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Objectives To characterise the help-seeking experiences of heterosexualmenliving with HIV infection and explain these experiences in relation to the broader social relations and discourses in which they are embedded. Design Qualitative study using focus groups and theoretically informed constructionist grounded theory. Setting With one exception, focus groups were conducted in the offices of community-based AIDS service organisations across Ontario, Canada. Participants 40 HIV-infected heterosexualmen aged 18?years or older. Results Heterosexualmenliving with HIV perceive themselves to be relegated to the margins of a health care and service field that was developed historically within a context that privileges the priorities of gay men and heterosexual women living with the virus. Specifically, gay men are better positioned than heterosexualmen when vying for the services and recognition of AIDS service organisations due to their social capital within these agencies, thereby benefiting by virtue of their membership with the group perceived to control the decision-making apparatuses when resource allocation and programme development are at stake. Relative to women, heterosexualmen are poorly positioned due to their negative symbolic capital, derived from being perceived as the ‘guilty’ parties in the context of heterosexual HIV transmission. As a result, the material and support needs of women have been prioritised, while those of heterosexualmenliving with HIV remain largely unaddressed. Conclusions Heterosexualmenliving with HIV are operating within a health and service field that has not kept pace with their increased representation among the population of persons living with the virus. Researchers, clinicians and policy makers should strive to integrate heterosexualmenliving with HIV in decision making and community-based research initiatives that build capacity among this group while simultaneously generating a research and policy agenda specific to the concerns of this growing demographic.
This research describes the heterosexual male sexual self-schema, or the way heterosexualmen conceptualize their sexual identity. The authors use as their basis of understanding Brooks' five-theme description of heterosexual male sexuality referred to as \\
Heterosexualmen and homosexual men rated how arousing different sexual fantasies were and how often they had used these fantasies\\u000a over the previous year. Within each group, sensual and genital same-orientation fantasies were more arousing than either public-sex\\u000a or dominance-submissive fantasies, which in turn were more arousing than aggressive-sex fantasies. For both heterosexual and\\u000a homosexual men the extent to which
Approximately 2.4 million people in India are living with HIV. Gender inequality affects HIV prevention, detection, and management. The purpose of this paper was to describe gender differences in the experience of living with HIV in Bengaluru, India. A subsample of n = 313 (159 men and 154 women) from a larger cohort was used for these analyses. Participants were recruited through AIDS service organizations. They completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing HIV testing experience, types of stigma, and perceived consequences of stigmatization. The majority of men (67%) reported getting HIV tested because of illness, while women were more likely to be tested after learning their spouse's HIV-positive status (42%). More men (59%) than women (45%, p<0.05) were tested in private care settings. Men reported significantly higher mean levels of internalized stigma (men: M=0.71, SD = 0.63; women: M=0.46, SD = 0.55; p<0.001), whereas the women reported significantly higher scores for enacted stigma (men: M=1.30, SD = 1.69; women: M=2.10, SD = 2.17; p<0.001). These differences remained significant after controlling for potential socio-demographic covariates. Following their diagnosis, more women reported moving out of their homes (men: 16%; women: 26%; p<0.05). More men (89%) than women (66%; p<0.001) reported to have modified their sexual behavior after being diagnosed. These findings suggest that the experience of living with HIV and HIV stigma varies by gender in this population. Suggestions for a gender-based approach to HIV prevention and stigma reduction are provided. PMID:23869716
Malavé, S; Ramakrishna, J; Heylen, E; Bharat, S; Ekstrand, M L
Approximately 2.4 million people in India are living with HIV. Gender inequality affects HIV prevention, detection, and management. The purpose of this paper was to describe gender differences in the experience of living with HIV in Bengaluru, India. A subsample of n = 313 (159 men and 154 women) from a larger cohort was used for these analyses. Participants were recruited through AIDS service organizations. They completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing HIV testing experience, types of stigma, and perceived consequences of stigmatization. The majority of men (67%) reported getting HIV tested because of illness, while women were more likely to be tested after learning their spouse’s HIV-positive status (42%). More men (59%) than women (45%, p <0.05) were tested in private care settings. Men reported significantly higher mean levels of internalized stigma (men: M = 0.71, SD = 0.63; women: M = 0.46, SD=0.55; p<0.001), whereas the women reported significantly higher scores for enacted stigma (men: M = 1.30, SD = 1.69; women: M = 2.10, SD = 2.17; p <0.001). These differences remained significant after controlling for potential socio-demographic covariates. Following their diagnosis, more women reported moving out of their homes (men: 16%; women: 26%; p <0.05). More men (89%) than women (66%; p <0.001) reported to have modified their sexual behavior after being diagnosed. These findings suggest that the experience of living with HIV and HIV stigma varies by gender in this population. Suggestions for a gender-based approach to HIV prevention and stigma reduction are provided.
Antigay bias is a well-documented social problem among heterosexualmen, though heterosexual women display a lesser tendency toward this bias. Startle eye blink has been established as a valid measure of the affective component of antigay bias in heterosexualmen. In the current study, a sample of 91 heterosexual women and 87 heterosexualmen were exposed to a variety of
Amanda L. Mahaffey; Angela Bryan; Kent E. Hutchison
This study tested dichotic listening performance, a measure of functional cerebral asymmetry previously shown to be sexually\\u000a dimorphic, in homosexual women (n=23), heterosexual women (n=27), and heterosexualmen (n=24). All participants completed a verbal consonant-vowel dichotic listening task. On three laterality indices, heterosexual\\u000a men displayed a significantly greater right-ear advantage compared to heterosexual women only. Homosexual women did not differ
This study uses an event-based approach to examine individual, relationship, and contextual correlates of heterosexual condom use among homeless men. Structured interviews were conducted with a predominantly African American sample of 305 men recruited from meal lines in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Men reported on their most recent heterosexual event involving vaginal or anal intercourse. Adjusting for demographic characteristics only, condom use was more likely when men had higher condom use self-efficacy, greater HIV knowledge, or talked to their partner about condoms prior to sex. Condom use was less likely when men held more negative attitudes towards condoms, the partner was considered to be a primary/serious partner, hard drug use preceded sex, or sex occurred in a public setting. Condom attitudes, self-efficacy, partner type, and communication were the strongest predictors of condom use in a multivariate model that included all of the above-mentioned factors. Associations of unprotected sex with hard drug use prior to sex and having sex in public settings could be accounted for by lower condom self-efficacy and/or less positive condom attitudes among men having sex under these conditions. Results suggest that it may be promising to adapt existing, evidence-based IMB interventions for delivery in non-traditional settings that are frequented by men experiencing homelessness to achieve HIV risk reduction and thus reduce a significant point of disparity for the largely African American population of homeless men.
Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ewing, Brett; Wertheimer, Samuel
This study uses an event-based approach to examine individual, relationship, and contextual correlates of heterosexual condom use among homeless men. Structured interviews were conducted with a predominantly African American sample of 305 men recruited from meal lines in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Men reported on their most recent heterosexual event involving vaginal or anal intercourse. Adjusting for demographic characteristics only, condom use was more likely when men had higher condom use self-efficacy, greater HIV knowledge, or talked to their partner about condoms prior to sex. Condom use was less likely when men held more negative attitudes towards condoms, the partner was considered to be a primary/serious partner, hard drug use preceded sex, or sex occurred in a public setting. Condom attitudes, self-efficacy, partner type, and communication were the strongest predictors of condom use in a multivariate model that included all of the above-mentioned factors. Associations of unprotected sex with hard drug use prior to sex and having sex in public settings could be accounted for by lower condom self-efficacy and/or less positive condom attitudes among men having sex under these conditions. Results suggest that it may be promising to adapt existing, evidence-based IMB interventions for delivery in non-traditional settings that are frequented by men experiencing homelessness to achieve HIV risk reduction and thus reduce a significant point of disparity for the largely African American population of homeless men. PMID:22392155
Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ewing, Brett; Wertheimer, Samuel
Heterosexual sex differences in evolved sexual interests, sexual scripts, and aggressive tendencies have each been hypothesized\\u000a to be responsible for heterosexual sex differences in sexually coercive behavior. The current study compared the sexually\\u000a coercive behavior of heterosexual and non-heterosexualmen and women as a means of evaluating the explanatory capabilities\\u000a of each of these hypotheses. A total of 414 participants
The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential\\u000a genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual\\u000a interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest\\u000a levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between racial identity and risky sexual behaviors among young Black heterosexualmen to better inform future HIV prevention interventions. A community sample of 80 self-identified African American heterosexualmen aged 18 to 29 years completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview survey. Bivariate analyses were performed to assess the associations among variables
Adannaa Oparanozie; Jessica M. Sales; Ralph J. DiClemente; Nikia D. Braxton
The present study investigated links between heterosexualmen’s narcissism and attitudes toward heterosexual and non-heterosexual\\u000a women and men. Male narcissism was predicted to be associated with hostility toward heterosexual women more than toward other\\u000a groups, indicating investment in patriarchal power more than in conservative gender ideology or nonspecific disdain toward\\u000a all people. Hierarchical regression analyses of responses from 104 male
This paper reports on a study of individual variability in the relationship between negative mood and sexuality in men. Part 1 involves a questionnaire survey of 919 white heterosexualmen, asking what typically happens to sexual interest and response when (a) depressed and (b) anxious\\/stressed, using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ). Trait measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, depression,
John Bancroft; Erick Janssen; David Strong; Lori Carnes; Zoran Vukadinovic; J. Scott Long
Men exhibit much higher levels of genital and subjective arousal to sexual stimuli containing their preferred sex than they do to stimuli containing only the nonpreferred sex. This study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how this category-specific pattern would be reflected in the brains of homosexual (n = 11) and heterosexual (n = 11) men. Comparisons of
Adam Safron; Bennett Barch; J. Michael Bailey; Darren R. Gitelman; Todd B. Parrish; Paul J. Reber
This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about…
Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.
The aim of the study was to compare body ideals and body dissatisfaction among gay and heterosexualmen. Participants (134 gay men, 119 heterosexualmen) completed measures of body figure preference ratings varying on adiposity and muscularity, and measures of self-esteem and involvement with the gay community (gay participants only). It was found that both gay and heterosexualmen desired
Marika Tiggemann; Yolanda Martins; Alana Kirkbride
Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4%
R Fitzpatrick; G Hart; M Boulton; J McLean; J Dawson
This paper examines young heterosexualmen's participation in unsafe sex. A qualitative study of young heterosexual Australian men's understandings and practices of safe and unsafe sex, involving in-depth interviews conducted with 17 men aged between 18 and 26, found that five principal themes recur in young men's accounts for the non-use of condoms. First, men stress the risk of pregnancy
Although heterosexual transmission of HIV is an important public health concern in the United States, there is a paucity of data on the sexual risk practices of HIV+ heterosexualmen and women. This study examined gender differences in rates of unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex in a sample of 47 non-IDU heterosexual HIV+ individuals (20 men, 27 women) who
Shirley J. Semple; Thomas L. Patterson; Igor Grant
Sexual fantasy can be a part of sexual behaviour. Understanding sexual fantasies enables clinicians to understand the needs and barriers in individuals' sexual functioning. Sexual functioning in marriage and relationships is in turn influenced by sexual fantasies. In this first ever study of sexual fantasy from India, we report on 30 homosexual men and 30 heterosexualmen who were given
This study tested the balancing selection hypothesis, that is, genes predisposing men to homosexuality escape elimination from the population because the decreased fertility of men with the heritable form of homosexuality is offset by an increased fertility among biological relatives who carry the same genetic variants. The index subjects (probands) were 40,197 firstborn heterosexualmen and 4,784 firstborn homosexual men retrieved from six archival data sets, all of which had previously been used in published research. The measure of familial (specifically, parental) fertility was the proband's number of younger siblings. The results directly contradicted the prediction of the balancing selection hypothesis. In four of the six samples, the homosexual probands had significantly fewer younger siblings; in the other two samples, the means were not significantly different. It is possible that mothers who produce a homosexual son at their first delivery include a biologically distinct subpopulation of mothers of homosexual sons. PMID:22187029
This research assessed factors that may affect men’s romantic relationships. One hundred men (50 heterosexual and 50 gay)\\u000a in the Northeast US completed measures that assessed masculinity ideology, male identity, and relationship quality. We examined\\u000a whether the quality of heterosexualmen’s romantic relationships differ from that of romantic relationships among gay men,\\u000a and whether masculinity ideology and male identity are
In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexualmen's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexualmen's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexualmen and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexualmen's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexualmen in urban areas develop effective strategies to cope with racial discrimination-based traumatic stress to reduce sexual HIV risk behaviors in Black communities. PMID:24797317
Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M
Anal intercourse poses a greater risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than vaginal intercourse, and in recent years there has been a growing understanding that heterosexual anal intercourse (HAI) is not uncommon. However, the majority of the anal intercourse literature has focused on men who have sex with men. The little research on HAI has mostly looked at women, with limited work among men. This analysis examined the association between HAI and high-risk behaviors (N = 1,622) and sexual sensation seeking (N = 239) in a sample of men recruited from 2001 to 2012 in Long Beach, California. Almost half of the sample was non-Hispanic Black. The median age was 42 years, 42% were homeless, and 20% reported recent HAI. Men who reported HAI were likely to be Hispanic, were likely to be homeless, had a male partner, engaged in sex exchange, and used cocaine or amphetamines during sex. Men who reported HAI scored higher on the Sexual Sensation Seeking scale. This research supports other work showing the relationship between HAI and high-risk behaviors. More important, it contributes new knowledge by demonstrating the association between HAI and sexual sensation seeking. This research highlights the importance of personality traits when trying to understand sexual behavior and when developing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24024565
Hess, Kristen L; Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G
Men who have sex with men are a priority population for HIV control in Laos, but encompass men diverse in sexual orientation, gender identification, and behavior. Behaviorally bisexual men and their sexual partners were recruited in Vientiane, Laos, in 2010 using modified snowball sampling. Heterosexual-identifying bisexual men identified as exclusively/predominantly heterosexual and other bisexual men identified as bisexual or predominantly/exclusively homosexual. Sixty (68%) heterosexual-identifying and 38 (32%) other bisexual men were recruited; the median number of sex partners in the past year was eight and seven, respectively. Consistent condom use was low with regular (7%) and casual (35%) partners and did not differ by identity. More heterosexual-identifying (53%) than other bisexual (29%) men reported weekly alcohol consumption. Twelve (20%) heterosexual-identifying and 15 (54%) other bisexual men correctly answered all HIV-knowledge questions. High-risk behaviors for STI and HIV transmission were common. Targeted HIV prevention initiatives are needed, particularly to reach heterosexual-identifying bisexual men. PMID:24694325
Bowring, Anna; van Gemert, C; Vongsaiya, K; Hughes, C; Sihavong, A; Phimphachanh, C; Chanlivong, N; Toole, M; Hellard, M
Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of Hombres Sanos [Healthy Men] a social marketing campaign to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually identified Latino men, especially among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Methods. Hombres Sanos was implemented in northern San Diego County, California, from June 2006 through December 2006. Every other month we conducted cross-sectional surveys with independent samples of heterosexually identified Latino men before (n = 626), during (n = 752), and after (n = 385) the campaign. Respondents were randomly selected from 12 targeted community venues to complete an anonymous, self-administered survey on sexual practices and testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. About 5.6% of respondents (n = 98) were heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. Results. The intervention was associated with reduced rates of recent unprotected sex with both females and males among heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. The campaign was also associated with increases in perception of HIV risk, knowledge of testing locations, and condom carrying among heterosexual Latinos. Conclusions. Social marketing represents a promising approach for abating HIV transmission among heterosexually identified Latinos, particularly for heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. Given the scarcity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for these populations, this prevention strategy warrants further investigation.
Zellner, Jennifer A.; Sanudo, Fernando; Fernandez-Cerdeno, Araceli; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Sipan, Carol L.; Engelberg, Moshe; Carrillo, Hector
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexualmen who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…
Summary: There are limited data on high-risk behaviors among heterosexual African American men with HIV infection. Risk behaviors were examined in a case-control study of HIV-infected (n 90) and uninfected (n 272) African American men who self-identified as heterosexual. Of men who self-identified as heterosexual, 31% (n 28) of the infected men and 16% (n 43) of the uninfected men
Amy Rock Wohl; Denise F. Johnson; Sharon Lu; Wilbert Jordan; Gildon Beall; Judith Currier; Paul A. Simon
Intimate partner violence victimization has been linked to sexual HIV risk behavior among heterosexual women. The unique role\\u000a of perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in sexual risk behavior among men has not been studied as well. Based on\\u000a interviews with 518 heterosexualmen recruited via street-intercept between 2005 and 2007 in New York City, we assessed the\\u000a relationship between
Victoria Frye; Danielle Ompad; Christina Chan; Beryl Koblin; Sandro Galea; David Vlahov
ObjectivesIf approved for use in young males in the United States, prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine may reduce the incidence of HPV-related disease in vaccinated males and their sexual partners. We aimed to characterise heterosexualmen's willingness to get HPV vaccine and identify correlates of vaccine acceptability.MethodsParticipants were from a national sample of heterosexualmen (n=297) aged 18–59 y from
Two studies were conducted to validate the Traumatic Sexualization Survey (TSS) for use with heterosexualmen. In Study 1, an online sample of men completed the TSS and measures used to examine convergent and divergent validity. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the TSS had a similar factor structure in men as previously found in women. The TSS demonstrated adequate
Ethan B. McCallum; Zoë D. Peterson; Tiffany M. Mueller
Two studies were conducted to validate the Traumatic Sexualization Survey (TSS) for use with heterosexualmen. In Study 1, an online sample of men completed the TSS and measures used to examine convergent and divergent validity. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the TSS had a similar factor structure in men as previously found in women. The TSS demonstrated adequate
Ethan B. McCallum; Zoë D. Peterson; Tiffany M. Mueller
Black heterosexualmen (BHM) are seldom mentioned in HIV prevention research, policy, and interventions, despite evidence that heterosexual contact is becoming the leading exposure category for BHM. The disparate effect of HIV/AIDS on BHM; the debunked “down low” myth; the contexts of BHM's lives in terms of disproportionate poverty, unemployment, and incarceration; and a growing empirical base linking these factors to increased HIV risk, underscore the need to prioritize HIV risk and prevention initiatives for BHM. We highlighted the structural contexts of HIV risk for BHM, and four community-based approaches to address HIV risk and prevention for BHM: (1) men's health programs; (2) workforce and postincarceration release programs; (3) linkages to women's prevention programs; and (4) faith-based initiatives.
Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially vulnerable to HIV infection because of biological susceptibility and men's sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexualmen are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women's vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of women in the epidemic, mounting challenges undermine its current usefulness. We review the etiology and successes of the paradigm as well as its accruing limitations. We also call for an expanded model that acknowledges biology, gender inequality, and gendered power relations but also directly examines social structure, gender, and HIV risk for heterosexual women and men.
Relations between sexual orientation and several biodemographic variables previously reported to differentiate between homosexual\\u000a and heterosexualmen were examined. Subjects were 4948 white, postpubertal males, who were never reared in foster homes, orphanages,\\u000a or other institutions, and were never arrested or convicted on criminal charges. These were dichotomously classified as homosexual\\u000a (n=844) or heterosexual (n=4104). Data came from survey interviews
Comparing the behavior of heterosexual and homosexual persons can provide insight into the origins of heterosexual sex differences\\u000a in psychology. Evidence indicates that, aside from sexual partner preference, the mating psychology of homosexual men is sex-typical\\u000a whereas that of homosexual women tends to be more sex-atypical. The current study examined one aspect of mating psychology,\\u000a mate retention behavior, and tested
This article describes the development process of Hombres Sanos, a social marketing campaign to promote HIV testing and condom use for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women. The steps included qualitative formative research and a social marketing analytic framework to understand our target audience better, identify incentives and barriers to risk reduction, guide product development,
Araceli Fernández Cerdeño; Ana P. Martínez-Donate; Jennifer A. Zellner; Fernando Sañudo; Héctor Carillo; Moshe Engelberg; Carol Sipan; Melbourne Hovell
This study examined whether a group of homosexual men experiencing erectile difficulties showed differences from heterosexualmen with the same clinical presentations in a number of affective and cognitive variables associated with erectile difficulties. In particular it was hypothesized that homosexual participants would present with a different set of cognitions surrounding the erectile dysfunction (and would be less affected by
Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexualmen. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…
Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.
African Americans are overrepresented among heterosexual cases of HIV/AIDS in the USA. Inconsistent condom use and concurrent partnering are two sexual behaviors driving the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the African American community. To inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use among African American heterosexualmen, we conducted formative research, including 61 structured interviews, 5 focus groups with 25 men, and 30 in-depth qualitative interviews between July and December 2009. We used a grounded theoretical approach and categorizing strategies to code and analyze the qualitative data. Results around condom use confirmed earlier findings among heterosexualmen in general: condoms diminish pleasure, interfere with erection, and symbolize infidelity. Although valued by some as a form of disease prevention and pregnancy prevention, condoms are often used only with specific types of female partners, such as new or casual partners, or due to visual risk assessment. Sex partner concurrency was described as normative and ascribed to men's "natural" desire to engage in a variety of sexual activities or their high sex drive, with little recognition of the role it plays in the heterosexual HIV epidemic. Fatherhood emerged among many men as a crucial life event and compelling motivation for reducing sexual risk behavior. Based on these results, we conclude that existing HIV prevention efforts to improve attitudes towards and motivate use of condoms either have not reached or have not been successful with African American heterosexualmen. In designing behavioral interventions to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use, addressing negative attitudes towards condoms and partner risk assessment is critical, as is integrating novel motivational approaches related to identity as fathers and men in the African American community. PMID:22869516
The results of several studies have shown that homosexual men have an increased prevalence of non-right-handedness and atypical patterns of hemispheric functional asymmetry. Non-right-handedness in men has been associated with increased size of the corpus callosum (CC), particularly of the isthmus, which is the posterior region of the callosal body connecting parietotemporal cortical regions. We hypothesized that isthmal area would be greater in homosexual men, even among right handers. Twelve homosexual and ten heterosexual healthy young men, all consistently right-handed, underwent a research-designed magnetic resonance imaging scan. We found that the isthmal area was larger in the homosexual group, adding to the body of findings of structural brain differences between homosexual and heterosexualmen. This result suggests that right-handed homosexual men have less marked functional asymmetry compared to right-handed heterosexualmen. The results also indicate that callosal anatomy and laterality for motoric functions are dissociated in homosexual men. A logistic regression analysis to predict sexual orientation category correctly classified 21 of the 22 men (96% correct classification) based on area of the callosal isthmus, a left-hand performance measure, water level test score, and a measure of abstraction ability. Our findings indicate that neuroanatomical structure and cognition are associated with sexual orientation in men and support the hypothesis of a neurobiological basis in the origin of sexual orientation. PMID:17975723
Witelson, Sandra F; Kigar, Debra L; Scamvougeras, Anton; Kideckel, David M; Buck, Brian; Stanchev, Peter L; Bronskill, Michael; Black, Sandra
This study investigated the relationship between intensity of methamphetamine use and depressive symptoms in a sample of 182 heterosexually identified methamphetamine users. Perceived stigma and social and health problems were hypothesized as potential mediators of the relationship between methamphetamine use and depressive symptoms. Forty per cent of the sample met criteria for moderate to severe depression. As hypothesized, the greater
Objectives: To compare the seroprevalence of hepatitis A in homosexual and heterosexualmen to determine their susceptibility to infection and provide guidance for a policy on vaccination. Methods: A case-control study design was utilised to compare the risk factors associated with hepatitis A in homosexual and heterosexualmen attending a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic. Demographic and sexual behavioural characteristics were included in univariate and multivariate models. Results: The overall seropositivity rate was 29% with no significant difference between homosexual and heterosexualmen. Ethnicity and age were strongly associated with hepatitis A seropositivity in both homosexuals and heterosexuals. A history of sex in a sauna in homosexual men, and being born outside the United Kingdom for heterosexualmen, was associated with hepatitis A seropositivity. Conclusions: Targeted hepatitis A screening and vaccination of homosexual men attending UK genitourinary medicine clinics is not supported by the results of this study.
Ross, J; Ghanem, M; Tariq, A; Gilleran, G; Winter, A
The present study assessed viewing time as a measure of sexual interest in self-identified heterosexualmen and women. Participants\\u000a (N = 106) rated the sexual appeal of sexually provocative pictures while the length of time they spent viewing each picture\\u000a was unobtrusively measured. As hypothesized, (1) men and women viewed opposite sex pictures significantly longer than same\\u000a sex pictures, (2) men viewed
Background:We assessed the accuracy of self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) specimens in men compared with clinician-collected specimens from men in British Columbia and determined the prevalence of HPV subtypes at different male genital sites.Methods:Heterosexualmen were recruited at the Provincial Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Clinic in Vancouver, Canada. Participants were randomly assigned to conduct self-collection or clinician-collected specimens first. Clinicians obtained
G S Ogilvie; D L Taylor; M Achen; D Cook; M Krajden
OBJECTIVES: To compare variables of sexual behaviour and incidence of genital infections among heterosexualmen of different racial origins. DESIGN: A prospective cross sectional study of sexual behaviour reported by a standardised self administered questionnaire in new patients who presented for screening and diagnosis. SETTING: A genitourinary medicine clinic in west London. SUBJECTS: 1212 consecutive heterosexualmen newly attending in
A comparison was made of heterosexual and homosexual men and women utilizing Loevinger's concept of ego development and focusing on the relationships among ego levels and attitudes toward homosexuality and on personal sex guilt and other sociosexual variables. Previous comparative studies were critically analyzed with respect to the adequacy of definition and description of sampling procedures, and the appropriateness of
This paper reviews published evaluations (through fall 1998) of HIV sexual risk reduction programs conducted in the United States that have targeted adult heterosexualmen. The review was limited to studies that provided a male-specific analysis of intervention effects on sexual risk behavior. Fifteen of 20 peer-reviewed studies meeting inclusion criteria demonstrated that HIV sexual risk reduction programs can be
Theresa M. Exner; P. Sandor Gardos; David W. Seal; Anke A. Ehrhardt
This study examined the agreement between daily and retrospective reports of vaginal sex over a two-month period in a sample of 376 heterosexually active men and women. We also examined whether gender, age, or method of daily data collection (self-administered vs. interviewer administered) were related to agreement between daily and retrospective reports. Both counts and categorical measures of frequency of
Mary Rogers Gillmore; Barbara C. Leigh; Marilyn J. Hoppe; Diane M. Morrison
This study examined identity processes of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Self-esteem scores, perceived stigma scores, and identity structures were obtained for 19 gay, bisexual, and lesbian participants. It was predicted that participants with heterosexually biased roles in superordinate positions in their identity structures would describe themselves more negatively and would have lower self-esteem. Additionally, those with higher perceived stigma
Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…
Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime
This study describes responses of 172 single heterosexual African American men, ages 18 to 35, to condom negotiation attempts. Strategies used included reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational strategies, based on Raven's (1992) influence model. The purpose was (a) to identify strategies influencing participant acquiescence to request and (b) to identify predictors of participant compliance\\/refusal to comply with negotiation
Laura L. Otto-Salaj; Nicole Traxel; Michael J. Brondino; Barbara Reed; Cheryl Gore-Felton; Jeffrey A. Kelly; L. Yvonne Stevenson
Background Genovar distributions of Chlamydia trachomatis based on ompA typing differ between men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals. We investigated clonal relationships using a high resolution typing method to characterize C. trachomatis types in these two risk groups. Methods C. trachomatis positive samples were collected at the STI outpatient clinic in Amsterdam between 2008 and 2010 and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Clusters were assigned using minimum spanning trees and these were combined with epidemiological data of the hosts. Results We typed 526 C. trachomatis positive samples: 270 from MSM and 256 from heterosexuals. Eight clusters, containing 10–128 samples were identified of which 4 consisted of samples from MSM (90%–100%), with genovars D, G, J, and L2b. The other 4 clusters consisted mainly of samples from heterosexuals (87%–100%) with genovars D, E, F, I, and J. Genetic diversity was much lower in the MSM clusters than in heterosexual clusters. Significant differences in number of sexual partners and HIV-serostatus were observed for MSM–associated clusters. Conclusions C. trachomatis transmission patterns among MSM and heterosexuals were largely distinct. We hypothesize that these differences are due to sexual host behavior, but bacterial factors may play a role as well.
Bom, Reinier J. M.; van der Helm, Jannie J.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Heijman, Titia; Matser, Amy; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.
BACKGROUND: As part of qualitative research for developing a culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate videotape-based HIV prevention intervention for heterosexual African- American men, six focus groups were conducted with thirty African-American men to determine their perceptions of AIDS as a threat to the African-American community, characteristics of past situations that have placed African Americans at risk for HIV infection, their
Ekere J Essien; Angela F Meshack; Ronald J Peters; Gbadebo O Ogungbade; Nora I Osemene
Two studies investigated the relation between sexual orientation and gender-related traits. Analyzing data from an Internet survey, Study 1 found that gay men and lesbians differed from same-sex heterosexuals most strongly on gender diagnosticity (GD) measures, which assess male- versus female-typicality of occupational preferences (effect sizes were 1.14 for men and 0.53 for women) and least strongly on instrumentality (I)
The relationship between sexual orientation and handedness in a large sample of men was examined. Subjects were 6544 nondelinquent\\u000a men interviewed by the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction from 1938 to 1963. Subjects were classified\\u000a as either homosexual (n=1004) or heterosexual (n=4579). Results failed to demonstrate a difference in handedness, with both groups having rates of
The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes toward lesbians and gay men among 371 heterosexual male and female collegiate\\u000a student-athletes in the USA. Attitudes were assessed in relationship to the student-athletes’ gender, sport and contact. Participants\\u000a completed a demographic form and the Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLG-S) Scale (Herek in Journal of Homosexuality\\u000a 10:39–51, 1984, Journal
Intimate partner violence victimization has been linked to sexual HIV risk behavior among heterosexual women. The unique role of perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in sexual risk behavior among men has not been studied as well. Based on interviews with 518 heterosexualmen recruited via street-intercept between 2005 and 2007 in New York City, we assessed the relationship between perpetration of IPV against a main female partner and inconsistent condom use with that same partner, while controlling for condom use-related factors. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that men who perpetrated physical IPV were half as likely to report consistent condom use as compared with men who did not use violence, while controlling for sociodemographic, condom use-related and other factors. Physical IPV perpetration by heterosexualmen makes an independent contribution to consistent condom use. Designing interventions for heterosexualmen that simultaneously address both IPV and sexual risk behaviors is critical. PMID:20069447
Although the male condom remains the most commonly used method of HIV prevention, sexual health promotion interventions directed toward heterosexuals in the United States have focused primarily on women. In this paper, we discuss limitations of the utility of various HIV-prevention-related sexual health promotion messages as they pertain to the sexual behavior of heterosexualmen. We also present several key
Researchers interested in the development of sexual orientation have investigated predominantly or exclusively White samples. To address this imbalance, the relations between sexual orientation and two biodemographic variables, birth order and sibling sex ratio, were examined in a sample of non-White men. The men (N = 823) were interviewed by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction from 1938 to 1963. A significantly later birth order was observed for non-White homosexual men relative to non-White heterosexualmen. Non-White homosexual men also had an elevated sibling sex ratio. Results add to the generalizability of the birth order and sibling sex ratio effects previously observed to occur in (White) homosexual men. PMID:9795727
Few studies have examined the psychosocial factors associated with sexual transmission behaviors among HIV-positive men who\\u000a have sex with men (MSM), heterosexualmen (MSW) and women. We enrolled 1,050 sexually active HIV-positive patients at seven\\u000a HIV clinics in six US cities as part of a clinic-based behavioral intervention. We describe the sexual transmission behaviors\\u000a and examine demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and
Carol Golin; Gary Marks; Julie Wright; Mary Gerkovich; Hsiao-Chuan Tien; Shilpa N. Patel; Lytt Gardner; Christine O’Daniels; Tracey E. Wilson; Mark Thrun; Melanie Thompson; Stephen Raffanti; E. Byrd Quinlivan
The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and\\u000a traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined\\u000a the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and\\u000a homosexual men. Measures included genital,
Erick Janssen; David Goodrich; John V. Petrocelli; John Bancroft
This article reports on a study that compared Filipino gay (N = 43) and heterosexual (N = 767) men on measures of male role attitudes and behavior, depression, and anxiety. The authors used the Filipino Adherence\\u000a and Conflict with Expectations of Masculinity Questionnaire to assess 7 male role dimensions, as well as the Mehrabian Trait\\u000a Anxiety and Depression Scales and
Recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN) and adult traits—e.g., masculinity–femininity of occupational preferences (MF-Occ),\\u000a self-ascribed masculinity–femininity (Self-MF), self-reported anxiety—were assessed in an ethnically diverse US convenience\\u000a sample of California college students and gay pride attendees, including 238 heterosexualmen, 127 gay men, 343 heterosexual\\u000a women, and 197 lesbian women. CGN showed large heterosexual–homosexual and gender differences, with homosexual individuals\\u000a higher than
Objectives If approved for use in young males in the United States, prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine may reduce the incidence of HPV-related disease in vaccinated males and their sexual partners. We aimed to characterise heterosexualmen’s willingness to get HPV vaccine and identify correlates of vaccine acceptability. Methods Participants were from a national sample of heterosexualmen (n=297) aged 18–59 y from the United States who were interviewed in January 2009. We analysed data using multivariate logistic regression. Results Most men had not heard of HPV prior to the study or had low HPV knowledge (81%; 239/296). Most men had heard of HPV vaccine prior to the study (63%; 186/296) and 37% (109/296) were willing to get HPV vaccine. Men were more willing to get vaccinated if they reported higher perceived likelihood of getting HPV-related disease (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.17), perceived HPV vaccine effectiveness (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.83) or anticipated regret if they did not get vaccinated and an HPV infection later developed (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.89). Acceptability was also higher among men who thought (OR 9.02, 95% CI 3.45 to 23.60) or who were unsure (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.30 to 5.47) if their doctor would recommend they get HPV vaccine if licenced for males. Conclusions Men had low HPV knowledge and were moderately willing to get HPV vaccine. These findings underscore the need for HPV educational efforts for men and provide insight into some of the factors that may affect the HPV vaccination decision making process among men.
A multidimensional measure of sexual prejudice was developed to assess the increasing complexity of heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a valid and reliable 7-factor measure that assessed: 1) traditional heterosexism; 2) tendency to deny anti-gay discrimination continues; 3) aversion toward gay men; 4) aversion to lesbians; 5) judgments regarding the value of the gay and lesbian movement; 6) resistance to heteronormative expectations; and 7) endorsement of positive beliefs about gay people. A modern heterosexism theory was supported and queer/liberationist notions of anti-heteronormativity and positive beliefs were found to be related to pro-homosexual attitudes. PMID:19197647
ObjectivesTo investigate the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and determine the associations between HPV infection and HIV coinfection in sexually active heterosexualmen with anogenital warts (GW), male urethral discharge or asymptomatic men.MethodsValid specimens for HPV genotyping were obtained from three patient groups consisting of 108 men with GW, 56 men with urethral discharge syndrome and 50 asymptomatic men
This article describes the development process of Hombres Sanos, a social marketing campaign to promote HIV testing and condom use for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women. The steps included qualitative formative research and a social marketing analytic framework to understand our target audience better, identify incentives and barriers to risk reduction, guide product development, define an optimal promotional campaign, and inform the selection of campaign platforms. A better grasp of the authors' target beneficiaries' needs and values led to an innovative dual strategy for audience segmentation and targeting. The campaign had consumer-centered, culturally sensitive, and theory-driven communication materials. The authors found communication materials and events to be appealing and effective. The campaign was well received among the wider community, and evaluation showed promising results among Latino men in general and among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women in particular. The authors provide a step-by-step overview of the project's formative research, including research methods and findings, and how these were translated into a social marketing campaign. In addition, the authors discuss the challenges encountered in this process and the potential of social marketing to reduce HIV risk among Latinos. PMID:22500921
Fernández Cerdeño, Araceli; Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Sañudo, Fernando; Carrillo, Héctor; Engelberg, Moshe; Sipan, Carol; Hovell, Melbourne
Few community-based HIV interventions exist for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. None focus on structural HIV risks such as unemployment and unstable housing. This study involved a pilot evaluation of the MEN (Making Employment Needs) Count HIV intervention, a three session peer counselor-delivered program of HIV risk reduction and gender-equity counseling, and employment and housing case management. A single-arm intervention trial of MEN Count was conducted with Black men recruited from a community men's clinic and social services program. Eligible men were those who reported two or more sex partners in the past six months and current unemployment and/or recent homelessness. Most participants (68%) had a history of incarceration. Participants (N = 50) were surveyed on outcomes at baseline (Time 1), posttest (Time 2; 60-90 days after baseline), and two-month follow-up (Time 3). The majority of participants were retained in the program (86%) and the final follow-up survey (76%). McNemar tests revealed significant reductions in the past 30-day unprotected sex from Time 1 (74%) to Time 2 (47%) and to Time 3 (47%), and in homelessness from Time 1 (58%) to Time 3 (32%). Significant increases in employment from Time 1 (8%) to Time 2 (29%) and Time 3 (32%) were also seen. Participants completed a brief participant satisfaction survey at posttest. Most (n=28, 65%) rated the program as excellent, and an additional 10 (23%) rated it as good. Although there was no significant reduction in multiple sex partners, a trend was observed from Time 1 (56%) to Time 2 (44%) and Time 3 (42%). Findings suggest that the MEN Count model is a feasible and promising HIV prevention program for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. Larger scale implementation and more rigorous evaluation of MEN Count are needed to confirm the study findings. PMID:23767788
Raj, Anita; Dasgupta, Anindita; Goldson, Irvienne; Lafontant, Dumas; Freeman, Elmer; Silverman, Jay G
In 2 studies, the authors explored whether emphasizing the sexual behavior of gay men and lesbians influences heterosexuals' impressions of gay male and lesbian targets. In both studies, participants read short vignettes of heterosexual and gay male or lesbian targets that described their sexual histories using information restricted to only 1 component of sexual orientation (emotion, behaviors, or fantasies). The results of Study 1 showed that participants rated a behavioral gay male target more negatively than they did the emotions and fantasy targets, and this difference was a function of participant religiosity. In Study 2, participants rated the behavioral lesbian target more negatively than they did the emotions and fantasy targets; however, these differential ratings of the lesbian targets were not affected by participant religiosity. PMID:15739779
This study examined friendships between gay male athletes and their heterosexual teammates. Six gay college athletes from various athletic and geographical backgrounds, recruited through a gay sports website and a gay sports documentary, were interviewed. These athletes identified a straight teammate and friend for additional interviewing. Both athletes answered questions about their mutual friendship. The interviews were analyzed through grounded
Background Limited research has targeted HIV risk among heterosexual African-American men in rural southeastern US. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 538 men to assess HIV knowledge, attitudes toward HIV testing and sexual risk behavior. Results Fifty-one percent reported consistent condom use in past three months. Monogamous men reported more consistent condom use (t =3.47, df =536, p<.001). In concurrent partnerships condom use was inversely related to age (AOR=.98, 95% CI=.95-.998, p=.03) and increased by number of female partners (AOR=1.49, 95% CI=1.26-1.76, p <.001). Conclusions African American HIV prevention outreach should include focus on concurrent partnering in rural settings.
Ricks, JaNelle M.; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Emma (E.J.)
In most parts of the world women live longer. This gender gap in life expectancy (LE) is remarkable and it has challenged scientific research for decades. Closer analysis of geographic differences related to such gender gap and attempts to recognize its cause may provide a powerful tool to understand the basic process of aging and to device preventive health care strategies. In countries with established socio-economic order women live on the average 4-7 years longer. The main contributing factor is higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in men. In the European established democracies male mortality is on decline and the gender gap in LE is becoming smaller. Current trends in Iceland and in other Scandinavian countries indicate that by the year 2050 men will live as long as women. Unfortunately, the gender gap continues to grow in the countries of the former Soviet influence where it represents up to 13 years. Dependence of the gender gap on the socio-economic order of a particular society points out the importance of environmental factors. Other mechanisms influencing the gender difference are the different hormonal and genetic function (Fig. 6, Ref. 23). PMID:23331196
This interview study, the initial qualitative phase of a larger mixed methods HIV prevention study focused on Black heterosexualmen, used intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore: (1) How a sample of Black heterosexualmen describe and experience the multiple intersections of race, gender, and SES; and (2) How these descriptions reflected interlocking systems of social inequality for Black men at the social-structural level. Participants were 30 predominantly low-income self-identified Black heterosexualmen between the ages of 18 and 44. Analyses highlighted four themes that demonstrate how participants’ individual-level experiences as Black men reflect macro social-structural inequality: (1) racial discrimination and microaggressions; (2) unemployment; (3) incarceration; and (4) police surveillance and harassment. We discuss the study’s findings within the context of social-structural factors that disproportionately and adversely impact Black men. We also highlight the implications of the intersectionality perspective for HIV prevention research and interventions for Black heterosexualmen.
Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.
Previous studies reporting that gay individuals are in worse mental health than heterosexuals have typically employed young\\u000a or mixed-age samples, ignoring the role of age. Mental health problems may show greater age-related improvement among gay\\u000a than heterosexualmen as indicated by the findings of the present study. In this study, the following indices of mental health\\u000a are examined, and found
Jane A. Bybee; Eric L. Sullivan; Erich Zielonka; Elizabeth Moes
sexual orientation; brain differentiation; mate selection; partner preferences Abstract OBJECTIVES: The current study examined and compared the preferred partner characteristics of heterosexual and homosexual men and women in relation to speculated patterns of brain differentiation underlying the preferences. Further, the study compared the preferences of butch versus femme homosexual women. METHODS: Two hundred twelve heterosexual and homosexual men and women
Frank Muscarella; Vanessa A. Elias; Lenore T. Szuchman
Given the increasing importance of heterosexual HIV-transmission in Europe and Switzerland, the present study tested the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in a prospective study on the HIV-protection behaviour in a community sample of heterosexualmen. The study focused on condom use in sexual encounters with new partners. Participants were 982 Swiss men between the ages of 25 and 65
Daniel Gredig; Sibylle Nideroest; Anne Parpan-Blaser
Objectives: To determine prevalence of and risk factors associated with HIV and syphilis seropositivity and estimate incidence of HIV infection among Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM) and characterize behaviors of men who report sex with both men and women ('bridgers'). Design: Cross-sectional study of MSM in Lima, Peru. Methods: Four-hundred and fifty-one MSM (of whom 442 responded
Stephen Tabet; Jorge Sancheza; Javier Lamaa; Pedro Goicocheaa; Pablo Camposb; Manuel Rouillonc; Jose Luis Cairod; Lucia Uedae; Douglas Wattsf; Connie Celum; King K. Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of patient defined non-regular sexual relationships and other risk behaviours on the incidence of sexually transmitted infections in heterosexualmen and the role of condom use in the prevention of their spread. DESIGN: A prospective cross sectional study of sexual behaviour reported by a standardised self administered questionnaire in new patients who presented for screening
Introduction. Internet-based sex therapy for men with erectile dysfunction has been advocated as an easily accessible and cost-effective treatment. Aim. To test whether Internet-based sex therapy is superior to waiting list. Methods. Internet-based therapy was administered to heterosexualmen with erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation, without face-to-face contact, in a waiting-list controlled design, with pre-, post-, and follow-up mea- surements
Peter Leusink; Selma van Diest; Luk Gijs; A. Koos Slob
Background As part of qualitative research for developing a culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate videotape-based HIV prevention intervention for heterosexual African- American men, six focus groups were conducted with thirty African-American men to determine their perceptions of AIDS as a threat to the African-American community, characteristics of past situations that have placed African Americans at risk for HIV infection, their personal high risk behaviors, and suggestions on how HIV intervention videotapes could be produced to achieve maximum levels of interest among African-American men in HIV training programs. Methods The groups took place at a low-income housing project in Houston, Texas, a major epicenter for HIV/AIDS. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The results revealed that low-income African-American men perceive HIV/AIDS as a threat to their community and they have placed themselves at risk of HIV infection based on unsafe sex practices, substance abuse, and lack of knowledge. They also cite lack of income to purchase condoms as a barrier to safe sex practice. They believe that HIV training programs should address these risk factors and that videotapes developed for prevention should offer a sensationalized look at the effects of HIV/AIDS on affected persons. They further believe that programs should be held in African-American communities and should include condoms to facilitate reduction of risk behaviors. Conclusions The results indicate that the respondents taking part in this study believe that HIV and AIDS are continued threats to the African-American community because of sexual risk taking behavior, that is, failure to use condoms. Further, African-American men are having sex without condoms when having sex with women often when they are under the influence of alcohol or other mind-altering substances and they are having sex with men while incarcerated and become infected and once released resume unprotected sexual relations with women. According to the men, substance abuse is an important part of the problem of HIV in the African-American community. This is in keeping with research that shows that drug use, especially crack cocaine, is linked to sexual risk taking among African Americans and to increased likelihood of becoming infected with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV. Thus, interventions for men should address condom use, condom availability, skills for using condoms, eroticizing condoms and substance abuse prevention. Men in the present study also strongly recommended that HIV/AIDS videotaped messages should include footage of the sensational effects of the disease.
Essien, Ekere J; Meshack, Angela F; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, Gbadebo O; Osemene, Nora I
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexualmen recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward
Wilson Vincent; Dominic J. Parrott; John L. Peterson
While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well.
Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.
HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population. PMID:22676465
Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett
This study examined the reach and impact of a social marketing intervention to reduce HIV risk among heterosexually identified (HI) Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Repeated cross-sectional intercept surveys were conducted in selected community venues during and after the campaign with 1,137 HI Latino men. Of them, 6% were classified as HI Latino MSMW. On average, 85.9% of the heterosexual respondents and 86.8% of the HI MSMW subsample reported exposure to the campaign. Responses to the campaign included having made an appointment for a male health exam that included HIV testing and using condoms. Campaign exposure was significantly associated with HIV testing behavior and intentions and with knowledge of where to get tested. The campaign reached its underserved target audience and stimulated preventive behaviors. Social marketing represents a promising approach for HIV prevention among HI Latinos, in general, and HI Latino MSMW, in particular. PMID:19824840
Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Fernández-Cerdeño, Araceli; Sañudo, Fernando; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Engelberg, Moshe; Ji, Ming
This paper explores how experiences of disclosure and passing among heterosexualsliving with HIV in Australia can be meaningfully conceptualised beyond therapeutic discourses and habitual metaphors. It engages in a dialogue between qualitative research material, HIV disclosure literature and theory. It is first argued that an emphasis on the therapeutic value of disclosure in much of the literature obscures the complexities of HIV stigma as socially produced and lived. Next, the paper considers the concepts of 'the closet' and 'coming out', which have become short-hand for a range of social stigmas. Although parallels are found between the productive effects of the closet and the research material, the idea of 'coming out' fails to capture the cultural context of HIV in Australian heterosexual society. This raises questions about the contemporary tendency to invoke the closet as a presumedly universal metaphor. Foucault's idea of heterotopia is proposed as an alternative way of conceptualising the lived worlds of disclosure and passing in this research study, with the hope of opening out future discussion and theorising. PMID:18038282
Heterosexualmen and women with several partners are at risk of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases and\\u000a HIV. Risk depends on parameters such as the sexual practices themselves which may vary according to the type of partner (regular\\u000a vs. casual). It is therefore important to describe the sexual practices and identify the correlations between the type of\\u000a partner and
The associations between stress, physical health, psychosocial resources, coping, and depressive mood were examined in a community\\u000a sample of African American gay, bisexual, and heterosexualmen (N=139). Data were collected from physical exams and in-person interviews. In our theoretical framework, depressive mood scores\\u000a were regressed first on stressors, next on psychosocial resources, and finally on coping strategy variables. Results revealed
Discordance between sexual identity and sexual behavior is not new; however, little is known about the HIV risk behaviors of heterosexually identified men who have occasional sex with a male and\\/or a male-to-female transgender woman. Open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 heterosexually identified men who reported at least one sexual encounter with a male and\\/or a transwoman in the
Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male-male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students were assigned to either a male-male or male-female erotica condition, and their corresponding attitudes toward gay men were assessed. Results revealed that the effect of erotic imagery (male-male vs. male-female) on participants' stereotype and affect scores differed for men and women at varying levels of sexual anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature on exposure to erotic imagery and attitudes toward gay men. In particular, the study highlights the need for additional research that acknowledges within-gender heterogeneity with respect to antigay attitude valence, extremity, and function. PMID:21253924
This article examines the ways in which men have an impact on the lives of young children and illustrates how educating men about the needs of children and getting them more involved in the programming process can strengthen programs for young children. Strategies to increase men's awareness about young children are offered. A review of the published studies on the ways in which fathers are directly involved with their families and the ways fathers contribute to the family materially shows that fathers can use appropriate interactions to positively affect their children's development. For example, the level and type of involvement that a father has with his child can affect the child's scores on intelligence tests and school behavior. However, a crosscultural study has shown that four-year-olds spend very little time alone with their fathers. In many parts of the world, fathers are entirely absent from the household. The relationship between fathers and mothers can also affect the father-child relationship. While men contribute to the material well-being of families, women do so also and allocate their funds to meet the needs of the children. The role of women must be considered when programs are designed to expand the involvement of fathers or others in a child's life. The role that men play in their children's lives is affected by changes in men's ability to give their family economic support, by changes in women's ability to provide economic support, by society's changing expectations, and by men's desire to change their roles. The impact that men can have on children as teachers, healers, community leaders, religious leaders, and policymakers is also shown to be significant. Strategies to increase the involvement of men with children include 1) expanding the understanding of men in power of the importance of the early years, 2) working with men on direct parenting skills, 3) providing men with child development and parenting information, 4) providing appropriate role models, 5) supporting men in their fathering role, and 6) improving the economic environment. A series of recommended questions for consideration in the situational analysis process which can lead to policy and programming efforts to increase and improve the involvement of men ends this article. PMID:12290119
OBJECTIVE--To assess prevalence, incidence and potential risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among heterosexualmen and women with multiple partners and to identify niches of HPV-infection. DESIGN--A prospective study of heterosexualmen and women with multiple partners attending an STD clinic as participants in a study on HIV from May 1988 until January 1991. Routine STD examination and physical examination using colposcopy were performed, interviews with standardised questionnaires were administered. Specimens for HPV DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction were collected from multiple sites of the genital, anorectal and oral regions. In women cervical cytology was performed. SETTING--The STD Clinic of the Municipal Health Service of Amsterdam. PARTICIPANTS--162 women and 85 men entered the study, 110 women and 48 men were followed up. RESULTS--At entry of the study 37 (23%) women and 24 (28%) men were found positive for HPV DNA at any site. Only in one woman was oral presence of HPV DNA found during follow-up. Abnormal cervical cytology was observed in four women. In multivariate analysis, diagnosis of condylomata [odds ratio (OR) 5.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.86 to 16.90)], reporting genital dermatological abnormalities (OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.38 to 9.99) and age (OR per year 0.93, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99) predicted independently the presence of HPV DNA in women at entry of the study. In women 59 of the 99 (60%) HPV infections were observed in the genital region and 40% in the anorectal region: in men these figures were 65% and 35%, respectively. The incidence of HPV infection was 47.1 and 50.5 per 100 person-years for women and men respectively. At least 20/99 (20%) infections in women were intermediate or long persistent and only 3/48 (6%) HPV infections in men (P = 0.03). No risk factor for persistency could be determined, either in women or in men. CONCLUSIONS--HPV infection was found to be a multicentric genital and/or anorectal event both in women and men. The oral presence of HPV DNA was detected only once in one of the participants. In women persistent HPV infection was more common than in men. Independent predictors for presence of HPV DNA in women were diagnosis of condylomata acuminata, reporting genital dermatologic abnormalities and age. Incidence of HPV infection in women turned out to be 47.1 infections per 100 person-years and for men 50.5 per 100 person-years.
Van Doornum, G J; Prins, M; Juffermans, L H; Hooykaas, C; van den Hoek, J A; Coutinho, R A; Quint, W G
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexualmen. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexualmen's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528
Hudepohl, Adam D; Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexualmen. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexualmen's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed.
Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexualmen, particularly minority men, into research studies on sexual behaviors and practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges that arose during the recruitment and data collection stages of a study on health and sexual practices of older heterosexualmen using prescribed erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs, and the strategies that were used to meet these challenges. Lessons learned from this study will be discussed, as well as implications for HIV/STD researchers and clinicians.
Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel
The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes about condoms that may affect condom use by heterosexualmen ages 50 and older who were sexually active and currently using prescribed oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor medications (Viagra(®), Cialis(®), or Levitra(®)) for treatment of erectile dysfunction. The study was part of a larger study that explored the need for safer-sex health promotion and education for these men. Fifty men completed factor subscales of the Condom Attitude Scale. Subscales were scored and analyzed. Positive factors were found with regard to the Interpersonal Impact, Inhibition, Perceived Risk, Perceived Seriousness, and Global Attitudes subscales. Factors with negative or neutral responses included the Effect on Sexual Experience, Relationship Safety, and Promiscuity subscales. Independent t tests revealed no differences between married and nonmarried men for the mean score on any of the subscales, but there was a difference on the Global Attitude Scale, with younger men having a more positive global attitude than older men. Study findings can be used in the development of health promotion educational activities on condom use as a safer-sex practice. PMID:23620541
Jones, Sande Gracia; Fenkl, Eric A; Patsdaughter, Carol A Pat; Chadwell, Katherine
The present investigation of British subjects replicated an investigation conducted in the United States. There was considerable agreement in the findings of the two studies. A multidimensional evaluation of adjustment, based on questionnaire data, indicated that the total sample of British homosexuals described themselves as less well adjusted than the heterosexuals on four factors, better adjusted on two factors, and
This study examined the relation between dimensions of sex role self schema (assessed by four factor scores of the Bem Sex Role Inventory: Instrumentality, Expressiveness, Autonomy, and Masculinity-Femininity) and psychological adjustment (assessed by the Symptom Checklist-90-R) in 366 homosexuals (230 males and 136 females) and 241 heterosexuals (124 males and 117 females). All subjects were in a cohabitating relationship. Homosexuals
Employed a measure of recalled childhood gender nonconformity to examine gender role behaviors in association with body dissatisfaction among ethnically diverse, homosexual and heterosexual, predominantly college-aged males. Gay males reported more body dissatisfaction and recalled more childhood gender atypical behaviors. Group differences in…
Strong, Scott M.; Singh, Devendra; Randall, Patrick K.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has several deleterious effects on health and well-being, including increased risk for rape in adulthood. Such revictimization experiences are linked to negative mental health outcomes. The vast majority of literature on prevalence and impact of sexual revictimization has focused on heterosexual women. In an effort to…
This mixed-methods study examined associations between prejudice events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 382 lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGB) and 126 heterosexuals. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, we assessed PTSD but relaxed Criterion A1, that is, allowed prejudice events that did not involve threat to life or physical integrity to also qualify as traumatic. First, we tested whether exposure to prejudice events differed with respect to sexual orientation and race. White LGBs were more likely than White heterosexuals to encounter a prejudice event, but Black and Latino LGBs were no more likely than White LGBs to experience a prejudice event. Second, we used qualitative analysis to examine the prejudice events that precipitated relaxed Criterion A1 PTSD among 8 participants. Two specific themes emerged: the need to make major changes and compromised sense of safety and security following exposure to the prejudice event.
Alessi, Edward J.; Martin, James I.; Gyamerah, Akua; Meyer, Ilan H.
Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention demonstrate that 1 in 16 Black men in the United States will be infected with HIV in their lifetime. Furthermore, the long-standing HIV disparity in Black communities is actually increasing for Black men. National efforts to curb the epidemic among U.S. Black men focus primarily on men who have sex with men and injection drug users. Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV have largely been neglected by research, program, and policy. This article presents epidemiologic data documenting that heterosexual risk for HIV among Black men is a major concern for Black communities and is likely additional evidence among growing indications of a generalized epidemic in low-income and urban Black communities. The authors offer a call to action to increase support for research, program, and policies that can improve HIV prevention and testing among heterosexual Black men in the United States, as part of the national agenda to reduce rates of HIV in Black communities. PMID:21831928
Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS), the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Methods First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives") and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. Results This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. Conclusion This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using Intervention Mapping is feasible in the daily practice of the MPHS, provided that sufficient time and expertise on this approach is available. Further research should test the effectiveness of these interventions.
Wolfers, Mireille EG; van den Hoek, Caty; Brug, Johannes; de Zwart, Onno
Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexualmen experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexualmen experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24473940
Studies have shown more erectile dysfunction (ED) in menliving with HIV (MLHIV), relative to age matched HIV-negative men. Erection enhancing medication (EEM) is more frequently used by HIV-positive men than in the general male population. Increased sexually transmitted infection has been described in HIV-positive men with ED using EEM. This study investigated the use of EEM and party drugs (methyleendioxymethamfetamine (XTC), gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB) "fluid XTC" and alkyl nitrites "poppers") among MLHIV. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed consecutively to all patients attending 17 European HIV treatment centers. The sample included 1118 HIV-positive men, among whom 74.5% men having sex with men (MSM). The use of EEM was more frequent in MSM than in heterosexualmen (odds ratio (OR) 3.33, p<0.001) and was associated with increased sexual risk behavior (OR 3.27, p<0.001). Nonmedically indicated use of EEM was linked to increased use of party drugs (OR 2.30, p=0.01). Physicians taking care of MLHIV need to be aware of the high prevalence of (nonmedical) use of EEM and party drugs. Medical provision of EEM should be combined with a discussion on safer sex behavior and the risk related to concomitant use of party drugs and illegal EEM. PMID:23244618
De Ryck, Iris; Van Laeken, David; Noestlinger, Christiana; Platteau, Tom; Colebunders, Robert
This mixed-methods study examined associations between prejudice events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 382 lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGB) and 126 heterosexuals. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, we assessed PTSD with a relaxed Criterion A1; that is, we allowed events that did not involve threat to life or physical integrity to also qualify as traumatic. We first assessed whether exposure to prejudice-related qualifying events differed with respect to participants’ sexual orientation and race. We found that White LGBs were more likely than White heterosexuals to encounter a prejudice-related qualifying event, and among LGBs, Black and Latino LGBs were no more likely than White LGBs to experience this type of event. We then used qualitative analysis of participants’ brief narratives to examine prejudice events that precipitated Relaxed Criterion A1 PTSD among 8 participants. Two themes emerged: (a) the need to make major changes and (b) compromised sense of safety and security following exposure to the prejudice event.
Alessi, Edward J.; Martin, James I.; Gyamerah, Akua; Meyer, Ilan H.
Sexual concurrency poses significant HIV/STI transmission risk. The correlates of concurrency have not been examined among homeless men. A representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles reported on their mental health, substance use, and social network characteristics. Nearly 40% of men reported concurrency with one of their four most recent sex partners. Results indicated that HIV seropositivity (OR = 4.39, CI: 1.10, 17.46; P = 0.04), PTSD (OR = 2.29, CI: 1.05, 5.01; P = 0.04), hard drug use (OR = 2.45, CI: 1.07, 5.58; P = 0.03), and the perception that network alters engage in risky sex (OR = 3.72, CI: 1.49, 9.30; P = 0.01) were associated with increased odds of concurrency. Programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission in this vulnerable population must take into account the roles that behavioral health and social networks may play in sexual concurrency. PMID:22001933
Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Ewing, Brett
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexualmen recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed.
Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.
Objectives High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) viral load is associated with HR-HPV transmission and HR-HPV persistence in women. It is unknown whether HR-HPV viral load is associated with persistence in HIV-negative or HIV-positive men. Methods HR-HPV viral load and persistence were evaluated among 703 HIV-negative and 233 HIV-positive heterosexualmen who participated in a male circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. Penile swabs were tested at baseline and 6, 12 and 24 months for HR-HPV using the Roche HPV Linear Array, which provides a semi-quantitative measure of HPV shedding by hybridization band intensity (graded:1–4). Prevalence risk ratios (PRR) were used to estimate the association between HR-HPV viral load and persistent detection of HR-HPV. Results HR-HPV genotypes with high viral load (grade:3–4) at baseline were more likely to persist than HR-HPV genotypes with low viral load (grade:1–2) among HIV-negative men (month 6: adjPRR=1.83, 95%CI:1.32–2.52; month 12: adjPRR=2.01, 95%CI:1.42–3.11), and HIV-positive men (month 6: adjPRR=1.33, 95%CI:1.06–1.67; month 12: adjPRR=1.73, 95%CI:1.18–2.54). Long-term persistence of HR-HPV was more frequent among HIV-positive men compared to HIV-negative men (month 24: adjPRR=2.27, 95%CI: 1.47–3.51). Persistence of newly detected HR-HPV at the 6 and 12 month visits with high viral load were also more likely to persist to 24 months than HR-HPV with low viral load among HIV-negative men (adjPRR=1.67, 95%CI 0.88–3.16). Conclusions HR-HPV genotypes with high viral load are more likely to persist among HIV-negative and HIV-positive men, though persistence was more common among HIV-positive men overall. The results may explain the association between high HR-HPV viral load and HR-HPV transmission.
Grabowski, Mary K.; Gray, Ronald H; Serwadda, David; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gravitt, Patti E.; Nalugoda, Fred; Reynolds, Steven J.; Wawer, Maria J.; Watya, Stephen; Quinn, Thomas C.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.
Objectives HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Methods Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Results Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01 – 4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. Conclusions HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. Therefore, we suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population.
Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett
The study examined the association of sexual satisfaction with sexual orientation, body image and well-being among 180 undergraduate male students. Recruitment for participation in the research was conducted in two settings: (1) research questionnaires were distributed during an introductory psychology lecture; and (2) in order to increase the participation of gay men, questionnaires were then distributed during a weekly meeting
Drawing on a larger ethnographic study of four high school young men, this paper foregrounds high school male–male friendships as a context for examining how heterosexism and homophobia operate to limit and delimit the ways masculinities are constructed. I begin this article by first highlighting an inconsistency between recent school initiatives aimed at “helping boys” improve literacy scores and emerging
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexualmen. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing
Adam D. Hudepohl; Dominic J. Parrott; Amos Zeichner
This article explores the ways gay menliving with HIV talk about their identities in relationship to ideas concerning essentialism in the broader context of biomedicalisation. Data were collected from 36 HIV-positive gay men between 2001 and 2005 from two studies. All interview material was initially collected and analysed using broadly speaking thematic analysis. Identity-oriented themes were then further explored
This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Spanish-speaking, heterosexually active immigrant Latino men. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention and selected the study design. Following baseline data collection, 142 immigrant Latino men were randomized to the HIV prevention intervention or the cancer education intervention. Three-month follow-up data were collected from 139 participants, for a 98% retention rate. Mean age of participants was 31.6 years and 60% reported being from Mexico. Adjusting for baseline behaviors, relative to their peers in the cancer education comparison, participants in the HIV prevention intervention were more likely to report consistent condom use and receiving an HIV test. Community-based interventions for immigrant Latino men that are built on state of the art prevention science and developed in partnership with community members can greatly enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection.
Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Vissman, Aaron T.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Duck, Stacy; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Foley, Kristie Long; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Eng, Eugenia
Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), which disproportionately affects young people under 25 years. Commonly, more women are offered screening than men. This study obtained the views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards Internet-based screening and assessed levels of support for the development of proactive screening targeting young heterosexualmen via the Internet. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with 10 general practitioners and 8 practice nurses, across Central Scotland. Topics covered: experience of screening heterosexualmen for chlamydia, views on the use of the Internet as a way to reach young men for chlamydia screening, beliefs about the potential barriers and facilitators to Internet-based screening. Transcripts from audio recordings were analysed with Framework Analysis, using QSR NVivo10. Results Experiences of chlamydia screening were almost exclusively with women, driven by the nature of consultations and ease of raising sexual health issues with female patients; few practice nurses reported seeing men during consultations. All participants spoke in favour of Internet-based screening for young men. Participants reported ease of access and convenience as potential facilitators of an Internet-based approach but anonymity and confidentiality could be potential barriers and facilitators to the success of an Internet approach to screening. Concerns over practical issues as well as those pertaining to gender and socio-cultural issues were raised. Conclusions Awareness of key barriers and facilitators, such as confidentiality, practicality and socio-cultural influences, will inform the development of an Internet-based approach to screening. However, this approach may have its limits in terms of being able to tackle wider social and cultural barriers, along with shifts in young people’s and health professionals’ attitudes towards screening. Nevertheless, employing innovative efforts as part of a multi-faceted approach is required to ensure effective interventions reach the policy agenda.
BACKGROUND: There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV\\/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations
Mireille EG Wolfers; Caty van den Hoek; Johannes Brug; Onno de Zwart
Position statements of the major mental health organizations in the United States state that there is no scientific evidence that a homosexual sexual orientation can be changed by psychotherapy, often referred to as “reparative therapy.” This study tested the hypothesis that some individuals whose sexual orientation is predominantly homosexual can, with some form of reparative therapy, become predominantly heterosexual. The
Emerging out of increased attention to gender equality within HIV and violence prevention programming has been an intensified focus on masculinities. A new generation of health interventions has attempted to shift norms of masculinity to be more gender equitable and has been termed "gender-transformative." We carried out a systematic review of gender-transformative HIV and violence prevention programs with heterosexually-active men in order to assess the efficacy of this programming. After reviewing over 2,500 abstracts in a systematic search, a total of 15 articles matched review criteria. The evidence suggests that gender-transformative interventions can increase protective sexual behaviors, prevent partner violence, modify inequitable attitudes, and reduce STI/HIV, though further trials are warranted, particularly in establishing STI/HIV impacts. In the conclusion, we discuss the promises and limitations of gender-transformative work with men and make suggestions for future research focused on HIV and/or violence prevention. PMID:23934267
Dworkin, Shari L; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Lippman, Sheri A
Factors responsible for the gender difference in life-span being 4-5 years in favor of women were investigated. Cardiovascular risks are responsible for a five times higher mortality and three times higher morbidity in men compared with women. Genetics demonstrate marked gender differences in chromosomal constitution and female preponderance of the life-guard telomeres on chromosomes during mitotic cell division. This difference, however, cannot explain the gender gap fully. Endogenous estradiol - acting in picomoles - provokes marked cardiovascular changes. Cardiac output increases around 20% during the second half of the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. This continuous biological challenge during the reproductive years creates optimal cardiovascular compliance comparable to the effects of exercise. The "jogging female heart" may explain the lower incidence of cardiovascular disease before menopause and the equalization after the menopause. PMID:17324494
This activity opens with a graph that depicts the life expectancies of men and women born in the United States. Students are asked to estimate the greatest difference between genders in the years between 1920 and 1996. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 real-world math challenges, introduces trend analysis and explains its utility to market research, radio stations, and manufacturers. The Hint tells students how they should read the graph to determine the life expectancy for a woman born in 1920. Related questions encourage students to think about how the shape of the curve might be affected by changing the scale, as well as variables that affect trends in life expectancy. Answers to all questions and additional resource suggestions are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)
Background Limited data are available to assess sexual behavior by persons using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by persons using effective HIV prevention strategies, like PrEP, could offset HIV prevention benefits. Methods The Partners PrEP Study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral PrEP among heterosexual HIV-uninfected members of HIV serodiscordant couples, publicly reported efficacy for HIV prevention in July 2011 and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex unprotected by a condom during the 12 months after compared to before July 2011 to assess whether knowledge of PrEP efficacy for HIV prevention resulted in increased sexual risk behavior. Results We analyzed 56, 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected subjects (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months pre- versus 53 post-unblinding, reflecting no immediate change or change over time after July 2011 (p=0·66 and 0·25, respectively). There was a statistically significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners over time after July 2011 but the effect was modest (average of 6.8 unprotected sex acts per year versus 6.2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had unblinding not occurred, p=0·04). Compared to pre-July 2011, there was no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July 2011. Interpretation The transition from a blinded, placebo-controlled efficacy trial to all participants aware they were receiving active, efficacious PrEP in the Partners PrEP Study provided a “natural experiment” to evaluate sexual risk compensation. PrEP, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, may not result in substantial changes in risk-taking sexual behavior for heterosexual couples.
This study examined sexual orientation discordance, a mismatch between self-reported sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction, by describing the characteristics, substance use disorders, and mental health risks of heterosexual identified individuals who endorsed this pattern of sexual identification, behavior, and attraction. Using data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we created three groups based on participants' reported sexual identity and either their sexual behavior or sexual attraction: heterosexual concordant, homosexual concordant, and heterosexual discordant. Bivariate models assessed the relationship of discordant status and demographic correlates, lifetime substance use disorders, and mental health diagnoses. Logistic regression models tested associations between both behavior discordance and attraction discordance and the likelihood of having lifetime disorders of substance use, major depression, and generalized anxiety. Results of this study provided evidence of varying levels of substance use and mental health disorder risk by gender, discordance status, and discordance type. Behavioral discordance was associated with increased risk of mental health and substance use disorder among women (compared to heterosexual concordance). Findings among men were less consistent with heightened risk of alcohol and inhalant use only. Attraction discordance was notably different from behavioral discordance. The odds of substance use and mental health disorders were the same or lower compared with both the heterosexual and homosexual concordance groups. Future research should begin to test theoretical explanations for these differences. PMID:22549338
Gattis, Maurice N; Sacco, Paul; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M
Recent research suggests that, for most women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both women\\u000a and men. For men, however, high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to one sex or the other, but not to both,\\u000a depending on men's sexual orientation (Lippa, R. A., 2006, Psychological Science, 17, 46–52). These findings were replicated in
Accounts by 10 Caribbean men who have sex with menliving in the UK reveal them to be liminal beings with unstable and unresolved identities. They are between social states: aware they are not heterosexual and not publicly recognised, or in some cases self?accepted, as homosexual. Caribbean?born respondents especially suffer from homophobia, expressing regret and disappointment at their sexuality. They
Moji Anderson; Gillian Elam; Sarah Gerver; Ijeoma Solarin; Kevin Fenton; Phillippa Easterbrook
The ability to negotiate condom use with a partner is a skill that sexually active men and women must have in order to avoid sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Despite this fact, there is no psychometrically valid instrument in the literature to measure condom influence strategies. This investigation reports on the development and initial validation of the condom influence strategy
Seth M. Noar; Patricia J. Morokoff; Lisa L. Harlow
All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option of heterosexuality must be seen to serve the patriarchal interests of female oppression. PMID:12287633
Over the past decade, the midwestern United States has witnessed a dramatic increase in its Latino population. The lack of culturally and linguistically congruent resources coupled with high incidence and prevalence rates of HIV among Latinos living in the Midwest merits attention. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) is a community-level social network intervention designed for Latino men. We describe the adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS for Latino menliving in Indianapolis, Indiana, the second largest city in the Midwest. Five Navegantes (lay health educators) were trained; they provided a total of 34 educational charlas (small group didactic sessions). A total of 270 Latino men attended the charlas and were offered no-cost screening for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). Three participants tested HIV positive and 15 screened positive for STI. The charlas coupled with the testing initiative, served as a successful method to increase sexual health knowledge among Latino men and to link newly-diagnosed HIV/STI-positive individuals to treatment and care. The adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS respond to the CDC and NIH call to increase HIV testing and service provision among vulnerable populations. PMID:24450279
Martinez, Omar; Roth, Alexis M; Kelle, Guadalupe; Downs, Mario; Rhodes, Scott D
Over the past decade, the midwestern United States has witnessed a dramatic increase in its Latino population. The lack of culturally and linguistically congruent resources coupled with high incidence and prevalence rates of HIV among Latinos living in the Midwest merits attention. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) is a community-level social network intervention designed for Latino men. We describe the adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS for Latino menliving in Indianapolis, Indiana, the second largest city in the Midwest. Five Navegantes (lay health educators) were trained; they provided a total of 34 educational charlas (small group didactic sessions). A total of 270 Latino men attended the charlas and were offered no-cost screening for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). Three participants tested HIV positive and 15 screened positive for STI. The charlas coupled with the testing initiative, served as a successful method to increase sexual health knowledge among Latino men and to link newly-diagnosed HIV/STI-positive individuals to treatment and care. The adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS respond to the CDC and NIH call to increase HIV testing and service provision among vulnerable populations.
Martinez, Omar; Roth, Alexis M.; Kelle, Guadalupe; Downs, Mario; Rhodes, Scott D.
Although gay American men are afflicted with alcoholism and other forms of chemical dependency at a much higher rate than their heterosexual brothers, many of them are experiencing fulfillment by living the spiritual way of life known as Alcoholics Anonymous.To learn how gay men of AA go about doing spirituality in everyday life, 50 gay American men were interviewed in
Combination HIV prevention is a high priority for increasing the impact of partially efficacious HIV prevention interventions for specific populations and settings. Developing the package requires critical review of local epidemiology of HIV infection regarding populations most impacted and most at risk, drivers of HIV infection, and available interventions to address these risk factors. Interventions should be considered in terms of the evidence basis for efficacy, potential synergies, feasibility of delivery at scale, which is important in order to achieve high coverage and impact, coupled with high acceptability to populations, which will impact uptake, adherence, and retention. Evaluation requires process measures of uptake, adherence, retention, and outcome measures of reduction in HIV infectiousness and acquisition. Three examples of combination prevention concepts are summarized for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Americas, young women in sub-Saharan Africa, and HIV-1 serodiscordant couples.
Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.; Hughes, James P.; Barnabas, Ruanne; Liu, Albert; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Buchbinder, Susan
This study attempted to use PET and 15O–H2O to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during sexual arousal evoked in 10 young heterosexual males while they watched a pornographic video clip, featuring heterosexual intercourse. This condition was compared with other mental setups evoked by noisy, nature, and talkshow audiovisual clips. Immediately after each clip, the participants answered three
M. Bocher; R. Chisin; Y. Parag; N. Freedman; Y. Meir Weil; H. Lester; E. Mishani; O. Bonne
Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli. PMID:20814814
Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut
Does the prevalence and degree of body dissatis- faction differ among heterosexual and homosexual men and women? Some theorists have suggested that, compared to their heterosexual peers, gay men are at greater risk for body dis- satisfaction and lesbians at lower risk. Past studies examining this issue have generally relied on small samples recruited from gay or lesbian groups. Further,
Letitia Anne Peplau; David A. Frederick; Curtis Yee; Natalya Maisel; Janet Lever; Negin Ghavami
Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexualmen (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexualmen are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexualmen as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexualmen by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses. PMID:23117592
Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira
The mental health outcomes of men who have sex with men (MSM) living in sub-Saharan Africa are understudied, despite evidence that discrimination and stigma are widespread. This article examines the occurrence and mental health effects of minority stress in a sample of diverse South African MSM. Twenty-two MSM living in Cape Town took part in exploratory qualitative in-depth interviews and completed mental health questionnaires. Results indicate that the majority of participants experienced minority stress, which affected their sexual relationships and coping strategies. Concealment behaviors and perceived discrimination levels were high and were associated with race, religion, SES, and geographical location. PMID:24392722
McAdams-Mahmoud, Ayesha; Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Cooper, Hannah; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Jobson, Geoffrey; de Swardt, Glenn; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James
Despite high and rapidly growing incidence of HIV, little is known about the everyday lived experiences of HIV-positive black men who have sex with men. Lack of empirical knowledge about members of this group is especially problematic as HIV-positive individuals continue to live in a world of hope, fear, waiting and wondering, which can heavily influence their everyday lives. In this exploratory study, we examine the everyday lives of HIV-positive black gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, particularly how being a racial minority may influence the ways that they manage living with the illness. Our goal was to provide a forum from which black men could share their personal experiences regarding the various aspects of living with HIV. In doing so, we identified five themes that may be unique to black men or experienced differently by black men due, in the USA, to their racial minority status. PMID:20162480
Han, Chong-suk; Lauby, Jennifer; Bond, Lisa; Lapollo, Archana Bodas; Rutledge, Scott Edward
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of alcohol, alcohol sex expectancies, and sexual sensation seeking on determinants of sexual health behavior according to the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model. The participants were 48 heterosexual young adult males who attended 2 laboratory sessions. During Session 1, participants completed a set of screening and individual differences measures, and during
Stephen A. Maisto; Michael P. Carey; Kate B. Carey; Christopher M. Gordon; Jennifer L. Schum; Kevin G. Lynch
We use two surveys to describe the demographic and attitudinal correlates of being in “Living Apart Together” (LAT), cohabiting, and marital relationships for heterosexuals, lesbians, and gay men. About one third of U.S. adults not married or cohabiting are in LAT relationships – these individuals would be classified as “single” in conventional studies that focus on co-residential unions. Gay men are somewhat more likely than heterosexualmen to be in LAT relationships. For heterosexuals and lesbians, LAT relationships are more common among younger people. Heterosexuals in LAT unions are less likely to expect to marry their partners, but more likely to say that couples should be emotionally dependent than are cohabiters. Regardless of sexual orientation, people in LAT relationships perceive similar amounts of emotional support from partners, but less instrumental support than cohabiters perceive.
Strohm, Charles Q.; Seltzer, Judith A.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.
BACKGROUND: Approximately 15 percent of all the couples are involuntarily childless in reproductive ages. The ability to reproduce and give birth to a child is an important part of the human beings life; thus, infertility can cause anxiety for the infertile people. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate men's experiences from male infertility. METHODS: This was a descriptive phenomenological study. The data were collected using in-depth interview of ten infertile men. The interviews were taped and then transcribed on the paper for analyzing through seven-step Colaizzi method. Considering that in qualitative studies, study population is not considered, therefore there was no limitation in location for collecting the data and the participants selected from the infertile men of the society. RESULTS: Four main concepts were obtained in association with infertility phenomenon: individual stress, challenges in communication, problems associated with treatment process and the effects of beliefs and religious attitude. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of this study, it seems that all the different life aspects of infertile were affected by infertility. Thus, designing and conducting conductive and supportive programs plays an important role for providing better care for infertile men.
Fahami, Fariba; Quchani, Samaneh Hosseini; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Boroujeni, Ali Zargham
The purpose of this study was to explore how heterosexual college students understand and make meaning of their life experiences and how they incorporate those into their sexual orientation consciousness. We interviewed 14 undergraduate and graduate self-identified heterosexual students, ten women and four men, ranging in age from 20 to 24.…
Pharyngeal infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in heterosexualmen is thought to be of low prevalence and the value of routinely testing this group of patients is uncertain. We present two cases of NG, isolated only in the pharynx, in asymptomatic heterosexual male contacts. The presence of pharyngeal NG was found irrespective of direct oropharyngeal sexual exposure. PMID:23970625
Thomson-Glover, Rebecca; Brown, Ruth; Edirisinghe, Damitha N
Sport is a social institution that perpetuates gendered ideologies in the wider society through appealing to discourses of the naturalness of men's privilege and domination in society. Heteronormativity regulates the roles, behaviours, appearances and sexualities of, and relationships between and among, women and men. Moreover, heteronormative discourses normalise a particular relationship between sex, gender and sexuality that posits woman/feminine/heterosexual (and man/masculine/heterosexual) as a natural order from which variance is considered a punishable deviance. This paper outlines the effects of heteronormative discourses in the lives of women footballers in South Africa, through drawing on interviews with a wide range of women footballers. The paper shows how heteronormative discourses nurture homophobic attitudes that serve to regulate the appearances and performances of South African women. PMID:21280413
It has been suggested that self-monitoring (the propensity to exercise self-control on one’s expressive behavior and self-presentation guided by situational cues) and sociosexual orientation (the degree of preferring short-term association in sexual relationships) are associated with each other. Using four groups of Japanese participants (heterosexual and non-heterosexualmen and women), we demonstrated that there was a robust association within each
We aimed to explore in detail the sexual lives and behaviour of men with mild learning disabilities living both in community and in secure hospital settings. We wanted to generate hypotheses about them and identify potential unmet needs. We used a narrative interview that focused on areas such as relationships, sex education, contraception and the…
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the limitations of probability samples of men who have sex with men (MSM), limited to single cities and to the areas of highest concentrations of MSM ("gay ghettos"). METHODS: A probability sample of 2881 MSM in 4 American cities completed interviews by telephone. RESULTS: MSM who resided in ghettos differed from other MSM, although in different ways in each city. Non-ghetto-dwelling MSM were less involved in the gay and lesbian community. They were also less likely to have only male sexual partners, to identify as gay, and to have been tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: These differences between MSM who live in gay ghettos and those who live elsewhere have clear implications for HIV prevention efforts and health care planning.
Mills, T C; Stall, R; Pollack, L; Paul, J P; Binson, D; Canchola, J; Catania, J A
Does the prevalence and degree of body dissatisfaction differ among heterosexual and homosexual men and women? Some theorists\\u000a have suggested that, compared to their heterosexual peers, gay men are at greater risk for body dissatisfaction and lesbians\\u000a at lower risk. Past studies examining this issue have generally relied on small samples recruited from gay or lesbian groups.\\u000a Further, these studies
Letitia Anne Peplau; David A. Frederick; Curtis Yee; Natalya Maisel; Janet Lever; Negin Ghavami
The purpose of this study was to examine the bereavement experience, psychiatric morbidity, and suicidality in bereaved men and women living with HIV. HIV + women (n = 31) who reported a loss in the recent 12 months were case matched to bereaved HIV + men (n = 62) on the basis of lifetime histories of major depression. Study participants were examined for grief reactions, psychiatric morbidity, mood
JACQUELYN SUMMERS; SIDNEY ZISOOK; ANDRÉS D. SCIOLLA; THOMAS PATTERSON; J. HAMPTON ATKINSON
Usually women live longer than men and female centenarians largely outnumber male centenarians. The findings of previous studies identifying a population with a femininity ratio close to 1.0 among centenarians in the mountainous region of Sardinia was the starting point of an in-depth investigation in order to compare mortality trajectories between men and women in that population. The exceptional survival of men compared to women emerges from the comparison with similar Italian data. Age exaggeration for men has been strictly excluded as a result of the age validation procedure. The discussion suggests that besides biological/genetic factors, the behavioral factors including life style, demographic behavior, family support, and community characteristics may play an important role. No single explanation is likely to account for such an exceptional situation and a fully integrated multidisciplinary approach is urgently needed.
Objectives. Our primary aims were to identify differences on the basis of sex- ual orientation in victimization, substance use, and HIV risk behaviors and to ex- amine associations among these variables in American Indian men. Our sec- ondary aims included describing condom-use attitudes, beliefs about HIV\\/AIDS in the Indian community, HIV knowledge, HIV status, and preference for and ac- cess
Jane M. Simoni; Karina L. Walters; Kimberly F. Balsam; Seth B. Meyers
A qualitative study was conducted to explore disclosure decisions of rural African American (AA) menliving with HIV disease. The sample consisted of 20 HIV-infected AA menliving in the rural south, who had been diagnosed with HIV for at least six months. Audio taped semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The men were questioned about who they had told about their disease, reactions to their disclosures, and their advice to others about disclosing. Findings showed initially the men did not disclose their disease to others, and many of them continued not to disclose. They were concerned about negative consequences, such as rejection, fear of contagion, and of the recipients telling others. If and when they disclosed, it was likely to be to sexual partners, immediate family members, and health care providers. Their decision not to disclose protected them from the possible negative reactions, but it also limited the amount of social and emotional support they received related to their HIV disease.
Objective: Body image disturbance is a common experience for sexual minority menliving with HIV, and is associated with poor self-care behaviors. However, to date, no known cohesive theoretical model has been advanced to understand the possible antecedents and outcomes of body image disturbance in this population. Thus, the goal of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image and self-care behaviors among sexual minority menliving with HIV. Method: Participants were 106 gay and bisexual menliving with HIV who completed a battery of self-report measures, including assessment of body image disturbance, depression, lipodystrophy, appearance orientation, condom use self-efficacy, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Bayesian estimation was employed to assess model fit and direct and indirect pathways within the model. Results: The data fit the model well, with all theorized pathways being significant. Lipodystrophy severity and appearance orientation were associated with elevated body image disturbance. In turn, body image disturbance was related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, through the mechanisms of elevated depressive symptoms and poor condom use self-efficacy. Conclusions: Elevated body image disturbance among sexual minority menliving with HIV is associated with important biopsychosocial variables, which in turn are related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Integrative psychosocial interventions addressing co-occurring body image disturbance, depression, and HIV self-care behaviors may be a fruitful area for future clinical practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24977311
Blashill, Aaron J; Goshe, Brett M; Robbins, Gregory K; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A
The purpose of this paper is to highlight methodological issues and considerations which will be of use to researchers interested\\u000a in further understanding the complexity of intimate partner violence in the lives of Hispanic men who have sex with men. We\\u000a present a brief review of the research on intimate partner violence which highlights intersections of health and behavior\\u000a risk
The aim of this study was to examine delayed application of condoms and withdrawal among heterosexual young adults. Seven focus group discussions were conducted with heterosexualmen and women aged 18–25 in Melbourne, Australia. The data revealed that delayed application of condoms and withdrawal are widespread. Delayed application of condoms can be divided into two categories—condom use ‘after limited unprotected
Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…
This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…
The aim of the study was to study factors related to anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation among HIV-seropositive heterosexuals soon after being tested for their HIV status for the first time. Anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation were assessed among 51 HIV-seropositive heterosexualmen and women with various stages of HIV infection. All assessments were done between 4 and 6 weeks
Prabha S Chandra; V Ravi; A Desai; D. K Subbakrishna
Introduction. Hypertension and cigarette smoking are dominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Japan while in westernized countries, broader effects encompass obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. This paper examines whether different associations also appear important in the manifestation of activities of daily living (ADL) in older Japanese men in Hawaii and Japan. Methods. Measures of ADL (feeding, toileting, dressing, bathing, and walking around the house) were assessed from 1995 to 1999 in 1,893 men in Hawaii and 543 men in Japan. Concomitant risk factors were measured from 1990 to 1993. Results. In Hawaii, diabetes increased the odds of ?1 ADL impairment nearly 1.5-fold (P = .020). A similar association was absent in Japan. In contrast, the odds of an ADL impairment in Japan was increased more than 5-fold in the presence of stroke (P < .001). The association in Hawaii was significantly weaker (P = .007). In both cohorts, past alcohol use was associated with a greater likelihood of ADL impairment. Conclusion. In this comparison of genetically similar samples, findings suggest that different strengths in risk factor associations with cardiovascular disease in Japan and westernized countries may also include different strengths in associations with impaired ADL.
Abbott, Robert D.; Kadota, Aya; Miura, Katsuyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kadowaki, Takashi; Okamura, Tomonori; Okayama, Akira; Masaki, Kamal H.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu
In Australia, unlike much of the rest of the world, HIV transmission through heterosexual contact remains a relatively rare occurrence. In consequence, HIV-prevention efforts have been firmly focused on male-to-male sex as the most frequent source of HIV transmission. There are emerging signs that this epidemiological landscape may be shifting, which raises questions about current and future HIV prevention strategies. Over the past decade, national surveillance data have shown an increase in HIV notifications for which exposure to HIV was attributed to heterosexual contact. This paper offers an epidemiological and sociocultural picture of heterosexual HIV transmission in Australia. We outline recent trends in heterosexually acquired HIV and discuss specific factors that shape transmission and prevention among people at risk of HIV infection through heterosexual contact. To illustrate the contextual dynamics surrounding HIV in this diverse population, we detail two key examples: HIV among people from minority ethnic backgrounds in New South Wales; and overseas-acquired HIV among men in Western Australia. We argue that, despite their differences, there are significant commonalities across groups at risk of HIV infection through heterosexual contact, which not only provide opportunities for HIV prevention, but also call for a rethink of the dominant HIV response in Australia. PMID:24846487
Persson, Asha; Brown, Graham; McDonald, Ann; Körner, Henrike
In most societies, heterosexuality is the dominant way of expressing sexuality and masculinity and those men outside of it are stigmatised and discriminated against. This paper explores the sexual lives of men who have sex with men and the personal and social conflicts that arise as they attempt to both live up to societal expectations and manage their sexual desires. It critically explores how an overriding heteronormativity structures and influences men's perception and understanding of sexuality and masculinity/femininity. The paper draws on data from 24 in-depth/life history interviews, one focus group discussion and ethnographic observation conducted between July 2006 and June 2007. The study reveals that powerful and dominating beliefs about heteronormativity and masculinity result in men who have sex with men dealing with a number of issues of personal conflict and contradiction resulting in uncertainty, resentment, ambivalence, worry and discomfort. Heteronormativity or the expectations of parents, community and society at large is far more influential on the sexuality of men who have sex with men than their own individual desires and needs. The paper concludes that there is little room for individuality for Ethiopian men who have sex with men with their sexual bodies 'belonging' to parents, families and to society at large. PMID:21246428
Based on the assumption that sexual minority individuals are particularly sensitive to the possible rejection of others, the present study examined the occurrence and correlates of social anxiety symptomatology in gay and heterosexualmen. Eighty-seven heterosexual and 87 gay undergraduate men between the ages of 18 and 24 completed common measures of social anxiety, self-esteem, boyhood gender conformity, and a
Data on the Sambia—a tribe living in Papua New Guinea—are presented to demonstrate how Sambia males develop a homosexual orientation in boyhood and adolescence, then switch to become heterosexuals in adulthood. Social learning theory is used to explain how sexual orientation in the Sambia change from homo- to heterosexual during the transition to adulthood. Whereas most learning analyses of sexual
Objective: To systematically describe the content of AIDS educational videos targeting gay and bisexual men, and to compare it to the content of videos for heterosexual African American and Latino audiences. Design: AIDS videos targeting gay\\/bisexual men (n = 35), heterosexual African Americans (n = 14), and heterosexual Latinos (n = 25) were coded for the presence or absence of
Current sociobiological thought suggests that significant components of mate selection are based on indicators that correlate with the ability to produce and support offspring. Theorists have suggested that men tend to be attracted to and marry younger women, while women tend to be attracted to and marry older men. This behavior is referred to as age hypergamy. I complicate this picture by using gay men as a population in which to explore alternative components of mate selection as reflected in our behavior. Analyses of 120 dating advertisements from gay men and heterosexualmen and women indicated that there exists a good measure of hypergamic age preference that is comparable to the heterosexual population and that relates to subjects' gender presentation. Data suggest that the biological-reproductive theory of age hypergamy is incomplete and support a cultural reproduction model of gender role behavior and preference in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. PMID:23179236
Accounts by 10 Caribbean men who have sex with menliving in the UK reveal them to be liminal beings with unstable and unresolved identities. They are between social states: aware they are not heterosexual and not publicly recognised, or in some cases self-accepted, as homosexual. Caribbean-born respondents especially suffer from homophobia, expressing regret and disappointment at their sexuality. They may also experience cognitive dissonance - as they are aware of their conflict with the heteronormative order - they cannot resolve. Religion contributes to homophobia and cognitive dissonance particularly for Caribbean-born men, some of whom may believe a fundamental conflict exists between Christianity and homosexuality. Heterosexism and homophobia contribute to and reinforce their liminal state, by preventing transition to publicly recognised homosexual status. Respondents may engage in private and public, internal and external, overt and covert policing of their and other gay men's behaviour: through strategic pretence at heterosexuality and/or condemnation of men engaging in behaviour identifiable as stereotypically homosexual, for example. Narratives point to the need to complexify the conventional understanding of Jamaican heterosexism to explain reported variations in the degree of anti-homosexual hostility in the country. PMID:19296309
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to falls in elder men and the differences between those who fall and those who do not. A convenience sample (n = 71) of men age 65–87 was interviewed, and their activity levels, mental status, mobility status, and weight were evaluated. Most men (73%) had fair to good mental status,
Men infected with HIV are often faced with caregiving responsibilities of aging, ill parents, while simultaneously looking for support from their parents in dealing with their own health problems. Unfortunately, the reciprocal roles of HIV-positive adult sons and aging mothers as caregivers have not been examined. To address this gap in the literature, HIV-positive men (n = 118) answered open-ended questions about the support they exchanged with their mothers, completed the Depth of Relationships Inventory, and rated the importance of health-related assistance between themselves and their mothers. The men viewed themselves as important providers of both instrumental and emotional support to their mothers. Men perceived their mothers to be significant providers of emotional support but only moderately important in providing instrumental support. About a third of the men responded that the help they provided and received from the mothers in managing each other's health and staying healthy was extremely important. Men regarded their relationships with their mothers as one of their most important social relationships. Non-White men rated the quality of their mother-son relationships more highly, exchanged more instrumental support, and provided more emotional support to their mothers than White men. Men who disclosed their HIV-positive status to their mothers rated the importance of the help they received from their mothers in managing their illnesses higher than men who had not disclosed. PMID:21816862
Latino men in the Southeastern USA are disproportionately affected by HIV, but little is known about how the migration process influences HIV-related risk. In North Carolina, a relatively new immigrant destination, Latino men are predominantly young and from Mexico. We conducted 31 iterative life history interviews with 15 Mexican-born menliving with HIV. We used holistic content narrative analysis methods to examine HIV vulnerability in the context of migration and to identify important turning points. Major themes included the prominence of traumatic early-life experiences, migration as an ongoing process rather than a finite event, and HIV diagnosis as a final turning point in migration trajectories. Findings provide a nuanced understanding of HIV vulnerability throughout the migration process and have implications including the need for bi-national HIV-prevention approaches, improved outreach around early testing and linkage to care, and attention to mental health. PMID:24866206
Mann, Lilli; Valera, Erik; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Barrington, Clare
Evidence of cerebrovascular disease at autopsy was compared in two groups of men, 186 long time residents of Hiroshima, Japan and 253 men of Japanese ancestry long resident in Honolulu, hawaii. They were from 45 to 71 years of age at death. Atherosclerosi...
Y. Mitsuyama L. R. Thompson T. Hayashi K. K. Lee R. J. Keehn
Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…
Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students (N = 143) in a general diversity course completed identical surveys during the
Meta-analyses of sex differences in physical aggression to heterosexual partners and in its physical consequences are reported. Women were slightly more likely (d = -.05) than men to use one or more act of physical aggression and to use such acts more frequently. Men were more likely (d =. 15) to inflict an injury, and overall, 62% of those injured
A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to ac- quire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will en- dow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chas- tity). The
Objectives To determine the relation between height, FOXO3 genotype and age of death in humans. Methods Observational study of 8,003 American men of Japanese ancestry from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HHP/HAAS), a genetically and culturally homogeneous cohort followed for over 40 years. A Cox regression model with age as the time scale, stratified by year of birth, was used to estimate the effect of baseline height on mortality during follow-up. An analysis of height and longevity-associated variants of the key regulatory gene in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway, FOXO3, was performed in a HHP-HAAS subpopulation. A study of fasting insulin level and height was conducted in another HHP-HAAS subpopulation. Results A positive association was found between baseline height and all-cause mortality (RR?=?1.007; 95% CI 1.003–1.011; P?=?0.002) over the follow-up period. Adjustments for possible confounding variables reduced this association only slightly (RR?=?1.006; 95% CI 1.002–1.010; P?=?0.007). In addition, height was positively associated with all cancer mortality and mortality from cancer unrelated to smoking. A Cox regression model with time-dependent covariates showed that relative risk for baseline height on mortality increased as the population aged. Comparison of genotypes of a longevity-associated single nucleotide polymorphism in FOXO3 showed that the longevity allele was inversely associated with height. This finding was consistent with prior findings in model organisms of aging. Height was also positively associated with fasting blood insulin level, a risk factor for mortality. Regression analysis of fasting insulin level (mIU/L) on height (cm) adjusting for the age both data were collected yielded a regression coefficient of 0.26 (95% CI 0.10–0.42; P?=?0.001). Conclusion Height in mid-life is positively associated with mortality, with shorter stature predicting longer lifespan. Height was, moreover, associated with fasting insulin level and the longevity genotype of FOXO3, consistent with a mechanistic role for the IIS pathway.
He, Qimei; Morris, Brian J.; Grove, John S.; Petrovitch, Helen; Ross, Webster; Masaki, Kamal H.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Chen, Randi; Donlon, Timothy A.; Willcox, D. Craig; Willcox, Bradley J.
This study evaluated the stereotype that gay men lisp. Two clinicians who were unaware of the specific purpose of the study and the populations involved judged randomized audio-recordings of 175 gay males, 100 heterosexual males and 100 heterosexual females for the presence of lisping during reading of a standardized text. In the gay males a…
Van Borsel, John; De Bruyn, Els; Lefebvre, Evelien; Sokoloff, Anouschka; De Ley, Sophia; Baudonck, Nele
Distributions of serum cholesterol, glucose, uric acid and triglycerides are examined among Japanese menliving in Japan, Hawaii and California. Laboratory methods are described in detail and efforts to assure comparability of these methods. In every age group studied, the mean, median and percentile for each of the biochemical variables are lower for men in Japan than in Hawaii and California. PMID:1202951
Nichaman, M Z; Hamilton, H B; Kagan, A; Grier, T; Sacks, T; Syme, S L
Nicolosi and Byrd in 2002 summarized empirical research on birth order and sexual orientation in men, which research has documented that homosexual men have a later birth order than heterosexualmen. They did not, however, note a more refined analysis of an earlier null finding by Siegelman. This 1998 reanalysis by Blanchard, Zucker, Siegelman, Dickey, and Klassen also confirmed the later birth order of homosexual men. PMID:12674268
A sample of 1,784 individuals responded to an online survey advertised on the Facebook social networking website. We explored the sexual orientation continuum by focusing on three components: self-reported sexual orientation identity, sexual attraction, and sexual partners. Results supported a 5-category classification of identity (heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay/lesbian, gay/lesbian) in that two added identity labels (mostly heterosexual and mostly gay/lesbian) were frequently chosen by participants and/or showed unique patterns of attraction and partners, distinct from their adjacent identities (heterosexual and bisexual, and bisexual and gay/lesbian, respectively). Those who reported an exclusive label (heterosexual, gay/lesbian) were not necessarily exclusive in other components; a significant minority of heterosexuals and the majority of gays/lesbians reported some attraction and/or partners toward their nonpreferred sex. The five identity groups differed in attraction and partners in a manner consistent with a continuous, rather than a categorical, distribution of sexual orientation. Findings also supported a sexual orientation continuum as consisting of two, rather than one, distinct dimensions (same- and other-sex sexuality). Having more same-sex sexuality did not necessarily imply having less other-sex sexuality, and vice versa. More men than women were at the exclusive ends of the continuum; however, men were not bimodally distributed in that a significant minority reported nonexclusivity in their sexuality. PMID:22327566
Research has demonstrated that heterosexualmen receive enhanced health benefits from their relationships with women. Explanations for this gendered pattern often focus on women’s role as the main caregivers and arrangers of health care. However, what remains unclear is how these benefits are mediated. In this article, we describe the micropolitics evident in negotiations between 12 heterosexual couples as they
The proportion of HIV-positive people over the age of 50 is rapidly increasing in the UK. This reflects the use of antiretroviral therapies and the transformation of HIV from life-threatening disease to chronic treatable illness. In this study a biographical narrative approach was used to explore the lived experience of ageing in 10 HIV-positive gay men aged between 50 and 78. While some participants regarded ageing as an opportunity to continue progressing towards valued life goals, others were more ambivalent about their future prospects. The findings suggest that these differences were particularly influenced by an individual's biographic relationship to the history of the HIV epidemic rather than chronological age. Those with long histories of involvement with HIV were more likely to be disadvantaged by careers interrupted by illness, to be dependent on state benefits and to have social networks damaged by multiple AIDS-related bereavements. The research identifies a cohort of older gay men likely to require additional support in adapting to the challenge of growing older with HIV. The article also explores the construction of moral identities in relation to discourses of 'successful ageing' and the possibility of building supportive communities that are sensitive to the needs of older gay men. PMID:22077645
Influenced by the national attention that followed the violent episode between pop superstar Rihanna and hip-hop artist Chris\\u000a Brown, this article explores the importance of including the psychosocial experiences of disenfranchised African American\\u000a men in traditional intervention programs for batterers. The article provides an overview of how intimate partner violence\\u000a affects African American women and discusses how racialized stereotypical images
This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…
The issue of pornography as a form of leisure practice has received little attention from researchers. In this study, the impact of pornography consumption on women's lives was examined. A diverse group of thirty-two women was interviewed, with discussion focusing on their individual experiences, meanings, and perceptions of pornography. The women's reactions to pornography, especially to violent pornography, were consistently
Limited research has focused on the sexual behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) from rural communities. We examined the sexual and health-related behaviors of MSM living in rural areas of the United States in order to understand the sexual health repertoire of this population. A total of 5,357 participants living in rural settings were recruited online and completed an anonymous Internet-based survey that assessed sexual behaviors, condom use, and men's engagement with various community activities and events. These data provide a greater understanding of sexual health profiles that exist among rural MSM and will help inform the design of effective programs for men in these often underserved communities. PMID:24344718
Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa; Schnarrs, Phillip; Novak, David S; Reece, Michael
In late midlife, heterosexual women report markedly lower levels of sexual satisfaction than heterosexualmen. This article\\u000a explored the social factors contributing to this difference, using data from 1,035 sexually-active heterosexual adults, aged\\u000a 40–59 years, who participated in the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). Conducted in 1992, NHSLS interviewed\\u000a a nationally representative random sample of U.S. adults about diverse
Laura M. Carpenter; Constance A. Nathanson; Young J. Kim
The Helping Overcome Problems Effectively (HOPE) intervention was developed by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership to improve mental health and employment outcomes of African American gay menliving with HIV/AIDS. The intervention blended locally collected formative data, social cognitive theory, hope theory, and the lived experiences of African American gay menliving with HIV/AIDS. The HOPE intervention included 7 weekly 3-hour group sessions, with participant assessment at baseline and 3-month post-intervention. A total of 7 African American men, who self-identified as gay and unemployed, participated. Mean age was 46.1 (range = 37-57) years. Throughout the intervention, participants developed goal-setting skills, problem-solving skills, health-promoting behaviors, and employment seeking behaviors. The results suggest that the HOPE intervention may be promising in improving mental health and employment outcomes. PMID:24059878
Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Geishecker, Steve; Clark, Glenn; Rhodes, Scott D
Combining accelerometry (ACC) with heart rate (HR) monitoring is thought to improve activity energy expenditure (AEE) estimations compared with ACC alone to evaluate the validity of ACC and HR used alone or combined. The purpose of this study was to estimate AEE in free-living conditions compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Ten-day free-living AEE was measured by a DLW protocol in 35 18- to 55-yr-old men (11 lean active; 12 lean sedentary; 12 overweight sedentary) wearing an Actiheart (combining ACC and HR) and a RT3 accelerometer. AEE was estimated using group or individual calibration of the HR/AEE relationship, based on an exercise-tolerance test. In a subset (n = 21), AEE changes (?AEE) were measured after 1 mo of detraining (active subjects) or an 8-wk training (sedentary subjects). Actiheart-combined ACC/HR estimates were more accurate than estimates from HR or ACC alone. Accuracy of the Actiheart group-calibrated ACC/HR estimates was modest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.62], with no bias but high root mean square error (RMSE) and limits of agreement (LOA). The mean bias of the estimates was reduced by one-third, like RMSE and LOA, by individual calibration (ICC = 0.81). Contrasting with group-calibrated estimates, the Actiheart individual-calibrated ACC/HR estimates explained 40% of the variance of the DLW-?AEE (ICC = 0.63). This study supports a good level of agreement between the Actiheart ACC/HR estimates and DLW-measured AEE in lean and overweight men with varying fitness levels. Individual calibration of the HR/AEE relationship is necessary for AEE estimations at an individual level rather than at group scale and for ?AEE evaluation. PMID:23019315
Villars, C; Bergouignan, A; Dugas, J; Antoun, E; Schoeller, D A; Roth, H; Maingon, A C; Lefai, E; Blanc, S; Simon, C
Unlike men, heterosexual women's genital arousal is gender nonspecific, such that heterosexual women show relatively similar genital arousal to sexual stimuli depicting men and women but typically report greater subjective arousal to male stimuli. Based on the ovulatory-shift hypothesis-that women show a mid-cycle shift in preferences towards more masculine features during peak fertility-we predicted that heterosexual women's genital and subjective arousal would be gender specific (more arousal towards male stimuli) during peak fertility. Twenty-two naturally-cycling heterosexual women were assessed during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle to examine the role of menstrual cycle phase in gender specificity of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Menstrual cycle phase was confirmed with salivary hormone assays; phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced. Women's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were gender nonspecific, irrespective of cycle phase. Cycle phase at first testing session did not influence genital or subjective arousal in the second testing session. Similar to previous research, women's genital and subjective sexual arousal varied with cues of sexual activity, but neither genital nor subjective sexual arousal varied by gender cues, with the exception of masturbation stimuli, where women showed higher genital arousal to the stimuli depicting male compared to female actors. These data suggest that menstrual cycle phase does not influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal. PMID:24379080
Bossio, Jennifer A; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Puts, David A; Chivers, Meredith L
The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexualmen, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.
Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael
Anal sexual intercourse represents the highest transmission risk for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),\\u000a yet much of what we know about anal sex is based on men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about heterosexual adults\\u000a who practice anal sex, especially those who may be at risk for HIV such as substance users. The present
Gladys E. IbanezSteven; Steven P. Kurtz; Hilary L. Surratt; James A. Inciardi
BACKGROUND: HIV prevention in India has mostly focussed on heterosexual transmission. Data on homosexual transmission are not readily available from India. We therefore assessed the probability of acquiring and transmitting HIV for men who sell sex to men and compared this with women who sell sex in India. METHODS: Sexual behaviour characteristics of 6661 men who have sex with men
Lalit Dandona; Rakhi Dandona; G Anil Kumar; Juan Pablo Gutierrez; Sam McPherson; Stefano M Bertozzi
Background Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective We assessed the association between dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis and change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), CD4 count, and viral load (VL). Design HIV-positive adult male subjects (n = 348) with a BMI ? 20.5 were evaluated by biochemical, body composition, and dietary data. Cluster analysis was performed on 41 designated food groups derived from 3-d food records. Dietary clusters were compared for sociodemographic, nutrient intake, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate linear regression assessed associations between dietary clusters and change in BMI, CD4 count, and VL. Results We observed 3 dietary patterns: juice and soda; fast food and fruit drinks; and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy. Subjects in the fast food and fruit drinks pattern had the lowest fiber intake, highest VL, and lowest CD4 count and had a lower income than did subjects in the other 2 clusters. Subjects in the fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy diet pattern had higher intakes of protein, fiber, and micronutrients and the highest BMI and CD4 count. Subjects in the juice and soda pattern had higher energy intakes and lowest BMI. On average, the fast food and fruit drinks cluster and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy cluster gained 0.33 (P = 0.06) and 0.42 (P = 0.02), respectively, more in BMI than the juice and soda cluster across the study interval in a multivariate model. Conclusions In a cohort of HIV-positive men, we identified 3 distinct dietary patterns; each pattern was associated with specific nutrition, demographic, and HIV-related variables.
Hendricks, Kristy M; Mwamburi, D Mkaya; Newby, PK; Wanke, Christine A
Barriers to researching links between drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV risk fall into three categories: (1) institutional barriers, (2) lack of appropriate theoretical models, and (3) stigmatization of sexual minorities. This paper reviews the status of the progress on the first two issues and presents a historical account of research on the role
This study identified demographic and behavioral correlates of engaging in unprotected anal sex (UAS) with non-main partners among men having sex with men (MSM). Just over 1,000 men completed anonymous surveys with 25% of the men reporting their most recent sexual act with a non-main male partner was UAS. These men tended to be white, older, HIV seropositive, and high
David R. Holtgrave; Richard Crosby; R. Luke Shouse
In microgravity conditions in cosmos above the Earth s surface 100 and more km man diminishes density of its bones losing Ca This phenomenon appears instantaneously after arriving man in orbit If an abrupt hundred km vertical change produces very sharp and prompt result then a smaller vertical difference in terrestrial habitation 1 to 5 km but during thousand and thousand years should have some steady and noticeable results Let us compare some characteristics of man living in two tectonic segments the higher eastern and lower western hemispheres in two tectonic sectors the lower Eurasian and higher Asian sectors in two tectonic granules of Africa Pygmy of the Congolese lowlands and Bushman of the South-African highlands Polynesians of Pacific and Indians of America the western hemisphere have on average higher the Rohrer s index the ratio of body weight to the cube of its height than population of the eastern hemisphere A calf of a Polynesian is 25 longer in circumference than that of Hottentot Hand contraction of a Polynesian on average is stronger than that of a Breton fisherman Crania of the Changos - past Indians of the Atakama desert a very low part of the American continent -- are very strong with thick-bones and with cartilage joining skull bones thickness of skull bones is also a characteristic of other Indians So if an astronaut above loses his calcium an Indian below acquires additional calcium for his bones Composition and quantity of human hairs characteristically changes from uplifted to subsided -
While fear among gay men and lesbians about being out in a masculinist environment is not surprising, this article examines what heterosexuals expect will happen when gay men and lesbians come out. We draw on a unique dataset from a police department in the southwest United States to examine the consequences anticipated by heterosexual police department employees if a gay or lesbian officer's sexual orientation became known in the workplace. We test four main sets of factors: individual-level demographic characteristics and religious background; homophobia; organizational tolerance for discrimination; and intergroup contact theory to explain how heterosexuals expect gay and lesbian coworkers to be treated. Using ordinary least squares regression, we find that characteristics of workplaces, measured by tolerance of discrimination, as well as contact with gay men and lesbians on the job are more significant predictors of anticipated outcomes than are individual-level traits and homophobic attitudes. We conclude by discussing the policy implications of our research. PMID:22966996
Objectives: To establish the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and sexual risk behaviour among three groups of men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia, and to investigate sexual links between these men and broader heterosexual populations.Methods: Anonymous, cross sectional surveys among community recruited transgender and male sex workers and self recognised men who have sex with men (MSM) were
E Pisani; P Girault; M Gultom; N Sukartini; J Kumalawati; S Jazan; E Donegan
Objective: To estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) inci- dence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in the Omega Cohort Study in Montreal, 1996- 2003. Methods: Longitudinal study of 1587 MSM seronegative at base- line with >1 six-month follow-up visit. Multivariate Cox regression with time-dependent variables was used for data analysis. Results: HIV incidence
Elaine Lavoie; Michel Alary; Robert S. Remis; Joanne Otis; Jean Vincelette; Bruno Turmel; René Lavoie; Benoît R. Mâsse; Roger Le Clerc
In this paper, we analyse the life history narratives of 10 poor gay and bisexual Black men over the age of 50 living with HIV/AIDS in New York City, focusing on experiences of stigma. Three overarching themes are identified. First, participants described the ways in which stigma marks them as just one more body within social and medical institutions, emphasising the dehumanisation they experience in these settings. Second, respondents described the process of knowing your place within social hierarchies as a means through which they are rendered tolerable. Finally, interviewees described the dynamics of stigma as all-consuming, relegating them to the quagmire of an HIV ghetto. These findings emphasise that despite advances in treatment and an aging population of persons living with HIV, entrenched social stigmas continue to endanger the well-being of Black men who have sex with men.
In this paper, we analyse the life history narratives of 10 poor gay and bisexual Black men over the age of 50 living with HIV/AIDS in New York City, focusing on experiences of stigma. Three overarching themes are identified. First, participants described the ways in which stigma marks them as 'just one more body' within social and medical institutions, emphasising the dehumanisation they experience in these settings. Second, respondents described the process of 'knowing your place' within social hierarchies as a means through which they are rendered tolerable. Finally, interviewees described the dynamics of stigma as all-consuming, relegating them to the 'quagmire of an HIV ghetto'. These findings emphasise that despite advances in treatment and an aging population of persons living with HIV, entrenched social stigmas continue to endanger the well-being of Black men who have sex with men. PMID:21229421
While research on lay perspectives of health now has a wellestablished history, specific empirical data on male lay perspectives of health and well-being are largely absent. Drawing on focus group data and in-depth interviews with 20 lay men (including sub-samples of gay men and disabled men), and seven health professionals, this article explores how the men conceptualized ‘health’ and the
Reports research on the nature of enduring sexual liaisons among homosexual men. Such relationships vary widely and may be subinstitutional adaptions to lack of community support. Gay men committed to the heterosexual world were less likely to enter enduring relationships. Open marriage is the more enduring form of gay male liaisons. (Author)
Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood. PMID:17039403
Examined data on frequency with which relationship conflict is experienced in specific content areas and relationship satisfaction for both partners of 75 gay, 51 lesbian, and 108 heterosexual couples who lived together without children. Couple scores fell into six clusters that represented areas of conflict regarding power, social issues,…
Analyzes Zalman King's 1990 film "Red Shoe Diaries." Argues that the conflicting interests of sexual desire in "Red Shoe Diaries" are indicative of the placement of female heterosexual desire within contemporary culture. Concludes that "Red Shoe Diaries" offers a narrative about the importance and construction of fantasy in the private lives of…
Based on survey data of 1000 young people aged 18-29 and semi-structured interviews with 51 young people aged 18-34 living in a north-western Italian region, the article explores how they account for their first heterosexual intercourse. Young people describe and make sense of their experiences by referring to sexual scripts; narrative sequences…
In this qualitative analysis, the author explored heterosexual women's accounts of the lived experience of sexual pain and discomfort. The author's aim was to expand theoretical and empirical knowledge in the area of female sexual dysfunction by providing a detailed description of the subjective experience of female sexual concerns. Empirical phenomenological methodology was used to analyze the data generated during
This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…
Although men often have sex when intoxicated, basic questions remain about how alcohol affects erection. It may depend on whether blood alcohol level is ascending or descending and whether the situation calls for maxi- mizing or suppressing erection. Objective. To evaluate whether descending intoxication affects erection when men are instructed to maximize or suppress arousal. Method. Seventy-eight heterosexualmen were
William H. George; Kelly Cue Davis; Trevor J. Schraufnagel; Jeanette Norris; Julia R. Heiman; Rebecca L. Schacht; Susan A. Stoner; Kelly F. Kajumulo
In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals. PMID:24377496
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna
The relationship quality of partners in 44 married, 35 heterosexual cohabiting, 50 gay, and 56 lesbian monogamous couples was studied. Each couple lived together and did not have children living with them. Relationship quality was dimensionalized as love for partner, liking of partner, and relationship satisfaction. Cohabiting partners had the lowest Love for Partner and Relationship Satisfaction scores. Differences were also found among partner types on: barriers to leaving the relationship, alternatives to the relationship, a belief that mindreading is expected in the relationship, masculinity, femininity, androgyny, dyadic attachment, shared decision making, and perceived social support from family. The four partner groups did not differ in psychological adjustment. For each type of partner, love for partner was related to many barriers to leaving the relationship and high dyadic attachment; liking of partner was related to few alternatives to the relationship, high dyadic attachment, and high shared decision making; and relationship satisfaction was related to many attractions, few alternatives, few beliefs regarding disagreement is destructive to the relationship, high dyadic attachment, and high shared decision making. Stepwise multiple regression procedures were used to identify the best set of predictors for each partner type. Results are discussed in the context of existing models of relationship quality. PMID:3783422
This is the first study on the prevalence of dating violence and threats of being forced to "come out of the closet" among Chinese gay men. Data on social demographic information and the experience of dating violence, including types of abuse, threats of "outing," and the gender of abusers were collected from 418 gay men and 330 heterosexualmen by self-administered questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U test, ?(2) test, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test group differences. Up to 32.8% of the gay men had experienced one abuse or more. Among those experiencing abuse, 83.9% of the gay men never told anyone about their abuse. The experience of any form of abuse by gay men was 5.07 times higher than the rate of abuse among heterosexualmen controlling for age in logistic regression models. In addition, 12.4% of the gay men have experienced the threat of being outed. Overall, dating violence is more prevalent in gay men than in heterosexuals. Efforts to prevent dating violence, especially among gay men, should be made in China. PMID:23515165
Although same-sex male friendships are often characterized as relatively non-disclosive, context normativeness and heterosexual self-presentation may explain variation in the attribution process affecting self-disclosure. In this study, 130 heterosexualmen completed a self-presentation scale, read scenarios depicting self-disclosure among male friends in more and less normative contexts, and rated disclosure appropriateness and likely person and situation attributions in each context.
The AIDS epidemic in Africa depends on heterosexual behavior, about which little is known. National Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) surveys are a potentially important data source but are compromised because women report less—often, much less—sexual activity than men. This imbalance is investigated using questions on the type of activity (with regular or casual partners and involving compensation) and on
Mark Gersovitz; Hanan G. Jacoby; F. Seri Dedy; A. Gozé Tapé
Anal sex is becoming increasingly prevalent among heterosexual women and men. Although pain related to receptive anal intercourse is not uncommon, little is known about its phenomenology. This article aims to assess the prevalence and correlates of pain during anoreceptive intercourse, including anodyspareunia, its most severe form, among young women. An online survey focusing on anal eroticism was carried out
This study assessed large numbers of heterosexual and homosexual men and women on handedness and gender-related personality traits. Initial analyses employed a dichotomous measure of handedness (right-handed vs. non–right-handed). For men and women combined, homosexual participants had 50% greater odds of being non–right-handed than heterosexual participants, a statistically significant difference. Homosexual men had 82% greater odds of being non–right-handed than
INTRODUCTION--Patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in general have engaged in at risk sexual behaviour. Therefore they are at increased risk of acquiring HIV through sexual contact. OBJECTIVE--To determine the HIV prevalence among patients attending a STD clinic in Amsterdam. METHODS--An anonymous cross sectional study was conducted in two 5-week periods in Spring and Autumn 1991. RESULTS--Of the 2362 patients attending the clinic during the study period, 2292 (97%) consented to participate; of these, 2138 (93%) were interviewed and anonymously tested, while 154 (7%) consented to be interviewed but refused HIV antibody testing. The HIV prevalence was 4.2% (90/2138); 93% of seropositive participants reported homosexual contacts and/or intravenous use of drugs (IVDU). HIV prevalence among heterosexual non-IVDU men was 0.5% and among non-IVDU women 0.1%. Among all heterosexually active participants, including IVDU and bisexual men, the HIV prevalence was 1.5%. The 28 of 90 HIV infected participants that were heterosexually active reported together approximately 135 heterosexual partners in the six months preceding the study; 13 of these 28 heterosexually active participants had a STD diagnosed at their present clinic visit, while four (30%) of them already knew they were HIV infected. CONCLUSIONS--From these data we conclude that there is a substantial risk of further transmission of HIV through heterosexual contact. In order to try to reduce this potential for further sexual transmission of HIV, services offered by the STD clinic should not only include voluntary confidential counselling and HIV testing, but also notification of partners of HIV infected clinic-attendants. Finally, we conclude that anonymous HIV prevalence studies that link HIV test results to risk behaviour for HIV infection can be performed with a high rate of participation. Repeating such prevalence studies in time can help in monitoring the HIV incidence in the heterosexually active population.
Fennema, J S; van Ameijden, E J; Coutinho, R A; van Doornum, G J; Henquet, C J; van den Hoek, J A
OBJECTIVES--To study risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexual behaviour. Especially to assess whether there is a higher risk of being infected with STDs among ethnic minorities, and if so for what reasons. SETTING--STD-clinic of the Municipal Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--Cross-sectional study of heterosexuals (255 men and 343 women) with multiple sexual partners, who participated
C Hooykaas; F W van der Velde; M M van der Linden; G J van Doornum; R A Coutinho
Two distinct empathic sexual responses have been mentioned anecdotally in the literature: (1) an increase in physiological sexual arousal in response to the sexual arousal of the partner (empathic turn-on) and (2) a decrease in physiological sexual arousal in response to lack of sexual arousal in the partner (empathic turn-off), but to our knowledge this is the first systematic study
R. Vernon Haning; Stephen L. OKeefe; Keith W. Beard; Elizabeth J. Randall; Martin J. Kommor; Sandra S. Stroebel
While human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with genital warts, anal cancer, and oral cancer, limited research has examined what men think causes these diseases. We sought to examine knowledge and beliefs about HPV-related disease among gay and bisexual men, who are at high risk for HPV infection and HPV-related cancers, and compare them to heterosexualmen. We conducted an online survey in January 2009 with a national sample of men aged 18–59 who self-identified as either gay or bisexual (n = 312) or heterosexual (n = 296). The response rate was 70%. Fewer than half of men knew that HPV can cause genital warts (41%), anal cancer (24%), and oral cancers (23%). However, gay and bisexual men typically knew more than heterosexualmen about these topics. Overall, most men believed that sexual behavior causes genital warts (70%) and anal cancer (54%), and tobacco use causes oral cancer (89%). Perceived causal factors differed substantially among the three diseases, while differences by sexual orientation were fewer and smaller in magnitude. Many men were unaware that HPV infection can cause genital warts, oral cancer, and anal cancer.
Ng, Terence W.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Reiter, Paul L.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of characteristics associated with unprotected heterosexual intercourse in HIV infected adults in an urban area. DESIGN: Retrospective comparison of sexual risk transmission behaviour between HIV infected men and women from a drug treatment site and between women from the drug site and HIV infected women from an urban medical centre. METHODS: HIV infected women and men were asked questions on sexual behaviour for a 1 year period before enrollment. The outcome variable was heterosexual risk behaviour (HRB) defined as having vaginal sex at least once in the previous year and not always using condoms. RESULTS: 73% of the drug clinic females, 72% of the drug clinic males, and 42% of the medical centre female engaged in HRB. Using logistic regression analysis, women and men in drug treatment engaged in similar rates of HRB; however, women in drug treatment were four times (95% CI = 2.0-8.3) more likely to engage in HRB risk behaviour than women from the medical centre. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that a surprisingly large portion of HIV infected patients under treatment engaged in HRB, especially former drug users. Without specifically targeted interventions, the heterosexual spread of HIV in urban areas will continue to be a serious problem.
Receptive anal sex is a well-studied Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) high-risk behavior among gay and bisexual men, yet\\u000a previous research indicates that more women than men may be at risk from heterosexual anal sex (HAS). 1991–1996 data from\\u000a the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Cooperative Agreement (CA) were analyzed to model risk for women who reported\\u000a having had HAS
Grace L. Reynolds; Amanda D. Latimore; Dennis G. Fisher
Although increasing numbers of gay and lesbian individuals and couples are adopting children, gay men and lesbian women continue to face increased scrutiny and legal obstacles from the child welfare system. To date, little research has compared the experiences of gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents over time, limiting conceptual understandings of the similarities they share and the unique challenges that gay and lesbian adoptive parents may face. This study compared the adoption satisfaction, depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and social support at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 parents (60 heterosexual, 15 gay, 7 lesbian) adopting children from foster care in Los Angeles County. Few differences were found between heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents at any of the assessments or in their patterns of change over time. On average, parents in both household types reported significant increases in adoption satisfaction and maintained low, nonclinical levels of depressive symptoms and parenting stress over time. Across all family types, greater parenting stress was associated with more depressive symptoms and lower adoption satisfaction. Results indicated many similarities between gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents, and highlight a need for services to support adoptive parents throughout the transition to parenthood to promote their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24826826
Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne
Heterosexual anal sex is underresearched and little understood, particularly in the African context. Existing prevalence data indicate that heterosexual anal sex is a widespread practice, yet little is known about the way in which it is conceptualized and understood. Describing findings from qualitative research conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, we shed light on conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and its relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These findings suggest that penile-anal sex is practiced by men and women in Africa for a range of reasons, including virginity maintenance, contraception, fulfillment of male pleasure, relationship security, menstruation, in the presence of vaginal complications, financial gain, fidelity, and prestige. Despite anal sex being the most efficient way to transmit HIV sexually, there is widespread lack of knowledge about its risks. These findings describe the ways in which anal sex is conceptualized in five East African communities, highlighting how penile-anal intercourse is often not considered "sex" and how the omission of anal sex in safe-sex messaging is interpreted as meaning that anal sex is safe. In light of its frequency and risks, greater attention must be paid to heterosexual anal sex in Africa to ensure a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. PMID:24611445
Heterosexual anal intercourse confers a much greater risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse, yet its contribution to heterosexual HIV epidemics has been under researched. In this article we review the current state of knowledge of heterosexual anal intercourse practice worldwide and identify the information required to assess its role in HIV transmission within heterosexual populations, including input measures required to inform mathematical models. We then discuss the evidence relating anal intercourse and HIV with sexual violence.
Holland's Self-Directed Search, a lifestyle questionnaire, and Bem Sex Role Inventory were completed by 63 gay and 60 heterosexual males. Gay men's career interests were less Realistic or Investigative and more Artistic/Social on Holland's scale; their aspirations were less traditional than heterosexuals'. Bem Femininity and Masculinity scores…
Aim: The aim and objective of this scientific research article is to explore the literature with intent to raise attention to the perfidiousness of the experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses. Methods: The article has utilized eclectic data sources in Botswana and elsewhere. Results: The findings indicate that care giving position of men has been found beset by: retrogressive gender unfriendly cultures; patriarchy; weaker gender empowerment campaigns; and inadequate male involvement in care. Conclusions: The article recommends: (1) a paradigm shift of structural gender dynamics; (2) making AIDS care programmes both gender sensitive and gender neutral; (3) Strengthening gender mainstreaming; (4) diluting cultures and patriarchy; (5) and signing and domesticating SADC gender protocol and other gender friendly international agreements by Botswana government.
Elderly men are an under-studied group of abuse victims. Although victimization surveys discriminate against all elderly, abused elderly men are especially invisible. This paper will discuss the high rates of self-abuse by older men and their high risk for abuse when they are lonely, living within inner cities, incarcerated, or gay. Since most menlive with a spouse (or significant
Partners from four types of couples without children (gay unmarried, lesbian unmarried, heterosexual unmarried, and heterosexual married, Ns=1,412, 1,310, 1,036, and 1,728, respectively) were compared to partners from heterosexual married couples with children ("N"= 3,116) on mean levels of variables from a model of relationship adjustment as well…
Background Many countries are facing concentrated HIV epidemics among vulnerable populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is the main HIV transmission route among them and its understanding in the different cultures and how it relates to HIV transmission, re-infection and development of HIV antiretroviral resistance has important public health implications. Data on UAI among Brazilian MSM are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of UAI among HIV-infected MSM who had sex with seronegative or male partners with an unknown serostatus. Method A cross-sectional study nested in a cohort was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The one hundred and fifty five MSM included in the study answered an ACASI interview and provided biological samples. Generalized linear models were used to identify variables associated with UAI. Results Overall, UAI with an HIV-negative or unknown serostatus male partner was reported by 40.6% (63/155) of MSM. Lifetime sexual abuse or domestic violence was reported by 35.9%, being more frequent among MSM who reported UAI compared to those who did not (P?=?0.001). Use of stimulants before sex was reported by 20% of the MSM, being slightly higher among those who reported UAI (27.0% vs. 15.2%; P?=?0.072). Commercial sex was frequent among all MSM (48.4%). After multivariate modeling, the report of sexual abuse or domestic violence (OR?=?2.70; 95% CI: 1.08-7.01), commercial sex (OR?=?2.28; 95% CI: 1.04- 5.10), the number of male sexual partners (p?=?0.039) and exclusively receptive anal intercourse (OR?=?0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.75) remained associated with UAI. CD4 levels, HIV viral load and antiretroviral therapy were not associated with UAI. Conclusion The UAI prevalence found with negative or unknown HIV status partners points out that other interventions are needed as additional prevention tools to vulnerable MSM. The main factors associated with UAI were a lifetime history of violence, commercial sex and the number of male sexual partners. This clustering of different behavioral, health and social problems in this population reinforce the need of a comprehensive approach on treating and preventing HIV among MSM.
Objectives To characterise the experiences of heterosexualmen and women living with HIV postdiagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Setting Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). Participants 41 HIV-infected heterosexualmen and women aged 18?years or older. Results People living with HIV have divergent experiences surrounding HIV diagnosis. Postdiagnosis, there are multiple phases of identity transition, including status (non-)disclosure, and attempts at identity repair and normalcy. For some people, this process involves a transition to a new self-identity, incorporating both HIV and antiretroviral treatment (ART) into their lives. For others, it involves a partial transition, with some aspects of their prediagnosis identity persisting, and for others it involves a rejection of HIV identity. Those people who were able to incorporate HIV/AIDS in their identity, without it being disruptive to their biography, were pursuing safer sexual and reproductive lives. By contrast, those people with a more continuous biography continued to reflect their prediagnosis identity and sexual behaviour. Conclusions People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) had to rework their sense of identity following diagnosis in the context of living in a slum setting. Men and women living with HIV in slums are poorly supported by health systems and services as they attempt to cope with a diagnosis of HIV. Given the availability of ART, health services and professionals need to support the rights of PLWHA to be sexually active if they want to and achieve their fertility goals, while minimising HIV transmission risk.
AIDS stigmas interfere with HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and can become internalized by people living with HIV\\/AIDS. However, the effects of internalized AIDS stigmas have not been investigated in Africa, home to two-thirds of the more than 40 million people living with AIDS in the world. The current study examined the prevalence of discrimination experiences and internalized stigmas among
Leickness C. Simbayi; Seth Kalichman; Anna Strebel; Allanise Cloete; Nomvo Henda; Ayanda Mqeketo
Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexualmen and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men’s involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Perez-Jimenez, David; Seal, David W.; Serrano-Garcia, Irma
The purpose of this study was to explore men's food behaviours using interviews and photographs. The research specifically looks at the importance of certain individual factors as determinants of food behaviours, namely food preferences, lifestyle, ability to cook, involvement with health and nutrition. Each man received two cameras and a guide…
Urban 6th graders (n = 294) participate in a survey assessing early heterosexual risk behaviors as part of the Reach for Health Middle Childhood Study. About half the boys (47%) and 20% of girls report having a girlfriend or boyfriend; 42% of boys and 10% of girls report kissing and hugging for a long time. Stepwise regressions model the…
This article summarizes the work of R. L. Worthington and J. J. Mohr (2002); R. L. Worthington, H. B. Savoy, F. R. Dillon, and E. R. Vernaglia (2002); and J. J. Mohr (2002) on heterosexual identity development that constituted the Major Contribution section of the July 2002 issue of The Counseling Psychologist. The author provides an overview of…
The men's movement is discussed as the reaction to condemnation of men by radical feminists. Two major trends in the men's movement, a more visible (hairy men) element that courts public exposure and an academic men's movement, are explored as reactions to social change. (SLD)
Anal sexual intercourse represents the highest transmission risk for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet much of what we know about anal sex is based on men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about heterosexual adults who practice anal sex, especially those who may be at risk for HIV such as substance users. The present study examined the demographic, sexual behaviors, substance use, and psychosocial correlates of recent anal intercourse among a heterosexual young adult sample of nightclub goers who also use substances. Data were drawn from an on-going natural history study of participants (n = 597) in Miami's club scene who use club drugs, use prescription medications for non-medical reasons, and were regular attendees of nightclubs. Participants who reported anal sex (n = 118) were more likely to be male, of moderate income, Latino, trade sex, have unprotected sex, and report victimization. Event-based and qualitative studies are needed to better understand the context in which anal sex occurs. Interventions that target heterosexual populations should include discussion about the risks of anal sex. PMID:20217224
Ibañez, Gladys E; Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Inciardi, James A
Few studies have focused on intragroup variations in sexual orientation and fewer on self-identified heterosexuals with same-sex attractions, fantasies, and/or behaviors. Self-identified heterosexual students at a large public midwestern university (N = 263) completed measures of sexuality and gender, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, religious and political beliefs, emotional well-being, and demographics. The sample included 82 individuals (31%; labeled "H+") who endorsed same-sex attraction, fantasy, and/or behavior and 181 (69%; labeled "H") who did not. Women were more likely to be categorized as H+ than men. H+ participants had more positive attitudes toward lesbians and gay and bisexual men and reported more support for LGB-positive public policies than did H participants. H+ participants reported less literalistic beliefs about religious scripture than did H participants. H and H+ groups did not differ significantly on measures of emotional well-being. Results were discussed in the context of recent literature arguing for a more nuanced and gender-differentiated approach toward assessing sexual orientation, as well as literature on the flexibility of sexual orientation and on heterosexual identity development. PMID:22476518
Studies of cumulative HIV incidence suggest that cofactors such as genital ulcer disease, HIV disease stage, and male circumcision influence HIV transmission; however, the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1 is commonly cited as a fixed value (approximately 0.001, or one transmission per 1000 contacts). We sought to estimate transmission cofactor effects on the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1 and to quantify the extent to which study methods have affected infectivity estimates. We undertook a systematic search (up to April 27, 2008) of PubMed, Web of Science, and relevant bibliographies to identify articles estimating the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1. We used meta-regression and stratified random-effects meta-analysis to assess differences in infectivity associated with cofactors and study methods. Infectivity estimates were very heterogeneous, ranging from zero transmissions after more than 100 penile-vaginal contacts in some serodiscordant couples to one transmission for every 3.1 episodes of heterosexual anal intercourse. Estimates were only weakly associated with study methods. Infectivity differences, expressed as number of transmissions per 1000 contacts, were 8.1 (95 % CI 0.4-15.8) when comparing uncircumcised to circumcised susceptible men, 6.0 (3.3-8.8) comparing susceptible individuals with and without genital ulcer disease, 1.9 (0.9-2.8) comparing late-stage to mid-stage index cases, and 2.5 (0.2-4.9) comparing early-stage to mid-stage index cases. A single value for the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1 fails to reflect the variation associated with important cofactors. The commonly cited value of 0.001 was estimated among stable couples with low prevalences of high-risk cofactors, and represents a lower bound. Cofactor effects are important to include in epidemic models, policy considerations, and prevention messages. PMID:18684670
Powers, Kimberly A; Poole, Charles; Pettifor, Audrey E; Cohen, Myron S
Substance use is prevalent among African American menliving in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR?=?5.19, p?=?.05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR?=?3.34, p?=?.04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR?=?4.06, p?=?.02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR?=?4.98, p?=?.01). African American menliving within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803
This qualitative study highlights the social dynamics affecting people living with HIV (PLH) in Hungary and in the Central-Eastern European region. The study focused on the special needs and concerns of menliving with HIV/AIDS as well as changes in their social relationships and institutional support provision, coping strategies and patterns of social functioning, especially in the context of social stigmatization. Consistent with international qualitative research findings in the field of HIV/AIDS prevention, the present study contributes to a fuller understanding of relationship between sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS related risks and risk perceptions as well as homosexuality-and HIV/AIDS stigma-related social exclusion in a previously under-researched socio-cultural setting. The findings of our study point to several barriers to effective HIV prevention, which should be overcome to improve the present situation by lessening the adverse effects of HIV/AIDS-and homosexuality-related stigma within the gay community, the general population and especially among service providers. One of the main barriers is the lack of public health programs specifically targeting MSM in Hungary, where the predominant mode of HIV transmission remains sex between men.
The present study investigated the content of 48 introductory psychology textbooks published over a five-year period (1975-1979) and recommended by publishing companies or psychology professors for use in Canadian universities. The findings indicated that for every one source of relevant information on homosexuality there were five sources of misrepresentative data that reflect a combination of misleading information, liberalism, and heterosexual bias. Textbook editors and authors have: (1) failed to address the rights and needs of gay people; (2) failed to document accurately the social changes associated with being gay; and (3) perpetuated societal stereotypes, thereby appearing to justify the prejudice and discrimination encountered by gay people in their daily lives. Guidelines for the discussion of lesbianism and male homosexuality in introductory psychology textbooks are proposed. PMID:7341666
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Although there has been much empirical research documenting current trends in club drug use among gay and bisexual men, little research has addressed the variance among lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual women. Using data collected through time-space sampling from dance clubs in New York City during 2005 (N=1104), this study explored sexual identity variance among women in the reported use of six club drugs: methamphetamine, cocaine, MDMA, ketamine, GHB, and LSD. Significant differences were found in that younger women were more likely to be active club drug users. Lesbian and bisexual women reported significantly higher lifetime rates of ecstasy, cocaine, methamphetamine, and LSD use compared to heterosexual women. These data suggest a need to better understand the influence of sexual orientation and sexual culture in relation to club drug use and to tailor health promotion efforts to meet the needs of various groups of club drug using women. PMID:16632210
Parsons, Jeffrey T; Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E
Approximately 80% of a self-selected sample of 593 heterosexual undergraduate college students studied at a large Midwestern state university in 1988 had ever experienced penile-vaginal or penile-anal intercourse. One-fifth of the 477 sexually experienced women and men said they had had heterosexual and intercourse. The mean age at first vaginal intercourse was 17, while the mean age at first anal intercourse was about 18.5. Although less than four years, on average, had elapsed since the respondents' first vaginal or anal intercourse, females reported having had an average of 5.6 sexual partners, and males reported an average of 11.2 partners. PMID:1628714
Reinisch, J M; Sanders, S A; Hill, C A; Ziemba-Davis, M
Conclusive evidence-based research has shown that circumcision reduces the risk of HIV transmission via heterosexual intercourse, whilst ongoing studies are investigating similar effects via homosexual transmissions and the results are equivocal. Few acceptability studies regarding circumcision were conducted among men who have sex with men (MSM). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 307 MSM were recruited by snowball sampling
Joseph T. F. Lau; Jun Zhang; Hongjing Yan; Chunqing Lin; Kai-Chow Choi; Zhijun Wang; Chun Hao; Xiping Huan; Haitao Yang
The miscommunication hypothesis is the assumption that many incidents of acquaintance rape and coercive sex follow from miscommunication between men and women. This hypothesis is entrenched in popular, academic, and judicial understandings of sexual relationships. Recently some evidence has suggested that there is little miscommunication between sexual partners and that the hypothesis does not explain acquaintance rape or other forms of sexual violence. The present study used qualitative methodology in which men and women were asked to imagine themselves in a particular heterosexual dating situation and write what they think happened between the beginning (when sex was refused by one partner) and the end (when sex happened). Thematic analysis of the data found no evidence for miscommunication between partners under conditions of differences in desire. Instead, ambivalence about sexual activity was commonly described by women and men and was most often resolved to both parties' satisfaction. Coercion by men was present in a minority of narratives under conditions of clear understanding of women's refusals. The study thus provides a rich, experience-based representation of heterosexual sexual activity, with considerable potential for the development of effective education campaigns. PMID:23924244
Released on September 20, this year's annual report from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) presents a very troubling account of systematic discrimination against women and girls around the world. This gender inequality, the report argues, brings with it economic and societal costs that harm both men and women. Key issues covered in the report include reproductive health care, gender-based violence and domestic abuse, women's rights to privacy, freedom from sexual violence, and voluntary choice in marriage and childbearing. At the site, vistors will find HTML and .pdf files of the report, graphs and charts of key facts and figures, a press kit with summaries and charts, and related links.
The rationale for dividing the clinical spectrum of DSM-III-R male heterosexual gender identity disorder into three types was examined. The DSM-III-R category of fetishism for female attire, was included in the analysis. There were 266 male participants divided into three groups: 172 fetishists for female attire or gender identity patients, 52 androphiles, and 42 gynephiles. A 16 item questionnaire was
Objective: The objective of this study was to address the role of heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Goal: The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence of unsafe sex and the likelihood of HIV spread heterosexually from core populations to others. Study: The authors conducted a review of behavioral studies. Results: Drug users were more likely to be involved in higher-risk sexual behaviors than were those who abstained from using drugs. Most female drug users (52-98%) reported having engaged in commercial sex. Most female sex workers (FSWs) and individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) had concurrent sexual partners. Many continued to have unprotected sex after noticing STD symptoms in themselves or their sexual partners. From 5% to 26% of rural-to-urban migrants had multiple sexual partners and 10% of males patronized FSWs during migration. Conclusions: Factors such as high rates of FSW patronage, low rates of condom use during commercial sex, having sex with both commercial and noncommercial sexual partners, and high rates of STD infection may promote a heterosexual epidemic in China.
Background Perchlorate is commonly found in the environment and known to inhibit thyroid function at high doses. Assessing the potential effect of low-level exposure to perchlorate on thyroid function is an area of ongoing research. Objectives We evaluated the potential relationship between urinary levels of perchlorate and serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in 2,299 men and women, ? 12 years of age, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2001–2002. Methods We used multiple regression models of T4 and TSH that included perchlorate and covariates known to be or likely to be associated with T4 or TSH levels: age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, estrogen use, menopausal status, pregnancy status, premenarche status, serum C-reactive protein, serum albumin, serum cotinine, hours of fasting, urinary thiocyanate, urinary nitrate, and selected medication groups. Results Perchlorate was not a significant predictor of T4 or TSH levels in men. For women overall, perchlorate was a significant predictor of both T4 and TSH. For women with urinary iodine < 100 ?g/L, perchlorate was a significant negative predictor of T4 (p < 0.0001) and a positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.001). For women with urinary iodine ? 100 ?g/L, perchlorate was a significant positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.025) but not T4 (p = 0.550). Conclusions These associations of perchlorate with T4 and TSH are coherent in direction and independent of other variables known to affect thyroid function, but are present at perchlorate exposure levels that were unanticipated based on previous studies.
Blount, Benjamin C.; Pirkle, James L.; Osterloh, John D.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Caldwell, Kathleen L.
Objectives: During the past decade, the number and proportion of reported HIV cases in the United States acquired through heterosexual contact has increased markedly. CDC employs the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) to monitor risk behaviors and HIV prevalence in high-risk populations. To identify a target population for conducting NHBS among heterosexuals at increased risk for HIV (NHBS-HET), CDC designed, implemented and evaluated a pilot study. Methods: The pilot study was conducted in 25 US metropolitan statistical areas in 2006-7. We recruited men and women who reported sex with at least one opposite-sex partner during the past year for a behavioral survey and HIV test. We investigated the relationship between newly diagnosed HIV infection and individual risk behaviors, sexual network characteristics, and social-structural characteristics to arrive at a definition of a heterosexual at increased risk of HIV. Results: Of 14,750 participants in the analysis, 207 (1.4%) had newly diagnosed HIV infection. Using low socioeconomic status (SES) as a criterion for defining a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV resulted in optimal rates of HIV prevalence, specificity, sensitivity and practicality. Conclusions: Results from the NHBS pilot study underscore the key role of social factors as determinants of HIV infection risk among U.S. heterosexuals, and low SES was incorporated into the definition of a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV in NHBS-HET cycles. Future cycles of NHBS-HET will help tailor prevention programs for those populations most at risk of HIV in the US.
DiNenno, Elizabeth A; Oster, Alexandra M; Sionean, Catlainn; Denning, Paul; Lansky, Amy
In a study of Haitians in Miami and New York, Creole-speaking interviewers questioned 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (45 men and ten women) and 242 control-persons (164 men and 78 women). One male patient was homosexual, and one female patient had received blood within five years. No one admitted to intravenous drug use, hemophilia, or sexual contact with AIDS patients. Male AIDS patients were significantly more likely than control-men to have entered the US after 1977 and to have had gonorrhea, syphilis, and sexual contact with female prostitutes. Female AIDS patients were more likely to have voodoo-priest friends and to have been offered money for sex. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was probably contracted through sexual contact with infected heterosexuals.
The objective was to examine the extent to which people living with HIV in London reported being discriminated against because of their infection. In 2004-2005, people living with HIV attending NHS outpatient HIV clinics in north east London were asked: "Have you ever been treated unfairly or differently because of your HIV status-in other words discriminated against?". Of the 1,687 people who returned a questionnaire (73% response rate), data from 1,385 respondents were included in this analysis; 448 heterosexual women and 210 heterosexualmen of black African origin, 727 gay/bisexual men (621 white, 106 ethnic minority). Overall, nearly one-third of respondents (29.9%, 414/1,385) said they had been discriminated against because of their HIV infection. Of those who reported experiencing HIV-related discrimination, almost a half (49.6%, 200/403) said this had involved a health care worker including their dentist (n = 102, 25.3%) or primary care physician (n = 70, 17.4%). PMID:18080829
Elford, Jonathan; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Bukutu, Cecilia; Anderson, Jane
The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns. PMID:23873260
BACKGROUND Men of Mexican descent (MMD) in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV. Understanding MMD’s access to HIV prevention is necessary to reduce their transmission rates. We explored disparities in access to HIV prevention among MMD of different assimilation status, healthcare access, and sexual risk behavior. METHOD 322 Midwestern MMD completed a survey assessing their access to passive interventions (e.g., lectures), interactive interventions (e.g., counseling), HIV testing, media information, and information from the Internet. RESULTS 64% MMD had received passive interventions, 36% interactive interventions, 42% HIV testing, 41% information from media, and 12% from the Internet. MMD who were less assimilated to the U.S., had lower healthcare access, and were at risk for HIV, were less likely to have accessed prevention interventions but more likely to have received media information. CONCLUSION Access to HIV prevention among Midwestern MMD is tied to their assimilation and healthcare access. Findings have implications for developing strategies of intervention delivery.
Glasman, Laura R.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Hackl, Kristin L.
Around 50 per cent of men with diabetes experience erectile dysfunction. Much of the literature focuses on quality of life measures with heterosexualmen in monogamous relationships. This study explores gay and bisexual men's experiences of sex and diabetes. Thirteen interviews were analysed and three themes identified: erectile problems; other 'physical' problems; and disclosing diabetes to sexual partners. Findings highlight a range of sexual problems experienced by non-heterosexualmen and the significance of the cultural and relational context in which they are situated. The personalized care promised by the UK government should acknowledge the diversity of sexual practices which might be affected by diabetes. PMID:21859797
Introduction: Recent research suggests that gay and bisexual men experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at rates comparable to heterosexual women. However, current screening tools used to identify persons experiencing IPV were largely created for use with heterosexual women. Given the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men in the United States, the lack of IPV screening tools that reflect the lived realities of gay and bisexual men is problematic.This paper describes the development of a short-form IPV screening tool intended to be used with gay and bisexual men. Methods: A novel definition of IPV, informed by formative Focus Group Discussions, was derived from a quantitative survey of approximately 1,100 venue-recruited gay and bisexual men. From this new definition, a draft IPV screening tool was created. After expert review (n=13) and cognitive interviews with gay and bisexual men (n=47), a screening tool of six questions was finalized.A national, online-recruited sample (n=822) was used to compare rates of IPV identified by the novel tool and current standard tools. Results: The six-item, short-form tool created through the six-stage research process captured a significantly higher prevalence of recent experience of IPV compared to a current and commonly used screening tool (30.7% versus 7.5%, p<0.05). The novel short-form tool described additional domains of IPV not currently found in screening tools, including monitoring behaviors, controlling behaviors, and HIV-related IPV. The screener takes less than five minutes to complete and is 6th grade reading level. Conclusion: Gay and bisexual men experiencing IPV must first be identified before services can reach them. Given emergent literature that demonstrates the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men and the known adverse health sequela of experiencing IPV, this novel screening tool may allow for the quick identification of men experiencing IPV and the opportunity for referrals for the synergistic management of IPV. Future work should focus on implementing this tool in primary or acute care settings in order to determine its acceptability and its feasibility of use more broadly.
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Sexual script research (Simon & Gagnon 1969 , 1986 ) bourgeoned following Simon and Gagnon's groundbreaking work. Empirical measurement of sexual script adherence has been limited, however, as no measures exist that have undergone rigorous development and validation. We conducted three studies to examine current dominant sexual scripts of heterosexual adults and to develop a measure of endorsement of these scripts. In Study 1, we conducted three focus groups of men ( n = 19) and four of women ( n = 20) to discuss the current scripts governing sexual behavior. Results supported scripts for sex drive, physical and emotional sex, sexual performance, initiation and gatekeeping, and evaluation of sexual others. In Study 2, we used these qualitative findings to develop a measure of script endorsement, the Sexual Script Scale. Factor analysis of data from 721 participants revealed six interrelated factors demonstrating initial construct validity. In Study 3, confirmatory factor analysis of a separate sample of 289 participants supported the model from Study 2, and evidence of factorial invariance and test-retest reliability was obtained. This article presents the results of these studies, documenting the process of scale development from formative research through to confirmatory testing, and suggests future directions for the continued development of sexual scripting theory. PMID:23672338
Sakaluk, John K; Todd, Leah M; Milhausen, Robin; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Undergraduate Research Group In Sexuality URGiS
Explores ways by which a heterosexual identity develops and how it is perceived to affect daily life. Essays from 26 multiethnic undergraduates reveal 6 common themes: had never thought about sexual identity; society made me heterosexual; gender determines sexual identity; issues of choice versus innateness of sexuality; no alternative to…
Little research addresses the role of anal sexuality and anal sexual behaviors as a widely practiced but relatively less frequent element of a heterosexual sexual repertoire. However, the importance of anal sex in sexual health is increasingly well-defined by epidemiological and clinical studies. This article reviews existing data on a range of heterosexual anal sex practices and provides conceptual and
Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior
In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…
The authors examined the communication of affection in men's relationships with their fathers. Drawing from Affection Exchange Theory, the authors advanced four predictions: (a) heterosexualmen receive more affection from their own fathers than do homosexual or bisexual men, (b) fathers communicate affection to their sons more through supportive activities than through direct verbal statements or nonverbal gestures, (c) affectionate
To investigate the effect of persistent HIV infection on the immune system, we studied leukocyte functions in 14 asymptomatic homosexual men (CDC group II/III) who were at least two years seropositive, but who still had normal numbers of circulating CD4+ T cells. Compared with age-matched heterosexualmen and HIV-negative homosexual men, the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from seropositive men showed decreased proliferation to anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and decreased CD4+ T-helper activity on PWM-driven differentiation of normal donor B cells. Monocytes of HIV-infected homosexual men showed decreased accessory function on normal T cell proliferation induced by CD3 monoclonal antibody. The most striking defect in leukocyte functional activities was observed in the B cells of HIV-infected men. B cells of 13 out of 14 seropositive men failed to produce Ig in response to PWM in the presence of adequate allogeneic T-helper activity. These findings suggest that HIV induces severe immunological abnormalities in T cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells early in infection before CD4+ T cell numbers start to decline. Impaired immunological function in subclinically HIV-infected patients may have clinical implications for vaccination strategies, in particular the use of live vaccines in groups with a high prevalence of HIV seropositivity.
Miedema, F; Petit, A J; Terpstra, F G; Schattenkerk, J K; de Wolf, F; Al, B J; Roos, M; Lange, J M; Danner, S A; Goudsmit, J
Most studies on men seeking men and who use the Internet for sexual purposes have focused on the epidemiological outcomes of Internet cruising. Other research has only focused on online sexual behaviours such as cybersex. The present study examines men who find the acts of Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic as self-contained behaviours. We surveyed 499 men who used craigslist.org for sexually-oriented purposes, and ran an ordinary least squares multiple regression model to determine the demographic characteristics of men seeking men who found Internet cruising erotic. Our results showed that younger compared to older men seeking men found the acts erotic. Likewise, men seeking men from mid-sized cities and large cities compared to men from smaller cities found Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic. Most notably, bisexual- and heterosexual-identifying men seeking men compared to gay-identifying men found these acts to be more erotic. Our results suggested that self-contained Internet cruising might provide dual functions. For some men (e.g., heterosexual-identifying men), the behaviour provides a sexual outlet in which fantasy and experimentation may be explored without risking stigmatization. For other men (e.g., those from large cities), the behaviour may be an alternative to offset sexual risk while still being able to ‘get off’.
Pro-feminist men's organizing makes advantaged, White, heterosexualmen central to the movement through broader, interlocking social relations. Their relationship to White feminism, taking up of gay politics, and position vis-à-vis men of colour suggest that marginalized men are included or excluded differently on functional grounds but not always consciously as the dominant group comes to see itself as benevolent, progressive,
Background The emergence of HIV as a chronic condition means that people living with HIV are required to take more responsibility for the self-management of their condition, including making physical, emotional and social adjustments. This paper describes the design and evaluation of Positive Outlook, an online program aiming to enhance the self-management skills of gay menliving with HIV. Methods/design This study is designed as a randomised controlled trial in which menliving with HIV in Australia will be assigned to either an intervention group or usual care control group. The intervention group will participate in the online group program ‘Positive Outlook’. The program is based on self-efficacy theory and uses a self-management approach to enhance skills, confidence and abilities to manage the psychosocial issues associated with HIV in daily life. Participants will access the program for a minimum of 90 minutes per week over seven weeks. Primary outcomes are domain specific self-efficacy, HIV related quality of life, and outcomes of health education. Secondary outcomes include: depression, anxiety and stress; general health and quality of life; adjustment to HIV; and social support. Data collection will take place at baseline, completion of the intervention (or eight weeks post randomisation) and at 12 week follow-up. Discussion Results of the Positive Outlook study will provide information regarding the effectiveness of online group programs improving health related outcomes for menliving with HIV. Trial registration ACTRN12612000642886.
Compared the height, weight, obesity, muscularity linearity, biacromial-bi-iliac ratio, and muscle strength of 44 homosexual and 111 heterosexualmen. Homosexuals had less subcutaneous fat and smaller muscle\\/bone development and were longer in proportion to bulk. Their shoulders were narrower in relation to pelvic width, and their muscle strength was less. Linearity and muscularity were related to childhood build and certain
Asserts that men's confusion concerning sexual harassment stems primarily from the difficulty inherent in trying to differentiate between traditional male sexual behavior and sexual harassment. Describes the "5C" model of traditional heterosexual male sexuality (control, conquest, competition, climax, and confusion). Presents approaches for…
Political upheaval and poverty at home has been forcing many Somalis to immigrate. These immigrants do not only leave their physical house, families, relatives, loved ones, friends, but also familiarities, culture, customs, and often they do end up in no man's land being between their own and new home culture. Available reports suggest that there are about 15,000 Somalis in Sweden and their majority came here from late 1989 to 1996. About one third these immigrants live in and around the city of Gothenburg. This paper explores and describes gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden. A qualitative sociological in-depth interviews with 6 women and 7 men was performed during May 1999 to January 2000. A follow up focus group interviews with 10 people (2 women and 8 men) was also carried on. The results show that both the Somali culture and Muslim religion do not support the children being taught sex education in schools or the names of the sex organs being pronounced other than to be used as metaphors. The girls, unlike their age group males, experience a very painful and terrifying process during childhood in which their self-esteem is downgraded by means of serious degrading traditional active violence such as female genital mutilation and visible virginity control. The narratives tell stories in which Somali women are degraded and expected to obey in situations characterised by their man's arbitrariness. They are subject to a very extensive form of social control, which is especially pronounced on issues regarding sexuality. Their integrity as women is, consequently set aside. When Somali refugees came to Sweden some of them came to adopt much of the modern lifestyle and cultural norm systems, preferable young people and some of the females. Relating to a new culture with its new expectations on the norm obedience also created changes in self-esteem. Exile situation tends to generate horizontal conflicts, among spouses and between groups of people. It also tends to generate vertical conflicts because now generations stand up against each other and this is especially pronounced when it is about issues of sexuality and sexual relations. The young generations questions their parents authority. They are now living in new social context and perceive risks, as well as possibilities. Their new dreams and choices, however, do not fit their parents' expectations, which sometimes leads to big problems. From a traditional perspective these deviants lack of respect for traditions and the original culture. From a male perspective this means more specifically a lack of respect for male dominance and superiority. PMID:15554519
The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency to which heterosexual women engage in a range of sexual activities, such as sexual fantasizing and engaging in cybersex, and to examine women's level of satisfaction with their sex lives. In addition, we explored the role of age in women's sexual activities and satisfaction levels. A total of 4,470 heterosexual
Women who associate with gay men are often portrayed as physically unattractive and lacking in both self-confidence and attention from straight men. However, many women report enhanced self-esteem and feelings of attractiveness as a result of attention from their gay friends. It is well established that body esteem can be negatively impacted by certain peer processes, yet there is a dearth of quantitative research on positive peer influences on women's body esteem. We tested two hypotheses: (a) women with gay male friends have poor body esteem and are rejected by heterosexualmen, and (b) more contact with gay men is positively related to body esteem. Participants were 154 heterosexual women, who completed measures of their friendships with gay men, straight men and women, body esteem, relationship involvement and break-ups. Results supported the hypothesis that women's body esteem, specifically feelings of sexual attractiveness, is positively associated with friendships with gay men. PMID:19447691
Bartlett, Nancy H; Patterson, Heather M; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L
In the New York metropolitan area, a convenience sample of 187 men previously treated in substance abuse programs between 2000 and 2006 completed questionnaires regarding their reported outcomes, completion rates, and perceptions of treatment. The sample included 81 gay and bisexual ("gay/bisexual") men in "traditional" programs (with no specialized groups for gay/bisexual clients), 51 gay/bisexual men in "LGBT specialized treatment" (programs with specialized groups for gay/bisexual clients), and 55 heterosexualmen. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, heterosexualmen and gay/bisexual men in LGBT specialized treatment had more favorable results than did gay/bisexual men in traditional programs, suggesting the effectiveness of LGBT program components. PMID:20441452
The essay explores interrelations between Lesbian Theory and Queer Straight Theory. It provides a brief genealogy and an interrogation of the "discourse of queer heterosexuality." I argue that Queer Straight Theory is certainly indebted to lesbian (and) feminist critiques of institutional heterosexuality and their denaturalizations of straight and lesbian sexualities. Lesbian and Queer Straight Theories remain in disagreement, however, about notions of power and identity that shape their theoretical and political stances. PMID:17954455
The etiology of anomalous, or paraphilic, sexual preferences in men is unclear although a growing literature points to their\\u000a prenatal neurodevelopmental ontogenesis. The present study explored whether this was also apparent in a community sample of\\u000a 200 heterosexualmen by examining their sexual fantasies using the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire (WSFQ) and several demographic\\u000a and somatic neurodevelopmental markers, including sibling
The influences that home, family, and education have on Irish men's experiences of working life are explored based on interviews and questionnaire research carried out in North Dublin during 1997 and 1998. A two-stage research design was adopted. The first stage involved a short attitudinal-type questionnaire given to men at a sporting club. The…
Nutrient adequacy in the diet is of paramount importance to physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to characterize the dietary pattern associated with a low energy density diet and determine its nutrient adequacy in elderly men and women. The subjects were men (n ¼ 1150) and women (n ¼ 1094) .65 y, examined in 2 population-based
Helmut Schroder; Joan Vila; Jaume Marrugat; Maria-Isabel Covas; CIBER de Epidemiologia
BackgroundCircumcision reduces HIV acquisition among heterosexualmen in Africa, but it is unclear if circumcision may reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, or whether MSM would be willing to be circumcised if recommended.MethodsWe interviewed presumed-HIV negative MSM at gay pride events in 2006. We asked uncircumcised respondents about willingness to be
Elin B. Begley; Krishna Jafa; Andrew C. Voetsch; James D. Heffelfinger; Craig B. Borkowf; Patrick S. Sullivan; Landon Myer
... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...
The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21796485
Gendered-based power affects heterosexual relationships, with beliefs in the U.S. prescribing that men dominate women sexually. We draw on social dominance theory to examine whether women’s and men’s level of support for group-based hierarchy (i.e., social dominance orientation; SDO) helps explain gender-based power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. We conducted a laboratory study at a Northeastern U.S. university among 357 women and 126 men undergraduates who reported being heterosexual and sexually active, testing three sets of hypotheses. First, as hypothesized, women endorsed SDO and the belief that men should dominate sexually less than men did. Second, as hypothesized, among women and men, SDO was positively correlated with the belief that men should dominate sexually, and negatively correlated with sexual self-efficacy (confidence in sexual situations) and number of female condoms (a woman-controlled source of protection) taken. Third, structural equation modeling, controlling for age, family income, number of sexual partners in the past month, and perceived HIV/AIDS risk, supported the hypothesis that among women and men, the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO’s association with sexual self-efficacy. The hypothesis that the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO’s association with number of female condoms taken was supported for women only. The hypothesis that sexual self-efficacy mediates SDO’s association with number of female condoms taken was not supported. Results suggest SDO influences power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. Although female condoms are an important woman-controlled source of protection, power-related beliefs may pose a challenge to their use.
Although links between partner abuse (PA) and substance abuse (SA) are well-documented in the literature, we know less about these relations among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted a qualitative study with this group (N = 28). Participants reported (1) social modeling of SA in childhood and in adult social networks, (2) initial use of substance to cope with child abuse and neglect, and (3) the reinforcement of problematic SA by experiences of PA, whereby SA led to PA, resulting in increased SA. Recommendations for clinicians working with HIV+ MSM are discussed.
Andrasik, Michele P.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Pantalone, David W.
Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29-39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10-1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52-2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexualmen who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between 2 gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexualmen who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement.
Objectives: To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods: In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men…
Introduction Research shows that condoms are least likely to be used in primary relationships. A deeper understanding of the expectations women and men hold when entering into these relationships, as well as how decisions related to condom use and other prevention behaviors are made, is essential if we are to curb the spread of HIV. Methodology Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 high-risk heterosexual couples, including HIV sero-discordant couples, in Hartford, CT. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed in an iterative inductive and deductive process using Atlas.ti. Results Participants employed non-use of condoms as a strategy to find and maintain a primary relationship, establish trust and increase intimacy. Many did so while recognizing their risk of HIV/STI illustrating the importance of love and the other emotional needs primary relationships satisfy. Second, several couples described practicing negotiated safety or similar strategies as a way to minimize their HIV/STI risk. These strategies varied in potential effectiveness and included sharing sexual and/or drug use history, disclosure of prior HIV test results, and using condoms until it was decided that this was a monogamous relationship, among others. Discussion Findings suggest that men and women may choose not to use condoms as they pursue and attempt to maintain a primary relationship. HIV prevention approaches must recognize the importance of love and the needs primary relationships satisfy if they are to be considered relevant by those at greatest risk. Negotiated safety may be an important risk reduction tool for heterosexuals, particularly those in HIV-affected relationships.
Corbett, A. Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Weeks, Margaret R.
This paper presents the State Department's Interagency Working Group (IWG) model for the spread of HIV. The model is fully operational for Pattern 2 (heterosexual & blood transmission) and Pattern 3 (heterosexual, homosexual, and IV drug transmission) cou...
E. A. Stanley S. T. Seitz P. O. Way P. D. Johnson T. F. Curry
Men's experiences of sexual coercion is seldom the subject of research, yet it is commonly reported in all settings and increasingly evidence from South Africa points to the health risks associated with sexual coercion of men by men. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with heterosexualmen aged 18-25 years who were volunteers in a HIV prevention behavioural intervention evaluation in the Eastern Cape. Men chosen included some who had reported coercion by men and women in their baseline structure interviews and some who had not. Sexual coercion by men involved abuse of trust and age-related power, temptation through material goods, as well as use of aggression. The narratives were notable for the anger that was caused by these assaults. In contrast, coercion by women was framed as ‘temptation’. In some cases young men were tempted by much older women and those in a position of trust and the experience did not make them feel good. There are very substantial differences in the circumstances of coercion of young men by men and women. This needs to be taken into account in the growing trend to research coercion of men and present findings in a way that equates these two experiences.
Men's experience of sexual coercion is seldom the subject of research, yet it is commonly reported in all settings and increasingly evidence from South Africa points to the health risks associated with sexual coercion of men by men. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with heterosexualmen aged 18-25 years who were volunteers in an HIV prevention behavioural intervention evaluation in the Eastern Cape. Men chosen included some who had reported coercion by men and women in their baseline structure interviews and some who had not. Sexual coercion by men involved abuse of trust and age-related power, temptation through material goods, as well as use of aggression. The narratives were notable for the anger that was caused by these assaults. In contrast, coercion by women was framed as 'temptation'. In some cases young men were tempted by much older women and those in a position of trust and the experience did not make them feel good. There are very substantial differences in the circumstances of coercion of young men by men and women. This needs to be taken into account in the growing trend to research coercion of men and present findings in a way that equates these two experiences. PMID:19499390
Background HIV prevention efforts have given limited attention to the relational schemas and scripts of adult heterosexual women. These broader schemas and scripts of romantic and other sexual liaisons, partner selection, relationship dynamics, and power negotiations may help to better understand facilitators and barriers to HIV risk-reduction practices. Methods We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 60 HIV-uninfected heterosexual African-American women from rural counties in North Carolina and Alabama, and Hispanic women from an urban county in southern Florida. Data were collected for relationship expectations; relationship experiences, and relationship power and decision-making. Interview transcripts underwent computer-assisted thematic analysis. Results Participants had a median age of 34 years (range 18–59), 34% were married or living as married, 39% earned an annual income of $12,000 or less, 12% held less than a high school education, and 54% were employed. Among the Hispanic women, 95% were foreign born. We identified two overarching relationship themes: contradictions between relationship expectations and desires and life circumstances that negated such ideals, and relationship challenges. Within the contradictions theme, we discovered six subthemes: a good man is hard to find; sex can be currency used to secure desired outcomes; compromises and allowances for cheating, irresponsible, and disrespectful behavior; redefining dating; sex just happens; needing relationship validation. The challenges theme centered on two subthemes: uncertainties and miscommunication, and relationship power negotiation. Gender differences in relationship intentions and desires as well as communication styles, the importance of emotional and financial support, and the potential for relationships to provide disappointment were present in all subthemes. In examining HIV risk perceptions, participants largely held that risk for HIV-infection and the need to take precautions were problems of women who differed from them (i.e., abuse drugs, are promiscuous, exchange sex). Conclusion Underlying women’s relational schemas was a belief that relationship priorities differed for men and women. Consequently, expectations and allowances for partner infidelity and negligent behaviors were incorporated into their scripts. Moreover, scripts endorsed women’s use of sex as currency in relationship formation and endurance, and did not emphasize HIV risk. Both couple- and gender-specific group-level interventions are needed to deconstruct (breakdown) and reconstruct (rewrite) relationship scripts.
BACKGROUND: HIV prevention efforts have given limited attention to the relational schemas and scripts of adult heterosexual women. These broader schemas and scripts of romantic and other sexual liaisons, partner selection, relationship dynamics, and power negotiations may help to better understand facilitators and barriers to HIV risk-reduction practices. METHODS: We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 60 HIV-uninfected heterosexual African-American women from rural counties in North Carolina and Alabama, and Hispanic women from an urban county in southern Florida. Data were collected for relationship expectations; relationship experiences, and relationship power and decision-making. Interview transcripts underwent computer-assisted thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants had a median age of 34 years (range 18--59), 34% were married or living as married, 39% earned an annual income of $12,000 or less, 12% held less than a high school education, and 54% were employed. Among the Hispanic women, 95% were foreign born. We identified two overarching relationship themes: contradictions between relationship expectations and desires and life circumstances that negated such ideals, and relationship challenges. Within the contradictions theme, we discovered six subthemes: a good man is hard to find; sex can be currency used to secure desired outcomes; compromises and allowances for cheating, irresponsible, and disrespectful behavior; redefining dating; sex just happens; needing relationship validation. The challenges theme centered on two subthemes: uncertainties and miscommunication, and relationship power negotiation. Gender differences in relationship intentions and desires as well as communication styles, the importance of emotional and financial support, and the potential for relationships to provide disappointment were present in all subthemes. In examining HIV risk perceptions, participants largely held that risk for HIV-infection and the need to take precautions were problems of women who differed from them (i.e., abuse drugs, are promiscuous, exchange sex). CONCLUSION: Underlying women's relational schemas was a belief that relationship priorities differed for men and women. Consequently, expectations and allowances for partner infidelity and negligent behaviors were incorporated into their scripts. Moreover, scripts endorsed women's use of sex as currency in relationship formation and endurance, and did not emphasize HIV risk. Both couple- and gender-specific group-level interventions are needed to deconstruct (breakdown) and reconstruct (rewrite) relationship scripts. PMID:23705954
McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Toledo, Lauren; O Daniels, Christine; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Simpson, Cathy; Adimora, Ada A; Marks, Gary
We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…
The objectives of this research were to explore patterns of heterosexual activity in early adolescence and to examine the differential pathways to light and heavy heterosexuality. We utilized the National Longitudinal Survey of Canadian Children and Youth (NLSCY) in which heterosexual behaviors, as well as puberty, parenting processes, peer…
Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Cribbie, Robert
This article explores performances of heterosexuality amongst single, straight British expatriates resident in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. I draw on eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork, involving participant-observation and interviewing. Specifically, I focus on performances of transient heterosexuality, by which I mean performances of heterosexuality that are characterised by frequent sexual encounters with successive partners and which are enacted in relation
This study aimed to assess the relative importance of demographic, interpersonal, and personality factors in predicting sexual infidelity in heterosexual couples. A total of 506 men (M age = 32.86 years, SD = 10.60) and 412 women (M age = 27.66 years, SD = 8.93), who indicated they were in a monogamous sexual relationship, completed a series of questionnaires, including the Sexual Excitation/Inhibition (SES/SIS) scales and the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire, and answered questions about, among others, religiosity, education, income, relationship and sexual satisfaction, and sexual compatibility. Almost one-quarter of men (23.2%) and 19.2% of women indicated that they had "cheated" during their current relationship (i.e., engaged in sexual interactions with someone other than their partner that could jeopardize, or hurt, their relationship). Among men, a logistic regression analysis, explaining 17% of the variance, revealed that a higher propensity of sexual excitation (SES) and sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance concerns" (SIS1), a lower propensity for sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance consequences" (SIS2), and an increased tendency to engage in regretful sexual behavior during negative affective states were all significant predictors of infidelity. In women, a similar regression analysis explained 21% of the variance in engaging in infidelity. In addition to SIS1 and SIS2, for which the same patterns were found as for men, low relationship happiness and low compatibility in terms of sexual attitudes and values were predictive of infidelity. The findings of this study suggest that, for both men and women, sexual personality characteristics and, for women, relationship factors are more relevant to the prediction of sexual infidelity than demographic variables such as marital status and religiosity. PMID:21667234
Mark, Kristen P; Janssen, Erick; Milhausen, Robin R
Identifies possible predictors of psychological abuse in nonmarital heterosexual romantic relationships. Responses from 175 undergraduate women reveal 11% claiming psychological abuse as well as more instances of partner behaviors characteristic of psychological abuse. Abused individuals were more likely to have lower self-esteem, had parents'…
This study identifies the predictors of U.S. heterosexual undergraduate and graduate college students' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a group rather than toward individual identities. Findings suggest that affirming LGBT attitudes are most strongly associated with liberal political ideology and whether…
Woodford, Michael R.; Silverschanz, Perry; Swank, Eric; Scherrer, Kristin S.; Raiz, Lisa
Young, African American and Latino gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately represented among new HIV cases according to the most recent national surveillance statistics. Analysts have noted that these racial/ethnic disparities in HIV among MSM exist within the wider context of sexual, mental and physical health disparities between MSM and heterosexuals. The intercorrelation of these adverse health outcomes among MSM, termed syndemics, has been theorized to be socially produced by a heterosexist social system that marginalizes lesbian, gay, bisexual, MSM and other sexual minorities. African American and Latino MSM experience overlapping systems of oppression that may increase their risk of experiencing syndemic health outcomes. In this paper, using data from twenty in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM living in four New York City (NYC) neighborhoods, we present accounts of neighborhood space, examining how space can both physically constitute and reinforce social systems of stratification and oppression, which in turn produce social disparities in sexual health outcomes. By analyzing accounts of emerging sexuality in neighborhood space, i.e. across time and space, we identify pathways to risk and contribute to our understanding of how neighborhood space is experienced by gay men, adding to our ability to support young men as they emerge in place and to shape the social topography of urban areas. PMID:24581056
Frye, Victoria; Egan, James E; Van Tieu, Hong; Cerdá, Magdalena; Ompad, Danielle; Koblin, Beryl A
Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexualmen were more likely to be later-born than heterosexualmen, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality. PMID:24045903
In a homosexual communication centre in Antwerp 196 homosexual men were screened for seromarkers of syphilis, hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). A comparison group consisted of 118 heterosexualmen attending a venereal disease clinic in Antwerp. Treponemal antibodies were found in 7.1% of homosexual men, of whom half gave no history of past or present infection. Anti HAV was present in 43.3%, HBV seromarkers in 34.4%, and CMV antibodies in 71.2% of homosexual men. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected in eight homosexual men, but not in the heterosexual control group. Prevalence rates of infections other than HAV were significantly higher in homosexual men than in heterosexualmen. Answers to a questionnaire were used to evaluate risk factors for different diseases, which were: duration of active homosexuality for all infections, promiscuity (greater than or equal to 10 partners in the past six months) for syphilis and hepatitis B, and anal intercourse for hepatitis B. Visiting saunas and travelling for sexual contacts also indicated a higher risk for STD, but were an indirect expression of promiscuity. PMID:6320948
Coester, C H; Avonts, D; Colaert, J; Desmyter, J; Piot, P
In a homosexual communication centre in Antwerp 196 homosexual men were screened for seromarkers of syphilis, hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). A comparison group consisted of 118 heterosexualmen attending a venereal disease clinic in Antwerp. Treponemal antibodies were found in 7.1% of homosexual men, of whom half gave no history of past or present infection. Anti HAV was present in 43.3%, HBV seromarkers in 34.4%, and CMV antibodies in 71.2% of homosexual men. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected in eight homosexual men, but not in the heterosexual control group. Prevalence rates of infections other than HAV were significantly higher in homosexual men than in heterosexualmen. Answers to a questionnaire were used to evaluate risk factors for different diseases, which were: duration of active homosexuality for all infections, promiscuity (greater than or equal to 10 partners in the past six months) for syphilis and hepatitis B, and anal intercourse for hepatitis B. Visiting saunas and travelling for sexual contacts also indicated a higher risk for STD, but were an indirect expression of promiscuity.
Coester, C H; Avonts, D; Colaert, J; Desmyter, J; Piot, P
South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol's role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n = 1,137) and women (n = 458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women's alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates. PMID:24806889
Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria N; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C
The present study measured handedness and bodily fluctuating asymmetry (FA), two markers of developmental instability, in\\u000a 89 heterosexual and 78 gay men and women. Asymmetry in ear breadth, ear length, ankle breadth, second digit length, fourth\\u000a digit length, and two composite indices were calculated for each participant and a modified Edinburgh Inventory was used to\\u000a assess handedness. Results showed that,
Stacie S. Miller; Heather L. Hoffmann; Brian S. Mustanski
This community-based, qualitative study explored social capital resources and their influences upon HIV risk behaviors in a sample of 17 heterosexual Asian Indian immigrant men residing in New York City. Our study defined social capital as the resources available to individuals and society through social relationships. At the family, peer, and…
Research on fear of crime has evolved to suggest the existence of a complex relationship between individual, lifestyle, and contextual factors. Past work generally focuses on predominantly heterosexual populations; this study examines correlates of fear of crime and perceptions of risk among a sample of 272 self-identified lesbians and gay men.…
Contingent negative variation and evoked potentials to visual erotic stimuli were recorded from 8 brain sites in a sample of 62 right-handed men aged 20–50, half of whom declared paraphilic interests and half claimed “normal” heterosexual interests. To quantify erotic preferences, a “variance quotient” (VQ) was calculated from scores on the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire using the formula VQ =
Rogeria Waismann; Peter B. C. Fenwick; Glenn D. Wilson; Terry D. Hewett; John Lumsden
A comprehensive self-administered life event inventory examining both general life stress and stress from events specific to the homosexual and bisexual male population was developed in order to assess the impact of AIDS and HIV infection on homo- and bisexual men. Ranking of questions revealed that while general stressors affected homosexuals similarly to heterosexuals, there were critical stressors affecting homosexuals
Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population. PMID:24807702
Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T
Robert L. Spitzer, MD, recently published a report, “Can Some Gay Men and Lesbians Change Their Sexual Orientation?: 200 Subjects Reporting a Change from Homosexual to Heterosexual Orientation.” He recruited men and women who reported to once have had a predominantly homosexual orientation–which they felt conflicted about–and who claimed, due to some kind of “therapy,” to have sustained some change
The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and types of negative behaviors directed toward gay men on university campuses and to understand heterosexualmen's and women's motivations for engaging in antigay discrimination. Using a mixed methods approach, results from a quantitative survey (N = 286) indicated that students primarily…
When men enter prison the lives of their partners change. This paper looks at men's prison sentences from the viewpoint of prisoners' partners. It examines the financial circumstances women find themselves in as the result of men's prison sentences as well as the social and personal consequences. It outlines the survival strategies women develop in the face of their difficulties
This study was designed to identify possible predictors of psychological abuse in non-marital heterosexual romantic relationships. In attempting to predict who would self-identify as being psychologically abused, we investigated a number of variables including psychological abuse in past close relationships, psychological abuse within the family of origin, self-esteem, and characteristics of the current relationship, including seriousness and duration of the
This article explores the social conditions that enable heterosexually-identified men to turn in credible sexual performances in gay pornographic videos. These men are widely known in the porn industry and among spectators as gay-for-pay. Drawing on John Gagnon and William Simon's theory of sexual scripts, this article shows that performers adopt a “persona” as a career script that functions as
A clear understanding of local transmission dynamics is a prerequisite for the design and implementation of successful HIV prevention programs. There is a tremendous need for such programs geared towards young African-American women living in American cities with syndemic HIV and injection drug use. In some of these American cities, including Baltimore, the HIV prevalence rate among young African-American women is comparable to that in some African nations. High-risk heterosexual sex, i.e., sex with an injection drug user or sex with someone known to have HIV, is the leading risk factor for these young women. Characterizing transmission dynamics among heterosexuals has been hampered by difficulty in identifying HIV cases in these settings. The case identification method described in this paper was designed to address challenges encountered by previous researchers, was based on the Priorities for Local AIDS Cases methodology, and was intended to identify a high number of HIV cases rather than achieve a representative sample (Weir et al., Sex Transm Infect 80(Suppl 2):ii63-8, 2004. Through a three-phase process, 87 venues characterized as heterosexual sex partner meeting sites were selected for participant recruitment in Baltimore, MD. One thousand six hundred forty-one participants were then recruited at these 87 venues, administered a behavioral risk questionnaire, and tested for HIV. The HIV prevalence was 3 % overall, 3 % among males, and 4 % among females and ranged from 1.7 to 22.6 % among high-HIV-risk subgroups. These findings indicate that attributing HIV transmission to high-risk heterosexual sex vs. other high-HIV-risk behaviors would be difficult. Moving beyond individual risk profiles to characterize the risk profile of venues visited by heterosexuals at high risk of HIV acquisition may reveal targets for HIV transmission prevention and should be the focus of future investigations. PMID:23135804
Polk, Sarah; Ellen, Jonathan M; Fichtenberg, Caroline; Huettner, Steven; Jennings, Jacky M
Despite widespread intervention efforts to curtail the spread of HIV, heterosexual transmission of HIV continues to drive the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States, especially among women. Research has shown that knowledge about HIV and AIDS is relatively great, even among persons who engage in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. This begs the question: What characteristics underlie and are predictive of involvement in unprotected sex? The objective of this paper is to examine the factors that are associated with engaging in unprotected sex in a population of urban, at-risk, heterosexually-active women. Conceptually, the research is guided by the notion of understanding risk and, theoretically, by the Theory of Gender and Power. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with 178 sexually active adult at-risk heterosexual women in Atlanta, Georgia. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, and ethnographic mapping and targeted sampling procedures guided the recruitment process. Using a multivariate path analysis approach, three factors–marital status, having two drug-abusing parents, and negative attitudes toward condom use–were identified as predictors of unsafe sex. Further exploration of the latter measure yielded two factors that were statistically-significant multivariate predictors of attitudes toward using condoms: age and self-esteem level. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the fit of a risk-prediction model containing all of these measures, and it was shown to be supported quite strongly by the data.
Given the historical emergence of the AIDS epidemic first among gay men in the developed world, HIV interventions have primarily focused on individuals rather than families. Typically not part of traditional family structures, HIV-positive gay men in Europe and the US lived primarily in societies providing essential infrastructure for survival needs that highly value individual justice and freedom. Interventions were
M. J. Rotheram-Borus; D. Flannery; E. Rice; P. Lester
The current studies investigate the effects of homophobic labels on the self-perception of heterosexual males, hypothesizing that when exposed to homophobic epithets, they are motivated to underline their masculinity and claim a distinctly heterosexual identity by taking distance from homosexuals and, to a lesser degree, from women. Heterosexual male participants were subliminally (Study 1) and supraliminally (Study 2) primed either by a homophobic epithet or by a category label, and completed the Traditional Beliefs About Gender and Gender Identity scale. Participants stressed their heterosexual identity, but not their gender distinctiveness, when exposed to homophobic epithets, compared to category labels. Study 2 demonstrated that the relation between the homophobic label and the participants' heterosexual identity was mediated by how negatively they reacted to the antigay label. Heterosexual identity was enhanced in reaction to homophobic labels but not to an equally derogatory label referring to regional identity. Results are discussed within an intergroup framework. PMID:21975948
Objective Although early surveys of psychological adjustment among gay men and lesbians suggest only minor and not clinically relevant differences from heterosexual populations, concerns about psychiatric morbidity associated with HIV infection have renewed interest in the prevalence of psychological distress in this population, particularly among gay men. These later studies have focused primarily on white men. However, research indicates higher crude prevalence rates of psychological distress in community-drawn samples of African American subjects than in white subjects and also higher rates in women than in men. The authors examined rates of depressive distress and suicidal thoughts among homosexually active African American men and women who might be especially at risk for psychiatric morbidity due to multiple stigmatized social statuses. Method Two nationally recruited groups of homosexually active African Americans (829 men and 603 women) completed self-administered questionnaires, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results Homosexually active black women were as distressed as HIV-infected gay black men. Men with symptomatic HIV disease were significantly more distressed than men who were HIV infected but asymptomatic, HIV-antibody negative, or whose HIV status was unknown. Both men and women reported distress levels in excess of those previously reported in studies of blacks or primarily white gay men. Conclusions Further research is needed to identify specific predictors of life stressors and lack of social support among homosexually active African Americans who appear to be at higher risk for depressive distress.
This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexualmen on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexualmen to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:23415890
Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives. PMID:23919322
Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael
The current study compared the peer relationships and well-being of 60 sexual-minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) and 65 heterosexual youths between the ages of 15 and 23. Sexual-minority youths had comparable self-esteem, mastery, and perceived stress as did heterosexuals, but greater negative affect. Younger sexual-minority male adolescents had smaller overall peer networks than did young male heterosexuals, whereas older male and fe-
This study compared gender identity, anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement, and psychosocial adjustment of\\u000a children in lesbian and heterosexual families; it was furthermore assessed whether associations between these aspects differed\\u000a between family types. Data were obtained in the Netherlands from children in 63 lesbian families and 68 heterosexual families.\\u000a All children were between 8 and 12 years old. Children in lesbian
Contemporary scholars are calling on men to rethink "the male deal." As Samuels describes it, "In the male deal, the little boy, at around the age of 3 or 4. strikes a bargain with the social world in which he lives. If he will turn away from soft things, feminine things, maternal things...then the world will reward his gender certainty by giving him all the goodies in its possession." But the "deal" can have damaging effects, as shown in the studies reviewed in this article. Clinicians can help men to rethink the restrictions of the "male deal" so that they may experience the freedom of a wider emotional repertoire and move toward greater joy and wholeness. PMID:15159178
Background In 2001, the criteria for blood donor eligibility in Italy were modified by a ministerial decree from a permanent deferral for "men who have sex with men" to an individual risk assessment of sexual behaviours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this change in donor screening criteria on the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic among blood donors in Italy. Materials and methods We used the data obtained from the Italian blood donor epidemiological surveillance system. We compared data collected in 2009 and 2010, when the individual risk assessment policy was applied, with data collected in 1999 when permanent deferral was applied for men who have sex with men based on a declaration of sexual orientation. We evaluated the change over time in the relative proportion of HIV antibody-positive donors who likely acquired the infection from men who have sex with men vs heterosexual sexual exposure; the relative risk was calculated using 1999 as the reference year. Results In all 3 years, the majority of HIV antibody-positive donors reported sexual exposure as a risk factor for HIV infection; this proportion increased over time, although not statistically significantly. Heterosexuals always accounted for at least 40% of all HIV antibody-positive cases. The rate of HIV antibody-positive donors increased similarly in men who have sex with men and heterosexuals; specifically, the rate of HIV antibody-positive cases per 100,000 donors was more than 2-fold higher among men who have sex with men in 2009–2010 than in 1999 (2009–2010 vs 1999, RR =2.8; P =0.06), and that among heterosexuals was 1.5 fold higher (P =0.18). Discussion When comparing the period before (1999) and after (2009–2010), the implementation of the individual risk assesment policy in 2001, no significant increase in the proportion of men who have sex with men compared to heterosexuals was observed among HIV antibody-positive blood donors, suggesting that the change in donor deferral policy did not lead to a disproportionate increase of HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men.
Although phallometric assessment is the best scientific method for measuring male sexual interest, it is intrusive and highly technical. We examined viewing time as an unobtrusive and technically simple measure of sexual preference and compared the discrimination obtained by viewing time measures with that obtained by phallometric measures. Slides of nude males and females of various ages were shown to
Grant T. Harris; Marnie E. Rice; Vernon L. Quinsey; Terry C. Chaplin
HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…
Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett
We used a treatment group-only design to pilot test a newly developed intervention to increase condom use among higher risk heterosexually active African American/black male college students. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention called Brothers Leading Healthy Lives. Following an initial screening of 245 men, 81 eligible men were contacted for participation. Of the 64 men who agreed to participate, 57 completed the intervention and 54 of those completed the 3-month follow-up assessment, for a 93% completion rate. Results show significant changes between the baseline and 3-month follow-up assessments in behavioral outcomes, including reductions in unprotected sex, increase in protection during last intercourse, and fewer condom use errors. Most potential mediators (knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and condom use self-efficacy) also changed significantly in the expected direction. These demonstrated changes provide good evidence that men exposed to this intervention will see changes that reduce their risk for HIV. PMID:24059876
Aronson, Robert E; Rulison, Kelly L; Graham, Louis F; Pulliam, Regina McCoy; McGee, Warner L; Labban, Jeffrey D; Dingman, Deirdre; Rhodes, Scott D
Limited research exists regarding community involvement and social support among behaviourally bisexual men. Previous studies suggest that bisexual men experience high levels of social stigma in both heterosexual and homosexual community settings. Research focusing on social support has demonstrated that individuals with limited access to similar individuals experience greater risk for negative health outcomes. Using a community-based research design, participants were recruited using multiple methods in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 75 men who reported having engaged in bisexual behaviour within the past six months. Interviews elucidated the experiences of behaviourally bisexual men in heterosexual and homosexual settings, as well as their perceptions of the existence of a bisexual community or bisexual spaces. All participants perceived a lack of a visible bisexual community and expressed difficulty with being comfortable, or feeling belonging, within a variety of heterosexual and homosexual community spaces. Findings suggest the need for interventions focused on community building among, as well as creating spaces specifically designed for, bisexual men in order to increase perceived social support and decrease isolation and possible negative health outcomes.
Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Nix, Ryan; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Murray, Maresa; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
The background to this article is the medical regulation of sperm donation in the UK and the recent policy change so that children born from sperm, eggs or embryos donated after April 2005 have the right to know their donor's identity. I draw upon data from interviews with ten women and seven joint interviews with couples who received donor insemination from an anonymous sperm donor and were the parents of donor insemination children. I explore the symbolic presence of the donor and his potential to disrupt social and physical boundaries using the theoretical conceptions of boundaries and pollution as articulated by Mary Douglas and Julia Kristeva. I present data to argue that the anonymous donor manifests in various figures; the shadowy and ambiguous figure of 'another man'; the intelligent medical student; the donor as a family man, with children of his own who wants to help infertile men father children. In addition participants perceive the donor's physical characteristics, but also see their husband's physical characteristics, in their children. In conclusion I argue that anonymisation preserves features of conventional family life, maintains the idea of exclusivity within the heterosexual relationship and affirms the legal father's insecurity about his infertility. PMID:19470135
Little research has examined change in perceived parenting skill across the transition to parenthood or predictors of change in perceived skill. The current study used an ecological framework to examine predictors of self-perceived parenting skill among 47 lesbian, 31 gay, and 56 heterosexual couples who were adopting their first child. Findings revealed that, on average, all new parents perceived themselves as becoming more skilled, although gay men increased the most and lesbians the least. Participants who were male, reported fewer depressive symptoms, expected to do more child care, and reported higher job autonomy viewed themselves as more skilled pre-adoption. With regard to change, parents who reported more relational conflict, and parents who expected to do more child care, experienced lesser increases in perceived skill. These findings suggest that regardless of gender, sexual orientation, and route to parenthood, new parents experience similar, positive changes in perceived skill, thereby broadening our understanding of parenting skill in diverse groups. The findings also highlight the importance of examining how gender, sexual orientation, and the family context may shape perceived skill across the transition to parenthood.
Identifying psychosocial factors associated with sexual risk behavior among methamphetamine users is essential to enhancing HIV/STI prevention. Our study examined the relationship between positive and negative life events and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 100 HIV-negative, heterosexually identified methamphetamine-using men and women. Negative life event categories included: death of a significant other; negative health event involving self or significant other; and child custody/visitation issues. Categories of positive life events included: birth or pregnancy involving self or significant other; positive relationship event; and positive life change. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that negative life events were positively associated with total number of unprotected sex acts, whereas positive life events were not associated with sexual risk-taking. Also, amount of methamphetamine used did not moderate the relationship between life events and sexual risk behavior. These data support future research to identify underlying mechanisms that link negative life events to sexual risk-taking in this high-risk population.
Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L.
This study assessed selected heterosexual male college students' use of condoms, their reasons for using condoms, and their attitudes toward sexuality and condoms. Three hundred five male subjects completed a questionnaire that assessed class standing, marital status, reasons for using condoms, number of recent sexual partners, intention to use condoms, and attitudes toward sexuality and condoms. Although no relationship between attitudes toward sexuality and attitudes toward condoms was noted, a negative correlation (-.42) was found between attitude toward condoms and intention to use condoms within the next month if the subject were to have intercourse during that time. Recommendations for increasing condom use are presented. PMID:2808964
Baffi, C R; Schroeder, K K; Redican, K J; McCluskey, L
An instrument was developed that measured heterosexual persons' level of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) ally identity. Using a Rasch analysis, 2 dimensions were observed: (a) internal and interpersonal and (b) activity. Persons with high levels of LGBT ally identities endorsed items about having LGBT knowledge, attitudes, and skills; having interpersonal experiences with LGBT communities; and including LGBT ally as part of their identities. The instrument met criteria for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and responsiveness validity. The instrument can be used to assist persons to develop their abilities to support and advocate for equality for LGBT communities. PMID:24175888
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by intimate partner violence. Most of the research describing factors associated with intimate partner violence among Hispanics has focused on Hispanic women or Hispanics in heterosexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual), and demographic, cultural and psychological factors and intimate partner violence among Hispanic men. A cross sectional questionnaire was administered to 160 Hispanic heterosexual and men who have sex with men. Demographic factors (age, education and income), acculturation, depressive symptoms and self-esteem were assessed using standardized instruments. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and simple and multiple logistical regression. Differences in education, income and self-esteem were noted across participants identifying as heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual. Bisexual Hispanic men were almost at 4 times greater odds of reporting the perpetration of IPV than homosexual Hispanic men, even when differences in education, income and self-esteem were controlled for (AOR = 3.92, 95%CI = 1.11, 14.19). This study suggest the importance of specifically targeting bisexual Hispanic men in IPV research and services.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; De Santis, Joseph P.; Vasquez, Elias P.
Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed.
Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet
Biological differences in male and female sexuality are obvious in the behavioral domain, but the central mechanisms that might explain these behavioral gender differences remain unclear. In this study, we merged two earlier positron emission tomography data sets to enable systematic comparison of the brain responses in heterosexualmen and women during sexual tactile genital (penile and clitoral) stimulation and
Janniko R. Georgiadis; A. A. T. Simone Reinders; Anne M. J. Paans; Remco Renken; Rudie Kortekaas
Lifetime victimization was examined in a primarily European American sample that comprised 557 lesbian\\/gay, 163 bisexual, and 525 heterosexual adults. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants were recruited via LGB e-mail lists, periodicals, and organizations; these participants recruited 1 or more siblings for participation in the study (81% heterosexual, 19% LGB). In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, sexual orientation was a
Kimberly F. Balsam; Esther D. Rothblum; Theodore P. Beauchaine
The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men’s motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in part reflect their adoptive status. Men named age, finances, and relationship factors, as well as unique contextual factors such as the need to find and move to gay-friendly neighborhoods, as influencing their readiness to pursue parenthood at the current time. Gay men’s motivations to parent echo normative life course decision-making processes, but also reflect concerns that are uniquely informed by their sexual minority status.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.
Casual sex is often associated with the young adult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the young adult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 2006-2007 and included young adults (ages 18-24 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that young adults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants without a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners. PMID:23297151
Background.?Few studies have assessed genital human papillomavirus (HPV) concordance and factors associated with concordance among asymptomatic heterosexual couples. Methods.?Genotyping for HPV was conducted with male and female sex partners aged 18–70 years from Tampa, Florida. Eligibility included no history of HPV-associated disease. Type-specific positive concordance (partners with ?1 genotype in common) and negative concordance (neither partner had HPV) were assessed for 88 couples. Factors associated with concordance were assessed with Fisher exact tests and tests for trend. Results.?Couples reported engaging in sexual intercourse for a median of 1.7 years (range, 0.1–49 years), and 75% reported being in the same monogamous relationship for the past 6 months. Almost 1 in 4 couples had type-specific positive concordance, and 35% had negative concordance for all types tested, for a total concordance of 59%. Concordance was not associated with monogamy. Type-specific positive concordance was associated with an increasing difference in partners’ lifetime number of sex partners and inversely associated with an increasing difference in age. Negative concordance was inversely associated with both the couple's sum of lifetime number of sex partners and the difference in the partners’ lifetime number of sex partners. Conclusions.?Genital HPV concordance was common. Viral infectiousness and number of sex partners may help explain concordance among heterosexual partners.
Nyitray, Alan G.; Menezes, Lynette; Lu, Beibei; Lin, Hui-Yi; Smith, Dan'elle; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Giuliano, Anna R.
Casual sex is often associated with the young adult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the young adult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 2006–2007 and included young adults (ages 18–24 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that young adults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants with-out a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners.
Purpose: To examine the incidence, prevalence, and characteristics of suicide attempts in a unique, venue- based sample of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Methods: Eligible participants were 15-25-year-old men who were living in a major metropolitan area (Minneapolis\\/St. Paul, Minnesota) and had sex with men within 12 months of the interview. A total of 255 subjects were
This study explored whether homosexually active men who were sexually abused in childhood were more likely to engage in HIV-risk sexual behavior than men who were not sexually abused. Participants were 182 adult men of Puerto Rican ancestry living in New York City who had had sex with other men or with men and women. Quantitative and qualitative methods of
Background A large number of men who have sex with men (MSM) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are underserved despite increased service availability from government facilities while many community based organizations (CBOs) are not involved. We aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the task shifting from government facilities to CBOs in China. Methods HIV preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA were shifted from government facilities to CBOs. Based on ‘cash on service delivery’ model, 10 USD per MSM tested for HIV with results notified, 82 USD per newly HIV cases diagnosed, and 50 USD per PLHA received a defined package of follow-up care services, were paid to the CBOs. Cash payments were made biannually based on the verified results in the national web-based HIV/AIDS information system. Findings After task shifting, CBOs gradually assumed preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA from 2008 to 2012. HIV testing coverage among MSM increased from 4.1% in 2008 to 22.7% in 2012. The baseline median CD4 counts of newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM increased from 309 to 397 cells/µL. HIV tests among MSM by CBOs accounted for less than 1% of the total HIV tests in Nanjing but the share of HIV cases detected by CBOs was 12.4% in 2008 and 43.6% in 2012. Unit cost per HIV case detected by CBOs was 47 times lower than that by government facilities. The coverage of CD4 tests and antiretroviral therapy increased from 71.1% and 78.6% in 2008 to 86.0% and 90.1% in 2012, respectively. Conclusion It is feasible to shift essential HIV services from government facilities to CBOs, and to verify independently service results to adopt ‘cash on service delivery’ model. Services provided by CBOs are cost-effective, as compared with that by government facilities.
This article describes a study of resilience among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Resilience is defined as positive adaptation in the context of hardship. Using targeted sampling to capture the diversity and range of this hidden population, we recruited 569 YMSM ages 17–28 years old and examined a subset of 134 YMSM who had experienced severe childhood adversity, as indicated by placement in foster care. Most of the YMSM in this subset were from racial or ethnic minority backgrounds and fewer than half identified as gay or homosexual (46.3 percent). More than half (58.3 percent) exhibited positive outcomes on four of seven indicators of adaptive functioning. YMSM who identified as either bisexual or heterosexual exhibited lower rates of resilience. Structural- as well as individual-level factors appear to be implicated in resilience among YMSM. Findings underscore the importance of fostering stable sexual identity as a means of building resilience.
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar/club attendance) were associated with smoking among YMSM recruited through venue-based sampling in Los Angeles, California (N = 526). Structural equation modeling was used to isolate direct and indirect effects of gay community connection on smoking through cognitive and psychological mediators (i.e., psychological distress, health values, internalized homophobia). Findings indicate YMSM cigarette smoking prevention and intervention must be tailored to address the direct and indirect influences of the gay community. PMID:22661879
Holloway, Ian W; Traube, Dorian E; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar/club attendance) were associated with smoking among YMSM recruited through venue-based sampling in Los Angeles, California (N = 526). Structural equation modeling was used to isolate direct and indirect effects of gay community connection on smoking through cognitive and psychological mediators (i.e., psychological distress, health values, internalized homophobia). Findings indicate YMSM cigarette smoking prevention and intervention must be tailored to address the direct and indirect influences of the gay community.
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.
Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. PMID:23664815
In the present study, 32 homosexual males (HMM), 32 homosexual females (HMF), 32 heterosexual males (HTM), and 32 heterosexual females (HTF) completed measures of body image disturbance and concerns with weight and dieting from five different perspectives: self, and “typical” homosexual male, heterosexual male, heterosexual female, and homosexual female. Participants were primarily Caucasian. Results indicated that, in general, HMMs and
We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n?=?822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B?=?3.90; SE?=?0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR?=?3.11; CI?=?1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149
Thurston, Idia B; Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M; Otwombe, Kennedy N; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E
Recent survey research suggests that heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbian and gay rights have become more progressive.\\u000a However, we find in our research that negative attitudes and barriers against gay men and lesbians in workplaces still remain.\\u000a Our project represents one case study of hidden animosity toward homosexuals, which varies from “overt disgust” to “don’t\\u000a ask, don’t tell” policies that reinforce
David G. Embrick; Carol S. Walther; Corrine M. Wickens
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, physicians writing for American medical journals created a vision of female heterosexual health that linked vaginal orgasm with marital stability and community security. This article focuses on how physicians sought to ensure healthy female heterosexuality through the use of state-mandated premarital consultations. Physicians repeatedly asserted that by monitoring a woman’s response to penetration during a
The comparative self-esteem and psychological well-being of female-to-male transsexuals, homosexuals, and heterosexuals (patient and nonpatient) were studied. Results indicated that individual candidates for sex-change surgery varied appreciably in self-concept and adjustment, and as a group were indistinguishable from psychiatric controls. Nonpatient homosexuals and heterosexuals demonstrated the most positive self-esteem and level of adjustment.
Donald S. Strassberg; Howard Roback; Jean Cunningham; Embry McKee; Paul Larson
The role of childhood gender role nonconformity (CGNC) and childhood harassment (CH) in explaining suicidality (suicide ideation,\\u000a aborted suicide attempts, and suicide attempts) was examined in a sample of 142 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and\\u000a 148 heterosexual adults in Austria. Current and previous suicidality, CGNC, and CH were significantly greater in LGB participants\\u000a compared to heterosexual participants. After
This article reports on three phases of the development of a Likert?type scale measuring heterosexual attitudes toward homosexuality. Phase 1 describes the development of the scale. Item analysis yielded 20 statements with item?total correlations ranging from .57 to .74. In Phase 2 the 20?item Heterosexual Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (HATH) Scale was administered to 82 subjects. Analysis yielded a corrected split?half
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported as the result of heterosexual contact have been increasing in the United States, with Florida reporting a disproportionate number. We investigated 168 such AIDS cases from southern Florida. After follow-up, 50 (30%) patients were reclassified into other transmission categories. The data suggest that the increased rate of heterosexually acquired AIDS cases reported from southern Florida was partially related to misclassification of risk.
Nwanyanwu, O C; Conti, L A; Ciesielski, C A; Stehr-Green, J K; Berkelman, R L; Lieb, S; Witte, J J
Objectives HPV vaccine acceptability was examined as part of a cohort study of HPV infection among adult males. Methods Between July 2004 and June 2007, 445 adult males aged ?18 years were enrolled primarily from a university-based population. A structured questionnaire addressed HPV vaccine awareness, attitudes, and intention to be vaccinated. Results Overall, 69% of men reported that they were likely or very likely to be vaccinated against HPV if a prophylactic vaccine were available. Men most frequently cited side effects (69%), efficacy (65%), and safety (63%) as the major factors that would influence their decision to be vaccinated against HPV. Issues of vaccine costs and efficacy were important considerations for men of vaccine-eligible ages (18–26 years). Men who cited cost as a major factor in their HPV vaccine decisions and those indicating cost as a potential barrier had greater intention to be vaccinated. Heterosexualmen had less intention to be vaccinated compared to men who have sex with men. Conclusion Acceptability of HPV vaccination among males is generally high. Costs and sexual history may influence vaccine utilization.
Studies concerning behaviorally bisexual men continue to focus on understanding sexual risk in according to a narrow range of sexual behaviors. Few studies have explored the subjective meanings and experiences related to bisexual men’s sexual behaviors with both male and female partners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Participants were asked about their subjective sexual experiences with male and female partners. Findings suggest adherence to normative gender roles, with attraction to men and women conforming to these stereotypes, as well as a segregation of sexual behaviors along gendered lines. Overall, condom use was influenced by perceptions of potential negative consequences. Based on these findings, it remains critical that public health and other social and behavioral sciences continue to study bisexual men’s sexual health issues as separate and distinct from their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts.
Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Malebranche, David; Murray, Maresa; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and types of negative behaviors directed toward gay men on university campuses and to understand heterosexualmen's and women's motivations for engaging in antigay discrimination. Using a mixed methods approach, results from a quantitative survey (N = 286) indicated that students primarily engaged in covert antigay behaviors, such as telling antigay jokes and spreading gossip about gay men. Follow-up qualitative interviews with 8 highly homonegative individuals (4 men, 4 women) were then conducted to better understand their self-perceived motivations for perpetrating antigay discrimination. Results indicated that antigay behaviors were conducted to reinforce traditional male gender roles, alleviate feelings of discomfort, and convey heterosexual identity. Participants also expressed concern about being perceived as prejudiced and were motivated to control their prejudicial reactions to some degree. Implications regarding the contemporary nature of antigay violence on university campuses are discussed. PMID:20056816
The extensive research on date rape attitudes and experiences has left sexual consent itself largely unexamined. The objective\\u000a of this study was to develop a measure to assess women’s and men’s attitudes and behaviors regarding sexual consent. Using\\u000a both focus groups (N?=?18) and a mail survey (N?=?514) of undergraduate students at a Canadian university, two scales of sexual consent were
Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals. Respondents answered a face-to-face questionnaire documenting their health status and living conditions. Discrimination was documented during the previous two years on the grounds of HIV infection, gender, country of birth, skin colour, sexual orientation, place of residence, and substance abuse in a variety of contexts. For each context, we performed logistic regressions on discrimination, controlling for socio-epidemiological group, age, education level and employment status. Discrimination is frequently experienced by PLHIV in France (26%), particularly when applying for a job (24%), interacting with family (11%) or seeking health services (8%). Women from sub-Saharan Africa reported the highest levels of discrimination, whereas heterosexual non-African men reported the lowest. Men who have sex with men experienced levels of discrimination that fell between those of these two groups. The major perceived reason for discrimination was HIV status (13%). Nationality, skin colour and sexual orientation were cited by 5% each, whereas gender was cited by 1% of respondents. Our analyses show that discrimination is a frequent and cross-cutting experience with differences across the various contexts and among the diverse subpopulations. The intertwining of HIV-related stigma with sexism, racism and homophobia needs to be addressed to understand why discrimination against PLHIV persists when the disease itself has greatly evolved. PMID:24738926
Drawing on data from a life history study of a small group of men who have suffered spinal cord injury and become disabled through playing sport, this article explores the meanings of hope in their lives. It focuses upon the life stories of 14, white, predominantly working-class men, aged 26–51. The most common kinds of hope used by the men
The article aims to measure implicit sexual attitude in heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals. A Many-Facet Rasch Measurement analysis was used to disentangle the contribution of specific associations to the overall IAT measure. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in heterosexual respondents, driven most by associating positive attributes with heterosexuals rather than negative attributes with homosexuals. Differently, neither the negative nor the positive evaluation of any of the target groups play a prominent role in driving the preference for homosexuals observed in gay respondents. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in bisexual respondents, that results most from ascribing negative attributes to homosexuals rather than positive attributes to heterosexuals. The results are consistent with the expression of the need for achieving a positive self-image and with the influence of shared social norms concerning sexuality.
Both attractiveness judgements and mate preferences vary considerably cross-culturally. We investigated whether men's preference for femininity in women's faces varies between 28 countries with diverse health conditions by analysing responses of 1972 heterosexual participants. Although men in all countries preferred feminized over masculinized female faces, we found substantial differences between countries in the magnitude of men's preferences. Using an average femininity preference for each country, we found men's facial femininity preferences correlated positively with the health of the nation, which explained 50.4% of the variation among countries. The weakest preferences for femininity were found in Nepal and strongest in Japan. As high femininity in women is associated with lower success in competition for resources and lower dominance, it is possible that in harsher environments, men prefer cues to resource holding potential over high fecundity. PMID:24789138
Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Cai, Huajian; Contreras-Garduño, Jorge; Dixson, Barnaby J; Oana, Gavita A; Kaminski, Gwenaël; Li, Norman P; Lyons, Minna T; Onyishi, Ike E; Prasai, Keshav; Pazhoohi, Farid; Prokop, Pavol; Rosales Cardozo, Sandra L; Sydney, Nicolle; Yong, Jose C; Rantala, Markus J
Introduction Stigma constitutes a critical challenge to the rising rates of HIV among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). It reduces willingness to disclose one’s sexual orientation and can lead to concurrent sexual partnerships. Disclosure decisions are also affected by cultural norms that place pressures on sons to marry. In this manuscript, we characterize how stigma and cultural factors influenced Chinese MSM’s decisions around disclosure and marriage. We seek to show that MSM’s actions were motivated by moral considerations, even when those choices posed HIV transmission risks. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 MSM in Beijing, China. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English for analysis. Transcripts were coded using a procedure that allowed for themes to emerge organically. Results Participants struggled with feelings of shame and believed that others possessed stigmatizing attitudes about homosexuality. They had experienced relatively little discrimination because they infrequently disclosed their MSM status. In response to marital pressures, participant had to reconcile same-sex attractions with filial expectations. Their choices included: not being involved with women; putting on the appearance of a heterosexual relationship by marrying a lesbian; or fulfilling family expectations by marrying a heterosexual woman. Regardless of the decision, many rooted the justifications for their choices in the considerations they had given to others’ needs. Conclusion The growing epidemic among MSM in China requires action from the public health community. As programs are scaled up to serve these men, it is critical to remember that MSM, who often fear social sanction if they were to reveal their sexual orientation, continue to face the same pressures from culturally normative social duties as heterosexualmen. Interventions must find ways to help men navigate a balance between their own needs and the responsibilities they feel toward their parents and others.
Introduction Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at significantly higher rates than heterosexualmen. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures – namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism – on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paper examines reporting of IPV and associations with social pressure among a sample of internet-recruited MSM in the United States (U.S.), Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil. Methods We recruited internet-using MSM from 6 countries through selective banner advertisements placed on Facebook. Eligibility criteria were men age over 18 reporting sex with a man in the past year. Of the 2,771 eligible respondents, 2,368 had complete data and were included in the analysis. Three outcomes were examined: reporting recent experience of physical violence, sexual violence, and recent perpetration of physical violence. The analysis focused on associations between reporting of IPV and experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity. Results Reporting of experiencing physical IPV ranged from 5.75% in the U.S. to 11.75% in South Africa, while experiencing sexual violence was less commonly reported and ranged from 2.54% in Australia to 4.52% in the U.S. Perpetration of physical violence ranged from 2.47% in the U.S. to 5.76% in South Africa. Experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity were found to increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries. Conclusion There has been little data on IPV among MSM, particularly MSM living in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the lack of consensus in demographic correlates of violence reporting, heterosexist social pressures were found to significantly increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries. These findings show the universality of violence reporting among MSM across countries, and highlight the unique role of heteronormativity as a risk factor for violence reporting among MSM. The results demonstrate that using internet-based surveys to reach MSM is feasible for certain areas, although modified efforts may be required to reach diverse samples of MSM.
Finneran, Catherine; Chard, Anna; Sineath, Craig; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob
Guided by photovoice, a form of participatory action research that uses documentary photography and storytelling, this study examines how Black gay men and lesbians view themselves in relation to White gay men and lesbians in South Africa. Participants were from 4 South African townships and included 4 women, and 3 men. Participants discussed interracial dating, a lack of education, and information regarding differing sexualities and health care. They reported being sexually and physically assaulted for challenging the heterosexual status quo. Other themes that emerged from this study were classism, cultural traditions of visiting African healers, and segregated social spaces. Amidst oppression and despair, participants showed signs of strength, hope, and optimism. PMID:15311981
This study examined masculine gender role stress (MGRS) as a mediator of the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and hostility toward women (HTW). Among a sample of 338 heterosexualmen, results indicated that MGRS mediated the relation between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms, but not the toughness norm, and HTW. Adherence to the toughness norm maintained a positive association with HTW. These findings suggest that men's HTW develops via multiple pathways that are associated with different norms of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for the prediction of men's aggression against women are discussed.
Purpose: Little is known about the health status of rural immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). These MSM comprise a subpopulation that tends to remain "hidden" from both researchers and practitioners. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and sexual risk behaviors of Latino MSM living in…
Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Alegria-Ortega, Jose; Eng, Eugenia
The relation between sex role self-concept (masculine, feminine, undifferentiated, and androgynous) and both relationship quality and dysfunctional relationship beliefs was examined in 370 monogamous partners who represented four types of couples (married, heterosexual cohabiting, gay, and lesbian). Analyses used both the individual partner and the couple as the unit of analysis. The individual partner analyses revealed that relationship quality and relationship beliefs differed by subjects' sex role self-concept. Androgynous and feminine subjects reported higher relationship quality than masculine and undifferentiated subjects; androgynous subjects had fewer "disagreement is destructive" beliefs than feminine subjects; and androgynous subjects had fewer "partner cannot change" beliefs than undifferentiated subjects. The couple analyses revealed a relation between partners' sex role self-concept only for the heterosexual cohabiting couples. For these couples, masculine men tended to pair with feminine or undifferentiated women, and androgynous partners tended to pair together. Relative to other couples, couples in which one or both partners were androgynous or feminine reported the highest relationship quality, whereas couples in which one or both partners were undifferentiated or masculine reported the lowest relationship quality. These effects did not vary by type of couple. The study concluded that sex role self-concept is a robust factor in appraisals of relationship quality. Relative to masculine and undifferentiated individuals, androgynous and feminine individuals report greater positive relationship functioning. PMID:3746618
This article examines the 2008 World Health Organization/Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS controversy through original reports and media coverage. Analysis reveals that discourse rhetorically exonerates heterosexuals from HIV/AIDS while reifying homophobic and morally righteous ideology about HIV/AIDS and homosexuality. Discourses of "fraudulent science," "heterosexual absence," and reverse victimization destabilize meaning of HIV/AIDS and heterosexuality. "AIDS," "heterosexuality," and even victimhood and minority status were destabilized and resignified in a rhetoric that benefited from its status as science even as it rendered past science suspect as ideological. PMID:23844883
Objectives. We compared the prevalence of condom use during a variety of sexual acts portrayed in adult films produced for heterosexual and homosexual audiences to assess compliance with state Occupational Health and Safety Administration regulations. Methods. We analyzed 50 heterosexual and 50 male homosexual films released between August 1, 2005, and July 31, 2006, randomly selected from the distributor of 85% of the heterosexual adult films released each year in the United States. Results. Penile–vaginal intercourse was protected with condoms in 3% of heterosexual scenes. Penile–anal intercourse, common in both heterosexual (42%) and homosexual (80%) scenes, was much less likely to be protected with condoms in heterosexual than in homosexual scenes (10% vs 78%; P < .001). No penile–oral acts were protected with condoms in any of the selected films. Conclusions. Heterosexual films were much less likely than were homosexual films to portray condom use, raising concerns about transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, especially among performers in heterosexual adult films. In addition, the adult film industry, especially the heterosexual industry, is not adhering to state occupational safety regulations.
Elliott, Marc N.; Kerndt, Peter R.; Schuster, Mark A.; Brook, Robert H.; Gelberg, Lillian
The measurement of subjective components of sexual functioning is of increasing importance in clinical research and practice. Differences have been reported in prevalence rates and experiences of sexual difficulties between heterosexual and gay men. The aim of this article is to identify reliable and valid measures of sexual dysfunction suitable for use with gay men. Seven measures were reviewed; details about item development, dimensionality, reliability, and validity are provided. Heteronormative and heterosexist wording were evident throughout. Several areas of concern emerged in relation to psychometric properties (e.g., questionable validity). No psychometrically robust sexual function measure was identified for use with gay populations. PMID:24447131
McDonagh, Lorraine K; Bishop, Cj; Brockman, Mel; Morrison, Todd G
Background Previous studies on domestic violence in Indonesia have focused primarily on women’s experiences and little research has been undertaken to understand men’s views on domestic violence or their involvement in the prevention of domestic violence. This study aimed to explore men’s views on masculinity and the use of violence within marriage, in order to gain knowledge on how to involve men in prevention of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Methods Focus group discussions with six groups of local male community leaders in Purworejo were conducted. The discussions were transcribed and coded for the construction of a positional map on different masculinities and their relation to the level of acceptance of domestic violence. Results Social and cultural changes have played a crucial role in transforming the relationship between men and women in Indonesian society. Three different positions of masculinity with certain beliefs on the gender order and acceptance of violence within marriage were identified: the traditionalist, the pragmatist, and the egalitarian. The traditionalist had the highest acceptance of violence as a tool to uphold the superior position of men within marriage, while the pragmatist viewed violence as undesirable but sometimes needed in order to correct the wife’s behavior. The egalitarian did not see any reason for violence because they believed that men and women are equal and complementary to each other. Conclusions Adaptation to social and cultural changes combined with lack of exposures to contextual and progressive religious teachings has led to the formation of three different positions of masculinity among the population in this study. Each position has certain beliefs regarding the gender order and the use of violence within marriage. Religion is an extremely important aspect that must be included in every type of intervention with this population.
Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113
Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R
The world of Mad Men is one in which life lived on the surface and repression dominates the scene. A superficial reading seems to suggest that the classically gendered subject-object split characterizes Mad Men: women in the series appear devoid of desire, while men possess power, sexuality and agency. But despite its blatant sexism, Mad Men's rendering has turned traditional 1960s American culture on its head. There is no subject-object split in Mad Men because men do not have access to the subject position; they, as much as women, remain objects to themselves and their partners. In the absence of mutual recognition, serotics ultimately fails. PMID:22143509
Previous research suggests that bisexual men face unique health concerns in comparison to their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. However, little is known about behaviorally bisexual men’s experiences with health services, including ways of providing services that would be most appropriate to meet the health needs of this population. This study sought to understand preferences for health-related services among behaviorally bisexual men in the Midwestern United States. Using a community-based research approach, a diverse sample of 75 behaviorally bisexual men was recruited for in-depth interviews. Qualitative data were analyzed utilizing inductive coding through established team-based protocols to ensure reliability. Themes emerged involving the importance of privacy and trust when reaching, recruiting, and engaging behaviorally bisexual men in health services. Findings suggest that multifaceted approaches are needed, including those that provide relevant and confidential services while allowing for the development and ongoing maintenance of trust.
Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Until recently, the Viagra connection to HIV was anchored in older adults. However, CDC investigation showed stability in 50+ HIV diagnoses on the heels of upward trends in risk indicators among men who have sex with men (MSM) and substance abusing populations. Signs have increasingly pointed to recreational drug use among younger populations, to which Viagra is being added to the mix. Currently, the field is still locating the substance abuse, sexual risk and age-related dimensions of Viagra misuse. Recent studies identify it primarily as substance abuse, but the majority reports a combination of risky sex and risky drug use. At the very least, Viagra appears related to the enhancement of sexual experience or performance, even when it is used to compensate for erectile dysfunction caused by other drugs—either illicit or prescribed (e.g., antidepressants and highly active antiretroviral therapy or HAART). The populations studied, however, frequently have limited the generalizability of findings. This report analyzes the relationship among Viagra, Club Drugs and HIV sexual risk behavior in drug using men with a sample diverse in sexual orientation and demographic scope. Participants were 640 males recruited from three HIV prevention programs in Los Angeles County. Mean age was 43.97 years, ranging from 18.7 to 70.3 with almost 25% over 50. Sexual orientation was 79% heterosexual, 8% bisexual and 12% gay. Racial composition was 45% white, 35% black and 19% Hispanic. NIDA’s Risk Behavior Assessment and a Club Drug/Viagra addendum were used to collect socio-demographic, substance use and sexual risk data. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed along with chi-square tests of association and some t-tests. White race was a major risk factor. No age effect was found. MSM were more likely to use Viagra. Insertive anal sex was a significant co-factor among heterosexual Viagra users involved in transactional sex with women. In the overall sample and the subsets of heterosexual, MSM, younger and older men, predictive models all identified club or designer drugs as significant co-factors in the use of Viagra. Different patterns of drug co-factors were observed for each subset. We detected consistent positive associations between the use of Viagra and the use of amphetamines immediately before or during sex. Viagra use has moved into a new generational context and now complicates the sexual risk and intervention equations for all men, particularly MSM as well as more hidden subgroups.
Fisher, Dennis G.; Malow, Robert; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Reynolds, Grace L.; Farrell, Nisha; Jaffe, Adi
... right-hand corner of the player. Men's Health Month HealthDay June 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Men's Health Nutrition Transcript In honor of "Men's Health Month" the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has a ...
Research on women's body image has focused on the sexual objectification that women experience in society. The present study explored how rural lesbian women experience their bodies and how lesbian communities, as safe havens from the dominant heterosexual culture, contribute to their body image. Ten lesbians living in central Pennsylvania were interviewed for this study. Interviews were analyzed using interpretative
Understanding HIV-related behaviours and the factors that influence these behaviours among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical to the design of effective HIV-prevention strategies; however, this subject has yet to receive the attention it deserves in Vietnam. Given that greater proportions of new HIV infections in the country stem from heterosexual transmission, it is essential to examine the sexual
Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including "coming out" to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14-19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group. PMID:24549462
The desire for children is a legitimate aspiration that should be part of multidisciplinary care for all men, women or couples living with HIV. The use of effective antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the prevention of sexual, as well as mother-to-child HIV transmission. When the HIV plasma viral load is undetectable on long-term antiretroviral therapy, the risk of mother-to-child transmission is <1% and the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission without condom use in a stable relationship is very low (estimated at less than 1/10,000) in the absence of inflammation of the genital tract. In a man with a long-term undetectable viral load, viral shedding in semen is uncommon, but may occur persistently or intermittently. The same appears true of viral shedding in the vaginal tract of women. Reproductive options are: natural conception, self-insemination when the woman is HIV-infected, assisted reproduction. Natural conception is now considered to be an acceptable option when the conditions are met, after exploring four aspects: (1) virological (viral load undetectable sustained for at least 6 months on therapy), (2) genital (absence of genital infections or lesions), (3) fertility (after appropriate evaluation) and (4) detecting the ovulation period to limit intercourse without condoms. Assisted reproduction has two objectives in the context of HIV, to allow the couple to conceive without abandoning condom use and/or to treat infertility. PMID:24969954
Mandelbrot, L; Berrebi, A; Rouzioux, C; Partisani, M; Faucher, P; Tubiana, R; Matheron, S; Bujan, L; Morlat, P
This paper is concerned with young rural men and how they "do" identity politics living in a rural area of Norway. Focusing on how masculinity and rurality are constructed and interrelated in young men's narratives of living in a remote community, it is identified that young rural men reproduce, negotiate and transform local discourses of rural…
In the psychoanalytical discussion of what is 'mature' sexuality we speak of the 'genital' stage and the 'resolution' of the oedipal complex in the form of identification with the parent of the same sex and a heterosexually-directed object choice. A close reading of Freud's texts about sexuality shows that such a normative view cannot be corroborated by his viewpoint. He suggests that infantile sexuality is bisexually orientated, the final object choice due to repression of either homosexual or heterosexual desires. As Freud puts it, genital heterosexuality occurs out of necessity for procreation. In order to enrich the present psychoanalytical discussion about homosexuality and bisexuality the author returns to Freud's theories in this context. PMID:22014366
Objectives. The goal of this study was to identify differences between gay, lesbian, bi- sexual, and transgender (GLBT) homeless youths and their heterosexual counterparts in terms of physical and mental health difficulties. Methods. A sample of 84 GLBT adolescents was matched in regard to age and self- reported gender with 84 heterosexual adolescents. The 2 samples were compared on a
Bryan N. Cochran; Angela J. Stewart; Joshua A. Ginzler; Ana Mari Cauce
The present study examined associations between lesbian and feminist identity and predictors of female physical attractiveness. Seventy-two nonfeminist heterosexuals, 38 feminist heterosexuals, 75 nonfeminist lesbians, and 33 feminist lesbians were asked to rate according to physical attractiveness a set of images of real women with known body…
HIV-1 transmission worldwide is predominantly associated with heterosexual activity, and non-clade B viruses account for the most spread. The HIV-1 epidemic in Trinidad/Tobago and the Caribbean shares many features with such heterosexual epidemics, including a prominent role for coincident sexually transmitted diseases. This study evaluates the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Trinidad/Tobago during a period when abrupt transition from homosexual to heterosexual transmission occurred in the absence of injecting drug use, concomitant with a rapid rise in HIV-1 prevalence in the heterosexual population. Of 31 viral isolates studied during 1987–1995, all cluster with subtype B reference strains. In the analysis of full env genes from 22 early seroconverters, the Trinidad isolates constitute a significant subcluster within the B subtype. The Trinidad V3 consensus sequence differs by a single amino acid from the prototype B V3 consensus and demonstrates stability over the decade of this study. In the majority of isolates, the V3 loop of env contains a signature threonine deletion that marks the lineage of the Trinidad HIV-1 clade B epidemic from pre-1984. No phenotypic features, including syncitium induction, neutralization profiles, and chemokine receptor usage, distinguish this virus population from other subtype B viruses. Thus, although the subtype B HIV-1 viruses being transmitted in Trinidad are genetically distinguishable from other subtype B viruses, this is probably the result of a strong founder effect in a geographically circumscribed population rather than genetic selection for heterosexual transmission. These results demonstrate that canonical clade B HIV-1 can generate a typical heterosexual epidemic.
Cleghorn, F. R.; Jack, N.; Carr, J. K.; Edwards, J.; Mahabir, B.; Sill, A.; McDanal, C. B.; Connolly, S. M.; Goodman, D.; Bennetts, R. Q.; O'Brien, T. R.; Weinhold, K. J.; Bartholomew, C.; Blattner, W. A.; Greenberg, M. L.
This study explored gender differences in young adult heterosexualmen's and women's experiences, beliefs, and concerns regarding the occurrence or nonoccurrence of orgasm during sexual interactions, with emphasis on the absence of female orgasm during intercourse. Qualitative reports were obtained from five female focus groups (N = 24, M age = 19.08) and five male focus groups (N = 21, M age = 19.29), involving three to five participants per group. Transcripts of the discussions were analyzed for emerging themes across focus group discussions. Results indicated that, for both male and female participants, the most common concern regarding lack of female orgasm in a partnered context focused on the negative impact this might have on the male partner's ego. Male and female participants also agreed that men have the physical responsibility to stimulate their female partner to orgasm, while women have the psychological responsibility of being mentally prepared to experience the orgasm. Men and women tended to maintain different beliefs, however, regarding clitoral stimulation during intercourse, as well as the importance of female orgasm for a woman's sexual satisfaction in a partnered context. Findings suggest foci for sexual education. PMID:24350619
It has been argued that the police do not respond to domestic calls involving same-sex couples in the same manner as they respond to calls involving heterosexual couples. A major problem facing researchers examining the police response to cases involving same-sex couples has been the lack of adequately sized samples. In this article, the authors utilize the 2000 National Incident Based Reporting System database, which contains 176,488 intimate partner assaults and intimidation incidents reported to 2,819 police departments in 19 states. The key issue examined is whether similar cases involving same-sex and heterosexual couples result in the same police response. PMID:17420516
Pattavina, April; Hirschel, David; Buzawa, Eve; Faggiani, Don; Bentley, Helen
Thirty-eight lesbian and 38 heterosexual women in Singapore (ages 21 to 35) discussed relationships, sex, and virginity in focus groups. Views were mostly similar between the two groups, although there were differences. All participants defined relationships as romantic involvement. However, while heterosexual participants equated commitment with monogamy, lesbian participants distinguished them. All participants differentiated between having sex (for thrill and fun) and making love (for expressing love), although there were differences in the purposes of making love. Primacy of penetration was found in defining virginity loss, but for many participants, virginity was important only insofar as it indicated sexual permissiveness. PMID:24383860
The responses of a self-selected sample of Canadian college students draw attention to the salience of gender-based analysis in studies of sexual behavior and condom use. Respondents included 249 male and 237 female heterosexuals (mean age 22.6 and 21.9 years, respectively) who approached free condom distribution displays at 4 college campuses in Toronto and agreed to complete a brief questionnaire. Overall, 69% of students stated they were currently involved in a relationship; however, 65% of females compared to only 47% of males reported having just 1 sexual partner in the past year. 83% of students had used a condom at some point in their life and 69% reported condom use on at least 1 occasion in the past year. All respondents acknowledge at least 1 episode of sexual intercourse where a condom was not used. The most frequent reason for nonuse, among both males and females, was involvement in a steady relationship. However, males were significantly more likely than females to claim they did not use condoms for the following other reasons: did not have a condom, sex was so exciting, partner did not want to use a condom, and drugs or alcohol were involved. Males reported significantly higher rates of condom use than females during vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal intercourse. On the other hand, females had more positive attitudes toward condoms and were more conscientious in their proper use. There were significant gender differences on 6 of 10 attitude questions, with females disagreeing more strongly than males with the following statements: condoms are a turnoff, safe sex is boring, long-term lovers can have any type of sex without risk, drug or alcohol use makes it hard to practice safe sex, and it is hard to have safe sex with a very attractive partner. In terms of specific condom use guidelines intended to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, females were significantly more likely than males to be aware of or adhere to the following: never use vaseline, hold while withdrawing, withdraw just after ejaculation, use water-based lubricant, and always use spermicide. 87% of subjects considered themselves at low or no risk of HIV infection. PMID:8180926
This qualitative study sought to explore the sexual identity development of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beirut, the stigma experienced by these men, and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 MSM, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientation to family, most men struggled at least somewhat with their sexuality, often because of perceived stigma from others and internal religious conflict about the immorality of homosexuality. Most participants described experiencing verbal harassment or ridicule, or being treated as different or lesser than in social relationships with friends or family. Mechanisms for coping with stigma included social avoidance (trying to pass as heterosexual; limiting interaction with MSM to the internet) or withdrawal from relationships in an attempt to limit exposure to stigma. Our findings suggest that effective coping with both internal and external sexual stigma is central to the psychological well-being and social engagement of MSM in Beirut, much like what has been found in Western gay communities.
Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques
OBJECTIVES. This study sought to examine risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroconversion among active-duty men in the US Army. METHODS. One hundred twenty-eight men with documented HIV-1 seroconversion between 1988 and 1991 were matched to control subjects on demographic variables. Risk factor information was collected for the seroconversion period. RESULTS. Forty-nine case subjects and no control subjects reported same-gender sex; this includes 34 case subjects who also reported sex with women. Seventy case and 118 control subjects reported no risk factors other than heterosexual intercourse. Among heterosexuals, excess risk was noted for men who had sex with women in risk categories defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (odds ratio = 10.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.3, 78.1). Significant trends of increasing risk for seroconversion were found with increasing numbers of female partners, nonsteady partners, and partners with whom sex occurred on the first day of acquaintance. CONCLUSIONS. In this population, the major risk factor for HIV-1 seroconversion was same-gender sex. Among heterosexuals, sex with anonymous or causal partners increased this risk. Intervention programs should emphasize the risk of indiscriminate partner selection in addition to "safe sex" practices.
Levin, L I; Peterman, T A; Renzullo, P O; Lasley-Bibbs, V; Shu, X O; Brundage, J F; McNeil, J G
Objectives Guidelines recommend hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening for all people living with HIV (PLWH). Understanding HCV testing practices may improve compliance with guidelines and can help identify areas for future intervention. Methods We evaluated HCV screening and unnecessary repeat HCV testing in 8,590 PLWH initiating care at 12 U.S. HIV clinics between 2006 and 2010, with follow-up through 2011. Multivariable logistic regression examined the association between patient factors and the outcomes: HCV screening (?1 HCV antibody tests during the study period) and unnecessary repeat HCV testing (?1 HCV antibody tests in patients with a prior positive test result). Results Overall, 82% of patients were screened for HCV, 18% of those screened were HCV antibody-positive, and 40% of HCV antibody-positive patients had unnecessary repeat HCV testing. The likelihood of being screened for HCV increased as the number of outpatient visits rose (adjusted odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.03). Compared to men who have sex with men (MSM), patients with injection drug use (IDU) were less likely to be screened for HCV (0.63, 0.52–0.78); while individuals with Medicaid were more likely to be screened than those with private insurance (1.30, 1.04–1.62). Patients with heterosexual (1.78, 1.20–2.65) and IDU (1.58, 1.06–2.34) risk compared to MSM, and those with higher numbers of outpatient (1.03, 1.01–1.04) and inpatient (1.09, 1.01–1.19) visits were at greatest risk of unnecessary HCV testing. Conclusions Additional efforts to improve compliance with HCV testing guidelines are needed. Leveraging health information technology may increase HCV screening and reduce unnecessary testing.
Yehia, Baligh R.; Herati, Ramin S.; Fleishman, John A.; Gallant, Joel E.; Agwu, Allison L.; Berry, Stephen A.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Moore, Richard D.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Gebo, Kelly A.
The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…
Youth who are homeless and gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) are one of the most disenfranchised and marginalized groups in our society. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare HIV in GLB homeless youth with their heterosexual counterparts. Participants for this study included 268 youth involved in treatment outcome studies with substance…
In this longitudinal, observational study of heterosexual interaction at middle school dances we examined the degree to which boys' and girls' groups became more gender integrated over time. The results show groups became more integrated over time with the pattern differing by gender. Boys had a relatively low level of contact with girls over the…
The present study examined relationship status, psychological orientation toward sexual risk taking, and other characteristics as potential correlates of risky sexual behavior in a sample of 223 heterosexual African American college students. Risky sexual behavior was investigated as a multinomial variable (i.e., abstinence, consistent condom use,…
Since 1986, an increase in heterosexually acquired syphilis cases has been seen in Amsterdam. The proportion of syphilis patients who reported using hard drugs, increased from 7% in 1985 to 23% in 1988, which was mainly due to increased numbers of addicted prostitute women with syphilis.
van den Hoek, J A; van der Linden, M M; Coutinho, R A
This study examined two proposed pathways between sexual self-disclosure (SSD) and sexual satisfaction in a sample of 104 heterosexual couples in long-term relationships. According to the proposed instrumental pathway, disclosure of sexual preferences increases a partner's understanding of those preferences resulting in a sexual script that is more rewarding and less costly. A more favorable balance of sexual rewards to
Little research has attended to the role of gender and sexual orientation in shaping open adoption dynamics. This qualitative, longitudinal study of 45 adoptive couples (15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 15 heterosexual couples) examined adopters' motivations for open adoption, changes in attitudes about openness, and early relationship dynamics. Key…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.
Although sexual minority (SM) adolescent girls are at high risk for suicidal behavior, very little is known about their use of mental health services (MHS). Therefore, we examined survey data from a sample of Boston high school students to compare the prevalence of MHS use among SM and heterosexual girls.We used chi-square tests to assess the statistical significance of group
This study focuses on differences in sense of belonging between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual students. Data from 1,745 secondary school students were collected with an online survey. Step-wise multiple regression analyses was used to investigate the relationship between sexual orientation and sense of school belonging. The results show that sexual orientation has an impact on sense of
Saskia Aerts; Mieke Van Houtte; Alexis Dewaele; Nele Cox; John Vincke
Anal sex within heterosexual relationships is usually underreported or not reported at all, yet is increasingly recognised as a potential mode of HIV transmission. Understanding the circumstances of anal sex is critical for trials that seek to assess the efficacy of microbicides. This article draws on qualitative data collected during a feasibility study for a clinical trial of microbicides in
This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%),…
Compared the efficacy of 2 8-session re-educative therapy packages and a single-session human relations training program in alleviating heterosexual dating anxiety. After careful screening, 84 socially anxious male undergraduates were randomly assigned to the following conditions: (a) a behavioral counseling group that involved hierarchically organized role-playing and correctional feedback exercises, (b) counseling plus group desensitization, (c) a \\
Karen W. Bander; Geraldine V. Steinke; George J. Allen; Donald L. Mosher
The performance of 79 male undergraduates in 2 heterosexual social situations was rated by questionnaires (including the Social Anxiety and Skill Questionnaire), self-ratings in role plays, self-ratings of videotapes of role plays, ratings by confederates, and ratings of videotaped role plays by judges. These ratings were characterized with respect to mode, method, and situation facets; the consistency of ratings was
This paper presents data from a series of prelimary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and
Lisa J. Cohen; Konstantin Nikiforov; Sniezyna Gans; Olga Poznansky; Pamela McGeoch; Carrie Weaver; Enid Gertmanian King; Ken Cullen; Igor Galynker
Both partners from gay and lesbian cohabiting couples without children were compared longitudinally with both partners from heterosexual married couples with children (N at first assessment = 80, 53, and 80 couples, respectively) on variables from 5 domains indicative of relationship health. For 50% of the comparisons, gay and lesbian partners did…
Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education…
Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.
Background: Studies on heteronormativity in PE either appear to have explored the experiences of and conditions for non-heterosexual students, or adopt a retrospective point of view. Further, the relation between heteronormativity and movement and how movement activities embody social norms and values related to gender and sexuality has not been…
Using the word “gay” to refer to something that is “boring” is part of American slang, and heterosexual males commonly call one another a “fag.” The responses of 767 college students were analyzed to explore how this language relates to antigay bias. Results of multiple regression explained 14.8% of the variance for believing that “it's no big deal” to call
Jill M. Chonody; Scott Edward Rutledge; Scott Smith
Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and…
Estimates of the incidence of sexual coercion in men's prisons are notoriously variable and fraught with conceptual and methodological problems. In 2006-2007, we conducted a computer-assisted telephone survey of a random sample of 2,018 male prisoners in New South Wales and Queensland. Of 2,626 eligible and available inmates, 76.8% consented and provided full responses. We asked about time in prison, sexual experience, attraction and (homo/bi/heterosexual) identity, attitudes, sexual contact with other inmates, reasons for having sex and practices engaged in, and about sexual coercion, including location and number of perpetrators. Most men (95.1%) identified as heterosexual. Of the total sample, 13.5% reported sexual contact with males in their lifetime: 7.8% only outside prison, 2.8% both inside and outside, and 2.7% only inside prison. Later in the interview, 144 men (7.1% of total sample) reported sexual contact with inmates in prison; the majority had few partners and no anal intercourse. Most did so for pleasure, but some for protection, i.e., to avoid assault by someone else. Before incarceration, 32.9% feared sexual assault in prison; 6.9% had been sexually threatened in prison and 2.6% had been sexually coerced ("forced or frightened into doing something sexually that [they] did not want"). Some of those coerced reported no same-sex contact. The majority of prisoners were intolerant of male-to-male sexual activity. The study achieved a high response rate and asked detailed questions to elicit reports of coercion and sex separately. Both consensual sex and sexual assault are less common than is generally believed. PMID:20809372
Richters, Juliet; Butler, Tony; Schneider, Karen; Yap, Lorraine; Kirkwood, Kristie; Grant, Luke; Richards, Alun; Smith, Anthony M A; Donovan, Basil
We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of men's foraging and food sharing. We find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not like common goods, but in ways that significantly advantaged producers' households. Food sharing and consumption data show that men channeled the foods they produced to their wives, children, and their consanguineal and affinal kin living in other households. On average, single men brought food to camp on 28% of days, married men without children at home on 31% of days, and married men with children at home on 42% of days. Married men brought fruit, the least widely shared resource, to camp significantly more often than single men. A model of the relationship between hunting success and household food consumption indicates that the best hunters provided 3-4 times the amount of food to their families than median or poor hunters. These new data fill important gaps in our knowledge of the subsistence economy of the Hadza and uphold predictions derived from the household and kin provisioning hypotheses. Key evidence and assumptions backing prior claims that Hadza hunting is largely a form of status competition were not replicated in our study. In light of this, family provisioning is a more viable explanation for why good hunters are preferred as husbands and have higher fertility than others. PMID:23813245
Objective To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Method Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a US prospective cohort spanning ages 9–25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Results Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (? =.10, 95% C.I.= .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (?=.39, 95% C.I.=.21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased three-fold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Conclusions Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males.
Although men displaying cues of good physical condition possess traits that are desirable in a mate (e.g., good health), these men are also more likely to possess antisocial characteristics that are undesirable in a long-term partner (e.g., aggression and tendency to infidelity). How women resolve this trade-off between the costs and benefits associated with choosing a mate in good physical condition may lead to strategic variation in women's mate preferences. Because the costs of choosing a mate with antisocial personality characteristics are greater in long- than short-term relationships, women's sociosexuality (i.e., the extent to which they are interested in uncommitted sexual relationships) may predict individual differences in their mate preferences. Here we investigated variation in 99 heterosexual women's preferences for facial symmetry, a characteristic that is thought to be an important cue of physical condition. Symmetry preferences were assessed using pairs of symmetrized and original (i.e., relatively asymmetric) versions of 10 male and 10 female faces. Analyses showed that women's sociosexuality, and their sociosexual attitude in particular, predicted their preferences for symmetry in men's, but not women's, faces; women who reported being more interested in short-term, uncommitted relationships demonstrated stronger attraction to symmetric men. Our findings present new evidence for potentially adaptive variation in women's symmetry preferences that is consistent with trade-off theories of attraction. PMID:21882053
Quist, Michelle C; Watkins, Christopher D; Smith, Finlay G; Little, Anthony C; Debruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C
Epidemics of HIV in men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to expand in most countries. We sought to understand the epidemiological drivers of the global epidemic in MSM and why it continues unabated. We did a comprehensive review of available data for HIV prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and the molecular epidemiology of HIV in MSM from 2007 to 2011, and modelled the dynamics of HIV transmission with an agent-based simulation. Our findings show that the high probability of transmission per act through receptive anal intercourse has a central role in explaining the disproportionate disease burden in MSM. HIV can be transmitted through large MSM networks at great speed. Molecular epidemiological data show substantial clustering of HIV infections in MSM networks, and higher rates of dual-variant and multiple-variant HIV infection in MSM than in heterosexual people in the same populations. Prevention strategies that lower biological transmission and acquisition risks, such as approaches based on antiretrovirals, offer promise for controlling the expanding epidemic in MSM, but their potential effectiveness is limited by structural factors that contribute to low health-seeking behaviours in populations of MSM in many parts of the world.
Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan D; van Griensven, Frits; Goodreau, Steven M; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Wirtz, Andrea L; Brookmeyer, Ron
Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, but few behavioral interventions address their prevention needs. Adaptation of evidence-based interventions is a pragmatic strategy that builds upon lessons learned and has the potential to fill gaps in prevention programming. Yet there are few reports of how transfers are executed and whether effectiveness is achieved. This research reports on the adaptation of VOICES/VOICES, a single-session intervention designed for heterosexual adults, into No Excuses/Sin buscar excuses for Latino MSM. To test the adapted intervention, 370 at-risk Latino MSM were enrolled in a randomized trial. At a three-month follow-up, there was a sharper decrease in unprotected intercourse in the intervention group compared to controls (59 % vs. 39 %, ANOVA p < 0.05, F = 4.10). Intervention participants also reported more condom use at last intercourse (AOR = 1.69; 95 % CI 1.02-2.81, p < 02). Findings support use of adapted models for meeting prevention needs of high-priority populations. PMID:24419993
O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Joseph, Heather A; Flores, Stephen
Oscar Lewis, Ruth M. Lewis, and Susan M. Rigdon.Four Men: Living the Revolution, an Oral History of Contemporary Cuba. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977. lxv + 538 pp. Map, abbreviations, glossary, selected bibliography. $15.00 paper.
Access to the Internet has increased dramatically over the past decade as has its use for meeting sexual partners (e?dating), particularly among gay men. Between June 2002 and January 2004, 128 gay\\/bisexual menliving in London were interviewed one?to?one about their experience of e?dating, sexual risk and HIV prevention. The men were recruited both online (through the Internet) and offline
Mark Davis; Graham Hart; Graham Bolding; Lorraine Sherr; Jonathan Elford
The aim of this study was to analyze the circumstances of first anal intercourse (FAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM)\\u000a and to identify factors associated with condom use at this event. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience\\u000a sample of MSM living in Switzerland (N = 2,200). Anonymous questionnaires were distributed using Swiss gay communication channels (newspapers, associations,
Hugues Balthasar; André Jeannin; Françoise Dubois-Arber
This study assessed the feasibility of online recruitment of high-risk Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) for HIV prevention\\u000a survey research and investigated the relationship between Internet use and unsafe sex. Participants (N = 1,026) were Internet-using Latino MSM living in the U.S. recruited using online banner advertisements. Respondents completed\\u000a a cross-sectional, online survey in English or Spanish. Sample characteristics
B. R. Simon Rosser; Michael H. Miner; Walter O. Bockting; Michael W. Ross; Joseph Konstan; Laura Gurak; Jeffrey Stanton; Weston Edwards; Scott Jacoby; Alex Carballo-Diéguez; Rafael Mazin; Eli Coleman
This study reports on the process and outcome evaluation of a community-based nutrition and cooking education program for senior men. As part of Evergreen Action Nutrition, a community-organized, nutrition education program, a registered dietitian led a Men's Cooking Group in a seniors' recreation facility. Written questionnaires were completed by most of the men (n = 19) at the beginning and
Heather H. Keller; Amie Gibbs; Sharon Wong; Patricia Vanderkooy; Margaret Hedley
This paper discusses the gendering of self of a young boy who has two males as parents, from the view point of his female psychotherapist. During the 2 years of psychotherapy, the young boy was preoccupied with the need to create a kind of mother. He referred to his female caretaker as "Real Mommy" whom he loved and to his psychotherapist as "The…
Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach\\u000a motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of\\u000a kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with\\u000a some studies finding that facial
Johanna Lass-HennemannChristian; Christian E. Deuter; Linn K. Kuehl; Andre Schulz; Terry D. Blumenthal; Hartmut Schachinger
Used records of 1,219 students and a survey of 94 dormitory residents to assess the relationship between interpersonal needs and living arrangement. Results indicated a weak tendency for women to seek doubles and men to seek quads. Men reported less stress and took action to relieve it. (JAC)
... School Health HIV and Young Men Who Have Sex With Men CS231969 Young people in the United ... young people disproportionately, especially— Young men who have sex with men: ? Among adolescent males aged 13–19 ...
The aim of the present study was to examine racial differences in women’s attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and to offer an understanding of these differences. Participants were 224 18–30 year old heterosexual African American (64%) and White (36%) female undergraduates from a large urban university in the southeastern United States. Participants completed measures of social demographics, sexual orientation, and sexual prejudice. Results showed that African American, relative to White, women endorsed more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Also, unlike White women, African American women reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than lesbians. Implications are discussed regarding differences in cultural contexts that exist between African American and White women.
Vincent, Wilson; Peterson, John L.; Parrott, Dominic J.
This study describes a creative and psychometrically sound method that allows researchers to measure homonegativity at a lower threshold than existing measures and to differentiate between homonegativity toward gay men and lesbians. Four hundred and thirty-one undergraduate students at a Western comprehensive university were asked to respond to a series of vignettes describing situations in which heterosexuals sometimes experience discomfort in the presence of homosexuals, indicating the degree to which they would feel comfortable or uncomfortable. The 12-item Homonegativity as Discomfort Scale (HADS) has adequate alpha reliability (.92) as well as good criterion and construct validity. Suggestions are made as to how the measure could be employed in research. Testing on this sample shows greater discomfort with gay men than with lesbians and greater discomfort among men than among women. PMID:24328845
OBJECTIVES: This study examined lifetime prevalence of suicide symptoms and affective disorders among men reporting a history of same-sex sexual partners. METHODS: In the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, men aged 17 to 39 years were assessed for lifetime history of affective disorders and sexual behavior patterns. The study classified this subset of men into 3 groups: those reporting same-sex sexual partners, those reporting only female sexual partners, and those reporting no sexual partners. Groups were compared for histories of suicide symptoms and affective disorders. RESULTS: A total of 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3%, 3.1%) of men reported same-sex sexual partners. These men evidenced greater lifetime prevalence rates of suicide symptoms than men reporting only female partners. However, homosexually/bisexually experienced men were no more likely than exclusively heterosexualmen to meet criteria for lifetime diagnosis of other affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide further evidence of an increased risk for suicide symptoms among homosexually experienced men. Results also hint at a small, increased risk of recurrent depression among gay men, with symptom onset occurring, on average, during early adolescence.
Stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS has existed since the beginning of the epidemic, but little is known about HIV/AIDS stigma within the gay community and how it affects men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. A better understanding of the effects of stigma on this population is needed to reduce it and its harmful effects. Our study used…
Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Wolitski, Richard J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Gomez, Cynthia A.
Previous studies have shown the normal range of plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) for independent community men over 60 years old to be 30-200 micrograms/dL. In human adults, low levels of plasma DHEAS have been correlated with a high mortality rate. In rodents, dehydroepiandrosterone, the precursor of DHEAS, has exhibited antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, neurotropic, and memory-enhancing effects. We have now measured plasma DHEAS in 50 independent community men age 55-94 and in 61 nursing home men age 57-104. Mean DHEAS was significantly lower in the nursing home men than in the community men. Plasma DHEAS was subnormal (less than 30 micrograms/dL) in 40% of the nursing home residents and in only 6% of the community subjects. In both groups, DHEAS was inversely related to age. In the nursing home men, additionally, plasma DHEAS was inversely related to the presence of an organic brain syndrome and to the degree of dependence in activities of daily living. Plasma DHEAS was subnormal in 80% of the nursing home men who required total care. There was no significant correlation between the plasma concentrations of DHEAS and testosterone, or between plasma DHEAS and one-year mortality rate. PMID:2139448