-Janiszewska, A



Antinuclear antibodies in the sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

We studied the production of heterophile antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the sera of 50 patients, 20 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 30 with other head and neck cancers (laryngeal cancer and maxillary cancer), before and after radiation therapy. A higher incidence of ANAs was found in the sera of patients with NPC and ANA production in these patients was higher after radiation therapy. We therefore performed in vitro experiments to explore the mechanisms of ANA production in the serum of postirradiated NPC patients. X-ray-irradiated NPC-derived cells (NPC-KT) produced a large amount of Epstein-Barr virus (NPC EBV) compared with non-irradiated NPC-KT cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma EBV-infected lymphocytes produced high levels of ANAs. These data suggest that lymphocytes infected by EBV from NPC cells may produce ANAs in the sera of NPC patients.

Takimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Masuda, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshizaki, T.; Umeda, R. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))



The development of dermatitis (scabby-hip) on the hip and thigh of broiler chickens.  


Broiler chicks grown on litter or in cages at high bird density developed skin lesions on the thigh and hip. Changes in bird denisty markedly influenced lesion incidence (100% at 0.0185 sq m of floor space per bird). The dermatitis was characterized by crusted dry "scabs" at the base of feather follicles and between follicles. The lesions often coalesced to cover wide areas. The scab consisted of a mass of pyknotic nuclei and cellular debris, and when the epidermis was intact there was little inflammatory reaction in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue. The epidermis was destroyed in some lesions, with heterophils penetrating into the subcutaneous tissue. Colonies of gram-positive cocci were present in the lesions. PMID:646753

Harris, G C; Musbah, M; Beasley, J N; Nelson, G S



Haematology and serum biochemistry of golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological and serum biochemical values were estimated in blood samples collected from 21 apparently adult golden eagles\\u000a (Aquila chrysaetos) of both sexes. The mean values of red blood cells, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cells, heterophils, lymphocytes,\\u000a monocytes and eosinophils were 1.63?±?0.11?×?1012\\/l, 0.47?±?0.009 l\\/l, 91.73?±?1.52 g\\/l, 24.31?±?1.97?×?109\\/l, 4.40?±?0.22?×?109\\/l, 16.81?±?0.65?×?109\\/l, 0.99?±?0.19?×?109\\/l and 2.10?±?0.30?×?109\\/l, respectively. The leucocytes had 69.14%, 4.09%, 18.12% and 8.65%

S. Nazifi; A. Nabinejad; M. Sepehrimanesh; S. L. Poorbaghi; F. Farshneshani; M. Rahsepar



Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead.  


Plasma proteins, hematocrit, differential blood counts were examined and nutritional condition was estimated for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trapped (n = 66) during antumn migration, 1994-95 at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada), for the purposes of estimating prevalence of exposure to lead. Sex and age differences in hematocrit and plasma proteins were not observed; however, female eagles exhibited larger median absolute heterophil counts than males. Hematologic values were similar to those previously reported from eagles in captivity. Departures from expected hematological values from a healthy population of eagles were not observed in birds with elevated levels of blood lead (> or =0.200 microg/ml). Similarly, nutritional condition was not related to blood-lead concentrations. Therefore, it appears that lead exposure in this population was below a threshold required to indicate toxicological alteration in the hematological values and index of nutritional condition that we measured. PMID:11504222

Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R



Haematology of wild penguins (spenisciformes) in the Falkland Islands.  


Haematological values were determined in 50 Rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), 19 Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and 12 Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus) penguins from various sites on the Falkland Islands. Adult Magellanic penguins had significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb) levels, packed cell volumes (PCV) and red cell counts (RBC) than adults of the other two species. Hb, PCV and RBC values were also lower in juvenile birds than in adults and lower in post-moult than in pre-moult adults. Comparison of findings in wild Rockhopper and Gentoo penguins with values obtained from captive birds showed slight but significant differences in Hb and mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and in the relative numbers of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils present. PMID:18679879

Hawkey, C M; Horsley, D T; Keymer, I F



[Investigations on the influence of selected compulsory measures on clinically relevant haematological and blood-chemical parameters of racing pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.)].  


In the presented study the influence of stress and environmental factors on selected haematological and blood-chemical parameters in racing pigeons was examined. Blood was taken at three defined days and haematological as well as blood-chemical parameters of clinical relevance were determined. In comparison to reference values published for pigeons, the majority of the values obtained in this study were within physiological borders. The daily handling of the pigeons did not have any significant effect on the examined parameters. Also the heterophile/lymphocyte ratio did not show any changes characteristic of a stress reaction. In contrast, after change of the housing dies with pigeons originating normally from a flock, the first blood sampling should be performed after a 4 or 5-day lasting period of acclimatisation to the the individual housing conditions. PMID:17078530

Krautwald-Junghanns, M E; Bartels, T; Richter, A; Pees, M



The influence of stress from transport and handling on hematologic and clinical chemistry blood parameters of racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica).  


In the present study, the influence of stress from handling and transport on some frequently examined blood parameters of racing pigeons was evaluated. After 3 hr, there was a highly significant (P < 0.01) increase in the number as well as in the percentage of heterophils and decrease of lymphocytes. In clinical chemistries, increases of creatine kinase and glucose and a decrease of uric acid were observed. There was a mean decrease of the total white blood count of >15% that was less significant (P < 0.05). Changes in lactate dehydrogenase, basophils, and monocytes did not prove to be significant; eosinophils, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, and the packed cell volume were not influenced by stress. PMID:11922340

Scope, Alexandra; Filip, T; Gabler, Cornelia; Resch, Franziska



Leukocyte numbers during the humoral and cell-mediated immune response of Japanese quail after microwave irradiation in ovo.  


1. Coturnix coturnix japonica eggs were exposed to 2.45-GHz continuous wave microwave radiation at an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2 (SAR = 4 mW/g) during the first 12 days of embryogeny. After hatching, leukocyte differential changes were measured in response to an injection with Alectoris graeca chukar red blood cells (CRBC) and in response to a phytohemagglutinin (PHA) injection in irradiated and nonirradiated (sham) quail of both sexes. 2. Microwave irradiation did not affect anti-CRBC hemagglutinin titers, PHA-evoked dermal swelling or leukocyte numbers and percentages. 3. In both the irradiated and sham irradiated males, lymphocyte percentages decreased while heterophil percentages increased after CRBC or PHA injection. 4. In ovo irradiation with microwaves did not alter the time course of either a humoral immune response or a cell-mediated immune response in Japanese quail. PMID:2886278

Gildersleeve, R P; Thaxton, J P; Parkhurst, C R; Scott, T R; Galvin, M J; McRee, D I



[Isolated neuritis of the oculomotor nerve in infectious mononucleosis].  


A 19-year-old immune-competent patient developed right-sided headache and, subsequently, subacute diplopia. On clinical examination he had incomplete right oculomotor palsy. Cranial MRI showed pathologic contrast enhancement of the right oculomotor nerve at its exit point from the mesencephalon, and the CSF displayed slight pleocytosis. The following relevant differential diagnoses were not supported by additional examinations: neurosarcoidosis, Lyme neuroborreliosis, neurosyphilis, tuberculous meningitis, viral meningitis (HIV, VZV, CMV), CNS lymphoma, vasculitis associated with rheumatic disease, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, and diabetic neuropathy. However, on the basis of blood lymphocytosis, positive heterophile antibody test (Paul-Bunnell test), the presence of IgM antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen, and elevated transaminases, infectious mononucleosis was diagnosed. Isolated neuritis of the oculomotor nerve is a rare parainfectious manifestation of infectious mononucleosis. PMID:18058080

Erben, Y; Gonzalez Hofmann, C; Steinmetz, H; Ziemann, U



An experimental study on the effects of polymorphiasis in common eider ducklings.  


Eight common eider (Somateria mollissima) ducklings were experimentally infected from 1 June through 13 June, 1995 with acanthocephalans (Polymorphus minutus) by allowing the birds to feed on Gammarus spp. (Gammarus oceanicus, G. salinus, G. zaddachi, and G. lacustris) containing acanthocephalan cystacanths. Uninfected Gammarus spp. were fed to a control group of seven ducklings. No mortality of ducklings occurred during the experiment. However, the infected ducklings gained weight more slowly than the control birds. After the 2 wk study period, the mean serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, fructosamine and creatine kinase were lower in the infected group than in the controls. The mean (+/-SE) number of acanthocephalans in the intestine of the infected ducklings was 21 (+/-4). The parasites were attached to the mucosa of the posterior small intestine of the infected ducklings with a mixed inflammatory reaction consisting of heterophils and mononuclear lymphocytes surrounding the attachment sites. PMID:10479080

Hollmén, T; Lehtonen, J T; Sankari, S; Soveri, T; Hario, M



FLRT Structure: Balancing Repulsion and Cell Adhesion in Cortical and Vascular Development  

PubMed Central

Summary FLRTs are broadly expressed proteins with the unique property of acting as homophilic cell adhesion molecules and as heterophilic repulsive ligands of Unc5/Netrin receptors. How these functions direct cell behavior and the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. Here we use X-ray crystallography to reveal the distinct structural bases for FLRT-mediated cell adhesion and repulsion in neurons. We apply this knowledge to elucidate FLRT functions during cortical development. We show that FLRTs regulate both the radial migration of pyramidal neurons, as well as their tangential spread. Mechanistically, radial migration is controlled by repulsive FLRT2-Unc5D interactions, while spatial organization in the tangential axis involves adhesive FLRT-FLRT interactions. Further, we show that the fundamental mechanisms of FLRT adhesion and repulsion are conserved between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. Our results reveal FLRTs as powerful guidance factors with structurally encoded repulsive and adhesive surfaces. PMID:25374360

Seiradake, Elena; del Toro, Daniel; Nagel, Daniel; Cop, Florian; Hartl, Ricarda; Ruff, Tobias; Seyit-Bremer, Gonul; Harlos, Karl; Border, Ellen Clare; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Jones, E. Yvonne; Klein, Rudiger



Hematology and plasma biochemistry values for the giant garter snake (Thamnophis gigas) and valley garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi) in the Central Valley of California.  


Hematology and plasma biochemistry parameters are useful in the assessment and management of threatened and endangered species. Although reference ranges are readily available for many mammalian species, reference ranges for snakes are lacking for most species. We determined hematology and plasma biochemistry reference ranges for giant garter snakes (Thamnophis gigas) and valley garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi) living in four management areas in the Central Valley of California. White blood cell, heterophil, lymphocyte, and azurophil counts in giant garter snakes were approximately twice the values of valley garter snakes. Statistically significant differences in aspartate aminotransferase, globulin, and potassium between the two species did not appear clinically significant. No significant differences were found in the measured parameters between male and female giant garter snakes. Some differences were found among collection sites. These reference ranges provide baseline data for comparisons over time and between collection sites. PMID:22493106

Wack, Raymund F; Hansen, Eric; Small, Marilyn; Poppenga, Robert; Bunn, David; Johnson, Christine K



Developmental stages and localization of peroxidatic activity in the leucocytes of three teleost species (Cyprinus carpio L.; Tinca tinca L.; Salmo gairdneri Richardson).  


The ultrastructural localization of peroxidase (PO) in the leucocytes of three teleosts (Cyprinus carpio L., Tinca tinca L., Salmo gairdneri R.) has been investigated using the 3,3'-diaminobenzidine method. In the heterophilic granulocytes the granules show a species specific structure and are PO-positive at pH 7.6. They can be traced back to small granules arising near the Golgi apparatus (GA) in the promyelocyte. They coalesce to form larger granules and gradually change into the mature type. Myelocytes contain small unreactive granules, and these represent a second granule population. Eosinophils contain one PO-positive granule type (at pH 9), and these granules show a varying density during cell maturation. Basophils are present only in the Cyprinid species, and contain unreactive granules originating from precursors displaying a weakly positive reaction at pH 7.6. The active secretory organelles (RER, GA) are PO-negative, except for a weekly positive reaction in the flocculent matrix of the inner G-cisternae. In promonocytes and monocytes the granules are unreactive, but in the macrophages PO-positive staining occurs in a few small to medium sized granules, and in large vacuoles. A least some of these latter are apparently derived from phagolysosomes containing digested erythrocytes. Thrombocytes and lymphocytes are unreactive. The successive development of PO-positive and negative granule populations in the heterophils, and the PO-reactivity of eosinophils and basophils, show some similarities to the corresponding cells in higher vertebrates, but an analogous PO-positive ("azurophil") granule type in monocytes seems to be absent. PMID:7273125

Bielek, E



Changes in selected biochemical indices, leukocyte profile, and pterins as biomarkers of immune system activity due to antipecking measures in pheasants.  


The physiological changes in response to beak trimming and spectacle usage as antipecking measures were monitored in 10-mo-old common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Short-term analysis conducted before the beginning of the laying period showed immediate increases of plasma corticosterone (P < 0.05) and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001) concentrations and decrease of plasma triglycerides (P < 0.01) levels in response to both beak trimming and the application of spectacles. Beak-trimmed pheasants exhibited higher plasma corticosterone concentrations than pheasants fitted with spectacles (P < 0.001). To assess long-term changes, blood samples for biochemical (neopterin and biopterin determination) and hematological (leukocyte profile determination) examinations were taken from beak-trimmed, spectacles-fitted, and control pheasant hens housed in cages during their laying period. At the end of the laying period, hens fitted with spectacles exhibited lower concentrations of plasma neopterin (P = 0.005) and biopterin (P = 0.005) than beak-trimmed pheasant hens. Our findings suggest that the immune system was suppressed in spectacles-fitted pheasant hens as a result of chronic stress, as also indicated by the higher heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.001) compared with beak-trimmed hens. Our study found a negative correlation (r = -0.31, P = 0.019) between the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and plasma neopterin concentration. This study demonstrated that both beak trimming and use of spectacles are not only stressful procedures for pheasants, but long-term effects may also include a negative impact on the immune system. PMID:23776255

Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Pistekova, V; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J



Healing of cutaneous wounds in the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).  

PubMed Central

Healing of cutaneous wounds was studied in groups of common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) held at 13.5 degrees C, 21 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Linear unsutured incisions and circular excisional wounds were evaluated two, five, and ten days after surgery, while linear sutured and unsutured incisions and circular and square excisional wounds were studied three and six weeks after wound production. The sequence of events during healing was the same for all experimental situations. The epithelial margins of the wounds moved freely over exposed epaxial muscle until an exudate of fibrin and inflammatory cells caused adhesion. Heterophils and macrophages were present two days after wounding. Heterophils were present throughout the wound while macrophages were concentrated in areas containing fibrin and proteinaceous exudate. Fibroblasts moved laterally into the wound from the adjacent dermis producing a flat dermal scar oriented parallel to the wound surface. Epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia occurred in a zone extending up to 1.5 mm from the margin of the wound. A tongue of flattened epithelial cells extended across the wound surface, mingling with the superficial crust and migrating over eosinophilic fibrillar material. Maturation of the new epithelium, indicated by formation of a distinct basal layer, rounding of superficial cells and keratin production, began at the wound margins before the epithelial spurs linked. The epithelium over healed wounds appeared normal, but the dermis did not reorganize to form scales. Reptilian and mammalian healing differ in the character of the inflammatory reaction, the pattern of fibroplasia, and the interaction between epithelial and dermal repair. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:3349388

Smith, D A; Barker, I K



Associations of Forest Type, Parasitism and Body Condition of Two European Passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla  

PubMed Central

Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs. PMID:24339923

Ludtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth KV.; Schaefer, H. Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C.



Response to dietary supplementation of l-glutamine and l-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.  


A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, ?-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density. PMID:25143595

Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J



Effect of feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 and administration of exogenous corticosterone on Japanese quail biochemical and immunological parameters.  


Stress is the loss of homeostasis by external forces or stressors. Manipulation, transport, contamination, and other procedures involved in production could be considered stressors. Contamination is a problem commonly faced by producers in the poultry industry. Aflatoxicosis is one of the most common infections resulting from feed contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. This study evaluated the potential effects of the combined administration of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and corticosterone on biochemical (concentration of globulins, proteins, and albumin) and immunological (inflammatory response and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio) parameters of Japanese quail. Potential sex effects on those parameters were also considered. The provision of corticosterone in drinking water is a method used for mimicking the effects of chronic stress in avian species. At 35 d of age, 24 mixed-sex groups of 4 animals (2 males and 2 females) were housed in cages and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: plain drinking water and laying diet, corticosterone administration in drinking water, feed contamination with AFB(1) (100 ?g/kg of feed), or corticosterone plus AFB(1) administration. There were 6 cages per treatment. No significant effect of sex in any of the parameters analyzed was detected. Hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoglobulinemia were observed in animals treated with corticosterone or contaminated feed. These responses were exacerbated when the factors were combined. The immunodepressive effect of corticosterone administration was confirmed, and a higher effect was noticed when combined with the aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contamination affected birds' physiology similar to a chronic stressor stimulation because it elevates the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. This study suggests that the effects of the AFB(1) contamination are further increased when overlapped with a chronic stressful stimulation and emphasizes the importance of controlling potential stressor combinations during animal rearing to preserve not only the animal's health status but also their welfare. PMID:22184427

Nazar, F N; Magnoli, A P; Dalcero, A M; Marin, R H



Diseases and causes of mortality among sea turtles stranded in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998-2001).  


This paper lists the pathological findings and causes of mortality of 93 sea turtles (88 Caretta caretta, 3 Chelonia mydas, and 2 Dermochelys coriacea) stranded on the coasts of the Canary Islands between January 1998 and December 2001. Of these, 25 (26.88%) had died of spontaneous diseases including different types of pneumonia, hepatitis, meningitis, septicemic processes and neoplasm. However, 65 turtles (69.89%) had died from lesions associated with human activities such as boat-strike injuries (23.66%), entanglement in derelict fishing nets (24.73%), ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines (19.35%), and crude oil ingestion (2.15%). Traumatic ulcerative skin lesions were the most common gross lesions, occurring in 39.78% of turtles examined, and being associated with Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio alginolyticus and Staphylococcus spp. infections. Pulmonary edema (15.05%), granulomatous pneumonia (12.90%) and exudative bronchopneumonia (7.53%) were the most frequently detected respiratory lesions. Different histological types of nephritis included chronic interstitial nephritis, granulomatous nephritis and perinephric abscesses, affecting 13 turtles (13.98%). Ulcerative and fibrinous esophagitis and traumatic esophageal perforation were the most frequently observed lesions in the esophagus, being associated in the majority of the cases with ingestion of fishing hooks. Larval nematodes of the Anisakidae family caused gastritis in 15 turtles (16.13%). Necrotizing and/or granulomatous hepatitis were the lesions most commonly observed in the liver (27.95%). Traumatic lesions included necrotizing myositis (10.75%) mainly caused by entanglement in fishing nets or boat-strikes, and amputation of 1 or 2 flippers (25.81%) by netting. Traumatic erosions and/or fractures of the carapace/plastron mainly caused by boat-strikes were also observed (26.88%). Eye lesions included heterophilic keratoconjunctivitis, ulcerative keratitis and heterophilic scleritis, affecting 7 turtles (7.53%). PMID:15759796

Orós, J; Torrent, A; Calabuig, P; Déniz, S



Effects of acute lead ingestion and diet on antibody and T-cell-mediated immunity in Japanese quail.  


This study investigated the interacting effects of acute lead exposure and different diets on antibody and T-cell-mediated immunity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix). Nine quail (nine week old males) were assigned randomly to each group in a factorial experiment with four treatments and two diets. The treatments were 1) a positive control group fed 20 micrograms/g corticosterone, 2) a negative control group given no lead or corticosterone, 3) a low-lead group, and 4) a high-lead group. The low and high lead groups received 100 and 400 micrograms/ml lead as lead acetate in drinking water for 7 d. The two diets were poultry feed and ground corn. Control quail fed corn lost 13-14% of initial body mass, but lead-dosed quail fed corn lost 23-24%. All quail fed poultry feed gained body mass. On the corn diet, three high-lead and one low-lead quail died of lead poisoning. Corn increased the percentage of heterophils in white blood cells (P = 0.0018) and decreased lymphocytes (P = 0.019) and monocytes (P = 0.0073). There was marginal evidence that lead increased the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in corn-fed quail (P = 0.064). Corn decreased the T-cell-mediated response to an intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin (P = 0.0001). Corticosterone suppressed this response more than lead. In corn-fed quail, lead suppressed the primary total antibody response to immunization with chukar partridge (Alectoris graeca) erythrocytes (P < 0.05). Lead reduced the secondary total antibody and IgG responses in the low lead, corn group (P < 0.05). Lead suppressed antibody-mediated immunity only at dosages that also caused clinical lead poisoning. PMID:7710288

Grasman, K A; Scanlon, P F



Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.  


An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density. Experimental treatments consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of prebiotic (with or without prebiotic), 2 levels of dietary CP [NRC-recommended or low CP level (85% of NRC-recommended level)], and 2 levels of stocking density (10 birds/m(2) as the normal density or 16 birds/m(2) as the high density), for a total of 8 treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates (cages). Birds were reared in 3-tiered battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural tropical conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all treatment groups. Starter and finisher diets in mash form were fed from 1 to 21 d and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively. Supplementation with a prebiotic had no significant effect on performance, immunity, and stress indicators (blood glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio). Protein level significantly influenced broiler performance but did not affect immunity or stress indicators (except for cholesterol level). The normal stocking density resulted in better FCR and also higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease compared with the high stocking density. However, density had no significant effect on blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Significant interactions between protein level and stocking density were observed for BW gain and final BW. The results indicated that, under the conditions of this experiment, dietary addition of a prebiotic had no significant effect on the performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers. PMID:22252353

Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Kamyab, A



Effects of zebra mussels, obtained from Lake Erie and St Lawrence River, as a food source on immune system of lesser scaup  

SciTech Connect

A feeding study was undertaken to assess the influence of a zebra mussel diet from Lake Erie and the St.Lawrence river on the immune system of lesser scaup. The Great lakes and the St.Lawrence river are known to be among the most contaminated waters found in the country. Analytical studies have shown that zebra mussels are contaminated by organochlorines and other pollutants. The occurrence of these toxicants in the food diet of lesser scaup can cause serious injuries. The immune system, in its capacity to destroy foreign particles and protect the host against diseases, can serve as a useful sentinel of the health status of these environmentally stressed organisms. Immune parameters of lesser scaup fed with zebra mussels from Lake Erie or the St. Lawrence river were evaluated. The duration of the feeding trial was nine weeks. Phagocytic activity and oxidative bursts of heterophils were evaluated by flow cytometry. Intracellular thiol levels of lymphocytes and heterophils were also determined by flow cytometry. The results showed a dimunition of phagocytic activity and bactericidal potential after 6 weeks of the zebra mussel diet compared to the control. These results may be associated with pathology problems encountered in treated groups at the end of the diet. Birds from the St. Lawrence River group (40%) and the Lake Erie group (40%) demonstrated variable degrees of pododermatitis compared to the control group. The intracellular level of thiol was consistently found to be elevated in lymphocytes and heterophyls from birds feeding with on the St. Lawrence River. In conclusion, flow cytometry assays like phagocytosis, oxidative burst and thiol staining can serve as biomarkers of the immune status of birds and can give important information for evaluating the health of birds exposed to environmental contamination.

Flipo, D.; Fournier, M. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Beaulieu, C.; Tessier, C. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)



Immune function and organochlorine pollutants in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls.  


Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000 and 2001 we injected two novel nonpathogenic antigens (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) into the pectoral muscle of gulls and measured the primary antibody responses. We then related these measurements to the blood concentrations of three pesticides (hexachlorobenzene [HCB], oxychlordane, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) and seven different polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB 101, 99, 118, 153, 138, 180, and 170). There were significant or near significant positive relationships (0.1 > p > 0.001) between most persistent OCs and the levels of heterophils in the blood for both sexes in 1997 and for male gulls in 2001. Similarly, levels of all persistent OCs and lymphocytes were positively related (0.1 > p > 0.001) in both sexes in 1997. This suggests that OCs are causing alterations to immune systems, which may decrease their efficiency and make the birds more susceptible to parasites and diseases. In female gulls, the antibody response to the diphtheria toxoid was significant and negative for HCB (p < 0.01) and weaker, but significant, for oxychlordane (p < 0.05), suggesting that OCs were causing an impairment of the humoral immunity. Various OCs have been linked to negative effects in our study population, including decreased survival and reproduction, and this study suggests that such compounds also affect immune status and function. PMID:15499504

Bustnes, J O; Hanssen, S A; Folstad, I; Erikstad, K E; Hasselquist, D; Skaare, J U



Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 ?g/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 ?g/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 ?g/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 ?g/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 ?g/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.



The PHA Test as an Indicator of Phagocytic Activity in a Passerine Bird  

PubMed Central

Several techniques in ecological immunology have been used to assess bird immunocompetence thus providing useful information to understand the contribution of the immunological system in life-history decisions. The phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-skin test has been the most widely employed technique being interpreted as the sole result of T lymphocytes proliferation and hence used to evaluate acquired immunological capacity. However, the presence of high numbers of phagocytic cells in the swelling point has cast some doubt about such an assumption. To address this issue, we collected blood from 14 days-old nestlings of spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor), administered subcutaneous PHA immediately after and then measured the swelling response 24 hours later. Differential counts of white blood cells suggested that an intense development of acquired immunological defences was taking place. The phagocytic activity of both heterophiles and monocytes was also very intense as it was the swelling response. Moreover, our results show, for the first time in birds, a positive relationship between the phagocytic activity of both kinds of cells and the swelling response. This broadens the significance of the PHA test from reflecting T lymphocytes proliferation -as previously proposed but still undetermined in vivo- to evaluate phagocytosis as well. In other words, our data suggest that the PHA swelling response may not be considered as the only consequence of processes of specific and induced immunity –T lymphocytes proliferation- but also of constitutive and nonspecific immunity –heterophiles and monocytes phagocytosis. We propose the extensive use of PHA-skin test as an optimal technique to assess immunocompetence. PMID:24391896

Salaberria, Concepcion; Muriel, Jaime; de Luna, Maria; Gil, Diego; Puerta, Marisa



Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.  


When wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. The suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. We examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) in wild birds (house finches Haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring infection (Mycoplasma gallisepticum) to determine whether infection alters the typical immune response to stress. Birds were captured and bled within 3 min (baseline sample) and then held in paper bags for 2 h and bled again (stress sample). From blood smears made at both time points, we obtained estimates of total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative numbers of each cell. We also measured BKA of plasma at both time points. In uninfected birds (n = 26), total WBC count decreased by 30% over time, while in infected birds (n = 9), it decreased by 6%. Relative numbers of heterophils did not change over time in uninfected birds but increased in infected birds. Combined with a reduction in lymphocyte numbers, this led to a threefold increase in heterophil-lymphocyte values in infected birds after the stressor, compared to a twofold increase in uninfected birds. There was a nonsignificant tendency for BKA to decline with stress in uninfected birds but not in diseased birds. Collectively, these results suggest that infections can buffer the negative effects of acute stress on innate immunity. PMID:24642543

Fratto, Melanie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Davis, Andrew K



Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.



Effects of perch access and age on physiological measures of stress in caged White Leghorn pullets.  


The neuroendocrine system controls animals' adaptability to their environments by releasing psychotropic compounds such as catecholamines [epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA)], corticosterone (CORT), and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT). Changes of these neuroendocrine compounds have been used as biomarkers of animals' stress responses associated with their well-being. Assuming that pullets, like laying hens, are highly motivated to perch, we hypothesize that pullets with access to perches will experience less stress than pullets that never have access to perches. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of perch access and age on physiological measurements of stress in White Leghorn pullets housed in conventional cages. Hatchlings (n = 1,064) were randomly assigned to 28 cages. Two parallel metal round perches were installed in each of 14 cages assigned the perch treatment, whereas control cages were without perches. Two birds per cage were bled at wk 4, 6, and 12 wk of age. Plasma levels of CORT, DA, EP, and NE, blood concentrations of 5-HT and Trp, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were measured. Data were analyzed using a 2-way ANOVA. The perch treatment or its interaction with age did not affect any parameter measured in the study. The increase in the concentrations of circulating EP, NE, 5-HT (numerical increase at 4 wk), and Trp in 4- and 6-wk-old pullets compared with 12-wk-old pullets is unclear, but may have been due to acute handling stress at younger ages. In contrast, concentrations of DA were less at 4 wk compared with levels at 6 and 12 wk of age. Plasma CORT levels and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, indicators of long-term stress, were unaffected by age (P = 0.07 and 0.49, respectively). These results indicated that age, but not perch access, affects neuroendocrine homeostasis in White Leghorn pullets. Pullets that were never exposed to perches showed no evidence of eliciting a stress response. PMID:24135587

Yan, F F; Hester, P Y; Enneking, S A; Cheng, H W



Changes in haematological profile of common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) induced by transit to pheasantry.  


The aim of this study was to assess haematological changes in hand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) transported from intensive housing facilities to a pheasantry. Selected haematological parameters were monitored in a group of 100 pheasants (50 males and 50 females) aged of 9 weeks that were transported for 4 hours by a covered lorry in crates, with a total body weight of 12 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C12 - floor space: 290 cm2/kg) and with a total body weight of 18 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C18 - floor space: 195 cm2/kg). Blood samples were taken from 10 randomly selected males and 10 females before transport (CON group) and 20 hours after transport (C12 and C18 groups). Examinations consisted in determining the total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin levels and differential leukocyte counts, whereby the proportions of heterophil, basophil and eosinophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of the total leukocytes were computed. The changes in the parameters of red blood cell count were manifested by an increase (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin level, MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) values and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the total erythrocyte count and haematocrit level in both C12 and C18 pheasants, when compared with the control group of non-transported pheasants. C18 pheasants exhibited also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MCV (mean cell value) value. When analyzing differential leukocyte counts, C18 pheasants showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in heterophil counts and H/L ratio, whereas values in C12 pheasants did not differ from the non-transported control group. Individual counts of lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.05) in C12 pheasants, whereas basophil counts were increased (P < 0.01) in both C12 and C18 pheasants. Total leukocyte count was decreased (P < 0.01) in C12 and C18 pheasants. In conclusion, the specific requirements of pheasants, as primarily wild animals, for the density in crates should be respected during transportation and they should be transported at lower densities than other poultry species, at least 290 cm2/kg live weight should be provided. PMID:17078531

Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Vecerek, V; Pistekova, V; Chloupek, P; Suchy, P



Bilateral acute pyogenic conjunctivitis with iritis induced by unilateral topical application of bacterial peptidoglycan muramyl dipeptide in adult rabbits.  


The factors responsible for the conjunctivitis and iritis associated with acute ocular infection and post enteric inflammatory disease are not fully known. The pro-inflammatory activity of unilateral topical application of muramyl dipeptide (MDP; the smallest bio-active Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component) was investigated in adult rabbits. The resultant bilateral conjunctivitis/iritis and pyogenic responses were characterized. Bilateral symptoms were graded by slit lamp examinations; tear fluid, Schirmer tests (tear production), blood and aqueous humor (AH) samples were obtained from MDP-treated and untreated rabbits. MDP concentration, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity (GGT; key enzyme in glutathione recapture, xenobiotic detoxification, eicosanoid synthesis and neutrophil function), protein concentration, and tear cell density, cytology, and immunofluorescent antibody reactivity to GGT and calreticulin (CRT; MDP-binding protein) were determined. MDP was cleared from ipsilateral tears and serum by 6 h, but was undetected in mock-treated contralateral tears. Bilateral signs of acute transient pyogenic conjunctivitis, characterized by tearing, lid edema, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis and leukocytic infiltrate with iritis (erythema and aqueous flare) were detected. Milder symptoms occurred in the mock-treated contralateral eyes. Bilateral symptoms, tear production, tear protein, GGT activity, and mucopurulent discharge (containing up to 2.5-5.0 × 10(6) cells/mL) were elevated 4-8 h post MDP and resolved to near pre-treatment levels by 24 h. Tear GGT activity and protein levels were higher in MDP-treated and mock-treated contralateral eyes than in eyes of untreated adult rabbits (p's < 0.001). Elevated tear GGT activity was associated with histopathology and increased vascular and epithelial permeability to serum protein, GGT-positive epithelia cells, macrophages and heterophils. Repeat MDP applications induced recurrent induction and resolution patterns of bilateral conjunctivitis/iritis and tear GGT activity, but ipsilateral GGT responses were lower. The results suggest unilateral topical MDP application to adult rabbit eyes induces a bilateral acute pyogenic conjunctivitis/iritis (PCI) characterized by increased vascular and epithelial permeability similar to acute bacterial conjunctivitis in man. The detection of CRT/GGT positive heterophils in tears suggests efferocytosis (phagocytosis of dead/dying cells). Tear GGT activity may be a useful means to quantify MDP-induced toxicity and extraocular inflammation. PMID:24135297

Langford, Marlyn P; Foreman, Bridgett D; Srur, Lana; Ganley, James P; Redens, Thomas B



Ultrastructural immunolocalization of beta-defensin-27 in granulocytes of the dermis and wound epidermis of lizard suggests they contribute to the anti-microbial skin barrier  

PubMed Central

The high resistance to infections in lizard wounds suggests that these reptiles possess effective antimicrobial peptides in their tissues. The present immunocytochemical study shows the cellular localization of beta-defensin 27 in tail tissues and in the blood, a defensin previously identified in the lizard Anolis carolinensis through biomolecular methods. Beta-defensin-27 immunoreactivity is only observed in some large granules mainly contained in heterophilic granulocytes that are sparse within the dermis of the skin or in the isolated blood. This peptide is absent in other cell types of the skin, in keratinocytes and in subdermal muscle tissue of the tail in normal conditions. Pre-corneous keratinocytes of the regenerating tail epidermis are unlabeled or show a weak labeling for the peptide only in sparse cytoplasmic areas or in the extracellular spaces among corneocytes of the wound and regenerating epidermis. The study suggests that beta-defensin 27 is normally stored in granulocytes present in the blood or in connective tissues while in the epidermis keratinocytes do not show the presence of this peptide unless these cells are stimulated from injury to produce and likely release beta-defensins. PMID:24386597



State-dependent physiological maintenance in a long-lived ectotherm, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta).  


Energy allocation among somatic maintenance, reproduction and growth varies not only among species, but among individuals according to states such as age, sex and season. Little research has been conducted on the somatic (physiological) maintenance of long-lived organisms, particularly ectotherms such as reptiles. In this study, we examined sex differences and age- and season-related variation in immune function and DNA repair efficiency in a long-lived reptile, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). Immune components tended to be depressed during hibernation, in winter, compared with autumn or spring. Increased heterophil count during hibernation provided the only support for winter immunoenhancement. In juvenile and adult turtles, we found little evidence for senescence in physiological maintenance, consistent with predictions for long-lived organisms. Among immune components, swelling in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and control injection increased with age, whereas basophil count decreased with age. Hatchling turtles had reduced basophil counts and natural antibodies, indicative of an immature immune system, but demonstrated higher DNA repair efficiency than older turtles. Reproductively mature turtles had reduced lymphocytes compared with juvenile turtles in the spring, presumably driven by a trade-off between maintenance and reproduction. Sex had little influence on physiological maintenance. These results suggest that components of physiological maintenance are modulated differentially according to individual state and highlight the need for more research on the multiple components of physiological maintenance in animals of variable states. PMID:21147972

Schwanz, Lisa; Warner, Daniel A; McGaugh, Suzanne; Di Terlizzi, Roberta; Bronikowski, Anne




PubMed Central

Scholarly tailgating and developmental relationships can soar professional identity, advance one’s scholarly career and foster cultural diversity in healthcare. This paper provides the definition and basis of scholarly tailgating for scholars who wish to propel their careers and help enable diverse cultural approaches. Scholarly tailgating is for those who wish to succeed and capitalize on the culturally diverse expertise and reciprocal network relationships from others in their web of influence. The concept of scholarly tailgating explains the use of homophilic and diverse, multidisciplinary network relationships to foster an intellectual community in healthcare in general and to benefit healthcare consumers and all being served. Scholars can benefit from standing on the shoulders of giants and allowing the aerodynamic wind to propel them to soaring career heights. Prudent scholars, apart from utilizing homophilic relationships and balancing these relationships with diverse heterophilic relationships, are able to lead in the professional academy, and become innovators who practice with cultural relevance. Multi-ethnic, diverse scholars working collaboratively can assist in igniting conversation and actions that reduce disparities, which are indigenous to those who are most vulnerable. Purposeful strategic planning and development of diverse networks that support scholarly advancement can best achieve these career accomplishments. PMID:23589967

Adegbola, Maxine



Clinical haematology of the great bustard (Otis tarda).  


The haematological parameters of healthy great bustards (Otis tarda L.) have been determined. The values obtained were red cell count (3.0 x 10(12) +/- 0.2 x 10(12/)1), white cell count (33.0 x 10(9) +/- 2.6 x 10(9)/1), haematocrit value (0.51 +/- 0.01 1/1), haemoglobin (13.0 +/- 0.3 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (178.7 +/- 12.5 fl), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (25.0 +/- 0.6 g/dl), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (42.5 +/- 3.2 pg), differential white cell count: heterophils (22.5 x 10(9) +/- 0.7 x 10(9)/1), lymphocytes (6.0 x 10(9)+/-0.7 x 10(9)/1), eosinophils (2.7 x 10(9) +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/1) and monocytes (1.8 x 10(9)+/-0.2 x 10(9)/1). PMID:18680064

Jimenez, A; Barrera, R; Sanchez, J; Cuenca, R; Rodriguez, J; Andres, S; Mane, M C



Song repertoire size varies with HVC volume and is indicative of male quality in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).  


Complex birdsong is a classic example of a sexually selected ornamental trait. In many species, females prefer males with large song repertoires, possibly because repertoire size is limited by the size of song control nuclei which reflect developmental success. We investigated whether song repertoire size was indicative of brain area and male quality in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) by determining if repertoire size was related to the volume of song control nucleus HVC, as well as several morphological, immunological and genetic indices of quality. We found that males with large repertoires had larger HVCs and were in better body condition. They also had lower heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, indicating less physiological stress and a robust immune system as measured by the number of lymphocytes per red blood cell. Song repertoire size also tended to increase with neutral-locus genetic diversity, as assessed by mean d2, but was not related to internal relatedness. Our results suggest several mechanisms that might explain the finding of a recent study that song sparrows with large song repertoires have higher lifetime fitness. PMID:17567560

Pfaff, Jeremy A; Zanette, Liana; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A



Riemerella anatipestifer outbreaks in commercial goose flocks and identification of isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.  


Several outbreaks of Riemerella anatipestifer in commercial geese occurred within a short time period. A serious disease was recognized in the affected birds, mainly characterized by depression and severe neurologic disturbances. The morbidity ranged from 20 to 30% and the mortality from 5 to 20%. Generally, the clinical signs started at the age of 8 to 10 days. Post-mortem examination revealed fibrinous pericarditis, perihepatitis and airsacculitis in all birds. Some of the birds also had synovitis of the tibio-tarsal joints and oedematous swelling of the subcutaneous tissues around these joints and metatarsus. Histology revealed a characteristic severe inflammation with heterophilic granulocytes in different organs. Bacteriological investigation was made from several organs and R. anatipestifer could be isolated from all birds investigated. The identification of these clinical isolates, done for the first time by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, confirmed the aetiology. Sequence analysis showed 100% similarity between the clinical isolates, indicating a common source of infection. PMID:23581442

Hess, C; Enichlmayr, H; Jandreski-Cvetkovic, D; Liebhart, D; Bilic, I; Hess, M



Dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet to heat-stressed broiler chickens and its effect on heat shock protein 70 expression, blood parameters and body temperature.  


The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. PMID:22533311

Hasheimi, S R; Zulkifli, I; Somchit, M N; Zunita, Z; Loh, T C; Soleimani, A F; Tang, S C



Experimental production of ascites in broiler chickens using infectious bronchitis virus and Escherichia coli.  


Common commercial strain male broilers were intratracheally inoculated with 0.3 ml of fluid containing 10(3.7) embryo infective doses of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) at 14 days of age and 7.5 x 10(6) colony-forming units of Escherichia coli at 18 days of age. Ascites was detected in 15 out of 100 infected birds, which was significantly higher than in a control group of 100 mock-infected birds (P < 0.01). Some parabronchi were blocked by copious exudate containing heterophils and fibrin in the infected birds at 22 days of age although these findings were not seen in the infected birds at 35 days of age or in birds with ascites. The erythrocyte packed cell volume and right ventricle/total ventricle (RV/TV) ratio of birds with ascites were higher than in birds without ascites. The RV/TV weight ratio for the infected group at the age of 35 days was higher than that of the control group. No IBV or E. coli were recovered from the ascitic birds. These findings suggest that these infectious agents induce ascites in the broilers, and then disappear until the birds suffer from ascites. PMID:9087339

Tottori, J; Yamaguchi, R; Murakawa, Y; Sato, M; Uchida, K; Tateyama, S



In vivo studies of Gallibacterium anatis infection in chickens.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathology in normal or immunosuppressed chickens followed intravenous or intraperitoneal inoculation with a well-characterized strain of Gallibacterium anatis. Two groups of 30 15-week-old commercial brown laying chickens were used, having been screened and found negative for Gallibacterium organisms. One group was treated with 5-fluorouracil to promote heterophil depletion, while the other was saline treated. Ten days later 15 chickens from each group were inoculated either intravenously or intraperitoneally with 3.3 x 10(7) colony-forming units of G. anatis strain 12656-12. Subsets of chickens were sacrificed at 3, 12 or 24 h post-infection and examined for lesions. Livers and spleens were examined by culture and by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Intravenously infected birds showed severe septicaemic lesions in both the normal and immunosuppressed birds. Mortality was recorded only in the latter, with an overall rate of 73%. The intraperitoneally infected chickens of normal immune status showed various degrees of localized purulent peritonitis at the inoculation site, but in the immunosuppressed birds the entire peritoneum tended to be involved along with the abdominal organs. This was similar to previous descriptions of natural infections and may represent a useful infection model for detailed analysis of Gallibacterium virulence factors and pathogenesis. PMID:15276980

Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Christensen, Jens Peter; Bisgaard, Magne



Chickens treated with a nitric oxide inhibitor became more resistant to Plasmodium gallinaceum infection due to reduced anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Malaria is a serious infectious disease caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus that affect different vertebrate hosts. Severe malaria leads to host death and involves different pathophysiological phenomena such as anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule in this disease, but little is known about its role in avian malaria models. Plasmodium gallinaceum- infected chickens were treated with aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, to observe the role of NO in the pathogenesis of this avian model. AG increased the survival of chickens, but also induced higher parasitemia. Treated chickens demonstrated reduced anemia and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, erythrocytes at different stages of maturation, heterophils, monocytes and thrombocytes were infected by Plasmodium gallinaceum and animals presented a generalized leucopenia. Activated leukocytes and thrombocytes with elongated double nuclei were observed in chickens with higher parasitemia; however, eosinophils were not involved in the infection. AG reduced levels of hemozoin in the spleen and liver, indicating lower inflammation. Taken together, the results suggest that AG reduced anemia, thrombocytopenia and inflammation, explaining the greater survival rate of the treated chickens. PMID:23398940



Low temperatures reduce skin healing in the Jacar? do Pantanal (Caiman yacare, Daudin 1802)  

PubMed Central

Summary Studies of skin wound healing in crocodilians are necessary given the frequent occurrence of cannibalism in intensive farming systems. Air temperature affects tissue recovery because crocodilians are ectothermic. Therefore, the kinetics of skin wound healing in Caiman yacare were examined at temperatures of 33°C and 23°C. Sixteen caiman were selected and divided into two groups of eight maintained at 23°C or 33°C. The studied individuals' scars were photographed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days of the experimental conditions, and samples were collected for histological processing after 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Macroscopically, the blood clot (heterophilic granuloma) noticeably remained in place covering the wound longer for the caiman kept at 23°C. Microscopically, the temperature of 23°C slowed epidermal migration and skin repair. Comparatively, new blood vessels, labeled using von Willebrand factor (vWF) antibody staining, were more frequently found in the scars of the 33°C group. The collagen fibers in the dermis were denser in the 33°C treatment. Considering the delayed healing at 23°C, producers are recommended to keep wounded animals at 33°C, especially when tanks are cold, to enable rapid wound closure and better repair of collagen fibers because such lesions tend to compromise the use of their skin as leather. PMID:24244853

Pressinotti, Leandro Nogueira; Borges, Ricardo Moraes; Alves De Lima, Angela Paula; Aleixo, Victor Manuel; Iunes, Renata Stecca; Borges, Joao Carlos Shimada; Cogliati, Bruno; Cunha Da Silva, Jose Roberto Machado



Measurement of cell-monolayer adhesion in cells transfected with N-CAM cDNAs.  


To measure the adhesion of cells expressing the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM, mouse Lmtk- fibroblast cells were transfected by a calcium phosphate precipitation technique with eucaryotic expression vectors encoding N-CAM polypeptides. We obtained cell lines expressing the 140-kDa transmembrane isoform of N-CAM at high levels by several rounds of selection by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and compared the adhesion of these cells to that of untransfected cells using a centrifugal removal assay that measures the centrifugal force required to remove radiolabeled probe cells from a cell monolayer. The adhesion of cells prepared from embryonic chicken neural retinas also was examined. Retinal probe cells remained associated with a retinal cell monolayer with an adhesive force of approximately 5 x 10(-6) dyn/cell, and this force was not reduced by treatment with specific anti-N-CAM antibody fragments. Transfected and untransfected mouse L cells each were dislodged from transfected cell monolayers with a removal force of 5 x 10(-5) dyn/cell and thus did not differ in their adhesion. These results support the hypothesis that N-CAM-mediated homophilic adhesion in retinal cells and transfected fibroblasts is relatively weak and that the major adhesive interaction involved in N-CAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion is heterophilic. PMID:8440330

Woo, M K; Murray, B A



Mutational analysis of the neurexin/neuroligin complex reveals essential and regulatory components  

PubMed Central

Neurexins are cell-surface molecules that bind neuroligins to form a heterophilic, Ca2+-dependent complex at central synapses. This transsynaptic complex is required for efficient neurotransmission and is involved in the formation of synaptic contacts. In addition, both molecules have been identified as candidate genes for autism. Here we performed mutagenesis experiments to probe for essential components of the neurexin/neuroligin binding interface at the single-amino acid level. We found that in neurexins the contact area is sharply delineated and consists of hydrophobic residues of the LNS domain that surround a Ca2+ binding pocket. Point mutations that changed electrostatic and shape properties leave Ca2+ coordination intact but completely inhibit neuroligin binding, whereas alternative splicing in ?- and ?-neurexins and in neuroligins has a weaker effect on complex formation. In neuroligins, the contact area appears less distinct because exchange of a more distant aspartate completely abolished binding to neurexin but many mutations of predicted interface residues had no strong effect on binding. Together with calculations of energy terms for presumed interface hot spots that complement and extend our mutagenesis and recent crystal structure data, this study presents a comprehensive structural basis for the complex formation of neurexins and neuroligins and their transsynaptic signaling between neurons. PMID:18812509

Reissner, Carsten; Klose, Martin; Fairless, Richard; Missler, Markus



rFN/Cad-11-Modified Collagen Type II Biomimetic Interface Promotes the Adhesion and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Properties of the cell-material interface are determining factors in the successful function of cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Currently, cell adhesion is commonly promoted through the use of polypeptides; however, due to their lack of complementary or modulatory domains, polypeptides must be modified to improve their ability to promote adhesion. In this study, we utilized the principle of matrix-based biomimetic modification and a recombinant protein, which spans fragments 7–10 of fibronectin module III (heterophilic motif?) and extracellular domains 1–2 of cadherin-11 (rFN/Cad-11) (homophilic motif?), to modify the interface of collagen type II (Col II) sponges. We showed that the designed material was able to stimulate cell proliferation and promote better chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro than both the FN modified surfaces and the negative control. Further, the Col II/rFN/Cad-11-MSCs composite stimulated cartilage formation in vivo; the chondrogenic effect of Col II alone was much less significant. These results suggested that the rFN/Cad-11-modified collagen type II biomimetic interface has dual biological functions of promoting adhesion and stimulating chondrogenic differentiation. This substance, thus, may serve as an ideal scaffold material for cartilage tissue engineering, enhancing repair of injured cartilage in vivo. PMID:23919505

Guo, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Zhengsheng; Kang, Fei; Yang, Bo; Kang, Xia; Wen, Can; Yan, Yanfei; Jiang, Bo; Fan, Yujiang



Afadin requirement for cytokine expressions in keratinocytes during chemically induced inflammation in mice.  


Afadin is a filamentous actin-binding protein and a mediator of nectin signaling. Nectins are Ig-like cell adhesion molecules, and the nectin family is composed of four members, nectin-1 to nectin-4. Nectins show homophilic and heterophilic interactions with other nectins or proteins on adjacent cells. Nectin signaling induces formation of cell-cell junctions and is required for the development of epithelial tissues, including skin. This study investigated the role of afadin in epithelial tissue development and established epithelium-specific afadin-deficient (CKO) mice. Although showing no obvious abnormality in the skin development and homeostasis, the mice showed the reduced neutrophil infiltration into the epidermis during chemical-induced inflammation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the expression levels of cytokines including Cxcl2, Il-1? and Tnf-? were reduced in CKO keratinocytes compared with control keratinocytes during TPA-induced inflammation. Primary-cultured skin keratinocytes from CKO mice also showed reduced expression of these cytokines and weak activation of Rap1 compared with those from control mice after the TPA treatment. These results suggested a remarkable function of afadin, which was able to enhance cytokine expression through Rap1 activation in keratinocytes during inflammation. PMID:25297509

Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Takanori; Takai, Yoshimi; Birchmeier, Walter; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo



Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).  


The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16. PMID:25115040

Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn



Acantholytic folliculitis and epidermitis associated with Staphylococcus hyicus in a line of white Leghorn laying chickens.  


Several mature Leghorn-type hens with the same genetic background experienced skin and feather problems in a breeder flock. There was almost-total feather loss on the head and neck, as well as thickened, scaly skin, and follicular ostia were plugged with keratin debris. Other individuals exhibited prominent subcutaneous nodules multifocally on the head. Histologic examination of the skin revealed a severe hyperplasia of follicular epithelium with hyperkeratosis and cystic dilation. Numerous clefts and vesicles were detected along the epidermis and follicular epithelium, some containing acantholytic keratinocytes. A mild heterophilic inflammation was associated with these lesions, and few gram-positive cocci were present in the keratin plugs. Bacterial culture of the skin yielded a variable amount of Staphylococcus hyicus. Immunochemistry looking for chicken IgY revealed no intercellular staining in the epidermis or follicular epithelium. All these findings supported a diagnosis of Staphylococcus-associated acantholytic epidermitis and folliculitis. This case suggests that S. hyicus could be a significant pathogen in poultry production. The close genetic relationship among affected individuals could indicate a hereditary predisposition in this line of White Leghorn laying chickens. PMID:21856871

Chénier, S; Lallier, L



Immune function, sex ratios, and gonadal histopathology in double-crested cormorant chicks  

SciTech Connect

There is evidence that environmental contaminants may be associated with endocrine and reproductive system abnormalities in colonial water birds. Little information is available on immune system response in chicks. Two double-crested cormorant (Phalocrocrozax auritus) colonies were monitored in 1993 for a comparative immune function study. Higher concentrations of organochlorines occurred in one colony. Parameters measured included: CBC, T and B-cell function, heterophil phagocytosis, lymphoid organ size and histopathology, and selected serum hormone analysis. Significant differences at the contaminated site included marked dysplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid gland, higher T3, lower cortisol, lower eosinophil counts, and increase phagocytosis at the contaminated site. Gonads of 101 deformed (cross-bill) chicks, siblings, and normal control chicks collected in 1992 and 1993 were examined microscopically because a sex-ration skewed towards females had been noted. Cross-billed chicks aged 12 to 15 days had disorganized or delayed follicular development which normalized by 20 days of age. Cross-billed or otherwise abnormal chicks aged 18 to 23 days had hypertrophic seminiferous tubules, a decreased interstitium, and decreased evidence of active Leydig cells.

Burull, E.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Sileo, L. [National Biological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Research Center; Dale, T.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Larson, J.X. [Northeast Technical College, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Fry, D.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept of Avian Sciences



Variation in stress and innate immunity in the tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus) across an urban-rural gradient.  


The urban environment presents new and different challenges to wildlife, but also potential opportunities depending on the species. As urban encroachment onto native habitats continues, understanding the impact of this expansion on native species is vital to conservation. A key physiological indicator of environmental disturbance is the vertebrate stress response, involving increases in circulating glucocorticoids (i.e. corticosterone), which exert influence on numerous physiological parameters including energy storage, reproduction, and immunity. We examined how urbanization in Phoenix, Arizona influences corticosterone levels, blood parasitism, and innate immunity in populations of tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) to determine whether urbanization may be detrimental or beneficial to this species. Both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower in urban lizards relative to the rural ones, however, the magnitude of the increase in corticosterone with stress did not differ across populations. Urban lizards also had a lower ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes, but elevated overall leukocyte count, as compared to lizards from the natural site. Urban and rural lizards did not differ in their prevalence of the blood parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum. Taken together, these results suggest that urban tree lizards may have suppressed overall corticosterone concentrations possibly from down-regulation as a result of frequent exposure to stressors, or increased access to urban resources. Also, urban lizards may have bolstered immunocompetence possibly from increased immune challenges, such as wounding, in the urban environment, or from greater energetic reserves being available as a result of access to urban resources. PMID:18594834

French, Susannah S; Fokidis, H Bobby; Moore, Michael C



Carotenoid-based plumage coloration of male greenfinches reflects health and immunocompetence.  


Hypotheses of parasite-mediated sexual selection (PMSS) propose that elaborate male ornaments have evolved due to female preferences. Females would benefit from mating with more ornamental males if males' ornamentation signals their health status and ability to provide parasite resistance genes for the offspring. Carotenoid-based plumage coloration of birds has been hypothesised to honestly reflect an individual's health status due to trade-off in allocation of carotenoids between maintenance and signalling functions. The prediction of this hypothesis, namely that individuals with brighter plumage are able to mount stronger immune responses against novel antigens and reveal generally better health state, was tested in captive male greenfinches (Carduelis chloris). Greenfinches with brighter yellow breast feathers showed stronger humoral immune response against novel antigen (SRBC) while no relationship between plumage coloration and an estimate of cell-mediated immune responsiveness (PHA response) was detected. Elaborately ornamental individuals had better general health state as indicated by the negative correlations between plumage brightness and heterophil haemoconcentration. Consistent with the concept of PMSS, these results suggest that carotenoid-based plumage coloration in greenfinches honestly signals immunocompetence and health status. PMID:12647136

Saks, Lauri; Ots, Indrek; Hőrak, Peeter



Impairment of growth and immune function of avocet chicks from sites with elevated selenium, arsenic, and boron.  


Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) hatched from eggs collected from the south Central Valley of California (USA) were studied to determine the impact of elevated concentrations of selenium, arsenic, and boron on the immune system and growth to maturity. Corcoran ponds were the reference site with low selenium (1.2 ppb) and arsenic (29 ppb) (boron not measured). Westfarmers Pond had elevated concentrations of selenium (319 ppb), arsenic (127 ppb), and boron (109 ppm). Pryse ponds also had elevated selenium, arsenic, and boron concentrations (13.9 ppb, 1,100 ppb, and 29.4 ppm, respectively). Size at hatch was significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) in birds from Westfarmers and Pryse ponds. The growth rate was faster, but mean adult size was reduced in birds from Pryse ponds. Avocet chicks from Pryse and Westfarmers ponds exposed solely through in ovo transfer of these elements had significantly increased heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. The phagocytic activity of macrophages also was significantly reduced in these birds, and Pryse Pond birds had an increased proliferative ability of lymphocytes in the presence of concanavalin A, a T-cell mitogen. Avocet chicks (< or = 5 wk old) were captured from the various ponds and the same morphometric and immune function measurements made. The birds that were most severely impacted by exposure to these compounds were those that were collected from Pryse ponds. PMID:8028107

Fairbrother, A; Fix, M; O'Hara, T; Ribic, C A



Associations between Organochlorine Contaminant Concentrations and Clinical Health Parameters in Loggerhead Sea Turtles from North Carolina, USA  

PubMed Central

Widespread and persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, are known to have broad-ranging toxicities in wildlife. In this study we investigated, for the first time, their possible health effects on loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Nonlethal fat biopsies and blood samples were collected from live turtles for OC contaminant analysis, and concentrations were compared with clinical health assessment data, including hematology, plasma chemistry, and body condition. Concentrations of total PCBs (?PCBs), ?DDTs, ?chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex were determined in 44 fat biopsies and 48 blood samples. Blood concentrations of ?chlordanes were negatively correlated with red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, indicative of anemia. Positive correlations were observed between most classes of OC contaminants and white blood cell counts and between mirex and ?TCDD-like PCB concentrations and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, suggesting modulation of the immune system. All classes of OCs in the blood except dieldrin were correlated positively with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, indicating possible hepatocellular damage. Mirex and ?TCDD-like PCB blood concentrations were negatively correlated with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Significant correlations to levels of certain OC contaminant classes also suggested possible alteration of protein (?blood urea nitrogen, ?albumin:globulin ratio), carbohydrate (?glucose), and ion (?sodium, ?magnesium) regulation. These correlations suggest that OC contaminants may be affecting the health of loggerhead sea turtles even though sea turtles accumulate lower concentrations of OCs compared with other wildlife. PMID:15238280

Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R.; Stamper, M. Andrew; Harms, Craig A.; McClellan-Green, Patricia D.



Hematological, protein electrophoresis and cholinesterase values of free-living nestling peregrine falcons in Spain.  


Protein electrophoresis, hematological and cholinesterase values were determined in 32 nestling free-living peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) (15- to 27-days-old) in order to establish normal reference values for this population. The following values (mean +/- SD) were observed: prealbumin 0.31 +/- 0.04 g/dl, albumin 1.25 +/- 0.06 g/dl, alpha1 and alpha2-globulin 0.23 +/- 0.02 and 0.16 +/- 0.02 g/dl respectively, beta-globulin 1.02 +/- 0.05 g/dl, gamma-globulin 0.060 +/- 0.08 g/dl, total protein 3.79 +/- 0.18 g/dl, 21.26 +/- 1.30 white blood cells/microl (1 x 10(3)), 2.17 +/- 0.07 red blood cells/microl (1 x 10(6)), packed cell volume 37.58 +/- 0.82%, hemoglobin 20.96 +/- 0.29 g/dl, heterophils 61.14 +/- 2.50% and cholinesterase 1,184 +/- 75 IU/L. There were no difference in any of these parameters among males and females. The hematological values obtained could be considered as representative values in free-living nestling peregrine falcons. PMID:11272493

Lanzarot, M P; Montesinos, A; San Andrés, M I; Rodríguez, C; Barahona, M V



Silencing of Neuroligin Function by Postsynaptic Neurexins  

PubMed Central

The formation of neuronal circuits during development involves a combination of synapse stabilization and elimination events. Synaptic adhesion molecules are thought to play an important role in synaptogenesis, and several trans-synaptic adhesion systems that promote the formation and maturation of synapses have been identified. The neuroligin–neurexin complex is a heterophilic adhesion system that promotes assembly and maturation of synapses through bidirectional signaling. In this protein complex, postsynaptic neuroligins are thought to interact trans-synaptically with presynaptic neurexins. However, the subcellular localization of neurexins has not been determined. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found that endogenous neurexins and epitope-tagged neurexin-1? are localized to axons and presynaptic terminals in vivo. Unexpectedly, neurexins are also abundant in the postsynaptic density. cis-expression of neurexin-1? with neuroligin-1 inhibits trans-binding to recombinant neurexins, blocks the synaptogenic activity of neuroligin-1, and reduces the density of presynaptic terminals in cultured hippocampal neurons. Our results demonstrate that the function of neurexin proteins is more diverse than previously anticipated and suggest that postsynaptic cis-interactions might provide a novel mechanism for silencing the activity of a synaptic adhesion complex. PMID:17360903

Taniguchi, Hiroki; Gollan, Leora; Scholl, Francisco G.; Mahadomrongkul, Veeravan; Dobler, Elizabeth; Limthong, Nicolas; Peck, Morgen; Aoki, Chiye; Scheiffele, Peter



Neurexin-Neuroligin Trans-Synaptic Interaction Mediates Learning-Related Synaptic Remodeling and Long-Term Facilitation in Aplysia  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Neurexin and neuroligin, which undergo heterophilic interactions with each other at the synapse, are mutated in some patients with autism spectrum disorder, a set of disorders characterized by deficits in social and emotional learning. We have explored the role of neurexin and neuroligin at sensory-to-motor neuron synapses of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia that undergoes sensitization, a simple form of learned fear. We find that depleting neurexin in the presynaptic sensory neuron or neuroligin in the postsynaptic motor neuron abolishes both long-term facilitation and the associated presynaptic growth induced by repeated pulses of serotonin. Moreover, introduction into the motor neuron of the R451C mutation of neuroligin-3 linked to autism spectrum disorder blocks both intermediate-term and long-term facilitation. Our results suggest that activity-dependent regulation of the neurexin-neuroligin interaction may govern trans-synaptic signaling required for the storage of long-term memory, including emotional memory that may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:21555073

Choi, Yun-Beom; Li, Hsiu-Ling; Kassabov, Stefan R.; Jin, Iksung; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.; Karl, Kevin A.; Lu, Yang; Kim, Joung-Hun; Bailey, Craig H.; Kandel, Eric R.



Neurexin-neuroligin transsynaptic interaction mediates learning-related synaptic remodeling and long-term facilitation in aplysia.  


Neurexin and neuroligin, which undergo heterophilic interactions with each other at the synapse, are mutated in some patients with autism spectrum disorder, a set of disorders characterized by deficits in social and emotional learning. We have explored the role of neurexin and neuroligin at sensory-to-motor neuron synapses of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia, which undergoes sensitization, a simple form of learned fear. We find that depleting neurexin in the presynaptic sensory neuron or neuroligin in the postsynaptic motor neuron abolishes both long-term facilitation and the associated presynaptic growth induced by repeated pulses of serotonin. Moreover, introduction into the motor neuron of the R451C mutation of neuroligin-3 linked to autism spectrum disorder blocks both intermediate-term and long-term facilitation. Our results suggest that activity-dependent regulation of the neurexin-neuroligin interaction may govern transsynaptic signaling required for the storage of long-term memory, including emotional memory that may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:21555073

Choi, Yun-Beom; Li, Hsiu-Ling; Kassabov, Stefan R; Jin, Iksung; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V; Karl, Kevin A; Lu, Yang; Kim, Joung-Hun; Bailey, Craig H; Kandel, Eric R



Variation in stress and innate immunity in the tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus) across an urban-rural gradient  

PubMed Central

The urban environment presents new and different challenges to wildlife, but also potential opportunities depending on the species. As urban encroachment onto native habitats continues, understanding the impact of this expansion on native species is vital to conservation. A key physiological indicator of environmental disturbance is the vertebrate stress response, involving increases in circulating glucocorticoids (i.e., corticosterone), which exert influence on numerous physiological parameters including energy storage, reproduction, and immunity. We examined how urbanization in Phoenix, Arizona influences corticosterone levels, blood parasitism, and innate immunity in populations of tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) to determine whether urbanization may be detrimental or beneficial to this species. Both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower in urban lizards relative to the rural ones, however, the magnitude of the increase in corticosterone with stress did not differ across populations. Urban lizards also had a lower ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes, but elevated overall leukocyte count, as compared to lizards from the natural site. Urban and rural lizards did not differ in their prevalence of the blood parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum. Taken together, these results suggest that urban tree lizards may have suppressed overall corticosterone concentrations possibly from down-regulation as a result of frequent exposure to stressors, or increased access to urban resources. Also, urban lizards may have bolstered immunocompetence possibly from increased immune challenges, such as wounding, in the urban environment, or from greater energetic reserves being available as a result of access to urban resources. PMID:18594834

French, Susannah S.; Fokidis, H. Bobby; Moore, Michael C.



Cryptosporidium baileyi--infection in Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) ducklings from a zoological garden.  


Infection of the Bursa of Fabricius with Cryptosporidium baileyi was diagnosed in a group of hand reared Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) ducklings during one breeding season in a German zoological garden.The birds had died in an emaciated and anaemic state after problems with spontaneous feeding. The bursae were infected with moderate to high numbers of cryptosporidia, which were associated with hyperplasia, degeneration and sloughing of the affected epithelial cells and mild heterophilic bursitis, lesions typically seen in bursal cryptosporidiosis in other avian species. In addition, lymphatic tissue was nearly absent, which was probably caused by chronic stress and malnutrition related to the rearing of these highly stress-sensitive birds in an artificial environment. Companion ducklings from stress-resistant, spontaneously feeding species from the zoological collection were used to calm the Mergansers, but may have introduced the cryptosporidia into the rearing boxes. Another possible source for the introduction of C. baileyi were adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which were used to increase the hatching rate by a phase of natural breeding in the middle third of the incubation period of the Merganser eggs. PMID:23045806

Schulze, Christoph; Kämmerling, Jens; Kutzer, Peter; Engelhardt, Andreas; Richter, Barbara



Pathology of diseases in wild desert tortoises from California.  


Twenty-four ill or dead desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) were received between March 1992 and July 1995 for necropsies from the Mojave and Colorado deserts of California (USA). Diseases observed in these animals included cutaneous dyskeratosis (n = 7); shell necrosis (n = 2); respiratory diseases (n = 7); urolithiasis (n = 3); and trauma (n = 5). In tortoises with cutaneous dyskeratosis the horn layer of shell was disrupted by multiple crevices and fissures and, in the most severe lesions, dermal bone showed osteoclastic resorption, remodeling, and osteopenia. In tortoises with shell necrosis, multiple foci of necrotic cell debris and heterophilic inflammation within the epidermal horn layer were subtended by necrotic dermal bone colonized by bacteria and fungi. Of the seven tortoises with respiratory disease, five were diagnosed with mycoplasmosis. The diagnosis of mycoplasmosis was based on the presence of chronic proliferative rhinitis and positive serologic tests and/or isolation of Mycoplasma sp. Chronic fungal pneumonia was diagnosed in one tortoise with respiratory disease. In the three tortoises with urolithiasis, two were discovered dead, and the live tortoise had renal and articular gout. Traumatic injuries consisted of one tortoise entombed within its burrow, one tortoise burned in a brush fire, two tortoises struck by moving vehicles, and one tortoise attacked by a predator. While the primary cause of illness could be attributed to one or two major disease processes, lesions were often found in multiple organ systems, and a variety of etiologies were responsible for morbidity and mortality. PMID:9706560

Homer, B L; Berry, K H; Brown, M B; Ellis, G; Jacobson, E R



Blood parasitaemia in a high latitude flexible breeder, the white-winged crossbill, Loxia leucoptera: contribution of seasonal relapse versus new inoculations.  


We measured seasonal changes in the prevalence of haematozoa (Leucocytozoon fringillinarum, Haemoproteus fringillae, and Trypanosoma avium) in free-ranging White-winged Crossbills, Loxia leucoptera, over 1.5 year in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. This prevalence was low during early winter. L. fringillinarum prevalence increased in late winter/early spring, in the absence of vectors, suggesting relapse of latent infection. By contrast, the prevalence of T. avium and H. fringillae did not increase until mid-spring, coincident with the emergence of putative vectors and suggestive of new inoculations. The winter breeding period was not associated with lower body condition or elevated blood heterophil/lymphocyte ratios than the summer post-breeding period. Thus, birds unlikely perceived their breeding effort as particularly stressful. Adult males in May and June had low plasma testosterone and their blood prevalence of L. fringillinarum, but not other haemoparasites, was higher than in adult females. This difference may have resulted from sex differences in behaviour and/or plumage colouration - bright red in males, dull green/yellow in females. Species in which reproduction and vector abundance are seasonally dissociated may constitute important models for investigating the respective contribution of reproductive hormones, breeding effort, and vector abundance to patent and latent hemoparasitic infections and to new inoculations. PMID:19849885

Deviche, P; Fokidis, H B; Lerbour, B; Greiner, E



Hematology and blood chemistry reference values and age-related changes in wild Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus).  


Normal hematologic and blood chemistry values for clinical use and age-related changes are reported as reference values for the endangered Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). Blood samples were obtained from 21 nestlings and 26 free-living subadults and adults. No significant differences were found between subadults and adults or between sexes for any of the studied parameters. Reference ranges have been established for Bearded Vulture nestlings (less than 3 mo of age) and for free-living Bearded Vultures, with subadult and adult data combined without affecting clinical interpretation. Some reference values for the parameters reported in this study are similar to those previously described for vultures and other raptor species, although creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were higher than those reported for birds of prey. Significant age-related differences were identified in urea, uric acid, triglycerides, total serum protein, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and lipase activities (P<0.05). Additionally, significant age-related differences were noted in red and white blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, fibrinogen level, and heterophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (P<0.005). The results obtained from this study provide reference ranges that will be useful for evaluating the pathologic conditions and general health of Bearded Vulture populations and reveal the existence of important age-related differences in the species. PMID:20688632

Hernández, M; Margalida, A



Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. Methods This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. Results At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Conclusions Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection. PMID:23620834

Reza, Kheirandish; Nasrin, Askari; Mahmoud, Salehi



Molecular genetic basis of the human Forssman glycolipid antigen negativity  

PubMed Central

Forssman heterophilic glycolipid antigen has structural similarity to the histo-blood group A antigen, and the GBGT1 gene encoding the Forssman glycolipid synthetase (FS) is evolutionarily related to the ABO gene. The antigen is present in various species, but not in others including humans. We have elucidated the molecular genetic basis of the Forssman antigen negativity in humans. In the human GBGT1 gene, we identified two common inactivating missense mutations (c.688G>A [p.Gly230Ser] and c.887A>G [p.Gln296Arg]). The reversion of the two mutations fully restored the glycosyltransferase activity to synthesize the Forssman antigen in vitro. These glycine and glutamine residues are conserved among functional GBGT1 genes in Forssman-positive species. Furthermore, the glycine and serine residues represent those at the corresponding position of the human blood group A and B transferases with GalNAc and galactose specificity, respectively, implicating the crucial role the glycine residue may play in the FS ?1,3-GalNAc transferase activity. PMID:23240079

Yamamoto, Miyako; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro



Localization of hematopoietic cells in the bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus).  


Amphibians represent the first phylogenetic group to possess hematopoietic bone marrow. However, adult amphibian hematopoiesis has only been described in a few species and with conflicting data. Bone marrow, kidney, spleen, liver, gut, stomach, lung, tegument, and heart were therefore collected from adult Lithobates catesbeianus and investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemical methods under confocal laser microscopy. Our study demonstrated active hematopoiesis in the bone marrow of vertebrae, femur, and fingers and in the kidney, but no hematopoietic activity inside other organs including the spleen and liver. Blood cells were identified as a heterogeneous cell population constituted by heterophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, erythrocytic cells, lymphocytes, and their precursors. Cellular islets of the thrombocytic lineage occurred near sinusoids of the bone marrow. Antibodies against CD34, CD117, stem cell antigen, erythropoietin receptor, and the receptor for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor identified some cell populations, and some circulating immature cells were seen in the bloodstream. Thus, on the basis of these phylogenetic features, we propose that L. catesbeianus can be used as an important model for hematopoietic studies, since this anuran exhibits hematopoiesis characteristics both of lower vertebrates (renal hematopoiesis) and of higher vertebrates (bone marrow hematopoiesis). PMID:19449034

de Abreu Manso, Pedro Paulo; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo



Chronic myelogenous leukemia in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).  


A free-ranging adult female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was presented to the Wildlife Medical Clinic at the University of Illinois after being observed with anorexia and decreased activity. A severe leukocytosis (212 400 cells/microl), primarily comprised of mature heterophils, was found at presentation. Results of various diagnostic tests including radiographs, Chlamydophila serologic testing, measurement of Aspergillus antibody and antigen titers, plasma protein electrophoresis, fecal culture and acid-fast staining, coelioscopy, endoscopy, tracheoscopy, exploratory coelomotomy, nuclear scintigraphy, tissue cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and histopathology revealed no underlying cause for the persistent leukocytosis. No response to treatment with antibiotics or antifungal agents was observed, although a transient, significant decrease in the leukocyte count (6200 cells/microl) was observed after treatment with fenbendazole. A presumptive diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia was made based on 3 factors: disease duration of greater than 3 months, a lack of identifiable foci of inflammation, and a lack of response to conventional therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed based on postmortem examination and testing 177 days after initial presentation. PMID:19530405

Wiley, Jennifer L; Whittington, Julia K; Wilmes, Christine M; Messick, Joanne B



Broiler production under varying population densities.  


The influence of population density on the growth performance and stress level of Hubbard x Hubbard chicks of equally mixed sex was studied. Six hundred and sixteen birds were housed under .05, .07, .09, or .11 m2 per bird (four replicates per density) from 0 to 7 wk. There were no treatment effects on feed conversion at 6 or 7 wk. Birds housed at .07, .09, and .11 m2 per bird had similar 7-wk BW and carcass weights, all significantly higher than birds housed at .05 m2 per bird. Under .05 m2 per bird, a higher percentage of breast blisters and ammonia burns (30%) was observed than at other densities. The 7-wk heterophil to lymphocyte ratios of birds raised at .09 and .11 m2 per bird (.42 and .45) were significantly higher than those at .05 and .07 m2 per bird (.28 and .30). Lowered BW and decreased carcass quality of birds raised at .05 m2 per bird suggested that these birds were stressed. However, decision analysis of economic potential indicated that the optimum profit potential per square meter was .05 m2 per bird for Maximax and Equally Likely decisions and .07 m2 per bird for the Maximin decision. PMID:1561208

Cravener, T L; Roush, W B; Mashaly, M M



The neuroligins and their ligands: from structure to function at the synapse.  


The neuroligins are cell adhesion proteins whose extracellular domain belongs to the ?/?-hydrolase fold family of proteins, mainly containing enzymes and exemplified by acetylcholinesterase. The ectodomain of postsynaptic neuroligins interacts through a calcium ion with the ectodomain of presynaptic neurexins to form flexible trans-synaptic associations characterized by selectivity for neuroligin or neurexin subtypes. This heterophilic interaction, essential for synaptic differentiation, maturation, and maintenance, is regulated by gene selection, alternative mRNA splicing, and posttranslational modifications. Mutations leading to deficiencies in the expression, folding, maturation, and binding properties of either partner are associated with autism spectrum disorders. The currently available structural and functional data illustrate how these two families of cell adhesion molecules bridge the synaptic cleft to participate in synapse plasticity and support its dynamic nature. Neuroligin partners distinct from the neurexins, and which may undergo either trans or cis interaction, have also been described, and tridimensional structures of some of them are available. Our study emphasizes the partnership versatility of the neuroligin ectodomain associated with molecular flexibility and alternative binding sites, proposes homology models of the structurally non-characterized neuroligin partners, and exemplifies the large structural variability at the surface of the ?/?-hydrolase fold subunit. This study also provides new insights into possible surface binding sites associated with non-catalytic properties of the acetylcholinesterase subunit. PMID:24497299

Bourne, Yves; Marchot, Pascale



Effects of ascorbic acid on stress and disease in chickens.  


White leghorn chickens were given feed containing 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AA)/kg. One day later, treated chickens and a similar group of unmedicated control chickens were chilled for 1 hour at 6 C, exposed to an unusual sound, fasted, or subjected to rough handling. Heterophil:lymphocyte (H:L) ratios were determined one day later. The AA-treated birds had significantly lower H:L ratios than untreated controls. Chickens that received a diet containing AA had lower H:L ratios than controls (0.86 vs. 1.65) following administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Chickens fed a diet containing AA showed increased resistance to a combined Newcastle disease virus-Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection and to a secondary Escherichia coli infection, as well as to a primary E. coli challenge infection. The effects of AA and an antibacterial drug (furaltadone) were additive. In all experiments, the optimum dose of AA was 100 mg/kg of feed. There was a negative correlation between AA level in the diet and feed efficiency. PMID:1417599

Gross, W B



Tissue changes in enlarged sternal bursas of turkeys.  


Enlarged sternal bursas evident in turkeys beyond 12 weeks of age were examined grossly and microscopically in 169 turkeys 3 to 26 weeks old. Grossly, the enlarged sternal bursas were sacs of varied size and wall thickness containing fluid in amounts from a fraction of a milliliter up to 70 ml. The fluid was usually the consistency of serum but was sometimes viscid, and in infected bursas it would be purulent. Its color varied from amber to red to dark brown depending on the amounts of and the changes in the blood pigments. The synovial membranes were smooth and glistening and of variable thicknesses. Strands or cords of the synovial membrane of variable thickness and number extended from side to side of the sac. Microscopically, the synovial membrane was focally thickened in the small bursas and generally thickened in the larger bursas. The thickening was the result of an increase in the very cellular fibrous tissue and in the number and size of blood vessels. The lining cells were flat fibrocytes one cell thick in the smaller bursas, and round stratified cells in the larger bursas. In infected bursas, mononuclear and heterophilic infiltration occurred. Hemorrhaging occurred quite often, the result of trauma to the highly vascular synovial membrane. PMID:1156256

Miner, M L; Smart, R A; Olson, A E



Hemograms and hematozoa of sharp-shinned (Accipiter striatus) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) captured during spring migration in northern New York.  


Hemograms were determined for 26 Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and 55 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) captured during spring migration (27 March to 12 May 1987) on the south shore of Lake Ontario, New York (USA). No significant differences were noted in packed cell volume and estimated total solids between the species. However, Cooper's hawks had significantly higher total white blood cells counts and higher concentrations of heterophils, monocytes, and eosinophils. Proportionally, lymphocytes made up a smaller percentage of the differential count in the Cooper's hawk. Eosinophil concentrations and percentages of the differential count were significantly higher in the females of both species. Both species had a high prevalence of Leucocytozoon toddi and Haemoproteus spp. infection. Haemoproteus nisi and H. elani were identified in both hawks. Trypanosoma avium was identified in a single Cooper's hawk and Plasmodium circumflexum was identified in a sharp-shinned hawk. Prevalence of Leucocytozoon toddi and Haemoproteus spp. infections were significantly higher in the birds caught late in the spring as compared to those caught earlier in the spring; this was evidence for a spring recrudescence of patent parasite infections. PMID:8583640

Phalen, D N; Taylor, C; Phalen, S W; Bennett, G F



Cardiac repair and regenerative potential in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart.  


The remarkable ability of the heart to regenerate has been demonstrated in the zebrafish and giant danio, two fish members of the cyprinid family. Here we use light and electron microscopy to examine the repair response in the heart of another cyprinid, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), following cautery injury to a small portion of its ventricular myocardium. We observed a robust inflammatory response in the first two weeks consisting primarily of infiltrating macrophages, heterophils, and melanomacrophages. These inflammatory cells were identified in the lumen of the spongy heart, within the site of the wound, and attached to endocardial cells adjacent to the site of injury. Marked accumulation of collagen fibers and increased connective tissue were also observed during the first and second weeks in a transition zone between healthy and injured myocardium as well as in adjacent sub-epicardial regions. The accumulation of collagen and connective tissue however did not persist. The presence of capillaries was also noted in the injured area during repair. The replacement of the cauterized region of the ventricle by myocardial tissue was achieved in 6weeks. The presence of ethynyl deoxyuridine-positive cardiac myocytes and partially differentiated cardiac myocytes during repair suggest effective cardiac myocyte driven regeneration mechanisms also operate in the injured goldfish heart, and are similar to those observed in zebrafish and giant danio. Our data suggest the ability for cardiac regeneration may be widely conserved among cyprinids. PMID:24548889

Grivas, Jamie; Haag, Maria; Johnson, Adedoyin; Manalo, Trina; Roell, Julia; Das, Tanmoy L; Brown, Evelyn; Burns, Alan R; Lafontant, Pascal J



Evaluation of three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and two latex agglutination assays for diagnosis of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.  

PubMed Central

Three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) from Gull, Biotest, and Behring (Enzygnost) and two latex agglutination tests for heterophile antibodies (Monolatex [Biotest] and Mono-Lex [Trinity Laboratories]) were evaluated for the diagnosis of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and EBV seropositivity. Two hundred fourteen consecutive samples from 197 patients with symptoms of primary EBV infection were analyzed by the five assays at a clinical microbiology laboratory. The samples were also analyzed independently by immunofluorescence methods at a reference laboratory. According to the reference methods, 37 patients (40 serum samples) had primary EBV infections, 120 patients (127 serum samples) had had past EBV infections, 33 patients (36 serum samples) were seronegative, and 7 patients (11 serum samples) exhibited atypical reactions. The respective sensitivities and specificities for the diagnosis of primary EBV infection were 95 and 100% for the Gull assays, 100 and 94% for the Biotest assays, and 100 and 89%, for the Enzygnost assays. The Monolatex and Mono-Lex methods showed similar sensitivities and specificities (78 to 85% and 100 to 99%, respectively) for the diagnosis of primary EBV infection. This study demonstrates the usefulness of commercially available assays for the rapid diagnosis of primary EBV infection, but also the importance of large-scale testing of routine samples before choosing an assay. PMID:9350722

Svahn, A; Magnusson, M; Jagdahl, L; Schloss, L; Kahlmeter, G; Linde, A



Inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, food restriction and acclimation to high ambient temperatures in chickens.  


1. White Plymouth Rock chickens placed under 60% food restriction or ad libitum feeding, with or without metyrapone treatment, from either 4 to 6 (early) or 24 to 26 (late) d of age were exposed to high ambient temperatures (35 +/- 2 degrees C) from 36 to 43 d of age. 2. Stress attributable to fasting was not manifested through leucocytic alteration when food-restricted chicks were supplemented with an adrenal blocking chemical, metyrapone. 3. Provision of metyrapone during the fasting period resulted in inferior compensatory growth during refeeding. 4. Exposure to high temperatures from 36 to 43 d of age did not cause an elevation in the heterophil:lymphocyte (H/L) ratios of chicks that had eaten metyrapone-treated food ad libitum during the neonatal stage. 5. During heat exposure, chicks that had been subjected to early 60% restriction with non-metyrapone-treated food had lower H/L ratios and improved resistance to marble spleen disease infection. PMID:7953785

Zulkifli, I; Dunnington, E A; Gross, W B; Siegel, P B



Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.  


Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development. PMID:19929638

Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M



Ecological immunology in a fluctuating environment: an integrative analysis of tree swallow nestling immune defense  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary ecologists have long been interested by the link between different immune defenses and fitness. Given the importance of a proper immune defense for survival, it is important to understand how its numerous components are affected by environmental heterogeneity. Previous studies targeting this question have rarely considered more than two immune markers. In this study, we measured seven immune markers (response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), hemolysis capacity, hemagglutination capacity, plasma bactericidal capacity, percentage of lymphocytes, percentage of heterophils, and percentage of eosinophils) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings raised in two types of agro-ecosystems of contrasted quality and over 2 years. First, we assessed the effect of environmental heterogeneity (spatial and temporal) on the strength and direction of correlations between immune measures. Second, we investigated the effect of an immune score integrating information from several immune markers on individual performance (including growth, mass at fledging and parasite burden). Both a multivariate and a pair-wise approach showed variation in relationships between immune measures across years and habitats. We also found a weak association between the integrated score of nestling immune function and individual performance, but only under certain environmental conditions. We conclude that the ecological context can strongly affect the interpretation of immune defenses in the wild. Given that spatiotemporal variations are likely to affect individual immune defenses, great caution should be used when generalizing conclusions to other study systems. PMID:23610646

Pigeon, Gabriel; Belisle, Marc; Garant, Dany; Cohen, Alan A; Pelletier, Fanie



Ecological immunology in a fluctuating environment: an integrative analysis of tree swallow nestling immune defense.  


Evolutionary ecologists have long been interested by the link between different immune defenses and fitness. Given the importance of a proper immune defense for survival, it is important to understand how its numerous components are affected by environmental heterogeneity. Previous studies targeting this question have rarely considered more than two immune markers. In this study, we measured seven immune markers (response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), hemolysis capacity, hemagglutination capacity, plasma bactericidal capacity, percentage of lymphocytes, percentage of heterophils, and percentage of eosinophils) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings raised in two types of agro-ecosystems of contrasted quality and over 2 years. First, we assessed the effect of environmental heterogeneity (spatial and temporal) on the strength and direction of correlations between immune measures. Second, we investigated the effect of an immune score integrating information from several immune markers on individual performance (including growth, mass at fledging and parasite burden). Both a multivariate and a pair-wise approach showed variation in relationships between immune measures across years and habitats. We also found a weak association between the integrated score of nestling immune function and individual performance, but only under certain environmental conditions. We conclude that the ecological context can strongly affect the interpretation of immune defenses in the wild. Given that spatiotemporal variations are likely to affect individual immune defenses, great caution should be used when generalizing conclusions to other study systems. PMID:23610646

Pigeon, Gabriel; Bélisle, Marc; Garant, Dany; Cohen, Alan A; Pelletier, Fanie



Giant cadherins Fat and Dachsous self-bend to organize properly spaced intercellular junctions.  


The cadherins Fat and Dachsous regulate cell polarity and proliferation via their heterophilic interactions at intercellular junctions. Their ectodomains are unusually large because of repetitive extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, which raises the question of how they fit in regular intercellular spaces. Cadherins typically exhibit a linear topology through the binding of Ca(2+) to the linker between the EC domains. Our electron-microscopic observations of mammalian Fat4 and Dachsous1 ectodomains, however, revealed that, although their N-terminal regions exhibit a linear configuration, the C-terminal regions are kinked with multiple hairpin-like bends. Notably, certain EC-EC linkers in Fat4 and Dachsous1 lost Ca(2+)-binding amino acids. When such non-Ca(2+)-binding linkers were substituted for a normal linker in E-cadherin, the mutant E-cadherins deformed more extensively than the wild-type molecule. To simulate cadherin structures with non-Ca(2+)-binding linkers, we used an elastic network model and confirmed that bent configurations can be generated by deformation of non-Ca(2+)-binding linkers. These findings suggest that Fat and Dachsous self-bend due to the loss of Ca(2+)-binding amino acids from specific EC-EC linkers, and can therefore adapt to confined spaces. PMID:25355906

Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Nagae, Shigenori; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Tanoue, Takuji; Iwasaki, Kenji; Takeichi, Masatoshi



Neuroligin trafficking deficiencies arising from mutations in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold protein family.  


Despite great functional diversity, characterization of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold proteins that encompass a superfamily of hydrolases, heterophilic adhesion proteins, and chaperone domains reveals a common structural motif. By incorporating the R451C mutation found in neuroligin (NLGN) and associated with autism and the thyroglobulin G2320R (G221R in NLGN) mutation responsible for congenital hypothyroidism into NLGN3, we show that mutations in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain influence folding and biosynthetic processing of neuroligin3 as determined by in vitro susceptibility to proteases, glycosylation processing, turnover, and processing rates. We also show altered interactions of the mutant proteins with chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum and arrest of transport along the secretory pathway with diversion to the proteasome. Time-controlled expression of a fluorescently tagged neuroligin in hippocampal neurons shows that these mutations compromise neuronal trafficking of the protein, with the R451C mutation reducing and the G221R mutation virtually abolishing the export of NLGN3 from the soma to the dendritic spines. Although the R451C mutation causes a local folding defect, the G221R mutation appears responsible for more global misfolding of the protein, reflecting their sequence positions in the structure of the protein. Our results suggest that disease-related mutations in the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain share common trafficking deficiencies yet lead to discrete congenital disorders of differing severity in the endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:20615874

De Jaco, Antonella; Lin, Michael Z; Dubi, Noga; Comoletti, Davide; Miller, Meghan T; Camp, Shelley; Ellisman, Mark; Butko, Margaret T; Tsien, Roger Y; Taylor, Palmer



Body condition and immune response in wild zebra finches: effects of capture, confinement and captive-rearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behavioural ecologists attempt to predict fitness in birds from estimates of body condition and immune capacity. We investigated how the stresses associated with capture, confinement and captive-rearing of wild zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) affected different elements of the immune system and body condition. Wild birds had higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and total leucocyte counts than aviary birds, presumably an outcome of mounting specific resistance to pathogens, but this response diminished significantly within 10 days of confinement. Wild birds had lower phytohaemagglutinin-A (PHA) responses than their aviary-bred counterparts possibly because energetic costs limited a general resistance response. Wild birds were heavier and had higher haematocrits than their aviary counterparts, but had less fat, although just 10 days of captivity significantly increased fat levels. Measures of body condition were of limited use for predicting immune responsiveness. We conclude that the different elements of the immune system and body condition respond independently, and often unpredictably, to many ecological and behavioural stressors.

Ewenson, Erynne; Zann, Richard; Flannery, Graham



Mucosal injury and. gamma. -irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites  

SciTech Connect

A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and {gamma}-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. {gamma}-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment.

Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))



Structural and energetic determinants of adhesive binding specificity in type I cadherins.  


Type I cadherin cell-adhesion proteins are similar in sequence and structure and yet are different enough to mediate highly specific cell-cell recognition phenomena. It has previously been shown that small differences in the homophilic and heterophilic binding affinities of different type I family members can account for the differential cell-sorting behavior. Here we use a combination of X-ray crystallography, analytical ultracentrifugation, surface plasmon resonance and double electron-electron resonance (DEER) electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify the molecular determinants of type I cadherin dimerization affinities. Small changes in sequence are found to produce subtle structural and dynamical changes that impact relative affinities, in part via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, and in part through entropic effects because of increased conformational heterogeneity in the bound states as revealed by DEER distance mapping in the dimers. These findings highlight the remarkable ability of evolution to exploit a wide range of molecular properties to produce closely related members of the same protein family that have affinity differences finely tuned to mediate their biological roles. PMID:25253890

Vendome, Jeremie; Felsovalyi, Klara; Song, Hang; Yang, Zhongyu; Jin, Xiangshu; Brasch, Julia; Harrison, Oliver J; Ahlsen, Goran; Bahna, Fabiana; Kaczynska, Anna; Katsamba, Phinikoula S; Edmond, Darwin; Hubbell, Wayne L; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry



Ultrastructural immunolocalization of chatelicidin-like peptides in granulocytes of normal and regenerating lizard tissues.  


The presence and localization of cathelicidin anti-microbial peptides in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, were investigated by immunocytochemistry. The study showed that immunoreactivity for cathelicidins 1 and 2 was only present in large granules of heterophilic-basophilic granulocytes, rarely found in the dermis and sub-dermal muscle in normal and more frequently in wound and regenerating skin tissues or in the blood. Some immunopositive granulocytes were also observed among the keratinocytes of the wound epithelium covering the tail stump and occasionally in the regenerating epidermis of the tail. Immunolabeling for cathelicidins was also seen in low electrondense amorphous material present on the surface of the wound epidermis and on the plasma membrane of bacteria present on the surface of corneocytes of the epidermis. Immunolabeling for cathelicidins was absent in the other cell types and in control sections. The study suggests that cathelicidins are normally stored in granulocytes in the blood or in connective tissues, while keratinocytes can be stimulated to produce and possibly release these molecules only after injury or microbial invasion. PMID:24139311

Alibardi, Lorenzo



Granulocytes of reptilian sauropsids contain beta-defensin-like peptides: a comparative ultrastructural survey.  


The ability of lizards to withstand infections after wounding or amputation of the tail or limbs has suggested the presence of antimicrobial peptides in their tissues. Previous studies on the lizard Anolis carolinensis have identified several beta-defensin-like peptides that may potentially be involved in protection from infections. The present ultrastructural immunocytochemical study has analyzed tissues in different reptilian species in order to localize the cellular source of one of the more expressed beta-defensins previously sequenced in lizard indicated as AcBD15. Beta-defensin-like immunoreactivity is present in some of the larger, nonspecific granules of granulocytes in two lizard species, a snake, the tuatara, and a turtle. The ultrastructural study indicates that only heterophilic and basophilic granulocytes contain this defensin while other cell types from the epidermis, mesenchyme, and dermis, muscles, nerves, cartilage or bone are immunonegative. The study further indicates that not all granules in reptilian granulocytes contain the beta-defensin peptide, suggesting the presence of granules with different content as previously indicated for mammalian neutrophilic leucocytes. No immunolabeling was instead observed in granulocytes of the alligator and chick using this antibody. The present immunocytochemical observations suggest a broad cross-reactivity and conservation of beta-defensin-like sequence or steric motif across lepidosaurians and likely in turtles while archosaurian granulocytes may contain different beta-defensin-like or other peptides. PMID:23553853

Alibardi, Lorenzo



Hematological and plasma biochemical reference ranges of Alaskan seabirds: Their ecological significance and clinical importance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blood was analyzed from 151 pelagic marine birds to establish reference ranges for hematological and plasma biochemical parameters from healthy, wild populations of Pacific seabirds. Of the 13 species examined, 9 were from the Family Alcidae (N = 122 individuals) and the remainder (N = 29) from the Families Phalacrocoracidae, Laridae, and Procellariidae. Three of 8 hematological parameters (total white blood cell count, lymphocyte count and eosinophil count) differed significantly among species, as did 9 of 13 plasma biochemical parameters (alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, cholesterol, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, total protein and field total protein). There were no differences among species for packed cell volume, buffy coat, cell counts of heterophils, monoqtes and basophils, or for concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, uric acid and calcium. Plasma calcium concentration, triglyceride levels and field total protein varied significantly between sexes, with females having higher mean concentrations of all 3 parameters. However, no significant relationships between measures of breeding condition (brood patch size, subcutaneous and mesenteric fat deposits, or ovarian follicle size and ovary weight) and calcium or alkaline phosphatase concentrations in female birds could be identified. Alanine aminotransferase and uric acid were the only analytes which did not differ significantly between species or sexes.

Newman, S. H.; Piatt, J. F.; White, J.



Pro-inflammatory effects of uric acid in the gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Uric acid can be generated in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the breakdown of nucleotides ingested in the diet or from purines released from host cells as a result of pathogen-induced cell damage. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine or xanthine into uric acid, a reaction that also generates hydrogen peroxide. It has been assumed that the product of XO responsible for the pro-inflammatory effects of this enzyme is hydrogen peroxide. Recent literature on uric acid, however, has indicated that uric acid itself may have biological effects. We tested whether uric acid itself has detectable pro-inflammatory effects using an in vivo model using ligated rabbit intestinal segments (“loops”) as well as in vitro assays using cultured cells. Addition of exogenous uric acid increased the influx of heterophils into rabbit intestinal loops, as measured by myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, white blood cells adhered avidly to uric acid crystals, forming large aggregates of cells. Uric acid acts as a leukocyte chemoattractant in the GI tract. The role of uric acid in enteric infections and in non-infectious disorders of the GI tract deserves more attention. PMID:24377830

Crane, John K.; Mongiardo, Krystin M.



Organochlorine-induced immunosuppression in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

This investigation studied the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes and evaluated the use of immunological tests as biomarkers for contaminant exposure in wild birds. During 1991--1994, specific immune functions and general hematological parameters were measured in herring gull (Larus argentatus) and Caspian tern (Stema caspia) chicks. Study sites were chosen across a wide range of organochlorine contamination caused primarily by PCBs. In herring gull adults, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio decreased as liver EROD, an index of contaminant exposure, increased, In herring gull chicks, thymus mass decreased as EROD increased. At highly contaminated sites, gull and tern chicks showed a marked reduction in T cell-mediated immunity as measured by the phytohemagglutinin skin test. The thymic atrophy and T cell suppression were consistent with documented effects of PCBs in laboratory animals during development and growth. In both species, chicks exhibited biologically significant differences in antibody production among sites, but any relationships to contaminants or other factors remain unclear. In laboratory animals, PCBs exhibit variable effects on antibody production. Structural and functional parameters related to the immune system are useful biomarkers for assessing the effects of contaminants on wild birds.

Grasman, K.A. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States). Dept. of Biology; Scanlon, P.F. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Fox, G.A. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada)



Processing of cholinesterase-like ?/?-hydrolase fold proteins: alterations associated with congenital disorders.  


The ?/? hydrolase fold family is perhaps the largest group of proteins presenting significant structural homology with divergent functions, ranging from catalytic hydrolysis to heterophilic cell adhesive interactions to chaperones in hormone production. All the proteins of the family share a common three-dimensional core structure containing the ?/? hydrolase fold domain that is crucial for proper protein function. Several mutations associated with congenital diseases or disorders have been reported in conserved residues within the ?/?-hydrolase fold domain of cholinesterase-like proteins, neuroligins, butyrylcholinesterase and thyroglobulin. These mutations are known to disrupt the architecture of the common structural domain either globally or locally. Characterization of the natural mutations affecting the ?/?-hydrolase fold domain in these proteins has shown that they mainly impair processing and trafficking along the secretory pathway causing retention of the mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Studying the processing of ?/?-hydrolase fold mutant proteins should uncover new functions for this domain, that in some cases require structural integrity for both export of the protein from the ER and for facilitating subunit dimerization. A comparative study of homologous mutations in proteins that are closely related family members, along with the definition of new three-dimensional crystal structures, will identify critical residues for the assembly of the ?/?-hydrolase fold. PMID:21933121

De Jaco, Antonella; Comoletti, Davide; Dubi, Noga; Camp, Shelley; Taylor, Palmer



Structure of CD84 Provides Insight into SLAM Family Function  

SciTech Connect

The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. These receptors share a common ectodomain organization: a membrane-proximal immunoglobulin constant domain and a membrane-distal immunoglobulin variable domain that is responsible for ligand recognition. CD84 is a homophilic family member that enhances IFN-{gamma} secretion in activated T cells. Our solution studies revealed that CD84 strongly self-associates with a K{sub d} in the submicromolar range. These data, in combination with previous reports, demonstrate that the SLAM family homophilic affinities span at least three orders of magnitude and suggest that differences in the affinities may contribute to the distinct signaling behavior exhibited by the individual family members. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human CD84 immunoglobulin variable domain revealed an orthogonal homophilic dimer with high similarity to the recently reported homophilic dimer of the SLAM family member NTB-A. Structural and chemical differences in the homophilic interfaces provide a mechanism to prevent the formation of undesired heterodimers among the SLAM family homophilic receptors. These structural data also suggest that, like NTB-A, all SLAM family homophilic dimers adopt a highly kinked organization spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}140 {angstrom}. This common molecular dimension provides an opportunity for all two-domain SLAM family receptors to colocalize within the immunological synapse and bridge the T cell and antigen-presenting cell.

Yan,Q.; Malashkevich, V.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Cao, E.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.



A new report on the occurrence of clinico-histopathological diagnostic criteria for Spinodiplotriaena.  


Parasitic diseases of wild birds follows its companion volume, infectious diseases of wild birds, both of which complement the third edition of infectious diseases of wild mammals and second edition of parasitic diseases of wild mammals. In October 2012, a mature black male mynah with lack of balance and ataxia was brought into the birds department of educational hospital in veterinary medicine faculty of Tehran University. Because of no cure in clinical signs after several days of empirical therapy euthanasia and clinical pathology studies were performed. There was no microscopic pathological lesions in brain, bone marrow, heart, lung, liver and the microscopic results were as following; bone marrow: hemophagocytosis reactive macrophages, liver: infiltration of inflammatory cells (hepatitis) and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Lung: hemosiderin-laden macrophages and spleen findings: infiltration of inflammatory cells, heterophils with phagocytic bacteria. In abdominal cavity two male and one female parasite was detect. Three parasites were cleared with lactophenol and investigated under the light microscopy and important morphological parts of them measured. Also these parasites in serum containing send to the department of parasitology. Based on all collecting data, Spinodiplotriaena (three parasites each by the length of 2/5, 1/7 and 1/5 cm were found) were diagnosed. Report of this case in important because of first report of this infection in a black mynah in Iran. PMID:25035597

Javanbakht, Javad; Hosseini, Ehsan; Karimi, Shahram; Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohammad; Sabbagh, Atefeh; Mousavi, Shadi; Fattahi, Roohollah; Khaki, Fariba; Shafiee, Radmehr



Avian blood parasite infection during the non-breeding season: an overlooked issue in declining populations?  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogens and parasites can have major impacts on host population dynamics, both through direct mortality and via indirect effects. Both types of effect may be stronger in species whose populations are already under pressure. We investigated the potential for blood parasites to impact upon their hosts at the immunological, physiological and population level during the non-breeding season using a declining population of yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella as a model. Results Yellowhammers infected by Haemoproteus spp. showed both a reduced heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, and an elevated standardised white blood cell (WBC) count compared to uninfected birds, indicating an immunological response to infection. Infected birds had shorter wings during the first winter of sampling but not during the second, colder, winter; survival analysis of 321 birds sampled across four winters indicated that increased wing length conferred a survival advantage. Conclusions We suggest that the potential impacts of blood parasite infections on over-wintering birds may have been underestimated. Further research should consider the potential impacts of sub-clinical parasite infections on the dynamics of vulnerable populations, and we suggest using declining populations as model systems within which to investigate these relationships as well as examining interactions between sub-clinical disease and other environmental stressors. JEL Code Q5 PMID:24011390



Pathology and Pathophysiology of Inhalational Anthrax in a Guinea Pig Model  

PubMed Central

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) and rabbits are the animal models most commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of medical countermeasures against anthrax in support of licensure under the FDA's “Animal Rule.” However, a need for an alternative animal model may arise in certain cases. The development of such an alternative model requires a thorough understanding of the course and manifestation of experimental anthrax disease induced under controlled conditions in the proposed animal species. The guinea pig, which has been used extensively for anthrax pathogenesis studies and anthrax vaccine potency testing, is a good candidate for such an alternative model. This study was aimed at determining the median lethal dose (LD50) of the Bacillus anthracis Ames strain in guinea pigs and investigating the natural history, pathophysiology, and pathology of inhalational anthrax in this animal model following nose-only aerosol exposure. The inhaled LD50 of aerosolized Ames strain spores in guinea pigs was determined to be 5.0 × 104 spores. Aerosol challenge of guinea pigs resulted in inhalational anthrax with death occurring between 46 and 71 h postchallenge. The first clinical signs appeared as early as 36 h postchallenge. Cardiovascular function declined starting at 20 h postexposure. Hematogenous dissemination of bacteria was observed microscopically in multiple organs and tissues as early as 24 h postchallenge. Other histopathologic findings typical of disseminated anthrax included suppurative (heterophilic) inflammation, edema, fibrin, necrosis, and/or hemorrhage in the spleen, lungs, and regional lymph nodes and lymphocyte depletion and/or lymphocytolysis in the spleen and lymph nodes. This study demonstrated that the course of inhalational anthrax disease and the resulting pathology in guinea pigs are similar to those seen in rabbits and NHPs, as well as in humans. PMID:23357384

Savransky, Vladimir; Sanford, Daniel C.; Syar, Emily; Austin, Jamie L.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Anderson, Michael S.; Stark, Gregory V.; Barnewall, Roy E.; Briscoe, Crystal M.; Lemiale-Bierinx, Laurence; Park, Sukjoon; Ionin, Boris



Contribution of Glial-Neuronal Interactions to the Neuroendocrine Control of Female Puberty  

PubMed Central

Summary Mammalian puberty is initiated by an increasedpulsatile release of the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons. Although this increase is primarily set in motion by neuronal networks synaptically connected to GnRH neurons, glial cells contribute to the process via at least two mechanisms. One involves production of growth factors acting via receptors endowed with either serine-threonine kinase or tyrosine kinase activity. The other involves plastic rearrangements of glia-GnRH neuron adhesiveness. Growth factors of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family acting via erbB receptors play a major in glia-to GnRH neuron communication. In turn, neurons facilitate astrocytic erbB signaling via glutamate-dependent cleavage of erbB ligand precursors. Genetic disruption of erbB receptors delays female sexual development due to impaired erbB ligand-induced glial prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release. The adhesiveness of glial cells to GnRH neurons involves at least two different cell-cell communication systems endowed with both adhesive and intracellular signaling capabilities. One is provided by Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule (SynCAM1), which establishes astrocyte-GnRH neuron adhesiveness via homophile interactions; the other involves the heterophilic interaction of neuronal contactin with glial Receptor-like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-? (RPTP?). These finding indicate that the interaction of glial cells with GnRH neurons involves not only secreted bioactive molecules, but also cell-surface adhesive proteins able to set in motion intracellular signaling cascades. PMID:21143655

Ojeda, Sergio R.; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Sandau, Ursula



The effect of feeding rations with different ratios of concentrate to alfalfa hay on blood hematological and biochemical parameters of farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus).  


A two-month trial was conducted to investigate the effects of pelleting rations with 70:30, 65:35, and 60:40 concentrate to high-quality roughage (alfalfa hay) ratios on hematological and biochemical parameters of ostriches. A total of 18 seven-month-old male ostrich chicks, initially weighing an average of 60-70 kg, were distributed into three different outdoor paddocks at a stocking density of six birds per paddock. In the morning, blood collection was made from the wing vein after about 12 h of fasting. All rations resulted in no significant change in hematological parameters. However, with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio tended to be lower (P = 0.089); whereas the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) tended to be higher (P values 0.069, 0.072 and 0.094, respectively). In terms of plasma biochemical parameters, increasing the ratio of concentrate to alfalfa hay in ostrich diets resulted in significant (P < 0.05) depression in the values of glucose (up to 20.2 %), total cholesterol (up to 19.2 %), creatine kinase (up to 27.9 %), and aspartate aminotransferase (up to 29.9 %). Additionally, the 65:35 or 60:40 rations caused a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (27.9 and 42 %, respectively; P = 0.008) compared to the 70:40 ration. Without exception, no rations affected the values of leukocyte subsets, total protein, albumin, globulin, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein. Based on our results, the concentrate to alfalfa ratio of 60:40 could be suggested as optimum ratio for good health conditions of juvenile ostriches. PMID:23575919

Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Kazemi-Bonchenari, Mehdi; Khaltabadi-Farahani, Amir Hossein; Khodaei Motlagh, Mahdi



Mycoplasma corogypsi associated polyarthritis and tenosynovitis in black vultures (Coragyps atratus)  

PubMed Central

Three wild American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) were presented to rehabilitation centers with swelling of multiple joints, including elbows, stifles, hocks, and carpal joints, and of the gastrocnemius tendons. Cytological examination of the joint fluid exudate indicated heterophilic arthritis. Radiographic examination in 2 vultures demonstrated periarticular soft tissue swelling in both birds and irregular articular surfaces with subchondral bone erosion in both elbows in 1 bird. Prolonged antibiotic therapy administered in 2 birds did not improve the clinical signs. Necropsy and histological examination demonstrated a chronic lymphoplasmacytic arthritis involving multiple joints and gastrocnemius tenosynovitis. Articular lesions varied in severity and ranged from moderate synovitis and cartilage erosion and fibrillation to severe synovitis, diffuse cartilage ulceration, subchondral bone loss and/or sclerosis, pannus, synovial cysts, and epiphyseal osteomyelitis. No walled bacteria were observed or isolated from the joints. However, mycoplasmas polymerase chain reactions were positive in at least 1 affected joint from each bird. Mycoplasmas were isolated from joints of 1 vulture that did not receive antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from joint samples and the mycoplasma isolate identified Mycoplasma corogypsi in 2 vultures and was suggestive in the third vulture. Mycoplasma corogypsi identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of mycoplasma isolates. This report provides further evidence that M. corogypsi is a likely cause of arthritis and tenosynovitis in American black vultures. Cases of arthritis and tenosynovitis in New World vultures should be investigated for presence of Mycoplasma spp, especially M. corogypsi. PMID:22903399

Van Wettere, A. J.; Ley, D. H.; Scott, D. E.; Buckanoff, H. D.; Degernes, L. A.



Infectious Mononucleosis at the United States Military Academy. A Prospective Study of a Single Class Over Four Years 1  

PubMed Central

A prospective study of EB virus infections was initiated in July, 1969 in the entering class of 1401 cadets, at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. and continued over 4 yr. On entry 63.5% possessed EBV antibody and 36.5 lacked EBV antibody. The rate of antibody prevalence varied with the geographic area from which the cadet originated. Except in two cadets already ill on first bleeding no evidence of clinical infectious mononucleosis (I.M.) occurred over the 4 yr period in the 890 cadets entering the Academy with EBV antibody. Among 437 cadets without antibody on entry, 54 or 12.4% were infected (seroconverted) in the freshman year; 15 of these had clinical I.M., 12 had suggestive I.M., and 39 had no known mono-like illness. The annual infection rates in susceptible cadets in the second, third, and fourth years were 24.4, 15.1, and 30.8 per 100, respectively. Of 201 cadets infected with EBV over 4 yr only 26.4% were manifested by heterophile positive clinical infectious mononucleosis. Overall, 46% of the 437 cadets entering without EBV antibody became infected over 40 mo of serologic observation; definite clinical infectious mononucleosis developed in 53 cadets, a clinical attack rate of 12.1 per 100 for 4 yr. The EBV infection rate among exposed and susceptible roommates of known cases was no higher than in roommates not so exposed. Elevations of EBV-specific and total IgM occurred during acute illness and disappeared in late convalescence. Total IgG and IgA levels were less commonly elevated. EBV-specific-IgM antibody was demonstrable during the acute illness but was absent 12 mo later. Analysis of EBV infection rates revealed no difference among persons of different ABO blood groups. PMID:4374836

Hallee, T. James; Evans, Alfred S.; Niederman, James C.; Brooks, Charles M.; Voegtly, John H.



Effects of different levels of organic and inorganic chromium on growth performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress.  


This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of organic and inorganic chromium on the performance, immune function and some serum mineral concentrations of broilers under heat stress condition (23.9-37°C cycling). A total of 150 one-day-old broiler chicks according to a completely randomized design were assigned into five treatment groups. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and each replicate contained ten chicks. Chicks were fed on corn-soybean meal basal diets with added different concentrations of chromium (0, 600 and 1,200 ?g kg(-1) chromium chloride or 600 and 1,200 ?g/kg chromium L-methionine) from 1 to 49 days of age. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7% sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed by the cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity (CBH) test to phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-P at day 32 and PHA-M at day 48. Heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio was also measured as a reliable indicator of stress. The body mass, feed intake and conversion ratio were not influenced by dietary chromium (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation of both organic and inorganic chromium significantly increased primary and secondary antibody responses (P < 0.01), and also improved H/L ratio (P < 0.05), CBH response (P < 0.01) as well as relative weights of thymus (P < 0.05) and spleen (P < 0.01). Both dietary organic and inorganic chromium caused an increase in serum concentrations of Cr and Zn (P < 0.01), but decreased the serum concentration of Cu (P < 0.01). These results suggest that supplemental chromium especially in organic form offers a good management practice to reduce heat stress-related depression in immunocompetence of broiler chicks. PMID:22127829

Ghazi, Sh; Habibian, M; Moeini, M M; Abdolmohammadi, A R



West Nile virus in raptors from Virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings.  


Sixty-one birds of prey admitted to The Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; Waynesboro, Virginia, USA) from June to November 2003 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Choanal and/or cloacal swabs were obtained and submitted to Virginia's Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (Richmond, Virginia, USA) for analysis with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty birds of prey were positive for WNV by RT-PCR. Five avian families and nine species of raptors were represented, with great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) most frequently affected. Presenting clinical signs were consistent with previous reports of WNV infection in raptors; however, these differed between species. Of WNV positive birds, nonspecific signs of illness were the most common clinical findings, particularly in red-tailed hawks; signs included dehydration (n = 20), emaciation (n = 18), and depression (n = 15). Neurologic abnormalities were frequently identified, especially in great horned owls, and included head tremors (n = 17), ataxia (n = 13), head incoordination (n = 7), torticollis (n = 3), nystagmus (n = 3), and head tilt (n = 3). Great horned owls exhibited anemia and leukocytosis with heterophilia, eosinophilia, and monocytosis consistent with chronic inflammation. Red-tailed hawks were anemic with a heterophilic leukocytosis and regenerative left shift. The majority of WNV cases occurred during August and September; there was a marked increase in the number of raptors admitted to WCV during these months followed by a marked decrease during October, November, and December. This pattern differed from mean monthly admissions during the previous 10 years and suggests a negative impact on local raptor populations. The effects of WNV on avian populations are largely unknown; however, because of their ecological importance, further investigation of the effects of WNV on raptor populations is warranted. PMID:16870856

Joyner, Priscilla H; Kelly, Sean; Shreve, Allison A; Snead, Sarah E; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Pettit, Denise A



Interferences in Immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Substances that alter the measurable concentration of the analyte or alter antibody binding can potentially result in immunoassay interference. Interfering, endogenous substances that are natural, polyreactive antibodies or autoantibodies (heterophiles), or human anti-animal antibodies together with other unsuspected binding proteins that are unique to the individual, can interfere with the reaction between analyte and reagent antibodies in immunoassay. Lipaemia, cross-reactivity, and exogenous interferences due to pre-analytical variation, matrix and equipment reaction also affect immunoassay. Interfering substances may lead to falsely elevated or falsely low analyte concentration in one or more assay systems depending on the site of the interference in the reaction and possibly result in discordant results for other analytes. The prevalence of interference is generally low in assays containing blocking agents that neutralise or inhibit the interference but is often higher in new, untested immunoassays. A wide range of analytes measured by immunoassay including hormones, tumour markers, drugs, cardiac troponin and microbial serology may be affected. Interference in immunoassay may lead to the misinterpretation of a patient's results by the laboratory and the wrong course of treatment being given by the physician. Laboratories should put processes in place to detect, test and report suspected interferences. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of discordance between the clinical and the laboratory data to the laboratory. The detection of interference may require the use of an alternate assay or additional measurements, before and after treatment with additional blocking reagent, or following dilution of the sample in non-immune serum. It is imperative that laboratories inform physicians of the follow-up procedure and report on the presence of any interference. The establishment of on-going laboratory-physician contact is essential to the continuing awareness of wrong patient results due to interference. PMID:18458713

Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg



Immuno-phenotypic and functional characterization of rabbit pulmonary intravascular macrophages.  


Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) are present in species such as cattle, sheep and horse and promote acute lung inflammation (ALI). Rabbits are often used as a model of ALI but there is controversy about the presence of PIMs in these species. Rabbits were treated with 10 mg/kg of gadolinium chloride intravenously (GC; n?=?6) or saline (n?=?6) followed by euthanasia at 48 h post-treatment to determine the presence of PIMs. In a subsequent study, rabbits were pre-treated with GC or 0.9 % saline followed by 100 ?g/kg of E. coli lipopolysaccharide intravenously 48 h later. Rabbits were euthanized 24 h post-LPS treatment. Light and electron microscopy showed that PIMs attached to the capillary endothelium and were positive for RAM-11 anti-macrophage antibody. While GC treatment induced apoptotic PIMs, there was no difference in the PIM number between control and GC-treated rabbits. Rabbits administered with LPS were 3.5 times more likely to die before the end of the 24-h period than those pre-treated with GC. Lung heterophil accumulation and IL-1?, TNF? and IL-6 mRNA expression were significantly higher in rabbits administered with LPS compared to those administered with GC before the LPS injection. PIMs from the LPS-treated rabbits were positive for TNF?. Lung, BAL and serum IL-8 and MCP-1 expression was not different between LPS rabbits with or without pre-treatment with GC. We conclude that rabbit lungs contain PIMs and that their depletion reduces endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. The presence of PIMs in rabbit lungs may need to be considered while using rabbit to model acute lung injury. PMID:23073615

Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Singh-Suri, Sarabjeet; Kajikawa, Osamu; Caldwell, Sarah; Charavaryamath, Chandarshekhar; Singh, Baljit



Immune status of free-ranging green turtles with fibropapillomatosis from Hawaii.  


Cell-mediated and humoral immune status of free-ranging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii (USA) with and without fibropapillornatosis (FP) were assessed. Tumored and non-tumored turtles from Kaneohe Bay (KB) on the island of Oahu and from FP-free areas on the west (Kona/Kohala) coast of the island of Hawaii were sampled from April 1998 through February 1999. Turtles on Oahu were grouped (0-3) for severity of tumors with 0 for absence of tumors, 1 for light, 2 for moderate, and 3 for most severe. Turtles were weighed, straight carapace length measured and the regression slope of weight to straight carapace length compared between groups (KB0, KB1, KB2, KB3, Kona). Blood was assayed for differential white blood cell count, hematocrit, in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A (ConA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and protein electrophoresis. On Oahu, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio increased while eosinophil/monocyte ratio decreased with increasing tumors score. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation indices for ConA and PHA were significantly lower for turtles with tumor scores 2 and 3. Tumor score 3 turtles (KB3) had significantly lower hematocrit, total protein, alpha 1, alpha 2, and gamma globulins than the other four groups. No significant differences in immune status were seen between non-tumored (or KB1) turtles from Oahu and Hawaii. There was no significant difference between groups in regression slopes of body condition to carapace length. We conclude that turtles with severe FP are imunosuppressed. Furthermore, the lack of significant difference in immune status between non-tumored (and KB1) turtles from Oahu and Kona/Kohala indicates that immunosuppression may not be a prerequisite for development of FP. PMID:11504232

Work, T M; Rameyer, R A; Balazs, G H; Cray, C; Chang, S P



Immune responsiveness of Japanese quail selected for egg yolk testosterone content under severe protein restriction.  


Yolk testosterone concentrations vary in response to environmental conditions and different testosterone contents can subsequently modify the phenotypic traits of offspring. Apart from effects on growth, proactive behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics, the possible negative impacts of maternal testosterone on the immune system are often considered a limitation for its deposition. The effects of maternal testosterone can be modulated by postnatal environmental conditions, such as the availability of food resources. However, the majority of studies considering the effects of maternal testosterone on the immune system have been conducted under optimum conditions. We evaluated the influence of genetic selection for high (HET) and low (LET) egg testosterone content in Japanese quail on immune responsiveness of offspring to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation under severe protein restriction. Protein restriction negatively influenced body weight and performance in the PHA-test. We observed an increase in Cort (corticosterone) and He/Ly (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) after LPS, while no changes occurred in total IgY levels in the protein-restricted group. HET quails showed higher body mass and total IgY levels and lower He/Ly ratio than LET quails, while the PHA index and Cort concentration did not differ between lines. No interactions were found between protein restriction and genetic line. In conclusion, the immune response was not compromised under conditions of severe protein restriction in the faster growing HET line compared with the LET line. We hypothesise that the immune responsiveness of birds with higher yolk testosterone may be linked with other maternally-derived substances in a context-dependent manner. PMID:25086332

Kankova, Zuzana; Okuliarova, Monika; Zeman, Michal



Experimentally induced stress, oxidative load and changes in immunity in a tropical wild bird, Perdicula asiatica: involvement of melatonin and glucocorticoid receptors.  


Throughout the year, birds encounter various environmental challenges such as extreme temperatures, rainfall and shortage of food. Here we report on the effect of stress on the general immunity of wild birds as measured by several assays including melatonin, an anti-stress hormone. We selected Perdicula asiatica, a wild tropical bird, and exposed them to experimental stressors such as water deprivation, food deprivation and immobilization, i.e., stressors that they would encounter in a natural environment. We measured the oxidative load in the spleen in terms of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels. The immune status was judged by total leukocyte count (TLC), heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (H/L) and percent stimulation ratio of splenocytes (%SR). The peripheral levels of melatonin and corticosterone were also determined and correlated with the expression of melatonin (Mel(1a)/Mel(1b)) and glucocorticoid receptors. Our results showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in splenic SOD and catalase activity, while a significant (p < 0.05) increase in TBARS and a corticosterone level was observed. Stressful conditions also decreased the immune status as reflected by the low values of H/L ratios, TLC and %SR. In contrast, melatonin pretreatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the oxidative stress and improved the immune parameters when compared to untreated control birds. This suggests that melatonin prevents/alleviates oxidative damage and suppresses the immune status induced by stressful conditions via its membrane receptor expression (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)) in P. asiatica. PMID:25037646

Yadav, Sanjeev K; Haldar, Chandana



Characterization of a spontaneously transformed chicken mononuclear cell line.  


We describe the characterization of a spontaneously transformed chicken monocytic cell line that developed as a single colony of cells in a heterophil culture that was inadvertently left in the incubator over a period of 25 days. These cells, hitherto named HTC, grow efficiently at both 37 or 41 degrees C in culture medium containing either 5% FBS or 2% chicken serum. The HTC cells are acid phosphatase positive, show expressions of both class I and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC), CD44, K1, and K55 cell surface antigens, and engulf latex beads, produce nitrite and interleukin-6 on stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induces respiratory burst in HTC cells and the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) into culture medium. Using gene-specific primers and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the presence of mRNA trancripts for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) were detected. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of HTC cells modulated IL-1, IL-6, IFN-gamma, NOS mRNA levels as detected by RT-PCR analyses. Using different avian tumor virus gene-specific primers and PCR, the HTC cells were positive for the presence of avian leukosis virus (ALV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) but negative for reticuloendothelial virus (REV), chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), and herpes virus of turkeys (HVT). The production of ALV antigens by HTC cells was further confirmed using p27 gag protein ELISA. Collectively, these results show that the HTC cells belong to myeloid/macrophage lineage and were likely transformed by ALV and MDV but retain many interesting and useful biological activities. PMID:14522138

Rath, N C; Parcells, M S; Xie, H; Santin, E



Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.  


The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks. PMID:19156582

Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal



Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran



Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response.  


This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions.During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70% (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:24122339

Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran



Methodological Aspects of ELISA Analysis of Thioredoxin 1 in Human Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) is a protein antioxidant involved in major cellular processes. Increased plasma levels of Trx1 have been associated with human diseases suggesting that Trx1 is a marker for oxidative stress with putative clinical use. However, the reported mean levels of Trx1 in the control cohorts vary a hundred-fold between studies (0.8–87 ng/ml), possibly due to methodological differences between the capture ELISA used in the different studies. The aim of this study was to investigate methodological aspects related to the ELISA measurement of Trx1. ELISAs utilizing different capture and detection combinations of antibodies to Trx1 and as well as recombinant human (rh) Trx1 standards from two sources were characterized. The different ELISAs were subsequently used to measure Trx1 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) from healthy donors and from patients with various neurological diagnoses. The Trx1 standards differed in their content of monomeric and oligomeric Trx1, which affected the ELISAs composed of different antibody combinations. Thus, the levels of Trx1 determined in human plasma and CSF samples varied depending on the antibody used in the ELISAs and on the rhTrx1 standard. Furthermore, the relevance of preventing interference by heterophilic antibodies (HA) in human plasma and CSF was investigated. The addition of a HA blocking buffer to human samples drastically reduced the ELISA signals in many samples showing that HA are likely to cause false positive results unless they are blocked. In conclusion, the study shows that the design of a Trx1 ELISA in regards to antibodies and standards used has an impact on the measured Trx1 levels. Importantly, analyses of human plasma and CSF without preventing HA interference may obscure the obtained data. Overall, the results of this study are crucial for the improvement of future studies on the association of Trx1 levels with various diseases. PMID:25075746

Lundberg, Mathias; Curbo, Sophie; Reiser, Kathrin; Masterman, Thomas; Braesch-Andersen, Sten; Arestrom, Irene; Ahlborg, Niklas



Effects of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide on broiler chickens.  


The effects of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the physiology of 3-wk-old broiler chickens were studied at 12, 24, and 48 h after a single intravenous injection of saline or LPS. Lipopolysaccharide elevated cloacal temperature by 3 h after injection, induced a diuretic response, and decreased BW gain. An increase in the relative liver weight was evident in LPS-treated birds at all time intervals, whereas a decrease in the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius was observed only at the 48-h time point. The plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and the blood heterophil concentrations were elevated at 12 and 24 h following LPS administration. These changes were not observed in control chickens or in LPS-treated chickens at 48 h. A decrease in the blood glucose concentration in LPS-treated birds at 12 h was accompanied by an elevation in the blood phosphate level. An increase in total plasma protein concentration was observed only at 24 and 48 h after LPS treatment. Comparative SDS-PAGE analysis of plasma proteins from these birds under nonreducing conditions showed some quantitative differences in four bands of proteins between saline and LPS-treated chickens. A protein corresponding to an approximate molecular weight (MW) of 65 kDa increased in LPS-treated chickens, and three other proteins with MW of approximately 39, 49, and 56 kDa showed reductions in concentration compared with saline-treated controls. These results show that LPS induces a number of physiological changes that may be responsible for the regulation of the acute phase response in chickens. PMID:10685886

Xie, H; Rath, N C; Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Balog, J M



Assessment of growth performance, immune responses, serum metabolites, and prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chicks submitted to early-age water restriction.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two methods of early-age water restriction on performance, some immune responses, serum metabolites, and prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chicks. One-hundred-eighty-seven-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to three treatments with four replicates based on a completely randomized design. Treatments included the control group, where birds had free access to water, and water-restricted groups, where access to water was limited to three 2-h periods (WRT1) or a 12-h period (WRT2) per day from days 7 to 17. Chicks in the control group were significantly heavier (P?heterophil to lymphocyte ratio compared to the control group (P?

Toghyani, Mehdi; Toghyani, Majid; Shahryar, Habib Aghdam; Zamanizad, Mehdi



Interaction assays in yeast and cultured cells confirm known and identify novel partners of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin.  


Synaptophysin (SYP) is a major protein of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles spanning the membrane four times and contributing to various aspects of the synaptic vesicle cycle. The split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid system was used to characterize molecular interactions of membrane-bound, full-length murine SYP. In this way, the known homophilic SYP-SYP association could be confirmed and heterophilic binding of SYP to other tetraspan vesicle membrane proteins of the secretory carrier-associated membrane- and synaptogyrin-type could be detected for the first time. SYP-binding was also observed for the vSNARE synaptobrevin2 and various membrane and membrane-associated proteins. Double labeling immunofluorescence microscopy of murine retina, co-immunoprecipitation experiments and fluorescence energy resonance transfer (FRET) analyses between fluorescent protein-tagged polypeptides were carried out to validate and further characterize the association of SYP with the tetraspan vesicle membrane proteins secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 1 and synaptogyrin3, with synaptobrevin2, and the newly identified binding partners phospholipase D4, stathmin-like3, Rho family GTPase2 and ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein2. It was observed that the carboxyterminus of SYP is dispensable for association with integral membrane proteins while it is needed for binding to membrane-associated polypeptides. The latter appears to be regulated by phosphorylation, since src homology 2-domains were shown to attach to the multiple carboxyterminal phosphotyrosine residues of SYP. In conclusion, the association of SYP with different tetraspan vesicle membrane proteins suggests shared functions and the multiple other interactions identify SYP as part of a membrane platform acting as a facilitator of various steps of the synaptic vesicle cycle. PMID:18706977

Felkl, M; Leube, R E



Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).  


Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba



Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease  

PubMed Central

Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P?=?0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P?=?0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P?=?0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ? <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research investigations and in clinical diagnosis and to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:25402479

Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.



Infectious Mononucleosis and Mononucleosis Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Infectious mononucleosis (IM) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis are caused by a primary infection with related viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and CMV. Despite the similarity of clinical manifestations, basic differences exist: (1) The heterophil antibody (HA) response is absent in CMV mononucleosis, whereas it is present in IM. (2) In IM atypical lymphocytosis reflects proliferation of B cells early and of T cells later in the disease course; in CMV mononucleosis the situation appears complex. (3) In blood, EBV is restricted to B lymphocytes, whereas CMV is found in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (4) Complications of CMV mononucleosis such as hepatitis and pneumonitis may be due to virus cytopathic effect in target organs. Prominent tonsillopharyngitis with adenopathy, and visceral complications of IM are related to lymphoproliferation which is self-limited except in males with a rare familial defect in defense against EBV. Immune complex-mediated pathology may occur in both diseases. (5) CMV is frequently transmitted to a fetus in utero or to an infant during or after birth, and this occasionally leads to severe cytomegalic inclusion disease; vertical transmission of EBV appears to be exceptional. (6) Secondary EBV infections are associated with certain malignancies whereas such an association has not been recognized in the case of CMV. Toxoplasma gondii is another cause of HA-negative mononucleosis. Its complications in the heart, in skeletal muscle and in the central nervous system are related to direct invasion by the parasite. Cellular immunity plays an important role in defense against all three agents. PMID:195404

Fiala, Milan; Heiner, Douglas C.; Turner, Jerrold A.; Rosenbloom, Barry; Guze, Lucien B.



Effect of feed restriction early in life on humoral and cellular immunity of two commercial broiler strains under heat stress conditions.  


1. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of early feed restriction (FR) on immunocompetence of Ross and Arian chickens with separated sexes under heat stress (HS) conditions. 2. Chickens consumed feed ad libitum (AL) or were restricted on alternate days from 11 to 20 d of age. From 35 to 41 d of age, the HS groups were exposed to a high ambient temperature of 39 +/- 1 degreesC for 7 h each day, while the thermoneutral groups (TN) were at 33 degrees C. 3. At 21 and 42d of age, the percentage of CD4+ (helper T cells) and CD8+ (cytotoxic T cells) were determined by flow cytometry. Antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio were determined on d 21 and 42. 4. On d 21, FR elevated the CD4+, antibody titre and H/L ratio, but it decreased the CD8+ T cells. On d 42, HS decreased CD4+, CD8+, and antibody titre, but it increased H/L ratio. Under TN conditions, FR chickens had higher CD4+ than AL chickens. On d 42, FR/HS chickens had higher CD4+ and antibody titre, but they had lower CD8+ and H/L ratio than AL/HS chickens. 5. On d 42, the TN-Ross strain had lower CD4+, but they had higher CD8+ and antibody titres than the TN-Arian strain. On d 42, the HS-Arian strain had higher antibody titres and a lower H/L ratio than the HS-Ross strain. 6. Male chickens had higher CD4+, CD8+, antibody titres and H/L ratios 25 in all treatment groups. 7. In conclusion, FR early in life reduced some of the negative effects of the heat stress on the immune system of broiler chickens when exposed to high environmental temperatures later in life. PMID:12964634

Khajavi, M; Rahimi, S; Hassan, Z M; Kamali, M A; Mousavi, T



Thyroid hormone suppression and cell-mediated immunomodulation in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to PCBs.  


Exposure to environmental contaminants can induce physiological changes in animals through various mechanisms. One manifestation of subclinical toxicity from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure is the disruption of normal immune function described in numerous species, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius). In 1998, 152 mature male and female kestrels were fed either a mixture of Aroclor 1248:1254:1260 (approximately 7 mg/kg kestrel/day) through their food items, or control diets. Offspring produced by 50 breeding pairs (thus, half received in ovo PCB exposure only) were also studied. Total and differential white blood cell counts, the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response, as well as thyroid hormone levels were tested in vivo in nonbreeding adults (1998 only) and nestlings (1998 and 1999). In 1999, nestlings came from three parental groups; adults exposed in 1998, birds produced by PCB-exposed parents, and unexposed birds. In 1998, directly exposed males but not females had increased total white blood cell counts driven by lymphocytosis, plus a decreased heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio relative to controls. PCB-exposed birds had a significantly greater response to PHA than did controls, with sex as a significant factor and plasma triiodothyonine (T(3)) as a significant covariate. Levels of T(3) were significantly depressed in PCB-exposed birds of both sexes. The 1999 nestlings (F1 generation with respect to PCB exposure) did not show any effect of parental treatment group on the PHA skin response, yet T(3) remained as a significant covariate. Immunological effects are discussed in light of the antibody-mediated immunotoxicity found in the same birds and reported previously. PMID:12202931

Smits, J E; Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Marchant, T A



Involvement of a neutral glycolipid in differential cell adhesion in the Xenopus blastula.  

PubMed Central

Many different molecular species mediate cell adhesion during embryonic development. These can have either protein or carbohydrate functional groups, which can act in either a homophilic or a heterophilic manner, and often in concert. We report here that a monoclonal antibody, M4B, raised against Xenopus blastomere membranes, inhibits the calcium-dependent adhesion of dissociated blastomeres. M4B maintains its inhibitory effect on adhesion when converted into univalent fragments, and specifically affects calcium-dependent adhesion. The antigen is regulated in both space and time during early development. It is found on cell surfaces throughout the egg to blastula stages, but is more concentrated on cells in the animal and marginal zones of the blastula. It is dramatically downregulated during gastrulation, and becomes largely restricted to gut epithelium by the larval stages. We show also that M4B function is spatially differentiated at the blastula stage, since it inhibits the aggregation of dissociated animal cells to a greater extent than vegetal cells. This membrane antigen may therefore play a role in the differential adhesion observed between different regions of the blastula, and which we presume to underlie the segregation of the primary germ layers during gastrulation. M4B recognizes a complex of plasma membrane glycolipids. Periodate treatment destroys the ability of these glycolipids to react with the antibody, indicating that the epitope resides in the carbohydrate moiety of the glycolipids. Chemical characterization shows that it is a neutral glycolipid, and that the major component is of the glycoglycerolipid, rather than the more common glycosphingolipid class. Blocking experiments with oligosaccharides of defined structure, and antibody crossreactivity show that the M4B antibody does not recognize several known embryonic carbohydrate antigens. These results demonstrate that M4B antibody recognizes a novel group of developmentally regulated glycolipids which function in calcium-dependent cell--cell adhesion in the Xenopus blastula. Images PMID:1396578

Turner, A P; Brown, D; Heasman, J; Cook, G M; Evans, J; Vickers, L; Wylie, C C



Cell autonomy of DSCAM function in retinal development.  


Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) provide identifying cues by which neural architecture is sculpted. The Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (DSCAM) is required for many neurodevelopmental processes in different species and also has several potential mechanisms of activity, including homophilic adhesion, homophilic repulsion and heterophilic interactions. In the mouse retina, Dscam is expressed in many, but not all neuronal subtypes. Mutations in Dscam cause the fasciculation of dendrites of neighboring homotypic neurons, indicating a role in self-avoidance among cells of a given type, a disruption of the non-random patterning of their cell bodies, and a decrease in developmental cell death in affected cell populations. In order to address how DSCAM facilitates retinal pattering, we developed a conditional allele of Dscam to use alongside existing Dscam mutant mouse strains. Conditional deletion of Dscam reproduces cell spacing, cell number and dendrite arborization defects. Inducible deletion of Dscam and retinal ganglion cell depletion in Brn3b mutant retinas both indicate that these DSCAM-mediated phenotypes can occur independently. In chimeric retinas, in which wild type and Dscam mutant cells are comingled, Dscam mutant cells entangle adjacent wild type cells of the same type, as if both cells were lacking Dscam, consistent with DSCAM-dependent cell spacing and neurite arborization being mediated through homophilic binding cell-to-cell. Deletion of Dscam in specific cell types causes cell-type-autonomous cell body spacing defects, indicating that DSCAM mediates arborization and spacing by acting within given cell types. We also examine the cell autonomy of DSCAM in laminar stratification and find that laminar disorganization can be caused in a non-cell autonomous fashion. Finally, we find Dscam dosage-dependent defects in developmental cell death and amacrine cell spacing, relevant to the increased cell death and other disorders observed in Down syndrome mouse models and human patients, in which Dscam is present in three copies. PMID:22063212

Fuerst, Peter G; Bruce, Freyja; Rounds, Ryan P; Erskine, Lynda; Burgess, Robert W



Chicken immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families: an overview and expression details on ggTREM-A1.  


Paired immunoregulatory receptors facilitate the coordination of the immune response at the cellular level. In recent years, our group characterized chicken homologues to mammalian immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families. The first part of this review focuses on the current progress on chicken immunoregulatory Ig-like receptor families. One of these receptors is gallus gallus TREM-A1, which was described as the only member of the chicken TREM family with activating potential. The second part of this review presents a study initiated to further characterize ggTREM-A1 expression. For this purpose we established real-time RT-PCR and generated a specific mab to analyze the expression profile of ggTREM-A1 on mRNA and protein level, respectively. GgTREM-A1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in macrophages, but was also detected in brain, bone marrow, bursa, thymus, spleen and PBMC. Analyzing ggTREM-A1 surface expression by mab staining validated the expression on macrophages. Additionally, we showed high expression on blood monocytes, heterophils and NK cells and on monocytes isolated from bone marrow. Moreover, we detected ggTREM-A1 protein also on thrombocytes, B and T cell subsets, but antigen expression seemed to be lower and more variable in these cells. Immunohistochemistry of chicken brain tissue, combining ggTREM-A1 mab and various markers specific for various brain cell subsets showed expression of ggTREM-A1 on microglial cells, but also on neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In conclusion, ggTREM-A1 is expressed on a variety of cells, relevant for the immune system, possibly combining physiological function of different mammalian TREM. PMID:23648646

Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Hanczaruk, Matthias A; Amann, Barbara; Bader, Sophie R; Schmitt, Ramona; Sperling, Beatrice; Schwarz, Susanne C N; Schmahl, Wolfgang; Deeg, Cornelia A; Göbel, Thomas W



Infections with Avian Pathogenic and Fecal Escherichia coli Strains Display Similar Lung Histopathology and Macrophage Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare histopathological changes in the lungs of chickens infected with avian pathogenic (APEC) and avian fecal (Afecal) Escherichia coli strains, and to analyze how the interaction of the bacteria with avian macrophages relates to the outcome of the infection. Chickens were infected intratracheally with three APEC strains, MT78, IMT5155, and UEL17, and one non-pathogenic Afecal strain, IMT5104. The pathogenicity of the strains was assessed by isolating bacteria from lungs, kidneys, and spleens at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). Lungs were examined for histopathological changes at 12, 18, and 24 h p.i. Serial lung sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), terminal deoxynucleotidyl dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) for detection of apoptotic cells, and an anti-O2 antibody for detection of MT78 and IMT5155. UEL17 and IMT5104 did not cause systemic infections and the extents of lung colonization were two orders of magnitude lower than for the septicemic strains MT78 and IMT5155, yet all four strains caused the same extent of inflammation in the lungs. The inflammation was localized; there were some congested areas next to unaffected areas. Only the inflamed regions became labeled with anti-O2 antibody. TUNEL labeling revealed the presence of apoptotic cells at 12 h p.i in the inflamed regions only, and before any necrotic foci could be seen. The TUNEL-positive cells were very likely dying heterophils, as evidenced by the purulent inflammation. Some of the dying cells observed in avian lungs in situ may also be macrophages, since all four avian E. coli induced caspase 3/7 activation in monolayers of HD11 avian macrophages. In summary, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic fecal strains of avian E. coli produce focal infections in the avian lung, and these are accompanied by inflammation and cell death in the infected areas. PMID:22848424

Horn, Fabiana; Correa, Andre Mendes Ribeiro; Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Glodde, Susanne; Weyrauch, Karl Dietrich; Kaspers, Bernd; Driemeier, David; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.



Health of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in relation to breeding location in the early 1990s. II. Cellular and histopathological measures.  


Organosomatic indices, hematological indicators of stress, and histopathological lesions were quantified for over 150 incubating herring gulls (Larus argentatus) sampled in 11 colonies throughout the Great Lakes and reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. Of 21 parameters assessed, significantly more differed between Great Lakes colonies and reference colonies than between the two reference colonies. Relative adrenal, kidney, and liver masses of gulls from some Great Lakes colonies were reduced and thyroid masses increased relative to gulls from reference colonies. Foci of cellular atypia were observed in the hepatocytes of two Great Lakes gulls. Chronic periportal hepatitis, lipogranulomas and vacuolation of hepatocytes, and chronic granulomatous interstitial nephritis were more prevalent or severe in gulls from Great Lakes colonies and were associated with contaminants. The kidneys of gulls from the three most contaminated locations were damaged and functionally compromised. Interstitial nephritis was likely the most functionally significant histopathological lesion. Portal-tract fibrosis, granulomatous hepatitis, and kidney tubule dilation/obstruction and splenic enlargement were more prevalent or severe at reference sites and were associated with blood-borne parasites. Amyloid deposits were observed in the spleen, kidneys, or liver of nearly half of the gulls. Associations between the prevalence or severity of lesions and contaminant levels in gull tissues or the trophic level of their diet suggest some lesions are toxicopathic. Associations were most frequently found with planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and lead. The stress response, as measured by the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, was attenuated in gulls from Areas of Concern and associated with decreased adrenal mass. Our findings suggest that adult Great Lakes gulls suffered from chronic exposure to chemical stressors in the early 1990s sufficient to modulate endocrine function and physiological processes and induce structural changes in tissues. PMID:17687731

Fox, Glen A; Grasman, Keith A; Campbell, G Douglas



The effects of berberine on the magnitude of the acute inflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in broiler chickens.  


One hundred twenty-six 19-d-old male broiler chickens were used to determine the effects of berberine on the magnitude of the acute inflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The birds were weighed and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments at d 19 (3 treatments x 7 replicates x 6 birds). The treatments comprised a control group in which saline was injected at d 21, an LPS-treated group in which LPS (3 mg/kg of BW) was injected at d 21, and finally a berberine and LPS-treated group in which berberine (15 mg/kg of BW) was orally administered from d 19 to d 24 with LPS injection (3 mg/kg of BW) at d 21. Injection of LPS alone decreased (P < 0.01) weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion compared with the control and the berberine-administered group. Relative liver weight was increased (P < 0.05) in the LPS-treated group 72 h postinjection compared with the control and the berberine-treated group. Total counts of white blood cells and lymphocytes were also increased (P < 0.05) in the LPS-treated group 72 h postinjection. The heterophil concentration of the LPS-treated group was greater (P < 0.05) than that of both the control and the berberine-administered group 24 h postinjection. Broilers in the LPS-treated group had greater (P < 0.05) total serum protein compared with birds in the control and the berberine-administered group both 24 and 72 h postinjection. In addition, the plasma interleukin-6 level of the LPS-treated group was significantly elevated (P < 0.01) at 24 h compared with that of the control and the berberine-administered group. Our results indicate that LPS injection initiated a series of physiological changes typical of an acute phase response in broiler chickens. These effects were largely mitigated by oral administration of berberine. PMID:20008797

Shen, Y B; Piao, X S; Kim, S W; Wang, L; Liu, P



The chick chorioallantoic membrane as an in vivo xenograft model for Burkitt lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive malignancy that arises from B-cells and belongs to the group of Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models NHL research is mainly performed in vitro. Here, we studied the use of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for the generation of human BL xenograft tumors, which we compared with known characteristics of the human disease. Methods In order to generate experimental BL tumors, we inoculated human BL2B95 and BL2-GFP cells on the CAM. BL2B95 xenograft-tumors were grown for seven days and subsequently analyzed with transmission electron and immunofluorescence microscopy, as well as histological staining approaches. BL2-GFP cells were studied at regular intervals up to seven days, and their metastatic behavior was visualized with intravital immunofluorescence techniques. Results Xenografted BL2B95 cells formed solid tumors in the CAM model with a Ki67-index greater than 90%, preservation of typical tumor markers (CD10, CD19, CD20), a ‘starry sky’ morphology, production of agyrophilic fibers in the stroma, formation of blood and lymphatic vessels and lymphogenic dissemination of BL2B95 to distant sites. We identified macrophages, lymphocytes and heterophilic granulocytes (chick homolog of neutrophils) as the most abundant immune cells in the experimental tumors. BL2-GFP cells could be traced in real-time during their distribution in the CAM, and the first signs for their dissemination were visible after 2-3 days. Conclusions We show that xenografted BL2B95 cells generate tumors in the CAM with a high degree of cellular, molecular and proliferative concord with the human disease, supporting the application of the CAM model for NHL research with a focus on tumor-stroma interactions. Additionally we report that BL2-GFP cells, grafted on the CAM of ex ovo cultured chick embryos, provide a powerful tool to study lymphogenic dissemination in real-time. PMID:24884418



Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions.  


A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7% sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS (P<0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se (P>0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E (P<0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS (P<0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio (P<0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers (P<0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se (P<0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions (P?

Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza



Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.  


The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P?

Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A



Immunofluorescence studies on autoantibodies to steroid-producing cells, and to germline cells in endocrine disease and infertility  

PubMed Central

This study was aimed at comparing the clinical significance of antibodies to steroid-producing cells with reactions to gonadal germline cells in patients with autoimmune polyendocrine diseases and isolated infertility or amenorrhoea respectively. Indirect immunofluorescence was used on human adrenal, ovary and testis. The gonad substrates were compared with rat, rabbit and monkey glands. 152 adrenal-positive sera were selected from 1030 that had been tested on adrenal cortex. Antibodies to steroid-producing cells in the gonads were found in fifty of these 152 selected cases and were studied in detail. When using human gonads as substrates, steroid-producing-cell antibodies were never detected in the absence of adrenal cortical immunofluorescence, though false-positive reactions were sometimes obtained on rat or rabbit gonads. Adrenal antibodies as well as those to steroid-producing cells were most frequent in Addisonian cases having one or more additional endocrine disease. The frequency of both types of antibody was lower in patients with Addison's disease and no other disorder but showing evidence of `polyendocrine serology'. Both antibodies were found least frequently when adrenalitis was unassociated with clinical or subclinical autoimmunity in other organs. We were able to confirm the immunofluorescence patterns described by other authors on adrenal gland and gonads, as well as the independent rise or fall in titre of these two types of antibodies in individual cases with time. Prolonged follow-up of forty-two Addisonian patients showed that adrenal antibodies disappeared in seven instances (17%). Ovum and sperm antibodies were found in about 25% of infertility cases and a smaller proportion of polyendocrine patients. Germline cell antibodies were rarely associated with other organ-specific reactions. In two cases, amenorrhoea was due to partial pituitary deficiency and the sera of the patients contained antibodies to pituitary prolactin-cells. Testicular `basement membrane' or `Sertoli-cell' immunofluorescence were each observed in isolated cases and are discussed in relation to known non-organ-specific and heterophile patterns. The significance of zona pellucida fluorescence in relation to blood group substances requires further study on human ova obtained by aspiration from mature Graafian follicles. PMID:6771073

Sotsiou, Flora; Bottazzo, G. F.; Doniach, Deborah



Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions.

Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin



Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7 % sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS ( P < 0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se ( P > 0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS ( P < 0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio ( P < 0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers ( P < 0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se ( P < 0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions ( P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were increased but serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in HS broilers ( P < 0.05).

Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza



Arginine and vitamin E improve the immune response after a Salmonella challenge in broiler chicks.  


Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Arg, vitamin E (VE), and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the immune response and clearance of Salmonella in broiler chickens. In each experiment, 1-d-old chicks (n = 160) were randomly distributed into 4 groups: antibiotic-free diet (negative control, CTL-), antibiotic-supplemented diet (positive control, CTL+), antibiotic free-diet plus Arg and VE (AVE), or antibiotic-free diet plus Arg, VE, and MOS (AVM). Birds were orally challenged with 10(6) cfu of a novobiocyn and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain at d 7 (experiment 1) or at d 3 (experiment 2). Heterophil- (HOB) and monocyte- (MOB) oxidative burst and lymphocyte proliferation (LPR), antibody titers, and Salmonella content in the ceca were measured at several intervals postinfection (PI). In experiment 1, both AVM and AVE decreased HOB compared with the controls 5 and 9 d PI, but increased LPR 9 d PI. In the same experiment, birds fed the AVE diet had higher MOB than birds fed CTL+ or the AVM diet at 7 d PI, whereas 9 d PI birds fed the AVM diet had the highest MOB. In experiment 2, birds fed the AVE diet had higher MOB, HOB, and LPR than birds in the other treatments 7 and 14 d PI, except at 7 d PI, when MOB was not different among treatments. Birds fed the AVM diet had the highest IgA antibody titer, and a higher IgM antibody titer than the CTL+ birds. In experiment 1, Salmonella Typhimurium content in the ceca was lower in birds fed the AVM diet compared with birds fed the CTL- diet 3 d PI, but later on (10 and 17 d PI), and in experiment 2 (7, 14, and 21 d PI), Salmonella Typhimurium concentrations were not different among treatments. Thus, Arg and VE improved immune response after a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge in young chicks, and although they did not reduce Salmonella Typhimurium concentrations in the ceca, they may improve bacterial resistance against other pathogens in commercial growing conditions. PMID:24706965

Liu, X; Byrd, J A; Farnell, M; Ruiz-Feria, C A



Evaluation of nicarbazin as a potential waterfowl contraceptive using mallards as a model.  


Contraception may provide a useful nonlethal management tool to reduce wild bird populations. We tested the efficacy of nicarbazin (NCZ) as a contraceptive for waterfowl and assessed health effects of NCZ, using domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) as a model for Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Mallards were given gelatin capsules containing 0, 8.5, 17.0, or 33.75 mg of NCZ/kg of BW perorally once daily for 14 d. Fecal 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and fluorescein were evaluated as potential markers of plasma and egg DNC levels. Plasma, egg, and fecal DNC levels differed among treatment groups in a dose response relationship. There were no significant effects on the numbers of eggs laid per female per day, proportion of fertile eggs, proportion of eggs hatching, or egg yolk mottling. Hatchability was 0.55 +/- 0.1 in the control group compared with 0.26 +/- 0.1 in the 33.75 mg/kg of BW group. Degeneration of the vitelline membrane was evident at all treatment levels; severity was dose-related and greater in the outer vitelline membrane than the inner vitelline membrane. No significant health effects were observed for birds treated with NCZ. The heterophil:lymphocyte ratio was elevated during the treatment and posttreatment periods in all groups, indicating birds were experiencing stress due to handling. Fecal DNC levels did not correlate well with plasma DNC levels, likely due to NCZ being administered as a bolus dose rather than being fed ad libitum. Fluorescein correlated well with plasma DNC levels during the treatment period and can therefore be used successfully as a noninvasive marker to determine the approximate amount of NCZ a bird is consuming. As a contraceptive, NCZ likely would have minimal adverse health effects on the target animal, although field studies with the species of interest need to be conducted. Further research using higher NCZ levels needs to be conducted to determine whether NCZ can inhibit reproduction in waterfowl. PMID:16830869

Yoder, C A; Graham, J K; Miller, L A; Bynum, K S; Johnston, J J; Goodall, M J



Effects of temperature during rearing and crating on stress parameters and meat quality of broilers.  


Two trials were conducted to study the effects of heat stress during rearing (trial 1) and crating (trial 2) on broiler stress parameters and fear, breast meat quality, and nutrient composition. The relationships between stress parameters and meat quality traits were also determined. Trial 1 consisted of 3 temperature treatments from 3 to 7 wk: control (temperature was 22 degrees C); diurnal cyclic temperature (temperature was 28 degrees C from 1000 to 1700 h and 22 degrees C from 1700 to 1000 h); and constant high temperature (34 degrees C; temperature was 34 degrees C). In trial 2, broilers from the control and 34 degrees C groups in trial 1 were used. Broilers in each group were placed in transport cages. The 9 cages from the control group were divided into 3 groups and placed into 3 rooms at 15, 22, or 34 degrees C for 2 h. The 3 cages from the 34 degrees C group were also held in the room at 34 degrees C (34-34 degrees C). Diurnal cyclic temperature had no effect on BW up to 5 wk of age. The effect of 34 degrees C constant temperature on BW of broilers increased with age. Plasma levels of glucose and albumin increased by 34 degrees C, but no dramatic change in levels occurred when those broilers were crated at 34 degrees C. The heterophil:lymphocyte (H:L) was higher for the 34-34 degrees C broilers and the control broilers in the 34 degrees C room than those from the 22 and 15 degrees C room. Breast muscle glycogen level decreased in broilers reared under diurnal cyclic or high temperatures. A lower pH and higher lightness (L*) and redness values and redness:yellowness were found in meat for broilers from both 34 degrees C and 34-34 degrees C groups. Higher H:L was associated with breast muscle pH according to first-order polynomial regression. The H:L had a significant effect on L* values, which were described by a second-order polynomial regression. Blood glucose level was positively correlated with L* and redness values. Duration of tonic immobility was neither influenced by rearing and crating temperatures nor associated with meat quality parameters. PMID:17032815

Ak?it, M; Yalçin, S; Ozkan, S; Metin, K; Ozdemir, D



Effect of Montanide™ IMS 1312 VG adjuvant on efficacy of Yersinia ruckeri vaccine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  


The efficacy of immersion vaccination Yersinia ruckeri bacterin containing Montanide™ IMS 1312 VG was evaluated in 100-120 g rainbow trout against yersiniosis. Healthy fish were vaccinated by immersion vaccination with inactivated whole cells (1 × 10(8) cells/ml) of a virulent strain of Y. ruckeri biotype I with and without Montanide (1:1; Montanide/antigen) for 2 min at 12-14 °C. Control group was immersed in sterile PBS. Leukocyte counts, serum lysozyme assay, alternative hemolytic complement (ACH50) assay, antibody titration and relative percent survival (RPS) were measured on 2-10 weeks post-immunization. No significant difference was seen in leucocyte population of trout immunized either with Y. ruckeri antigen or Y. ruckeri antigen containing Montanide (P > 0.05), while leucocyte and heterophil populations in control group were significantly lower and higher, respectively, than both immunized groups (P < 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference in lymphocyte population of trout immunized either with Y. ruckeri antigen or Y. ruckeri antigen containing Montanide (P > 0.05), while lymphocyte population in control group was significantly lower than both immunized groups (P < 0.05). Lysozyme activity in immunized fish with Y. ruckeri containing Montanide was higher than the immunized fish with Y. ruckeri antigen alone during 8 weeks post-immunization ((P < 0.05). Also, level of lysozyme in control fish was generally lower than both immunized groups (P < 0.05). The level of ACH50 between both immunized groups was insignificant (P > 0.05) but these were significantly higher than control group through the experiment (P < 0.05). The lowest anti-Y. ruckeri antibody titers in both immersion vaccination groups were significantly higher through 2-8 weeks post-vaccination compared to the control group (P < 0.05). In the group immersion vaccinated with Y. ruckeri bacterin plus Montanide the titers 2-8 weeks post-vaccination were significantly higher the titer in the immersion vaccinated with Y. ruckeri bacterin (P < 0.05). Fish vaccinated with antigen without Montanide resulted in RPS of 80-82% on 2-10 weeks post-vaccination, while those for antigen containing montanide gave RPSs of 93.8-100% 2-10 weeks post-immunization (P < 0.05). PMID:24444826

Soltani, M; Shafiei, Sh; Yosefi, P; Mosavi, Sh; Mokhtari, A



Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens.  


In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and innate immunity of broiler chickens. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n 8 cages/treatment; n 6 birds/cage) with three dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.42 and 1.90%) and two immune treatments (injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline) given at an interval of 48 h between 14 and 21 d of age. In Expt 2, correlation between dietary Arg concentration (0.99, 1.39, 1.76, 2.13 or 2.53%) and percentage of circulating B cells (percentage of circulating lymphocytes) was determined. In Expt 1, LPS injection decreased body-weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio of the challenged broilers (14-21 d; P< 0.05). LPS injection suppressed (P< 0.05) the percentages of splenic CD11+ and B cells (percentages of splenic lymphocytes) and phagocytic activity of splenic heterophils and macrophages; Arg supplementation linearly decreased the percentages of CD11+, CD14+ and B cells in the spleen (P< 0.10). LPS injection increased (P< 0.05) the expression of IL-1? and IL-6 mRNA in the spleen and caecal tonsils. Arginine supplementation decreased (P< 0.05) the expression of IL-1?, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and PPAR-? mRNA in the spleen and IL-1?, IL-10, TLR4 and NF-?B mRNA in the caecal tonsils. In Expt 2, increasing dietary Arg concentrations linearly and quadratically reduced the percentage of circulating B cells (P< 0.01). Collectively, Arg supplementation attenuated the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines probably through the suppression of the TLR4 pathway and CD14+ cell percentage. Furthermore, excessive Arg supplementation (1.76%) suppressed the percentages of circulating and splenic B cells. PMID:24330949

Tan, Jianzhuang; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Applegate, Todd J; Eicher, Susan D



The effects of water replacement by oral rehydration fluids with or without betaine supplementation on performance, acid-base balance, and water retention of heat-stressed broiler chickens.  


Exposing broilers to a high temperature increases water and electrolyte K(+) and Na(+) excretion, which negatively affects the heat dissipation capacity and acid-base homeostasis, resulting in losses in growth performance. In this experiment, the efficacy of providing oral rehydration therapy and betaine on growth performance, acid-base balance, and water and electrolyte retention was evaluated. A total of 432 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb) were allocated to 72 metabolic cages and reared to 31 d of age under standard conditions. From 32 to 41 d of age, chicks were exposed to heat stress (ambient temperature, 32°C) and high RH (80 to 100% RH) for 9 h daily. The ameliorative effects of a 3 × 3 factorial array of treatments administered via drinking water were evaluated in 8 replicates of 6 chicks per cage for each treatment. Two oral rehydration therapy (ORT) fluids, based on either citrate or bicarbonate salts, were added to tap water. In addition, betaine was added to tap water at an inclusion rate of 0, 500, or 1,000 mg/L to complete the array of 9 liquid-based treatments. Growth performance was assessed at 32, 35, and 41 d of age. From 32 to 35 d of age, chicks receiving ORT fluids exhibited improved growth performance, water balance, and electrolyte (K(+), Na(+)) retention. In addition, the physiological response to stress was attenuated, as indicated by lower heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and blood glucose concentrations relative to the negative controls. The addition of betaine at an inclusion rate of 500 mg/L improved BW gain. From d 36 to 41, treatments did not significantly influence growth performance, which suggests that chicks receiving tap water were able to compensate and adapt to the heat-stress conditions. The results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of providing ORT fluids and 500 mg of betaine/L were observed only during the first 4 d of heat exposure. After this period, adaptation to the heat appears to occur, and none of the treatments was successful in improving growth performance. PMID:21177455

Sayed, M A M; Downing, J



Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance.  


Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting dietary nutrient intake from 3 different diets that vary in energy and in protein contents from a cafeteria system at high temperature (HT; 31-32°C) and at normal temperature (NT; 31-21°C). Night temperature was set at 25°C at HT and at 18°C at NT and 12 h dark:12 h light. Control birds were fed a standard control diet (CP: 215 g/kg; ME: 2,895 kcal/kg) for broiler chickens. The choice-fed birds could choose between the control diet, a high-protein diet (CP: 299 g/kg; ME: 2,780 kcal/kg), and a high-energy diet (CP: 150.7 g/kg; ME: 3,241 kcal/kg). The diets had similar pellet size and color. Birds had access to each diet in a separate feeding trough from 1 to 42 d of age. Results showed that broilers spent 3.3% more time eating at NT than at HT and showed 42% more panting behavior at HT than at NT. High temperature decreased feed intake, protein intake, energy intake, and BW gain. Choice-fed birds had similar feed intake and BW gain, 14% lower protein intake, and 6.4% higher energy intake than control-fed birds. Body temperature and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were higher at HT than at NT. Water intake was 8% higher in control-fed birds than in choice-fed birds but similar at both temperature regimens. It can be concluded that broilers can compose a diet by selecting less protein but higher energy density from different diets compared with the control. Choice-fed birds had similar feed efficiency as control-fed birds at HT, indicating similar body composition for both groups. Extra energy intake of choice-fed birds at HT was used for panting activity. PMID:22334728

Syafwan, S; Wermink, G J D; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A



A note on protein expression changes in chicken breast muscle in response to time in transit before slaughtering  

PubMed Central

Aims of the research were to devise a proteome map of the chicken Pectoralis superficialis muscle, as resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and to characterize protein expression changes in the soluble protein fraction in commercial conditions due to age and to time in transit before slaughtering. Broilers were reared under commercial conditions until they reached a mean 1.8 kg and 36 d, or 2.6 kg and 46 d of age. Transport to the slaughterhouse took 90 or 220 minutes. Transport-induced stress was assessed from blood metabolites and leukocyte cell counts, revealing significant changes in albumin, glucose and triglyceride concentrations, in heterophils and leukocyte counts for chickens in transit for longer, and in glucose depending mainly on age. The sarcoplasmic protein fractions were extracted from a total of 39 breast muscle samples, collected 15 min post mortem, for analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Image and statistical analyses enabled us to study the qualitative and quantitative differences between the samples. Twelve up- or down-regulated protein spots were detected (P?



A novel hypothesis for the etiology of Graves' disease: TSAb may be thyroid stimulating animal IgG-like hormone and TBAb may be the precursor of TSAb.  


There are doubtful points about the theory that autoimmunity with auto-antibody (Ab) to TSH receptor (R) causes hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease (GD). A main doubtful point is no curative effect of corticosteroid on Graves' hyperthyroidism in spite of curative effect of corticosteroid for all autoimmune diseases. Recently we demonstrated the immunological similarity of TSAb and TBAb-IgG to animal IgGs, except for human (h)IgG, by neutralization and purification of TSAb and TBAb-IgG using (1) heterophilic Ab to animal IgG in GD sera and (2) experimentally generated anti-animal IgG Abs [such as dog (d), bovine (b), porcine (p), and rabbit (rb)]. Furthermore, greater immunological similarity of Fab- and F(ab')(2)-portion of TSAb- and TBAb-IgG to bovine Fab, compared to hFab, was demonstrated using goat anti-bovine F(ab')(2) Ab. Existence of b and p TSH-like portions in the LATS-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion) was suggested by a previous report of neutralization of LATS activity by anti-b- or anti-p-TSH Ab. We suggested the existence of a mammalian animal-TSH-like structure, excepting hTSH, in the TSAb-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion), by discovery of anti-mammalian TSH Ab (such as d, b, p, guinea-pig, rat, whale, except h) in sera of GD. Lately, similar TSHR binding of H- and L-chain of human stimulating monoclonal TSHR Ab (M22)-Fab with TSH-? and-? subunit was reported. This evidence suggests that Fab portion of TSAb has a structure like mammalian TSH, but not hTSH. IgG-? type of d, horse, b, p, goat, ovine is 95% and IgG-? type is 5%, while human ? and ? chain is 60:40. Previous report that LATS (TSAb)-IgG composed of predominant ? type is supporting evidence that TRAb-IgG has immunological similarity with these animal IgGs compared to hIgG. We speculate that TSAb-IgG may be referred as a mermaid consisted in face (Fab) and trunk-leg (Fc). Face may be a kind of hormone with animal TSH-like structure and trunk-leg has animal IgG-like structure (in spite of no antibody function). There are many reports for co-existence of TSAb and TBAb-IgG in sera of GD. We reported conversion from TBAb (non-thyroid stimulating type IgG) to TSAb by co-incubation of anti-hIgG Ab (containing anti-animal IgG Ab as a cross-reaction) with TBAb-bound porcine thyroid cells. Thus, we suggest that TBAb may be the precursor form of TSAb. PMID:22472575

Ochi, Yukio; Kajita, Yoshihiro; Hachiya, Takashi; Hamaoki, Masaru