Williams, Jessica Roberts; Ghandour, Reem M.; Kub, Joan E.
This article critically reviews 62 empirical studies that examine the prevalence of female perpetrated intimate partner violence across three distinct populations (adolescents, college students, and adults). All studies were published between 1996 and 2006 and reported prevalence rates of physical, emotional, and/or sexual violence perpetrated by females in heterosexual intimate relationships. The highest rates were found for emotional violence, followed by physical and sexual violence. Prevalence rates varied widely within each population, most likely due to methodological and sampling differences across studies. Few longitudinal studies existed, limiting the extent to which we could identify developmental patterns associated with female perpetrated intimate partner violence. Differences and similarities across populations are highlighted. Methodological difficulties of this area of inquiry as well as implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed. PMID:18936281
Goldberg, Abbie E; Kinkler, Lori A; Moyer, April M; Weber, Elizabeth
Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner's undivided attention as stressful to the relationship. Adoption-specific stressors were also identified, including the need to find state-approved child care to facilitate "couple time" and the legal insecurity of foster-to-adopt placements. Although our findings were similar for heterosexual, lesbian, and gay adoptive parents, same-sex couples cited some additional stressors related to their sexual minority status. Findings have implications for individual, couple, and family practitioners who work with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents, particularly during their transition to parenthood. PMID:25177080
Halstead, Valerie; De Santis, Joseph; Williams, Jessica
Various theoretical frameworks have been utilized while examining the concept of relationship power. In addition, the conceptual definition and operational use are inconsistent throughout literature. A concept analysis was conducted on the basis of the guidelines provided by Walker and Avant. The proposed definition of relationship power is the relative, perceived, and actual ability to influence a relationship partner. Antecedents, attributes, and consequences are presented. Because of the various adverse outcomes related to relationship power (eg, intimate partner violence, depression), an understanding of this concept is essential. Furthermore, a clear understanding is needed to advance nursing knowledge, leading to future research and theory development. PMID:27149233
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Moyer, April M.; Weber, Elizabeth
Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner’s undivided attention as stressful to the relationship. Adoption-specific stressors were also identified, including the need to find state-approved child care to facilitate “couple time” and the legal insecurity of foster-to-adopt placements. Although our findings were similar for heterosexual, lesbian, and gay adoptive parents, same-sex couples cited some additional stressors related to their sexual minority status. Findings have implications for individual, couple, and family practitioners who work with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents, particularly during their transition to parenthood. PMID:25177080
Larance, Lisa Young; Rousson, Ashley
The authors highlight a community's response to women's use of force, detail aspects of intervention strategies, and introduce a conceptual model representing the women's change process. In doing so, they encourage community partnerships, continued intervention innovation, and further research. Their observations suggest an intervention philosophy and approach that women have described as one of personal "renewal." The community's experiences are notable in light of national efforts to effectively meet the needs of female survivors of intimate partner violence who have used force. PMID:26503859
Pleck, Joseph H.; And Others
Examines impact of masculine ideology on adolescents' heterosexuality relationships, using national survey data for 1,069 adolescent males. Authors demonstrate how acceptance of "traditional male role attitudes" is related to a less intimate relationship with a partner when sex first occurs, an adversarial view of close relationships with women,…
Popadiuk, Natalee E.
Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…
Farooque, Rokeya S; Stout, Ronnie G; Ernst, Frederick A
Most of the literature on intimate partner homicide addresses violence between the two partners, spousal abuse, and family violence. There is less focus on the relationship of mental illness, intellectual functioning, and drug and alcohol abuse to these homicides. We investigated this type of homicide in a collection of forensic cases seen by the first author over a period of 10 years. Twenty-eight patients who underwent forensic psychiatric evaluation for heterosexual intimate partner homicide from August 1993 to June 2003 were studied using a retrospective case review methodology. We found that firearms were used as the method of killing more often by females than by males. We also compared method of killing with substance abuse and intoxication at the time of the homicide. Educational status indicates that this group of accused perpetrators is functioning at higher intellectual levels compared with a previously studied sample of filicides. We also found significant presence of serious mental illness in our sample of accused perpetrators of heterosexual intimate partner homicide. PMID:15932101
Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212
Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212
Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.
Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…
Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David; Ompad, Danielle
The present study examined the associations of relationship factors, partner violence, relationship power, and condom-use related factors with condom use with a main male partner among drug-using women. Over two visits, 244 heterosexual drug-using women completed a cross-sectional survey. Multivariate logistic regression models indicated that women who expected positive outcomes and perceived lower condom-use barriers were more likely to report condom use with their intimate partners. The findings suggest that future interventions aiming at reducing HIV risk among drug-using women should focus on women’s subjective appraisals of risks based on key relationship factors in addition to the occurrence of partner violence. PMID:20437300
Borneskog, Catrin; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Lampic, Claudia; Sydsjö, Gunilla
BACKGROUND One of the major factors impacting on a couple's relationship is the desire to have children. To many couples having a child is a confirmation of their love and relationship and a means to deepen and develop their intimate relationship. At the same time parental stress can impact on relationship quality. Relationship quality in lesbian couples is, currently, sparsely studied. The aim of the present study was to compare lesbian and heterosexual couples' perceptions of their relationship quality at the commencement of assisted reproduction, and to relate this to background data such as educational level, having previous children and, for lesbian couples, the use of a known versus anonymous donor. METHODS The present study is part of the prospective longitudinal ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’, including all fertility clinics performing donation treatment in Sweden. Of a consecutive cohort of 214 lesbian couples about to receive donor insemination and 212 heterosexual couples starting regular IVF treatment, 166 lesbian couples (78% response) and 151 heterosexual couples (71% response) accepted participation in the study. At commencement of assisted reproduction participants individually completed questionnaires including the instrument ‘ENRICH’, which is a standardized measure concerning relationship quality. RESULTS In general, the couples rated their relationship quality as good, the lesbian couple better than the heterosexuals. In addition, the lesbian women with previous children assessed their relationship quality lower than did the lesbian woman without previous children. For heterosexual couples previous children did not influence their relationship quality. Higher educational levels reduced the satisfaction with the sexual relationship (P = 0.04) for treated lesbian women, and enhanced the rating of conflict resolution for treated lesbian women (P = 0.03) and their partners (P = 0.02). Heterosexual women with high levels of education
Bass, Brenda L.; Drake, Teske R.; Linney, Kirsten D.
Unrealistic relationship beliefs have been shown to be related to lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Yet, young adults often hold unrealistic or irrational beliefs about intimate relationships. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intimate relationships course in reducing young adults' irrational relationship…
Pipes, Randolph B.; LeBov-Keeler, Karen
Identifies possible predictors of psychological abuse in nonmarital heterosexual romantic relationships. Responses from 175 undergraduate women reveal 11% claiming psychological abuse as well as more instances of partner behaviors characteristic of psychological abuse. Abused individuals were more likely to have lower self-esteem, had parents'…
Herrera, Veronica M.; Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington
This study examines individual and partner characteristics associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adult relationships with opposite sex partners. Using data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined 1,275 young adults' heterosexual romantic relationships.…
Duffy, S M; Rusbult, C E
Rusbult's (1980, 1983) investment model was utilized to explore the determinants of satisfaction with and commitment to maintain romantic relationships among male and female homosexuals and male and female heterosexuals. The study employed a questionnaire designed to obtain both specific and global measures of rewards, costs, alternatives, and investments, and to obtain global measures of satisfaction and commitment. Women, both lesbians and heterosexuals, reported that they had invested more in their relationships and were more committed to maintaining their relationships than did men. Heterosexuals, male and female, reported greater costs and marginally greater investments in their relationships. In general, the investment model effectively predicted satisfaction and commitment for the sample as a whole and for all four groups of respondents. Greater satisfaction with relationships was associated with higher levels of rewards and lower levels of costs. Greater commitment was associated with greater satisfaction, greater investments, and poorer quality alternatives. Relationship costs were more strongly related to satisfaction and commitment for females than for males. Differences in the average level and the importance of a wide variety of specific predictors were also examined. In general, gender appeared to be a more important predictor of the behaviors explored in this study than was sexual preference. PMID:3835198
Mahlstedt, Deborah L; Welsh, Lesley A
Two studies investigated college students' perceptions of causes of violence in heterosexual dating relationships. Study 1 examined 107 participants' written causal explanations for dating violence. The second study focused on 70 students' ratings of cause in 15 scenarios ending with the man hitting the woman. Relationship and communication problems were primary causes when dating violence was presented in a concrete situation, whereas power and gender socialization were primary causes when presented as a social problem. Participants acknowledge power as an important cause, which suggests feminist structural frameworks in which relationship violence is embedded may lead to more effective prevention education. PMID:16043558
Devlin, P K; Cowan, G A
This study examined the relationships among homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimacy with significant male and female best friends. A questionnaire, administered to 130 adult heterosexual males, included McDonald and Game's homophobia measure (ATHMS), eight intimacy scales, and four scales measuring subjects' recollections of their fathers' parenting styles. Correlations of ATHMS and individual intimacy scales revealed a significant relationship between homophobia and intimacy in male-male relationships. Homophobia was related to male-female intimacy on those measures which reflected subjects' perception of their female partner's sensitivity to them. Although homophobia was related to perception of the father as enforcing sex roles, none of the perceived fathering variables were directly related to intimacy with males. The findings provide evidence for a direct relationship between male homophobia and lack of intimacy in friendships between men. PMID:4067792
Negash, Sesen; Cui, Ming; Fincham, Frank D; Pasley, Kay
This study examined the role of extradyadic involvement (EDI) in heterosexual dating relationships among young adult females (N = 539). A considerable percentage of participants (36 %) reported that they had engaged in an extradyadic emotional or sexual relationship within the last 2 months. Results from logistic regression analyses supported the general hypothesis that emotional and sexual EDI were both significantly associated with relationship dissolution. These associations remained strong even after controlling for participants' age, relationship duration, and relationship quality. The findings also showed that the strength of the association between acts of emotional or sexual extradyadic behaviors and relationship dissolution was linked to relationship quality, gender of the actor, and type of EDI (emotional vs. sexual). Specifically, compared to participants who reported poor relationship quality, those who reported high relationship quality were more likely to end the partnership if they reported emotional or sexual EDI. Findings suggest that individuals in higher quality relationships appear to have considerably more to lose in their relationship when emotional or sexual EDI occurs. This, in part, may be because the more satisfactory the relationship the more disillusionment one may feel when betrayed by their romantic partner. Overall, the present findings underscore the multifaceted nature of the relationships between EDI and relationship dissolution. We call for more research that rigorously examines what contextual factors influence young adults in dating relationships to dissolve relationships following EDI. PMID:24346867
Gerevich, József; Bácskai, Erika
Health and addiction harm of violence related to drinking is a very important aspect of the recent research studies. The social exchange theory, the family systems approach of alcoholism, the psychopharmacological model, the economic motivational model, and the tripartitate conceptual framework of Goldstein focus on the phenomenon within different causal contexts. According to recent studies approximately half of the cases is related to the alcohol consumption. Especially the binge drinking can facilitate violence. The problem is moderated by social, cultural, and ethnic specialties. The likelihood of alcohol related aggression increases in a rapidly changing society. Exposure to drinking related violence is frequent among women with pregnancy. PMID:16893133
Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J.
Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and…
Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C.
Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective—that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships—with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts. PMID:25814771
Grov, Christian; Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet
Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet's negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 "ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey" (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner's OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming "more open to new things," and finding it easier "to talk about what [they] want sexually." Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner's OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships. PMID:20174862
Links internal personality differentiation to external patterns of interpersonal style. Suggests three basic styles in intimate relationships: apathy, reactivity, and conductivity. Discusses each style in detail. (RC)
Longmore, Monica A; Johnson, Wendi L; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C
Using relational theory and survey data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 665), this article examined whether individuals were tested for HIV while intimately involved in a current or recent heterosexual relationship. The analyses included the respondent's and partner's sexual risk factors (non-exclusivity and lifetime number of partners), relational variables, prior testing, and demographic characteristics. It was found that 39% of respondents had an HIV test while involved in their current or most recent sexual relationship, and women (47%), compared with men (29%), were significantly more likely to have been tested. Whereas some predictors operated similarly (number of sex partners and pressured to have sex), others displayed significant gender differences (partner's sexual exclusivity, sexual communication difficulties, and pregnancy), particularly related to women's testing behaviors. Excerpts from qualitative interviews with male respondents suggested that some relational dynamics, not well reflected in relational theory, played a role in their testing. Results highlight the need to consider gendered dynamics when targeting young adults for routine HIV testing. PMID:22489753
Fallis, Erin E; Rehman, Uzma S; Purdon, Christine
Sexual script theory implies that partners' ability to gauge one another's level of sexual satisfaction is a key factor in determining their own sexual satisfaction. However, relatively little research has examined how well partners gauge one another's sexual satisfaction and the factors that predict their accuracy. We hypothesized that the degree of bias in partner judgments of sexual satisfaction would be associated with quality of sexual communication. We further posited that emotion recognition would ameliorate the biases in judgment such that poor communicators with good emotion recognition would make less biased judgments of partner satisfaction. Participants were 84 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples who completed measures of their own and their partners' sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, quality of communication about sexual issues within their relationships, and emotion recognition ability. Results indicated that both men and women tended to be accurate in perceiving their partners' levels of sexual satisfaction (i.e., partner perceptions were strongly correlated with self-reports). One sample t-tests indicated that men's perceptions of their partners' sexual satisfaction were biased such that they slightly underestimated their partners' levels of sexual satisfaction whereas women neither over- nor underestimated their partners' sexual satisfaction. However, the gender difference was not significant. Bias was attenuated by quality of sexual communication, which interacted with emotion recognition ability such that when sexual communication was good, there was no significant association between emotion recognition ability and bias, but when sexual communication was poor, better emotion recognition ability was associated with less bias. PMID:23990145
Dragiewicz, Molly; Dekeseredy, Walter S
Claims that violence is gender-neutral are increasingly becoming "common sense" in Canada. Antifeminist groups assert that the high rates of woman abuse uncovered by major Canadian national surveys conducted in the early 1990s are greatly exaggerated and that women are as violent as men. The production of degendered rhetoric about "intimate partner violence" contributes to claims that women's and men's violence is symmetrical and mutual. This article critically evaluates common claims about Canadian women's use of nonlethal force in heterosexual intimate relationships in the context of the political struggle over the hegemonic frame for violence and abuse. The extant Canadian research documenting significant sex differences in violence and abuse against adult intimate partners is reviewed. PMID:22996627
Bonham, Elizabeth; Vetere, Arlene Louise
Very little attention has been paid to both partners beliefs about why violence in their previously abusive relationship has stopped or significantly reduced despite well-documented details in the research literature outlining the characteristics of both victims and perpetrators. This study aimed to provide some understanding of how each partner believed that the violence has ended. However their answers often were not definitive; instead, they uncovered the complexities in their relationship and their struggle to overcome the uncertainty they have to achieve and maintain successful remediation. The article is based on a qualitative Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) study that explored the nature of the relationship between six heterosexual couples before and after a therapeutic intervention for the men perpetrators, which followed the Duluth Model. The study included how they both understood the violence and how they maintained nonviolence in their relationship. The men were notably still in the process of reprocessing their understanding of why they were violent and they needed to further understand their reactions to maintain their nonviolence. The IPA themes provided some understanding of how the participants thought they had a better understanding of the factors that had maintained their relationship since the termination of the intervention. The themes, generated from the interviews provided by the perpetrators and their victims, are explored and some explanations for the successful continuation of their relationship following treatment are suggested. Implications for widening the treatment options for men perpetrators are suggested in addition to providing treatment options for couples who wish to remain within their relationships and need help to identify unhelpful and dangerous patterns of interaction. PMID:22203613
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
Examined data on frequency with which relationship conflict is experienced in specific content areas and relationship satisfaction for both partners of 75 gay, 51 lesbian, and 108 heterosexual couples who lived together without children. Couple scores fell into six clusters that represented areas of conflict regarding power, social issues,…
Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C
Hostile sexism (HS) expresses attitudes that characterize women who challenge men's power as manipulative and subversive. Does endorsing HS negatively bias perceptions of women's behavior and, in turn, create animosity within intimate relationships? Committed heterosexual couples reported on their own behavior and perceptions of their partner's behavior five times across a year (Study 1) and daily for 3 weeks (Study 2). Men who more strongly endorsed HS perceived their partner's behavior as more negative than was justified by their partner's reports. Furthermore, more negative perceptions of the partner's behavior mediated the links between men's HS and feeling more manipulated by their partners, behaving more negatively toward their partners, and lower relationship quality. This indicates that men who endorse HS behave more negatively toward intimate partners and experience lower relationship satisfaction because their antagonistic attitudes toward women in general permeate the way they perceive those partners. PMID:23950553
Foran, Heather M; Whisman, Mark A; Beach, Steven R H
Over the past 40 years, a large body of literature has documented intimate partner relationship distress as a primary reason for seeking mental health services as well as an integral factor in the prognosis and treatment of a range of mental and physical health conditions. In recognition of its relevance to clinical care, the description of intimate partner relationship distress has been expanded in the DSM-5. Nonetheless, this is irrelevant if the DSM-5 code for intimate partner relationship distress is not reliably used in clinical practice and research settings. Thus, with the goal of dissemination in mind, the purpose of this paper was to provide clinicians and researchers with specific guidelines on how to reliably assess intimate partner relationship distress and how this information can be used to inform treatment planning. In addition to the implications for direct clinical care, we discuss the importance of reliable assessment and documentation of intimate partner relationship distress for future progress in epidemiology, etiology, and public health research. PMID:25582661
Baxter, Leslie A.
Investigates intimate play in college students' same-sex friendships and opposite-sex romantic relationships. Derives a typology of eight play forms, and finds playfulness a strong correlate of relationship closeness. Finds differences among the eight play forms on the functions of indexing intimacy, lessening interpersonal risk, distancing self…
Dmytro, Dana; Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Hoard, Ryan; Cameron, Catherine Ann
Twenty-four adolescent boys in Grades 9 to 12 in a rural New Brunswick high school engaged in focused discussions that were analyzed using grounded theory to determine their heterosexual dating relationship processes. A theory was created from exchange transcriptions. The core category was "wrestling with gendered expectations,"…
LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar
This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a…
Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.
The present study examined relationship status, psychological orientation toward sexual risk taking, and other characteristics as potential correlates of risky sexual behavior in a sample of 223 heterosexual African American college students. Risky sexual behavior was investigated as a multinomial variable (i.e., abstinence, consistent condom use,…
Examined kinds of power strategies used by masculine, feminine, androgynous, and undifferentiated people in their intimate relationships. Androgynous people reported using primarily bilateral strategies, such as persuasion. Undifferentiated people reported using primarily unilateral strategies, such as doing what they wanted, regardless of their…
Zamir, Osnat; Lavee, Yoav
The aim of the current study was to test whether women's emotional regulation (ER) capacity moderates the relationship between childhood abuse and both adult intimate partner violence (IPV) and relationship quality. Female graduate students (N = 425), either married or in a long-term cohabitation, participated in an Internet-based survey. Structural equation model (SEM) multiple-group analysis was conducted to estimate whether the link between childhood abuse and marital outcomes varied across high and low levels of ER. The data showed that childhood abuse was associated with higher levels of IPV and lower marital quality. A high level of ER was found to buffer the association between child abuse and IPV. Among women with a low level of ER, childhood abuse had a stronger negative effect on relationship quality than for women with a high level of ER. ER is a protective factor against revictimization in intimate relationships. PMID:25355860
Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi
Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a noninfant (i.e., older child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, 3 months postadoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low or very high preadoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26053348
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi
Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a non-infant (i.e., older) child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, three months post-adoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low, or very high, pre-adoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. PMID:26053348
Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
Many studies focus on health behavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around health behavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N=100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of “health behavior work” to align activities done to promote health behavior with theories on unpaid work in the home. Respondents in all couple types describe specialized health behavior work, wherein one partner works to shape the other partner’s health behavior. In straight couples, women perform the bulk of specialized health behavior work. Most gay and lesbian respondents—but few straight respondents—also describe cooperative health behavior work, wherein partners mutually influence one another’s health behaviors. Findings suggest that the gendered relational context of an intimate partnership shapes the dynamics of and explanations for health behavior work. PMID:22227238
Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
Many studies focus on health behavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around health behavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N = 100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of "health behavior work" to align activities done to promote health behavior with theories on unpaid work in the home. Respondents in all couple types describe specialized health behavior work, wherein one partner works to shape the other partner's health behavior. In straight couples, women perform the bulk of specialized health behavior work. Most gay and lesbian respondents-but few straight respondents--also describe cooperative health behavior work, wherein partners mutually influence one another's health behaviors. Findings suggest that the gendered relational context of an intimate partnership shapes the dynamics of and explanations for health behavior work. PMID:22227238
Leaper, Campbell; Anderson, Kristin J.
Examines same-gender and cross-gender friendships as potential contexts for development of preferences and skills that may influence the quality of adolescent dating relationships and adult marriages. Considers how children's traditionally gender-segregated peer relationships contribute to miscommunications and power asymmetries in later…
Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.; Cole, Jennifer
The legal status of women's intimate relationships may allow for different experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV) and the protections received from the criminal justice system. There has been limited research examining differences in IPV and protective orders for women in marital and cohabiting intimate relationships. This study examines…
Whitaker, M Pippin
This study explores social-ecological influences on men's control-seeking in intimate relationships with women. Desire for control is central to the battered women's movement and is incorporated into intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention work. Recent IPV scholarship re-focuses on control, but the role of community contexts is underdeveloped. Community contexts have been associated with men's risk for IPV and evidence supports that social ecology facilitates IPV against women. Given the importance of the social ecology to control in IPV, this study examines community contexts that influence men's control-seeking of women partners. The sample comprised 2,342 in-state, male undergraduate students who completed a cross-sectional survey at a public university. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear modeling. Results support a connection between county contexts and men's control-seeking toward women partners. Implications for IPV research and practice are discussed. PMID:26300340
Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z; Kashy, Deborah A
The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and postadoption. PMID:20545395
Nyitray, Alan G.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Chang, Mihyun; Menezes, Lynette; Lu, Beibei; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Galindo, Claudia M.; Giuliano, Anna R.
Background. Published data are equivocal about the relative rates of male-to-female and female-to-male human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission. Our objective was to estimate genital HPV incidence among heterosexual partners from a broad age range and to investigate the effects of monogamy and relationship duration on incidence. Methods. HPV genotyping was conducted for heterosexual partners, aged 18–70 years, from Tampa, Florida, who provided genital exfoliated cell specimens at semiannual visits during a 2-year study. The rate of incident HPV detection was assessed for 99 couples, and transmission incidence was estimated among a subset of 65 discordant couples. We also evaluated the effect of monogamy and relationship duration on transmission incidence. Results. Couples were followed up for a median of 25 months and had a mean age of 33 years for both sexes. The HPV type-specific transmission incidence rate was 12.3 (95% confidence interval, 7.1–19.6) per 1000 person-months for female-to-male transmission and 7.3 (95% confidence interval, 3.5–13.5) per 1000 person-months for male-to-female transmission. Regardless of monogamy status or relationship duration, there was a similar pattern of increased incident HPV detection among men compared with women. Conclusions. HPV may be transmitted more often from women to men than from men to women, suggesting a need for prevention interventions, such as vaccination, for men. PMID:24253288
Caragata, Eric P; Dutra, Heverton L C; Moreira, Luciano A
Mosquito-transmitted diseases impose a growing burden on human health, and current control strategies have proven insufficient to stem the tide. The bacterium Wolbachia is a novel and promising form of control for mosquito-transmitted disease. It manipulates host biology, restricts infection with dengue and other pathogens, and alters host reproduction to promote rapid spread in the field. In this review, we examine how the intimate and diverse relationships formed between Wolbachia and their mosquito hosts can be exploited for disease control purposes. We consider these relationships in the context of recent developments, including successful field trials with Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to combat dengue, and new Wolbachia infections in key malaria vectors, which have enhanced the disease control prospects of this unique bacterium. PMID:26776329
Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly
Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts. PMID:24309237
Hawkins, R O
This study proposes a new approach to sexual jealousy, that of attitude theory. Within that framework, it examines the roles of culture and personality in the development of sexual jealousy. Using 194 men representing 62 male homosexual couples and 81 heterosexual couples, three hypotheses were analyzed: (1) that jealousy measured by a standard attitude measure, the semantic differential technique, will significantly positively correlate with scores on a standard jealousy measure, Eugene Mathes' Interpersonal Jealousy Scale; (2) that men in heterosexual couples will have higher levels of sexual jealousy than men in homosexual couples; and (3) that sexual jealousy is inversely correlated with self-actualization personality. All three hypotheses were supported, suggesting that sexual jealousy, viewed as an attitude, is mediated by culture and personality. PMID:2212631
Wachs, Karen; Cordova, James V
This study tested the theory that mindfulness contributes to greater intimate relationship satisfaction by fostering more relationally skillful emotion repertoires. A sample of married couples was administered measures of mindful awareness, emotion skills, and marital quality. We hypothesized that mindfulness would be associated with both marital quality and partners' emotion skills and that the association between mindfulness and marital quality would be mediated by emotion repertoire skill. Findings suggested that emotion skills and mindfulness are both related to marital adjustment, and that skilled emotion repertoires, specifically those associated with identifying and communicating emotions, as well as the regulation of anger expression, fully mediate the association between mindfulness and marital quality. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:17935530
Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Cleland, John
This paper describes perceptions of the societal acceptability and acceptability among peers of different types of premarital heterosexual relationships in Iran. Sources of variation in subjective norms are assessed. Results derive from a survey conducted in 2005 of a representative sample of 1743 female college students from four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran using two-stage random cluster sampling. An anonymous pilot-tested questionnaire was used. Respondents displayed remarkable heterogeneity and ambiguity concerning the social acceptability of premarital heterosexual friendship, dating and physical contact, but expressed greater certainty about the unacceptability of premarital sex. The majority (77.5%) reported that premarital sex was socially prohibited, while about one third (33.1%) were unsure about the social acceptability of having a boyfriend and dating before marriage. Peer norms were perceived to be more liberal but, nevertheless, very few peers were thought to be in favour of premarital intercourse. Older students, those with educated fathers and those studying in a mixed-sex university perceived norms to be more liberal than their counterparts. Access to satellite television, a major source of exposure to new information and values about sexuality, was a major predictor of liberal peer norms. It appears that a significant proportion of young people in Tehran have broken with tradition with regard to premarital social interaction and romantic friendships, but the majority still conforms to traditional cultural and religious values regarding abstinence before marriage. PMID:25587802
Carcedo, Rodrigo J; Perlman, Daniel; Orgaz, M Begoña; López, Félix; Fernández-Rouco, Noelia; Faldowski, Richard A
This study investigated the differences in loneliness, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life among three groups of prison inmates: inmates in a heterosexual romantic relationship with a fellow prisoner, inmates with a partner outside the prison, and inmates without a partner. In-person interviews with 70 male and 70 female inmates from the Topas Penitentiary (Spain) were conducted. These inmates lived in the same facility but in gender-segregated modules. After controlling for age, nationality, total time in prison, actual sentence time served, and estimated time to parole, the results showed a lower level of romantic loneliness, and a higher level of sexual satisfaction and global, psychological, and environment quality of life for the group of inmates with a heterosexual partner inside prison. These findings highlight the positive attributes associated with heterosexual romantic relationships between inmates inside the same prison. PMID:20581227
Muldoon, Katherine; Deering, Kathleen N.; Feng, Cindy X.; Shoveller, Jean S.; Shannon, Kate
There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, ‘AESHA’ (An Evaluation of Sex Workers’ Health Access), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence Against Women scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI:0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for gender-focused and coupled-based interventions tailored to noncommercial intimate partnerships of sex workers. PMID:25402720
Sorenson, Susan B.; Thomas, Kristie A.
Attitudes toward same-sex intimate relationships and intimate partner violence (IPV) are changing. Little research, however, has examined norms about IPV in same-sex relationships. Using a fractional factorial (experimental vignette) design, we conducted random-digit-dialed interviews in four languages with 3,679 community-residing adults.…
Falbo, Toni; Peplau, Letitia Anne
Research with a two-dimensional model of power strategies used in intimate relationships has found that men are more likely to report using direct bilateral strategies, while women are more likely to report using indirect, unilateral strategies. The relationships among sex-role, self-concept, and the power strategies used in intimate relationships…
Filson, Jennifer; Ulloa, Emilio; Runfola, Cristin; Hokoda, Audrey
The current study aimed to test whether relationship power could act as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power and on previous research of intimate partner violence and depression. Survey results from a sample of 327 single…
Meier, Ann; Allen, Gina
This article examines differences in young adults' intimate relationships by social class. Lower-class adolescents are more likely to engage in intimate-relationship practices such as cohabitation, early marriage, and sexual activity that may lead to further economic and educational deprivation. Such adolescents have limited access to the special…
Lehmiller, Justin J.; Agnew, Christopher R.
Little research has addressed age-gap romantic relationships (romantic involvements characterized by substantial age differences between partners). Drawing on evolutionary and socio-cultural perspectives, the present study examined normative beliefs and commitment processes among heterosexual women involved in age-gap and age-concordant…
Bonham, Elizabeth; Vetere, Arlene Louise
Very little attention has been paid to both partners beliefs about why violence in their previously abusive relationship has stopped or significantly reduced despite well-documented details in the research literature outlining the characteristics of both victims and perpetrators. This study aimed to provide some understanding of how each partner…
Fletcher, Garth J. O.; Kerr, Patrick S. G.
This article reviews the research literature and theory concerned with accuracy of judgments in romantic relationships. We initially propose a model of cognition in (romantic) relationships that distinguishes between 2 forms of accuracy: mean-level bias and tracking accuracy. We then report the results of meta-analyses of research on heterosexual,…
Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay
Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…
Mark, Kristen P; Herbenick, Debby
Previous research has consistently found that attraction is important in the formation of relationships though research on attraction in long-term relationships is less well understood. This article examined the predictive value of self-reported attraction to partner and change in attraction to partner on sexual and relationship satisfaction in 176 women in committed heterosexual relationships using online survey methodology. Participants' age ranged from 21 to 56 (M = 34.5) years and their relationship length ranged from 5 to 35 (M = 11.75) years. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that change in attraction to partner was the most salient predictor of sexual satisfaction, with current attraction to partner also related to women's sexual satisfaction, accounting for 20 % of the variance. Current attraction to partner was the only significant predictor of women's relationship satisfaction, accounting for 22 % of the variance. Additionally, attraction variables accounted for variance above and beyond the impact of relationship and sexual satisfaction. These findings suggest that self-reported attraction to partner is an important contributor to women's satisfaction outcomes in long-term relationships. Further studies in the area of attraction to partner that include couple dynamics and longitudinal data are encouraged and implications for therapists, clinicians, and educators are discussed. PMID:24057210
Brown, Geraldine; Brady, Geraldine; Letherby, Gayle
In 2009 the National Society for the Protection of Cruelty to Children published "Partner Exploitation and Violence in Teenage Intimate Relationships". This publication reports on the first major study in the United Kingdom to systematically document the incidence rates and dynamics of intimate partner violence in the lives of young people. It…
Schiff, Miriam; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila
This study examines the positive aspects of intimate relationships perceived by drug-involved women victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The article examines the association of psychological distress, childhood abuse, and severity of IPV with the different positive aspects the women indicated. Most analyses were conducted on a subsample of…
Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob
Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men. PMID:27109769
Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Strzepek, Deborah M.
Describes assessment technique used by interdisciplinary staff on coed Alzheimer's disease unit to help determine patients' competencies to participate in intimate relationships. Two case studies are presented to highlight how assessment led to treatment decisions. (Author/NB)
Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C; Cross, Emily J
The current research demonstrated that women's adoption of benevolent sexism is influenced by their perceptions of their intimate partners' agreement with benevolent sexism. In 2 dyadic longitudinal studies, committed heterosexual couples reported on their own sexism and perceptions of their partner's sexism twice across 9 months (Study 1) and 5 times across 1 year (Study 2). Women who perceived that their male partner more strongly endorsed benevolent sexism held greater and more stable benevolent sexism across time, whereas lower perceptions of partners' benevolent sexism predicted declines in women's benevolent sexism across time. Changes in men's endorsement of sexism were unrelated to perceptions of their partner's sexist attitudes. The naturalistic change in sexist attitudes shown in Studies 1 and 2 was supported by experimental evidence in Studies 3 and 4: Manipulations designed to increase perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism led women (but not men) to report greater benevolent sexism. Studies 3 and 4 also provided evidence that perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism fosters perceived regard and relationship security in women, but not men, and these relationship factors enhance attitude alignment. Discriminant analyses demonstrated that these effects were specific to women's perceptions of partner's, rather than societal, levels of sexism. In sum, these studies illustrate that women endorse benevolent sexism when they perceive that the reverence and security that benevolent sexism promises women are accessible in their relationships. PMID:26785062
Citarella, Ashley I.; Mueller, John A.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between feminist identity and psychological maltreatment in intimate relationships among college students. Existing research and theories have raised questions about the relationship between these constructs, but no studies have yet explored the relationship between them. The…
Baus, Raymond D.; Allen, Jerry L.
Examines the degree to which interpersonal solidarity and sexual communication satisfaction are related to relationship stages and reports of satisfaction in intimate relationships. Finds that feelings of solidarity in developed relationships are more salient than sexual communication satisfaction to reports of overall relationship satisfaction.…
This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…
Antle, Becky F.; Karam, Eli; Christensen, Dana N.; Barbee, Anita P.; Sar, Bibhuti K.
This research evaluated the impact of the Within My Reach healthy relationship education program on intimate partner violence for 419 high-risk adults in an urban area. Key outcomes such as relationship knowledge, communication/conflict resolution skills, relationship quality, and physical and emotional abuse were evaluated through survey research…
Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Kleinman, Brighid M.; Kaczynski, Karen J.; Carver, Charles S.
Self-report scales assessing relationship-specific incentive and threat sensitivity were created. Initial tests of factor structure and associations with relationship quality were conducted in a sample of persons in intimate relationships (Study 1). Associations with conceptually related measures were examined to determine convergent and…
Marshall, Amy D; Jones, Damon E; Feinberg, Mark E
We tested an integrative model of individual and dyadic variables contributing to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Based on the vulnerability-stress-adaptation (VSA) model, we hypothesized that three "enduring vulnerabilities" (i.e., antisocial behavior, hostility, and depressive symptoms) would be associated with a "maladaptive process" (i.e., negative relationship attributions) that would lead to difficulties in couple conflict resolution, thus leading to IPV. Among a community sample of 167 heterosexual couples who were expecting their first child, we used an actor-partner interdependence model to account for the dyadic nature of conflict and IPV, as well as a hurdle count model to improve upon prior methods for modeling IPV data. Study results provided general support for the integrative model, demonstrating the importance of considering couple conflict in the prediction of IPV and showing the relative importance of multiple predictor variables. Gender symmetry was observed for the prediction of IPV occurrence, with gender differences emerging in the prediction of IPV frequency. Relatively speaking, the prediction of IPV frequency appeared to be a function of enduring vulnerabilities among men, but a function of couple conflict among women. Results also revealed important cross-gender effects in the prediction of IPV, reflecting the inherently dyadic nature of IPV, particularly in the case of "common couple violence." Future research using longitudinal designs is necessary to verify the conclusions suggested by the current results. PMID:21875196
Hutchison, Theresa; And Others
College-aged women (N=95) were surveyed to determine the effects of parental divorce on their heterosexual activity and on their attitudes and feelings concerning dating. The 67 participants from divorced families were grouped according to the subject's age when her parents were divorced: 6 years and younger, 7-12 years old, and 13-18 years old.…
Shulman, Shmuel; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Kedem, Peri; Alon, Eiton
Examined adolescent intimacy in close friendships and romantic relationships from a systemic perspective. Found qualitative sex-related differences in how partners balance closeness and individuality in the two types of close friendships. Development of an intimate romantic relationship was also found to require greater commitment for males than…
Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.
Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…
Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.
Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves 1 through 4 (1995–2008). Marijuana use was measured in the past year at each wave and participants were categorized as “users” or “nonusers.” Partner violence was constructed using six items (three pertaining to victimization and three concerning perpetration) from Wave 4 (2007–2008). Using these six items, participants were categorized as “victims only,” “perpetrators only,” or “victims and perpetrators.” Survey multinomial regression was used to examine the relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence. Consistent use of marijuana during adolescence was most predictive of intimate partner violence (OR = 2.08, p < .001). Consistent marijuana use (OR = 1.85, p < .05) was related to an increased risk of intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming. PMID:22080574
Papp, Lauren M; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Cayemberg, Crystal
Extending previous research on positive and negative correlates of Facebook use for individuals' outcomes, this study examined male and female dating partners' (n=58 couples) Facebook use and portrayals of their intimate relationship on the Facebook profile. Confirming hypotheses from compatibility theories of mate selection, partners demonstrated similar Facebook intensity (e.g., usage, connection to Facebook), and were highly likely to portray their relationship on their Facebook profiles in similar ways (i.e., display partnered status and show their partner in profile picture). These Facebook profile choices played a role in the overall functioning of the relationship, with males' indications of a partnered status linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' (marginal) relationship satisfaction, and females' displays of their partner in their profile picture linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' relationship satisfaction. Finally, male and female reports of having had disagreements over the Facebook relationship status was associated with lower level of females' but not males' relationship satisfaction, after accounting for global verbal conflict. Thus, the findings point to the unique contribution of Facebook disagreements to intimate relationship functioning. Results from this study encourage continued examination of technology use and behaviors in contexts of intimate relationships. PMID:21988733
Bartolomucci, Eileen M.
This study examines depressive symptoms in economically disadvantaged black single mothers involved in an intimate relationship with a male friend for at least six months. The effects of depressive symptoms on the following three dimensions of family functioning are evaluated: (1) quality of parenting; (2) quality of intimate relationships; and…
Pope, Amber Leighann
Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…
Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos
Our relationships with romantic partners are often some of the closest and most important relationships that we experience in our adult lives. Interpersonal closeness in romantic relationships is characterised by an increased overlap between cognitive representations of oneself and one's partner. Importantly, this type of self-other overlap also occurs in the bodily domain, whereby we can represent another's embodied experiences in the same way as we represent our own. However, as yet this bodily self-other overlap has only been investigated in individuals unfamiliar to each other. Here, we investigate bodily self-other overlap between romantic partners, using automatic imitation as an example case of bodily overlap in the motor domain. We found that participants automatically imitated romantic partners significantly more than close others with whom they had a platonic relationship. Furthermore, imitation in these relationships was related to key aspects of relationship quality, as indicated by adult attachment style. PMID:27045464
Bradbury, Thomas N.; Lavner, Justin A.
Improving intimate relationships with preventive and educational interventions has proven to be more difficult than originally conceived, and earlier models and approaches may be reaching their limits. Basic concerns remain about the long-term effectiveness of these interventions, whether they are reaching and benefiting couples most likely to…
Herrington, Rachael L.; Mitchell, Alexandra E.; Castellani, Angela M.; Joseph, Jana I.; Snyder, Douglas K.; Gleaves, David H.
Previous research has identified 2 broad components of distress in intimate relationships: overt conflict, or "disharmony", and emotional distance, or "disaffection". Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors derived 2 broadband scales of disharmony and disaffection from the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (D. K. Snyder, 1997),…
Rushbrooke, Elizabeth; Murray, Craig; Townsend, Samantha
Background: People with intellectual disabilities face attitudinal and service barriers when attempting to form intimate relationships. To date, their experiences and views are under-represented in the existing evidence base. Method: The aim of this study was to carry out an interpretative phenomenological analysis exploring the experience of…
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…
Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.
Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),…
Israel, Emily; Stover, Carla
The issue of the father-child relationship has been greatly ignored in the domestic violence research literature. This study investigated whether intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by biological fathers resulted in higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and behavior problems than violence perpetrated by nonbiological fathers and…
Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.
Examining longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 927), we assessed associations between physical victimization by an intimate partner, indicators of poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms among young adult men and women in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In zero-order models, we found that physical victimization increased depressive symptoms. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depressive symptoms with the inclusion of prior depressive symptoms, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. Yet with the additional inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depressive symptoms. The associations between victimization and depressive symptoms did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor relationship quality on depressive symptoms conditional on gender. Thus, depressive symptoms are similarly responsive to intimate partner victimization, and for both women and men these associations were not significant with the inclusion of indicators of poor relationship quality. Findings underscored that victimization often occurs within relationship contexts characterized by a range of negative dynamics; thus multifaceted relationship-centered prevention and intervention efforts are likely to be more useful than those focusing only on negative messages about the use of aggression with an intimate partner. PMID:25131276
Killen, Melanie; Stangor, Charles; Price, B. Sefton; Horn, Stacey; Sechrist, Gretchen B.
This research investigated the contextual nature of decisions about racial exclusion by analyzing why individuals might be willing to accept members of other racial groups into some types of social relationships but nevertheless exclude them from other types of relationships. Our analysis examined the underlying reasoning processes used to make…
Collins, Nancy L; Ford, Máire B; Guichard, AnaMarie C; Allard, Lisa M
Two studies examined the link between working models of attachment and social construal processes in romantic relationships. In Study 1, individuals high in attachment-related anxiety responded to hypothetical partner transgressions by endorsing relationship-threatening attributions, experiencing emotional distress, and endorsing behavioral intentions that were likely to result in conflict. These effects emerged after controlling for pessimistic explanatory style, depressed mood, and self-esteem. In addition, the association between anxiety and emotional distress was mediated by attributions and attachment-related needs. In Study 2, anxious individuals endorsed relationship-threatening attributions for their partner's transgressions but less so for their partner's positive behaviors, and these effects occurred primarily among those in unhappy relationships. In contrast, avoidant individuals endorsed pessimistic attributions for their partner's positive behavior but less so for their partner's transgressions, and these effects occurred regardless of their level of relationship satisfaction. PMID:16382082
Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Carmichael, Gordon; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian
With the influence of modernization, there is evidence of increasing Thai adolescent sexual activity. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the intimate relationships of adolescents in different social groups in northern Thailand, and to note the health implications of their behavior. Quantitative and qualitative data from more than 1,750 unmarried young people aged 17-20 years revealed that adolescents from different social and educational backgrounds had significantly different types of intimate relationships. In the Thai context, social class differences are mostly based on young people's educational backgrounds and their families' financial power. Perceptions of love and relationships were interpreted according to social strata and sex. Notably, less well-off young people were likely to engage in much riskier sexual relationships. The present study provides detailed and constructive information to help plan and improve sexual and reproductive health counselling, programs and services for young people in northern Thailand. PMID:21329326
Rhatigan, Deborah L.; Street, Amy E.
This study explored the impact of violence exposure on investment-model constructs within a sample of college women involved in heterosexual dating relationships. Results generally supported the "common sense" hypothesis, suggesting that violence negatively impacts satisfaction for and commitment to one's relationship and is positively associated…
Edin, Kerstin; Nilsson, Bo; Ivarsson, Anneli; Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A; Kahn, Kathleen
This paper explores how young people in rural South Africa understand gender, dating, sexuality and risk-taking in adolescence. The empirical material drawn upon consists of 20 interviews with young men and women (aged 18-19) and reflects normative gender patterns characterised by compulsory heterosexuality and dating as obligatory, and representing key symbols of normality. However, different meanings of heterosexual relationships are articulated in the interviews, for example in the recurring concept of 'passing time', and these meanings show that a relationship can be something arbitrary: a way to reduce boredom and have casual sex. Such a rationale for engaging in a relationship reflects one of several other normative gender patterns, which relate to the trivialisation of dating and sexual risk-taking, and which entail making compromises and legitimising deviations from the 'ideal' life-script and the hope of a better future. However, risks do not exclusively represent something bad, dangerous or immoral, because they are also used as excuses to avoid sex, HIV acquisition and early pregnancy. In conclusion, various interrelated issues can both undermine and/or reinforce risk awareness and subsequent risk behaviour. Recognition of this tension is essential when framing policies to support young people to reduce sexual risk-taking behaviour. PMID:26986221
Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.
Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, we examined the relationship between sixteen low-income Puerto Rican mothers’ housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. We traced mothers’ dependent housing arrangements and entrée to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their procurement of independent housing while entering and maintaining intimate partner unions as adults. Findings indicated that various trigger factors led women out of their natal homes and into expedited cohabitation with romantic partners which frequently resulted in unstable unions in which mothers had little power and autonomy. As mothers became eligible for housing subsidies they obtained housing independent from their male partners, potentially increasing the propensity for greater relationship power. Housing independence, however, was not without problems. Spillover effects, such as shadowing partners, threatened housing stability and mothers’ independence. The relevance of these findings for future research is discussed. PMID:21785522
Koopman, Cheryl; Ismailji, Tasneem; Palesh, Oxana; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Narayanan, Amrita; Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holmes, Danielle; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.
This study investigates whether depression in women who experienced intimate partner violence is associated with having also experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse, psychological abuse by an intimate partner, recent involvement with the abusive partner, and bodily pain. Fifty-seven women who had left a violent relationship with an…
Sullivan, Tami P.; McPartland, Tara; Price, Carolina; Cruza-Guet, Maria Cristina; Swan, Suzanne C.
Research examining predictors or correlates of mental health problems among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships typically assesses factors that confer risk. Such research has primarily examined intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization or aggression frequency or severity as central risk factors for mental health problems. In the general population, one factor demonstrating a protective effect on mental health problems is self-efficacy. Research on self-efficacy among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships is nearly absent. The purpose of this study is to determine if self-efficacy specific to a woman’s ability to manage various relationship problems (i.e., relationship self-efficacy, RSE), plays a protective role against the severity of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among 354 community-residing women who are victimized and use aggression (bidirectional IPV). Regression analyses found that RSE uniquely predicted each mental health outcome above and beyond what was accounted for by the frequency of physical, sexual, and psychological victimization and aggression. Further, RSE fully mediated the relationships between psychological victimization and each mental health outcome. If replicated, and in circumstances where it is determined safe to do so, findings suggest RSE as a promising avenue for future research to improve the health and wellbeing of women in bidirectionally aggressive relationships. PMID:23815627
Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija
Violence against women has been extensively studied in various disciplines, whereas less attention has been paid to the experiences of men. Even the violent behavior of men in their intimate relationships has been mostly studied as experienced by women. This study follows Husserlian descriptive phenomenology. Twenty open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 Finnish men with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The data were analyzed by the method developed by Colaizzi. Findings suggested that men considered communication and dynamics of the relationship important. Fundamentally, these abusive men had a need to be respected as men, and they sought to experience human dignity. It is necessary to readjust the framework on interpersonal violence, listen to the voice of men, and develop prevention, early identification, and supportive intervention strategies for men, couples, and families. Research on IPV should be expanded to include the experiences of both genders. PMID:19477787
Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina
Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. PMID:24867576
Waller, Martha W; Iritani, Bonita J; Christ, Sharon L; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L
Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density in one's neighborhood and the likelihood of IPV victimization was examined. Data were from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), which followed a nationally representative sample of adolescents into adulthood. Participants were young adult females age 18 to 26 at Wave III. Of the 4,571 female respondents who reported a current heterosexual relationship and had IPV data, 13.2% reported having been the victim of physical violence only and 6.5% experienced sexual only or physical and sexual violence in the relationship during the past year. In the regression models tested, there was no significant direct association between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and IPV victimization nor was there an association between outlet density and drinking behaviors, thus eliminating the possibility of an indirect association. Results of fully adjusted models indicate females who drank heavily, whether infrequently or frequently, were at significant risk for experiencing sexual only IPV or sexual and physical IPV. Asians and Native Americans were at significantly greater odds of experiencing sexual only or sexual and physical IPV compared with non-Hispanic Whites, while non-Hispanic Blacks were at significantly greater odds for physical only IPV. We conclude that a continuous measure of alcohol outlet density was not associated with IPV in models controlling for individual and other neighborhood characteristics. Young women who drink heavily, whether infrequently or frequently, have greater odds of experiencing sexual only or sexual and physical compared to abstainers. Similar to previous study
Mayock, Paula; Cronly, Jennifer; Clatts, Michael C
This paper examines young women's initiation to heroin use in the context of an intimate relationship based on data from a small-scale ethno-epidemiology of heroin use in Ireland, 2007-2009. The epidemiological sample included 120 young people, and life history interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 40 youth aged 16-25 years. A detailed analysis of the "risk environment" of young women's heroin initiation highlights a complex interplay between women's agency and intimate partner influence. It is argued that dichotomous representations of women as victims or emancipated consumers do not adequately capture the complexity of women's initiation journeys. The study's limitations are noted and implications for drug use prevention and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:25774809
Meier, Ann; Allen, Gina
Compared to middle- and upper-class youth, lower-class youth have a higher prevalence of sexual activity and are more likely to cohabit or to marry early, but they are less likely to ever marry. Lower-class women have strong desires for marriage but difficulty in achieving common pre-requisites for marriage. Social class also shapes the relationships of special class-graded groups of youth such as sexual minorities, military service personnel, and prisoners. More research is needed on how the state and its laws and institutions constrain even the most intimate features of young lives. PMID:18330913
This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics. PMID:24946387
Orekhov, A. N.; Andreeva, E. R.; Krushinsky, A. V.; Novikov, I. D.; Tertov, V. V.; Nestaiko, G. V.; Khashimov, Kh A.; Repin, V. S.; Smirnov, V. N.
The subendothelial intima of human aorta is populated by cells of various shapes. Round and ovoid cells which are lymphocyte- and monocyte-like hematogenous cells account for less than 5% of the cell population. The bulk of the intimal population (over 95%) is made up of cells that can be described as elongated, stellate, elongated with side processes, and irregularly shaped. To identify these morphologic forms, the authors have used target electron microscopy. It has been established that elongated cells devoid of side processes possess all the ultrastructural features of differentiated smooth muscle cells: a developed contractile apparatus in the form of microfilament bundles with dense bodies occupying most of the cytoplasm, basal membrane surrounding the whole of the cell, and micropinocytotic vesicles along the plasma membrane. The other morphologic forms have an ultra-structure that allows us to identify them as so-called modified smooth muscle cells. They differ from the typical smooth muscle cells in that they have fewer contractile structures and a more developed biosynthetic apparatus. Some of stellate and irregular shaped cells are utterly devoid of contractile structures. To quantitate the number of cells of different morphologic forms, the authors used alcoholic-alkaline dissociation of prefixed intima. It was established that the intimal population is multiplied at the site of an atherosclerotic lesion, the number of stellate cells being increased much more substantially, compared with other morphologic cell forms. It was found that an increase in the number of stellate cells is related to such sequelae of atherosclerosis in aorta as intimal thickening, deposition of lipids, and an increased amount of collagen. There was a high positive correlation between the alteration in the stellate cell number occurring in the intima and the above-mentioned parameters (correlation coefficients were 0.732, 0.800 and 0.953, respectively). The correlations between
Karakurt, Günnur; Keiley, Margaret; Posada, German
Dating violence among college aged couples has become a growing concern with increasing prevalence. The current study investigated the interplay among witnessing violence during childhood (both parental conflict and parent to child aggression), attachment insecurity, egalitarian attitude within the relationship, and dating aggression. Participants of this study included 87 couples. Results from the structural equation model indicated that the proposed model provided a good fit to the with a χ2 to df ratio of 1.84. In particular, both female and male participants who reported higher levels of attachment insecurity were more likely to be victim of dating aggression in their relationships. Furthermore, female participants who reported having witnessed parental conflict were more likely to be victimized by their partners. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of intimate relationship violence with dyadic data showing, for both genders, attachment insecurity is a crucial factor in both victimization and perpetration of aggression. PMID:24039343
Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin; Reardon, Candice; Johnstone, Leigh; George, Gavin; Gordon, Sarah
Introduction This article explores the complex, dynamic and contextual frameworks within which men working in a mining community and their live-in long-term partners or spouses (termed “couples” in this study) respond to the introduction of HIV into their heterosexual relationships; the way in which partners adopt gendered positions in enabling them to make sense of their illness; how they negotiate their respective masculine and feminine roles in response to the need for HIV-related lifestyle changes; as well as the gendered nature of partner support in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ARV) adherence. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study with a sample of 12 HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual couples in a South African mining organization. Transcripts based on semi-structured couple's interviews were analyzed using an inductive emergent thematic analytical method. Results The findings present compelling evidence that the impact of HIV and AIDS is mitigated, in the main, by the nature of the dyadic relationship. Where power and agency were skewed in accordance with traditional gender scripts, the impact of HIV and AIDS was deleterious in terms of negotiating disclosure, meeting expectations of care and support, and promoting treatment adherence. As a corollary, the study also revealed that where the relational dynamic evidenced a more equitable distribution of power, the challenge of negotiating illness was embraced in a way that strengthened the couples’ affiliation in profound ways, manifested not simply in a reduction in risk behaviours, but in both partner's courage to re-visit sensitive issues related to managing their relationship in the context of a debilitating illness. Conclusions Gendered positioning (by self and others) was found to play a crucial role in the way couples experienced HIV and ARV treatment, and underscored the positive role of a couples-counselling approach in the negotiation of the illness experience. However
Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra
Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…
Southworth, S; Schwarz, J C
Attitudes of 104 female college students from divorced and intact families were compared. Parental divorce was found to have long-term effects on young women's expectations about their futures in relation to men, work, and marriage. However, these effects were not found to be closely related to the nature of the relationships they had with their fathers following the divorce. PMID:3618735
Mustonen, Ulla; Huurre, Taina; Kiviruusu, Olli; Haukkala, Ari; Aro, Hillevi
The purpose of this 16-year prospective follow-up study was to investigate the association between parental divorce in childhood and intimate relationship quality in adulthood. The mediating role of psychosocial resources (parent-child relationships at 16 years, self-esteem and social support at 32 years) in this association was also studied. All 16 year olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age (n = 1,471). Results showed that women and men from divorced families were more often divorced or separated at the age of 32 years than those from nondivorced families. However, parental divorce was associated with poorer intimate relationship quality only among women. Women from divorced families also had poorer relationships with their father and mother in adolescence, and they had lower self-esteem and satisfaction with social support in adulthood than women from intact families. No such associations were found among men. The impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality among women was partially mediated by mother-daughter relationship, self-esteem, and satisfaction with social support. The mediating role of mother-daughter relationship was not direct, however, but was mediated via self-esteem and satisfaction with social support. Our findings indicate that parental divorce affects daughters more than sons. In the context of parental divorce, the mother-daughter relationship in adolescence is important for the development of later psychosocial resources and, via them, for intimate relationship quality. PMID:21639631
Afiyanti, Yati; Milanti, Ariesta
Cervical cancer often leads to sexuality and intimacy concerns for the affected woman within a marital relationship.This study aimed to explore physical sexual concerns and their impact on the intimate partner relationships experienced by cervical cancer survivors. Using a descriptive phenomenological approach, data were collected through in-depth interviews with Indonesian women survivors of cervical cancer. Two themes and five sub-themes were constructed from the thematic analysis. The first theme was the physical sexual concerns following cervical cancer treatment, with the subthemes: red spotting and massive vaginal discharge after having sexual intercourse; narrower, smaller and less lubricated vagina; pain during sexual intercourse; feeling of shortened vagina as if it had been cut. The second theme of impact of sexual concerns on intimate partner had five subthemes of: looking for reasons to refuse sexual intercourse; prejudice towards the spouse; feeling forced to fulfil husband's sexual needs; accepting spouse's anger; willingness to let the spouse marry another woman. The findings provide nurses with a greater understanding on how women adapt to their altered sexuality and intimacy with their partner following cancer treatments. PMID:23171291
Fletcher, Garth J O; Kerr, Patrick S G
This article reviews the research literature and theory concerned with accuracy of judgments in romantic relationships. We initially propose a model of cognition in (romantic) relationships that distinguishes between 2 forms of accuracy: mean-level bias and tracking accuracy. We then report the results of meta-analyses of research on heterosexual, romantic relationships, which used external benchmarks and reported levels of tracking accuracy (98 studies) and/or mean-level bias (48 studies). The results revealed robust overall effect sizes for both tracking accuracy (r = .47) and positive mean-level bias (r = .09). As expected, the effects were substantial and positive for tracking accuracy across 6 judgmental categories, whereas signed mean-level bias was negative for the interaction attributions (e.g., love, communication). The results showed, as expected, that these 2 forms of accuracy were independent-the 2 kinds of effect size derived from the same set of 38 studies were uncorrelated. As expected, gender, relationship length, and relationship evaluations moderated mean-level bias across studies but (unexpectedly) not for tracking accuracy. In the Discussion we evaluate the prior model in light of the findings, other research, moderating variables (such as self-esteem), the role of projection, the early stages of mate selection, metacognition, and the rationality and nature of motivated cognition. We conclude that our model, findings, and analyses help to resolve the apparent paradox that love is both riven with illusions and rooted in reality, and support both evolutionary and social psychological approaches to understanding cognition in romantic relationships. PMID:20565171
Lilleston, Pamela S.; Hebert, Luciana E.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Holtgrave, David R.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Sherman, Susan G.
Sexual concurrency may increase risk for HIV/STIs among youth. Attitudes about gender roles, including power balances within sexual partnerships, could be a driver. We examined this association among Baltimore youth (N=352), aged 15–24. Data were collected from February, 2011 to May, 2013. We examined whether index concurrency in male-reported partnerships (N=221) and sex partner concurrency in female-reported partnerships (N=241) were associated with youth’s attitudes towards relationship power. Males with more equitable beliefs about power were less likely to report index concurrency. Females with more equitable beliefs were more likely to report partner’s concurrency. The relationship was significant in main and casual partnerships among females and main partnerships among males. The strongest associations were detected among middle-SES males and low-SES and African American females. Implementing interventions that recognize the complex relationship between socioeconomic context, partner dynamics, gender, and sexual behavior is an important step towards reducing HIV/STI risk among youth. PMID:26054391
Emery, Clifton R.; Jolley, Jennifer; Wu, Shali
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) relationship dissolution and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, residential instability, collective efficacy, and legal cynicism. Data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Longitudinal survey were used to…
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Basile, Kathleen C
This article summarizes results of semistructured telephone interviews with 41 women about experiences with various forms of violent victimization. Women who reported an incident or incidents of unwanted sex in their intimate partner relationships were recruited from a national telephone poll and interviewed about other types of victimization, such as childhood maltreatment, unwanted sex by a date or acquaintance, and nonsexual violence by a husband or partner. Results suggest that women who report unwanted sex by a husband or partner have commonly experienced various other forms of abuse in their lives. The author discusses implications of the findings for prevention of unwanted sex in intimate relationships. PMID:18096858
Staley, Cameron; Prause, Nicole
Viewing visual sexual stimuli (VSS) has been documented to have both positive (e.g., increased sexual arousal and sexual behaviors) and negative (e.g., higher anxiety, devaluing of partner attractiveness) effects. Excitation transfer and social comparison theories were used to generate hypotheses that could explain these mixed findings. Forty-four monogamous, heterosexual couples viewed erotic, exciting (non-erotic films), and nature films both alone and together. They rated their feelings of general arousal and relationship satisfaction as well as perceptions of self and partner sexual behaviors and attractiveness. Participants viewing both the erotic and exciting films reported equivalent increases in excitement; however, the erotic film was rated as slightly more generally arousing and increased participant's desire to be close to their partner. Viewing the erotic films also induced greater reports of negative affect, guilt, and anxiety. These findings moderately support a transfer of excitation interpretation. No effects of partner presence or absence while viewing the films was found. Viewing erotic films led to more positive evaluations of one's own sexual behaviors. These findings provide mixed support in regard to self and partner social comparisons. Co-occurring positive and negative emotional reactions were explored as possible explanation to the complex reactions to VSS. PMID:23224749
Pitcher, Erich N.
Previous research about college students' social media usage emphasizes social media "practices," often ignoring the "content" that students' post. Increasing knowledge about the language that college students use to describe their intimate relationships can inform student affairs practice. Using a digital ethnographic data…
Lei, Lei; Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Gu, Ying
A central question in plant cell development is how the cell wall determines directional cell expansion and therefore the final shape of the cell. As the major load-bearing component of the cell wall, cellulose microfibrils are laid down transversely to the axis of elongation, thus forming a spring-like structure that reinforces the cell laterally and while favoring longitudinal expansion in most growing cells. Mounting evidence suggests that cortical microtubules organize the deposition of cellulose microfibrils, but the precise molecular mechanisms linking microtubules to cellulose organization have remained unclear until the recent discovery of cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 , a linker protein between the cortical microtubules and the cellulose biosynthesizing machinery. In this review, we will focus on the intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and cortical microtubules, in particular, we will discuss microtubule arrangement and cell wall architecture, the linkage between cellulose synthase complexes and microtubules, and the feedback mechanisms between cell wall and microtubules. PMID:24659994
In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances. PMID:26973948
In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society - physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances. PMID:26973948
Karakurt, Günnur; Silver, Kristin E.
The present study aimed to investigate the moderating roles of gender and age on emotional abuse within intimate relationships. This study included 250 participants with an average age of 27 years. Participants completed the Emotional Abuse Questionnaire (EAQ; Jacobson and Gottman, 1998), whose four subscales are isolation, degradation, sexual abuse, and property damage. Multigroup analysis with two groups, female (n = 141) and male (n = 109), was used to test the moderation effect. Younger men reported experiencing higher levels of emotional abuse, which declined with age. Older females reported experiencing less emotional abuse than older males. Overall, emotional abuse was more common in younger participants. Younger women experienced higher rates of isolation, and women’s overall experience of property damage was higher than that of men and increased with age. Results are interpreted through the Social Exchange and Conflict frameworks. PMID:24364124
Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Preller, Katrin H; Bosch, Oliver G; Bilderbeck, Amy C; Rogers, Robert D; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E
Methylphenidate mainly enhances dopamine neurotransmission whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") mainly enhances serotonin neurotransmission. However, both drugs also induce a weaker increase of cerebral noradrenaline exerting sympathomimetic properties. Dopaminergic psychostimulants are reported to increase sexual drive, while serotonergic drugs typically impair sexual arousal and functions. Additionally, serotonin has also been shown to modulate cognitive perception of romantic relationships. Whether methylphenidate or MDMA alter sexual arousal or cognitive appraisal of intimate relationships is not known. Thus, we evaluated effects of methylphenidate (40 mg) and MDMA (75 mg) on subjective sexual arousal by viewing erotic pictures and on perception of romantic relationships of unknown couples in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 healthy adults. Methylphenidate, but not MDMA, increased ratings of sexual arousal for explicit sexual stimuli. The participants also sought to increase the presentation time of implicit sexual stimuli by button press after methylphenidate treatment compared with placebo. Plasma levels of testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone were not associated with sexual arousal ratings. Neither MDMA nor methylphenidate altered appraisal of romantic relationships of others. The findings indicate that pharmacological stimulation of dopaminergic but not of serotonergic neurotransmission enhances sexual drive. Whether sexual perception is altered in subjects misusing methylphenidate e.g., for cognitive enhancement or as treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is of high interest and warrants further investigation. PMID:25498417
Mays, V M; Cochran, S D; Rhue, S
This paper explores the effects of perceived racial/ethnic and sexual orientation discrimination on African-American lesbians' relationships with friends, lovers, family, and community support systems. Data for this exploratory study were gathered from a series of semi-structured ethnographic interviews with self-identified Black lesbians. Results suggested that those who had been in relationships with White lesbians reported more frequent experiences of discrimination that influenced their later decision to seek a Black lesbian partner for their next love relationship. Reactions toward lesbian community events ranged from avoidance to determined participation in response to feelings of alienation and racism. Also, Black lesbians perceived the African-American community to be conservative in their views on homosexuality. Nevertheless, for half of the women their interest in participation in the African-American community overshadowed their concerns about negative reactions to their homosexuality. Data from this exploratory study isolated questions that need further empirically based exploration in order to understand how race/ethnicity, culture, and sexual orientation influence the development, maintenance, and dissolution of intimate relationships in the lives of African-American lesbians. PMID:8106735
Swan, Suzanne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.
Previous studies have found high rates of help-seeking among women who are abused by intimate partners. However, little research has investigated the help-seeking patterns of women who are aggressive in their relationships. Understanding the help-seeking of violent women may aid in designing interventions that will reduce the women’s violent behavior, as well as reducing the victimization they may be experiencing from their partners. This study examines the resource utilization of a sample of 108 women who had used violence against a male intimate partner in the previous six months. Ninety-four percent of the women also experienced physical violence from their partners. The study found that almost all of the women utilized community resources in an attempt to manage the violence in their relationships. In addition, a path model revealed that greater resource utilization predicted a decrease in women’s violence against their partners. The path model also revealed that women’s victimization did not directly predict greater resource utilization; rather, women who experienced higher levels of victimization were more likely to have a self-defensive motive for using violence, which increased the likelihood of seeking resources. Women who use violence to defend themselves may realize that they cannot handle their partner’s violence on their own, and so seek help. Women with more symptoms of posttraumatic stress symptoms also reported using more resources. Social support networks were the most widely used resource, and social support coping also contributed to increased resource utilization. PMID:18573925
Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig
In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men's perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men's reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in 'outness' about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships. PMID:26966994
Emery, Clifton R.
This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…
Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P.; Smith, Mark W.; Baumrind, Nikki
Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of…
Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet; Cox, Brian J.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Stein, Murray B.; Sareen, Jitender
It is important to understand the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by both males and females. Data were drawn from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The relationships between physical IPV and child abuse, mental disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts among males and females were examined. The…
Fass, Daniel F.; Benson, Ronald I.; Leggett, Debra G.
This study is an investigation of the occurrence and awareness of violence in intimate partner relationships as reported by college students recruited by e-mail from a small Midwestern university. Students responded to an online survey using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale 2. Data were collected on the occurrences of violent…
Garrity, Mary Kate
This social constructivist/constructionist research explores changes in female therapists' intimate relationships after they began working with survivors of female sexual violence. Discourse analysis found that working with survivors shifted participants' initially naive understanding of female sexual violence, as they developed a critical…
Samuelson, Kristin W.; Krueger, Casey E.; Wilson, Christina
Recently researchers have begun to explore the extent to which children's cognitive development is influenced by experiences in the family environment. Assessing mother-child dyads exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), a population at risk for emotional and neurocognitive problems, we examined relationships between maternal emotional…
Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Christ, Sharon L.; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L.
Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density…
Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Chan, Chee-Hon; Ho, Pak-Chung
There is increasing recognition that chronic pain is a problem affecting women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), and in Western literature evidence is emerging about significant factors mediating the relationship between IPV and chronic pain. However, little is known about the factors mediating IPV and chronic pain in Chinese women for whom prior research has shown that Chinese culture may influence their response to IPV. This study was conducted to assess the roles of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, and IPV-related injury on the relationship between IPV and chronic pain in Chinese women, using structural equation modelling (SEM). Data were collected from 308 Chinese women survivors of IPV recruited at community setting (n = 228) and at domestic violence shelters (n = 82). Results showed that only the relationship between psychological abuse severity and chronic pain severity was mediated by PTSD symptom severity (β = .30, 95% CI = 0.14-0.45, p < .001). Furthermore, although depressive symptom severity was strongly correlated with PTSD symptom severity (β = .69, 95% CI = 0.61-0.76, p < .001), it was not found to be mediating the relationship between any types of IPV and chronic pain. Similarly, IPV-related injury severity was not shown to have a significant mediating effect on the relationship between IPV and chronic pain. The findings affirm the importance of recognizing the complex interrelationships among IPV, mental health symptoms, and physical health problems as well as the need for considering PTSD symptoms when designing interventions for abused Chinese women with complaints of chronic pain. PMID:23002081
The study compares Greek Americans to Greeks and to third-generation white Americans in their endorsement of two cognitive schemas guiding intimate relationships. Greek Americans were more rejecting of low self-disclosure in intimate relationships than were Greeks but did not differ from them on how strongly they advocated sacrificing the self for one's partner. By contrast, Greek Americans did not differ from Americans in their rejection of low self-disclosure and more strongly endorsed self-sacrifice in intimate relationships than did Americans. These findings were interpreted as indicating that Greek Americans have acculturated to a more individualistic orientation in terms of self-disclosure while maintaining a collectivistic orientation regarding self-sacrifice in intimate relationships. Respondents' age, cultural group, and whether they were college students or professionals interacted with how strongly individuals rejected low self-disclosure and showed that age and status differences were more pronounced between rather than within the three cultural groups. It revealed that the initial finding, showing that Greeks and Americans differed, was based on the scores of students; professionals, with one exception, did not differ in their disagreement with low self-disclosure, regardless of their age and cultural group. The exception was the older Greek American professional subgroup, whose stronger disagreement with low self-disclosure may be an overreaction to the acculturation process. Age and status differences were not significant in the American group, while there was a pattern in Greece for professionals to reject low self-disclosure more strongly than did students. Women were more rejecting of both low self-disclosure and self-sacrifice in intimate relationships than were men. Older women most strongly disagreed with the self-sacrifice principle and older men adhered to it more strongly with increasing age. Cette étude compare des Américains grecs à des
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
Partners from four types of couples without children (gay unmarried, lesbian unmarried, heterosexual unmarried, and heterosexual married, Ns=1,412, 1,310, 1,036, and 1,728, respectively) were compared to partners from heterosexual married couples with children ("N"= 3,116) on mean levels of variables from a model of relationship adjustment as well…
Background HIV prevention efforts have given limited attention to the relational schemas and scripts of adult heterosexual women. These broader schemas and scripts of romantic and other sexual liaisons, partner selection, relationship dynamics, and power negotiations may help to better understand facilitators and barriers to HIV risk-reduction practices. Methods We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 60 HIV-uninfected heterosexual African-American women from rural counties in North Carolina and Alabama, and Hispanic women from an urban county in southern Florida. Data were collected for relationship expectations; relationship experiences, and relationship power and decision-making. Interview transcripts underwent computer-assisted thematic analysis. Results Participants had a median age of 34 years (range 18–59), 34% were married or living as married, 39% earned an annual income of $12,000 or less, 12% held less than a high school education, and 54% were employed. Among the Hispanic women, 95% were foreign born. We identified two overarching relationship themes: contradictions between relationship expectations and desires and life circumstances that negated such ideals, and relationship challenges. Within the contradictions theme, we discovered six subthemes: a good man is hard to find; sex can be currency used to secure desired outcomes; compromises and allowances for cheating, irresponsible, and disrespectful behavior; redefining dating; sex just happens; needing relationship validation. The challenges theme centered on two subthemes: uncertainties and miscommunication, and relationship power negotiation. Gender differences in relationship intentions and desires as well as communication styles, the importance of emotional and financial support, and the potential for relationships to provide disappointment were present in all subthemes. In examining HIV risk perceptions, participants largely held that risk for HIV-infection and the need to take
Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Findlay, Nicole; Schwandt, Michael; Calzavara, Liviana M.
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant health problem that has been associated with HIV infection in numerous studies. We aimed to systematically review the literature on relationships between IPV and HIV in order to describe the prevalence of IPV in people with HIV, the prevalence of HIV in people experiencing IPV, the association between IPV and HIV, and evidence regarding mechanisms of risk and interventions. Methods Data sources were 10 electronic databases and reference lists. Studies were included if they reported data on the relationship between IPV and HIV. All records were independently reviewed by two authors at the stages of title and abstract review and full text review. Any abstract considered eligible by either reviewer was reviewed in full, and any disagreement regarding eligibility of full texts or data extracted was resolved by discussion. Results 101 articles were included. Experiencing IPV and HIV infection were associated in unadjusted analyses in most studies, as well as in adjusted analyses in many studies. The findings of qualitative and quantitative studies assessing potential mechanisms linking IPV and HIV were variable. Few interventions have been assessed, but two identified in this review were promising in terms of preventing IPV, though not HIV infection. Conclusions Experiencing IPV and HIV infection tend to be associated in unadjusted analyses, suggesting that IPV screening and linkage with relevant programs and services may be valuable. It is unclear whether there is a causal association between experiencing IPV and HIV infection. Research should focus on defining parameters of IPV which are relevant to HIV infection, including type of IPV and period of exposure and risk, on assessing potential mechanisms, and on developing and assessing interventions which build on the strengths of existing studies. PMID:24282566
Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Oberleitner, Lindsay M.S.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.
Forty substance using, male offenders of intimate partner violence completed measures of alcohol use and relationship status acceptance during a pretreatment screening session. They also completed a measure of verbal aggression after each month of a 12 week intervention program. Treatment length, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship status acceptance were used to assess the frequency of verbal aggression at each of the four assessment periods in a repeated measures ANCOVA. Main effects were detected for both alcohol and acceptance variables such that greater verbal aggression was observed among participants with a recent history of heavy episodic drinking and failure to accept the status of the relationship with their female victim. The interaction between time in treatment and relationship status acceptance was significant and showed that participants who accepted their relationship status reported low verbal aggression across measurement occasions while those who did not accept their relationship status reported high initial verbal aggression that decreased over treatment. PMID:23680991
Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A
This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators." PMID:25548142
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet
Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. PMID:24641108
van Wijk, Evalina; Harrison, Tracie C
In a longitudinal phenomenological study, the lived experience of being a male intimate partner (MIP) of a female rape victim in Cape Town, South Africa, is presented. Nine men participated in four face-to-face, semistructured interviews. The authors describe changes in communication and sexual intimacy postrape and how these changes spiralled into a dysfunctional relationship. Participants were interested in interventions for both partners and particularly for education to improve their communication and sexual relationships postrape. Researchers need to reconsider existing policies related to training programs to develop interventions that can address the needs of couples postrape and, ultimately, enhance their recovery. PMID:24821128
Emery, Clifton R
This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816 primary caregivers and their children. Fixed-effects regression models were employed to address concerns with selection bias. IPV was associated with significantly greater internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, and truancy. Findings from age interaction models suggested that the relationship between IPV and child behavior problems may attenuate as the age of the child at time of exposure increases. PMID:20587450
Walling, Sherry M.; Meehan, Jeffrey C.; Marshall, Amy D.; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy; Taft, Casey T.
Measures of head injury, executive functioning, and intelligence were given to a community sample composed of 102 male perpetrators of intimate partner aggression (IPA) and 62 nonaggressive men. A history of head injury and lower mean score on a measure of verbal intelligence were associated with the frequency of male-perpetrated physical IPA as…
Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Kruttschnitt, Candace
Research indicates that female offenders are far more likely to have experienced intimate partner violence than women in the general population. Despite extensive research on women's pathways into offending, very little is known about why these women are at increased risk for partner violence. The authors use data from a sample of incarcerated…
Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon
In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or…
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use…
Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M.
Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate…
Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H.; Logan, Diane E.; Leeson, Carissa J.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Kaysen, Debra L.
Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors. PMID:26456995
Edin, Kerstin; Nilsson, Bo
Background Women subjected to intimate partner violence (IPV) experience different forms of abuse. Sexual violence is often under-reported because physically abused women, in particular, might see forced sex as an obligatory part of the sexual interplay. Accordingly, abused women have less sexual autonomy and experience unplanned pregnancies more often than other women. Objective To describe and analyse nine Swedish women's retrospective stories about IPV with a focus on power and coping strategies as intimate partners, particularly regarding experiences of sex, contraception, and becoming pregnant. Design Nine qualitative interviews were carried out with women who had been subjected to very severe violence in their intimate relationships and during at least one pregnancy. The stories were analysed using ‘Narrative method’ with the emphasis on the women's lived experiences. Results Despite the violence and many contradictory and ambivalent feelings, two of the women described having sex as desirable, reciprocal and as a respite from the rest of the relationship. The other seven women gave a negative and totally different picture, and they viewed sex either as obligatory or as a necessity to prevent or soothe aggression or referred to it as rape and as something that was physically forced upon them. The women's descriptions of their pregnancies ranged from being carefully planned and mostly wanted to completely unwelcome and including flawed contraceptive efforts with subsequent abortions. Conclusions Women subjected to IPV have diverse and complex experiences that have effects on all parts of the relationship. Intimacy might for some turn into force and rape, but for others sex does not necessarily exclude pleasure and desire and can be a haven of rest from an otherwise violent relationship. Accordingly, women may tell stories that differ from the ones expected as ‘the typical abuse story’, and this complexity needs to be recognized and dealt with when
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; De Santis, Joseph P; Vasquez, Elias P
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by intimate partner violence (IPV). Most of the research describing factors associated with intimate partner violence among Hispanics has focused on Hispanic women or Hispanics in heterosexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual), and demographic, cultural, and psychological factors and intimate partner violence among Hispanic men. A cross sectional questionnaire was administered to 160 Hispanic heterosexual men and men who have sex with men. Demographic factors (age, education, and income), acculturation, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem were assessed using standardized instruments. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, and simple and multiple logistical regression. Differences in education, income, and self-esteem were noted across participants identifying as heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual. Bisexual Hispanic men had almost four times greater odds of reporting the perpetration of IPV than homosexual Hispanic men, even when differences in education, income, and self-esteem were controlled for (AOR = 3.92, 95%CI = 1.11, 14.19). This study suggests the importance of specifically targeting bisexual Hispanic men in IPV research and services. PMID:23369121
Most research on intimate partner violence to date has focused on young men. Although interest and research regarding older abused women has increased in recent years, research on the voices and experiences of older abusive men is still scarce. The purpose of this article is to present a typology of older battering men dwelling in lifelong intimate violence relationships. Fifteen older Israeli abusive men, aged 65 to 84 years, were interviewed in depth. Four types were identified: the "Non-quitter," the "Cover-up"-er, the "In-between"-er, and the "Normalizer." These types were constructed based on four dimensions: the construction of violence over the years, the perception of the spouse over the years, losses accompanying the violent relationship, and the meaning of violence in old age. The four types enable an in-depth look at the experiential world of older abusers and paint a complex picture of various ways in which abusive men live with violence over time. PMID:23339131
Weinstein, Aviv M.; Zolek, Rinat; Babkin, Anna; Cohen, Koby; Lejoyeux, Michel
Sexual addiction otherwise known as compulsive sexual behavior is associated with serious psychosocial problems and risk-taking behavior. This study used the Cybersex addiction test, Craving for pornography questionnaire, and a Questionnaire on intimacy among 267 participants (192 males and 75 females) mean age for males 28.16 (SD = 6.8) and for females 25.5 (SD = 5.13) who were recruited from special sites that are dedicated to pornography and cybersex on the Internet. Results of regression analysis indicated that pornography, gender, and cybersex significantly predicted difficulties in intimacy and it accounted for 66.1% of the variance of rating on the intimacy questionnaire. Second, regression analysis also indicated that craving for pornography, gender, and difficulties in forming intimate relationships significantly predicted frequency of cybersex use and it accounted for 83.7% of the variance in ratings of cybersex use. Third, men had higher scores of frequency of using cybersex than women [t(2,224) = 1.97, p < 0.05] and higher scores of craving for pornography than women [t(2,265) = 3.26, p < 0.01] and no higher scores on the questionnaire measuring difficulties in forming intimate relationship than women [t(2,224) = 1, p = 0.32]. These findings support previous evidence for sex differences in compulsive sexual behavior. PMID:25941496
Weinstein, Aviv M; Zolek, Rinat; Babkin, Anna; Cohen, Koby; Lejoyeux, Michel
Sexual addiction otherwise known as compulsive sexual behavior is associated with serious psychosocial problems and risk-taking behavior. This study used the Cybersex addiction test, Craving for pornography questionnaire, and a Questionnaire on intimacy among 267 participants (192 males and 75 females) mean age for males 28.16 (SD = 6.8) and for females 25.5 (SD = 5.13) who were recruited from special sites that are dedicated to pornography and cybersex on the Internet. Results of regression analysis indicated that pornography, gender, and cybersex significantly predicted difficulties in intimacy and it accounted for 66.1% of the variance of rating on the intimacy questionnaire. Second, regression analysis also indicated that craving for pornography, gender, and difficulties in forming intimate relationships significantly predicted frequency of cybersex use and it accounted for 83.7% of the variance in ratings of cybersex use. Third, men had higher scores of frequency of using cybersex than women [t(2,224) = 1.97, p < 0.05] and higher scores of craving for pornography than women [t(2,265) = 3.26, p < 0.01] and no higher scores on the questionnaire measuring difficulties in forming intimate relationship than women [t(2,224) = 1, p = 0.32]. These findings support previous evidence for sex differences in compulsive sexual behavior. PMID:25941496
Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia
A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…
Bonert, Michael; Leask, Richard L; Butany, Jagdish; Ethier, C Ross; Myers, Jerry G; Johnston, K Wayne; Ojha, Matadial
Purpose The goal of this work was to determine wall shear stress (WSS) patterns in the human abdominal aorta and to compare these patterns to measurements of intimal thickness (IT) from autopsy samples. Methods The WSS was experimentally measured using the laser photochromic dye tracer technique in an anatomically faithful in vitro model based on CT scans of the abdominal aorta in a healthy 35-year-old subject. IT was quantified as a function of circumferential and axial position using light microscopy in ten human autopsy specimens. Results The histomorphometric analysis suggests that IT increases with age and that the distribution of intimal thickening changes with age. The lowest WSS in the flow model was found on the posterior wall inferior to the inferior mesenteric artery, and coincided with the region of most prominent IT in the autopsy samples. Local geometrical features in the flow model, such as the expansion at the inferior mesenteric artery (common in younger individuals), strongly influenced WSS patterns. The WSS was found to correlate negatively with IT (r2 = 0.3099; P = 0.0047). Conclusion Low WSS in the abdominal aorta is co-localized with IT and may be related to atherogenesis. Also, rates of IT in the abdominal aorta are possibly influenced by age-related geometrical changes. PMID:14641919
Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette
We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198
Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette
We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198
The purpose of this practice note is to explore issues that arise in Manavi's work with South Asian women who use nonfatal force in heterosexual intimate relationships. It provides a nuanced understanding of the contexts within which a South Asian woman uses physical force. It addresses the many barriers a South Asian woman faces in an abusive relationship that ultimately may lead her to use of force. The goal of the practice note is to act as a tool to strengthen advocacy and service provision made available to South Asian female survivors of violence and abuse. PMID:23108807
Carvalheira, Ana; Santana, Rita
The inability to reach orgasm is probably the least common and least understood of all male sexual dysfunctions. The present study aims to investigate the incidence of the inability to reach orgasm, and the psychological and interpersonal factors associated with this sexual difficulty. A total of 3,672 heterosexual men from three European countries (1,937 Portuguese, 1,215 Croats, 520 Norwegians) participated in this web survey (M age = 36.6 years, SD = 18-75 years). A total of 354 (9.6%) reported the inability to reach orgasm. Among those men, 89.8% reported moderate to extreme distress regarding this sexual difficulty. A multivariate assessment revealed that men in short-term relationships and taking antidepressants were more likely to report inability to reach orgasm. Men who reported having difficulties getting or maintaining an erection were 4 times more likely to have experienced the inability to reach orgasm than were those who did not report this difficulty. Men who experienced difficulty "'letting go' and surrendering to sexual pleasure during sex" were 2.7 times more likely to have experienced the inability to reach orgasm than were those who did not report this difficulty. This difficulty of "letting go" might reflect the unwillingness to give oneself, an idea presented in previous research. PMID:25650656
Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia; Morua, Wendy; Chaliman, Rebecca
This study examined the nature and impact of dyadic perfectionism over a 3-month interval within a sample of 116 college students who were currently involved in an intimate heterosexual relationship. Dyadic perfectionism scores were stable and correlated as expected with scores on concurrent measures of adult attachment orientations and…
Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Christakos, Antigone
Reports rate of intimate partner homicides (married and unmarried, heterosexual and homosexual) in Chicago from 1965-1993 (2,556 in all). Identifies major trends in intimate homicide over this 29-year period; discusses the people who are most at risk and the riskiest situations. Explores implications for intervention strategies. (LKS)
Weiss, Nicole H.; Duke, Aaron A.; Sullivan, Tami P.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent among individuals who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated with aggression in intimate relationships. The present study examined whether alcohol dependence (AD) attenuates the relation between PTSD and IPV-victimized women’s use of physical, psychological, and sexual aggression. Participants were recruited from the community and included 147 women who engage in substance use and experience IPV [80.3% Black; M age = 38.2 years (SD = 10.6); M income = $14,323 (SD = $12,832)]. Women with (vs. without) AD reported using significantly more physical and psychological aggression (ηp2 = .12 and .03, respectively). The probable PTSD × AD interaction emerged as a significant correlate of physical and sexual aggression (ηp2s = .03). Post-hoc analyses revealed higher levels of physical aggression among women with probable PTSD and AD and no-PTSD and AD compared to women with probable PTSD and no-AD (Cohen’s ds = 1.09 and 0.63, respectively) and women with no-PTSD and no-AD (Cohen’s ds = 0.92 and 0.60, respectively). Further, women with PTSD and AD reported higher levels of sexual aggression than women with no-PTSD and AD (Cohen’s d = 0.80). Findings suggest the utility of identifying and treating PTSD-AD among IPV-victimized women. PMID:25322884
Groves, Allison K.; McNaughton-Reyes, H. Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed. PMID:25268363
Cameron, Ann; Tomlin, Molly
Using Internet-based survey data, this study compared the demographic, psychosocial, relationship, and sexual characteristics of three groups of U.S. women: (a) women whose partners had erectile dysfunction (ED) and were taking medication to treat ED; (b) women whose partners had ED in the previous 3 months and were not taking medication to treat ED; and (c) a control group of women whose partners did not have ED. Results indicate that women are affected by their partners' ED and that ED treatment benefits women's sexual self-efficacy, communication about sexual issues, and sexual and relationship satisfaction. PMID:17365514
Cripe, Swee May; Espinoza, Damarys; Rondon, Marta B; Jimenez, Maria Luisa; Sanchez, Elena; Ojeda, Nely; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A
We sought to identify what abused Peruvian women want or need as intervention strategies. We conducted five focus groups with 30 women with prior or current experience with intimate partner violence. Participants noted that abused women need compassionate support, professional counseling, and informational and practical (e.g., work skills training, employment, shelter, financial support) interventions. We propose a 2-tiered intervention strategy that includes community support groups and individual professional counseling. This strategy is intended to offer broad coverage, meeting the needs of large groups of women who experience abuse, whereas providing specialized counseling for those requiring intensive support. Respect for each woman's autonomy in the decision-making process is a priority. Interventions targeted toward women and men should address structural factors that contribute to violence against women. PMID:25741931
Cripe, Swee May; Espinoza, Damarys; Rondon, Marta B.; Jimenez, Maria Luisa; Sanchez, Elena; Ojeda, Nely; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A.
We sought to identify what abused Peruvian women want or need as intervention strategies. We conducted five focus groups with thirty women with prior or current experience with intimate partner violence. Participants noted that abused women need compassionate support, professional counseling, informational and practical (e.g., work skills training, employment, shelter, financial support) interventions. We propose a two-tiered intervention strategy that includes community support groups and individual professional counseling. This strategy is intended to offer broad coverage, meeting the needs of large groups of women who experience abuse, while providing specialized counseling for those requiring intensive support. Respect for each woman’s autonomy in the decision-making process is a priority. Interventions targeted towards women and men should address structural factors that contribute to violence against women. PMID:25741931
Moore, Crystal Dea; Waterman, Caroline K.
To measure self-protective behavior on dates, the Dating Self-Protection Against Rape Scale (DSPARS) was developed. The relationship among previous sexual victimization, self-perceived risk for sexual assault, rape awareness education, gender of dating partner, and DSPARS scores was assessed among 152 college students. Results, implications, and…
Feingold, Alan; Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.
Associations of men’s substance use problems–defined as meeting at least one criterion of dependence on each of a number of substances by the mid-20s–and their perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) were examined in an at-risk community sample of 150 men in long-term relationships from late adolescence to the late 20s. Men who had a problem with substances other than sedatives (especially cannabis and hallucinogens) committed more IPV than did men without such problems. Most of the men who had a problem with marijuana also had an alcohol problem, explaining why alcohol was found to have only an indirect association with IPV. The failure of previous alcohol-use studies to control for co-occurrence of alcohol and marijuana problems may explain the discrepancy with conclusions from past research that alcohol problems contribute directly to the perpetration of IPV. PMID:18540771
Maurer, Trent W
This investigation explored college students' victim-blaming behaviors in perceptions of incapacitated rape. Participants received a vignette about a man who had sexual intercourse with a woman who had lost consciousness due to alcohol, with the conditions varied across the vignettes: the relationship between the parties, the alcohol use of the man, and the post-assault sleeping arrangements. Results revealed that when the man was a stranger, participants attributed less responsibility for the incident to him, but were more likely to label the incident as "rape." Neither the alcohol use of the man nor the post-assault sleeping arrangements significantly influenced participants' perceptions. PMID:26516179
Prasad, Sahdeo; Ravindran, Jayaraj; Aggarwal, Bharat B
NF-kappaB, a transcription factor first discovered in 1986, is now known to be closely connected to the process of tumorogenesis based on a multiplicity of evidence. (1) NF-kappaB is activated in response to tobacco, stress, dietary agents, obesity, alcohol, infectious agents, irradiation, and environmental stimuli that account for as much as 95% of all cancers. (2) The transcription factor has been linked with transformation of cells. (3) It is constitutively active in most tumor cells. (4) It has also been linked with the survival of cancer stem cells, an early progenitor cell that has acquired self-renewal potential. (5) NF-kappaB regulates the expression of most anti-apoptotic gene products associated with the survival of the tumor. (6) It also regulates the gene products linked with proliferation of tumors. (7) The transcription factor controls the expression of gene products linked with invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of cancer. (8) While most carcinogens activate NF-kappaB, most chemopreventive agents suppress its activation. These observations suggest that NF-kappaB is intimately intertwined with cancer growth and metastasis. The mechanism that leads to constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in hematological, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecological, thoracic head and neck, breast, and skin cancers, and the ways NF-kappaB is activated are the topics of discussion in this review. PMID:19823771
Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject. PMID:23686620
van Rhijn, Tricia M.; Murray, Sarah H.; Mizzi, Robert C.
Through the use of mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, the current study explored the impact of postsecondary study on the intimate relationships and school experiences of partnered mature students. Quantitative regression analyses indicated that parental status, family support, partner support, and sexual desire significantly predicted…
Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kerr, David C R; Owen, Lee D; Feingold, Alan
The present study examined the stability of young men's intimate partner violence (IPV) over a 12-year period as a function of relationship continuity or discontinuity. Multiwave measures of IPV (physical and psychological aggression) were obtained from 184 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners. The effects of relationship continuity versus transitions on change in IPV were examined using multilevel analyses. In general, men's IPV decreased over time. Men's physical aggression in their early 20s predicted levels of physical aggression about 7 years later, and men's psychological aggression in their early 20s predicted levels of psychological aggression about 10-12 years later. As hypothesized, higher stability in IPV was found for men who stayed with the same partners, whereas men experiencing relationship transitions showed greater change. The IPV of new partners was linked to the changes in men's IPV that occurred with repartnering. There was less change in men's IPV over time as men changed partners less frequently. PMID:21311973
Muise, Amy; Stanton, Sarah C E; Kim, James J; Impett, Emily A
Men's sexual overperception bias-where men tend to perceive greater sexual interest in women's behavior than actually exists-is a well-documented finding in previous research. All of the existing research, however, has tested this effect in the context of initial encounters or for fictitious or unknown targets. No research currently exists on how people perceive their romantic partner's sexual desire in the context of ongoing, intimate relationships. In 3 dyadic studies, we provide evidence that men in established romantic relationships err in the direction of the opposite bias and underperceive their romantic partner's sexual desire. We also demonstrate that this underperception bias is functional (particularly for men) in that it is associated with their partner feeling more satisfied and committed to the relationship. In addition, people are particularly likely to underperceive their partner's desire on days when they are motivated to avoid sexual rejection, and men's underperception bias is, in part, accounted for by men's higher general levels of sexual desire than women. The current studies extend previous findings on sexual perceptual biases and demonstrate the important role of context in men's judgments of a partner's sexual interest. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176775
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…
Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Copp, Jennifer E
Using longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 927), we examined physical victimization, poor quality, and depression among young adults in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depression with the inclusion of prior depression, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. With the inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depression. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depression. Associations between victimization and depression did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor quality on depression conditional on gender. Thus, victimization occurs within relationships characterized by a range of negative dynamics. Multifaceted relationship-centered prevention efforts are more useful than focusing only on the use of aggression with a partner. PMID:25131276
Dalla, Rochelle L; Marchetti, Alexandria M; Sechrest, Elizabeth Beth A; White, Jennifer L
In 1992 and 1995, data were collected from 29 Navajo Native American adolescent mothers. In 2007 and 2008, data were collected from 21 of the original 29 (72%). Guided by feminist family theory, this investigation sought to (a) examine Navajo adolescent mothers' intimate partner relationships during the transition to parenthood, (b) identify themes in the young mothers' intimate partnerships across time, and (c) assess participants' psychosocial well-being in adulthood. Four themes emerged in the women's long-term intimate relationships: limited support, substance abuse, infidelity, and intimate partner violence. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:20558768
Udo, Ifeyinwa E; Sharps, Phyllis; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B
Objectives This longitudinal study examined the influence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) experience of pregnant women participating in the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program on the language and neurological development of infants and toddlers. Methods A total of 210 infants and toddlers born to women reporting low, moderate, and high levels of IPV were included in the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the bivariate association between maternal IPV and risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers and between covariates and language and neurological delay. Generalized estimating equation models with logit link was used to predict the risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers as a result of maternal IPV. Results Infants and toddlers born to women exposed to moderate levels of IPV had increased odds of language delay compared to infants and toddlers of women who experienced low levels of violence (OR 5.31, 95 % CI 2.94, 9.50, p < 0.001). Infants and toddlers born to women who experienced moderate and high levels of IPV were at higher risk of neurological delay respectively, compared to infants and toddlers of women who experienced low levels of IPV (OR 5.42, 95 % CI 2.99, 9.82, p < 0.001 and OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.11, 5.61, p = 0.026). Conclusions for Practice Maternal IPV is associated with increased risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers. These findings have implications for health care for women and infants exposed to IPV. Clinicians including pediatricians working with pregnant women should screen for IPV throughout pregnancy to identify women and children at risk. Interventions to reduce maternal IPV and early intervention services for infants and toddlers exposed to IPV are necessary for optimal maternal and child health. PMID:26992715
Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M; Berger, Joshua L
Although experts agree that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a multidimensional phenomenon comprised of both physical and non-physical acts, there is no measure of legal and administrative (LA) forms of IPV. LA aggression is when one partner manipulates the legal and other administrative systems to the detriment of his/her partner. Our measure was developed using the qualitative literature on male IPV victims' experiences. We tested the reliability and validity of our LA aggression measure on two samples of men: 611 men who sustained IPV and sought help, and 1,601 men in a population-based sample. Construct validity of the victimization scale was supported through factor analyses, correlations with other forms of IPV victimization, and comparisons of the rates of LA aggression between the two samples; reliability was established through Cronbach's alpha. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the perpetration scale was mixed and therefore needs further analyses and revisions before we can recommend its use in empirical work. There is initial support for the victimization scale as a valid and reliable measure of LA aggression victimization among men, but work is needed using women's victimization's experiences to establish reliability and validity of this measure for women. An LA aggression measure should be developed using LGBTQ victims' experiences, and for couples who are well into the divorce and child custody legal process. Legal personnel and practitioners should be educated on this form of IPV so that they can appropriately work with clients who have been victimized or perpetrate LA aggression. PMID:24888571
Weiss, Nicole H; Duke, Aaron A; Sullivan, Tami P
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent among individuals who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) and is associated with aggression in intimate relationships. The present study examined whether alcohol dependence (AD) attenuates the relation between PTSD and IPV-victimized women's use of physical, psychological, and sexual aggression. Participants were recruited from the community and included 147 women who engaged in substance use and experienced IPV (80.3% Black; M age = 38.24 years, SD = 10.62; M income = $14,323, SD = $12,832). Women with (vs. without) AD reported using significantly more physical and psychological aggression (ηp (2) = .12 and .03, respectively). The probable PTSD × AD interaction emerged as a significant correlate of physical and sexual aggression (ηp (2) = .03). Post hoc analyses revealed higher levels of physical aggression among women with probable PTSD and AD and no-PTSD and AD compared to women with probable PTSD and no-AD (Cohen's ds = 1.09 and 0.63, respectively) and women without PTSD and no-AD (Cohen's ds = 0.92 and 0.60, respectively). Further, women with PTSD and AD reported higher levels of sexual aggression than women without PTSD and AD (Cohen's d = 0.80). Findings suggest the utility of identifying and treating PTSD-AD among IPV-victimized women. PMID:25322884
Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang
In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…
Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Plasencia, Maribel; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L
Although research has shown links between family-of-origin violence (FOV), intimate partner violence (IPV), and hostility, research has not examined whether hostility mediates the relationship between FOV and IPV. The current study examined whether hostility mediates FOV and IPV perpetration in 302 men arrested for domestic violence. Results demonstrated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between father-to-participant FOV and physical and psychological IPV, and the relationship between mother-to-participant FOV and physical IPV. Results indicated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between experiencing and witnessing FOV and physical IPV (composite FOV), and partially mediated the relationship between composite FOV and psychological aggression. PMID:26712239
Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob
Examinations of gay and bisexual men’s (GBM) perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV), including their perceptions of events likely to precipitate IPV, are lacking. Focus group discussions with GBM (n = 83) yielded 24 unique antecedents, or triggers, of IPV in male–male relationships. Venue-recruited survey participants (n = 700) identified antecedents that were likely to cause partner violence in male–male relationships, including antecedents GBM-specific currently absent from the literature. Chi-square tests found significant variations in antecedent endorsement when tested against recent receipt of IPV. Linear regression confirmed that men reporting recent IPV endorsed significantly more IPV antecedents than men without recent IPV (β = 1.8155, p < .012). A better understanding of the IPV event itself in male–male couples versus heterosexual couples, including its antecedents, can inform and strengthen IPV prevention efforts. PMID:25069147
Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender
To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples. PMID:23778315
Scherer, Heidi L; Snyder, Jamie A; Fisher, Bonnie S
Prior research indicates that both college students and individuals with disabilities are at an increased risk of experiencing intimate partner victimization (IPV). However, little is known about IPV risk and its relationship to emotional well-being among the intersection of these two populations. Utilizing a sample of approximately 20,000 college students from the American College Health Association's (ACHA) National College Health Assessment II (NCHA II), this study focuses on this overlooked intersection by examining IPV among college students with disabilities. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship among disability, IPV, and emotional well-being. College students with disabilities were approximately twice as likely to experience IPV than their counterparts without disabilities. Students with mental disabilities and multiple disability types were found to have the greatest likelihood of experiencing IPV. Victims with disabilities were more likely than victims without disabilities to report experiencing depression symptoms, self-harm behavior, and stress. Recommendations for reducing and preventing IPV among a college student population are discussed. PMID:25392373
Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P; Smith, Mark W; Baumrind, Nikki
Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of physical violence, psychological violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as predictors of unemployment. Results indicated substantial rates of unemployment among women who reported IPV, with rates of 20% among women who experienced psychological violence, 18% among women who experienced physical violence, and 19% among women with PTSD symptoms. When the relationship was adjusted for demographic characteristics and educational attainment, PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.09) and psychological violence (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.32), but not physical violence, were associated with unemployment. Implications for supported employment programs and workplace responses to IPV are discussed. PMID:18458353
Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Sibley, Chris G
This study tested the success of communication strategies used by relationship partners (N = 61 romantic couples) who were videotaped while trying to produce desired changes in each other. Strategies varying in valence (positive vs. negative) and directness (direct vs. indirect) were differentially associated with postdiscussion perceptions of success as well as ratings of demonstrated change in targeted features gathered at 3-month intervals during the following year. Direct strategies (positive and negative) were initially perceived as relatively unsuccessful but predicted increased change over the next 12 months as reported by the targeted partners and (for positive-direct strategies) as perceived by female agents. Positive-indirect strategies, in contrast, were associated with higher concurrent perceived success but did not predict later change. Increases in problem severity also forecasted lower relationship quality over time. These findings indicate that one mechanism through which regulation strategies impact relationship outcomes is the extent to which engaged strategies are successful at producing desired change. PMID:19254108
Isbell, Linda M.; Tyler, James M.
Many students have beliefs about interpersonal relationships that are inconsistent with empirical research. For example, some students report that attractiveness is less important than personality when choosing romantic partners; however, evidence suggests the opposite (Sprecher & Regan, 2002). Our activity in which students wrote personal ads and…
Christensen, Teresa M.; Brooks, Morgan C.
Reviews research specific to the effects of parental divorce on adults in terms of relationship issues. Specific purposes of this review are to (a) explore research specific to intimacy and marital attitudes in adult children of divorce, (b) inform couple and family counselors of effects of parental divorce, and (c) relay implications for…
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706
Liefbroer, Aart C.; Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Seltzer, Judith A.
BACKGROUND Most research asks whether or not cohabitation has come to rival marriage. Little is known about the meaning of living apart together (LAT) relationships, and whether LAT is an alternative to marriage and cohabitation or a dating relationship. OBJECTIVE We examine across Europe: (1) the prevalence of LAT, (2) the reasons for LAT, and (3) the correlates of (a) LAT relationships vis-à-vis being single, married, or cohabiting, and (b) different types of LAT union. METHODS Using Generations and Gender Survey data from ten Western and Eastern European countries, we present descriptive statistics about LATs and estimate multinominal logistic regression models to assess the correlates of being in different types of LAT unions. RESULTS LAT relationships are uncommon, but they are more common in Western than Eastern Europe. Most people in LAT unions intend to live together but are apart for practical reasons. LAT is more common among young people, those enrolled in higher education, people with liberal attitudes, highly educated people, and those who have previously cohabited or been married. Older people and divorced or widowed persons are more likely to choose LAT to maintain independence. Surprisingly, attitudinal and educational differences are more pronounced in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe. CONCLUSIONS A tentative conclusion is that LAT is more often a stage in the union formation process than an alternative to marriage and cohabitation. Yet some groups do view LAT as substituting for marriage and cohabitation, and these groups differ between East and West. In Eastern Europe a cultural, highly educated elite seems to be the first to resist traditional marriage norms and embrace LAT (and cohabitation) as alternative living arrangements, whereas this is less the case in Western Europe. In Western Europe, LAT unions are mainly an alternative for persons who have been married before or had children in a prior relationship. PMID:26085812
DeCoursey, Thomas E
One of the most fascinating and exciting periods in my scientific career entailed dissecting the symbiotic relationship between two membrane transporters, the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced form (NADPH) oxidase complex and voltage-gated proton channels (HV 1). By the time I entered this field, there had already been substantial progress toward understanding NADPH oxidase, but HV 1 were known only to a tiny handful of cognoscenti around the world. Having identified the first proton currents in mammalian cells in 1991, I needed to find a clear function for these molecules if the work was to become fundable. The then-recent discoveries of Henderson, Chappell, and colleagues in 1987-1988 that led them to hypothesize interactions of both molecules during the respiratory burst of phagocytes provided an excellent opportunity. In a nutshell, both transporters function by moving electrical charge across the membrane: NADPH oxidase moves electrons and HV 1 moves protons. The consequences of electrogenic NADPH oxidase activity on both membrane potential and pH strongly self-limit this enzyme. Fortunately, both consequences specifically activate HV 1, and HV 1 activity counteracts both consequences, a kind of yin-yang relationship. Notwithstanding a decade starting in 1995 when many believed the opposite, these are two separate molecules that function independently despite their being functionally interdependent in phagocytes. The relationship between NADPH oxidase and HV 1 has become a paradigm that somewhat surprisingly has now extended well beyond the phagocyte NADPH oxidase - an industrial strength producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - to myriad other cells that produce orders of magnitude less ROS for signaling purposes. These cells with their seven NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms provide a vast realm of mechanistic obscurity that will occupy future studies for years to come. PMID:27558336
Besse-Patin, Aurèle; Estall, Jennifer L.
Oxidative stress damages multiple cellular components including DNA, lipids, and proteins and has been linked to pathological alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission, resulting from nutrient overload and mitochondrial dysfunction, is thought to be a principal mediator in NAFLD progression, particularly toward the development of hepatic insulin resistance. In the context of insulin signalling, ROS has a dual role, as both a facilitator and inhibitor of the insulin signalling cascade. ROS mediate these effects through redox modifications of cysteine residues affecting phosphatase enzyme activity, stress-sensitive kinases, and metabolic sensors. This review highlights the intricate relationship between redox-sensitive proteins and insulin signalling in the context of fatty liver disease, and to a larger extent, the importance of reactive oxygen species as primary signalling molecules in metabolically active cells. PMID:24672550
Stewart, Donna E; Vigod, Simone; Riazantseva, Ekaterina
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and human rights problem that causes physical, sexual and psychological harms to men and women. IPV includes physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and/or controlling behaviours perpetrated by a current or previous intimate partner in a heterosexual or same-sex relationship. IPV affects both men and women, but women are disproportionately affected with nearly one third reporting IPV during their lifetime. Physical and sexual harms from IPV include injury, increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy complications and sometimes death. Psychological consequences include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, impulsivity and suicidality and non-specific physical complaints thought to be related to the traumatic nature and chronic stress of IPV. Children who witness IPV are also negatively impacted in the short and long term. This paper reviews prevalence, risk factors, adverse effects and current evidence-based mental health treatment advice for IPV victims. PMID:26711508
LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick
Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818
Hansrod, Fatima; Spies, Georgina; Seedat, Soraya
HIV has an impact on the presence and severity of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in infected women. However, the relationship of type and severity of IPV with PTSD in this population has not been adequately explored. We focus on the association between the type and severity of IPV and HIV status and PTSD in a sample of South African women. One hundred and sixty-nine women (114 HIV-positive and 55 HIV-negative controls), matched for geographical area, education, and socio-economic status, were recruited from HIV clinics. Clinical and demographic data were collected, including data on childhood trauma, other traumatic life events, IPV, posttraumatic stress symptoms, problematic alcohol use, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive women had significantly more depressive symptoms, alcohol abuse, and childhood trauma exposure as well as significantly higher rates of PTSD (25.4%) when compared with uninfected women (10.9%). No significant group differences in the rate, pattern, and severity of physical, sexual, psychological, injury, and negotiation IPV were found. In logistic regression analysis, the rate and severity category of IPV did not significantly predict PTSD in HIV-positive women when childhood trauma and life events were controlled for. Our results indicate the need for screening for alcohol abuse, PTSD and depressive symptoms at HIV wellness, and ARV clinics. The high rates of PTSD in HIV-positive women indicate the need for specialized programs to manage PTSD and minimize negative sequelae in this population. These results also highlight the need for improved screening and prevention of childhood trauma and IPV both in infected and uninfected women. PMID:25300600
Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun
Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection. PMID:26648898
Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.
This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…
Shorey, Ryan C; Tirone, Vanessa; Nathanson, Alison M; Handsel, Vanessa A; Rhatigan, Deborah L
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a prevalent and serious problem throughout the world, causing devastating mental and physical health problems for victims. Recent research has begun to focus on factors that may influence women's decisions to stay or leave their abusive partners, as interventions for batterers has only resulted in minimal success in reducing IPV. Therefore, this study preliminarily examined the influence of women's perceptions of their social network members' subjective norms and their relationship commitment on stages of change to end an abusive relationship among a community sample of female IPV victims (N = 84). Results showed that subjective norms and women's relationship commitment were associated with women's stages of change. Relationship commitment did not mediate the relation between subjective norms and stages of change. These findings indicate that a number of factors contribute to women's stay/leave decision-making process, and close social network members could be included in interventions designed to keep women safe. PMID:22929339
Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D
Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:26588197
Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time…
Leone, Janel M; Lape, Megan E; Xu, Yili
This study examined the help-seeking decisions of low-income women (n = 389) in two types of physically violent heterosexual relationships-intimate terrorism (i.e., physical violence used within a general pattern of coercive control) and situationally violent (i.e., physical violence that is not part of a general pattern of coercive control). Intimate terrorism victims were significantly more likely than situational couple violence victims to cite fear as a reason for not seeking help from the police, medical centers, and counselors/agencies. In contrast, situational couple violence victims more often said that they did not need help. Regression analyses also indicate that additional violence-related factors predict women's help-seeking. Findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between types of male partner violence and recognizing women's exertions of personal choice and perceptions of dangerousness when examining their decisions about seeking help from service providers. PMID:24366964
Background Lack of social support is an important risk factor for antenatal depression and anxiety in low- and middle-income countries. We translated, adapted and validated the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) in order to study the relationship between perceived social support, intimate partner violence and antenatal depression in Malawi. Methods The MSPSS was translated and adapted into Chichewa and Chiyao. Five hundred and eighty-three women attending an antenatal clinic were administered the MSPSS, depression screening measures, and a risk factor questionnaire including questions about intimate partner violence. A sub-sample of participants (n = 196) were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to diagnose major depressive episode. Validity of the MSPSS was evaluated by assessment of internal consistency, factor structure, and correlation with Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) score and major depressive episode. We investigated associations between perception of support from different sources (significant other, family, and friends) and major depressive episode, and whether intimate partner violence was a moderator of these associations. Results In both Chichewa and Chiyao, the MSPSS had high internal consistency for the full scale and significant other, family, and friends subscales. MSPSS full scale and subscale scores were inversely associated with SRQ score and major depression diagnosis. Using principal components analysis, the MSPSS had the expected 3-factor structure in analysis of the whole sample. On confirmatory factor analysis, goodness–of-fit indices were better for a 3-factor model than for a 2-factor model, and met standard criteria when correlation between items was allowed. Lack of support from a significant other was the only MSPSS subscale that showed a significant association with depression on multivariate analysis, and this association was moderated by experience of intimate partner
AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW
Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146
Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C
We reviewed whether mostly heterosexuals, a sexual orientation group characterized by a small amount of same-sex sexuality, differ from heterosexuals and bisexuals on a variety of mental and physical health outcomes (e.g., internalizing problems, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, obesity, sexual/reproductive health, physical health), health risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual risk taking), and risk and protective factors (e.g., victimization, stressful/risky environment, socioeconomic status, personal and social relationships, gender nonconformity). A narrative and quantitative literature review was conducted of 60 papers covering 22 samples from five Western countries. Individual, mean, and median effect sizes (Cohen ds) were calculated whenever possible. Mostly heterosexuals reported higher levels of risk in most reviewed outcomes compared to heterosexuals (unweighted mean effect sizes ranged from 0.20 to 0.50) but typically somewhat lower than bisexuals (unweighted mean effect sizes ranged from -0.10 to -0.30). Various risk factors frequently reduced, but rarely eliminated, health disparities between mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals. Findings are discussed through the lens of three potential explanations of elevated health risks among nonheterosexuals: minority stress, nonheterosexual lifestyles, and common causes. Because data on many outcomes were scarce or missing, particularly for men and in comparison with bisexuals, further research is needed. PMID:24754361
Trocki, Karen F; Drabble, Laurie A; Midanik, Lorraine T
This study examined patterns of smoked substances (cigarettes and marijuana) among heterosexuals, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals based on data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the United States. We also examined the effect of bar patronage and sensation seeking/impulsivity (SSImp) on tobacco and marijuana use. Sexual orientation was defined as lesbian or gay self-identified, bisexual self-identified, heterosexual self-identified with same-sex partners in the past 5 years, and exclusively heterosexual (heterosexual self-identified, reporting no same-sex partners). Findings indicate that bisexual women and heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners had higher rates of cigarette smoking than exclusively heterosexual women. Bisexual women, lesbians, and heterosexual women with same-sex partners also used marijuana at significantly higher rates than exclusively heterosexual women. Marijuana use was significantly greater and tobacco use was elevated among gay men compared with heterosexual men. SSImp was associated with greater use of both of these substances across nearly all groups. Bar patronage and SSImp did not buffer the relationship between sexual identity and smoking either cigarettes or marijuana. These findings suggest that marijuana and tobacco use differ by sexual identity, particularly among women, and underscore the importance of developing prevention and treatment services that are appropriate for sexual minorities. PMID:20025368
Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Wells, Samantha
Research has shown a consistent link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression, although this association may vary by gender, role in IPV (victim, perpetrator, or bidirectional), and aggression severity. We evaluated these factors in a telephone survey of 14,063 Canadians. All three factors were found to affect the association of depression with IPV. Specifically, depression was more strongly associated with IPV by a partner (i.e., victimization) for women but with aggression toward a partner (i.e., perpetration) for men. Severity of aggression was associated with increased risk of depression for both one-sided and bidirectional aggression by a partner but more strongly for one-sided aggression toward a partner. These findings suggest that research, prevention, and treatment should focus on all roles in IPV, not just male-to-female aggression. PMID:23155723
Lisco, Claire G.; Leone, Ruschelle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.
The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men’s attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men’s adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:26456996
Longmore, Monica A.; Johnson, Wendi L.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.
This study relies on survey (N=704) and in-depth qualitative (N = 100) interviews (Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study) to examine individual, partner, and relationship barriers and facilitators to HIV testing in a sample of young adults. Consistent with the public health goal of routine testing, nearly 40% of respondents had an HIV test within the context of their current sexual relationship, and women were significantly more likely to have tested within the current relationship than were men. For women, it was both their own risky behavior, and the partners’ characteristics and related relationship dynamics that distinguished testers from non-testers. In contrast, for men their own risky behavior was the most salient factor influencing their odds of being tested. These results showcase gender specific approaches to best promote sexual health, i.e., routine HIV testing among young adults. PMID:22489753
Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Crowne, Sarah Shea; Thompson, Darcy A; Sibinga, Erica; Trent, Maria; Campbell, Jacquelyn
Studies report that women use as much or more physical intimate partner violence (IPV) as men. Most of these studies measure IPV by counting the number of IPV acts over a specified time period, but counting acts captures only one aspect of this complex phenomenon. To inform interventions, women’s motivations for using IPV must be understood. A systematic review therefore was conducted to summarize evidence regarding women’s motivations for the use of physical IPV in heterosexual relationships. Four published literature databases were searched, and. articles that met inclusion criteria were abstracted. This was supplemented with a bibliography search and expert consultation. Eligible studies included English-language publications that directly investigated heterosexual women’s motivations for perpetrating non-lethal, physical IPV. Of the 144 potentially eligible articles, 23 met inclusion criteria. Over two-thirds of studies enrolled participants from IPV shelters, courts, or batterers’ treatment programs. Women’s motivations were primarily assessed through interviews or administration of an author-created questionnaire. Anger and not being able to get a partner’s attention were pervasive themes. Self-defense and retaliation also were commonly cited motivations, but distinguishing the two was difficult in some studies. Control was mentioned, but not listed as a primary motivation. IPV prevention and treatment programs should explore ways to effectively address women’s relationship concerns and ability to manage anger, and should recognize that women commonly use IPV in response to their partner’s violence. PMID:20823071
Nield, Jennifer; Magnusson, Brianna; Brooks, Christopher; Chapman, Derek; Lapane, Kate L
This study examined characteristics of self-identified heterosexual women who were concordant or discordant in their sexual behavior and the association of discordance and sexual partnering among those aged 15-44 years from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 7,353). Sexual concordance was defined as reporting a heterosexual identity and no female partners in the past year; discordance was reporting a heterosexual identity and having at least one female partner in the past year. Sexual partnering was defined as being concurrent, serially monogamous or monogamous with a male partner in the previous year. Polytomous logistic regression models evaluated the association between sexual discordance and sexual partnering. Among self-identified heterosexual, sexually active women, 11.2 % reported ever having had a same sex partner. Heterosexually discordant women who had both male and female partners in the previous year were 5.5 times as likely to report having a concurrent relationship (95 % CI 2.77-11.09) and 2.4 times as likely to report engaging in serially monogamous relationships (95 % CI 1.19-4.97) with male partners. Discordance between heterosexual identity and same sex behavior is a factor in risky behaviors. Women who have sex with women and men may act as bridges for the transmission of STDs, particularly to their female partners. Sexual education should include information inclusive of non-heteronormative behaviors and identities to provide sexual minorities with the tools and information they need. Clinical guidelines should ensure that all women are offered counseling and screening for reproductive and sexual health. PMID:24718674
Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.
Background Longitudinal research supports that suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescence predict maladjustment in young adulthood. Prior research supports links between suicide attempt and aggression, perhaps because of a propensity for impulsive behavior in states of high negative affect that underlies both problems. Such vulnerability may increase risk for intimate partner violence and generally poor young adulthood relational adjustment. Method 153 men participated in annual assessments from ages 10 to 32 years and with a romantic partner at three assessments from ages 18 to 25 years. Multimethod/multi-informant constructs were formed for parent/family risk factors, adolescent psychopathology (e.g., suicide attempt history; mother-, father-, teacher-, and self-reported physical aggression), and young adulthood relational distress (jealousy and low relationship satisfaction) and maladaptive relationship behavior (observed, self-, and partner-reported physical and psychological aggression toward a partner, partner-reported injury, official domestic violence arrest records, and relationship instability). Results Across informants, adolescent aggression was correlated with suicide attempt history. With few exceptions, aggression and a suicide attempt in adolescence each predicted negative romantic relationship outcomes after controlling for measured confounds. Adolescent aggression predicted young adulthood aggression toward a partner, in part, via relationship dissatisfaction. Conclusions Boys’ aggression and suicide attempt history in adolescence each predict poor relationship outcomes, including partner violence, in young adulthood. Findings are consistent with the theory of a trait-like vulnerability, such as impulsive aggression, that undermines adaptation across multiple domains in adolescence and young adulthood. Prevention and intervention approaches can target common causes of diverse public health problems. PMID:20540815
Flanagan, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Moore, Todd M.; Stuart, Gregory L.
Objective This study applied latent class analysis to examine whether homogeneous subgroups of women emerged based on their self-reported stress, depression, and relationship adjustment during pregnancy. We also examined whether women in different groups experienced different intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum. Method 180 women completed assessments during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy and 122 completed follow-up assessments six weeks postpartum. Results A two-class solution best fit the data. One group reported higher mean stress and depression and poorer relationship adjustment compared to the other group. The high severity class reported more psychological IPV victimization and perpetration and more physical IPV victimization during pregnancy compared to the low severity class. Membership in the high severity class was associated with higher postpartum depression. Conclusions Findings highlight the associations between different profiles of mental and relational health during pregnancy and postpartum. Future studies should explore the utility of dyadic interventions aimed at reducing stress, depression, and IPV, and improving relationship adjustment as a means to improve women’s health during pregnancy and postpartum. These findings also highlight the potential utility of applying person-centered analytic approaches to the study of women’s and couples’ health during this time period. PMID:25642352
Broderick, Carlfred B.
Extensive cross sectional data suggest a real continuity between prepubertal attitudes and experience and those of adolescence. The preteen years (10-13) represent a period of preparation for later heterosexual involvement. These findings suggest need to modify traditional points of view regarding patterns of sociosexual development. (Author/CJ)
Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.
Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…
Goldstein, Susan B.; Davis, Denise S.
Forty-six heterosexual members of a college-based gay/straight alliance organization were surveyed to investigate characteristics of students who commit to acting as allies in reducing sexual prejudice. Assessment focused on the students' history of intergroup contact and exposure to sexual prejudice prior to joining the gay/straight alliance,…
El-Bassel, Nabila; Wu, Elwin; Chang, Mingway
Whereas research has suggested that drug-involved men are at disproportionately high risk of engaging in transmission risk behaviors for HIV and of perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV) against women, only a few cross-sectional studies have examined the relationship between IPV and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission risks among heterosexual, drug-involved men. This study builds on previous cross-sectional research by using a longitudinal design to examine the temporal relationships between perpetration of IPV and different HIV/STI transmission risks among a random sample of 356 men on methadone assessed at baseline (wave 1), 6 months (wave 2), and 12 months (wave 3). The findings indicate that (1) perpetration of IPV in the past 6 months at wave 1 was associated with having more than one intimate partner, buying sex, and sexual coercion at subsequent waves and that (2) noncondom use, injecting drugs, and sexual coercion at wave 1 were associated with subsequent IPV. The temporal relationships between perpetration of IPV and HIV risks found in this study underscore the need for HIV prevention interventions targeting men on methadone to consider IPV and HIV risks as cooccurring problems. PMID:17701458
Phillips, G; Over, R
Heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women recalled the extent to which they had engaged in gender conforming (female-stereotypic) behaviors and gender nonconforming (male-stereotypic) behaviors in childhood. Heterosexual women were more likely to recall having had female-stereotypic experiences as children, whereas lesbian women often recalled a childhood characterized by male-stereotypic experiences. Multiple discriminant function allowed the heterosexual women in the sample to be distinguished from the lesbian women with 80% accuracy in classification of individual cases on the basis of four recollected attributes (imagined self as a male character, wished to become a mother, preference for boys' games, and considered a tomboy as a child). However, some heterosexual women reported much the same childhood behaviors as the majority of lesbian women, and some lesbian women reported much the same childhood behaviors as the majority of heterosexual women. Such diversity raises questions about the nature of the relationship between experiences in childhood and adult sexual orientation. PMID:7733801
Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ewing, Brett; Wertheimer, Samuel
This study uses an event-based approach to examine individual, relationship, and contextual correlates of heterosexual condom use among homeless men. Structured interviews were conducted with a predominantly African American sample of 305 men recruited from meal lines in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Men reported on their most recent heterosexual event involving vaginal or anal intercourse. Adjusting for demographic characteristics only, condom use was more likely when men had higher condom use self-efficacy, greater HIV knowledge, or talked to their partner about condoms prior to sex. Condom use was less likely when men held more negative attitudes towards condoms, the partner was considered to be a primary/serious partner, hard drug use preceded sex, or sex occurred in a public setting. Condom attitudes, self-efficacy, partner type, and communication were the strongest predictors of condom use in a multivariate model that included all of the above-mentioned factors. Associations of unprotected sex with hard drug use prior to sex and having sex in public settings could be accounted for by lower condom self-efficacy and/or less positive condom attitudes among men having sex under these conditions. Results suggest that it may be promising to adapt existing, evidence-based IMB interventions for delivery in non-traditional settings that are frequented by men experiencing homelessness to achieve HIV risk reduction and thus reduce a significant point of disparity for the largely African American population of homeless men. PMID:22392155
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…
Stanko, E A
Approaches to understanding and potentially intervening in the variations of the risk of lethal and sublethal violence against women are suggested. Batterers vary in their ability to desist techniques of control, patterns of dangerousness, and lethality. Such variations are important to explore because of the extent it offers in maximizing the options for women seeking respite, escape and refuge from such violence. The indisputable evidence that some men abuse and batter when they court women warns of the links between heterosexual intimacy and men's abuse. Alvi and Selvee proved that the seriousness of such abuse and violence rises as the relationship advances from casual to serious dating to cohabitation. Termination of the relationship does not guarantee women's safety; separation, rather than divorce per se, is the critical risk factor in lethal violence. Although some women who leave violent men may acutely feel the threat of lethal violence, its actuality is not predictable, an area being explored by Ellis and DeKeseredy. Knowledge about men's lethality to intimate partners is crucial for improving the services and advocacy for women battered by men. When analyzing mechanisms to support women challenging domestic violence and aid in the reduction of separation femicide Ellis and DeKeseredy propose the enhancement of interventions that increase the confidence of the woman and symbolize our opposition to her abuse. Finally, provision of legal advocacy, facilitative divorce legislation, and assistance for battered women lying on the understanding of all public service personnel who work with intimate violence. PMID:12295557
Franceschini, Isabelle; Desroziers, Elodie; Caraty, Alain; Duittoz, Anne
The neurohormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is critical for all the aspects of reproductive life in vertebrates. GnRH is secreted by a small number of neurons dispersed within the preoptic-hypothalamic region. These neurons are derived from the embryonic olfactory pit. They then migrate along olfactory, vomeronasal and terminal nerves to their final destination. Classical approaches to study the regulation of GnRH secretion during the reproductive cycle have focused on the various neuronal inputs on GnRH neurons and their regulation by ovarian steroids. However, it is well known that steroids will change the microenvironment of neuronal networks and can induce plasticity and functional changes. In this review, we will focus on the intimate relationship of developing and adult GnRH neurons with the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a major molecular actor in the morphogenesis and adult plasticity of the nervous system. We will first recapitulate the spatiotemporal relationship between PSA-NCAM and migrating GnRH neurons during embryogenesis of various vertebrate species and discuss its importance for GnRH neuron development as shown by various loss of function studies. In the adult, we will review the relationships between PSA-NCAM and GnRH neurons across various physiological states, and open the discussion to the use of new model systems that can help to unravel the function and mechanism of action of PSA-NCAM on GnRH neuronal network activity and GnRH release. PMID:21143658
Manfrin-Ledet, Linda; Porche, Demetrius J; Westbrook, Sue
The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and the phenomenon of powerlessness in African-American women of childbearing age, and (2) to investigate the differences between type and severity of IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and powerlessness in African-American women of childbearing age who have and have not reported IPV This study used the theory of gender and power as a conceptual framework. A purposive sample of 130 African-American women ranging from 18 to 49 years of age from southeastern Louisiana was recruited from community clinics. A correlation/comparative analysis design was used in this study. Three self-report, self-administered surveys were used: The Abuse Assessment Screen-Revised, the HIV-Risk Screening Instrument-Revised, items from the subscale of powerlessness in the Trauma-Related Belief Questionnaire, and a demographics questionnaire. Statistically significant relationships between IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and powerlessness were identified. Participants who had experienced emotional or physical abuse by their partners were identified to be at risk for HIV infection and a statistically significant relationship between IPV and powerlessness was identified. Participants who feared their partner or ex-partner reported higher degrees of powerlessness. Findings emphasized that for women who are identified as survivors of IPV, nurses need to screen for HIV infection, provide access to care and community resources, and teach skills for effective coping and risk-reduction decision-making. PMID:26371359
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine; Goldenberg, Tamar; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Senn, Theresa E; Urban, Marguerite; Schwartz, Ann; Sullivan, Patrick
Couples HIV Testing and Counseling (CHTC) has been used as an HIV prevention strategy in Africa for over 20 years where the HIV epidemic is largely concentrated among sexually active heterosexuals. In recent years, CHTC has been adapted for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the US. A central element of the CHTC intervention as adapted for male couples in the US is the discussion of sexual agreements by the dyad during the CHTC session. Given the success of CHTC for heterosexual couples in Africa, it seems appropriate that CHTC could also be provided to heterosexual couples in the US. However, little is known about heterosexual's willingness to utilize CHTC services including discussion of sexual agreements. This small, preliminary qualitative study sheds new light on the potential for CHTC adoption among heterosexuals in the US. Four focus groups were conducted with heterosexual men and women attending a publicly-funded STI clinic, to explore the potential feasibility and acceptability of CHTC with heterosexuals. The results are similar to those seen for MSM: high levels of willingness to use CHTC, perceptions of the advantages of using CHTC, and willingness to discuss sexual agreements; all necessary conditions for the successful roll-out of CHTC. Further work is now needed with larger samples of high-risk heterosexuals to more completely understand the typologies of sexual agreements and the common language used for sexual agreements in heterosexual relationships. These early data show great promise that CHTC can achieve the same levels of willingness, fit, and acceptability among heterosexual couples as currently experienced by male couples in the US. PMID:25897413
Romero-Martínez, A; Lila, M; Williams, R K; González-Bono, E; Moya-Albiol, L
Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators were categorized into 2 groups using Gottman et al.'s (1995) typology depending on their skin conductance (SC) reactivity to stress. Overall, type I perpetrators tend to show autonomic underarousal, whereas type II perpetrators present a preparatory hyperreactivity to confront stress. Moreover, impulsivity traits and testosterone (T) levels may modulate SC responses to increase the risk of proneness to violence. In this study, SC response to stress was assessed by comparing IPV perpetrators with non-violent controls while performing a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Subjects with a history of IPV demonstrated higher non-specific SC responses during the recovery period than the non-violent controls. Nonetheless, there were no differences between groups in the case of mean SC levels. Furthermore, impulsivity and baseline T levels were associated with higher SC level reactivity during a preparation period only in IPV perpetrators, with both relationships being mediated by anger expression. Our results confirm that the IPV perpetrators correspond physiologically to type II and support the validity of SC as a diagnostic indicator for IPV classification. Our findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs that could benefit from the use of biological indicators for analyzing the risk of recidivism in IPV perpetrators. PMID:24140253
Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191
The study investigated the relationships among learned resourcefulness, dangerousness in abusive relationships, and symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of abused sheltered women. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was utilized and 42 women met criteria for participation. Data were collected over a ten-month period from June 2010 to March 2011 using the following instruments: (1) demographic data collection form, (2) Self-Control Schedule (SCS), (3) Danger Assessment (DA), (4) Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA), (5) Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), and (6) Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Results indicated that 74% of the sample reported symptoms of depression and 67% met criteria for PTSD. In addition, there was 62% comorbidity between depression and PTSD. High levels of danger and low levels of resourcefulness were associated with increased symptoms of depression and PTSD. Further research is necessary, but results of the study suggest that resourcefulness may be an important consideration for abused women in reducing the impact of violence and abuse on mental health issues. PMID:23805923
“Amar te Duele” (“Love Hurts”): Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs’ relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners’ depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959
"Amar te Duele" ("love hurts"): sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico.
Ulibarri, Monica D; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A
A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs' relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners' depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959
Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu
Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults. PMID:26244408
Bernat, J A; Calhoun, K S; Adams, H E; Zeichner, A
This study examined the relationship between homophobia (defined as self-reported negative affect, avoidance, and aggression toward homosexuals) and homosexual aggression. Self-identified heterosexual college men were assigned to homophobic (n = 26) and nonhomophobic (n = 26) groups on the basis of their scores on the Homophobia Scale (HS; L. W. Wright, H. E. Adams, & J. A. Bernat, 1999). Physical aggression was examined by having participants administer shocks to a fictitious opponent during a competitive reaction time (RT) task under the impression that the study was examining the relationship between sexually explicit material and RT. Participants were exposed to a male homosexual erotic videotape, their affective reactions were assessed, and they then competed in the RT task against either a heterosexual or a homosexual opponent. The homophobic group reported significantly more negative affect, anxiety, and anger-hostility after watching the homosexual erotic videotape than did the nonhomophobic group. Additionally, the homophobic group was significantly more aggressive toward the homosexual opponent, but the groups did not differ in aggression toward the heterosexual opponent. PMID:11261393
Haversath, Julia; Kröger, Christoph
Infidelity appears to be a common phenomenon. Although there are initially positive consequences for the unfaithful partner, it has negative impacts on individuals, the relationship and health in the long-term. How often are extradyadic sexual contacts indicated within a German sample? Which factors predict infidelity? Via Internet (n=1 899) socio-demographic, individual (attitudes towards infidelity, religiosity), relationship (global and emotional relationship satisfaction, length of primary relationship, sexual agreements), and contextual factors (opportunities) were surveyed. The results of the regression analysis on an 80% subsample (n=1 533) were cross-validated with the remaining 20% of the data (n=366). The analysis showed that 4% of lesbian women, 34% of gay men, 29% of heterosexual women and 49% of heterosexual men reported extra-dyadic sexual contacts. Sexual orientation and restrictive attitudes towards monogamy and infidelity were found to be significant predictors. Low global relationship satisfaction, longer duration of primary relationship, non-monogamous relationships, availability of alternative sexual partners and ways to conceal infidelity increased the likelihood of extradyadic involvement. Cross-validation with 20% of the data (n=366) confirmed the stability of the regression model. Future research should examine identified predictors using representative population-based data. Predictors should be considered in therapy. PMID:25494186
Bo Vatnar, Solveig Karin; Bjorkly, Stal
This article reports a study of the possible impact of immigration on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Are there differences concerning (a) IPV categories, (b) IPV severity, frequency, duration, regularity, and predictability, (c) guilt and shame, (d) partners' ethnicity, and (e) children being…
Rostosky, Sharon S; Black, Whitney W; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rosenkrantz, Dani
Research on heterosexual allies has focused on heterosexual identity development models and pathways to ally activism. The positive aspects or positive experiences of identifying as an ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identified individuals and communities have received little attention. Using an online survey of participants recruited from LGBT ally related social media, we collected open-ended responses to a question about the positive aspects of self-identifying as a heterosexual ally. A final analytic sample of 292 self-identified male and female heterosexual adults (age 18-71, M = 33.47, SD = 13.32) provided responses that generated 8 themes. Positive aspects of being a heterosexual ally were: (a) increased knowledge and awareness, (b) upholding values of justice, (c) beneficial individual relationships, (d) community belonging, (e) educating others, (f) being a role model, (g) using social privilege, and (h) speaking out and taking a stand. The findings suggest that being a heterosexual ally is rewarding and may enhance individual well-being. These findings provide information that may contribute to effective ally development efforts. PMID:25798894
Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle
In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…
Sorenson, Susan B.; Taylor, Catherine A.
We investigated the effect of assailant gender on injunctive social norms (i.e., beliefs about what ought to happen) regarding violence toward an intimate heterosexual partner. In a random-digit-dialed survey conducted in four languages, 3,769 community-residing adults were presented with five vignettes in which we experimentally manipulated…
Coulaud, J P
The AIDS epidemic has spread rapidly in Africa among the urban impoverished where multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases are common. Over 80% of the 9 million Africans who will develop AIDS before the year 2000 will have been contaminated sexually. Poverty, multiple sexual partners in the framework of prostitution, and drug addiction are responsible for rapid spread of HIV infection in Southeast Asia, the West India, and Brazil. Drug addiction has played a major role in diffusion of HIV into the general population of Europe and the US. Prevalence rates are much higher in sexually transmitted disease centers in France and the US than among blood donors or pregnant women. Sexually transmitted diseases and heterosexual transmission have been studied in Africas since diagnostic tests became available. Several studies, the majority conducted among prostitutes in Nairobi or Kinshasa and their clients, allow establishment of a list of sexually transmitted diseases associated with increased risk of seroconversion. Genital ulcers within the past 6 months presented a relative risk of 2-4 depending on the series. Urethral or cervical gonorrhea has a lower relative risk of 1.2 in most studies. Absence of circumcision was also a risk factor. Studies were subsequently conducted in Europe on factors favoring sexual transmission. 513 heterosexual couples together for a minimum duration of 18 months and an average of 38 months were included in the Multicenter European Study conducted in 10 centers in 9 countries. The "index" subject was male in 400 cases and female in 113. At entry into the study, 73 of 400 males (18.2%) and 10 of 113 females (8.8%) had already infected their partners. Duration of union, frequency of intercourse, mode of transmission of the index subject, and oral contraceptive use had no effect on risk of transmission. Factors increasing risk of infection included the severity of immunosuppression of the index subject, whether judged by
Background Various risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been found to vary by gender. South Korea has one of the highest prevalences of IPV in the world; however, little is known about potential risk factors of IPV and whether gender influences this relationship. Methods Using data from the 2006 Korea Welfare Panel Study, 8,877 married participants (4,545 men and 4,332 women) aged ≥30 years were included. Reported IPV was categorized as verbal or physical IPV and the association between IPV and related factors was assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Women were significantly more likely than men were to report IPV victimization (verbal 28.2% vs. 24.4%; physical 6.9% vs. 3.4%). Wor odds of physical perpetration than women satisfied with their family. Moreover, alcohol intake was significantly associated with IPV perpetration and victimization in both genders. Conclusion Significant gender-specific differences were found among factors related to perpetrating violence and being a victim of violence among adults in heterosexual relationships in South Korea. PMID:24885985
Campbell, Catherine; Mannell, Jenevieve
How is the agency of women best conceptualised in highly coercive settings? We explore this in the context of international efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in heterosexual relationships. Articles critique the tendency to think of women's agency and programme endpoints in terms of individual actions, such as reporting violent men or leaving violent relationships, whilst neglecting the interlocking social, economic and cultural contexts that make such actions unlikely or impossible. Three themes cut across the articles. (1) Unhelpful understandings of gender and power implicit in commonly used 'men-women' and 'victim-agent' binaries obscure multi-faceted and hidden forms of women's agency, and the complexity of agency-violence intersections. (2) This neglect of complexity results in a poor fit between policy and interventions to reduce IPV, and women's lives. (3) Such neglect also obscures the multiplicities of women's agency, including the competing challenges they juggle alongside IPV, differing levels of response, and the temporality of agency. We outline a notion of 'distributed agency' as a multi-level, incremental and non-linear process distributed across time, space and social networks, and across a continuum of action ranging from survival to resistance. This understanding of agency implies a different approach to those currently underpinning policies and interventions. PMID:26669895
Sprunger, Joel G.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Parrott, Dominic J.
Background Anger and problematic alcohol use have been established as individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimisation and perpetration, but it is unknown how these factors convey risk for IPV perpetration for men and women within the context of mutually violent relationships. Hypotheses Anger and problematic alcohol use were hypothesised to mediate the association between IPV victimisation and perpetration for men and women, with direct and indirect influences from partner variables. Methods Heterosexual couples (N = 215) at high-risk for IPV completed questionnaires indexing trait anger, problematic alcohol use and extent of past-year IPV perpetration and victimisation. An actor-partner interdependence modelling (APIM) framework was used to evaluate these cross-sectional data for two hypothesised models and one parsimonious alternative. Results The best-fitting model indicated that IPV victimisation showed the strongest direct effect on physical IPV perpetration for both men and women. For women, but not men, the indirect effect of IPV victimisation on physical IPV perpetration through anger approached significance. For men, but not women, the victimisation–perpetration indirect effect through problematic drinking approached significance. Implications for clinical practice The results suggest that anger and problem drinking patterns play different yet important roles for men and women in mutually violent relationships. PMID:26482016
Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R
One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals. PMID:25518816
van de Rijt, Arnout; Macy, Michael W.
A division of labor is mediated by exchange of valued goods and services. We use social exchange theory to extend this principal to "labors of love." Sexual activity in a close personal relationship seems outside the domain of bargaining and exchange. Nevertheless, we explore the possibility that this most intimate of human relations is influenced…
Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra
This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…
Schiffer, Boris; Paul, Thomas; Gizewski, Elke; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Kruger, Tillmann H C
Although the neuronal mechanisms underlying normal sexual motivation and function have recently been examined, the alterations in brain function in deviant sexual behaviours such as paedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to identify paedophilia-specific functional networks implicated in sexual arousal. Therefore a consecutive sample of eight paedophile forensic inpatients, exclusively attracted to females, and 12 healthy age-matched heterosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum participated in a visual sexual stimulation procedure during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The visual stimuli were sexually stimulating photographs and emotionally neutral photographs. Immediately after the imaging session subjective responses pertaining to sexual desire were recorded. Principally, the brain response of heterosexual paedophiles to heteropaedophilic stimuli was comparable to that of heterosexual males to heterosexual stimuli, including different limbic structures (amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus), the substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, as well as the anterior cingulate cortex, different thalamic nuclei, and associative cortices. However, responses to visual sexual stimulation were found in the orbitofrontal cortex in healthy heterosexual males, but not in paedophiles, in whom abnormal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was observed. Thus, in line with clinical observations and neuropsychological studies, it seems that central processing of sexual stimuli in heterosexual paedophiles may be altered by a disturbance in the prefrontal networks, which, as has already been hypothesized, may be associated with stimulus-controlled behaviours, such as sexual compulsive behaviours. Moreover, these findings may suggest a dysfunction (in the functional and effective connectivity) at the cognitive stage of sexual arousal processing. PMID:18358744
Frisch, Morten; Hviid, Anders
Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood. PMID:17039403
Backus, Faedra R.; Mahalik, James R.
Our study explored the relationship between feminist identity and women's report of an ideal male partner's conformity to masculine gender role norms. Heterosexual, mostly White, college women (N = 183) completed measures assessing feminist beliefs and the masculinity characteristics of an ideal male partner. Results indicated that feminist…
Ross, Amanda D.; Waehler, Charles A.; Gray, Torie N.
An important original study by Dorland and Fischer noted how the use of inclusive language can affect the therapeutic relationship positively for gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. In this extension of that study with heterosexual participants ("N" = 179), there seemed to be low, but positive, salience of the language used by the…
Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette
A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)
Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.
Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexual men. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…