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Sample records for heterosexual men living

  1. ‘Waiting at the dinner table for scraps’: a qualitative study of the help-seeking experiences of heterosexual men living with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R; Glazier, Richard H; Strike, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the help-seeking experiences of heterosexual men living with HIV infection and explain these experiences in relation to the broader social relations and discourses in which they are embedded. Design Qualitative study using focus groups and theoretically informed constructionist grounded theory. Setting With one exception, focus groups were conducted in the offices of community-based AIDS service organisations across Ontario, Canada. Participants 40 HIV-infected heterosexual men aged 18 years or older. Results Heterosexual men living with HIV perceive themselves to be relegated to the margins of a health care and service field that was developed historically within a context that privileges the priorities of gay men and heterosexual women living with the virus. Specifically, gay men are better positioned than heterosexual men when vying for the services and recognition of AIDS service organisations due to their social capital within these agencies, thereby benefiting by virtue of their membership with the group perceived to control the decision-making apparatuses when resource allocation and programme development are at stake. Relative to women, heterosexual men are poorly positioned due to their negative symbolic capital, derived from being perceived as the ‘guilty’ parties in the context of heterosexual HIV transmission. As a result, the material and support needs of women have been prioritised, while those of heterosexual men living with HIV remain largely unaddressed. Conclusions Heterosexual men living with HIV are operating within a health and service field that has not kept pace with their increased representation among the population of persons living with the virus. Researchers, clinicians and policy makers should strive to integrate heterosexual men living with HIV in decision making and community-based research initiatives that build capacity among this group while simultaneously generating a research and policy agenda specific to the concerns of this growing demographic. PMID:22805006

  2. Prevalence and Contexts of Inconsistent Condom Use Among Heterosexual Men and Women Living with HIV in India: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A.; Shunmugam, Murali

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This investigation examined sexual behaviors among heterosexual persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Study participants (mostly married) were interviewed during August to November 2006 in five Indian states using a quantitative survey (n = 100 men and 100 women), eight focus groups (n = 58 participants), and in-depth interviews (n = 31). One third of men and one fourth of women reported inconsistent condom use with regular sexual partners. Facilitators of condom use with regular partners included a feeling of personal responsibility to protect the health of the partner, desire to prevent acquisition and/or transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and the belief that condoms are needed for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. Barriers to consistent condom use with regular partners included the belief that condoms are unnecessary in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships; lack of sexual satisfaction with condoms; the desire to have a child; husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety; fear that disclosure of HIV status will bring marital discord and family shame; and inadequate counseling by health care providers. Positive prevention programs should include counseling about benefits of safer sex in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships, counseling about integrating condom use with sexual satisfaction and intimacy, condom use self-efficacy and negotiation skills-building, family planning counseling, mental health and alcohol dependence treatment, and counseling and skills-building about disclosure. Health care providers must be trained to provide these services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to promote tolerance for family planning choices made by couples and to counter the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and condoms in the broader society. PMID:20095889

  3. Differences in testing, stigma, and perceived consequences of stigmatization among heterosexual men and women living with HIV in Bengaluru, India.

    PubMed

    Malavé, S; Ramakrishna, J; Heylen, E; Bharat, S; Ekstrand, M L

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 2.4 million people in India are living with HIV. Gender inequality affects HIV prevention, detection, and management. The purpose of this paper was to describe gender differences in the experience of living with HIV in Bengaluru, India. A subsample of n = 313 (159 men and 154 women) from a larger cohort was used for these analyses. Participants were recruited through AIDS service organizations. They completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing HIV testing experience, types of stigma, and perceived consequences of stigmatization. The majority of men (67%) reported getting HIV tested because of illness, while women were more likely to be tested after learning their spouse's HIV-positive status (42%). More men (59%) than women (45%, p<0.05) were tested in private care settings. Men reported significantly higher mean levels of internalized stigma (men: M=0.71, SD = 0.63; women: M=0.46, SD = 0.55; p<0.001), whereas the women reported significantly higher scores for enacted stigma (men: M=1.30, SD = 1.69; women: M=2.10, SD = 2.17; p<0.001). These differences remained significant after controlling for potential socio-demographic covariates. Following their diagnosis, more women reported moving out of their homes (men: 16%; women: 26%; p<0.05). More men (89%) than women (66%; p<0.001) reported to have modified their sexual behavior after being diagnosed. These findings suggest that the experience of living with HIV and HIV stigma varies by gender in this population. Suggestions for a gender-based approach to HIV prevention and stigma reduction are provided. PMID:23869716

  4. Childhood photographs of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Grellert, E A

    1989-08-01

    20 homosexual men and 20 heterosexual men, including a pair of discordant identical twins, contributed photographs of themselves at 6 mo. to 6 yr. of age for judging on personality. 18 traits were rated successfully. Factor analysis yielded two factors, Extroversion and Toughness. Data for only 19 homosexual and 11 heterosexual men were usable for the t tests; no significant differences were found, although trends for the homosexual group suggested less Extroversion and less Toughness. For the twins, photographs the mother identified as the homosexual twin were rated as showing less Extroversion and less Toughness. In conclusion, no obvious differences were found in the ratings of homosexuals' childhood photographs but slight differences were hinted at. PMID:2780940

  5. Understanding Heterosexual Condom Use Among Homeless Men

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ewing, Brett; Wertheimer, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    This study uses an event-based approach to examine individual, relationship, and contextual correlates of heterosexual condom use among homeless men. Structured interviews were conducted with a predominantly African American sample of 305 men recruited from meal lines in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Men reported on their most recent heterosexual event involving vaginal or anal intercourse. Adjusting for demographic characteristics only, condom use was more likely when men had higher condom use self-efficacy, greater HIV knowledge, or talked to their partner about condoms prior to sex. Condom use was less likely when men held more negative attitudes towards condoms, the partner was considered to be a primary/serious partner, hard drug use preceded sex, or sex occurred in a public setting. Condom attitudes, self-efficacy, partner type, and communication were the strongest predictors of condom use in a multivariate model that included all of the above-mentioned factors. Associations of unprotected sex with hard drug use prior to sex and having sex in public settings could be accounted for by lower condom self-efficacy and/or less positive condom attitudes among men having sex under these conditions. Results suggest that it may be promising to adapt existing, evidence-based IMB interventions for delivery in non-traditional settings that are frequented by men experiencing homelessness to achieve HIV risk reduction and thus reduce a significant point of disparity for the largely African American population of homeless men. PMID:22392155

  6. Lateralization for Processing Facial Emotions in Gay Men, Heterosexual Men, and Heterosexual Women.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi; Yusuf, Sifat

    2015-07-01

    This study tested whether male sexual orientation and gender nonconformity influenced functional cerebral lateralization for the processing of facial emotions. We also tested for the effects of sex of poser and emotion displayed on putative differences. Thirty heterosexual men, 30 heterosexual women, and 40 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), IQ, and the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT). The CFT depicts vertically split chimeric faces, formed with one half showing a neutral expression and the other half showing an emotional expression and performance is measured using a "laterality quotient" (LQ) score. We found that heterosexual men were significantly more right-lateralized when viewing female faces compared to heterosexual women and gay men, who did not differ significantly from each other. Heterosexual women and gay men were more left-lateralized for processing female faces. There were no significant group differences in lateralization for male faces. These results remained when controlling for age and IQ scores. There was no significant effect of CGN on LQ scores. These data suggest that gay men are feminized in some aspects of functional cerebral lateralization for facial emotion. The results were discussed in relation to the selectivity of functional lateralization and putative brain mechanisms underlying sexual attraction towards opposite-sex and same-sex targets. PMID:25564038

  7. Racial disparities in sexual risk behaviors and drug use among older gay/bisexual and heterosexual men living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Karus, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Adults over age 50 comprise 11% of yearly AIDS cases, yet little is known about their sexual risk behaviors and drug use following diagnosis with HIV/AIDS. The present questionnaire study examines potential racial differences in sexual risk and drug use behaviors among 59 HIV-infected gay/bisexual and heterosexual men over age 50 who were recruited from HIV-related organizations in New York City between 1996-1998. The majority (59%) of older men reported unprotected sex since diagnosis, and 36% had done so in the past six months. African-American gay/bisexual men (n=12) were significantly more likely than white gay/bisexual men (n=32) to report unprotected vaginal/anal sex in the past six months (67% versus 22%, p<0.01), since diagnosis (42% versus 9%, p<0.05), and to report a history of intravenous drug use (50% versus 3%, p<0.01), but did not differ from heterosexual African-American men (n=15). No differences were found in reports of unprotected oral sex or recent use of hard drugs (i.e., crack, cocaine, heroin). These findings suggest that interventions targeting older African-American men (both gay/bisexual and heterosexual) with HIV/AIDS are needed to reduce risk behaviors and prevent HIV transmission in this population. PMID:14977281

  8. Patterns of sexual arousal in homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Jerome A; Janssen, Erick

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this stimulus would induce relatively low levels of response in heterosexual and homosexual men. A sample of 59 men (19 homosexual, 13 bisexual, and 27 heterosexual) were presented with a series of 4-min sexual videos while their genital and subjective sexual responses were measured continuously. Bisexual men did not differ significantly in their responses to male homosexual stimuli (depicting men engaging in sex) from homosexual men, and they did not differ significantly in their responses to heterosexual (depicting two women, without same-sex contact, engaged in sex with a man) and lesbian (depicting women engaging in sex) stimuli from heterosexual men. However, bisexual men displayed significantly higher levels of both genital and subjective sexual arousal to a bisexual stimulus (depicting a man engaged in sex with both a man and a woman) than either homosexual or heterosexual men. The findings of this study indicate that bisexuality in men is associated with a unique and specific pattern of sexual arousal. PMID:21387117

  9. Recollections of Sexual Socialisation among Marginalised Heterosexual Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about

  10. Recollections of Sexual Socialisation among Marginalised Heterosexual Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about…

  11. Recollections of sexual socialisation among marginalised heterosexual black men

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about sex from the media and least often learn about sex from family members. The content of sexual information varies in specifics, but overall tends to equate sex with pleasure, encourage sexual activity with multiple partners, and emphasise using protection. Our goal is to use this data to better understand how sexual socialisation contributes to the prevalence of multiple sexual partners and high rates of HIV among heterosexual black men in order to inform future risk-reduction intervention programmes. PMID:24482611

  12. Knowing is not enough: a qualitative report on HIV testing among heterosexual African-American men

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Keosha T.; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one’s status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of “testing as prevention” as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014

  13. Knowing is not enough: a qualitative report on HIV testing among heterosexual African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bond, Keosha T; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-01-01

    Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one's status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of "testing as prevention" as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014

  14. Emotional reactions of heterosexual men to gay imagery.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Cj

    2015-01-01

    Studies of homonegativity in the general population typically use scales to examine the attitudes of a heterosexual sample toward gay men and lesbian women. However, these scales fail to address that accepting gay and lesbian people in theory is not tantamount to accepting the sexual practices engaged in by gay and lesbian people. As a result, relying on homonegativity scales and hypothetical scenarios (i.e., asking a participant to imagine a gay man or lesbian woman from personality characteristics provided) may not offer a complete view of the complexities of homonegativity. To explore this possibility, 83 men self-identifying as either largely or exclusively heterosexual rated one of three groups of images (romantic gay, erotic gay, and control) on the basis of five questions related to their emotional responses. A psychometrically sound homonegativity scale was also completed. Results indicated that homonegativity was a significant predictor of decreased happiness, anger, disgust, task enjoyment, and reported liking of the imagery. Furthermore, homonegativity was found to moderate the association between exposure to the romantic images and four of the five emotional responses (happiness, anger, disgust, and liking). Exposure to the set of erotic gay images, however, was associated with negative emotional responses, regardless of participants' self-reported level of homonegativity (i.e., overt homonegativity possessed less moderational power for this type of imagery). These findings suggest that standard scales of homonegative attitudes may be unable to capture the affective negativity that heterosexual men experience when viewing gay male intimacy. PMID:25153351

  15. Characteristics of men who have sex with men on the internet but identify as heterosexual, compared with heterosexually identified men who have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Daneback, Kristian; Tikkanen, Ronny

    2005-04-01

    We compared men who have sex with other men on the Internet with the remainder of the sample of men who reported only sex with women on the Internet, in a sample of 1,846 Swedish men recruited from a major Swedish portal. We report on the self-identified heterosexual men in the sample who reported engaging in cybersex in the past year, and for whom there was complete data on sexual identity and the gender of cybersexual partners. Of the 244 cases with full data, 76% were heterosexual in both identity and behavior, 16% were gay or bisexual in identity and reported both male and female cybersexual contacts on the Internet, and 8% indicated their sexual preference was heterosexual but also reported at least one male sexual partner on the Internet. Thus, 11% of self-identified heterosexual men had sex with other men online. Comparing the two groups, the men who had sex with men (MSM) who did not identify (MSM-NI) spent significantly more time per week online, although a similar amount of time on sexual pursuits, as the heterosexual men. The MSM-NI were significantly more likely to agree that their online sexuality had affected their sexuality in a positive way, to have bought sex from prostitutes, to agree that they do things online that they would not do offline, have cybersex more often, use a web-camera and microphone more often, flirt and visit contact sites more often, and agree more often that sexual thoughts and behaviors are causing problems, desire to have sex creates problems, and sometimes fail to meet commitments due to their sexual behavior. These data taken together suggest that MSM-NI online are not uncommon and are characterized by the extent of their cybersexual involvement that sometimes extends to other men. Such men may rationalize this cybersex with other men as not, or minimally, sexual in much the same way as Humphreys characterized MSMs in public restrooms. PMID:15938652

  16. “Straight Talk” for African American heterosexual men: Results of a single-arm behavioral intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    FRYE, Victoria; HENNY, Kirk; BONNER, Sebastian; WILLIAMS, Kim; BOND, Keosha T.; HOOVER, Donald R.; LUCY, Debbie; GREENE, Emily; KOBLIN, Beryl A.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, heterosexual transmission is the second leading cause of HIV/AIDS, and two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 occurred among African Americans. Few HIV prevention interventions have been designed specifically for African American heterosexual men not seeking clinical treatment. Here we report results of a single-arm intervention trial of a theory-based HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering and increase HIV testing, among heterosexually active, African American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. We tested our hypothesis using McNemar discordant pairs exact test for binary variables and paired t-tests for continuous variables. We observed statistically significant declines in mean number of total and new female partners, unprotected sex partners and partner concurrency in both primary and non-primary sex partnerships between baseline and three months post-intervention. PMID:23005899

  17. Straight talk: HIV prevention for African-American heterosexual men: theoretical bases and intervention design.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A

    2012-10-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood. PMID:23016501

  18. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men: Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood. PMID:23016501

  19. Racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms as pathways to sexual HIV risk behaviors among urban Black heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to cope with racial discrimination-based traumatic stress to reduce sexual HIV risk behaviors in Black communities. PMID:24797317

  20. Heterosexual anal intercourse among men in Long Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Hess, Kristen L; Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G

    2014-01-01

    Anal intercourse poses a greater risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than vaginal intercourse, and in recent years there has been a growing understanding that heterosexual anal intercourse (HAI) is not uncommon. However, the majority of the anal intercourse literature has focused on men who have sex with men. The little research on HAI has mostly looked at women, with limited work among men. This analysis examined the association between HAI and high-risk behaviors (N = 1,622) and sexual sensation seeking (N = 239) in a sample of men recruited from 2001 to 2012 in Long Beach, California. Almost half of the sample was non-Hispanic Black. The median age was 42 years, 42% were homeless, and 20% reported recent HAI. Men who reported HAI were likely to be Hispanic, were likely to be homeless, had a male partner, engaged in sex exchange, and used cocaine or amphetamines during sex. Men who reported HAI scored higher on the Sexual Sensation Seeking scale. This research supports other work showing the relationship between HAI and high-risk behaviors. More important, it contributes new knowledge by demonstrating the association between HAI and sexual sensation seeking. This research highlights the importance of personality traits when trying to understand sexual behavior and when developing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24024565

  1. Age and embodied masculinities: midlife gay and heterosexual men talk about their bodies.

    PubMed

    Lodge, Amy C; Umberson, Debra

    2013-08-01

    This article integrates critical gerontology and masculinities theories to examine how midlife gay and heterosexual men experience their bodies in relation to cultural discourses of aging. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 15 gay and 15 heterosexual men ages 40-60 reveal that while both groups of men describe their bodies as deteriorating or declining in terms of functionality and are often distressed by these changes, midlife gay men also articulate a concern with a perceived decline in bodily appearance. Both gay and heterosexual midlife men frame their bodies as fundamentally different from women's, possibly in an attempt to protect a masculine identity in response to the threat that aging bodies pose to that identity. We argue that midlife men's embodied experiences are shaped by a discourse of midlife decline as well as inequalities between gay and heterosexual men. We also discuss the implications of embodiment for midlife men's well-being. PMID:23849420

  2. Oral human papillomavirus type-specific infection in HIV-infected men: a prospective cohort study among men who have sex with men and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Darwich, L; Caadas, M P; Videla, S; Coll, J; Molina-Lpez, R A; Cobarsi, P; Sirera, G; Clotet, B

    2014-09-01

    The natural history of type-specific oral infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) was assessed in a cohort of HIV-infected men (538 men who have sex with men (MSM); 195 heterosexuals). Risk factors associated with oral HPV infections were examined. The overall prevalence of HPV was 16%: HPV-16 was the most prevalent type (3.7% MSM; 7.8% heterosexuals). The prevalence of HPV-16 in heterosexuals was associated with CD4 nadir counts <200 cells/?L (ORadjusted = 3.0, 95% CI, 1.4-6.3). The overall incidence of HPV was similar between groups (11%), but the incidence of HPV-16 was higher in heterosexuals (ORadjusted = 3.2, 95% CI, 1.1-9.5). Not only MSM but also HIV-infected heterosexual men are at risk of HPV infection. Regular and careful oral inspection is needed. PMID:24382308

  3. Racial Discrimination and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms as Pathways to Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors Among Urban Black Heterosexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C.; Burkholder, Gary J.; Massie, Jenné S.; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually-identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study’s mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men’s increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men’s adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men’s lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to cope with racial discrimination-based traumatic stress to reduce sexual HIV risk behaviors in Black communities. PMID:24797317

  4. A Latent Class Analysis of Heterosexual Young Men's Masculinities.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed "masculinities") and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 heterosexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men's endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of "dominant" masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Two groups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with "dominant" masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with "traditional" ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity. PMID:26496914

  5. Age and Embodied Masculinities: Mid-Life Gay and Heterosexual Men Talk about their Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Amy C.; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article integrates critical gerontology and masculinities theories to examine how midlife gay and heterosexual men experience their bodies in relation to cultural discourses of aging. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 15 gay and 15 heterosexual men ages 40–60 reveal that while both groups of men describe their bodies as deteriorating or declining in terms of functionality and are often distressed by these changes, midlife gay men also articulate a concern with a perceived decline in bodily appearance. Both gay and heterosexual midlife men frame their bodies as fundamentally different from women’s, possibly in an attempt to protect a masculine identity in response to the threat that aging bodies pose to that identity. We argue that midlife men’s embodied experiences are shaped by a discourse of midlife decline as well as inequalities between gay and heterosexual men. We also discuss the implications of embodiment for midlife men’s well-being. PMID:23849420

  6. Hombres Sanos: Evaluation of a Social Marketing Campaign for Heterosexually Identified Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Zellner, Jennifer A.; Sañudo, Fernando; Fernandez-Cerdeño, Araceli; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Sipan, Carol L.; Engelberg, Moshe; Carrillo, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of Hombres Sanos [Healthy Men] a social marketing campaign to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually identified Latino men, especially among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Methods. Hombres Sanos was implemented in northern San Diego County, California, from June 2006 through December 2006. Every other month we conducted cross-sectional surveys with independent samples of heterosexually identified Latino men before (n = 626), during (n = 752), and after (n = 385) the campaign. Respondents were randomly selected from 12 targeted community venues to complete an anonymous, self-administered survey on sexual practices and testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. About 5.6% of respondents (n = 98) were heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. Results. The intervention was associated with reduced rates of recent unprotected sex with both females and males among heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. The campaign was also associated with increases in perception of HIV risk, knowledge of testing locations, and condom carrying among heterosexual Latinos. Conclusions. Social marketing represents a promising approach for abating HIV transmission among heterosexually identified Latinos, particularly for heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. Given the scarcity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for these populations, this prevention strategy warrants further investigation. PMID:21068423

  7. Dating, Marriage, and Parenthood for HIV-Positive Heterosexual Puerto Rican Men: Normalizing Perspectives on Everyday Life With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M.; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. PMID:24794822

  8. Dating, marriage, and parenthood for HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men: normalizing perspectives on everyday life with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2015-03-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. PMID:24794822

  9. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries. PMID:26183812

  10. Do Lesbians Differ from Heterosexual Men and Women in Levinsonian Phases of Adult Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Scruggs, Kathy S.

    2008-01-01

    Research conducted on heterosexual women has been generalized to lesbians. However, the question remains whether lesbians differ in their adult development from heterosexual men and women. This article reviews results of 10 one-on-one life story interviews conducted with self-identified lesbians between the ages of 35 and 45. Information from…

  11. Effect of Psychopathy on Physical Aggression Toward Gay and Heterosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…

  12. Partner notification among men who have sex with men and heterosexuals with STI/HIV: different outcomes and challenges.

    PubMed

    van Aar, Fleur; van Weert, Yolanda; Spijker, Ralph; Götz, Hannelore; Op de Coul, Eline

    2015-07-01

    Partner notification effectiveness among index clients diagnosed with HIV, syphilis and/or gonorrhoea at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics was evaluated between 2010 and 2012. We explored percentages of identifiable, notified and tested partners by sexual preference and gender. Partner notification trends were studied using the national STI database. Men who have sex with men (n = 304), heterosexual men (n = 33) and women (n = 35) reported, respectively, 6.7, 3.8 and 2.3 partners per index. Percentages of identifiable partners differed between groups (men who have sex with men: 46%, heterosexual men: 63%, women: 87%, p < 0.001). The percentage of notified partners (of those identifiable) was lowest for heterosexual men (76%; men who have sex with men: 92%; women: 83%; p < 0.001). STI positivity rates among notified partners were high: 33%-50% depending on sexual preference. Among men who have sex with men, having HIV was associated with not notifying all identifiable partners. Percentages of notified clients at STI clinics increased between 2010 and 2012: from 13% to 19% among men who have sex with men, from 13% to 18% among heterosexual men and from 8% to 11% among women (p < 0.001 for all groups). The percentage of STI/HIV detected through partner notification increased among men who have sex with men (from 22% to 30%) and women (from 25% to 29%; p < 0.001). Unidentifiable partners among men who have sex with men, lower partner notification effectiveness for HIV and the relative large proportion of heterosexual men not notifying their partners appear to be important partner notification challenges. PMID:25141854

  13. The relation between mood and sexuality in heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, John; Janssen, Erick; Strong, David; Carnes, Lori; Vukadinovic, Zoran; Long, J Scott

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports on a study of individual variability in the relationship between negative mood and sexuality in men. Part 1 involves a questionnaire survey of 919 white heterosexual men, asking what typically happens to sexual interest and response when (a) depressed and (b) anxious/stressed, using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ). Trait measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, depression, anxiety, and sensation seeking were also used. Relationships between trait measures and MSQ scores were tested using multiple linear and ordinal logistic regression. Of those reporting the experience of depression, 9.4% indicated increased and 42% decreased sexual interest when depressed; for anxiety/stress, the percentages were 20.6 and 28.3%, respectively. Increase in sexual interest during negative mood states was negatively related to age and trait measures of sexual inhibition and positively related to depression proneness and sexual excitation. In Part 2, the relationship between mood and sexuality was explored qualitatively, using in-depth interviews with 43 participants from Part 1. This supported the findings in Part 1, while finding more complex relations with depression than anxiety. Sex when depressed can serve needs for intimacy and self-validation as well as sexual pleasure. Sex when anxious appears to be more simply related to the calming effect of sexual release, plus a possible "excitation transfer" effect of anxious arousal. Further research is needed to explore these relationships in clinical mood disorders. Paradoxical increases of sexual interest with negative mood may help explain high risk as well as "out of control" patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:12807294

  14. Do metropolitan HIV epidemic histories and programs for people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men predict AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; West, Brooke S.; Tempalski, Barbara; Morton, Cory M.; Cleland, Charles M.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Hall, H. Irene; Cooper, Hannah LF.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We focus on a little-researched issue—how HIV epidemics and programs in key populations in metropolitan areas affect epidemics in other key populations. We consider: 1) How are earlier epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWID) and men who have sex with men (MSM) related to later AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals?; 2) Were prevention programs targeting PWID or MSM associated with lower AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals?; and 3) Was the size of the potential bridge population of non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) in a metropolitan area associated with later AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals? Methods Using data for 96 large US metropolitan areas, Poisson regression assessed associations of population prevalences of HIV-infected PWID and MSM (1992); NIDU population prevalence (1992–1994); drug use treatment coverage for PWID (1993); HIV counseling and testing coverage for MSM and for PWID (1992); and syringe exchange presence (2000) with CDC data on AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals in 2006 – 2008, with appropriate socioeconomic controls. Results Population density of HIV+ PWID and of NIDUs were positively related, and prevention programs for PWID negatively related, to later AIDS incidence among heterosexuals and later mortality among heterosexuals living with AIDS. HIV+ MSM population density and prevention programs for MSM were not associated with these outcomes. Conclusions Efforts to reduce HIV transmission among PWID and NIDUs may reduce AIDS and AIDS-related mortality among heterosexuals. More research is needed at metropolitan area, network and individual levels into HIV bridging across key populations and how interventions in one key population affect HIV epidemics in other key populations. PMID:24529517

  15. HIV Type 1 transmission networks among men having sex with men and heterosexuals in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bezemer, Daniela; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Hassan, Amin; Hamers, Raph L; Mutua, Gaudensia; Anzala, Omu; Mandaliya, Kishor; Cane, Patricia; Berkley, James A; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Wallis, Carole; Graham, Susan M; Price, Matthew A; Coutinho, Roel A; Sanders, Eduard J

    2014-02-01

    We performed a molecular phylogenetic study on HIV-1 polymerase sequences of men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual patient samples in Kenya to characterize any observed HIV-1 transmission networks. HIV-1 polymerase sequences were obtained from samples in Nairobi and coastal Kenya from 84 MSM, 226 other men, and 364 women from 2005 to 2010. Using Bayesian phylogenetics, we tested whether sequences clustered by sexual orientation and geographic location. In addition, we used trait diffusion analyses to identify significant epidemiological links and to quantify the number of transmissions between risk groups. Finally, we compared 84 MSM sequences with all HIV-1 sequences available online at GenBank. Significant clustering of sequences from MSM at both coastal Kenya and Nairobi was found, with evidence of HIV-1 transmission between both locations. Although a transmission pair between a coastal MSM and woman was confirmed, no significant HIV-1 transmission was evident between MSM and the comparison population for the predominant subtype A (60%). However, a weak but significant link was evident when studying all subtypes together. GenBank comparison did not reveal other important transmission links. Our data suggest infrequent intermingling of MSM and heterosexual HIV-1 epidemics in Kenya. PMID:23947948

  16. Rethinking Gender, Heterosexual Men, and Women's Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Susie; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially vulnerable to HIV infection because of biological susceptibility and men's sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexual men are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women's vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of women in the epidemic, mounting challenges undermine its current usefulness. We review the etiology and successes of the paradigm as well as its accruing limitations. We also call for an expanded model that acknowledges biology, gender inequality, and gendered power relations but also directly examines social structure, gender, and HIV risk for heterosexual women and men. PMID:20075321

  17. The Association between Sexual Aggression and HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexual men. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…

  18. Prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Nyitray, Alan; Nielson, Carrie M; Harris, Robin B; Flores, Roberto; Abrahamsen, Martha; Dunne, Eileen F; Giuliano, Anna R

    2008-06-15

    In US men, the incidence of anal cancer, the primary cause of which is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, has increased almost 3-fold in 3 decades; however, little is known about the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, especially in heterosexual men. In 2 US cities, behavioral data and anal biological specimens were collected from 253 men who acknowledged having engaged in sexual intercourse with a woman during the preceding year. On the basis of DNA analysis, overall prevalence of anal HPV infection was found to be 24.8% in 222 men who acknowledged having had no prior sexual intercourse with men. Of the men with anal HPV infection, 33.3% had an oncogenic HPV type. Risk factors independently associated with anal HPV were lifetime number of female sex partners and frequency of sex with females during the preceding month. These results suggest that anal HPV infection may be common in heterosexual men. PMID:18426367

  19. Distressing Sexual Problems and Dyadic Adjustment in Heterosexuals, Gay Men, and Lesbian Women.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-05-18

    Empirical studies have focused on dyadic adjustment and sexual satisfaction in men and women. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the role of dyadic adjustment in sexual problems among individuals in same-sex and mixed-sex dyads. The aim of the current study was to analyze the differences in dyadic adjustment between gay and heterosexual men, and lesbian and heterosexual women, with and without distressing sexual problems. One hundred and sixty men (80 gay and 80 heterosexual) and 184 women (92 lesbian and 92 heterosexual) completed an online survey. Participants responded to the Dyadic Adjustment Scale-Short Version and to questions about self-perceived sexual problems and associated levels of distress. A 2 (gender) × 2 (sexual orientation) × 2 (group with or without sexual problems) univariate analysis of covariance was performed. The findings suggested that individuals with distressing sexual problems, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, scored significantly lower on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Additionally, lesbian women, regardless of having or not having a distressing sexual problem, scored significantly higher on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, compared to heterosexual women. No gender differences were found. Overall, our findings emphasize the negative association between dyadic adjustment and distressing sexual problems, regardless of gender and sexual orientation. PMID:26010170

  20. Heterosexual Men and Women Both Show a Hypothalamic Response to the Chemo-Signal Androstadienone

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sarah M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Gerber, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas; Bakker, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The odorous steroid compound 4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone), found in axillary sweat, was previously reported to evoke hypothalamic activation in heterosexual women, but not in heterosexual men. However, subjects were exposed to the pure crystalline form of androstadienone, which raised the question whether the observed hypothalamic response is physiologically relevant. Therefore, in the present study, we asked whether sexually dimorphic hypothalamic responses could be measured when subjects were exposed to lower, more physiologically relevant concentrations of androstadienone. A total of 21 women and 16 men, all heterosexual, participated in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study (fMRI). Three different concentrations of androstadienone diluted in propylene glycol (10 mM high, 0.1 mM medium and 0.001 mM low) were delivered to the subjects nostrils using a computer-controlled stimulator. When exposed to the high androstadienone concentration, women showed stronger hypothalamic activation than men. By contrast, men showed more hypothalamic activation when exposed to the medium androstadienone concentrations in comparison to women. Thus, we replicated that smelling the chemo-signal androstadienone elicits a hypothalamic activation. However, this effect does not seem to be gender-specific, because androstadienone activated the hypothalamus in both men and women, suggesting that androstadienone exerts specific effects in heterosexual individuals of both sexes. PMID:22815889

  1. The Use of the Internet to Meet Sexual Partners: A Comparison of Non-Heterosexually-Identified Men with Heterosexually-Identified Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Seal, David Wyatt; Benotsch, Eric G.; Green, Marisa; Snipes, Daniel J.; Bull, Sheana S.; Cejka, Anna; Lance, Shannon Perschbacher; Nettles, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, we conducted online interviews with 65 self-identified adult heterosexual men and women and gay/bisexual men to explore perceptions and experiences with meeting people online. Reasons for meeting people online, desired partner characteristics, and the process of connecting for sex paralleled those observed in real-life; but the Internet allowed people to identify more partners and specific partner characteristics. “Background checks” of online partners, even though often believed to be false, increased familiarity and trust leading to reduced perceived need for condom use. Participants said online condom use negotiation was easier, but usually occurred in face-to-face contexts in practice. (99) PMID:25767648

  2. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  3. Heterosexual behaviours among men who sell sex to men in coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adrian D.; Muhaari, Allan D.; Agwanda, Carole; Kowuor, Dickens; van der Elst, Elise; Davies, Alun; Graham, Susan M.; Jaffe, Harold W.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective African men who have sex with men often sell sex to men, and MSM who sell sex (MSM-SW) often also have female partners. We compared sexual risk behaviour of MSM-SW who were sexually active with female partners (bisexual MSW) to MSM-SW with only male partners (exclusive MSW). Design Descriptive behavioural study Methods A novel, validated daily event and partner diary self-completed by 82 MSM who sold sex over a follow-up period of 42 days with weekly review. Cumulative individual counts of sex and condomless sex were compiled by partner characteristics. The incidence of specific partnerships and sex acts were compared within and between bisexual and exclusive MSW. Results Most (59%) MSM-SW reported female partners during follow-up. The majority of both male and female partners were cash-paying clients originating locally. Bisexual MSW reported a similar rate of condomless sex with male and female partners, but significantly fewer male partners than exclusive MSW. Bisexual MSW had lower HIV prevalence, were more likely to only report insertive anal sex roles, and reported lower frequencies of condomless receptive anal sex than exclusive MSW. Conclusion Bisexually active male sex workers in coastal Kenya create HIV and other sexually transmitted infection transmission pathways to partners and clients in both MSM and heterosexual networks, but differed from exclusive MSW in having lower HIV acquisition and transmission risks. Epidemiological projection methods are liable to overestimate bridging potential of MSM-SW and MSM populations without account for systematic differences in risk within these populations. PMID:26565965

  4. The invisibility of heterosexuality in HIV/AIDS prevention for men.

    PubMed

    Leal, Andréa Fachel; Knauth, Daniela Riva; Couto, Márcia Thereza

    2015-09-01

    Heterosexual men have been a forgotten group for HIV/AIDS interventions and research. Our goal was to identify the different elements that interfere in the prevention of HIV/AIDS among heterosexual men, covering both traditional methods of prevention (especially safe sex practices and testing) and new strategies for prevention (pre- and post-sexual exposure prophylaxis, prevention treatment, and circumcision) in this population. This exploratory article consists of a nonsystematic review of the literature. We discuss the invisibility of heterosexual men in policies, in programs, and in health services. The several interventions analyzed are still poorly monitored and evaluated, so there is a lack of consistent evidence regarding the impact of prevention strategies in this population. Different masculinities, including hegemonic conceptions of masculinity, must be the foundation for interventions targeting men. Men must not be seen merely as a "bridge" in the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, but also as victims of gender patterns that make them vulnerable. PMID:26630304

  5. Sexual scripts and sexual risk behaviors among Black heterosexual men: development of the Sexual Scripts Scale.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J; Noar, Seth M; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2015-04-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men's HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  6. Sexual Scripts and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Black Heterosexual Men: Development of the Sexual Scripts Scale

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  7. Birth order and sibling sex ratio in homosexual and heterosexual non-white men.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, A F

    1998-10-01

    Researchers interested in the development of sexual orientation have investigated predominantly or exclusively White samples. To address this imbalance, the relations between sexual orientation and two biodemographic variables, birth order and sibling sex ratio, were examined in a sample of non-White men. The men (N = 823) were interviewed by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction from 1938 to 1963. A significantly later birth order was observed for non-White homosexual men relative to non-White heterosexual men. Non-White homosexual men also had an elevated sibling sex ratio. Results add to the generalizability of the birth order and sibling sex ratio effects previously observed to occur in (White) homosexual men. PMID:9795727

  8. Gym exercising patterns, lifestyle and high-risk sexual behaviour in men who have sex with men and in heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Z; Parfionov, K; Davidovitch, N; Grotto, I

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lifestyle may be associated with risk behaviours. This study compares gym exercise and sexual risk behaviour between men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men. The research was based on the assumption that men who become muscular and physically attractive increase their number of sex partners and consequently their risk of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Setting Five gyms in central Tel Aviv, Israel. Participants In 2012, a sample of 182 (48%) MSM and 197 (52%) heterosexual men who train in gyms completed anonymous questionnaires regarding their training, health and sexual behaviours. Outcomes Participants in this cross-sectional study who exercised more than the median number of anaerobic training hours were defined as performing intensive anaerobic training (IAT), and those who had performed more than one act of unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse in the preceding 6 months with a partner whose HIV status was unknown were defined as high risk. Results MSM showed a stronger desire to become muscular than heterosexual men, were more likely to perform IAT, and used protein powders or anabolic steroids. They reported that improving their body shape and increasing their self-confidence were their main reasons for training, whereas heterosexual men indicated weight loss and health improvement as the main reasons for training. MSM engaged in riskier sexual behaviour than heterosexual men. Of all the high-risk men, 61.9% (N=70) performed IAT, while 38.1% (N=43) performed moderate anaerobic training (p<0.01). The association between IAT and sexual risk was stronger in MSM than in heterosexual men (p<0.01 vs p=0.05, respectively). The interaction between MSM and IAT in high-risk participants was multiplicative. Conclusions MSM practised more IAT than heterosexual men, and their interaction between IAT and sexual risk was multiplicative. The MSM community could benefit from a holistic approach to sexual health and its association with body image and IAT. The gym MSM culture demonstrates how internal dynamics and social norms are possible factors driving MSM to high-risk behaviour for HIV/STI. Study registration The study was approved by the Wolfson Hospital Review Board, Holon, Israel (WOMC-0058-09). PMID:25421336

  9. Heterogenous Couples in Heterosexual Marriages: Gay Men and Straight Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozett, Frederick W.

    1982-01-01

    Focuses on the spousal relationship of gay men who had been married. Describes the man's disclosure of his homosexuality, the wife's response, and the interactional effects on the marriage relationship. Suggests the wife appeared to be an enabler of his transition to a homosexual life-style. (Author/JAC)

  10. Knowledge of HIV transmission and condom use among HIV-positive heterosexual men and women in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Guatemala among the general population is 0.79%, and 94% of transmission is directly related to sexual contact. Studies have been conducted on high- prevalence HIV-positive populations (men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers and prisoners). Heterosexual transmission has gained importance in the epidemic in Central America. To our knowledge, no study addressing knowledge of mechanisms of HIV transmission and condom use has been done on HIV-positive heterosexual men and women. Methods A closed-ended structured interview that addressed knowledge of mechanisms of HIV transmission and condom use was conducted on 283 heterosexual HIV-positive men (54.8%) and women (45.2%) outpatients who attend the Roosevelt Hospital's Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Guatemala City. Differences between selected characteristics were examined for significance using the Chi-square test. A multiple logistic regression was done to determine socio-demographic variables associated with inconsistent condom use. Results Of the interviewed persons, 68.5% were either living with a partner or married, and 94.3% were currently using antiretroviral therapy. Most respondents knew the mechanisms of transmission of HIV. 81.7% and 87.3% reported always using a condom with their regular and casual sexual partner in the past year, respectively. There was no statistically difference in condom use according to the patient's formal education, gender, type of partner (regular or casual)or number of sexual partners. According to the interviewees, 72% of sexual partners in the past year were either HIV negative or of an unknown serostatus. Potentially, these HIV-negative persons are at risk of contracting the virus. Among the main reasons given for not using a condom were: "my partner did not want to use a condom"; and "the condom irritates or makes my partner uncomfortable". Conclusions Since no socio-demographic or sexual behavior variable was associated with inconsistent condom use, we recommend intensive and regular condom counselling for every heterosexual HIV-positive outpatient who attends the clinic. Further studies should be done to determine condom use negotiation between partners; and to determine social, interpersonal and psychological factors that might affect the decision to use a condom or not. PMID:22182532

  11. Oxytocin's impact on social face processing is stronger in homosexual than heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Thienel, Matthias; Heinrichs, Markus; Fischer, Stefan; Ott, Volker; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved neuropeptide that contributes to the regulation of social interactions including the processing of facial stimuli. We hypothesized that its improving effect on social approach behavior depends on perceived sexual features and, consequently, on sexual orientation. In 19 homosexual and 18 heterosexual healthy young men, we investigated the acute effect of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo, respectively, on the processing of social stimuli as assessed by ratings of trustworthiness, attractiveness and approachability for male and female faces. Faces were each presented with a neutral, a happy, and an angry expression, respectively. In heterosexual subjects, the effect of oxytocin administration was restricted to a decrease in ratings of trustworthiness for angry female faces (p<0.02). In contrast, in homosexual men oxytocin administration robustly increased ratings of attractiveness and approachability for male faces regardless of the facial expression (all p ≤ 0.05), as well as ratings of approachability for happy female faces (p<0.01). Results indicate that homosexual in comparison to heterosexual men display higher sensitivity to oxytocin's enhancing impact on social approach tendencies, suggesting that differences in sexual orientation imply differential oxytocinergic signaling. PMID:24120269

  12. Sexual risk behavior has decreased among men who have sex with men in Los Angeles but remains greater than that among heterosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Ronald A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Newman, Peter A; Leibowitz, Arleen A

    2008-08-01

    We examined changes and correlates of sexual risk behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) compared with heterosexual men and women over three time periods. Data from the 1997, 1999, and 2003 Los Angeles County Health Surveys, a population-based telephone survey, were analyzed to examine the association of sociodemographic and health-related factors with sexual risk behaviors among the three groups. In each time period, MSM reported a significantly greater percentage of sexual risk (i.e., both inconsistent condom use and multiple sex partners in the past 12 months) compared with heterosexual men and women. Multivariate analyses indicated that MSM and heterosexual men reported greater sexual risk than heterosexual women. Respondents who were younger, U.S. born, reported heavy alcohol consumption, or had been tested for HIV in the past 24 months were more likely to report sexual risk behavior. The findings suggest the need for continued targeted prevention for MSM and prevention efforts for segments of the general population at elevated risk for HIV. PMID:18673064

  13. Polymorphous prejudice: liberating the measurement of heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Massey, Sean G

    2009-01-01

    A multidimensional measure of sexual prejudice was developed to assess the increasing complexity of heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a valid and reliable 7-factor measure that assessed: 1) traditional heterosexism; 2) tendency to deny anti-gay discrimination continues; 3) aversion toward gay men; 4) aversion to lesbians; 5) judgments regarding the value of the gay and lesbian movement; 6) resistance to heteronormative expectations; and 7) endorsement of positive beliefs about gay people. A modern heterosexism theory was supported and queer/liberationist notions of anti-heteronormativity and positive beliefs were found to be related to pro-homosexual attitudes. PMID:19197647

  14. Marketing HIV prevention for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women: the Hombres Sanos campaign.

    PubMed

    Fernández Cerdeño, Araceli; Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Sañudo, Fernando; Carrillo, Héctor; Engelberg, Moshe; Sipan, Carol; Hovell, Melbourne

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development process of Hombres Sanos, a social marketing campaign to promote HIV testing and condom use for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women. The steps included qualitative formative research and a social marketing analytic framework to understand our target audience better, identify incentives and barriers to risk reduction, guide product development, define an optimal promotional campaign, and inform the selection of campaign platforms. A better grasp of the authors' target beneficiaries' needs and values led to an innovative dual strategy for audience segmentation and targeting. The campaign had consumer-centered, culturally sensitive, and theory-driven communication materials. The authors found communication materials and events to be appealing and effective. The campaign was well received among the wider community, and evaluation showed promising results among Latino men in general and among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women in particular. The authors provide a step-by-step overview of the project's formative research, including research methods and findings, and how these were translated into a social marketing campaign. In addition, the authors discuss the challenges encountered in this process and the potential of social marketing to reduce HIV risk among Latinos. PMID:22500921

  15. Pilot evaluation of the Making Employment Needs [MEN] count intervention: addressing behavioral and structural HIV risks in heterosexual black men.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Dasgupta, Anindita; Goldson, Irvienne; Lafontant, Dumas; Freeman, Elmer; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-02-01

    Few community-based HIV interventions exist for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. None focus on structural HIV risks such as unemployment and unstable housing. This study involved a pilot evaluation of the MEN (Making Employment Needs) Count HIV intervention, a three session peer counselor-delivered program of HIV risk reduction and gender-equity counseling, and employment and housing case management. A single-arm intervention trial of MEN Count was conducted with Black men recruited from a community men's clinic and social services program. Eligible men were those who reported two or more sex partners in the past six months and current unemployment and/or recent homelessness. Most participants (68%) had a history of incarceration. Participants (N = 50) were surveyed on outcomes at baseline (Time 1), posttest (Time 2; 60-90 days after baseline), and two-month follow-up (Time 3). The majority of participants were retained in the program (86%) and the final follow-up survey (76%). McNemar tests revealed significant reductions in the past 30-day unprotected sex from Time 1 (74%) to Time 2 (47%) and to Time 3 (47%), and in homelessness from Time 1 (58%) to Time 3 (32%). Significant increases in employment from Time 1 (8%) to Time 2 (29%) and Time 3 (32%) were also seen. Participants completed a brief participant satisfaction survey at posttest. Most (n=28, 65%) rated the program as excellent, and an additional 10 (23%) rated it as good. Although there was no significant reduction in multiple sex partners, a trend was observed from Time 1 (56%) to Time 2 (44%) and Time 3 (42%). Findings suggest that the MEN Count model is a feasible and promising HIV prevention program for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. Larger scale implementation and more rigorous evaluation of MEN Count are needed to confirm the study findings. PMID:23767788

  16. Pilot Evaluation of the MEN [Making Employment Needs] Count Intervention: Addressing Behavioral and Structural HIV Risks in Heterosexual Black Men

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Anindita; Goldson, Irvienne; LaFontant, Dumas; Freeman, Elmer; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Few community-based HIV interventions exist for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. None focus on structural HIV risks such as unemployment and unstable housing. This study involved a pilot evaluation of the MEN [Making Employment Needs] Count HIV intervention, a three session peer counselor-delivered program of HIV risk reduction and gender equity counseling, and employment and housing case management. A single-arm intervention trial of MEN Count was conducted with Black men recruited from a community men’s clinic and social services program. Eligible men were those who reported 2 or more sex partners in the past 6 months and current unemployment and/or recent homelessness. Most participants (68%) had a history of incarceration. Participants (N=50) were surveyed on outcomes at baseline (Time 1), posttest (Time 2; 60–90 days after baseline), and 2 month follow-up (Time 3). The majority of participants were retained in the program (86%) and the final follow-up survey (76%). McNemar tests revealed significant reductions in past 30 day unprotected sex from Time 1 (74%) to Time 2 (47%) and to Time 3 (47%), and in homelessness from Time 1 (58%) to Time 3 (32%). Significant increases in employment from Time 1 (8%) to Time 2 (29%) and Time 3 (32%) were also seen. Participants completed a brief participant satisfaction survey at posttest. Most (n=28, 65%) rated the program as excellent, and an additional 10 (23%) rated it as good. Although there was no significant reduction in multiple sex partners, a trend was observed from Time 1 (56%) to Times 2 (44%) and 3 (42%). Findings suggest that the MEN Count model is a feasible and promising HIV prevention program for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. Larger scale implementation and more rigorous evaluation of MEN Count are needed to confirm study findings. PMID:23767788

  17. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  18. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  19. Gender Atypicality and Anxiety Response to Social Interaction Stress in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Roi; Cohen, Hagit; Diamond, Gary M

    2016-04-01

    Gender non-conforming behavior and a homosexual sexual orientation have both been linked to higher levels of anxiety. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of gender atypicality and sexual orientation on levels of state anxiety immediately following a stressful social interaction task among a sample of homosexual and heterosexual Israeli men (n = 36). Gender atypicality was measured via both self-report and observer ratings. State anxiety was measured via both self-report immediately subsequent to the stressful social interaction task and pre- to post task changes in salivary cortisol. Results showed that self-reported gender atypicality and heterosexual sexual orientation predicted higher levels of self-reported social interaction anxiety, but not changes in cortisol. There were no sexual orientation by gender behavior interactions and there were no significant effects for observer rated gender atypicality. These findings suggest that gender atypicality, not homosexuality, place individuals at risk for increased anxiety. PMID:25946903

  20. Patterns of Sexual Arousal in Young, Heterosexual Men Who Experience Condom-Associated Erection Problems (CAEP)

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Erick; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Hill, Brandon J.; Amick, Erick; Oversen, Drake; Kvam, Peter; Ingelhart, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) are reported by a substantial number of young men and are associated with inconsistent and/or incomplete condom use. The underlying mechanisms of CAEP are not well understood and research examining the possibility that men who report CAEP differ from other men in their sexual responsivity is lacking. Aim This study used psychophysiological methods to examine whether men who report CAEP have a higher threshold for sexual arousal, a stronger need for tactile stimulation, and/or more easily lose their sexual arousal due to neutral distractors or performance-related demands. Methods A total of 142 young, heterosexual men (53% reporting CAEP) were presented with four 3-minute erotic film clips. Three film clips were combined with one of the following manipulations: 1) distraction, 2) performance demand, or 3) vibrotactile stimulation. One erotic film clip was presented with no further instructions or manipulations. Main Outcome Measures Average penile circumference changes during the first, second, and third minute (Time) of the erotic film stimuli (Condition) were submitted to a mixed-model ANOVA with Condition and Time as within-subjects factors and Group (CAEP/No-CAEP) as between-subjects factor. Results Significant main effects of Condition and Time and a significant interaction of Group×Time were found. No significant interactions involving Condition were found. Men who reported CAEP had smaller erectile responses during the first minute, regardless of film condition, than men who reported no CAEP (F(1,141)=8.64, p<.005). Conclusion The findings suggest that men with and without CAEP differ in the ease with which they become sexually aroused. Men reporting CAEP needed more time and/or more intense stimulation to become aroused. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use psychophysiological methods to assess sexual responsivity in men who report CAEP. PMID:24787349

  1. Relationship status and testosterone in North American heterosexual and non-heterosexual men and women: cross-sectional and longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M; Watson, Neil V

    2006-07-01

    Previous research has found that single heterosexual (Het) men have higher salivary testosterone (T) concentrations than partnered Het men. Here, we used both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses to examine a more diverse population (n = 258) that included Het and non-heterosexual (Non-Het) women and men. Results showed that, for Het men (but not Het women) and Non-Het women (but not Non-Het men), baseline T was significantly lower in partnered than unpartnered individuals. Longitudinal analyses indicated that changes in partnered status were not associated with changes in testosterone concentrations; instead, women and men with lower T at baseline were significantly more likely to be partnered at follow-up. These findings thus suggest that partnered status is associated with stable, trait-level T values, rather than current state. Furthermore, the observed effect is limited to individuals (male or female) who are oriented toward female partners. The results are discussed in terms of evolutionary trade-offs between single and multiple partners, and the possibility of female choice and/or disinterest. PMID:16621328

  2. Sexual revictimization and mental health: a comparison of lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair

    2011-06-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has several deleterious effects on health and well-being, including increased risk for rape in adulthood. Such revictimization experiences are linked to negative mental health outcomes. The vast majority of literature on prevalence and impact of sexual revictimization has focused on heterosexual women. In an effort to extend this research to lesbians and gay men, who are known to face higher rates of both CSA and adult rape, we conducted a study (N = 871) comparing adult lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual women on prevalence and mental health correlates of sexual revictimization. Results indicated that CSA is associated with elevated rates of adult rape for all three groups. In addition, revictimization showed comparable associations with mental health variables for all three groups. Participants with both CSA and adult rape had higher levels of psychological distress, suicidality, alcohol use, and self-harm behaviors relative to those with only one type of victimization and those with no victimization, and those with any victimization were more likely to report recent use of drugs compared to those with no victimization. PMID:20724297

  3. Interest in Babies Negatively Predicts Testosterone Responses to Sexual Visual Stimuli Among Heterosexual Young Men.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Ponzi, Davide; Henry, Andrea; Kubicki, Konrad; Nickels, Nora; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Men's testosterone may be an important physiological mechanism mediating motivational and behavioral aspects of the mating/parenting trade-off not only over time but also in terms of stable differences between mating-oriented and parenting-oriented individuals. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that self-reported interest in babies is inversely related to testosterone reactivity to cues of short-term mating among heterosexual young men. Among 100 participants, interest in babies was related to a slow life-history strategy, as assessed by the Mini-K questionnaire, and negatively related to testosterone responses to an erotic video. Interest in babies was not associated with baseline testosterone levels or with testosterone reactivity to nonsexual social stimuli. These results provide the first evidence that differential testosterone reactivity to sexual stimuli may be an important aspect of individual differences in life-history strategies among human males. PMID:26626441

  4. Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for HIV-1 Prevention among Heterosexual Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly R.; Campbell, James D.; Wangisi, Jonathan; Tappero, Jordan W.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth H.; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; John-Stewart, Grace; Kakia, Aloysious; Odoyo, Josephine; Mucunguzi, Akasiima; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Twesigye, Rogers; Ngure, Kenneth; Apaka, Cosmas; Tamooh, Harrison; Gabona, Fridah; Mujugira, Andrew; Panteleeff, Dana; Thomas, Katherine K.; Kidoguchi, Lara; Krows, Meighan; Revall, Jennifer; Morrison, Susan; Haugen, Harald; Emmanuel-Ogier, Mira; Ondrejcek, Lisa; Coombs, Robert W.; Frenkel, Lisa; Hendrix, Craig; Bumpus, Namandj N.; Bangsberg, David; Haberer, Jessica E.; Stevens, Wendy S.; Lingappa, Jairam R.; Celum, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces the incidence of acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in men who have sex with men and is a promising approach for preventing HIV-1 in heterosexual populations. Methods We conducted a randomized, three-arm trial of oral antiretroviral PrEP among heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda in which one member was HIV-1 seronegative and the other HIV-1 seropositive. Seronegative partners were randomly assigned to once-daily tenofovir (TDF), combination emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF), or matching placebo and followed monthly for up to 36 months. At enrollment, HIV-1 seropositive partners were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy under national guidelines. All couples received standard HIV-1 treatment and prevention services, including individual and couples risk-reduction counseling and condoms. Results 4758 couples were enrolled; for 62%, the HIV-1 seronegative partner was male. For HIV-1 seropositive participants, the median CD4 count was 495 cells/?L (interquartile range 375662). Of 82 post-randomization HIV-1 infections, 17 were among those assigned TDF (incidence 0.65 per 100 person-years), 13 among those assigned FTC/TDF (incidence 0.50 per 100 person-years), and 52 among those assigned placebo (incidence 1.99 per 100 person-years), indicating a 67% relative reduction in HIV-1 incidence for TDF (95% CI 44 to 81, p<0.001) and 75% for FTC/TDF (95% CI 55 to 87, p<0.001). HIV-1 protective effects of FTC/TDF and TDF were not significantly different (p=0.23), and both study medications significantly reduced HIV-1 incidence in both men and women. The rate of serious medical events was similar across the study arms. Conclusions Oral TDF and FTC/TDF provided substantial protection against HIV-1 acquisition in heterosexual men and women, with comparable efficacy of TDF and FTC/TDF. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00557245) PMID:22784037

  5. Factors contributing to inconsistent condom use among heterosexual men in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bertens, Madelief G B C; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Schaalma, Herman P

    2013-01-01

    This study explored, from a public health perspective, factors that contribute to inconsistent condom use by men in Curaçao through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 21 heterosexual men. The findings show that there is an important disconnect between what is considered culturally appropriate sexual behaviour for men and women and condom use, that diverging from prescribed notions of masculinity and femininity in order to use condoms consistently is difficult, and that condom use is particularly problematic in the context of concurrent partnerships and sexual economic exchanges. Participants further reported that Caribbean family structures, whereby mothers assume the role as primary caregiver and fathers contribute biologically but, to a much lesser extent socially, also have an impact on condom use. Additionally, consistent condom use was reported to be impeded by a cultural taboo on talking seriously about sex and sexual health. In their totality, findings provide important input from men for the development of sexual health promotion interventions that are cognizant of the cultural context in which inconsistent condom use occurs, and that are geared not only to the individual level but also to the interpersonal and structural levels. PMID:23350609

  6. Incorporation of Estimated Community Viral Load Before HIV Diagnosis for Enhancing Epidemiologic Investigations: A Comparison Between Men Who Have Sex With Men and Heterosexual Men in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ngai Sze; Wong, Ka Hing; Wong, Philip K H; Lee, Shui Shan

    2015-10-01

    Currently, no studies have specifically incorporated population-level viral load measures for analyzing temporal trends of HIV infection in the Asia Pacific. With the use of longitudinal data from 950 HIV-infected heterosexual male and 1331 men who have sex with men managed at a major HIV clinic in Hong Kong between 1985 and 2012, viral load changes at population levels were compared. We back-calculated seroconversion year of each diagnosed patient and estimated the population-level viral load under the framework recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Full community viral load, a newly designed measure incorporating diagnosed and undiagnosed HIV-infected patients, was 3 to 8 times higher than community viral load derived from diagnosed patients only. The growth curve of full community viral load was 5 years ahead of other viral load measures, the shape of which lent support to the phenomenon of local transmission of men who have sex with men but not among heterosexual male in the predominantly Chinese HIV community in Hong Kong. PMID:26041836

  7. Heterosexual Men's Ratings of Sexual Attractiveness of Adolescent Girls: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul; Lowe, Rob; Petrova, Hristina

    2015-11-01

    Following an identical procedure to the one we previously reported (O'Donnell, Lowe, Brotherton, & Bennett, 2014), we examined ratings of sexual attraction to photographs of (the same) adolescent girls (Tanner stages 3-4) labelled as either 14-15 years or 16-17 years old, women, and men. Ratings were made by Bulgarian heterosexual men by pressing buttons on a response box which recorded the ratings made and the time in milliseconds taken to respond. Despite the age of sexual consent in Bulgaria being 14 years, the pattern of findings did not differ from those found in the UK, where the age of consent is 16 years. That is, mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the girls labelled as younger were lower than those of the (same) girls labelled as older, and those of the women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when younger girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. These associations were reversed in response to the photographs of women. We take these findings to indicate an inhibitory effect arising from generalized sexual norms relating to the inappropriateness of sexual attraction to young girls; the greater the attraction, the higher the inhibition. This second replication of our initial findings suggests a robust effect that may be of benefit in exploration of pedophile or sex offender groups. PMID:25813610

  8. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  9. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men

    PubMed Central

    Essien, Ekere J; Meshack, Angela F; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, Gbadebo O; Osemene, Nora I

    2005-01-01

    Background As part of qualitative research for developing a culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate videotape-based HIV prevention intervention for heterosexual African- American men, six focus groups were conducted with thirty African-American men to determine their perceptions of AIDS as a threat to the African-American community, characteristics of past situations that have placed African Americans at risk for HIV infection, their personal high risk behaviors, and suggestions on how HIV intervention videotapes could be produced to achieve maximum levels of interest among African-American men in HIV training programs. Methods The groups took place at a low-income housing project in Houston, Texas, a major epicenter for HIV/AIDS. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The results revealed that low-income African-American men perceive HIV/AIDS as a threat to their community and they have placed themselves at risk of HIV infection based on unsafe sex practices, substance abuse, and lack of knowledge. They also cite lack of income to purchase condoms as a barrier to safe sex practice. They believe that HIV training programs should address these risk factors and that videotapes developed for prevention should offer a sensationalized look at the effects of HIV/AIDS on affected persons. They further believe that programs should be held in African-American communities and should include condoms to facilitate reduction of risk behaviors. Conclusions The results indicate that the respondents taking part in this study believe that HIV and AIDS are continued threats to the African-American community because of sexual risk taking behavior, that is, failure to use condoms. Further, African-American men are having sex without condoms when having sex with women often when they are under the influence of alcohol or other mind-altering substances and they are having sex with men while incarcerated and become infected and once released resume unprotected sexual relations with women. According to the men, substance abuse is an important part of the problem of HIV in the African-American community. This is in keeping with research that shows that drug use, especially crack cocaine, is linked to sexual risk taking among African Americans and to increased likelihood of becoming infected with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV. Thus, interventions for men should address condom use, condom availability, skills for using condoms, eroticizing condoms and substance abuse prevention. Men in the present study also strongly recommended that HIV/AIDS videotaped messages should include footage of the sensational effects of the disease. PMID:15638937

  10. “What Does it Take to be a Man? What is a Real Man?”: Ideologies of masculinity and HIV sexual risk among Black heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Massie, Jenné S.; Patel, Aditi; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Research documents the link between traditional ideologies of masculinity and sexual risk among multi-ethnic male adolescents and White male college students, but similar research with Black heterosexual men is scarce. This exploratory study addressed this gap through six focus groups with 41 Black, low to middle income heterosexual men aged 19 to 51 years in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses highlighted two explicit ideologies of masculinity: that Black men should have sex with multiple women, often concurrently; and that Black men should not be gay or bisexual. Analyses also identified two implicit masculinity ideologies: the perception that Black heterosexual men cannot decline sex, even risky sex; and that women are primarily responsible for condom use. The study’s implications for HIV prevention with Black heterosexual men are discussed. PMID:21390949

  11. Emotional Intimacy Among Coupled Heterosexual and Gay/Bisexual Croatian Men: Assessing the Role of Minority Stress.

    PubMed

    Šević, Sandra; Ivanković, Iva; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-07-01

    Emotional intimacy cuts across contexts as diverse as sexual motivation and satisfaction, psychological and physical health, and relational well-being. Although the experience of intimacy and its effects on sex life may be gender and sexual orientation-specific, the role of intimacy in personal and sexual relationships has been studied mostly among heterosexual individuals and couples. Using the minority stress framework (Meyer, 2003) to address this gap in knowledge, the present study comparatively explored levels and predictors/correlates of emotional intimacy, and its association with sexual satisfaction among coupled heterosexual and gay/bisexual men sampled online in a predominantly homonegative country (Croatia). Heterosexual participants (n = 860; M age = 36.4, SD = 9.09) were recruited in 2011 and gay/bisexual participants (n = 250; M age = 29.4, SD = 7.13) in 2013. Controlling for age and relationship duration, gay/bisexual men reported higher levels of emotional intimacy than heterosexual men. Suggesting that the role of emotional intimacy in sexual satisfaction is not sexual orientation-specific, the strength of the association between these two constructs was similar in both samples. However, internalized homonegativity, which was negatively associated with emotional intimacy in this study, remains a challenge to creating and maintaining intimacy in male same-sex relationships. PMID:26014824

  12. A Comparison of Men Who Have Sex with Men, People Who Inject Drugs and High-Risk Heterosexuals' Risk for HIV Infection, San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Raymond, H F; Ick, T O; Chen, Y-H

    2016-02-01

    HIV in the United States is concentrated in populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), women of color and people living in poverty. These populations are labeled high-risk for HIV infection because of the higher levels of HIV or HIV risk taking behaviors seen in these groups compared to other sub-populations. It is also possible that a group may engage in behaviors that are "high-risk" for HIV infection but never become infected since HIV is not present or not present to a great extent in their social or sexual networks. We analyzed samples of MSM, PWID and high-risk heterosexuals (HRH) collected through the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system in San Francisco to examine HIV risk taking and HIV burden to determine if the label "high-risk" is appropriately applied. NHBS samples MSM using time location sampling and PWID and HRH using Respondent Driven Sampling. We sampled 508 MSM in 2011, 570 PWID in 2012 and 267 HRH in 2013. There were, as expected, differences in demographic characteristics across the three groups. HRH had a greater number of high-risk behaviors compared to MSM and PWID but had the lowest HIV prevalence. Focusing on risk behavior alone to label populations without considering the background HIV prevalence in communities, the types of risks engaged in and actual HIV infections may obscure which populations truly merit the label "high-risk" for HIV infection. PMID:26334446

  13. Misperceptions about HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American and Latino men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Essien, E. James; Meshack, Angela F.; Ross, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    This research was conducted to identify myths and misperceptions about HIV/AIDS and barriers to risk reduction among heterosexual African-American and Latino-American men and women in Houston, Texas. Sixty four Latino-American and 69 African-American men and women, aged 13 to 59 years, participated in 10 and 11 focus groups, respectively. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. The data confirmed the existence of myths and misperceptions among both groups about HIV/AIDS, specifically that HIV is an agent of genocide, suspicion of government information, belief that one can identify risky partners by odor and appearance, that partners' reported histories are accurate, significant misperceptions as to the meaning of "safe sex" (particularly in women), and belief that specific classes of people (not including oneself) are at risk for HIV. These data strongly suggest that concentration on narrow targeting of misinformation common in particular minority populations is important in the development of HIV/AIDS prevention programs. PMID:12069209

  14. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683

  15. Sex ratio of older siblings in heterosexual and homosexual, right-handed and non-right-handed men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated why older brothers, which increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males who are right-handed, have no effect or the opposite effect on later-born males who are non-right-handed. The specific question was whether the different results for the non-right-handed men have to do with the heterosexual non-right-handers or the homosexual non-right-handers. The human sex ratio at birth (106 males per 100 females) was used as a gold standard for determining which groups differ from the general population and in which direction. All usable data from previous studies were combined to obtain the largest possible sample (N = 8,201). The observed ratio of older brothers to older sisters was 105 for the heterosexual right-handers, 128 for the homosexual right-handers, 127 for the heterosexual non-right-handers, and 96 for the homosexual non-right-handers. The ratios for the homosexual right-handers and the heterosexual non-right-handers differed significantly from the expected value. These results suggest that both heterosexual and homosexual non-right-handers contribute to the older brothers x handedness x sexual orientation interaction. PMID:17186124

  16. Hombres Sanos: exposure and response to a social marketing HIV prevention campaign targeting heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Fernández-Cerdeño, Araceli; Sañudo, Fernando; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Engelberg, Moshe; Ji, Ming

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the reach and impact of a social marketing intervention to reduce HIV risk among heterosexually identified (HI) Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Repeated cross-sectional intercept surveys were conducted in selected community venues during and after the campaign with 1,137 HI Latino men. Of them, 6% were classified as HI Latino MSMW. On average, 85.9% of the heterosexual respondents and 86.8% of the HI MSMW subsample reported exposure to the campaign. Responses to the campaign included having made an appointment for a male health exam that included HIV testing and using condoms. Campaign exposure was significantly associated with HIV testing behavior and intentions and with knowledge of where to get tested. The campaign reached its underserved target audience and stimulated preventive behaviors. Social marketing represents a promising approach for HIV prevention among HI Latinos, in general, and HI Latino MSMW, in particular. PMID:19824840

  17. Condom use among heterosexual immigrant Latino men in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Montaño, Jaime

    2007-10-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (+/-SD) age was 29.8 (+/-8.3) years. Approximately 60% reported Mexico as their country of origin, 60% reported Grade 8 or below as their highest level of education, and 50% reported using condoms during their most recent vaginal intercourse episodes. Adjusting for relationship status, multivariable logistic regression identified four correlates of condom use: having sought health care information from family members (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.48-9.13); greater knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention (AOR = 2.61; CI = 1.23-5.54); greater condom use self-efficacy (AOR = 4.45; 95% CI = 2.12-9.36); and greater adherence to traditional masculine norms (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.02-4.33). Our findings underscore the need for innovative and targeted HIV and STD prevention programming among the emerging Latino community in the southeastern United States. PMID:17967113

  18. Reactions of Heterosexual African-American Men to Women’s Condom Negotiation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Traxel, Nicole; Brondino, Michael J.; Reed, Barbara; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    This study describes responses of 172 single heterosexual African American men, ages 18–35, to condom negotiation attempts. Strategies used included reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational strategies, based on Raven’s (1992) influence model. The purpose was: 1) to identify strategies influencing participant acquiescence to request, and 2) to identify predictors of participant compliance/refusal to comply with negotiation attempts. Participants viewed six videotape segments showing an actress, portrayed in silhouette, speaking to the viewer as a ‘steady partner’. After each segment, participants completed measures of: request compliance, positive and negative affect, and attributions concerning the model and themselves. No significant differences were found in men’s ratings across all vignettes. However, differences in response existed across subgroups of individuals, suggesting that while the strategy used had little impact on participant response, the act of suggesting condom use produced responses that differed across participant subgroups. Subgroups differed on levels of AIDS risk knowledge, STD history, and experience with sexual coercion. Also, the “least-willing-to-use” subgroup was highest in anger/rejection and least likely to make attributions of caring for partner. Effective negotiation of condom use with a male sexual partner may not be determined as much by specific strategy used as by partner characteristics. PMID:19760529

  19. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n=261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed. PMID:24131397

  20. Physical victimization and high-risk sexual partners among illicit drug-using heterosexual men in New York City.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alezandria K; Jones, Kandice C; Rudolph, Abby; Rivera, Alexis V; Crawford, Natalie; Lewis, Crystal Fuller

    2014-10-01

    Physical victimization has been linked to high-risk sexual partnerships in women. Although illicit drug-using heterosexual men are at high-risk of physical victimization, the association between violence and high-risk partners in heterosexual men has received little attention in the published literature. We examined the association between experience of severe physical victimization and acquisition of a high-risk sexual partner (i.e., a partner who injected drugs or participated in transactional sex) 1 year later among illicit drug-using men in New York City (2006-2009) using secondary cross-sectional data. Injection and non-injection drug-using men (n = 280) provided a retrospectively recalled history of risk behavior and violence for each year over the past 4 years. Our primary outcome was acquisition of a high-risk sexual partner in any year following the baseline year. Our primary exposure was severe physical victimization (i.e., threatened with a knife or gun, beaten up, shot, or stabbed) in the prior year. Frequency of cocaine, heroin, and crack use and sexual victimization were also assessed. Log-binomial logistic regression with generalized estimating equation (GEE) methods was used to account for repeated measures for up to four time points. After adjustment for important covariates, participants that experienced physical victimization were significantly more likely to have acquired a high-risk sexual partner 1 year later (relative risk (RR), 3.73; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.55-8.97). Our study challenges gender-based stereotypes surrounding physical victimization and provides support for multidisciplinary programs that address both violence and HIV risk among illicit drug-using heterosexual men. PMID:25256949

  1. Intimate partner violence perpetration, risky sexual behavior, and STI/HIV diagnosis among heterosexual African American men.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Reed, Elizabeth; Welles, Seth L; Santana, Maria Christina; Silverman, Jay G

    2008-09-01

    Evidence indicates that abusive male partners pose increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV among females. However, research with males on this issue is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and recent STI/HIV diagnosis, unprotected sex, and sex trade involvement among heterosexual African American men. In this cross-sectional study, heterosexual African American males aged 18 to 65 years who reported two or more sex partners in the past year were recruited from urban health clinics to complete a computerized survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, IPV perpetration history, risky sexual behaviors, and substance use. Multivariate logistic regression analyses assessed associations between IPV perpetration and STI/HIV risk. More than half of participants in this sample (61%) were unemployed; 28.2% had less than a high school education and 23.1% were homeless. One-fifth of the sample (21.2%) reported IPV perpetration in their current relationship. IPV perpetration was significantly associated with recent STI/HIV diagnosis, unprotected anal sex, and buying sex. IPV perpetration is pervasive among heterosexually at-risk African American men presenting for clinical care, and those perpetrating IPV are at heightened risk for STI/HIV. PMID:19477792

  2. Turn it off! the effects of exposure to male-male erotic imagery on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men.

    PubMed

    Golom, Frank D; Mohr, Jonathan J

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male-male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students were assigned to either a male-male or male-female erotica condition, and their corresponding attitudes toward gay men were assessed. Results revealed that the effect of erotic imagery (male-male vs. male-female) on participants' stereotype and affect scores differed for men and women at varying levels of sexual anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature on exposure to erotic imagery and attitudes toward gay men. In particular, the study highlights the need for additional research that acknowledges within-gender heterogeneity with respect to antigay attitude valence, extremity, and function. PMID:21253924

  3. Automatic Direction of Spatial Attention to Male Versus Female Stimuli: A Comparison of Heterosexual Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Robert J; Curl, Catriona; Jobbins, Katherine; Lavington, Chloe; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-05-01

    Abundant research has shown that men's sexual attractions are more category-specific in relation to gender than women's are. We tested whether the early automatic allocation of spatial attention reflects these sexual attractions. The dot-probe task was used to assess whether spatial attention was attracted to images of either male or female models that were naked or partially clothed. In Experiment 1, men were faster if the target appeared after the female stimulus, whereas women were equally quick to respond to targets after male or female stimuli. In Experiment 2, neutral cues were introduced. Men were again faster to female images in comparison to male or neutral images, but showed no bias on the male versus neutral test. Women were faster to both male and female pictures in comparison to neutral pictures. However, in this experiment they were also faster to female pictures than to male pictures. The results suggest that early attentional processes reveal category-specific interest to the preferred sexual category for heterosexual men, and suggest that heterosexual women do not have category-specific guidance of attentional mechanisms. The technique may have promise in measuring sexual interest in other situations where participants may not be able, or may not be willing, to report upon their sexual interests (e.g., assessment of paedophilic interest). PMID:26857378

  4. Homophily, Close Friendship, and Life Satisfaction among Gay, Lesbian, Heterosexual, and Bisexual Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Frederick, David; Harari, Lexi; Grov, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185) completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people's friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender. PMID:26087008

  5. Homophily, Close Friendship, and Life Satisfaction among Gay, Lesbian, Heterosexual, and Bisexual Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Frederick, David; Harari, Lexi; Grov, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185) completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people’s friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender. PMID:26087008

  6. Heterosexual men's anger in response to male homosexuality: effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy and sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Hudepohl, Adam D; Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528

  7. Heterosexual Men's Anger in Response to Male Homosexuality: Effects of Erotic and Non-Erotic Depictions of Male-Male Intimacy and Sexual Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528

  8. “It’s an Uphill Battle Everyday”: Intersectionality, Low-Income Black Heterosexual Men, and Implications for HIV Prevention Research and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This interview study, the initial qualitative phase of a larger mixed methods HIV prevention study focused on Black heterosexual men, used intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore: (1) How a sample of Black heterosexual men describe and experience the multiple intersections of race, gender, and SES; and (2) How these descriptions reflected interlocking systems of social inequality for Black men at the social-structural level. Participants were 30 predominantly low-income self-identified Black heterosexual men between the ages of 18 and 44. Analyses highlighted four themes that demonstrate how participants’ individual-level experiences as Black men reflect macro social-structural inequality: (1) racial discrimination and microaggressions; (2) unemployment; (3) incarceration; and (4) police surveillance and harassment. We discuss the study’s findings within the context of social-structural factors that disproportionately and adversely impact Black men. We also highlight the implications of the intersectionality perspective for HIV prevention research and interventions for Black heterosexual men. PMID:23482810

  9. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full

  10. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…

  11. Sexual Revictimization and Mental Health: A Comparison of Lesbians, Gay Men, and Heterosexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has several deleterious effects on health and well-being, including increased risk for rape in adulthood. Such revictimization experiences are linked to negative mental health outcomes. The vast majority of literature on prevalence and impact of sexual revictimization has focused on heterosexual women. In an effort to…

  12. Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into research studies on sexual behaviors and practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges that arose during the recruitment and data collection stages of a study on health and sexual practices of older heterosexual men using prescribed erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs, and the strategies that were used to meet these challenges. Lessons learned from this study will be discussed, as well as implications for HIV/STD researchers and clinicians. PMID:21216626

  13. Masturbation and Pornography Use Among Coupled Heterosexual Men With Decreased Sexual Desire: How Many Roles of Masturbation?

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Træen, Bente; Stulhofer, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The relation between masturbation and sexual desire has not been systematically studied. The present study assessed the association between masturbation and pornography use and the predictors and correlates of frequent masturbation (several times a week or more often) among coupled heterosexual men who reported decreased sexual desire. Analyses were carried out on a subset of 596 men with decreased sexual desire (mean age = 40.2 years) who were recruited as part of a large online study on male sexual health in 3 European countries. A majority of the participants (67%) reported masturbating at least once a week. Among men who masturbated frequently, 70% used pornography at least once a week. A multivariate assessment showed that sexual boredom, frequent pornography use, and low relationship intimacy significantly increased the odds of reporting frequent masturbation among coupled men with decreased sexual desire. These findings point to a pattern of pornography-related masturbation that can be dissociated from partnered sexual desire and can fulfill diverse purposes. Clinical implications include the importance of exploring specific patterns of masturbation and pornography use in the evaluation of coupled men with decreased sexual desire. PMID:25189834

  14. Prejudice-Related Events and Traumatic Stress Among Heterosexuals and Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals

    PubMed Central

    Alessi, Edward J.; Martin, James I.; Gyamerah, Akua; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined associations between prejudice events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 382 lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGB) and 126 heterosexuals. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, we assessed PTSD but relaxed Criterion A1, that is, allowed prejudice events that did not involve threat to life or physical integrity to also qualify as traumatic. First, we tested whether exposure to prejudice events differed with respect to sexual orientation and race. White LGBs were more likely than White heterosexuals to encounter a prejudice event, but Black and Latino LGBs were no more likely than White LGBs to experience a prejudice event. Second, we used qualitative analysis to examine the prejudice events that precipitated relaxed Criterion A1 PTSD among 8 participants. Two specific themes emerged: the need to make major changes and compromised sense of safety and security following exposure to the prejudice event. PMID:24348008

  15. Using Intervention Mapping to develop a programme to prevent sexually transmittable infections, including HIV, among heterosexual migrant men

    PubMed Central

    Wolfers, Mireille EG; van den Hoek, Caty; Brug, Johannes; de Zwart, Onno

    2007-01-01

    Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS), the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Methods First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives") and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. Results This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. Conclusion This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using Intervention Mapping is feasible in the daily practice of the MPHS, provided that sufficient time and expertise on this approach is available. Further research should test the effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:17615052

  16. Sexual and affective responses to same- and opposite-sex stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men: assessment and manipulation of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Samson, Lelia; Janssen, Erick

    2014-07-01

    Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexual men experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexual men experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24473940

  17. Fecundity of paternal and maternal non-parental female relatives of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Pellizzari, Elena

    2012-01-01

    A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts) from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis. PMID:23227237

  18. Correlates of Condom-Associated Erection Problems in Young, Heterosexual Men: Condom Fit, Self-Efficacy, Perceptions, and Motivations

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Stephanie A.; Hill, Brandon J.; Crosby, Richard A.; Janssen, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaire data from 479 heterosexual men 1824 years old were analyzed for correlates of CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and CAEP during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI). Potential correlates were self-efficacy (condom application, product selection, and maintaining arousal), condom perceptions (condom worry/distraction, negative condom perceptions, concerns about application speed), condom fit, and motivation to use condoms. We conclude that 1) experiencing CAEP may become a repeating cycle, both affecting and being affected by, worry and distraction related to losing erections and maintaining arousal while using a condom, 2) poorly fitting condoms may contribute to CAEP, and 3) CAEP may decrease motivation to use condoms. PMID:23404098

  19. Prejudice Events and Traumatic Stress among Heterosexuals and Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals

    PubMed Central

    Alessi, Edward J.; Martin, James I.; Gyamerah, Akua; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined associations between prejudice events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 382 lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGB) and 126 heterosexuals. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, we assessed PTSD with a relaxed Criterion A1; that is, we allowed events that did not involve threat to life or physical integrity to also qualify as traumatic. We first assessed whether exposure to prejudice-related qualifying events differed with respect to participants’ sexual orientation and race. We found that White LGBs were more likely than White heterosexuals to encounter a prejudice-related qualifying event, and among LGBs, Black and Latino LGBs were no more likely than White LGBs to experience this type of event. We then used qualitative analysis of participants’ brief narratives to examine prejudice events that precipitated Relaxed Criterion A1 PTSD among 8 participants. Two themes emerged: (a) the need to make major changes and (b) compromised sense of safety and security following exposure to the prejudice event. PMID:24415898

  20. Behavioral Health and Social Normative Influence: Correlates of Concurrent Sexual Partnering Among Heterosexually-Active Homeless Men

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; Ewing, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Sexual concurrency poses significant HIV/STI transmission risk. The correlates of concurrency have not been examined among homeless men. A representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles reported on their mental health, substance use, and social network characteristics. Nearly 40% of men reported concurrency with one of their four most recent sex partners. Results indicated that HIV seropositivity (OR = 4.39, CI: 1.10, 17.46; p = 0.04), PTSD (OR = 2.29, CI: 1.05, 5.01; p = 0.04), hard drug use (OR = 2.45, CI: 1.07, 5.58; p = 0.03), and the perception that network alters engage in risky sex (OR = 3.72, CI: 1.49, 9.30; p = 0.01) were associated with increased odds of concurrency. Programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission in this vulnerable population must take into account the roles that behavioral health and social networks may play in sexual concurrency. PMID:22001933

  1. Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

  2. Homogenous HIV-1 subtype B quasispecies in Brazilian men and women recently infected via heterosexual transmission.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nancy Lima; Camargo, Michelle; Caseiro, Marcos Montani; Janini, Luiz Mario Ramos; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia Araripe; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

    2014-06-01

    HIV has extraordinary genetic mutability, both among individuals and at the population level. However, studies of primary HIV-1 infection and serum-converters indicate that the viral population is homogeneous at the sequence level, which suggests clonal HIV transmission. It remains unclear whether this feature applies to the female population. Ten single genome amplification sequences were generated from ten individuals (five females) with recent heterosexually acquired HIV infection as determined by the serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion. Intra-individual genetic diversity was equally low in both genders (<2 %), with mean and median variations of 0.8 and 0 %, respectively. All of the subjects were infected with clade B. Three subjects (two females) appeared to be infected by two related viral populations, and four subjects harbored non-R5 strains. Our results support the hypothesis of clonal selection for sexual transmission of HIV-1 in both genders. Future studies that generate a larger number of clones, preferably by next generation deep sequencing, are needed to confirm these results. PMID:24526349

  3. Racial differences in sexual prejudice and its correlates among heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities. PMID:25602467

  4. Recalled sex-typed behavior in childhood and sports' preferences in adulthood of heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men from Brazil, Turkey, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz

    2009-10-01

    This research used interview and questionnaire data from homosexual (n = 177), bisexual (n = 157), and heterosexual (n = 544) men between 20 and 30 years of age among lower class men and university students in three countries: Brazil, Thailand, and Turkey. The main goal of the study was to examine the recalled childhood sex-typed behavior and adult sports preferences that distinguish homosexuals from bisexuals and heterosexuals. In all three cultures and both social groups, homosexual men were almost always more likely as children to have wanted to be a girl, to cross-dress, to play with girls, to do girls' tasks, and to practice fewer sports. They were also less likely to bully others or to engage in physical fights. As children, homosexual men were more likely to prefer swimming and playing volleyball rather than soccer and, as adults, they preferred watching gymnastics and swimming over soccer. The bisexuals scored intermediate mostly in "desire to be a girl" and "cross-dressing," although they were much closer to the heterosexuals. These results, coupled with previous cross-cultural research, suggest that cross-gender behavior in childhood may characterize most male homosexuals regardless of their cultural milieu. PMID:18340519

  5. Relationship Advice Columns from Two Popular Magazines: Implications for Therapy with Women, Men and Heterosexual Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Lori R.; Kellaway, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship advice columns for two popular magazines (one targeted to female and the other to male readers) were discussed within the conceptual frameworks of centerfold syndrome and appearance obsession. Centerfold syndrome is a theory that describes the way men view women and sexuality. The female counterpart is appearance obsession which…

  6. Heterosexual Partnerships and the Need for HIV Prevention and Testing for Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women in China: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sijia; Song, Dandan; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Wang, Min; Manning, David; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have reported that approximately 30% of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China have concurrent female partners. Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) might "bridge" HIV transmission to their female sex partners. This study aimed to explore (a) motivations for why MSMW in China engage in relationships and sexual behaviors with female partners; (b) patterns of sexual behaviors and condom use between MSMW and their female partners; and (c) barriers to and strategies for encouraging MSMW and their female partners to undergo HIV testing. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 30 MSMW in two urban cities in China, Guangzhou and Chengdu, and used thematic analysis methods to code and interpret the data. MSMW described family, social, and workplace pressures to have a female partner, and expressed futility about their ability to form stable same-sex relationships. Although participants reported concern about the risk of personally acquiring and transmitting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to their female partners, they described the challenges to using condoms with female partners. HIV-positive participants described how stigma restricted their ability to disclose their HIV status to female partners, and HIV-negative participants displayed less immediate concern about the need for female partners to undergo HIV testing. Participants described a range of possible strategies to encourage HIV testing among female partners. These findings highlight the urgent need for HIV risk reduction and testing interventions for Chinese MSMW in the context of heterosexual partnerships, and they also underscore the additional need for privacy and cultural sensitivity when designing future studies. PMID:25915698

  7. Acute Effects of Intoxication and Arousal on Approach/Avoidance Biases Toward Sexual Risk Stimuli in Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Tyler B; Emery, Noah N

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) × 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08, placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding toward sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions. PMID:25808719

  8. Personas to Guide Understanding Traditions of Gay Men Living With HIV Who Smoke.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J Craig; Rowsell, Derek J; Boomer, Jack; Kwon, Jae-Yung; Currie, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    Gay men living with HIV (GMLWH) who smoke are less responsive to generalized smoking reduction and cessation (SRC) programs than heterosexual persons. This study explored perspectives of GMLWH during the design of a web-based SRC intervention. Participatory design techniques were used to guide the creation of personas that are composite representations of a person who would use the web-based SRC intervention. Researcher-participants (n = 13) created all data. Data analysis involved thematic coding drawing from an ethnographic perspective. Thematic analysis revealed seven intersecting themes related to SRC among participants, and an overarching theme navigating life. Concepts drawn from our ethnographic approach highlight cultural differences between GMLWH and mainstream society. Personas offer a mechanism for interpreting experiences and traditions of GMLWH. SRC interventions with GMLWH must address their social realities that include tools for navigating life, disease, and social identity. PMID:25881965

  9. Victimization, Substance Use, and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Gay/Bisexual/Two-Spirit and Heterosexual American Indian Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Jane M.; Walters, Karina L.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Meyers, Seth B.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives.secondary aims included describing condom-use attitudes, beliefs about HIV/AIDS in the Indian community, HIV knowledge, HIV status, and preference for and access to HIV prevention services in this population. Methods. A survey was mailed to all members of an American Indian community organization in New York City. Results. The 20 men self-identifying as gay, two-spirit, or bisexual (hereafter, “two-spirit”) were more likely to report being victimized and engaging in HIV risk behaviors than the 51 heterosexual respondents, although they reported comparable levels of recent substance use. Overall, victimization was associated with lifetime HIV risk behaviors (even after control for sexual orientation) but not with substance use or unsafe sex in the past 12 months. The percentage of HIV infection was surprisingly high (10% of two-spirit men and 6% of heterosexual men). Conclusions. Two-spirit men are a vulnerable population whose victimization must be understood within an appropriate historical and political context. PMID:16670237

  10. The views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards the barriers and facilitators of proactive, internet-based chlamydia screening for reaching young heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), which disproportionately affects young people under 25 years. Commonly, more women are offered screening than men. This study obtained the views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards Internet-based screening and assessed levels of support for the development of proactive screening targeting young heterosexual men via the Internet. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with 10 general practitioners and 8 practice nurses, across Central Scotland. Topics covered: experience of screening heterosexual men for chlamydia, views on the use of the Internet as a way to reach young men for chlamydia screening, beliefs about the potential barriers and facilitators to Internet-based screening. Transcripts from audio recordings were analysed with Framework Analysis, using QSR NVivo10. Results Experiences of chlamydia screening were almost exclusively with women, driven by the nature of consultations and ease of raising sexual health issues with female patients; few practice nurses reported seeing men during consultations. All participants spoke in favour of Internet-based screening for young men. Participants reported ease of access and convenience as potential facilitators of an Internet-based approach but anonymity and confidentiality could be potential barriers and facilitators to the success of an Internet approach to screening. Concerns over practical issues as well as those pertaining to gender and socio-cultural issues were raised. Conclusions Awareness of key barriers and facilitators, such as confidentiality, practicality and socio-cultural influences, will inform the development of an Internet-based approach to screening. However, this approach may have its limits in terms of being able to tackle wider social and cultural barriers, along with shifts in young people’s and health professionals’ attitudes towards screening. Nevertheless, employing innovative efforts as part of a multi-faceted approach is required to ensure effective interventions reach the policy agenda. PMID:24972919

  11. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection and transmission among heterosexual, adult men in low-and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Loraine; Mathews, Catherine; Zembe, Yanga

    2013-02-01

    Prevention of new HIV infections needs to move to the forefront in the fight against HIV and AIDS. In the current economic crisis, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) should invest limited resources to amass reliable evidence-based information about behavioral prevention efforts, and on behaviors that are driving the epidemic among people who are engaging in those behaviors. This paper aims to provide a systematic review and synthesis of behavioral interventions among a group of people in high HIV-burden countries: heterosexual men in LMICs. The review includes articles published between January 2001 and May 2010 that evaluated behavioral prevention interventions among heterosexual males aged 18+ years in LMICs. The studies were evaluated using the quality assessment tool for quantitative studies developed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project. The review identified 19 articles that met the review's inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in South Africa (n=6); two each in Uganda and Thailand; and one in each of Angola, Brazil, Bulgaria, India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Russia, Ukraine and Zimbabwe. Eight of 19 interventions increased condom use among their respective populations. Those interventions that sought to reduce the number of sexual partners had little effect, and those that addressed alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence had mixed effects. There was no evidence for any specific format of intervention that impacted best on any of the targeted risk behaviors. The paucity of evaluated interventions for heterosexual men in LMICs suggests that adult men in these countries remain underrepresented in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23111548

  12. Men's Sheds: enabling environments for Australian men living with and without long-term disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hansji, Neeraj L; Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie

    2015-05-01

    The health of Australian men has recently received greater attention. Men's Sheds are named in national policy as an exemplar community-based organisation for the betterment of men's psychosocial health; yet, the evidence base to support this is limited. This study investigates the comparative experience of men with long-term disabilities and men without long-term disabilities who go to a Men's Shed and to what extent this provides these men with an enabling, as opposed to disabling, environment. Data were collected from 12 individual interviews with men with long-term disabilities (5) and men without long-term disabilities (6), including 1 interview with the male Men's Shed Coordinator (MSC); participant observation within the shed; and a document received from the female MSC regarding the funding the Shed receives. Interviews explored the men's experiences at the Shed and their sense of belonging and social inclusion. Participants had any type of long-term disability and had been attending the shed for a minimum of 1 month. Data were collected between May and September 2013 and were analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. The core theme that emerged was an enabling community space. The four sub-themes were: a community and social hub; an equalising space; a safe and supportive male environment; and meaningful male activities. The current literature exemplifies Men's Sheds to be important community-based organisations beneficial to men's health and well-being. For men living with long-term disabilities, this study illuminates that Men's Sheds offer an environment of equality, facilitating a collegial and egalitarian culture. Men can partake in enabling activities and enjoy the company of other men enhancing their sense of belonging and social inclusion as well as interact with other community groups that occupy the same space as the Men's Shed. PMID:25428844

  13. Relationship satisfaction for heterosexual women compared to lesbians and men in a sample of faith communities from Topeka, Kansas.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R; Akagi, Cynthia A; Bosch, Kathy R

    2008-04-01

    A modified version of the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale was administered to 239 women who belonged to 8 different faith communities in Topeka, Kansas in 2001. 12 members of a Metropolitan (gay and lesbian) church identified themselves as lesbians. Lesbian respondents reported significantly higher relationship satisfaction scores than heterosexual women (Cohen's d = 0.69). Controlling for number of children and social desirability reduced the regression coefficient for sexual orientation to a statistically nonsignificant level. Using a matched sample of 12 heterosexual women compared with the lesbians yielded a nonsignificant result (ES = 0.31). Nevertheless, although not statistically significant, comparisons between lesbians and heterosexual women continued to feature effect sizes that represented higher satisfaction for lesbians with no children or with only one child when compared to heterosexual women with no children or only one child. It is apparent that methodology made a difference in the results obtained in this comparative study of lesbian and heterosexual relationships. It was also observed, among members of churches other than the Metropolitan church, that relationship satisfaction was significantly lower (d = 0.22) among females than males, including among wives compared to husbands; significant linear and cubic relationships between a single-item measure of relationship social desirability and relationship satisfaction were also observed. PMID:18567207

  14. Compensated Sex and Sexual Risk: Sexual, Social and Economic Interactions between Homosexually- and Heterosexually-Identified Men of Low Income in Two Cities of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Salazar, Ximena; Cáceres, Carlos F.; Maiorana, Andre; Kegeles, Susan; Coates, Thomas J.; Martinez, Josefa

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the complex dynamics of the sexual, economic and social interactions between a group of feminized homosexual men and men who have sex with men and self-identify as heterosexual (‘mostaceros’), in lower-income peripheral urban areas of Lima and Trujillo, Peru. The study examined sexual risk between these two groups of men, and the significance of the economic exchanges involved in their sexual interactions. Using a Grounded Theory approach, 23 individual interviews and 7 focus groups were analyzed. The results reveal that cultural, economic and gender factors mold sexual and social relations among a group of men who have sex with men in Peru. Compensated sex is part of the behaviors of these men, reflecting a complicated construction of sexuality based on traditional conceptions of gender roles, sexual identity and masculinity. Several factors (e.g. difficulty in negotiating condom use, low self-esteem, low risk perception, alcohol and drug consumption), in the context of compensated sex, play a role in risk-taking for HIV infection. PMID:19890491

  15. BARBERSHOP TALK WITH BROTHERS: USING COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH TO DEVELOP AND PILOT TEST A PROGRAM TO REDUCE HIV RISK AMONG BLACK HETEROSEXUAL MEN

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Tracey E.; Fraser-White, Marilyn; Williams, Kim M.; Pinto, Angelo; Agbetor, Francis; Camilien, Brignel; Henny, Kirk; Browne, Ruth C.; Gousse, Yolene; Taylor, Tonya; Brown, Humberto; Taylor, Raekiela; Joseph, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for feasible, evidence-based interventions that support HIV risk reduction among heterosexual Black men. In this article, we describe the process for development of the Barbershop Talk With Brothers (BTWB) program and evaluation. The BTWB program is a theoretically grounded and community-based HIV prevention program that seeks to improve individual skills and motivation to decrease sexual risk, and that builds men’s interest in and capacity for improving their community’s health. Formative data collection included barbershop observations and barber focus groups, brief behavioral risk assessments of men in barbershops, and focus groups and individual interviews. Based on this information and in consultation with our steering committee, we developed the BTWB program and accompanying program evaluation. From April through November 2011, 80 men were recruited and completed a baseline assessment of a pilot test of the program; 78 men completed the program and 71 completed a 3-month assessment. The pilot evaluation procedures were feasible to implement, and assessments of pre- and post-test measures indicate that key behavioral outcomes and proposed mediators of those outcomes changed in hypothesized directions. Specifically, attitudes and self-efficacy toward consistent condom use improved, and respondents reported lower levels of sexual risk behavior from baseline to follow-up (all p < 0.05). Perceptions of community empowerment also increased (p = 0.06). While HIV stigma decreased, this difference did not reach statistical significance. Our approach to community-engaged program development resulted in an acceptable, feasible approach to reaching and educating heterosexual Black men about HIV prevention in community settings. PMID:25299804

  16. HIV risk behaviors among a sample of heterosexually identified men who occasionally have sex with another male and/or a transwoman.

    PubMed

    Reback, Cathy J; Larkins, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Discordance between sexual identity and sexual behavior is not new; however, little is known about the HIV risk behaviors of heterosexually identified men who have occasional sex with a male and/or a male-to-female transgender woman. Open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 heterosexually identified men who reported at least one sexual encounter with a male and/or a transwoman in the previous 12 months. Sixty-one percent were African American/Black, the mean age was 38.9 years (SD = 8.4), 58.1% reported current substance use, and 58.1% were HIV infected. Among those who had a sexual encounter with a transwoman, the majority (81.3%) were the insertive partner during anal sex. In comparison, among those who had a sexual encounter with a male partner, almost one-half (42.9%) were the receptive partner during anal sex. HIV-infected participants were more likely to use a condom with a biological female partner than with a male or transwoman partner. HIV-uninfected participants reported limited condom use with any partner type, highlighting their potential role in the diffusion of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Participants' HIV status, partner type, substance use, and cultural factors influenced sexual decision-making and HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22206223

  17. Experiences of Older Men Living Alone: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Bergland, Astri Marie Glosli; Tveit, Bodil; Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen

    2016-02-01

    More and more old people live alone, and living alone is reported to be a key risk factor for experiencing loneliness and developing poor health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of living alone for older men. Systematic text condensation and hermeneutic interpretation were used in analysis of the data. Four themes emerged: lonely at times, missing and longing for a shared life, keeping active, and some kind of freedom. The findings revealed that inner and outer resources come into play and have influence on the processes of managing and solving the situation of living alone. The findings are in accordance with theoretical perspectives on loneliness, aloneness, and solitude. The findings offer nurses in any clinical context valuable information to allow them to address the core emotional and potential mental health issues old men face in coping with the situation of living alone. PMID:26864842

  18. Individual and Relationship Factors Associated With the Self-Identified Inability to Experience Orgasm in a Community Sample of Heterosexual Men From Three European Countries.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Santana, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The inability to reach orgasm is probably the least common and least understood of all male sexual dysfunctions. The present study aims to investigate the incidence of the inability to reach orgasm, and the psychological and interpersonal factors associated with this sexual difficulty. A total of 3,672 heterosexual men from three European countries (1,937 Portuguese, 1,215 Croats, 520 Norwegians) participated in this web survey (M age = 36.6 years, SD = 18-75 years). A total of 354 (9.6%) reported the inability to reach orgasm. Among those men, 89.8% reported moderate to extreme distress regarding this sexual difficulty. A multivariate assessment revealed that men in short-term relationships and taking antidepressants were more likely to report inability to reach orgasm. Men who reported having difficulties getting or maintaining an erection were 4 times more likely to have experienced the inability to reach orgasm than were those who did not report this difficulty. Men who experienced difficulty "'letting go' and surrendering to sexual pleasure during sex" were 2.7 times more likely to have experienced the inability to reach orgasm than were those who did not report this difficulty. This difficulty of "letting go" might reflect the unwillingness to give oneself, an idea presented in previous research. PMID:25650656

  19. Heterosexual men's ratings of sexual attractiveness of pubescent girls: Effects of labeling the target as under or over the age of sexual consent.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Muireann; Lowe, Rob; Brotherton, Hannah; Davies, Hannah; Panou, Anna; Bennett, Paul

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to identify implicit and explicit processes involved in reporting the sexual attractiveness of photographs of the same pubescent girls labeled as either under or within the age of sexual consent in the UK, women, and men. In two studies, 53 and 70 heterosexual men (M age 25.2 and 31.0 years) rated the sexual attractiveness of photographs in each category presented via computer [seeing target photographs of girls labeled as either under- (14-15 years) or within the age of consent (16-17 years)], using a 7-point response box. Ratings in Study 1 were in response to a question asking participants to rate how sexually attractive the person in each photograph was. In Study 2, participants rated how sexually attractive they personally found the target. Response times were also recorded. Several findings were replicated in both studies (although the strength of findings differed). Mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the underage girls were lower than those of overage girls and women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when "underage" girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. No such relationship emerged with the same girls labeled within the age of consent or women. Overall, these data suggest that men find pubescent girls identified as being under the age of consent sexually attractive, but inhibit their willingness to report this; the greater the attraction, the greater the inhibition. PMID:24132774

  20. A snapshot of how latino heterosexual men promote sexual health within their social networks: process evaluation findings from an efficacious community-level intervention.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Vissman, Aaron T; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Gilbert, Paul A

    2012-12-01

    Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (HoMBReS) was a community-level social network intervention designed to increase sexual health among Latino heterosexual men who were members of a multicounty soccer league. Process data were collected each month during 18 months of intervention implementation from each of 15 trained Latino male lay health advisors (known as Navegantes) to explore the activities that Navegantes conducted to increase condom and HIV testing among their social network members. The Navegantes reported conducting 2,364 activities, for a mean of 8.8 activities per Navegante per month. The most common activity was condom distribution. Most activities were conducted with men; about 2% were conducted with women. Among activities conducted with men, half were conducted with soccer teammates and half with nonteammates. Results suggest that Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community. Innovative methods that reach large numbers of community members are needed given the lack of prevention resources for populations disproportionately impacted by HIV and STDs. PMID:23206201

  1. A randomized controlled trial of a culturally congruent intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually active immigrant Latino men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Vissman, Aaron T.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Duck, Stacy; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Foley, Kristie Long; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Spanish-speaking, heterosexually active immigrant Latino men. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention and selected the study design. Following baseline data collection, 142 immigrant Latino men were randomized to the HIV prevention intervention or the cancer education intervention. Three-month follow-up data were collected from 139 participants, for a 98% retention rate. Mean age of participants was 31.6 years and 60% reported being from Mexico. Adjusting for baseline behaviors, relative to their peers in the cancer education comparison, participants in the HIV prevention intervention were more likely to report consistent condom use and receiving an HIV test. Community-based interventions for immigrant Latino men that are built on state of the art prevention science and developed in partnership with community members can greatly enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:21301948

  2. Gonococcal tenosynovitis in two HIV-infected heterosexual men: delayed diagnoses following negative urine nucleic acid amplification testing.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jonathan W; Flegg, Peter; Sweeney, John

    2016-05-01

    With recent increases in annual gonorrhoea incidence and disproportionately high infection rates amongst men who have sex with men, the clinical picture of disseminated gonococcal infection is changing. We present two cases where consideration of, and investigation for, disseminatedNeisseria gonorrhoeaeinfection provided the answer when routine inpatient diagnostics had been unsuccessful. PMID:25953962

  3. HIV-positive men who have sex with men: biography, diversity in lifestyles, common experience of living with HIV. ANRS-EN12 VESPA Study, 2003.

    PubMed

    Lert, France; Sitta, Rémi; Bouhnik, Anne-Deborah; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The conceptualisation of male who have sex with male (MSM) to account for male homosexual behaviour has been developed to facilitate the endorsement of prevention message since the advent of HIV infection. Population studies performed to understand and monitor sexual and preventive behaviour usually recruit respondents through gay-friendly channels such as media, sexual venues or festivals, leading to recruitment bias. Few studies question possible differences according to varying sexual biography and current behaviour within the MSM population. The random sample of HIV+ individuals treated in specialised outpatient clinics (ANRS-EN12-VESPA study, 2003) provides the opportunity to question the MSM conceptualisation regarding sexual biography, social characteristics, current sexual behaviour, use of condom, living with HIV (quality of life, discrimination and participation in NGOs). Among the 2932 respondents, 1309 men reported a lifetime male sexual partner. Information regarding sexual biography (lifetime and current numbers of male and female sexual partners, lifetime number of male and female stable couples) was computed using cluster analysis and identified five profiles: exclusive gay (53.7%), gay with some bisexuality (21.8%), gay with mixed sexual history (8.1%), bisexual (7.8%) and heterosexual with male-to-male sex (8.6%). The profiles matched self-identification better among the most exclusive homosexuals than among men with current bisexuality. These five subgroups differed regarding demographic and social characteristics (except migration status), their period of diagnosis, age and CD4 count at diagnosis. Sexual activity, steady partnership, number of male and female partners, use of sexual venues and illegal substance use were different across subgroups. Reversely, these groups are homogenous regarding experience of discrimination and involvement in People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) activities. These findings among men living with HIV support the MSM conceptualisation and underscore the role of medicine and HIV activism in shaping the experience of HIV infection. PMID:20390483

  4. Substance use and mental health disorders among heterosexual identified men and women who have same-sex partners or same-sex attraction: results from the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Sacco, Paul; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M

    2012-10-01

    This study examined sexual orientation discordance, a mismatch between self-reported sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction, by describing the characteristics, substance use disorders, and mental health risks of heterosexual identified individuals who endorsed this pattern of sexual identification, behavior, and attraction. Using data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we created three groups based on participants' reported sexual identity and either their sexual behavior or sexual attraction: heterosexual concordant, homosexual concordant, and heterosexual discordant. Bivariate models assessed the relationship of discordant status and demographic correlates, lifetime substance use disorders, and mental health diagnoses. Logistic regression models tested associations between both behavior discordance and attraction discordance and the likelihood of having lifetime disorders of substance use, major depression, and generalized anxiety. Results of this study provided evidence of varying levels of substance use and mental health disorder risk by gender, discordance status, and discordance type. Behavioral discordance was associated with increased risk of mental health and substance use disorder among women (compared to heterosexual concordance). Findings among men were less consistent with heightened risk of alcohol and inhalant use only. Attraction discordance was notably different from behavioral discordance. The odds of substance use and mental health disorders were the same or lower compared with both the heterosexual and homosexual concordance groups. Future research should begin to test theoretical explanations for these differences. PMID:22549338

  5. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Gandra, Sumanth; Azar, Aline; Wessolossky, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Background Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM) and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+) among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women). Methods A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013. Results Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48%) of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28%) of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34%) of women. Among 117 (53%) individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above), 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM). HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49) and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=−0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09). Conclusion Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM. PMID:25670914

  6. Gay men as victims of nonconsensual sex.

    PubMed

    Hickson, F C; Davies, P M; Hunt, A J; Weatherburn, P; McManus, T J; Coxon, A P

    1994-06-01

    Incidents of nonconsensual sexual activity among 930 homosexually active men living in England and Wales are analyzed. Of these men, 27.6% said they had been sexually assaulted or had sex against their will at some point in their lives; one third had been forced into sexual activity (usually anal intercourse) by men with whom they had previously had, or were currently having, consensual sexual activity. The contention that male rape is usually committed by heterosexually identified men, primarily as an expression of power and control, is not supported. Recognition that gay men rape other gay men is needed, both by the gay community and support services for victims. PMID:8024441

  7. Trends in heterosexually acquired AIDS in the United States, 1988 through 1995.

    PubMed

    Neal, J J; Fleming, P L; Green, T A; Ward, J W

    1997-04-15

    We used national AIDS surveillance data to characterize trends in the numbers and proportions of heterosexually acquired AIDS cases diagnosed from January 1988 through December 1995 among adults and adolescents. We adjusted for expansion of the 1993 AIDS surveillance case definition and for delays in reporting, and we redistributed cases initially reported without risk. The chi-square test for linear trend was used to analyze trends at the p < 0.01 level by half-year of diagnosis and by sex, age, race or ethnicity, geographic region of residence at diagnosis, and partner's HIV exposure risk. From 1988 through 1995, heterosexual contact accounted for 10% of all AIDS cases. Heterosexual contact increased the most rapidly of all HIV exposure modes, with increases found among men and women in all age groups; among blacks, whites, and Hispanics: and among persons living in all geographic regions of the country. Blacks and Hispanics accounted for 75% of all persons reported with AIDS attributed to heterosexual contact. Although heterosexual contact with an injection drug user (IDU) accounted for most cases until 1993, cases increased most rapidly among persons reporting heterosexual contact with an HIV-infected partner whose risk was not specified. Findings suggest continued growth of the heterosexual AIDS epidemic. Because of the disproportionate and increasing number of heterosexually acquired AIDS cases among blacks and Hispanics, black and Hispanic communities at risk for HIV infection should be considered a high priority for prevention and education programs specifically targeting heterosexually active adolescents and adults. Epidemiologic and behavioral research and prevention program evaluation are urgent public health priorities to better control and prevent the further spread of HIV among heterosexually active adults and adolescents. PMID:9170422

  8. Herpes simplex virus type 2 associated with HIV infection among New York heterosexuals living in high-risk areas

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, H; Jenness, S M; Wendel, T; Murrill, C R; Neaigus, A; Gelpi-Acosta, C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has been shown to increase the risk of sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. A matched case-control design was used to examine the association between HSV-2 and HIV infection among heterosexuals in ‘high-risk areas’ (HRAs) in New York City (NYC). We identified NYC HRAs using HIV surveillance data on heterosexual-related adult HIV diagnoses and USA census data on household poverty. Heterosexuals who were socially or geographically linked to an HRA were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. HIV prevalence was 8.6% and HSV-2 prevalence was 80.1%. Only 6% of HIV-positives knew they were infected. HIV-positive cases were matched to HIV-negative controls on gender, race/ethnicity and age, and tested for antibody to HSV-2. In a multivariate model, HIV infection was associated with HSV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1–11.7) and non-HSV-related sexually transmitted infection diagnosis in the previous year (AOR = 2.6, 1.1–6.2). Effective approaches to HIV risk reduction for individuals with HSV-2 remain uncertain, and these are urgently needed in high-risk communities where multiple social, behavioural and biological factors that facilitate HIV infection coexist. PMID:20975092

  9. Implicit and explicit measurements of sexual preference in gay and heterosexual men: a comparison of priming techniques and the implicit association task.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Robert J; Wichter, Jan; Gray, Nicola S

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined how well implicit measures were able to predict sexual orientation. Most previous research in the sexual orientation domain has been dependent upon self-report, which requires explicit, conscious awareness of sexual orientation and/or erotic preferences. On the other hand, implicit measurements are thought to be able to reflect immediate automatic reactions that may not be available to introspection. A total of 50 heterosexual and 25 homosexual men completed two implicit measures: the Implicit Association Task (IAT) and the Priming Task (PT). Sexual orientation was determined by self-report. In the PT, participants classified words as either sexually attractive or unattractive. Each word was preceded by a "prime" that was a picture of either a male or a female. The IAT consisted of classifying these same words as sexually attractive or unattractive, and classifying the pictures as either male or female. Both the IAT and the PT had very good ability to predict sexual orientation with Area Under the Curves (AUC) of 0.97 and 0.86, respectively. Unlike many other reports of implicit measures of behavior, the IAT and the PT correlated strongly with each other, and also with the explicit measurements of sexual orientation. It was concluded that these implicit measures can provide a valuable tool for research into sexual orientation and erotic preference that can complement existing measures, such as self-report questionnaires and physiological changes in sexual arousal in response to erotic stimuli. PMID:17333326

  10. ADAPTATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HoMBReS: A COMMUNITY-LEVEL, EVIDENCE-BASED HIV BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR HETEROSEXUAL LATINO MEN IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Roth, Alexis M.; Kelle, Guadalupe; Downs, Mario; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the midwestern United States has witnessed a dramatic increase in its Latino population. The lack of culturally and linguistically congruent resources coupled with high incidence and prevalence rates of HIV among Latinos living in the Midwest merits attention. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) is a community-level social network intervention designed for Latino men. We describe the adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS for Latino men living in Indianapolis, Indiana, the second largest city in the Midwest. Five Navegantes (lay health educators) were trained; they provided a total of 34 educational charlas (small group didactic sessions). A total of 270 Latino men attended the charlas and were offered no-cost screening for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). Three participants tested HIV positive and 15 screened positive for STI. The charlas coupled with the testing initiative, served as a successful method to increase sexual health knowledge among Latino men and to link newly-diagnosed HIV/STI-positive individuals to treatment and care. The adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS respond to the CDC and NIH call to increase HIV testing and service provision among vulnerable populations. PMID:24450279

  11. Adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS: a community-level, evidence-based HIV behavioral intervention for heterosexual Latino men in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Omar; Roth, Alexis M; Kelle, Guadalupe; Downs, Mario; Rhodes, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Over the past decade, the midwestern United States has witnessed a dramatic increase in its Latino population. The lack of culturally and linguistically congruent resources coupled with high incidence and prevalence rates of HIV among Latinos living in the Midwest merits attention. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) is a community-level social network intervention designed for Latino men. We describe the adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS for Latino men living in Indianapolis, Indiana, the second largest city in the Midwest. Five Navegantes (lay health educators) were trained; they provided a total of 34 educational charlas (small group didactic sessions). A total of 270 Latino men attended the charlas and were offered no-cost screening for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). Three participants tested HIV positive and 15 screened positive for STI. The charlas coupled with the testing initiative, served as a successful method to increase sexual health knowledge among Latino men and to link newly-diagnosed HIV/STI-positive individuals to treatment and care. The adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS respond to the CDC and NIH call to increase HIV testing and service provision among vulnerable populations. PMID:24450279

  12. Community engagement among men who have sex with men living with HIV/AIDS in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Deng-Min; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley

    2016-04-01

    Community engagement was developed as a global principle in the provision of HIV/AIDS services, yet evidence-based research of implementation of the principle is lacking in Taiwan. This short report aims to understand factors associated with engagement in two types of activities with varying levels of visibility: HIV-related community events and HIV-related community action, in Taiwanese men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to a purposive sample of participants recruited from AIDS service organizations (ASOs). Among participants (n = 178), 63.6% were involved in HIV-related community events, while less than half (47.7%) were involved in HIV-related community action. In multivariable analysis, age, involvement in ASOs, and AIDS knowledge were positively associated with engagement in community events, and living in the north of Taiwan, years of infection, and self-stigma were negatively associated with this type of engagement. Few factors, with the exception of involvement in ASOs, were positively associated with engagement in HIV-related community action. To this end, ASOs appear to play a strong role in improving and organizing both types of community engagement in Taiwan. Future studies should evaluate tailored programs delivered through ASOs for strengthening community connectedness among younger, stigmatized, and longer diagnosed MSM living with HIV. PMID:26586156

  13. Estimating the Number of Heterosexual Persons in the United States to Calculate National Rates of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lansky, Amy; Johnson, Christopher; Oraka, Emeka; Sionean, Catlainn; Joyce, M. Patricia; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Crepaz, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background This study estimated the proportions and numbers of heterosexuals in the United States (U.S.) to calculate rates of heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Quantifying the burden of disease can inform effective prevention planning and resource allocation. Methods Heterosexuals were defined as males and females who ever had sex with an opposite-sex partner and excluded those with other HIV risks: persons who ever injected drugs and males who ever had sex with another man. We conducted meta-analysis using data from 3 national probability surveys that measured lifetime (ever) sexual activity and injection drug use among persons aged 15 years and older to estimate the proportion of heterosexuals in the United States population. We then applied the proportion of heterosexual persons to census data to produce population size estimates. National HIV infection rates among heterosexuals were calculated using surveillance data (cases attributable to heterosexual contact) in the numerators and the heterosexual population size estimates in the denominators. Results Adult and adolescent heterosexuals comprised an estimated 86.7% (95% confidence interval: 84.1%-89.3%) of the U.S. population. The estimate for males was 84.1% (CI: 81.2%-86.9%) and for females was 89.4% (95% CI: 86.9%-91.8%). The HIV diagnosis rate for 2013 was 5.2 per 100,000 heterosexuals and the rate of persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2012was 104 per 100,000 heterosexuals aged 13 years or older. Rates of HIV infection were >20 times as high among black heterosexuals compared to white heterosexuals, indicating considerable disparity. Rates among heterosexual men demonstrated higher disparities than overall population rates for men. Conclusions The best available data must be used to guide decision-making for HIV prevention. HIV rates among heterosexuals in the U.S. are important additions to cost effectiveness and other data used to make critical decisions about resources for prevention of HIV infection. PMID:26214309

  14. The Healthy Living Project: An Individually Tailored, Multidimensional Intervention for HIV-Infected Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Kirshenbaum, Sheri B.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Remien, Robert H.; Morin, Stephen F.

    2005-01-01

    The NIMH Healthy Living Project (HLP), a randomized behavioral intervention trial for people living with HIV, enrolled 943 individuals, including women, heterosexual men, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men from Los Angeles, Milwaukee, New York, and San Francisco. The intervention, which is based on qualitative formative research…

  15. "I Don't Shag Dirty Girls": Marginalized Masculinities and the Use of Partner Selection as a Sexual Health Risk Reduction Strategy in Heterosexual Young Men.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Understanding and addressing the sexual risk taking of young men remains a key research, policy, and practice concern in attempts to improve the emotional and physical sexual health of young men and their sexual partners. This article explores one of the ways in which young men attempt to mitigate sexual risk through the assigning of labels to particular young women and using these as a basis for their decisions in relation to sexual activity, contraception, and condom use. The article uses the lens of hegemonic masculinities theory to increase understanding of the role played by the construction and performance of marginalized masculinities and how these in turn are influenced by social exclusionary processes. The article draws on focus group and interview data from 46 young men aged 15 to 17 years living in the northwest of England, purposively selected on the basis of the prevailing policy definitions of social inclusion and exclusion. The article describes a form of marginalized masculinity pertaining to socially excluded young men, which as a result of limited access to other tenets of hegemonic masculinity, is disproportionately reliant on sexual expertise and voracity alongside overt demonstrations of their superiority over women. It is in this context that young women are assigned the labels of "dirty" or "clean" on the basis of a selection of arbitrary judgments relating to dress, demeanor, area of residence, and perceived sexual activities. The motivations of the young men, the impact on young women, and the policy and practice implications are all discussed. PMID:25431451

  16. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option of heterosexuality must be seen to serve the patriarchal interests of female oppression. PMID:12287633

  17. Traumatic revictimization of men who have sex with men living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Pantalone, David W; Horvath, Keith J; Hart, Trevor A; Valentine, Sarah E; Kaysen, Debra L

    2015-05-01

    Abuse in childhood has been established as a predictor of adult abuse, with the strongest associations found between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual victimization. Revictimization has been demonstrated among women, and there is a growing literature on revictimization experiences among men who have sex with men (MSM). No studies have assessed revictimization among MSM living with HIV, despite strong evidence for disproportionately high rates of life span abuse among this group, along with the added vulnerability of living with HIV and sexual minority stress. In this study, we contribute to the literature by exploring associations between multiple types of childhood and adult abuse experiences (physical, sexual, and psychological; perpetrated by partners and non-partner), rather than examining sexual victimization alone. A sample of 166 HIV-positive MSM attending primary HIV health care clinics in Seattle, Washington, completed a one-time questionnaire. Results of regression analyses revealed associations between experiencing CSA and adult sexual abuse, and experiencing childhood physical abuse and adult physical and sexual abuse. Childhood psychological abuse was associated with adult physical and psychological abuse and partner psychological abuse. At higher frequencies, childhood psychological abuse was associated with all forms of adult abuse. These findings suggest that various forms of childhood abuse experiences confer broad vulnerability to adult abuse experiences and point to potentially different pathways to revictimization based on childhood abuse type. PMID:24989040

  18. Integrated Strategies for Combination HIV Prevention: Principles and examples for men who have sex with men in the Americas and heterosexual African populations

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.; Hughes, James P.; Barnabas, Ruanne; Liu, Albert; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Buchbinder, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Combination HIV prevention is a high priority for increasing the impact of partially efficacious HIV prevention interventions for specific populations and settings. Developing the package requires critical review of local epidemiology of HIV infection regarding populations most impacted and most at risk, drivers of HIV infection, and available interventions to address these risk factors. Interventions should be considered in terms of the evidence basis for efficacy, potential synergies, feasibility of delivery at scale, which is important in order to achieve high coverage and impact, coupled with high acceptability to populations, which will impact uptake, adherence, and retention. Evaluation requires process measures of uptake, adherence, retention, and outcome measures of reduction in HIV infectiousness and acquisition. Three examples of combination prevention concepts are summarized for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Americas, young women in sub-Saharan Africa, and HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. PMID:23764638

  19. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli. PMID:20814814

  20. Intestinal parasitic infections in homosexual men: prevalence, symptoms and factors in transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Keystone, J S; Keystone, D L; Proctor, E M

    1980-01-01

    In a controlled study 67.5% of 200 homosexual men but only 16% of 100 heterosexual men were found to be infected with intestinal parasites. Entamoeba histolytica was isolated from 27% of the homosexual and 1% of the heterosexual men, and Giardia lamblia was isolated from 13% of the homosexual and 3% of the heterosexual men. The presence of symptoms could not be correlated with infection except when the infection was caused by more than one organism, including G. lamblia. Symptoms were much more common in both infected and uninfected homosexuals than in heterosexuals. Among the homosexual men recent foreign travel, living in a homosexual household and promiscuity were not correlated with intestinal parasitic infection, but cleansing of the anus before and sex was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of infection. These findings suggest that the male homosexual community may be an important reservoir of potentially pathogenic protozoa. PMID:7437971

  1. Determinants of unprotected casual heterosexual sex in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Tuoyire, Derek A; Darteh, Eugene K M

    2014-05-01

    Casual heterosexual sex remains a significant contributor to HIV transmissions in Ghana. The study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) to assess the socio-demographic, economic and spatial factors influencing unprotected casual heterosexual sex among men and women. The results of the binary logistic regression models revealed that women aged 35-44 had significantly higher odds of engaging in unprotected casual heterosexual sex than those aged 15-24, unlike the men. There were significantly lower odds of unprotected casual heterosexual sex for women and men with exposure to print media compared with those without exposure. Compared with men residing in the Western Region, unprotected casual heterosexual sex was significantly less likely among those in the Upper East Region. There is the need for behavioural change campaigns in Ghana that take into consideration the multiplicity of factors that determine unprotected casual heterosexual sex. PMID:23931547

  2. Heteronormativity hurts everyone: experiences of young men and clinicians with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira

    2013-09-01

    Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses. PMID:23117592

  3. Magic Johnson doesn't worry about how to pay for medicine: experiences of black men who have sex with men living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong-suk; Lauby, Jennifer; Bond, Lisa; Lapollo, Archana Bodas; Rutledge, Scott Edward

    2010-05-01

    Despite high and rapidly growing incidence of HIV, little is known about the everyday lived experiences of HIV-positive black men who have sex with men. Lack of empirical knowledge about members of this group is especially problematic as HIV-positive individuals continue to live in a world of hope, fear, waiting and wondering, which can heavily influence their everyday lives. In this exploratory study, we examine the everyday lives of HIV-positive black gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, particularly how being a racial minority may influence the ways that they manage living with the illness. Our goal was to provide a forum from which black men could share their personal experiences regarding the various aspects of living with HIV. In doing so, we identified five themes that may be unique to black men or experienced differently by black men due, in the USA, to their racial minority status. PMID:20162480

  4. 'Signposts on the journey'; medication adherence and the lived body in men with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Grant

    2016-03-01

    Adherence to medication has been identified as a key issue in the treatment of many chronic illnesses, however such a perspective fails to account for the lived experience of medication usage and its effects on the body as lived. Parkinson's Disease, a neurological disease predominantly affecting movement and mobility, and which is treated via a wide range of medications provides a useful opportunity to explore experiences of medication usage in chronic illness. Reporting on findings of a study exploring men's experience of living with Parkinson's Disease, this paper adopts a lived body perspective to explore lived experiences of medication usage and adherence in PD. Findings are reported from 30 narrative in depth interviews with 15 men of various ages living with Parkinson's disease of mild to severe intensity. Findings first discuss PD's effects on men's sense of the lived body, in which a fluctuating embodiment is linked to medication regimes and their bodily effects. Second, as PD disrupts the body's place with the everyday and habitual experience of lived time, medication regimens come to place new structures upon the men's everyday experience of time. Finally, the paper explores the role medications play in men's attempts to create and sustain narratives for the individual progression of their illness, and how these narratives differ from clinical narratives associated with PD's treatment. This paper concludes by discussing debates around adherence to medication within the treatment of PD and the need to consider lived experience of medication usage and their effects at the level of the lived body. PMID:26826806

  5. Role of Home in Adult Development: Women and Men Living Alone Describe Their Residential Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Jaime; Tognoli, Jerome

    1982-01-01

    In individual, open-ended interviews, 10 women and men living alone were asked to describe all the places they had lived. Findings indicated that home has varying environmental and psychological dimensions across people's lives and does not seem to depend upon traditional family structure for its meaning. (Author/RC)

  6. The role of the Black Church in the lives of young Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, the Black Church is among the most important institutions in the Black community, offering numerous spiritual, social and health benefits. Yet, the presence of homonegativity in many Black Churches may mitigate those effects for gay Black youth. This research examines the role of the Church in the lives of gay and bisexual Black youth to understand how they reconcile any tension between their religious and sexual identities. Through interviews with pastors of Black churches (n = 21) and young Black men who have sex with men (n = 30), we explored homonegativity and young men's experiences within the Black Church. Findings reveal that despite the prevalence of homonegativity within Black churches, religious involvement remains important for young men and many remain involved in non-affirming churches. The importance of the Church for young men stems from their significant involvement as youth and the integration of religion, family and community. Young men may not be able to leave their religious homes as readily as other gay youth given the cultural relevance of the Church. As a result, young men made attempts to conceal their sexuality in church to avoid shame and gossip and find opportunities to balance their sexuality and religiosity. PMID:26489851

  7. 'It's my inner strength': spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M

    2011-10-01

    Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017

  8. Gender, Aids, and Bereavement: A Comparison of Women and Men Living with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Jacquelyn; Zisook, Sidney; Sciolla, Andres D.; Patterson, Thomas; Atkinson, J. Hampton

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the bereavement experience, psychiatric morbidity, and suicidality in bereaved men and women living with HIV. HIV+ women (n =31) who reported a loss in the recent 12 months were case matched to bereaved HIV+ men (n =62) on the basis of lifetime histories of major depression. Study participants were…

  9. Living Apart Together” relationships in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Strohm, Charles Q.; Seltzer, Judith A.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2009-01-01

    We use two surveys to describe the demographic and attitudinal correlates of being in “Living Apart Together” (LAT), cohabiting, and marital relationships for heterosexuals, lesbians, and gay men. About one third of U.S. adults not married or cohabiting are in LAT relationships – these individuals would be classified as “single” in conventional studies that focus on co-residential unions. Gay men are somewhat more likely than heterosexual men to be in LAT relationships. For heterosexuals and lesbians, LAT relationships are more common among younger people. Heterosexuals in LAT unions are less likely to expect to marry their partners, but more likely to say that couples should be emotionally dependent than are cohabiters. Regardless of sexual orientation, people in LAT relationships perceive similar amounts of emotional support from partners, but less instrumental support than cohabiters perceive. PMID:21566723

  10. Exploring Living-Learning Communities as a Venue for Men's Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Johnson, Brianne N.; Wawrzynski, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how male undergraduate students experienced living-learning community environments. Findings revealed that living-learning communities provided men a "safe haven" from rigid gender role expectations, offered a plethora of involvement opportunities, and fostered relationships with faculty and peers. The findings…

  11. The Sexual Lives of Men with Mild Learning Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoub, Evan; Hall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to explore in detail the sexual lives and behaviour of men with mild learning disabilities living both in community and in secure hospital settings. We wanted to generate hypotheses about them and identify potential unmet needs. We used a narrative interview that focused on areas such as relationships, sex education, contraception and the…

  12. A Qualitative Examination of Heterosexual Consciousness among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, John A.; Cole, Jennifer C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how heterosexual college students understand and make meaning of their life experiences and how they incorporate those into their sexual orientation consciousness. We interviewed 14 undergraduate and graduate self-identified heterosexual students, ten women and four men, ranging in age from 20 to 24.…

  13. Family and community influences on the social and sexual lives of Latino gay men.

    PubMed

    Guarnero, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of family and community on the social and sexual lives of a group of Latino gay men living in a metropolitan area. A secondary analysis of four focus groups with 28 Latino gay men was conducted. Families had a difficult time acknowledging and supporting participants' homosexuality. Participants experienced racism, discrimination, and physical and verbal abuse as a result of their ethnicity and homosexuality. These negative effects contributed to their marginalization and made them vulnerable to depression and suicide. Health care professionals should be aware of the effect of family and culture on the social and sexual lives of Latino gay men so that they can intervene and direct the client to the services needed to manage depression, suicidal ideation, and high-risk sexual behavior. PMID:17202524

  14. Conceptions of Privacy and the Non-disclosure of Same-Sex Behaviour Among Behaviourally-Bisexual Men in Heterosexual Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Cohn, Daniel J.; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management theory (Petronio 2002), we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends, and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: 1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else’s; 2) others had no reason to know; 3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal; 4) they were private people in general; and 5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information, and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health promotion services for this population. PMID:24597480

  15. What should men living with haemophilia need to know? The perspectives of Canadian men with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Arnold, E; Lane, S; Webert, K E; Chan, A; Walker, I; Tufts, J; Rubin, S; Poon, M-C; Heddle, N M

    2014-03-01

    Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder affecting approximately 3000 Canadian men (Walker 2012). To manage their disease effectively individuals must be knowledgeable about the disease, bleed prevention strategies, treatment approaches, and complications. Data on individuals' knowledge levels are scarce. The availability of such data could lead to better educational strategies for disease management. The aim of this study was to determine current knowledge levels, needs and gaps among Canadian individuals with haemophilia to facilitate optimal disease management. A survey was disseminated to adult males with haemophilia at three Haemophilia Treatment Centres (HTCs) in Canada. Self-reported current knowledge levels and knowledge seeking were measured. Survey respondents reported highest levels of knowledge in the following areas: identifying and treating a bleed, haemophilia and physical activity, travel, career issues and genetics. Lower levels of knowledge were reported in the areas of sexual activity, product safety, information about factor, haemophilia and ageing, advocacy, timing of prophylactic infusions, and new or alternative therapies. Treating a bleed was the most commonly sought information, followed by information about factor, product safety, identifying a bleed and other health care issues. There was a positive correlation between knowledge seeking and severity of disease. HTC attendance was associated with knowledge seeking, and HTCs were the most frequented knowledge source, followed by the Canadian Haemophilia Society website. Canadian men were well informed; the HTC's role in knowledge sharing was recognized. Timing of infusions, sexual activity and ageing are areas which should be targeted in knowledge sharing. PMID:24252098

  16. Activities of daily living, instrumental activities for daily living and predictors of functional capacity of older men in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: An extensive search of the literature found no studies that have examined functional capacity [Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities for Daily Living (I) ADL)] of Jamaican older men as well as factors that determine their functional capacity. Aims: The current study examines 1) ADL, 2) (I) ADL), 3) self-reported health status, 4) functional capacity, and 5) factors that determine functional capacity of older men. Methods and Method: Stratified multistage probability sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 2,000 55+ year men. A132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics provide background information on the sample, cross tabulations were used to examine non-metric variables and logistic regression provides a model of predictors of functional capacity. Result: Fifty-five percent of sample indicated good current health status. Four percent was mostly satisfied with life; 21.7% had moderate dependence; 77.1% had high dependence (i.e. independence); 1.2% had low dependence; 21.9% were ages 75 years and older; 35.6% were ages 65 to 74 years and 42.6% reported ages 55 to 64 years. Functional capacity can be determined by church attendance (β=0.245; 95% CI: 0.264, 1.291); social support (β=0.129; 95% CI: 0.129, 0.258), area of residence (β=-0.060; 95% CI: -0.427, -0.061) and lastly by age of respondents. Conclusion: Ageing in explains deterioration in their (I) ADL, suggesting the challenges of ageing men's independence. More rural men were rarely satisfied with life; but more of them had a greater functional capacity than urban men. Depression was found to negatively relate to functional capacity, and church attendees had a greater functional status than non-attendees. PMID:22666693

  17. Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos; Suárez, Erick L.; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

  18. Psychosocial Impact of the AIDS Epidemic on the Lives of Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Ian; Smith, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Assessed the psychosocial impact of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic on the lives of homosexual men (N=301) who had not been diagnosed with AIDS or AIDS Related Complex (ARC). Found subjects reported increasing frequency of no-risk sexual activities and decreased frequency of possible risk and high-risk activities. (ABL)

  19. Body Beautiful, Beautiful Body: The Curricular Encounters of Gay Men Living with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malewski, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Through this article the author extends the study of the curricular body and mothering curriculum initiated by Stephanie Springgay and Deborah Freedman with a study into the embodied experiences of gay men living with HIV. In the first section, the author focuses on difference as embodiment before and after HIV in order to craft analytic frames of…

  20. [The daily life of men who lives with chronic venous ulcer: phenomenological study].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelo Henrique; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; de Oliveira, Deise Moura; Biscotto, Priscilla Ribeiro; Silva, Greyce Pollyne Santos

    2013-09-01

    The chronic venous leg ulcer is the major therapeutic problem of lower limb injuries, which can trigger changes in the daily life of the person affected by it. This study aimed to understand the daily life of men who lives with chronic venous ulcers. A phenomenological study was conducted with eight men, who were interviewed during June and July of 2001. The study asked questions related to: "Restrictions in social life" and "Recovering the skin integrity and restart the activities affected by the wound". The answers revealed that men with these ulcers have social implications in the areas of productivity and sexuality. This leads to restrictions in everyday life with loss in performance of socially established roles for men, leading to anxiety for his return at full performance of his social role. The findings suggest significant experiential aspects that may guide professionals in the planning and implementation of health actions aimed to treat these patients. PMID:24344590

  1. The Relationship between Alcohol and Individual Differences Variables on Attitudes and Behavioral Skills Relevant To Sexual Health among Heterosexual Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Maisto, Stephen A.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Gordon, Christopher M.; Schum, Jennifer L.; Lynch, Kevin G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of alcohol, alcohol sex expectancies, and sexual sensation seeking on determinants of sexual health behavior according to the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model. The participants were 48 heterosexual young adult males who attended two laboratory sessions. During Session 1, participants completed a set of screening and individual differences measures, and during Session 2 they were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 beverage conditions: control, alcohol (.65 g alcohol/kg body weight), or placebo. Following the experimental manipulation, all participants completed measures regarding attitudes toward condom use, intention to engage in risky sex, and condom use negotiation skills. The results showed that participants who consumed alcohol had poorer negotiation skills and greater intention to engage in risky sex compared to participants who did not drink alcohol. Although alcohol did not affect any dimension of attitude regarding condom use, attitude about condoms’ effects on sex, as well as sexual sensation seeking, were correlated with both intention ratings and skills. Multiple regression models including both attitudes and sensation seeking showed that attitudes accounted for 20% – 25% of variance independent of beverage condition in predicting intention ratings and skills. The findings are consistent with past research showing that alcohol consumption can have detrimental effects on determinants of sexual health behavior and that individual differences factors can enhance the power of models like the IMB to predict such behavior. PMID:15483371

  2. Identity, Physical Space, and Stigma Among African American Men Living with HIV in Chicago and Seattle.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Judith L; Raunig, Manuela; Brunsteter, Halley; Desmond, Michelle; Rao, Deepa

    2015-12-01

    African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the USA, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of health care, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the USA: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV. Our analysis pointed to similarities between experiences of stigma across the two cities and illustrated the relationships between space, isolation, and preferred anonymity related to living with HIV. The men in our study often preferred that their HIV-linked identities remain invisible and anonymous, associated with perceived and created isolation from physical community spaces. This article suggests that our health care and housing institutions may influence preferences for anonymity. We make recommendations in key areas to create safer spaces for African American men living with HIV and reduce feelings of stigma and isolation. PMID:26863561

  3. The Prevalence of Depression Among Men Living With HIV Infection in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Catherine Anne; Gioi, Tran Minh; Huyen, Tran Trieu Ngoa; Tarantola, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of depression among men living with HIV infection in Vietnam and compared the findings with those from a general population survey of Vietnamese men. Methods. Between November 2007 and April 2008, 584 participants completed a structured questionnaire in Vietnamese that measured self-reported depression. We used the χ2 test to detect differences in prevalence rates within HIV populations and between our respondents and a general Vietnamese male population. Results. Respondents had a depression rate of 18.7% over a 1-month period, which was substantially higher than that reported in the Vietnamese male population (0.9%). Rates were highest among men reporting higher levels of stress and more HIV symptoms. Men diagnosed with depression experienced significantly more difficulty than others in accessing medical care. Conclusions. Our results provide the first empirical evidence of depression among men living with HIV in Vietnam and underscore the need to include mental health services in the response to HIV. PMID:19797756

  4. Men's work and family lives in India: the daily organization of time and emotion.

    PubMed

    Larson, R; Verma, S; Dworkin, J

    2001-06-01

    This article examines daily patterns of work and family life for a sample of middle-class men in northern India. One hundred fathers of 8th graders provided information on their hour-to-hour time use and subjective states, by means of the experience sampling method. They reported little time spent on family work but substantial amounts of time with their children and thinking about their families. At their jobs, they reported high levels of attention but more negative emotion. By contrast, the home sphere elicited lower attention, more favorable affect, and more feeling of choice. Unlike for American samples, little relationship was found between experience at work and home, including little influence of men's work emotions on the family in the evening. These findings reflect how strong traditional family roles in India shape men's daily lives. PMID:11458629

  5. Predictors of HIV testing among men who have sex with men: a focus on men living outside major urban centres in Canada.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Susan; Landis, Lisa; Walsh, Zachary; Puterman, Eli; Roberts, Daryle; Saya-Moore, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent almost half of new HIV infections in Canada each year. However, the vast majority of research on HIV testing among MSM has been conducted in major urban centres. The present study addressed this gap by investigating HIV testing behaviour and predictors of HIV testing among MSM living outside major urban centres, in the Interior of British Columbia. An anonymous online survey of 153 MSM assessed HIV testing behaviour and psychosocial factors that may impact HIV testing (internalized homophobia, disclosure to healthcare providers (HCPs) of same sex attraction, and gay community involvement). Almost one-quarter (24%) had never been tested and over one-third (35%) had not disclosed same sex attraction to HCPs. Internalized homophobia was associated with a lower likelihood of HIV testing, and this relationship was partially explained by the fact that those high in internalized homophobia were less likely to disclose same sex attraction to their HCPs. Neither formal nor informal involvement in the gay community was related to HIV testing, and both types of involvement were relatively low in our sample. Further research is needed to better understand the distinctive health issues facing MSM living outside major urban centres. PMID:27043184

  6. Sociocultural factors influencing HIV disclosure among men in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Sofolahan-Oladeinde, Yewande; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2015-05-01

    In South Africa, more than 2 million people living with HIV are men aged 15 years and older, and heterosexual intercourse remains the predominant mode of HIV transmission. Knowledge of the sociocultural factors that influence men's decisions about whether, when, or how to disclose seropositive status remains incompletely understood. Using the PEN-3 cultural model as a guide, this study explored the sociocultural factors influencing HIV disclosure among men in South Africa. Four focus group discussions with 27 participants were used to determine the perceptions, enabling and nurturing factors that influence how men chose to reveal or conceal knowledge of their seropositive status. The results revealed that notions of male identity in the South African context, family, and community factors contribute to disclosure and nondisclosure of seropositive status among men living with HIV/AIDS. Future interventions should work to address these factors, as they are necessary with supporting disclosure among men living with HIV. PMID:24871161

  7. Living for the moment: men situating risk-taking after the death of a friend.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Genevieve M; Oliffe, John L; McMillan, Eva; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2015-03-01

    The primary cause of death for men under the age of 30 is unintentional injury and, despite health-promotion efforts and programme interventions, male injury and death rates have not decreased in recent years. Drawing on 22 interviews from a study of men, risk and grief, we describe how a risk-related tragedy shaped the participants' understandings of and practices of risk-taking. The findings indicate that most participants did not alter their perceptions and engagement in risky practices, which reflected their alignment to masculine ideals within specific communities of practice where risk-taking was normalised and valorised. Continued reliance on risky practices following the death of a friend was predominantly expressed as 'living for the moment,' where caution and safety were framed as conservative practices that undermined and diluted the robustness ideally embodied by this subgroup of young men. Two main themes: living life, accepting death and upping the ante illustrate how risk-taking can persist following a death. A smaller group of participants articulated a different viewpoint; reining in risk practices, to describe their risk management approaches after the death of a male friend. This novel study confirms the ongoing challenge of reducing men's risk-taking practices, even after the death of a friend. PMID:25847532

  8. What social workers can do about violence: learnings from the lives of 37 men.

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    Descriptive results of a study of the lives of 37 men who were executed for capital murder reveal the complex and multi-varied problem of violence at individual, institutional, and societal levels. The role of social workers is discussed in relation to prevention of violent crime rather than focusing on punishment. The study provides support for an anti-death penalty policy stance by the social work profession. PMID:15774405

  9. Body Image Disturbance and Health Behaviors among Sexual Minority Men Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Goshe, Brett M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Body image disturbance is a common experience for sexual minority men living with HIV, and is associated with poor self-care behaviors. However, to date, no known cohesive theoretical model has been advanced to understand the possible antecedents and outcomes of body image disturbance in this population. Thus, the goal of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image and self-care behaviors among sexual minority men living with HIV. Methods Participants were 106 gay and bisexual men living with HIV who completed a battery of self-report measures including assessment of body image disturbance, depression, lipodystrophy, appearance orientation, condom use self-efficacy, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Bayesian estimation was employed to assess model fit and direct and indirect pathways within the model. Results The data fit the model well, with all theorized pathways being significant. Lipodystrophy severity and appearance orientation were associated with elevated body image disturbance. In turn, body image disturbance was related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, through the mechanisms of elevated depressive symptoms and poor condom use self-efficacy. Conclusions Elevated body image disturbance among sexual minority men living with HIV is associated with important biopsychosocial variables, which in turn are related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Integrative psychosocial interventions addressing co-occurring body image disturbance, depression, and HIV self-care behaviors may be a fruitful area of future clinical practice and research. PMID:24977311

  10. Social Contexts of Heterosexual Transmission of HIV/STI in Liuzhou City, China

    PubMed Central

    Maman, Suzanne; Huang, Yingying; Muessig, Kathryn; Pan, Suiming

    2014-01-01

    In this special issue of AIDS and Behavior, we focus on the social contexts of sexual transmission of HIV/STI in one South China city. Our multiple projects grew from partnerships across the social and biomedical sciences, and with public health experts in Liuzhou City, to address critical gaps in knowledge about how social factors drive heterosexual transmission. The eleven articles that comprise this special issue feature multidisciplinary and mixed method approaches, collecting data in Liuzhou from different populations, environments, and social venues where individuals often find sexual partners. They document heterosexual behaviors and their meanings. They investigate the experiences and behaviors of women and men in social venues, exploring the networks of people within these venues, how they relate to one another, share information, and influence each other. The articles also examine the experiences of people living with HIV, again collecting data from multiple levels and sources, and revealing the ongoing power of stigma to shape these lives. Taken together, the articles demonstrate the critical role of social contexts in shaping behaviors and meanings, which are linked to heterosexual transmission of HIV/STI, and which must be taken into account for the development of appropriate and effective public health interventions. PMID:24337698

  11. Patterns and Correlates of Sexual Activity and Condom Use Behavior in Persons 50-Plus Years of Age Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Timothy G.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Suhr, Julie A.; Garske, John P.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    This study characterized rates of sexual activity and identified psychosocial and behavioral correlates of sexual activity and condom use in a metropolitan sample of 290 HIV-infected adults 50-plus years of age. Thirty-eight percent of participants were sexually active in the past three months, 33% of whom had at least one occasion of anal or vaginal intercourse that was not condom protected. Rates and correlates of sexual activity and condom use differed between gay/bisexual men, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women. In the past three months, 72% of heterosexual men were sexually active compared to only 36% of gay/bisexual men and 21% of heterosexual women. However, among sexually active persons, only 27% of heterosexual men reported inconsistent condom use compared to 37% of gay/bisexual men and 35% of heterosexual women. As the number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. continues to increase, age-appropriate secondary risk-reduction interventions are urgently needed. PMID:18389361

  12. Slowing heterosexual HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A R

    1995-06-01

    HIV-1 is spreading rapidly through heterosexual intercourse in many societies. Slowing the transmission of this virus is the most urgent global public health priority. Our understanding of the biologic differences between societies that account for most vacancies in heterosexual HIV transmission are now understood. Effective interventions to slow transmission must be designed, implemented, and evaluated. Human and fiscal resources must be provided through a shared global effort. The consequences of failing to do so will lead to a world catastrophe of unprecedented magnitude. PMID:7673667

  13. Resilience Processes Demonstrated by Young Gay and Bisexual Men Living with HIV: Implications for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Hosek, Sybil G.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Rood, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Given the increasing numbers of young gay/bisexual men (YGBM) diagnosed with HIV, it is important to understand the resilience processes enacted by this population in order to develop interventions that support their healthy development. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 YGBM (ages 17 to 24; 57% African American, 22% Latino) living with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics in the United States. Resilience processes clustered into four primary thematic areas: (1) engaging in health-promoting cognitive processes; (2) enacting healthy behavioral practices; (3) enlisting social support from others; and (4) empowering other young gay/bisexual men. These data suggest that YGBM living with HIV demonstrate resilience across multiple dimensions, including intrapersonal-level resilience related to individual cognitions and behaviors, as well as interpersonal-level resilience related to seeking support and providing support to others. Implications for the development of culturally-appropriate and strengths-based secondary prevention and other psychosocial interventions for YGBM living with HIV are discussed. PMID:25329778

  14. Reactive, anxious and possessive forms of jealousy and their relation to relationship quality among heterosexuals and homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Barelds, Dick P H; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy affect relationship quality differently and do so differently for homosexuals and heterosexuals. Among heterosexuals and especially gay men--but not among lesbians--anxious jealousy was negatively related to relationship quality. In contrast, among heterosexuals--but not among gay men or lesbians--reactive jealousy was positively related to relationship quality. The present study shows that distinguishing between different types of jealousy is necessary to entangle the diverse effects of jealousy on the quality of homosexual and heterosexual relationships. PMID:17135120

  15. Mexican American Men's Experience of Living With Tuberculosis on the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga, Julie Ann; Muñoz, Silvia; Johnson, Mary Zuñiga; García, Alexandra A

    2016-01-01

    The Texas-Mexico border incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB) is 10 times the rate of TB in the United States. Additionally, this area is plagued by antibiotic-resistant TB at a rate that is 70% higher among those living along the border than among nonborder residents. Both the high rate of TB and the emergence of drug-resistant TB increases the importance of controlling TB along the U.S.-Mexico border. Men have higher rates of TB than women, which can be attributed to biological differences and increased environmental exposure. The purpose of this article is to describe the experience of TB for Mexican American men living on the Texas-Mexico border. This a qualitative descriptive study, using participants from a larger study. A purposeful sample was recruited through two south Texas TB clinics. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. Data analysis consisted of line-by-line coding, labeling, organizing, and discovering common codes to describe participants' experience of TB and TB treatment. The participants include 13 Mexican American men. Ages ranged from 22 to 76 years. Only one participant was employed during treatment. Years of education ranged from no school to an associate's degree. Five themes were discovered: misinformation, delayed diagnosis, stigma, depression, and loss of community. Participants without social support were further isolated and felt a greater burden of treatment. Two participants contemplated suicide and two others told their families to leave them because they were a burden and infectious. The burden of treatment on the patient is great, especially for Hispanic men. PMID:25359869

  16. Mixing it Up: Integrating Men and Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Prevention Groups

    PubMed Central

    Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The current study was conducted to examine the impact of mixing genders in HIV prevention intervention groups targeted toward HIV positive men and women. Methods Men (N=310) and women (N=126) participated in a randomized clinical trial testing a behavioral risk reduction/ medication adherence intervention versus a general health control condition administered to small mixed gender groups. Gender composition of groups was examined in relation to participant group attendance and group satisfaction measures through correlations and logistic regression. Results Significant regression models were found for men in the risk reduction condition and for women in the general health condition, however, regression models were not significant for women in the risk reduction condition and men in the general health condition. Discussion The findings indicate that mixing genders in risk reduction interventions for men and women living with HIV/AIDS has no negative impact on women’s group satisfaction and may positively impact men’s group satisfaction. This calls into question the assumption that gender sensitive material will always make individuals uncomfortable within mixed gender groups. Implications for practice and policy In practice, mixed gender intervention groups can be a helpful option for delivering programs to diverse populations especially when resources are limited within community-based services providers and AIDS service organizations. Conclusion Although more thorough investigation is needed about the consequences and possible benefits of mixing genders within HIV prevention intervention groups, this study supports the idea that mixing genders may be a viable option, in practice, without sacrificing the integrity of the intervention. PMID:25525414

  17. ‘It’s my inner strength’: Spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions; (2) the continued importance of spirituality among YBMSM; (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches; (4) tension between being an MSM and Christian; (5) religion and spirituality’s impact on men’s sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities; and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive YBMSM may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017

  18. Becoming "Undetectable": Longitudinal Narratives of Gay Men's Sex Lives After a Recent HIV Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grace, Daniel; Chown, Sarah A; Kwag, Michael; Steinberg, Malcolm; Lim, Elgin; Gilbert, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We explore gay men's sex life narratives following their diagnosis with an acute or recent HIV infection. All participants received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis and completed a series of self-administered questionnaires and in-depth qualitative interviews over a one-year period or longer. Over the course of four qualitative interviews, participants frequently spoke of the role of medications (e.g., decisions to start treatment) and changing viral loads (e.g., discourses of becoming "undetectable") in relation to their sex lives since being diagnosed with HIV. Many men talked about milestones relating to initiating medication and viral load as informing their shifting sexual behaviors and identities as HIV-positive--or "undetectable"--gay men. The narratives of our participants provide insight regarding complex negotiations and processes of decision-making over time related to sex, counseling needs, treatment initiation, viral load, and the significance of undetectability as an emergent identity. PMID:26241383

  19. The Effects of Premarital Heterosexual and Homosexual Experience on Dating and Marriage Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…

  20. Changes in Diversity Course Student Prejudice and Attitudes toward Heterosexual Privilege and Gay Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…

  1. The Effects of Premarital Heterosexual and Homosexual Experience on Dating and Marriage Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any

  2. Changes in Diversity Course Student Prejudice and Attitudes toward Heterosexual Privilege and Gay Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed

  3. Using independence training to teach independent living skills to children and young men with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Taras, M E; Matson, J L; Felps, J N

    1993-04-01

    Two groups of students with visual impairments were taught various independent living skills. Of the 7 students, 5 also had a diagnosis of mental retardation. One group (3 first graders) was taught the tasks of folding a shirt, making an emergency telephone call, and spreading soft foods with a knife. The other group (4 young men) was taught to increase leisure skills through three different leather-work tasks. Independence training was conducted in a group format and included social learning components (e.g., self-evaluation, peer evaluation and reinforcement) in addition to traditional operant procedures (e.g., modeling, prompting). However, because of the presence of visual impairments, a physical and verbal modification of modeling was used, whereby the subject was physically guided through the steps and simultaneously provided with a narration of the steps. A multiple baseline design across behaviors demonstrated the efficacy of the comprehensive training package in training various independent living skills to the two groups of visually impaired and mentally retarded students. Social validity measures demonstrated the clinical significance of the subsequent changes in behavioral skills. Follow-up data collected 10 months after the completion of training indicated a good degree of maintenance. The current positive results show that training procedures used exclusively with persons with mental retardation can be modified and be effective with a different and younger population, while targeting different independent living skills. PMID:8471011

  4. Tobacco, Marijuana Use and Sensation-seeking: Comparisons Across Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Heterosexual Groups

    PubMed Central

    Trocki, Karen F.; Drabble, Laurie A.; Midanik, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined patterns of smoked substances (cigarettes and marijuana) among heterosexuals, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals based on data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey (NAS), a population-based telephone survey of adults in the United States. We also examined the effect of bar patronage and sensation-seeking/impulsivity (SSImp) on tobacco and marijuana use. Sexual orientation was defined as: lesbian or gay self-identified, bisexual self-identified, heterosexual self-identified with same-sex partners in the last five years, and exclusively heterosexual (heterosexual self-identified, reporting no same sex partners). Findings indicate that bisexual women and heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners had higher rates of cigarette smoking than exclusively heterosexual women. Bisexual women, lesbians and heterosexual women with same-sex partners also used marijuana at significantly higher rates than exclusively heterosexual women. Marijuana use was significantly greater and tobacco use was elevated among gay men compared to heterosexual men. SSImp was associated with greater use of both of these substances across nearly all groups. Bar patronage and SSImp did not buffer the relationship between sexual identity and smoking either cigarettes or marijuana. These findings suggest that marijuana and tobacco use differ by sexual identity, particularly among women, and underscore the importance of developing prevention and treatment services that are appropriate for sexual minorities. PMID:20025368

  5. In Our Fifties: Voices of Men and Women Reinventing Their Lives. Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergquist, William H.; And Others

    This book offers a unique and thorough look at the lives of 73 men and women in their 50s who were asked to reflect and comment on a variety of life issues. Chapter 1 explores the invisibility of the 50s, differing perspectives of men and women, why new myths are needed to give oneself form and meaning, and why one must think in terms of

  6. Tailoring AIDS prevention: differences in behavioral strategies among heterosexual and gay bar patrons in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    McKusick, L; Hoff, C C; Stall, R; Coates, T J

    1991-01-01

    Three groups of San Francisco bar patrons (heterosexual men, heterosexual women, and gay men) were compared on four sexual risk reduction strategies for AIDS: safer sex practices (particularly adoption of the use of condoms), reducing the number of sexual partners, taking the HIV antibody test, and determining the characteristics of a potential sexual partner. Heterosexuals reported fewer sex partners and were more likely than gay men to interview potential partners. Gay men were more likely to use condoms and the HIV antibody test than their heterosexual counterparts. These findings encourage the design of interventions that take advantage of shaping and reinforcing strategies already in use in each group, and suggest when it is necessary to teach new strategies. PMID:2036286

  7. Reproductive desires of men and women living with HIV: implications for family planning counselling.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Cornelia; Visser, Maretha J

    2015-09-01

    The reproductive desires of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) of low socioeconomic standing attending public health facilities in South Africa were studied. HIV-positive men, pregnant and non-pregnant women were recruited from two clinics at a large public hospital in Tshwane, South Africa. Individual interviews were used to explore the reproductive desires of HIV-positive participants. HIV counsellors' perceptions of their clients' reproductive desires were explored during focus group discussions. Parenthood proved to be an important factor to all participants in continuation of the family and establishing their gender identities, despite the possible risk of HIV transmission and community stigmatization. Different cultural procreation rules for men and women and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLHIV affected their reproductive decision making. Women had the dilemma of choosing which community expectations they wanted to fulfil. Community stigmatization towards PLHIV was visible in the negative attitudes of some HIV counsellors regarding HIV and procreation. Because the reproductive desires of PLHIV are currently not given high priority in HIV prevention and family planning in the public health sector in South Africa, the prevention of HIV transmission may be jeopardized. These results necessitate the integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health counselling on a primary health care level. PMID:26208447

  8. Psychological and physical health of mostly heterosexuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed whether mostly heterosexuals, a sexual orientation group characterized by a small amount of same-sex sexuality, differ from heterosexuals and bisexuals on a variety of mental and physical health outcomes (e.g., internalizing problems, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, obesity, sexual/reproductive health, physical health), health risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual risk taking), and risk and protective factors (e.g., victimization, stressful/risky environment, socioeconomic status, personal and social relationships, gender nonconformity). A narrative and quantitative literature review was conducted of 60 papers covering 22 samples from five Western countries. Individual, mean, and median effect sizes (Cohen ds) were calculated whenever possible. Mostly heterosexuals reported higher levels of risk in most reviewed outcomes compared to heterosexuals (unweighted mean effect sizes ranged from 0.20 to 0.50) but typically somewhat lower than bisexuals (unweighted mean effect sizes ranged from -0.10 to -0.30). Various risk factors frequently reduced, but rarely eliminated, health disparities between mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals. Findings are discussed through the lens of three potential explanations of elevated health risks among nonheterosexuals: minority stress, nonheterosexual lifestyles, and common causes. Because data on many outcomes were scarce or missing, particularly for men and in comparison with bisexuals, further research is needed. PMID:24754361

  9. Understanding the Irony: Canadian Gay Men Living with HIV/AIDS, Their Catholic Devotion, and Greater Well-being.

    PubMed

    Liboro, Renato M; Walsh, Richard T G

    2016-04-01

    Nine Canadian Catholic HIV-positive gay men were interviewed to obtain a better understanding of why and how they were able to persevere in their faith despite their religion's teachings against homosexuality and contributions to the stigmatization of HIV/AIDS. By examining the lived experiences and personal perspectives of the participants, the study aimed to explore and elucidate the significant role of Catholicism and the Catholic Church both as a continued source of marginalization and oppression, as well as strength and support, for Canadian gay men living with HIV/AIDS today. PMID:26160146

  10. Disparities in Health Risk Behavior and Psychological Distress Among Gay Versus Heterosexual Male Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kamen, Charles; Palesh, Oxana; Gerry, Arianna Aldridge; Andrykowski, Michael A; Heckler, Charles; Mohile, Supriya; Morrow, Gary R; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen

    2014-06-01

    Gay men have been found to have higher rates of cancer diagnoses than heterosexual men and poorer outcomes postcancer diagnosis. The two aims of this study were to examine rates of cancer diagnosis in a national sample of gay and heterosexual men, and to examine disparities in health risk behavior between gay and heterosexual men and gay and heterosexual cancer survivors. The current study utilized data from a total sample of 14,354 men, including 373 gay men, collected as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey conducted in 2009 in the states of Arizona, California, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This study replicated the finding that prevalence of self-reported cancer diagnoses differed significantly between gay and heterosexual men, with gay men 82% more likely to report a lifetime history of cancer diagnosis (p<0.05); however, this disparity became nonsignificant after controlling for a weakened immune system proxy variable (p=0.06). Gay men were more likely than heterosexual men to report health risk behaviors, including less time spent exercising, more psychological distress, more current alcohol use, more current smoking, and a lifetime history of smoking. Some of these disparities in health risk behavior persisted for gay cancer survivors postcancer diagnosis. This study offers a perspective on behavioral risk factors previously shown to be higher among gay men that may continue postcancer diagnosis. Future research should test the degree to which these disparities are caused by minority stress, as previous studies have indicated that increased health risk behaviors among sexual minority populations may result from exposure to chronic stress and discrimination. Developing behavior change interventions to address these risk behaviors is vital for improving cancer outcomes among gay men. PMID:26789618

  11. "Keep Pressing On": Spiritual Epistemology and Its Role in the Collegiate Lives of Black Gay and Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how the spiritual epistemology of Black, gay and bisexual, cisgender men in college changed during their spiritual journeys and how participants used spirituality in their collegiate lives. External forces, such as family members, religious text, and church settings, initially shaped many participants' spirituality,…

  12. Voices of the American Civil War: Stories of Men, Women, and Children Who Lived through the War between the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Kendall

    Collected in this book are 27 accounts of men, women, and children from the northern and southern United States who lived, fought, and survived the U.S. Civil War. The book leads students on a journey through the Civil War era, offering a well-rounded understanding of this four year period. All characters in the book are real, and the stories are…

  13. Cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer using regular digital ano-rectal examinations in men who have sex with men living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason J; Fairley, Christopher K; Carroll, Susan; Walker, Sandra; Chen, Marcus; Read, Tim; Grulich, Andrew; Bradshaw, Catriona; Kaldor, John; Clarke, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV is an important issue but there are no consistent guidelines for how to screen for this cancer. In settings where screening with anal cytology is unavailable, regular anal examinations have been proposed in some guidelines but their cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods Our objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regular anal examinations to screen for anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM living in Australia using a probabilistic Markov model. Data sources were based on the medical literature and a clinical trial of HIV-positive MSM receiving an annual anal examination in Australia. The main outcome measures for calculating effectiveness were undiscounted and discounted (at 3%) lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Base-case analysis estimated the average cost of screening for and management of anal cancer ranged from $195 for no screening to $1,915 for lifetime annual screening of men aged ≥ 50. Screening of men aged ≥ 50 generated ICERs of $29,760 per QALY gained (for screening every four years), $32,222 (every three years) and $45,484 (every two years). Uncertainty for ICERs was mostly influenced by the cost (financially and decrease in quality of life) from a false-positive result, progression rate of anal cancer, specificity of the anal examination, the probability of detection outside a screening program and the discount rate. Conclusions Screening for anal cancer by incorporating regular anal examinations into routine HIV care for MSM aged ≥ 50 is most likely to be cost-effective by conventional standards. Given that anal pap smears are not widely available yet in many clinical settings, regular anal exams for MSM living with HIV to detect anal cancer earlier should be implemented. PMID:26942721

  14. Intimate partner homicide methods in heterosexual, gay, and lesbian relationships.

    PubMed

    Mize, Krystal D; Shackelford, Todd K

    2008-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the killing method used in homicides may reflect the motivation of the offender and qualities of the victim-offender relationship. The effect of gender and sexual orientation of intimate partner homicide offenders (N = 51,007) was examined with respect to the brutality of killing methods. Guided by previous research and theory, it was hypothesized that homicide brutality will vary with the offender's sexual orientation and gender, such that the percentage of killings coded as brutal will be higher for (a) gay and lesbian relative to heterosexual relations, (b) men relative to women, (c) gay relative to heterosexual men, and (d) lesbian relative to heterosexual women. The rates of intimate partner homicide were also hypothesized to vary with the gender of the partners, such that (a) homicide rates will be higher in gay relative to heterosexual and lesbian couples and (b) homicide rates will be lowest in lesbian couples. The results support all but one prediction derived from the two hypotheses. We predicted that men would kill their partners more brutally than would women, but the results indicate that the opposite is true. PMID:18396584

  15. Willingness to use couples HIV testing and discussion of sexual agreements among heterosexuals.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine; Goldenberg, Tamar; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Senn, Theresa E; Urban, Marguerite; Schwartz, Ann; Sullivan, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Couples HIV Testing and Counseling (CHTC) has been used as an HIV prevention strategy in Africa for over 20 years where the HIV epidemic is largely concentrated among sexually active heterosexuals. In recent years, CHTC has been adapted for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the US. A central element of the CHTC intervention as adapted for male couples in the US is the discussion of sexual agreements by the dyad during the CHTC session. Given the success of CHTC for heterosexual couples in Africa, it seems appropriate that CHTC could also be provided to heterosexual couples in the US. However, little is known about heterosexual's willingness to utilize CHTC services including discussion of sexual agreements. This small, preliminary qualitative study sheds new light on the potential for CHTC adoption among heterosexuals in the US. Four focus groups were conducted with heterosexual men and women attending a publicly-funded STI clinic, to explore the potential feasibility and acceptability of CHTC with heterosexuals. The results are similar to those seen for MSM: high levels of willingness to use CHTC, perceptions of the advantages of using CHTC, and willingness to discuss sexual agreements; all necessary conditions for the successful roll-out of CHTC. Further work is now needed with larger samples of high-risk heterosexuals to more completely understand the typologies of sexual agreements and the common language used for sexual agreements in heterosexual relationships. These early data show great promise that CHTC can achieve the same levels of willingness, fit, and acceptability among heterosexual couples as currently experienced by male couples in the US. PMID:25897413

  16. Fertility Desires among Men and Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi Slums: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41]) with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires. Results Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-)infection prevention. More than a third (34%) of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent. Discussion Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a “normal” and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the “proper” reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and service delivery implications of these findings are explored. PMID:25171593

  17. Sexual Functioning in Men Living with a Spinal Cord Injury–A Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, MM; Boston, Patricia; Rajagopal, MR

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction is a major concern for Indian men living with a spinal cord injury Objectives: To examine the literature related to sexuality traumatic cord injury and its impact on sexual functioning. Materials and Methods: Databases using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) 2000–2012, Medline 1989–2012, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) 1989–2012 and Google Scholar were the search engines used used for literature review. Results: The search yielded a total of 457 articles and only 75 of them were found relevant. The minimum number of articles required to meet the inclusion criteria for this review was 25–30 articles. Out of the 75 articles, 33 were considered relevant or related to the topic of sexual functioning, spinal cord injury, and paraplegia. Six areas were identified: Sexual stigmatization, physiological barriers to sexual satisfaction, clinical aspects of sexual functioning, biomedical approaches to sexual dysfunction, partner satisfaction, and lack of accessibility to sexual education. Conclusion: Spinal cord injury and sexual functioning affects a large segment of the male Indian population, yet most current research focuses on quantitative measurement with the emphasis on ejaculatory dysfunction, orgasm impairment, incontinence, and other physiological dysfunction. Further research is needed to address the subjective accounts of patients themselves with respect to the emotional and social impact of sexual disability. This would help to identify the best possible outcomes for both treatment and rehabilitation. PMID:26600694

  18. Age preferences in dating advertisements by homosexuals and heterosexuals: from sociobiological to sociological explanations.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Kathryn

    2013-02-01

    Current sociobiological thought suggests that significant components of mate selection are based on indicators that correlate with the ability to produce and support offspring. Theorists have suggested that men tend to be attracted to and marry younger women, while women tend to be attracted to and marry older men. This behavior is referred to as age hypergamy. I complicate this picture by using gay men as a population in which to explore alternative components of mate selection as reflected in our behavior. Analyses of 120 dating advertisements from gay men and heterosexual men and women indicated that there exists a good measure of hypergamic age preference that is comparable to the heterosexual population and that relates to subjects' gender presentation. Data suggest that the biological-reproductive theory of age hypergamy is incomplete and support a cultural reproduction model of gender role behavior and preference in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. PMID:23179236

  19. Liminal identities: Caribbean men who have sex with men in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Moji; Elam, Gillian; Gerver, Sarah; Solarin, Ijeoma; Fenton, Kevin; Easterbrook, Phillippa

    2009-04-01

    Accounts by 10 Caribbean men who have sex with men living in the UK reveal them to be liminal beings with unstable and unresolved identities. They are between social states: aware they are not heterosexual and not publicly recognised, or in some cases self-accepted, as homosexual. Caribbean-born respondents especially suffer from homophobia, expressing regret and disappointment at their sexuality. They may also experience cognitive dissonance - as they are aware of their conflict with the heteronormative order - they cannot resolve. Religion contributes to homophobia and cognitive dissonance particularly for Caribbean-born men, some of whom may believe a fundamental conflict exists between Christianity and homosexuality. Heterosexism and homophobia contribute to and reinforce their liminal state, by preventing transition to publicly recognised homosexual status. Respondents may engage in private and public, internal and external, overt and covert policing of their and other gay men's behaviour: through strategic pretence at heterosexuality and/or condemnation of men engaging in behaviour identifiable as stereotypically homosexual, for example. Narratives point to the need to complexify the conventional understanding of Jamaican heterosexism to explain reported variations in the degree of anti-homosexual hostility in the country. PMID:19296309

  20. Migration and HIV risk: Life histories of Mexican-born men living with HIV in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Lilli; Valera, Erik; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Barrington, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Latino men in the Southeastern USA are disproportionately affected by HIV, but little is known about how the migration process influences HIV-related risk. In North Carolina (NC), a relatively new immigrant destination, Latino men are predominantly young and from Mexico. We conducted 31 iterative life history interviews with 15 Mexican-born men living with HIV. We used holistic content narrative analysis methods to examine HIV vulnerability in the context of migration and to identify important turning points. Major themes included the prominence of traumatic early life experiences, migration as an ongoing process rather than a finite event, and HIV diagnosis as a final turning point in migration trajectories. Findings provide a nuanced understanding of HIV vulnerability throughout the migration process and have implications including the need for bi-national HIV prevention approaches, improved outreach around early testing and linkage to care, and attention to mental health. PMID:24866206

  1. Energy requirements and physical activity in free-living older women and men: a doubly labeled water study.

    PubMed

    Starling, R D; Toth, M J; Carpenter, W H; Matthews, D E; Poehlman, E T

    1998-09-01

    Determinants of daily energy needs and physical activity are unknown in free-living elderly. This study examined determinants of daily total energy expenditure (TEE) and free-living physical activity in older women (n = 51; age = 67 +/- 6 yr) and men (n = 48; age = 70 +/- 7 yr) by using doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry. Using multiple-regression analyses, we predicted TEE by using anthropometric, physiological, and physical activity indexes. Data were collected on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak), leisure time activity, and plasma thyroid hormone. Data adjusted for body composition were not different between older women and men, respectively (in kcal/day): TEE, 2,306 +/- 647 vs. 2,456 +/- 666; RMR, 1,463 +/- 244 vs. 1,378 +/- 249; and physical activity energy expenditure, 612 +/- 570 vs. 832 +/- 581. In a subgroup of 70 women and men, RMR and VO2 peak explained approximately two-thirds of the variance in TEE (R2 = 0.62; standard error of the estimate = +/-348 kcal/day). Crossvalidation of this equation in the remaining 29 women and men was successful, with no difference between predicted and measured TEE (2,364 +/- 398 and 2,406 +/- 571 kcal/day, respectively). The strongest predictors of physical activity energy expenditure (P < 0.05) for women and men were VO2 peak (r = 0.43), fat-free mass (r = 0.39), and body mass (r = 0.34). In summary, RMR and VO2 peak are important independent predictors of energy requirements in the elderly. Furthermore, cardiovascular fitness and fat-free mass are moderate predictors of physical activity in free-living elderly. PMID:9729584

  2. Theorizing Alternative Pathways through Adulthood: Unequal Social Arrangements in the Lives of Young Disadvantaged Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition…

  3. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Live-Chat Social Media Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pachankis, John E; Gamarel, Kristi E; Surace, Anthony; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Given the popularity of social media among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and in light of YMSM's elevated and increasing HIV rates, we tested the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a live chat intervention delivered on Facebook in reducing condomless anal sex and substance use within a group of high risk YMSM in a pre-post design with no control group. Participants (N = 41; 18-29 years old) completed up to eight one-hour motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral skills-based online live chat intervention sessions, and reported on demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Analyses indicated that participation in the intervention (n = 31) was associated with reductions of days of drug and alcohol use in the past month and instances of anal sex without a condom (including under the influence of substances), as well as increases in knowledge of HIV-related risks at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study argues for the potential of this social media-delivered intervention to reduce HIV risk among a most vulnerable group in the United States, in a manner that was highly acceptable to receive and feasible to execute. A future randomized controlled trial could generate an intervention blueprint for providers to support YMSM's wellbeing by reaching them regardless of their geographical location, at a low cost. PMID:25256808

  4. Dispelling "heterosexual African AIDS" in Namibia: same-sex sexuality in the township of Katutura.

    PubMed

    Lorway, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper questions international public health theories that characterize AIDS in Africa as an unambiguous heterosexual epidemic. It does so by describing the daily sexual lives of a community of Namibian youth who engage in same-sex sexual practices. The author outlines how the ongoing vilification of "homosexuals" by ruling State officials serves as a stigmatizing backdrop against which young people experience and practice their sexuality. Drawing upon 20 months of ethnographic research, the paper discusses the HIV sexual risk perceptions and practices of young men, highlighting the complexities in sexual subjectivity that form within the cultural politics of competing masculinities, state-sponsored anti-homosexual rhetoric and transnational queer rights protest. Bounded and monolithic notions of gender and sexual identity do not lend themselves to HIV risk and vulnerability analysis in this community. PMID:16923647

  5. Religion and spirituality among bisexual Black men in the USA

    PubMed Central

    JEFFRIES, WILLIAM L.; DODGE, BRIAN; SANDFORT, THEO G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, religion has been a major source of institutional support and well-being for Black people in the USA. However, when juxtaposed against sexuality, religion's positive effect upon the lives of non-heterosexual individuals is questionable. Research suggests that non-heterosexuals often abandon structured religion for spirituality due to the homonegativity perpetuated through religious institutions. Although studies have examined religion and spirituality among gays and lesbians, few have examined their roles in the lives of bisexuals. In this study, we analyzed qualitative interviews from 28 bisexual Black men who resided in New York City. In addition to church attendance, participants expressed belonging to religious communities through activities such as music ministry. Despite rejection because of their bisexuality, some participants saw other religious individuals as being accepting of them. Others discussed the church as a place where non-heterosexuals interacted, often for meeting sexual partners. Participants evoked beliefs in God in coping with adverse life experiences; some linked faith to family and sexual responsibilities. Drawing upon relevant literature, we discuss the implications of religion and spirituality for the quality of life of bisexual Black men in the USA. PMID:18568870

  6. Religion and spirituality among bisexual Black men in the USA.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, William L; Dodge, Brian; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2008-06-01

    Traditionally, religion has been a major source of institutional support and well-being for Black people in the USA. However, when juxtaposed against sexuality, religion's positive effect upon the lives of non-heterosexual individuals is questionable. Research suggests that non-heterosexuals often abandon structured religion for spirituality due to the homonegativity perpetuated through religious institutions. Although studies have examined religion and spirituality among gays and lesbians, few have examined their roles in the lives of bisexuals. In this study, we analyzed qualitative interviews from 28 bisexual Black men who resided in New York City. In addition to church attendance, participants expressed belonging to religious communities through activities such as music ministry. Despite rejection because of their bisexuality, some participants saw other religious individuals as being accepting of them. Others discussed the church as a place where non-heterosexuals interacted, often for meeting sexual partners. Participants evoked beliefs in God in coping with adverse life experiences; some linked faith to family and sexual responsibilities. Drawing upon relevant literature, we discuss the implications of religion and spirituality for the quality of life of bisexual Black men in the USA. PMID:18568870

  7. Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals. PMID:25518816

  8. Heterosexual Privilege Awareness, Prejudice, and Support of Gay Marriage among Diversity Course Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…

  9. The Relationship between Gender and Heterosexual Attitudes toward Homosexuality at a Conservative Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar

    2014-01-01

    This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a

  10. Heterosexual Privilege Awareness, Prejudice, and Support of Gay Marriage among Diversity Course Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students

  11. The Relationship between Gender and Heterosexual Attitudes toward Homosexuality at a Conservative Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar

    2014-01-01

    This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a…

  12. Sexual discordance and sexual partnering among heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Nield, Jennifer; Magnusson, Brianna; Brooks, Christopher; Chapman, Derek; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-05-01

    This study examined characteristics of self-identified heterosexual women who were concordant or discordant in their sexual behavior and the association of discordance and sexual partnering among those aged 15-44 years from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 7,353). Sexual concordance was defined as reporting a heterosexual identity and no female partners in the past year; discordance was reporting a heterosexual identity and having at least one female partner in the past year. Sexual partnering was defined as being concurrent, serially monogamous or monogamous with a male partner in the previous year. Polytomous logistic regression models evaluated the association between sexual discordance and sexual partnering. Among self-identified heterosexual, sexually active women, 11.2 % reported ever having had a same sex partner. Heterosexually discordant women who had both male and female partners in the previous year were 5.5 times as likely to report having a concurrent relationship (95 % CI 2.77-11.09) and 2.4 times as likely to report engaging in serially monogamous relationships (95 % CI 1.19-4.97) with male partners. Discordance between heterosexual identity and same sex behavior is a factor in risky behaviors. Women who have sex with women and men may act as bridges for the transmission of STDs, particularly to their female partners. Sexual education should include information inclusive of non-heteronormative behaviors and identities to provide sexual minorities with the tools and information they need. Clinical guidelines should ensure that all women are offered counseling and screening for reproductive and sexual health. PMID:24718674

  13. Assessment of Correlation between Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length and Infertility in Infertile Men Living in Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Saeid Reza; Galehdari, Hamid; Rasekh, Abdorrahman; Mombeini, Hayat; Konar, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor (AR) gene contains a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat that encodes a polyglutamine tract in its N-terminal transactivation domain (N- TAD). We aimed to find a correlation between the length of this polymorphic tract and azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods In this case-control study during two years till 2010, we searched for microdeletions in the Y chromosome in 84 infertile male patients with normal karyotype who lived in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. All cases (n=12) of azoospermia or oligozoospermia resulting from Y chromosome microdele- tions were excluded from our study. The number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene was determined in 72 patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and in 72 fertile controls, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results Microdeletions were detected in 14.3% (n=12) patients suffering severe oligozoospermia. The mean CAG repeat length was 18.99 0.35 (range, 11-26) and 19.96 0.54 (range, 12-25) in infertile males and controls, respectively. Also in the infertile group, the most common allele was 19 (26.38%), while in controls, it was 25 (22.22%). Conclusion Y chromosome microdeletions could be one of the main reasons of male infertility living in Khuzestan Province, while there was no correlation between CAG length in AR gene with azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. PMID:26246877

  14. Evaluating Respondent-Driven Sampling as an Implementation Tool For Universal Coverage of Antiretroviral Studies among Men who have Sex with Men Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Stefan D.; Ketende, Sosthenes; Schwartz, Sheree; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Ugoh, Kelechi; Peel, Sheila; Ake, Julie; Blattner, William; Charurat, Manhattan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The TRUST model based on experimental and observational data posits that integration of HIV prevention and universal coverage of antiretroviral treatment (UCT) at a trusted community venue provides a framework for achieving effective reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV as well as reducing HIV incidence. The analyses presented here evaluate the utility of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) as an implementation tool for engaging MSM in the TRUST intervention. Methods The TRUST integrated prevention and treatment model was established at a trusted community center serving MSM in Abuja Nigeria. Five seeds have resulted in 3–26 waves of accrual between March, 2013 and August, 2014 with results presented here characterizing HIV burden and engagement in HIV care for 722 men across study recruitment waves. For analytic purposes, the waves were collapsed into five groups; four equally spaced (0–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19) and one ranging from the 20 to the 26th wave with significance assessed using Pearson’s chi-squared test. Results In earlier waves, MSM were more likely to have reported testing for HIV (82.9% in waves 0–4, 47.7% in waves 20–26, p<0.01). In addition, biologically-confirmed HIV prevalence decreased from an average of 59.1 to 42.9% (p<0.05) in later waves. In earlier waves, about 80% of participants correctly reported their HIV status as compared to less than 25% in the later waves (p<0.01). Lastly, participants reporting being on ART decreased from 50% to 22.2 % in later waves (p<0.01). Conclusions Implementation science studies focused on demonstrating impact of universal HIV-treatment programs among people living with HIV necessitate different accrual methods than those focused on preventing HIV acquisition. Here, RDS was shown to be an efficient method for reaching marginalized populations of MSM living with HIV in Nigeria and engaging them in universal HIV treatment services. PMID:25723974

  15. Intrasexual Competition and Eating Restriction in Heterosexual and Homosexual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Norman P.; Smith, April R.; Griskevicius, Vladas; Cason, Margaret J.; Bryan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive eating attitudes and behaviors have been hypothesized to be related to processes of intrasexual competition. According to this perspective, within-sex competition for status serves the adaptive purpose of attracting mates. As such, status competition salience may lead to concerns of mating desirability. For heterosexual women and gay men, such concerns revolve around appearing youthful and thus, thinner. Following this logic, we examined how exposure to high-status and competitive (but not thin or highly attractive) same-sex individuals would influence body image and eating attitudes in heterosexual and in gay/lesbian individuals. Results indicated that for heterosexuals, intrasexual competition cues led to greater body image dissatisfaction and more restrictive eating attitudes for women, but not for men. In contrast, for homosexual individuals, intrasexual competition cues led to worse body image and eating attitudes for gay men, but not for lesbian women. These findings support the idea that the ultimate explanation for eating disorders is related to intrasexual competition. PMID:20835352

  16. The Prevalence of Lisping in Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; De Bruyn, Els; Lefebvre, Evelien; Sokoloff, Anouschka; De Ley, Sophia; Baudonck, Nele

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the stereotype that gay men lisp. Two clinicians who were unaware of the specific purpose of the study and the populations involved judged randomized audio-recordings of 175 gay males, 100 heterosexual males and 100 heterosexual females for the presence of lisping during reading of a standardized text. In the gay males a…

  17. Quality of Life of Men and Women with Borderline Intelligence and Attention Deficit Disorders Living in Community Residences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmerman, Arie; Yurkevich, Oren; Birger, Moshe; Araten-Bergman, Tal

    2005-01-01

    The research studies the quality of life (QOL) of 127 men and women diagnosed as having a borderline IQ and ADHD living in two major residential programs of the Sharon region in central Israel in respect to their personal, disability, and social ecological variables. Core findings indicate that men and women differ significantly according to their…

  18. Where You Live Matters: Structural Correlates of HIV Risk Behavior Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Eaton, Lisa; Andrzejewski, Jack; Loveluck, Jimena; VanHemert, William; Pingel, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    Structural characteristics are linked to HIV/STI risks, yet few studies have examined the mechanisms through which structural characteristics influence the HIV/STI risk of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using data from a cross-sectional survey of YMSM (ages 18-29) living in Detroit Metro (N = 328; 9 % HIV-positive; 49 % Black, 27 % White, 15 % Latino, 9 % Other race), we used multilevel modeling to examine the association between community-level characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage; distance to LGBT-affirming institutions) and YMSM's HIV testing behavior and likelihood of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with serodiscordant partner(s). We accounted for individual-level factors (race/ethnicity, poverty, homelessness, alcohol and marijuana use) and contextual factors (community acceptance and stigma regarding same-sex sexuality). YMSM in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and nearer to an AIDS Service Organization were more likely to have tested for HIV and less likely to report serodiscordant partners. Community acceptance was associated with having tested for HIV. Efforts to address YMSM's exposure to structural barriers in Detroit Metro are needed to inform HIV prevention strategies from a socioecological perspective. PMID:26334445

  19. Men living with diagnosed HIV who have sex with men: progress along the continuum of HIV care--United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sonia; Bradley, Heather; Hu, Xiaohong; Skarbinski, Jacek; Hall, H Irene; Lansky, Amy

    2014-09-26

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent approximately 2% of the United States population, yet are the risk group most affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2010, among persons newly infected with HIV, 63% were MSM; among persons living with HIV, 52% were MSM. The three goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy are to reduce new HIV infections, to increase access to care and improve health outcomes for persons living with HIV, and to reduce HIV-related health disparities. In July 2013, the HIV Care Continuum Initiative was established by executive order to mobilize and accelerate federal efforts to increase HIV testing, services, and treatment along the continuum. To meet the 2015 targets of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, 85% of MSM diagnosed with HIV should be linked to care, 80% should be retained in care, and the proportion with an undetectable viral load (VL) should be increased by 20%. To assess progress toward meeting these targets, CDC assessed the level at each step of the continuum of care for MSM by age and race/ethnicity. CDC analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS) and the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) for MSM with diagnosed HIV infection. The results indicated that 77.5% were linked to care, 50.9% were retained in care, 49.5% were prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 42.0% had achieved viral suppression. Younger MSM and black/African American MSM had lower levels of care compared with older MSM and those of all other races/ethnicities. Interventions aimed at MSM are needed that increase linkage to care, retention in care, and ART use, particularly among MSM aged <25 years and black/African American MSM. PMID:25254559

  20. HIV seropositivity and sexuality: cessation of sexual relations among men and women living with HIV in five countries.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Adeline; Lefèvre, Marie; Henry, Emilie; Verdes, Ludmila; Acosta, Maria-Elena; Benmoussa, Amal; Mukumbi, Henri; Cissé, Mamadou; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2016-03-01

    The sexuality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is a key issue in the fight against HIV, as it influences both the dynamic of the epidemic and the quality of life of PLHIV. The present study examined the factors associated with cessation of sexual relations after HIV diagnosis among men and women in five countries: Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Romania and Ecuador. A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression and a separate gender analysis were performed. Among the 1413 participants, 471 (33%) declared that they stopped having sexual relations after their HIV diagnosis, including 318 women (42%) and 153 men (23%) (p < .001). Concerning women, variables associated with the cessation of sexual relations in the final multivariate model were mainly related with relational factors and the possibility of getting social support (e.g., needing help to disclose HIV serostatus, feeling lonely every day, not finding support in CBOs, not being in a couple). Men's sexual activity was more associated with their representations and their perception of the infection (e.g., thinking they will have their HIV infection for the rest of their life, perceiving the HIV infection as a mystery, perceiving the infection as serious). Furthermore, the following variables were associated with both men and women sexual behaviours: being older, having suffered from serious social consequences after serostatus disclosure and not being able to regularly discuss about HIV with their steady partner. Results suggested clear differences between men and women regarding cessation of sexual relations and highlighted the importance of implementing gender-based tailored interventions that promote safe and satisfying sexuality, as it is known to have a positive impact on the overall well-being of PLHIV. PMID:26924703

  1. HIV seropositivity and sexuality: cessation of sexual relations among men and women living with HIV in five countries

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Adeline; Lefèvre, Marie; Henry, Emilie; Verdes, Ludmila; Acosta, Maria-Elena; Benmoussa, Amal; Mukumbi, Henri; Cissé, Mamadou; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sexuality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is a key issue in the fight against HIV, as it influences both the dynamic of the epidemic and the quality of life of PLHIV. The present study examined the factors associated with cessation of sexual relations after HIV diagnosis among men and women in five countries: Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Romania and Ecuador. A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression and a separate gender analysis were performed. Among the 1413 participants, 471 (33%) declared that they stopped having sexual relations after their HIV diagnosis, including 318 women (42%) and 153 men (23%) (p < .001). Concerning women, variables associated with the cessation of sexual relations in the final multivariate model were mainly related with relational factors and the possibility of getting social support (e.g., needing help to disclose HIV serostatus, feeling lonely every day, not finding support in CBOs, not being in a couple). Men's sexual activity was more associated with their representations and their perception of the infection (e.g., thinking they will have their HIV infection for the rest of their life, perceiving the HIV infection as a mystery, perceiving the infection as serious). Furthermore, the following variables were associated with both men and women sexual behaviours: being older, having suffered from serious social consequences after serostatus disclosure and not being able to regularly discuss about HIV with their steady partner. Results suggested clear differences between men and women regarding cessation of sexual relations and highlighted the importance of implementing gender-based tailored interventions that promote safe and satisfying sexuality, as it is known to have a positive impact on the overall well-being of PLHIV. PMID:26924703

  2. Beyond the Model Minority Myth: Interrogating the Lived Experiences of Korean American Gay Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have examined the experiences of GLBT students in college and found that gay students often report encountering unwelcoming campus environments, physical or verbal assault, and homophobia. Rarely, however, have the experiences of Asian Pacific Islander (API) or more specifically South Korean gay men been accounted for in the literature. A…

  3. Disruptive social capital: (un)healthy socio-spatial interactions among Filipino men living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Lois M; Magalong, Michelle G

    2008-06-01

    Social capital's popularity is due to its commensurability with community-centered strategies on the one hand, and neoliberalist state retraction on the other. But, as scathing critiques have asserted, expanding trust and reciprocity cannot overcome social inequality and health disparities. This paper addresses these critiques by proposing a disruptive social capital framework. Disruptive social capital highlights the simultaneous advantages and disadvantages embedded in social capital that result in enhanced health, but also illness, injury, or death. An analysis of interviews with 52 Filipino men living with HIV/AIDS in Los Angeles shows the inextricable nature of these (dis)advantages. PMID:17658287

  4. Heterosexual Allies: A Descriptive Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Susan B.; Davis, Denise S.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-six heterosexual members of a college-based gay/straight alliance organization were surveyed to investigate characteristics of students who commit to acting as allies in reducing sexual prejudice. Assessment focused on the students' history of intergroup contact and exposure to sexual prejudice prior to joining the gay/straight alliance,…

  5. Heterosexual Allies: A Descriptive Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Susan B.; Davis, Denise S.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-six heterosexual members of a college-based gay/straight alliance organization were surveyed to investigate characteristics of students who commit to acting as allies in reducing sexual prejudice. Assessment focused on the students' history of intergroup contact and exposure to sexual prejudice prior to joining the gay/straight alliance,

  6. Heterosexual Interests of Suburban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Carlfred B.

    1971-01-01

    Extensive cross sectional data suggest a real continuity between prepubertal attitudes and experience and those of adolescence. The preteen years (10-13) represent a period of preparation for later heterosexual involvement. These findings suggest need to modify traditional points of view regarding patterns of sociosexual development. (Author/CJ)

  7. Using Masculine Capital to Understand the Role of a Sport Program in the Lives of Men From a Western Canadian Inner City.

    PubMed

    Holt, Nicholas L; Scherer, Jay; Koch, Jordan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of a sport program in the lives of homeless men with severe mental illnesses and addictions. Interviews were conducted with eight men who attended a floor hockey program, and data examined using categorical-content narrative methodology. Five themes captured the role of the floor hockey program in the men's lives: (a) relationships with program leader, (b) therapy, (c) community, (d) action, and (e) achievement. These themes were interpreted using theories of masculinity (Connell, 1995; Gough, 2014). Relationships with the program leader and other men, and ways in which they were allowed to play with physicality, provided opportunities to accumulate masculine capital (i.e., ways in which competence in traditionally masculine behaviors provides masculine credit). Practically, the findings suggest that sport program delivery for men such as those in this study can be enhanced by providing opportunities for accruing masculine capital. PMID:26524098

  8. Patterns of sexual mixing with respect to social, health and sexual characteristics among heterosexual couples in England: analyses of probability sample survey data.

    PubMed

    Prah, P; Copas, A J; Mercer, C H; Nardone, A; Johnson, A M

    2015-05-01

    Patterns of sexual mixing are major determinants of sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission, in particular the extent to which high-risk populations mix with low-risk populations. However, patterns of mixing in the general population are poorly understood. We analysed data from a national probability sample survey of households, the Health Survey for England 2010. A total of 943 heterosexual couples living together, where at least one partner was aged between 16-44 years, were included. We used correlation coefficients to measure the strength of similarities between partners with respect to demographic characteristics, general health, health behaviours and sexual history. Males were on average 2 years older than their female partners, although this age difference ranged from a median of 0 years in men aged 16-24 years to a median of 2 years in men aged 35-44 years. A positive correlation between partners was found for all demographic characteristics. With respect to general health and health behaviours, a strongly positive correlation was found between men and women in reporting alcohol consumption at ⩾3 days a week and smoking. Men typically reported greater numbers of sexual partners than their female partner, although men and women with more partners were more likely to mix with each other. We have been able to elucidate the patterns of sexual mixing between men and women living together in England. Mixing based on demographic characteristics was more assortative than sexual characteristics. These data can better inform mathematical models of STI transmission. PMID:25167088

  9. Mostly heterosexual and mostly gay/lesbian: evidence for new sexual orientation identities.

    PubMed

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2012-02-01

    A sample of 1,784 individuals responded to an online survey advertised on the Facebook social networking website. We explored the sexual orientation continuum by focusing on three components: self-reported sexual orientation identity, sexual attraction, and sexual partners. Results supported a 5-category classification of identity (heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay/lesbian, gay/lesbian) in that two added identity labels (mostly heterosexual and mostly gay/lesbian) were frequently chosen by participants and/or showed unique patterns of attraction and partners, distinct from their adjacent identities (heterosexual and bisexual, and bisexual and gay/lesbian, respectively). Those who reported an exclusive label (heterosexual, gay/lesbian) were not necessarily exclusive in other components; a significant minority of heterosexuals and the majority of gays/lesbians reported some attraction and/or partners toward their nonpreferred sex. The five identity groups differed in attraction and partners in a manner consistent with a continuous, rather than a categorical, distribution of sexual orientation. Findings also supported a sexual orientation continuum as consisting of two, rather than one, distinct dimensions (same- and other-sex sexuality). Having more same-sex sexuality did not necessarily imply having less other-sex sexuality, and vice versa. More men than women were at the exclusive ends of the continuum; however, men were not bimodally distributed in that a significant minority reported nonexclusivity in their sexuality. PMID:22327566

  10. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  11. Machismo and Mexican American men: an empirical understanding using a gay sample.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G Miguel; Tracey, Terence J G

    2011-07-01

    Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of machismo using a sample of Mexican American gay men. This study examined for the first time whether a 2-factor model of machismo previously validated with heterosexual, Mexican American men generalized to a sample of 152 gay men of similar ethnic background. Relations between machismo, sexual risk, and internalized homophobia were also explored. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 2-factor model with the current sample. Results also indicated machismo as predicting internalized homophobia and as an index of risky sex. Limitations are presented and implications are discussed. PMID:21534655

  12. Stereotypes of Older Lesbians and Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…

  13. Views and Attitudes Towards Sexual Functioning in Men Living with Spinal Cord Injury in Kerala, South India

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, MM; Boston, Patricia; Rajagopal, MR

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sexual dysfunction is a major concern for Indian men living with a spinal cord injury. Few first-hand reports exist about the experience of living with an altered sense of sexual identity and the inability to express sexual concerns. Aims: In this qualitative study, the authors explore views and attitudes towards sexual functioning in men living with a spinal cord injury in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured and open-ended interviews were conducted with seven participants according to IE Seidman's phenomenological approach. Thematic analysis followed the analytic process outlined by Moustakas (1990). Results: Identification of seven interconnected themes included: Recalling an active sexual life, disconnection with sexual identity, incongruence between emotional and physical capability, spousal isolation, social readjustment of spouse, physical barriers to sexual functioning, coping, and reintegration. Conclusions: Patient's descriptions of suffering demonstrate complexities of experience in sexual functioning. All patients were sexually active prior to the injury. This was now lost causing anxiety, distress, and sadness. A huge gap existed between sexual desire and physical capability. The patient and spouse were now isolated emotionally, socially, and physically. Physical barriers included urinary incontinence and indwelling catheters. While several self-evolved coping strategies were identified, support from palliative care services was not evident. Two important gaps exist in research and practice: (1) Attention to sexual issues and whole-person care. (2) Attention to quality of sexual life. Future qualitative studies on sexual dysfunction could provide a useful adjunct to current literature which is predominantly biomedical in its approach. PMID:25709179

  14. 'As a man I felt small': a qualitative study of Ugandan men's experiences of living with a wife suffering from obstetric fistula.

    PubMed

    Barageine, Justus Kafunjo; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2016-04-01

    The effects of obstetric fistula surpass the individual woman and affect husbands, relatives, peers and the community at large. Few studies have documented the experiences of men who live with wives suffering from fistula. In this study, our objective was to understand how fistula affects these men's lives. We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with men in central and western Uganda. We used thematic narrative analysis and discuss our findings based on Connell's theory of hegemonic masculinity. Findings show that the men's experiences conflicted with Ugandan norms of hegemonic masculinity. However, men had to find other ways of explaining their identity, such as portraying themselves as small men but still be responsible, caring husbands and fathers. The few individuals who married a second wife remained married to the wife with the fistula. These men viewed marriage as a lifetime promise before God and a responsibility that should not end because of a fistula. Poverty, love, care for children and social norms in a patriarchal society compelled the men to persevere in their relationship amidst many challenges. PMID:26466639

  15. "Fag church": men who integrate gay and Christian identities.

    PubMed

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    It is usually assumed that being gay or lesbian and being Christian is contradictory. The eight men who participated in this qualitative inquiry demonstrate otherwise. I investigated the ways in which these men integrated their gay and Christian identities meaningfully into their lives. From the interview data, I discerned and describe in this paper a variety of strategies that these men adopted in order to facilitate identity integration of seemingly mutually exclusive identities. In the bid for social and political equality with heterosexuals, gays and lesbians typically have not received support from Christians, at least not from politically active Christians, many of whom participate in explicitly antigay campaigns. Given such a contentious context, I discuss the personal and political implications of integrating gay and evangelical Christian identities. PMID:16901864

  16. HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men and Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Implications for Health and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Katherine R.; Gupta, Shruti; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    A personal history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is prevalent and deleterious to health for people living with HIV (PLWH), and current statistics likely underrepresent the frequency of these experiences. In the general population, the prevalence of CSA appears to be higher in men who have sex with men (MSM) than heterosexual men, but there are limited data available for HIV-infected MSM. CSA is associated with poor mental and physical health and may contribute to high rates of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex and substance abuse. CSA exposure is also associated with low engagement in care for PLWH. More information is needed regarding CSA experiences of HIV-infected MSM to optimize health and wellbeing for this population and to prevent HIV transmission. This article reviews the epidemiology, implications, and interventions for MSM who have a history of CSA. PMID:23790272

  17. "It's a horrible sin. If they find out, I will not be able to stay": Orthodox Jewish gay men's experiences living in secrecy.

    PubMed

    Itzhaky, Haya; Kissil, Karni

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the intersection of sexual orientation and religion in the Jewish Orthodox community by exploring 22 Orthodox Jewish gay men's experiences living in secrecy. Analysis of in-depth interviews conducted with these men revealed four primary themes: emotional turmoil, ways of coping, impact on family relationships, and importance of the context. Findings from this study describe the daily struggles these men experienced keeping their homosexuality a secret. The findings suggest that in order to design effective interventions with this population, it is crucial to consider the larger community and religious context. PMID:25494720

  18. The relationship of body composition to daily physical activity in free-living Japanese adult men.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonghoon; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Tanaka, Shigeho; Hikihara, Yuki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko; Morita, Akemi; Aiba, Naomi; Tabata, Izumi

    2014-01-14

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether a previously reported apparent negative relationship between fat mass and daily physical activity in Japanese adult women would also be observed in Japanese adult men. The subjects were grouped into quartiles of BMI and body fat percentage (%BF). The number of steps walked each day and the duration of light- to vigorous-intensity physical activity were assessed by an accelerometer over the same period of time as for the doubly labelled water experiment. The results showed that BMI negatively correlated with the number of steps and time spent in moderate-intensity physical activity, whereas %BF showed a negative relationship with physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE)/body weight (BW) and physical activity level. The analysis of data using %BF quartiles revealed that PAEE/BW decreased from the second quartile in which the BMI was < 25 kg/m2. These observations are similar to those reported in our previous study in Japanese adult women. These cross-sectional studies cannot prove causality, and that obesity causes physical inactivity may be the case. However, the results of the present study provide information regarding which physical activity variables should be used in longitudinal studies. PMID:23841965

  19. Wartime losses and social bonding: influences across 40 years in men's lives.

    PubMed

    Elder, G H; Clipp, E C

    1988-05-01

    By 1990 over half of all American men entering the retirement years will be veterans with a life history shaped by participation in the Armed Forces. This investigation traces the burden of war mortality and social bonding across the life span of 149 veterans of World War II and the Korean conflict. These veterans come from longitudinal samples at the Institute of Human Development, University of California, Berkeley. Data were also obtained from the record of a Marine unit that served on Iwo Jima. The study is organized around two lines of inquiry. The first examines the relationship between combat and social ties, with emphasis on exposure to combat deaths, the loss of comrades/friends, and postwar stress reactions. The second concerns the healing potential of social ties with service friends and spouses in later life. According to the analysis, heavy combat veterans are more likely than other veterans to have enduring ties from the service. But combat experience alone does not explain these ties; it is war trauma and especially the loss of significant others during war, both comrades and friends, that intensify and maintain postwar relationships. Painful memories of war and stress symptoms in later life are likely to weaken through exposure to a supportive community of service mates and spouses, an effect that suggests the healing potential of periodic reunions of the primary military unit and marital sharing. PMID:3406230

  20. Homosexual women have less grey matter in perirhinal cortex than heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Ponseti, Jorge; Siebner, Hartwig R; Klppel, Stefan; Wolff, Stephan; Granert, Oliver; Jansen, Olav; Mehdorn, Hubertus M; Bosinski, Hartmut A

    2007-01-01

    Is sexual orientation associated with structural differences in the brain? To address this question, 80 homosexual and heterosexual men and women (16 homosexual men and 15 homosexual women) underwent structural MRI. We used voxel-based morphometry to test for differences in grey matter concentration associated with gender and sexual orientation. Compared with heterosexual women, homosexual women displayed less grey matter bilaterally in the temporo-basal cortex, ventral cerebellum, and left ventral premotor cortex. The relative decrease in grey matter was most prominent in the left perirhinal cortex. The left perirhinal area also showed less grey matter in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women. Thus, in homosexual women, the perirhinal cortex grey matter displayed a more male-like structural pattern. This is in accordance with previous research that revealed signs of sex-atypical prenatal androgenization in homosexual women, but not in homosexual men. The relevance of the perirhinal area for high order multimodal (olfactory and visual) object, social, and sexual processing is discussed. PMID:17712410

  1. Sexual expression: its emotional context in heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Carl; Ogolsky, Brian; Payne, Pamela; Totenhagen, Casey; Cate, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    Much of what is known about emotions and sexuality explores the relationship enhancing qualities of positive affect. This research extends the current literature by focusing on the association between negative feelings and sexual thoughts and experiences in the context of close relationships, controlling for the effect of positive feelings. Specifically, the unique effects of daily negative feelings toward one's partner in general and specific negative feelings (i.e., anger, anxiety, and sadness) on the sexual experience of heterosexual, gay male, and lesbian relationships were explored. Participants completed an initial questionnaire followed by daily diary measures for 14 consecutive days. Positive feelings were positively associated with sexual variables as expected. Negative feelings were associated with increases in sexual behaviors for heterosexual men and women and gay men, but not lesbian women. Sadness showed a unique positive association with arousal, lust, wanted sexual behavior, and sexual behavior for heterosexual men and women and gay men, but not lesbian women. Neither anger nor anxiety was uniquely associated with the sexual experience for heterosexual or same-sex couples. PMID:18686159

  2. In vitro markers for measuring residual virulence for men of live attenuated influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Boudreault, A; Diaz-Rodriguez, P; Lecomte, J

    Human and equine influenza strains attenuated by consecutive passages in the presence of normal horse serum (NHS) on allantois-on-shell system (AOS) and administered to human volunteers or horses as possible live virus vaccine candidates were tested in organ cultures of ferret and hamster trachea. Temperature sensitivity, virus replication, interferon induction and neuraminidase activity were also investigated. Observation of the ciliary activity of each ring was made daily. Influenza strains which were incompletely attenuated following two to five passages on AOS + NHS system and caused severe to mild symptoms of influenza in volunteers or horses also caused a 50% inhibition of the activity of the ciliated epithelium earlier than did completely attenuated strains following ten passages on the same system. The A/Hong Kong/68 strain attenuated by Beare and Bynoe was used as a reference strain in every test. This technique appears to be valuable for screening live influenza vaccine candidates and may prevent risking severe illness in volunteers. No significant results could be ascertained with other markers investigated. PMID:604117

  3. Disrupting the sexual double standard: young women's talk about heterosexuality.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Susan M; Cram, Fiona

    2003-03-01

    Despite significant changes in the social landscape over the past two decades, much ethnographic research suggests that young women's negotiations of (hetero)sexuality remain dominated by the sexual double standard. Within the sexual double standard, an active, desiring sexuality is positively regarded in men, but denigrated and regulated by negative labelling in women. This article analyses young women's talk on the subject of negotiating (hetero)sexual relationships, drawn from focus-group interviews with six groups of young women aged 16-18 years. A feminist, post-structuralist form of discourse analysis is used to analyse the material, the aim being to examine young women's talk about (hetero)sexuality from the standpoints of agency and resistance. Analyses identified various ways in which the sexual double standard was disrupted, including challenging the language of the sexual double standard, articulating sexual desire, and positioning of self and (hetero)sex within alternative discourses. The findings also suggest, however, that voices of resistance to the sexual double standard may be muted and individual rather than collective, and that, accordingly, every effort should be made by those working with young women to recognize and support attempts to disrupt the sexual double standard. PMID:12713759

  4. Sexual and Intimacy Issues for Aging Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexual men, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.

  5. Gay Men: Negotiating Procreative, Father, and Family Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Dana; Marsiglio, William

    2007-01-01

    Our qualitative study examines the social psychology of gay men's experiences with their procreative, father, and family identities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 childless gay men and 20 gay men in the United States who have fathered using diverse means excluding heterosexual intercourse. By focusing on men aged 19-55 residing

  6. Does menstrual cycle phase influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal?

    PubMed

    Bossio, Jennifer A; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Puts, David A; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-07-01

    Unlike men, heterosexual women's genital arousal is gender nonspecific, such that heterosexual women show relatively similar genital arousal to sexual stimuli depicting men and women but typically report greater subjective arousal to male stimuli. Based on the ovulatory-shift hypothesis-that women show a mid-cycle shift in preferences towards more masculine features during peak fertility-we predicted that heterosexual women's genital and subjective arousal would be gender specific (more arousal towards male stimuli) during peak fertility. Twenty-two naturally-cycling heterosexual women were assessed during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle to examine the role of menstrual cycle phase in gender specificity of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Menstrual cycle phase was confirmed with salivary hormone assays; phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced. Women's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were gender nonspecific, irrespective of cycle phase. Cycle phase at first testing session did not influence genital or subjective arousal in the second testing session. Similar to previous research, women's genital and subjective sexual arousal varied with cues of sexual activity, but neither genital nor subjective sexual arousal varied by gender cues, with the exception of masturbation stimuli, where women showed higher genital arousal to the stimuli depicting male compared to female actors. These data suggest that menstrual cycle phase does not influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal. PMID:24379080

  7. Neighborhood Context and Black Heterosexual Men’s Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Tor; Tabb, Loni Philip; Burkholder, Gary J.; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of neighborhood context on sexual risk behavior are understudied, particularly for Black heterosexual men who do not inject drugs or report heavy drug use. Evidence of a generalized HIV epidemic (>1%) among Black heterosexuals in low-income urban U.S. communities underscores the importance of examining the effects of neighborhood context on Black heterosexual men’s sexual risk, however. We used structural equation modeling to test the pathways between neighborhood context (neighborhood disorder, personal violence, neighborhood threats), depression, substance use, and sexual risk behavior. Participants were 526 self-identified Black heterosexual men, ages 18 to 45, recruited via randomized venue-based probability sampling in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses of model fit statistics from Mplus indicated statistically significant direct pathways between neighborhood context, depression, substance use, and sexual risk behavior. The total indirect effect of neighborhood context on sexual risk behavior through substance use was also significant. The study’s results highlight a need for more research on neighborhood context and sexual HIV risk, and for multilevel interventions to address the effects of negative neighborhood context on Black heterosexual men’s sexual HIV risk. PMID:24906531

  8. Dietary patterns and health and nutrition outcomes in men living with HIV infection123

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Kristy M; Mwamburi, D Mkaya; Newby, PK; Wanke, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    Background Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective We assessed the association between dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis and change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), CD4 count, and viral load (VL). Design HIV-positive adult male subjects (n = 348) with a BMI ≥ 20.5 were evaluated by biochemical, body composition, and dietary data. Cluster analysis was performed on 41 designated food groups derived from 3-d food records. Dietary clusters were compared for sociodemographic, nutrient intake, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate linear regression assessed associations between dietary clusters and change in BMI, CD4 count, and VL. Results We observed 3 dietary patterns: juice and soda; fast food and fruit drinks; and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy. Subjects in the fast food and fruit drinks pattern had the lowest fiber intake, highest VL, and lowest CD4 count and had a lower income than did subjects in the other 2 clusters. Subjects in the fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy diet pattern had higher intakes of protein, fiber, and micronutrients and the highest BMI and CD4 count. Subjects in the juice and soda pattern had higher energy intakes and lowest BMI. On average, the fast food and fruit drinks cluster and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy cluster gained 0.33 (P = 0.06) and 0.42 (P = 0.02), respectively, more in BMI than the juice and soda cluster across the study interval in a multivariate model. Conclusions In a cohort of HIV-positive men, we identified 3 distinct dietary patterns; each pattern was associated with specific nutrition, demographic, and HIV-related variables. PMID:19064519

  9. On the validity of popular masculinity rating scales with gay men.

    PubMed

    Alt, Marcus; Lewis, Adam M; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric; Sánchez, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    During the past decade, greater quantitative attention has been given to how gay men's lives are affected by traditional notions of masculinity. Consequently, it is important that masculinity-related measures that are often used in research are valid for use with gay men. This study examined the factor structures, loadings, and psychometric properties of three commonly used masculinity-related measures: the Gender Role Conflict Scale, the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory, and the Reference Group Identity Dependence Scale. Data were collected via an online survey of 920 self-identified gay men (M(age) = 32.48 years, SD = 11.73). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that while the goodness of fit statistics did not always indicate the model fit, there were similar endorsements of items across the three masculinity scales and subscale factor loadings consistent with published studies using mostly heterosexual male samples. Implications for future masculinity scale research on gay men are discussed. PMID:25193131

  10. Living arrangements as determinants of myocardial infarction incidence and survival: A prospective register study of over 300,000 Finnish men and women.

    PubMed

    Kilpi, Fanny; Konttinen, Hanna; Silventoinen, Karri; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-05-01

    Living with a spouse is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease mortality in middle age, but it remains unclear whether marriage and other living arrangements are important both for the development of the disease and the survival following incidence. Cohabitation and living alone have also become more common in many Western societies and thus warrant further study. We explored the association between living arrangements and myocardial infarction (MI) incidence and fatality. We used a population-based register sample of adults aged 40-60 in Finland in 1995 (n = 302,885) followed up until the end of 2007. MI incidence and mortality were identified from hospital discharge records and cause of death register (5917 incident cases in men and 1632 in women). Living with a marital partner was contrasted to three alternatives: cohabiting with non-marital partner, co-residence with persons other than a partner and living alone. MI incidence and long-term fatality were analysed with Cox proportional hazards regression with time-varying covariates and first-day fatality with logistic regression. Men who were married had a lower risk of MI incidence even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors - i.e. education, occupation, income, wealth and employment status - with small differences between the other living arrangement groups. For women the effects of living arrangements on incidence were fully explained by the same socioeconomic factors. However, our findings revealed that living arrangements were strong determinants for survival after MI independent of other socio-demographic factors. The results demonstrate greater fatality associated with living alone in men and suggest that cohabitation in midlife may be associated with a greater fatality risk in women. The social support and control offered by a marital relationship may protect from MI fatality in particular. PMID:25863724

  11. Sexual or Friendly? Associations about Women, Men, and Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Shoda, Yuichi; George, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Using explicit, self-report measures, past research has found that heterosexual men, relative to heterosexual women, often attribute more sexuality to women's behaviors. In the present studies, the Implicit Association Test was used to determine if these findings held at the automatic processing level. The results of Study 1 were consistent with

  12. Adequacy of nutritional intake among older men living in Sydney, Australia: findings from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP).

    PubMed

    Waern, Rosilene V R; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona; Naganathan, Vasi; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Le Couteur, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Kendig, Hal; Hirani, Vasant

    2015-09-14

    Previous research shows that older men tend to have lower nutritional intakes and higher risk of under-nutrition compared with younger men. The objectives of this study were to describe energy and nutrient intakes, assess nutritional risk and investigate factors associated with poor intake of energy and key nutrients in community-dwelling men aged ?75 years participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - a longitudinal cohort study on older men in Sydney, Australia. A total of 794 men (mean age 814 years) had a detailed diet history interview, which was carried out by a dietitian. Dietary adequacy was assessed by comparing median intakes with nutrient reference values (NRV): estimated average requirement, adequate intake or upper level of intake. Attainment of NRV of total energy and key nutrients in older age (protein, Fe, Zn, riboflavin, Ca and vitamin D) was incorporated into a 'key nutrients' variable dichotomised as 'good' (?5) or 'poor' (?4). Using logistic regression modelling, we examined associations between key nutrients with factors known to affect food intake. Median energy intake was 8728 kJ (P5=5762 kJ, P95=12 303 kJ), and mean BMI was 277 (sd 40) kg/m2. Men met their NRV for most nutrients. However, only 1 % of men met their NRV for vitamin D, only 19 % for Ca, only 30 % for K and only 33 % for dietary fibre. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only country of birth was significantly associated with poor nutritional intake. Dietary intakes were adequate for most nutrients; however, only half of the participants met the NRV of ?5 key nutrients. PMID:26266529

  13. Collateral consequences: implications of male incarceration rates, imbalanced sex ratios and partner availability for heterosexual Black women.

    PubMed

    Dauria, Emily F; Oakley, Lisa; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Elifson, Kirk; Wingood, Gina; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2015-01-01

    While studies have found correlations between rates of incarceration and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), few studies have explored the mechanisms linking these phenomena. This qualitative study examines how male incarceration rates and sex ratios influence perceived partner availability and sexual partnerships for heterosexual Black women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 Black women living in two US neighbourhoods, one with a high male incarceration rate and an imbalanced sex ratio (referred to as 'Allentown') and one with a low male incarceration rate and an equitable sex ratio (referred to as 'Blackrock'). Data were analysed using grounded theory. In Allentown, male incarceration reduced the number of available men, and participants largely viewed men available for partnerships as being of an undesirable quality. The number and desirability of men impacted on the nature of partnerships such that they were shorter, focused on sexual activity and may be with higher-risk sexual partners (e.g. transactional sex partners). In Blackrock, marriage rates contributed to the shortage of desirable male partners. By highlighting the role that the quantity and quality of male partners has on shaping sexual partnerships, this study advances current understandings of how incarceration and sex ratios shape HIV- and STI-related risk. PMID:26056724

  14. Psychosocial development of heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Van Wyk, P H; Geist, C S

    1984-12-01

    Relationships with overt adult Kinsey Scale scores (K) indicate that early sexual experiences are most closely related to K, followed in order by gender related and familial variables. A developmental model emphasizing social learning is presented. Interviewees were 7669 American white males and females. Elevated K (more homosexual scores) was found for females who had few girl companions at age 10 and few male companions at 16, had learned to masturbate by being masturbated by a female, had intense prepubertal sexual contact with boys or men, found thought or sight of females, but not males, arousing by age 18, had homosexual contact by age 18, higher K at 17, and higher first-year homosexual behavior frequency. Elevated K (more homosexual scores) was found for males who reported poorer teenage relationships with their fathers, had more girl companions at age 10, fewer male companions at 10 and 16, avoided sports participation, learned of homosexuality by experience, learned to masturbate by being masturbated by a male, had intense prepubertal sexual contact with boys or men, had neither heterosexual contact nor petting to orgasm by age 18, found thought or sight of males, but not females, arousing by age 18, had homosexual contact by age 18, higher K at ages 16 and 17, and had higher first-year homosexual behavior frequency. Behavioral bisexuals, those scoring between 2.0 and 4.0 on the K scale on the basis of overt behavior (0.7% of females, 1.2% of males), reported more arousal to heterosexual stimuli than did exclusive heterosexuals. PMID:6517686

  15. 'Stuck in the quagmire of an HIV ghetto': the meaning of stigma in the lives of older black gay and bisexual men living with HIV in New York City.

    PubMed

    Haile, Rahwa; Padilla, Mark B; Parker, Edith A

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we analyse the life history narratives of 10 poor gay and bisexual Black men over the age of 50 living with HIV/AIDS in New York City, focusing on experiences of stigma. Three overarching themes are identified. First, participants described the ways in which stigma marks them as 'just one more body' within social and medical institutions, emphasising the dehumanisation they experience in these settings. Second, respondents described the process of 'knowing your place' within social hierarchies as a means through which they are rendered tolerable. Finally, interviewees described the dynamics of stigma as all-consuming, relegating them to the 'quagmire of an HIV ghetto'. These findings emphasise that despite advances in treatment and an aging population of persons living with HIV, entrenched social stigmas continue to endanger the well-being of Black men who have sex with men. PMID:21229421

  16. “Stuck in the Quagmire of an HIV Ghetto”: The meaning of stigma in the lives of older black gay and bisexual men living with HIV in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Rahwa; Padilla, Mark B.; Parker, Edith A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the life history narratives of 10 poor gay and bisexual Black men over the age of 50 living with HIV/AIDS in New York City, focusing on experiences of stigma. Three overarching themes are identified. First, participants described the ways in which stigma marks them as just one more body within social and medical institutions, emphasising the dehumanisation they experience in these settings. Second, respondents described the process of knowing your place within social hierarchies as a means through which they are rendered tolerable. Finally, interviewees described the dynamics of stigma as all-consuming, relegating them to the quagmire of an HIV ghetto. These findings emphasise that despite advances in treatment and an aging population of persons living with HIV, entrenched social stigmas continue to endanger the well-being of Black men who have sex with men. PMID:21229421

  17. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676

  18. Sexual and reproductive health services and HIV testing: perspectives and experiences of women and men living with HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bell, Emma; Mthembu, Promise; O'Sullivan, Sue; Moody, Kevin

    2007-05-01

    All over the world HIV has been stigmatised, making it difficult for people living with HIV to access testing, treatment, care and counselling or even to act on a diagnosis or get advice and treatment, for fear of being judged. Prejudice in society has also often been reflected and reproduced by health care providers. A human rights approach, which positively incorporates sexual and reproductive rights, rather than a restricted medical view, is therefore essential for the achievement of true partnerships between health care providers and service users. This paper is about the experiences of HIV positive women and men in sexual and reproductive health services and HIV testing. It provides guidance not only on how things could and should be done but also on how they should not be done. It outlines the sexual and reproductive rights positive people consider crucial and gives examples of how these are being violated. It presents perceptions and implications of HIV testing and how health services can support people after a positive diagnosis. It analyses the importance of confidentiality, continuity of care, knowledge and information, and the role of support groups and home-based care. It calls on sexual and reproductive health services to address issues of stigma and discrimination when offering and carrying out HIV testing and counselling, and in providing treatment, care and support. PMID:17531751

  19. Stigma and discrimination experiences of HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, A; Simbayi, L C; Kalichman, S C; Strebel, A; Henda, N

    2008-10-01

    Since the primary mode of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa is heterosexual, research focusing on the sexual behaviour of men who have sex with men (MSM) is scant. Currently it is unknown how many people living with HIV in South Africa are MSM and there is even less known about the stigmatisation and discrimination of HIV-positive MSM. The current study examined the stigma and discrimination experiences of MSM living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. Anonymous venue-based surveys were collected from 92 HIV-positive MSM and 330 HIV-positive men who only reported sex with women (MSW). Internalised stigma was high among all HIV-positive men who took part in the survey, with 56% of men reporting that they concealed their HIV status from others. HIV-positive MSM reported experiencing greater social isolation and discrimination resulting from being HIV-positive, including loss of housing or employment due to their HIV status, however these differences were not significant. Mental health interventions, as well as structural changes for protection against discrimination, are needed for HIV-positive South African MSM. PMID:18608067

  20. Barriers to Participate in Support Groups for People Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study with Men Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in a HIV Clinic in Mthatha, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Canti-Sigaqa, Vuyokazi

    2012-01-01

    Support groups are the most common and popular way of providing social support for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHI). Nevertheless, HIV positive men are reluctant to attend support groups, and in most mixed gender support groups, women outnumber men. The study used a sample of men accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) from a HIV clinic in South Africa, to examine their perceptions of support groups and explore their reasons for nonparticipation in such groups. Five focus groups interviews were conducted with 50 HIV positive men. Their age ranged from 28-70 years, all had disclosed their HIV status to partners and family members and were receiving ART for more than a year. The main barriers for nonparticipation related to issues on support groups were; Unavailability of support groups in local communities including; no access, the timing of meetings and lack of transport money. Fear of unintended disclosure of HIV status due to breach of confidentiality with resulting stigma and social rejection. On a personal level, participants felt that they had adequate support at home. Participants would consider participating if men only support groups are initiated, support groups are held on weekends, and they are provided with more information on support groups. Health care providers have a critical role to play in creating awareness of and education on the role of support groups for PLWHI. Support group planners should consider men only support groups which has been shown to have positive outcomes and facilitates member participation. PMID:23121748

  1. An exploratory analysis of women and men within a self-help, communal-living recovery setting: a new beginning in a new house.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, J R; Jason, L A; Nelson, R; Curtin-Davis, M; Marsh, P; Smith, B

    1999-05-01

    In the present exploratory study, women without children (n = 13) and women with children (n = 23) were compared to men (n = 35) on demographic and self-reported variables on entering a communal-living, self-help recovery program called Oxford House. Men were more often hospitalized for their addiction than either group of women, and men and women with children were older and had been previously hospitalized longer for their addiction than women without children. There were no significant differences among groups in terms of their codependency on others, and men felt a stronger sense of camaraderie with other residents than women with or without children. Men and women with children also tended to feel they shared more in the decisions within their house than did women without children. Further, with partial correlates (controlling for the number of children), women with children indicated that the greater their self-reported codependency, the less accepting they were of their children and the more depressed they were about their parenting abilities. Dysfunctional characteristics of the children also were related to negative characteristics in the children reported by their mothers. In short, men and women with and without children entering an Oxford House have similar profiles, yet women with children have additional stressors associated with parental responsibilities. PMID:10395162

  2. An exploratory analysis of women and men within a self-help, communal-living recovery setting: a new beginning in a new house.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ferrari JR; Jason LA; Nelson R; Curtin-Davis M; Marsh P; Smith B

    1999-05-01

    In the present exploratory study, women without children (n = 13) and women with children (n = 23) were compared to men (n = 35) on demographic and self-reported variables on entering a communal-living, self-help recovery program called Oxford House. Men were more often hospitalized for their addiction than either group of women, and men and women with children were older and had been previously hospitalized longer for their addiction than women without children. There were no significant differences among groups in terms of their codependency on others, and men felt a stronger sense of camaraderie with other residents than women with or without children. Men and women with children also tended to feel they shared more in the decisions within their house than did women without children. Further, with partial correlates (controlling for the number of children), women with children indicated that the greater their self-reported codependency, the less accepting they were of their children and the more depressed they were about their parenting abilities. Dysfunctional characteristics of the children also were related to negative characteristics in the children reported by their mothers. In short, men and women with and without children entering an Oxford House have similar profiles, yet women with children have additional stressors associated with parental responsibilities.

  3. Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have positive health effects for PLHIV in Australia. PMID:23651416

  4. Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual marriages: a national cohort study of two million Danes.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Morten; Hviid, Anders

    2006-10-01

    Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood. PMID:17039403

  5. Substance Use among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients Entering Substance Abuse Treatment: Comparisons to Heterosexual Clients

    PubMed Central

    Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated whether sexual orientation-specific differences in substance use behaviors exist among adults entering substance abuse treatment. Method Admissions records (July 2007-December 2009) were examined for treatment programs in San Francisco, California receiving government funding. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (n=1441) were compared to heterosexual persons (n=11770) separately by sex, examining primary problem substance of abuse, route of administration, age of first use, and frequency of use prior to treatment. Results Regarding bisexual males, the only significant finding of note was greater prevalence of methamphetamine as the primary substance of abuse. When compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men evidenced greater rates of primary problem methamphetamine use (44.5% and 21.8% respectively versus 7.7%, adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 6.43 and 2.94), and there was lower primary heroin use among gay men (9.3% vs. 25.8%,OR 0.35). Among LGB individuals, race and ethnicity did not predict primary problem substance, except that among LGB men and women, a non-White race predicted cocaine use (OR 4.83 and 6.40, respectively), and among lesbian and bisexual women, Hispanic ethnicity predicted lower odds of primary cocaine use (OR 0.24). When compared to heterosexual men, gay men were more likely to smoke their primary problem substance (OR 1.61), first used this substance at an older age (M = 23.16 versus M=18.55, p<.001), and used this substance fewer days prior to treatment (M=8.75 versus M=11.41, p<.001). There were no differences between heterosexual and lesbian or bisexual women. Conclusions There wereunique patterns of substance use for gay and bisexual men entering substance abuse treatment, but women did not evidence differences. Gay men evidenced unique factors that may reflect less severity of use when entering treatment including fewer days of use and a later age of initiation of their primary problem substances. The results underscore the importance of being sensitive to differences between gay, bisexual and heterosexual males when considering substance use disorders. Public Health Significance Statement This study suggests that it is important to consider the sexual orientation of individuals entering substance abuse treatment as it may be an indicator of different patterns of substance use, particularly among gay men. PMID:25622196

  6. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption. PMID:17039402

  7. “At times, I feel like I’m sinning”: The paradoxical role of non-LGBT-affirming religion in the lives of behaviourally bisexual Latino men

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine non-LGBT-affirming religiosity among behaviourally bisexual Latino men as it relates to sexual attitudes, experiences, and behaviours. We asked, how does religiosity correspond to masculine identities, sex roles, and condom efficacy? And, how might religiosity influence contexts of health risks? Data was analysed from a mixed-methods study of 142 behaviourally bisexual Latino men, aged 18–60 years. Major findings included positive correlations between religiosity and a) masculine ideologies, b) internalised homonegativity, c) less comfort with receptive sex, d) low condom efficacy, and e) higher levels of loneliness and incidents of discriminatory events. Results are paired with illustrative, descriptive case studies from life history interviews. It is suggested that non-LGBT-affirming religiosity plays a paradoxical role in the lives of behaviourally bisexual Latino men: on one hand, increasing internalised homonegativity and attendant health risks; on the other, providing social support to members of a marginalised population. PMID:24261850

  8. The Influence of Substance Use, Social Sexual Environment, Psychosocial Factors, and Partner Characteristics on High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Young Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16–24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions. PMID:21235387

  9. Tal Como Somos/just as we are: an educational film to reduce stigma toward gay and bisexual men, transgender individuals, and persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2014-04-01

    In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  10. Longitudinal disparities of hazardous drinking between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Marshal, Michael P; Cheong, Jeewon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14-18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53 % female) and 27-31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13 % self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16 % were Hispanic, and 36 % were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60 %) and Asian Americans (18 %). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

  11. Longitudinal Disparities of Hazardous Drinking between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Individuals from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14 to 18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53% female) and 27 to 31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13% self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16% were Hispanic, and 36% were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60%) and Asian Americans (18%). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

  12. Sexual Orientation Prototypicality and Well-Being Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adults.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality--or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category--and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women. PMID:25257258

  13. Should we screen heterosexuals for extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections?

    PubMed

    Garner, Anna L; Schembri, Gabriel; Cullen, Thomas; Lee, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are two of the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the UK. Although the high burden of extra-genital infections with GC and CT in men who have sex with men has been well established, a significant number of extra-genital site infections with CT and GC could similarly be present in heterosexual women. For this reason we started to routinely offer extra-genital site testing for GC and CT in all patients attending our sexual health clinic who reported having had receptive anal sex and/or giving oral sex. This followed a review of current evidence by the clinical team and a change in local testing policy. This study not only confirmed a large reservoir of extra-genital infection amongst men who have sex with men, but also demonstrates that a comparable reservoir of extra-genital infection is present amongst heterosexual women. Our study adds to the mounting evidence that extra-genital site testing in heterosexual women should occur when oral or anal sexual activity is reported. PMID:25013220

  14. Men, Resources, and Family Living: The Determinants of Union and Parental Status in the United States and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Eva M.; Goldscheider, Frances K.

    2001-01-01

    Examines factors distinguishing men's partnership and parental statuses in the United States and Sweden, which differ in state support to families. Unlike the United States, in Sweden the presence of a man in a household has little effect on receipt of income support and health insurance. This article examines how resources affect men's family…

  15. [Phalloplethysmographic reaction of optical stimulation in men with erectile disorders].

    PubMed

    Tichý, P

    1990-08-01

    Using the phalloplethysmographic test, comprising 50 coloured slides of six categories, 50 men with impaired erectivity and a control group of 50 men free from disorders or complaints as regards sexual life were examined. On exposure of slides of heterosexual partner activities positive reactions were recorded in all examined men. Men with impaired erectivity, however, displayed in response to these optic erotic stimuli a lower vasomotor reactivity. These men reacted more frequently positively also to homosexual stimuli and to children. In two men with erectile dysfunction the phalloplethysmographic examination revealed a bisexual orientation, in one a preference of heterosexual child objects, in another eight a quite undefined age differentiation in heterosexual objects. PMID:2245482

  16. Sexual Beginners: Accounting for First Sexual Intercourse in Italian Young People's Heterosexual Biographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero Camoletto, Raffaella

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey data of 1000 young people aged 18-29 and semi-structured interviews with 51 young people aged 18-34 living in a north-western Italian region, the article explores how they account for their first heterosexual intercourse. Young people describe and make sense of their experiences by referring to sexual scripts; narrative sequences…

  17. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older Gay and Bisexual Men Living With HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify risk and protective factors associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life, after controlling for key background characteristics, in a population of older gay and bisexual men living with HIV disease. Previous research examining quality of life among persons living with HIV rarely includes older adults. Design and Methods: Survey responses from 226 gay and bisexual men aged 50 and older, and living with HIV disease, which were part of the Caring and Aging with Pride study, were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models. Results: Findings reveal that comorbidity, limitations in activities, and victimization are significant risk factors for decreased physical and mental health-related quality of life. Stigma and HIV progression did not contribute to the overall outcome variables in multivariate models. Social support and self-efficacy serve as protective factors although social support was only significant with mental health-related quality of life. Implications: Comorbidity, functional limitations, and lifetime victimization are risks to quality of life among older gay and bisexual men with HIV disease. Self-efficacy and social support represent intrapersonal and interpersonal resources that can be enhanced through interventions to improve health-related quality of life. PMID:23355449

  18. Four men in treatment: an evolving perspective on homosexuality and bisexuality, 1965 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Roughton, R E

    2001-01-01

    The author surveys his work with gay and bisexual men and his evolving clinical understanding, spanning a thirty-five-year period from 1965 to 2000. Four cases are discussed briefly, one from each decade, to illustrate the changing clinical approach, and the following conclusions drawn: (1) sexual orientation and mental health should be approached as independent dimensions; (2) heterosexual orientation is not a required outcome for successful analysis; (3) an analytic process focused on uncovering a presumed "pathological etiology" inevitably distorts the process and obscures more relevant analytic needs; (4) unrecognized heterosexist assumptions and unfamiliarity with norms of gay men's lives pose special barriers to analytic work with gay men. Ongoing self-analysis and self-education are necessary to reduce interferences that keep analysts from listening to their gay patients with open and unbiased attention. PMID:11809020

  19. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  20. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar

  1. "You feel like you can't live anymore": suicide from the perspectives of Canadian men who experience depression.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Hoyak, Kristy

    2012-02-01

    Severe depression is a known risk factor for suicide, yet worldwide men's suicide rates continue to outnumber reported rates of men's depression. While acknowledging that the pathways to suicide are diverse, and being mindful of the complex challenges inherent to studying suicide, we interviewed men who experienced depression as a means to better understanding the processes they used to counter and contemplate suicide. This novel qualitative study provides insights on how masculine roles, identities and relations mediate depression-related suicidal ideation in a cohort of 38 men in Canada, ranging in age from 24 to 50 years-old. Constant comparative analyses yielded the core category of reconciling despair in which men responded to severe depression and suicidal ideation by following two pathways. To counter suicide actions, connecting with family, peers and health care professionals and/or drawing on religious and moral beliefs were important interim steps for quelling thoughts about suicide and eventually dislocating depression from self-harm. This pathway revealed how connecting with family through masculine protector and father roles enabled men to avoid suicide while positioning help-seeking as a wise, rational action in re-establishing self-control. The other pathway, contemplating escape, rendered men socially isolated and the overuse of alcohol and other drugs were often employed to relieve emotional, mental and physical pain. Rather than providing respite, these risky practices were the gateway to men's heightened vulnerability for nonfatal suicidal behaviour. Men on this pathway embodied solitary and/or risk taker identities synonymous with masculine ideals but juxtaposed nonfatal suicidal behaviours as feminine terrain. PMID:20541308

  2. The Attitudes of Australian Heterosexual University Students toward the Suicide of Gay, Lesbian and Heterosexual Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Mari; McLaren, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    This study sought to examine the attitudes of heterosexual university students to peer suicide when that peer was gay, lesbian, or heterosexual. University students (n = 206) completed several questionnaires, including The Suicide Attitude Vignette Experience. Results indicated that the suicide act was seen as more justified, acceptable, and

  3. The inventory of dyadic heterosexual preferences: development and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1996-04-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument that measures preferences for specific sexual behaviors of heterosexual men and women in a dyadic context. In Study 1, 74 statements of preference were reduced to 46 on the basis of reliability and range of responses. Factor analysis revealed that 27 of the 46 items loaded on 6 factors: Erotophilia, Use of Contraception, Conventionality, Use of Erotica, Use of Drugs/Alcohol, and Romanticism. In Study 2, factor analysis of fresh data from a second sample cross-validated these results. To establish construct validity of the revised 27-item Inventory of Dyadic Heterosexual Preferences (IDHP), relationships between each of its 6 scales and 6 criterion measures were examined. These analyses suggested that the last scale is more accurately characterized by the term Romantic Foreplay. We conclude that the IDHP measures 6 distinct domains of sexual preference with a brief, psychometrically sound instrument. Potential applications of the IDHP, suggestions for future research, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are discussed. PMID:8871371

  4. Correlates of homophobia, transphobia, and internalized homophobia in gay or lesbian and heterosexual samples.

    PubMed

    Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2013-01-01

    This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity. PMID:23952924

  5. Men Learning through Life (and Men's Sheds)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    This "Futures" column shares insights about men's learning beyond work, based on several decades of research in men's learning in international community contexts. The article focuses' particularly on men who want and need to learn to re-create and broaden their identities beyond their working lives. This practice, well established in…

  6. Factor Structure of the Gender Role Conflict Scale-Short Form in Chinese Heterosexual and Gay Samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Blashill, Aaron J.; Wester, Stephen R.; O’Neil, James M.; Vogel, David L.; Wei, Jia; Zhang, Jinfu

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the validity of Gender Role Conflict Scale-Short Form (GRCS-SF) among a sample of 256 Chinese heterosexual men and 250 Chinese gay men. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the conclusion that a Chinese translated version of the GRCS-SF had acceptable structural validity. Specifically, the four-factor solution (i.e., Success, Power, Competition; Restricted Emotionality; Restricted Affectionate Behavior Between Men; Conflict Between Work and Family Relations) was confirmed with all items loading on their respective factors. Furthermore, the four-factor solution provided a better fit than either a single factor or a four-factor solution with a higher-order single factor. Cronbach’s α reliabilities reached the acceptable criterion in both samples for the overall score as well as for the subscale scores. Measurement invariance also suggested that the GRCS-SF has a similar structure between heterosexual and gay Chinese men. PMID:26185486

  7. Distinct Coping Combinations are Associated with Depression and Support Service Utilization in Men who have Sex with Men Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Brian A.; McConnell, Elizabeth A.; Pantalone, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Stigma and stress may place HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HIV+ MSM) at risk for depression. Additionally, HIV+ MSM might utilize multiple HIV-related services as a way to gain support for, and more effectively manage, HIV-related stressors. Although prior research has demonstrated that depression severity and utilizing support services are associated with functional or dysfunctional coping strategies, researchers have not investigated the impact of different coping combinations—specifically, the concurrent use of functional and dysfunctional strategies—in this population. Thus, we explored (1) how items on one measure of coping, the Brief COPE, capture HIV-related coping of HIV+ MSM using Principal Components Analysis, (2) how HIV+ MSM’s coping groups into unique combinations, and (3) how these coping combinations relate to depression and the scope of HIV-related support service utilization. Our sample consisted of 170 HIV+ MSM engaged with medical care. Results indicated the use of both functional and dysfunctional coping strategies. Unique combinations of functional and dysfunctional strategies showed differential associations with depression and the extent of HIV-related support service utilization. Specifically, individuals who engaged in low levels of both functional and dysfunctional coping, compared to individuals who more frequently engaged in functional coping strategies, were significantly less likely to utilize a range of critical HIV-related services. Individuals who reported frequent use of dysfunctional coping strategies, regardless of functional coping strategy use, reported higher levels of depression. Therefore, providers should continue to focus more closely on identifying functional coping strategies and reducing dysfunctional coping when working with HIV+ MSM. PMID:26042226

  8. Sensation seeking in homosexual and heterosexual males.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, M; Myers, P L

    1983-08-01

    The study was designed to test the relationship between the personality trait of sensation seeking and homosexuality. Previous studies had shown a relationship between the trait and variety of heterosexual activity but had not shown a relationship to homosexual behavior. This study compared 19 male homosexuals associated with a gay club in a university, 16 control students belonging to a social club at the same university, 13 members of a gay church group, and 19 members of a nongay church group on conservative vs. liberal attitudes toward religion and politics, attitudes toward homosexuality, heterosexual and homosexual experience scales, and the sensation seeking scales. The control (nongay) church group had more conservative attitudes, less heterosexual experience, and lower sensation scores than the other groups. But the control university group did not differ from the gay university group on any of the sensation seeking scales and differed from the gay church group on only one of the subscales. However, the gay university group was also higher than the gay church group on this subscale, so the difference was probably a function of the younger ages of the university groups than the gay church group. It is concluded that male homosexuals, as a general group, do not differ from heterosexuals on the sensation seeking trait, although the trait might be related to variety of homosexual behavior and partners, just as it is to variety of heterosexual experience. PMID:6639330

  9. Factors Associated with Excessive Body Fat in Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Data from Black South Africans Living in a Rural Community and an Urban Township

    PubMed Central

    Okop, Kufre Joseph; Levitt, Naomi; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the factors associated with excessive body fat among black African men and women living in rural and urban communities of South Africa. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, Cape Town, South Africa conducted in 2009/2010. The study sample included 1220 participants (77.2% women) aged 35–70 years, for whom anthropometric measurements were obtained and risk factors documented through face-to-face interviews using validated international PURE study protocols. Sex-specific logistic regression models were used to evaluate socio-demographic, lifestyle and psychological factors associated with three excessive body fat indicators, namely body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percent (BF%). Results The prevalence of excessive body fat based on BF%, WC and BMI cut-offs were 96.0%, 86.1%, and 81.6% for women respectively, and 62.2%, 25.9%, and 36.0% for men respectively. The significant odds of excessive body fat among the currently married compared to unmarried were 4.1 (95% CI: 1.3–12.5) for BF% and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3–2.9) for BMI among women; and 4.9 (95% CI: 2.6–9.6), 3.2 (95% CI: 1.6–6.4) and 3.6 (95% CI: 1.9–6.8) for BF%, WC and BMI respectively among men. Age ≤50 years (compared to age >50 years) was inversely associated with excessive BF% in men and women, and less-than-a-college education was inversely associated with excessive BMI and WC in men. Tobacco smoking was inversely associated with all three excessive adiposity indicators in women but not in men. Unemployment, depression, and stress did not predict excessive body fat in men or women. Conclusion The sex-differences in the socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with the high levels of excessive body fat in urban and rural women and men should be considered in packaging interventions to reduce obesity in these communities. PMID:26447880

  10. The Perfidious Experiences of Men as Palliative Caregivers of People Living with HIV/AIDS and other Terminal illnesses in Botswana. Eclectic Data Sources

    PubMed Central

    Kangethe, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim and objective of this scientific research article is to explore the literature with intent to raise attention to the perfidiousness of the experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses. Methods: The article has utilized eclectic data sources in Botswana and elsewhere. Results: The findings indicate that care giving position of men has been found beset by: retrogressive gender unfriendly cultures; patriarchy; weaker gender empowerment campaigns; and inadequate male involvement in care. Conclusions: The article recommends: (1) a paradigm shift of structural gender dynamics; (2) making AIDS care programmes both gender sensitive and gender neutral; (3) Strengthening gender mainstreaming; (4) diluting cultures and patriarchy; (5) and signing and domesticating SADC gender protocol and other gender friendly international agreements by Botswana government. PMID:21218009

  11. Exposing the gaps in awareness, knowledge and estimation of risk for anal cancer in men who have sex with men living with HIV: a cross-sectional survey in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason J; Chen, Marcus; Grulich, Andrew; Walker, Sandra; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Bradshaw, Catriona; Garland, Suzanne M; Hillman, Richard; Templeton, David; Hocking, Jane; Eu, Beng; Tee, BK; Fairley, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of anal cancer is significantly higher in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV when compared to the general population. We aimed to assess their awareness, knowledge and perceived level of personal risk for anal cancer to help inform educational strategies targeting this group. Methods A cross-sectional study of 327 HIV positive MSM in Melbourne, Australia, attending clinical settings (a sexual health centre, tertiary hospital HIV outpatients and high HIV caseload general practices) completed a written questionnaire in 2013/14. Poor knowledge was defined as those who had never heard of anal cancer, or scored 5 or less out of 10 in knowledge questions amongst those who reported ever hearing about anal cancer. Underestimation of risk was defined as considering themselves as having the same or lower risk for anal cancer compared to the general population. Results Of 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 67–77) who had heard of anal cancer, 47% (95% CI: 41–53) could not identify any risk factors for anal cancer. Of total men surveyed, 51% (95% CI: 46–57) underestimated their risk for anal cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that men who underestimated their risk were older (OR 1.04 (per year increase in age), 95% CI: 1.01–1.07), had poor anal cancer knowledge (OR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.21–3.51), and more likely to have ever had an anal examination (OR 2.41, 95% CI: 1.18–4.93). They were less likely to consult a physician if they had an anal abnormality (OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.96), to have had receptive anal sex (OR 0.12, 95% CI: 0.02–0.59) or speak English at home (OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09–0.90). Conclusions This survey of MSM living with HIV demonstrated limited awareness, knowledge level and estimation of risk for anal cancer. Further educational and public health initiatives are urgently needed to improve knowledge and understanding of anal cancer risk in MSM living with HIV. PMID:25828269

  12. Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: A Neglected Risk Factor for HIV?

    PubMed Central

    Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Dimitrov, Dobromir; Owen, Branwen N.; Pickles, Michael; Butler, Ailsa R.; Masse, Ben; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual anal intercourse confers a much greater risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse, yet its contribution to heterosexual HIV epidemics has been under researched. In this article we review the current state of knowledge of heterosexual anal intercourse practice worldwide and identify the information required to assess its role in HIV transmission within heterosexual populations, including input measures required to inform mathematical models. We then discuss the evidence relating anal intercourse and HIV with sexual violence. PMID:23279040

  13. Parent adjustment over time in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parent families adopting from foster care.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of gay and lesbian individuals and couples are adopting children, gay men and lesbian women continue to face increased scrutiny and legal obstacles from the child welfare system. To date, little research has compared the experiences of gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents over time, limiting conceptual understandings of the similarities they share and the unique challenges that gay and lesbian adoptive parents may face. This study compared the adoption satisfaction, depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and social support at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 parents (60 heterosexual, 15 gay, 7 lesbian) adopting children from foster care in Los Angeles County. Few differences were found between heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents at any of the assessments or in their patterns of change over time. On average, parents in both household types reported significant increases in adoption satisfaction and maintained low, nonclinical levels of depressive symptoms and parenting stress over time. Across all family types, greater parenting stress was associated with more depressive symptoms and lower adoption satisfaction. Results indicated many similarities between gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents, and highlight a need for services to support adoptive parents throughout the transition to parenthood to promote their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24826826

  14. Coffee Mannooligosaccharides, Consumed As Part of a Free-Living, Weight-Maintaining Diet, Increase the Proportional Reduction in Body Volume in Overweight Men123

    PubMed Central

    Salinardi, Taylor C.; Rubin, Kristin Herron; Black, Richard M.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that the consumption of coffee mannooligosaccharides (MOS) decreases body fat, suggesting that MOS consumption may be useful for weight management. This study was undertaken to determine whether consumption of coffee MOS improves body composition when consumed as part of a weight-maintaining diet. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 54 men and women, age 19–65 y and with BMI of 27–33 kg/m2, consumed study beverages twice daily, for 12 wk. Beverages were identical except for the presence (MOS group) or absence (placebo group) of MOS (4 g/d). Body composition was assessed at baseline and endpoint using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body weight, blood pressure, and assessments of feelings of appetite and satiety were taken weekly. Fifty men and women completed both baseline and endpoint MRI scans. There was a significant beverage x time interaction on total body volume (P = 0.026), total adipose tissue (TAT) (P = 0.046), and total subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 0.032) in men but not women. Men consuming the MOS beverage had a greater percent change in total body volume (P = 0.043) and tended to have greater percent changes in subcutaneous (P = 0.069) and TAT (P = 0.098) compared with the placebo group. Consumption of a MOS-containing beverage, as part of a free-living weight-maintaining diet, leads to reductions in total body volume, relative to placebo, in men. More research is needed to further investigate the mechanism by which MOS may act to improve body composition and to elucidate the influence of gender. PMID:20861211

  15. Individual Factors Determining the Food Behaviours of Single Men Living in Apartments in Montreal as Revealed by Photographs and Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Marie; Manceau, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore men's food behaviours using interviews and photographs. The research specifically looks at the importance of certain individual factors as determinants of food behaviours, namely food preferences, lifestyle, ability to cook, involvement with health and nutrition. Each man received two cameras and a guide

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE IN JAPANESE MEN LIVING IN JAPAN, HAWAII AND CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The incidence of myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease was studied in defined samples of 45 to 68 year old Japanese men in Japan, Hawaii and California. The incidence rate was lowest in Japan where it was half that observed in Hawaii (P<0.01). The youngest m...

  17. Individual Factors Determining the Food Behaviours of Single Men Living in Apartments in Montreal as Revealed by Photographs and Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Marie; Manceau, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore men's food behaviours using interviews and photographs. The research specifically looks at the importance of certain individual factors as determinants of food behaviours, namely food preferences, lifestyle, ability to cook, involvement with health and nutrition. Each man received two cameras and a guide…

  18. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  19. A neuroendocrine predisposition for homosexuality in men.

    PubMed

    Dörner, G; Rohde, W; Stahl, F; Krell, L; Masius, W G

    1975-01-01

    In male rats, androgen deficiency during a critical hypothalamic organizational period was shown to give rise to a predominantly female-differentiated brain, homosexual behavior, and demonstration of a positive estrogen feedback effect. A positive estrogen feedback effect was also induced in intact homosexual men in contrast to intact heterosexual and bisexual men. Thus in 21 homosexual men an intravenous injection of 20 mg Presomen (Premarin) produced a significant decrease of serum LH levels followed by an increase above initial LH values. In 20 heterosexual and in five bisexual men, by contrast, intravenous estrogen administration, while producing a significant decrease of the serum LH level, was not followed by an increase above the initial LH values. Using a radioimmunoassay, plasma testosterone levels and 24-hr urinary excretions of unconjugated testosterone of adult homosexual men were found to be in the normal range as observed in heterosexual men. This finding suggests that homosexual men possess a predominantly female-differentiated brain which may be activated to homosexual behavior by normal or approximately normal androgen levels in adulthood. PMID:165797

  20. Effects of Stigmatization on Gay Men Living with HIV/AIDS in a Central-Eastern European Context: A Qualitative Analysis from Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Takács, J.; Kelly, J.A.; P. Tóth, T.; Mocsonaki, L.; Amirkhanian, Y.A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study highlights the social dynamics affecting people living with HIV (PLH) in Hungary and in the Central-Eastern European region. The study focused on the special needs and concerns of men living with HIV/AIDS as well as changes in their social relationships and institutional support provision, coping strategies and patterns of social functioning, especially in the context of social stigmatization. Consistent with international qualitative research findings in the field of HIV/AIDS prevention, the present study contributes to a fuller understanding of relationship between sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS related risks and risk perceptions as well as homosexuality-and HIV/AIDS stigma-related social exclusion in a previously under-researched socio-cultural setting. The findings of our study point to several barriers to effective HIV prevention, which should be overcome to improve the present situation by lessening the adverse effects of HIV/AIDS-and homosexuality-related stigma within the gay community, the general population and especially among service providers. One of the main barriers is the lack of public health programs specifically targeting MSM in Hungary, where the predominant mode of HIV transmission remains sex between men. PMID:23439743

  1. Living with HIV postdiagnosis: a qualitative study of the experiences of Nairobi slum residents

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the experiences of heterosexual men and women living with HIV postdiagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Setting Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). Participants 41 HIV-infected heterosexual men and women aged 18 years or older. Results People living with HIV have divergent experiences surrounding HIV diagnosis. Postdiagnosis, there are multiple phases of identity transition, including status (non-)disclosure, and attempts at identity repair and normalcy. For some people, this process involves a transition to a new self-identity, incorporating both HIV and antiretroviral treatment (ART) into their lives. For others, it involves a partial transition, with some aspects of their prediagnosis identity persisting, and for others it involves a rejection of HIV identity. Those people who were able to incorporate HIV/AIDS in their identity, without it being disruptive to their biography, were pursuing safer sexual and reproductive lives. By contrast, those people with a more continuous biography continued to reflect their prediagnosis identity and sexual behaviour. Conclusions People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) had to rework their sense of identity following diagnosis in the context of living in a slum setting. Men and women living with HIV in slums are poorly supported by health systems and services as they attempt to cope with a diagnosis of HIV. Given the availability of ART, health services and professionals need to support the rights of PLWHA to be sexually active if they want to and achieve their fertility goals, while minimising HIV transmission risk. PMID:23645922

  2. Sexual Mixing in Shanghai: Are Heterosexual Contact Patterns Compatible With an HIV/AIDS Epidemic?

    PubMed

    Merli, M Giovanna; Moody, James; Mendelsohn, Joshua; Gauthier, Robin

    2015-06-01

    China's HIV prevalence is low, mainly concentrated among female sex workers (FSWs), their clients, men who have sex with men, and the stable partners of members of these high-risk groups. We evaluate the contribution to the spread of HIV of China's regime of heterosexual relations, of the structure of heterosexual networks, and of the attributes of key population groups with simulations driven by data from a cross-sectional survey of egocentric sexual networks of the general population of Shanghai and from a concurrent respondent-driven sample of FSWs. We find that the heterosexual network generated by our empirically calibrated simulations has low levels of partner change, strong constraints on partner selection by age and education, and a very small connected core, mainly comprising FSWs and their clients and characterized by a fragile transmission structure. This network has a small HIV epidemic potential but is compatible with the transmission of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, which are less susceptible to structural breaks in transmission of infection. Our results suggest that policies that force commercial sex underground could have an adverse effect on the spread of HIV and other STIs. PMID:25904346

  3. Perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction in heterosexual committed relationships.

    PubMed

    Fallis, Erin E; Rehman, Uzma S; Purdon, Christine

    2014-04-01

    Sexual script theory implies that partners' ability to gauge one another's level of sexual satisfaction is a key factor in determining their own sexual satisfaction. However, relatively little research has examined how well partners gauge one another's sexual satisfaction and the factors that predict their accuracy. We hypothesized that the degree of bias in partner judgments of sexual satisfaction would be associated with quality of sexual communication. We further posited that emotion recognition would ameliorate the biases in judgment such that poor communicators with good emotion recognition would make less biased judgments of partner satisfaction. Participants were 84 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples who completed measures of their own and their partners' sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, quality of communication about sexual issues within their relationships, and emotion recognition ability. Results indicated that both men and women tended to be accurate in perceiving their partners' levels of sexual satisfaction (i.e., partner perceptions were strongly correlated with self-reports). One sample t-tests indicated that men's perceptions of their partners' sexual satisfaction were biased such that they slightly underestimated their partners' levels of sexual satisfaction whereas women neither over- nor underestimated their partners' sexual satisfaction. However, the gender difference was not significant. Bias was attenuated by quality of sexual communication, which interacted with emotion recognition ability such that when sexual communication was good, there was no significant association between emotion recognition ability and bias, but when sexual communication was poor, better emotion recognition ability was associated with less bias. PMID:23990145

  4. Misrepresentation, liberalism, and heterosexual bias in introductory psychology textbooks.

    PubMed

    McDonald, G

    1981-01-01

    The present study investigated the content of 48 introductory psychology textbooks published over a five-year period (1975-1979) and recommended by publishing companies or psychology professors for use in Canadian universities. The findings indicated that for every one source of relevant information on homosexuality there were five sources of misrepresentative data that reflect a combination of misleading information, liberalism, and heterosexual bias. Textbook editors and authors have: (1) failed to address the rights and needs of gay people; (2) failed to document accurately the social changes associated with being gay; and (3) perpetuated societal stereotypes, thereby appearing to justify the prejudice and discrimination encountered by gay people in their daily lives. Guidelines for the discussion of lesbianism and male homosexuality in introductory psychology textbooks are proposed. PMID:7341666

  5. "HIV testing is so gay": the role of masculine gender role conformity in HIV testing among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Parent, Mike C; Torrey, Carrie; Michaels, Matthew S

    2012-07-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than half of all new cases of HIV infection in the United States. Yet, many MSM are unaware of their HIV serostatus. Consistent with research indicating that gender role conformity impacts health behaviors, this study examined how masculine norms may influence HIV testing among MSM in the United States. Data from 170 self-identified MSM (age M = 46.45, SD = 12.18) of self-reported negative or unknown HIV serostatus living in the United States were used in this study. About half (52%) of participants reported that they had been tested for HIV within the past 12 months; 48% reported that they had not. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between domains of masculine gender role conformity and HIV testing within the past 12 months, controlling for number of sexual partners in the last 12 months. The masculine norm of heterosexual self-presentation (i.e., desire to be perceived by others as heterosexual) was negatively associated with HIV testing (B = -0.74, SE B = 0.36, O.R. = 0.48, 95% CI [0.24, 0.96]), after controlling for the effect of number of sexual partners. Psychologists and other health professionals may remain mindful of potential implications of HIV testing among MSM, including potential for MSM to view HIV testing as an "outing" procedure. PMID:22774868

  6. Diabetes mellitus and echocardiographic left ventricular function in free-living elderly men and women: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Gardin, J M; Lynch, J C; Smith, V E; Tracy, R P; Savage, P J; Szklo, M; Ward, B J

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the relation among diabetes, blood pressure, and prevalent cardiovascular disease, and echocardiographically measured left ventricular mass and filling (transmitral valve flow) velocities in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a cohort of 5201 men and women > or = 65 years of age. Ventricular septal and left posterior wall thicknesses were greater in diabetic than in nondiabetic subjects, showing a significant linear trend (p = 0.025 for ventricular septal thickness in both sexes combined, p = 0.002 for posterior wall thickness) with increased duration of diabetes. Increased wall thickness of the ventricular septum or the left posterior wall was not associated with prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD) in the cohort. Increased left ventricular mass was associated with diabetic persons not reporting CHD and with all subjects with CHD regardless of glucose tolerance status. After adjusting for body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and prevalent coronary or cerebrovascular disease, diabetes (as measured by glucose level, insulin use, oral hypoglycemic use, and a positive history of diabetes before baseline examination) remained an independent predictor of increased left ventricular mass among men and women (174.2 gm in diabetic men vs 169.8 gm in normal men, 138.2 gm in diabetic women vs 134.0 gm in normal women, p = 0.043 for both sexes combined). Both early and late diastolic transmitral peak flow velocities were higher with increased duration of diabetes, but the calculated ratio of the early peak flow velocity to the late velocity (E/A ratio) did not differ significantly between subjects with historical diabetes and those with normal fasting glucose (both genders combined, p = 0.190). Glucose level, insulin use, oral hypoglycemic use, and a positive history of diabetes before baseline examination were significant independent predictors of the late transmitral peak flow velocity and its integrated flow-velocity curve but not for the integral of the early peak flow velocity or the E/A ratio. Diabetes is associated with abnormal left ventricular structure and function in elderly persons. This association persists after adjustment for body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and reported coronary or cerebrovascular disease. PMID:9006288

  7. Functional cerebral asymmetry and sexual orientation in men and women.

    PubMed

    McCormick, C M; Witelson, S F

    1994-06-01

    Functional cerebral asymmetry was assessed in 32 gay men and 32 heterosexual men and in 30 lesbians and 30 heterosexual women with a linguistic dichotic listening test. All groups showed the typical greater right-ear accuracy and, by inference, left-hemisphere representation for language functions. As shown repeatedly in previous studies (e.g., M. P. Bryden, 1982), among heterosexuals, consistent-right-handers showed greater perceptual asymmetry than did non consistent-right-handers. In contrast, gay men and lesbians did not show an association between hand preference and magnitude of perceptual asymmetry. The results indicate different patterns of functional cerebral asymmetry in gay men and lesbians compared with heterosexual people and specifically, less association between motoric and linguistic components of cerebral asymmetry. This suggestion of atypical patterns of functional asymmetries is consistent with previous results of an increased prevalence of left-hand preference among gay men and lesbians compared with the heterosexual population (C. M. McCormick, S. F. Witelson, & E. Kingstone, 1990; C. M. McCormick & S. F. Witelson, 1991). The finding of an association between aspects of functional asymmetry, a neurological characteristics likely present from birth, and sexual orientation suggests that a neurobiological factor is involved in the origins of sexual orientation. PMID:7917046

  8. Components of total energy expenditure in free-living elderly men (over 75 years of age): measurement, predictability and relationship to quality-of-life indices.

    PubMed

    Fuller, N J; Sawyer, M B; Coward, W A; Paxton, P; Elia, M

    1996-02-01

    Current recommendations for energy requirements in the elderly are based on assumed levels of physical activity relative to BMR (1.5 x BMR). The main aim of the present study was to establish whether these recommendations might be applicable to a randomly-selected group of free-living elderly men (all over 75 years of age). BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and total energy expenditure (TEE) by the doubly-labelled-water technique. Further aims included evaluating the applicability of a variety of BMR prediction equations and whether assessed quality of life reflected any measured indices of energy expenditure. The mean value for daily energy requirement was found to be 1.5 x BMR (89 J/kg per min) but with substantial inter-individual variation (sd 0.2 x BMR; 14 J/kg per min). The bias between measured TEE and TEE estimated (1.5 x BMR) from the various BMR predictions varied according to which equation was used (-10- + 8% of the mean) with substantial 95% limits of agreement (28-30% of the mean). TEE and physical activity plus thermogenesis (TEE-BMR) were positively related to activities of daily living, but no relationships were apparent between these and perceived quality of life. It is concluded that, despite considerable inter-individual variability, national recommendations for energy requirements of elderly people are applicable to this randomly-selected group of free-living men over 75 years of age but that substantial variation exists when attempts are made to estimate TEE from measurements or predictions of BMR. PMID:8785196

  9. Navigating ambivalence: how heterosexual young adults make sense of desire differences.

    PubMed

    Beres, Melanie A; Senn, Charlene Y; McCaw, Jodee

    2014-01-01

    The miscommunication hypothesis is the assumption that many incidents of acquaintance rape and coercive sex follow from miscommunication between men and women. This hypothesis is entrenched in popular, academic, and judicial understandings of sexual relationships. Recently some evidence has suggested that there is little miscommunication between sexual partners and that the hypothesis does not explain acquaintance rape or other forms of sexual violence. The present study used qualitative methodology in which men and women were asked to imagine themselves in a particular heterosexual dating situation and write what they think happened between the beginning (when sex was refused by one partner) and the end (when sex happened). Thematic analysis of the data found no evidence for miscommunication between partners under conditions of differences in desire. Instead, ambivalence about sexual activity was commonly described by women and men and was most often resolved to both parties' satisfaction. Coercion by men was present in a minority of narratives under conditions of clear understanding of women's refusals. The study thus provides a rich, experience-based representation of heterosexual sexual activity, with considerable potential for the development of effective education campaigns. PMID:23924244

  10. Barriers and facilitators of HIV prevention with heterosexual Latino couples: beliefs of four stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976

  11. HIV Stigma, Testing Attitudes and Health Care Access Among African-Born Men Living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bova, Carol; Nnaji, Chioma; Woyah, Augustus; Duah, Akwasi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe HIV-testing attitudes, HIV related stigma and health care access in African-born men taking part in the African Health Cup (AHC), a soccer tournament held annually to improve HIV awareness and testing. Venue sampling was used to collect survey and qualitative interview data related to HIV-testing attitudes, stigma and experiences associated with the AHC. The sample included 135 survey respondents and 27 interview participants. AHC participants were successfully accessing health care services. Although the AHC was viewed positively, HIV testing rates remain low due to stigma and privacy concerns. This population continues to have misconceptions about HIV transmission and to use condoms inconsistently. The AHC is a successful intervention to engage African-born men in HIV awareness and education. More work is needed to enhance these AHC aspects and address stigma and privacy concerns related to using onsite health screenings. Continuing to develop novel strategies to educate African-born immigrants about HIV is urgently needed. PMID:25420781

  12. Comparative Development of Heterosexual and Homosexual Behaviors in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Nolle; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    We used cross-sectional focal data collected in adolescent and adult females to elucidate the comparative development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our data fully or partially supported most of our predictions (20 out of 30) related to the "learning hypothesis," which postulated that adolescence would serve to provide young females with a period in which to practice, and gradually acquire, three types of adult female-like heterosexual and homosexual behavioral patterns, namely sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. However, there were marked differences in the development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors. The percentage of homosexual mounts was significantly higher in adolescent than in adult females. Of the fully or partially supported predictions, 13 of 15 pertained to heterosexual activity whereas only seven of 15 pertained to homosexual activity. A number of sexual behavioral patterns (e.g., demonstrative solicitations, range of solicitation patterns and mounting postures, and grasping behavior during consortships) emerged earlier and developed faster when directed to females than when directed to males. We explain such differences in terms of risk of male aggression, males' disinterest in adolescent females' sexual solicitations, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners, social facilitation, and sexual reward. PMID:25420900

  13. Loss to follow-up and bias assessment among a cohort of Thai men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pattanasin, Sarika; Wimonsate, Wipas; Chonwattana, Wannee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Sriporn, Anuwat; Sukwicha, Wichuda; Mock, Philip A; Holtz, Timothy H

    2016-03-01

    Minimising loss to follow-up is essential to obtain unbiased results. This study aimed to assess factors associated with loss to follow-up and effects on biasing exposure-outcome associations in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Bangkok. We enrolled sexually-active Thai men who have sex with men, at least 18 years old, in a study with four-monthly follow-up visits. At each visit, men answered HIV risk behaviour questions using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with loss to follow-up and bias between exposures and prevalent HIV infection were estimated using adjusted relative odds ratios. From 2006 to 2010, we enrolled 1744 men who have sex with men; as of April, 2014, 1256 (72%) had completed at least the month-36 visit; loss to follow-up was 9.6%. Factors independently associated with loss to follow-up were age (18-21 years), education (primary level or less, secondary or vocational education), living outside Bangkok and vicinity, sexual orientation (bisexual, heterosexual), previous HIV testing, HIV infection, and behaviour in the past 4 months (recreational drug use, reporting group sex). An effect of loss to follow-up on factors of prevalent HIV infection was found by sexual orientation (transgender) and unprotected anal intercourse (receptive/insertive). These findings highlight the need to strengthen post-HIV test counselling. Directed counselling for HIV care should be given to young men who have sex with men and recreational drug users. PMID:25792548

  14. The Interaction of Sexual Identity With Sexual Behavior and Its Influence on HIV Risk Among Latino Men: Results of a Community Survey in Northern San Diego County, California

    PubMed Central

    Zellner, Jennifer A.; Sañudo, Fernando; Fernández-Cerdeño, Araceli; Sipan, Carol L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Carrillo, Héctor

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the sexual behavior, sexual identities, and HIV risk factors of a community sample of Latino men to inform efforts to reduce Latinos' HIV risk. Methods. In 2005 and 2006, 680 Latino men in San Diego County, California, in randomly selected, targeted community venues, completed an anonymous, self-administered survey. Results. Most (92.3%) respondents self-identified as heterosexual, with 2.2%, 4.9%, and 0.6% self-identifying as bisexual, gay, or other orientation, respectively. Overall, 4.8% of heterosexually identified men had a lifetime history of anal intercourse with other men. Compared with behaviorally heterosexual men, heterosexually identified men who had sex with both men and women were more likely to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to have unprotected sexual intercourse with female partners, and to report having sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. Bisexually identified men who had sex with men and women did not differ from behaviorally heterosexual men in these risk factors. Conclusions. Latino men who have a heterosexual identity and bisexual practices are at greater risk of HIV infection, and efforts to reduce HIV risk among Latinos should target this group. PMID:19008512

  15. Urinary Perchlorate and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Adolescent and Adult Men and Women Living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Benjamin C.; Pirkle, James L.; Osterloh, John D.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Caldwell, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Background Perchlorate is commonly found in the environment and known to inhibit thyroid function at high doses. Assessing the potential effect of low-level exposure to perchlorate on thyroid function is an area of ongoing research. Objectives We evaluated the potential relationship between urinary levels of perchlorate and serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in 2,299 men and women, ≥ 12 years of age, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2001–2002. Methods We used multiple regression models of T4 and TSH that included perchlorate and covariates known to be or likely to be associated with T4 or TSH levels: age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, estrogen use, menopausal status, pregnancy status, premenarche status, serum C-reactive protein, serum albumin, serum cotinine, hours of fasting, urinary thiocyanate, urinary nitrate, and selected medication groups. Results Perchlorate was not a significant predictor of T4 or TSH levels in men. For women overall, perchlorate was a significant predictor of both T4 and TSH. For women with urinary iodine < 100 μg/L, perchlorate was a significant negative predictor of T4 (p < 0.0001) and a positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.001). For women with urinary iodine ≥ 100 μg/L, perchlorate was a significant positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.025) but not T4 (p = 0.550). Conclusions These associations of perchlorate with T4 and TSH are coherent in direction and independent of other variables known to affect thyroid function, but are present at perchlorate exposure levels that were unanticipated based on previous studies. PMID:17185277

  16. Heterosexual Transmission of HIV in China

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HONGMEI; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; LIU, HONGJIE; LIU, HUI; WANG, NING; FANG, XIAOYI; LIN, DANHUA; CHEN, XINGUANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to address the role of heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Goal: The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence of unsafe sex and the likelihood of HIV spread heterosexually from core populations to others. Study: The authors conducted a review of behavioral studies. Results: Drug users were more likely to be involved in higher-risk sexual behaviors than were those who abstained from using drugs. Most female drug users (52-98%) reported having engaged in commercial sex. Most female sex workers (FSWs) and individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) had concurrent sexual partners. Many continued to have unprotected sex after noticing STD symptoms in themselves or their sexual partners. From 5% to 26% of rural-to-urban migrants had multiple sexual partners and 10% of males patronized FSWs during migration. Conclusions: Factors such as high rates of FSW patronage, low rates of condom use during commercial sex, having sex with both commercial and noncommercial sexual partners, and high rates of STD infection may promote a heterosexual epidemic in China. PMID:15849527

  17. Why Parenthood, and Why Now? Gay Men's Motivations for Pursuing Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.

    2012-01-01

    The current qualitative study of 35 preadoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to…

  18. Why Parenthood, and Why Now? Gay Men's Motivations for Pursuing Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.

    2012-01-01

    The current qualitative study of 35 preadoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to

  19. Tal Como Somos/Just As We Are: An Educational Film to Reduce Stigma towards Gay and Bisexual Men, Transgender Individuals & Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes towards gay and bisexual men and transgender women (GBT) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively impact attitudes towards GBT and PLWHA. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  20. Evolution of sperm quality in men living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator possibly correlated with decreasing dioxins emission levels.

    PubMed

    Faure, A C; Viel, J-F; Bailly, A; Blagosklonov, O; Amiot, C; Roux, C

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to examine the impact on sperm parameters of environmental exposure to dioxins around a municipal waste incinerator initially with high emission levels and during reduction levels. An ecological study with quasi-experimental conditions was performed in patients of a reproductive laboratory. The first semen analyses of 251 men living in Besançon, France, between 2001 and 2007, were included. To analyse the contribution of direct exposure (inhalation), the calendar time was dichotomised in two periods 2001-2003 versus 2004-2007 and used as a proxy for exposure. Regarding the indirect exposure pathway (food), the statistical analysis was made with a nonparametric test to assess the trends. There was a negative correlation between the year of exposure and the percentage of abnormal mid-piece and the multiple abnormalities index, even after adjusting for age and days abstention from inter-course. A positive correlation was found between the progressive motile sperm count and the period of exposure. These findings are to be put into the context of a drastic reduction in emissions of dioxins. Our results suggest an effect of chronic exposure to dioxins on spermiogenesis with more abnormalities. These results should be confirmed with concentration measurements of dioxins in infertile men. PMID:23879235

  1. Attitudes of women and men living with HIV and their healthcare providers towards pregnancy and abortion by HIV-positive women in Nigeria and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Bankole, Akinrinola; Awolude, Olutoin; Audam, Suzette; Oladokun, Adesina; Adewole, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Fertility decisions among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are complicated by disease progression, the health of their existing children and possible antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, among other factors. Using a sample of HIV-positive women (n = 353) and men (n = 299) from Nigeria and Zambia and their healthcare providers (n = 179), we examined attitudes towards childbearing and abortion by HIV-positive women. To measure childbearing and abortion attitudes, we used individual indicators and a composite measure (an index). Support for an HIV-positive woman to have a child was greatest if she was nulliparous or if her desire to have a child was not conditioned on parity and lowest if she already had an HIV-positive child. Such support was found to be lower among HIV-positive women than among HIV-positive men, both of which were lower than reported support from their healthcare providers. There was wider variation in support for abortion depending on the measure than there was for support for childbearing. Half of all respondents indicated no or low support for abortion on the index measure while between 2 and 4 in 10 respondents were supportive of HIV-positive women being able to terminate a pregnancy. The overall low levels of support for abortion indicate that most respondents did not see HIV as a medical condition which justifies abortion. Respondents in Nigeria and those who live in urban areas were more likely to support HIV-positive women's childbearing. About a fifth of HIV-positive respondents reported being counselled to end childbearing after their diagnosis. In summary, respondents from both Nigeria and Zambia demonstrate tempered support of (continued) childbearing among HIV-positive women while anti-abortion attitudes remain strong. Access to ART did not impart a strong effect on these attitudes. Therefore, pronatalist attitudes remain in place in the face of HIV infection. PMID:25920981

  2. Risk factors for AIDS among Haitians residing in the US: evidence of heterosexual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-06

    In a study of Haitians in Miami and New York, Creole-speaking interviewers questioned 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (45 men and ten women) and 242 control-persons (164 men and 78 women). One male patient was homosexual, and one female patient had received blood within five years. No one admitted to intravenous drug use, hemophilia, or sexual contact with AIDS patients. Male AIDS patients were significantly more likely than control-men to have entered the US after 1977 and to have had gonorrhea, syphilis, and sexual contact with female prostitutes. Female AIDS patients were more likely to have voodoo-priest friends and to have been offered money for sex. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was probably contracted through sexual contact with infected heterosexuals.

  3. Pioneers in partnership: lesbian and gay male couples in civil unions compared with those not in civil unions and married heterosexual siblings.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Sondra E; Rothblum, Esther D; Balsam, Kimberly F

    2004-06-01

    This study compared 212 lesbians and 123 gay men who had civil unions in Vermont (during the first year legislation made this available) with 166 lesbians and 72 gay men in their friendship network who had not had civil unions, and also with 219 heterosexual married women and 193 heterosexual married men consisting of civil union couples' siblings and their spouses. Married heterosexual couples had been together longer and had more traditional division of labor and child care than did lesbians and gay men in both types of couples. Lesbians in civil unions were more open about their sexual orientation than those not in civil unions, and gay men in civil unions were closer to their family of origin than gay men not in civil unions. This is the first study on same-sex couples with civil unions, and the first to compare lesbians and gay men with their married siblings. At a time of legal changes for same-sex couples, these results indicate that legalized same-sex relationships are related to visibility of same-sex couples to their family and the general public. PMID:15222833

  4. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns. PMID:23873260

  5. Barriers and Facilitators of HIV Prevention With Heterosexual Latino Couples: Beliefs of Four Stakeholder Groups

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W.; Serrano-García, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men’s involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976

  6. Piloting a System for Behavioral Surveillance Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk of HIV in the United States

    PubMed Central

    DiNenno, Elizabeth A; Oster, Alexandra M; Sionean, Catlainn; Denning, Paul; Lansky, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: During the past decade, the number and proportion of reported HIV cases in the United States acquired through heterosexual contact has increased markedly. CDC employs the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) to monitor risk behaviors and HIV prevalence in high-risk populations. To identify a target population for conducting NHBS among heterosexuals at increased risk for HIV (NHBS-HET), CDC designed, implemented and evaluated a pilot study. Methods: The pilot study was conducted in 25 US metropolitan statistical areas in 2006-7. We recruited men and women who reported sex with at least one opposite-sex partner during the past year for a behavioral survey and HIV test. We investigated the relationship between newly diagnosed HIV infection and individual risk behaviors, sexual network characteristics, and social-structural characteristics to arrive at a definition of a heterosexual at increased risk of HIV. Results: Of 14,750 participants in the analysis, 207 (1.4%) had newly diagnosed HIV infection. Using low socioeconomic status (SES) as a criterion for defining a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV resulted in optimal rates of HIV prevalence, specificity, sensitivity and practicality. Conclusions: Results from the NHBS pilot study underscore the key role of social factors as determinants of HIV infection risk among U.S. heterosexuals, and low SES was incorporated into the definition of a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV in NHBS-HET cycles. Future cycles of NHBS-HET will help tailor prevention programs for those populations most at risk of HIV in the US. PMID:23049666

  7. Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in heterosexual couples has been sparsely studied, it is relevant to understand disease burden and transmission mechanisms. The present study determined the prevalence and concordance of type-specific HPV infection as well as the determinants of infection in heterosexual couples in a rural area of Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 504 clinically healthy heterosexual couples from four municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot in cervical samples from women and in genital samples from men. Thirty-seven HPV types were detected, including high-risk oncogenic types and low-risk types. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate factors associated with HPV. Results The prevalence of HPV infection was 20.5% in external male genitals and 13.7% in cervical samples. In 504 sexual couples participating in the study, concordance of HPV status was 79%; 34 partners (6.7%) were concurrently infected, and 21 out of 34 partners where both were HPV positive (61.8%) showed concordance for one or more HPV types. The principal risk factor associated with HPV DNA detection in men as well as women was the presence of HPV DNA in the respective regular sexual partner (OR = 5.15, 95%CI 3.01-8.82). In men, having a history of 10 or more sexual partners over their lifetime (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 4.8) and having had sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.01 - 2.8) increased the likelihood of detecting HPV DNA. Conclusions In heterosexual couples in rural regions in Mexico, the prevalence of HPV infection and type-specific concordance is high. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong determinants of HPV infection in men. PMID:20667085

  8. ‘Friendly allies in raising a child’: a survey of men and women seeking elective co-parenting arrangements via an online connection website

    PubMed Central

    Jadva, V.; Freeman, T.; Tranfield, E.; Golombok, S.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics, motivations and expectations of men and women who search for a co-parent online? SUMMARY ANSWER Male and female prospective co-parents differed in terms of their motivations, choice of co-parent and expectations of co-parenting, while differences according to sexual orientation were less marked. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Very few studies have addressed the experiences of elective co-parents, i.e. men and women who are not in a relationship with each other creating and raising a child together. No study has examined the motivations and experiences of those who seek co-parents online. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION An online survey was completed by 102 participants (61 men, 41 women) who were members of Pride Angel, an online connection website that facilitates contact between people looking for someone with whom to have a child. The survey was live for 7 weeks. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Details of the survey were emailed to all members of Pride Angel. The survey obtained data on participants' demographic characteristics, motivations, choice of co-parent and expectations of co-parenting. Data were analysed to examine differences by gender and by sexual orientation within each gender. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Approximately one-third of men and one half of women seeking co-parenting arrangements were heterosexual. The majority (69, 68%) of participants were single, although significantly more gay and bisexual men (15, 36%) and lesbian and bisexual women (11, 55%) had a partner compared with heterosexual men (4, 20%) and heterosexual women (2, 12%), respectively. Overall, the most important motivation for seeking co-parenting arrangements was in order for both biological parents to be involved in the child's upbringing. Co-parents were looking for someone with a good medical history. Most female co-parents expected the child to live with them, whereas male co-parents either wished the child to reside with the mother or to live equally in both households. A higher proportion of gay and bisexual men than heterosexual men wanted daily contact with the child. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Although this study presents data from the largest sample of elective co-parents to date, the main limitations were the low response rate and that only members of one website were approached. The findings may not be representative of all potential elective co-parents. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This study provides important insights into the new phenomenon of elective co-parenting. With the increasing use of assisted reproductive technologies and the diversification of family forms, a growing number of people are seeking co-parenting arrangements to have children. While up until now, elective co-parenting has been principally associated with the gay and lesbian community, this study shows that, with the rise of co-parenting websites, increasing numbers of heterosexual men and women are seeking these types of parenting arrangements. This study generates the first findings on the expectations and motivations of those who seek co-parents online and examines whether these differ according to gender and sexual orientation. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of this new form of parenting on all involved, particularly the children. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was supported by the Wellcome Trust (097857/Z/11/Z). Erika Tranfield is the co-founder of the website Pride Angel, the remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. PMID:26040481

  9. Sexual sensation seeking in Spanish young men and women with different sexual orientations.

    PubMed

    Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Castro-Calvo, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the relation of sexual orientation and gender to sexual sensation seeking. Participants were 382 individuals (200 men, 182 women) between 17 and 29 years old who completed the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale. Of the 382 participants, 52.46% self-reported heterosexual orientation, and 47.64% self-reported homosexual orientation. The results showed differences with Sexual Sensation Seeking being more frequent among heterosexuals and men. There were no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men. Heterosexual women had higher sexual sensation seeking scores than did homosexual women. These results and their possible implications for the effective development of prevention and intervention programs in affective-sexual education are discussed. PMID:24918266

  10. Preschool selection considerations and experiences of school mistreatment among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate the school selection considerations and school-related experiences of sexual-minority parents with young children. The sample consisted of 210 parents in 105 couples, including 35 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 40 heterosexual couples, all of whom had adopted a child three years earlier. We found that parents with less income were more likely to consider cost in choosing a preschool, and parents with less education were more likely to consider location. More educated parents tended to emphasize racial diversity and the presence of adoptive families, and, among sexual-minority parents, the presence of other lesbian/gay parents. Sexual-minority parents were more likely to consider racial diversity than heterosexual parents. In reporting on their experiences with schools, heterosexual parents were more likely to perceive mistreatment due to their adoptive status than sexual-minority parents, and sexual-minority parents living in less gay-friendly communities were more likely to perceive mistreatment due to their sexual orientation than sexual-minority parents living in more gay-friendly communities. Our findings have implications for early childhood educators and administrators seeking to create an inclusive learning community for all types of families. PMID:27110062

  11. Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence of interactions between Italian heterosexual and South American homosexual males as the main source of national HIV-1 subtype C epidemics.

    PubMed

    Lai, Alessia; Bozzi, Giorgio; Franzetti, Marco; Binda, Francesca; Simonetti, Francesco R; Micheli, Valeria; Meraviglia, Paola; Corsi, Paola; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; De Luca, Andrea; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Zazzi, Maurizio; Balotta, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The HIV-1 clade C is prevalent worldwide and spread from Africa to South East Asia and South America early in the course of the epidemic. As a consequence of migration waves about 13% of the Italian HIV-1 epidemic is sustained by this clade. Two hundred fifty-four C pol sequences from the Italian ARCA database collected during 1997-2011 were analyzed. Epidemiological networks and geographical fluxes were identified through phylogeny using Bayesian approaches. Patients' country of origin was Italy, Africa, South America, and South East Asia for 44.9%, 23.6%, 4.7%, and 1.6%, respectively. Heterosexuals and men having sex with men accounted for 83.2% and 16.8%, respectively. Modality of infection was distributed differently: heterosexuals were largely prevalent among Italians (84.1%) and Africans (95.3%), while men having sex with men predominated among South Americans (66.7%). Eight significant clusters encompassing 111 patients (43.7%) were identified. Comparison between clustering and non-clustering patients indicated significant differences in country of origin, modality of infection and gender. Men having sex with men were associated to a higher probability to be included in networks (70% for men having sex with men vs. 30.3% for heterosexuals). Phylogeography highlighted two significant groups. One contained Indian strains and the second encompassed South Americans and almost all Italian strains. Phylogeography indicated that the spread of C subtype among Italians is related to South American variant. Although Italian patients mainly reported themselves as heterosexuals, homo-bisexual contacts were likely their source of infection. Phylogenetic monitoring is warranted to guide public health interventions aimed at controlling HIV infection. PMID:24482324

  12. HIV-related discrimination reported by people living with HIV in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Elford, Jonathan; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Bukutu, Cecilia; Anderson, Jane

    2008-03-01

    The objective was to examine the extent to which people living with HIV in London reported being discriminated against because of their infection. In 2004-2005, people living with HIV attending NHS outpatient HIV clinics in north east London were asked: "Have you ever been treated unfairly or differently because of your HIV status-in other words discriminated against?". Of the 1,687 people who returned a questionnaire (73% response rate), data from 1,385 respondents were included in this analysis; 448 heterosexual women and 210 heterosexual men of black African origin, 727 gay/bisexual men (621 white, 106 ethnic minority). Overall, nearly one-third of respondents (29.9%, 414/1,385) said they had been discriminated against because of their HIV infection. Of those who reported experiencing HIV-related discrimination, almost a half (49.6%, 200/403) said this had involved a health care worker including their dentist (n = 102, 25.3%) or primary care physician (n = 70, 17.4%). PMID:18080829

  13. Intimacy and Emotion Work in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective—that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships—with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts. PMID:25814771

  14. "If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you're shattered": Perspectives on African American men's stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Katrina R; Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J; Bruce, Marino A

    2015-08-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly describe the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men's health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men's health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 African American women (8 focus groups). Women's perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men's and women's perceptions of men's coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  15. The Relationship Between Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Sexual Orientation in Men from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2016-04-01

    We examined the relationship between 2D:4D digit ratio and sexual orientation in men from China and analyzed the influences of the components used to assess sexual orientation and the criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A total of 309 male and 110 female participants took part in a web-based survey. Our results showed that heterosexual men had a significantly lower 2D:4D than heterosexual women and exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher left 2D:4D than heterosexual men whereas only exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher right 2D:4D than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. The left 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, and the right 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual attraction. The effect sizes for differences in 2D:4D between homosexual and heterosexual men varied according to criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual and sexual orientation components; the more stringent the criteria (scores closer to the homosexual category), the larger the effect sizes; further, sexual attraction yielded the largest effect size. There were no significant effects of age and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. This study contributes to the current understanding of the relationship between 2D:4D and male sexual orientation. PMID:25957135

  16. Struggling against Heteronormativity: The Narratives of Seventeen Heterosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lance Christian

    2009-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature that examines the narratives of heterosexuals who struggle against the discourse of heteronormativity. There is even less literature that discusses how the discourse of heteronormativity may play out between egalitarian heterosexual counselors and clients who identify as sexual minorities. Employing the qualitative

  17. Struggling against Heteronormativity: The Narratives of Seventeen Heterosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lance Christian

    2009-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature that examines the narratives of heterosexuals who struggle against the discourse of heteronormativity. There is even less literature that discusses how the discourse of heteronormativity may play out between egalitarian heterosexual counselors and clients who identify as sexual minorities. Employing the qualitative…

  18. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for

  19. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  20. Body image, compulsory heterosexuality, and internalized homophobia.

    PubMed

    Pitman, G E

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body dissatisfaction in lesbians is a subject which has traditionally been ignored in the psychological literature on body image and eating disorders. Early feminist theorists and researchers argued that body dissatisfaction in women developed as a way of dealing with the oppression and misogyny they are faced with on a daily basis. However, these theories failed to take issues of race, class, and sexual orientation into account, thereby excluding the experiences of a diversity of women. This article focuses specifically on the lesbian experience and explores how cultural messages about thinness, femininity, and heterosexuality shape lesbians' feelings about their sexuality and about their bodies. Through the inevitable process of internalizing homophobia and fat hatred, both of which are institutionalized ways of keeping heterosexuality and female oppression in place, lesbians may begin to believe that there is something inherently wrong with them and with their bodies. This article explores how the impact of racism, classism, sexism, and homophobia on women may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cultural forces behind women's dissatisfaction with their bodies. PMID:24786435

  1. What Do Men Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Definitions of the male role are changing as more men seek fulfillment in family life, redefine success, or attempt to balance family and career. Corporate structure no longer fits the lives of many men, but employers continue to resist change. (SK)

  2. Anal Intercourse and HIV Risk Among Low-Income Heterosexual Women: Findings from Chicago HIV Behavioral Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Livak, Britt S; Prachand, Nikhil G; Benbow, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anal intercourse (AI) is a highly efficient route for HIV transmission and has not been well elucidated among heterosexual (HET) women. Heterosexual women living in impoverished urban areas in the US are at increased risk for HIV acquisition. We aim to describe rates of AI and characteristics associated with AI among heterosexual women at increased risk for HIV acquisition living in Chicago. Methods: The Chicago Department of Public Health conducted a survey of HET during 2007 as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. Venue-based, time-location sampling was used to select participants from venues in high-risk areas (census tracts with concurrently high rates of heterosexual AIDS and household poverty). Eligible participants were interviewed anonymously and offered a HIV test. Results: In total, 407 heterosexual women were interviewed. Seventy-one (17%) women reported having AI in the past 12 months, with 61 of the 71 (86%) reporting unprotected AI. In multivariate analysis, women who engaged in AI were more than three times as likely to have three or more sex partners in the past 12 months (OR=3.27, 95% CI 1.53-6.99). AI was also independently associated with STI diagnosis in the past 12 months (2.13, 95% CI 1.06-4.26), and having sexual intercourse for the first time before the age of 15 years (2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). Conclusion: AI was associated with multiple high risk behaviors including a greater number of sexual partners, STI diagnosis, and earlier age at first sex. The combination of risk factors found to be associated with AI call for new HIV prevention services tailored to the needs of women and young girls living in poverty. PMID:23049662

  3. Selection bias at the heterosexual HIV-1 transmission bottleneck

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jonathan M.; Schaefer, Malinda; Monaco, Daniela C.; Batorsky, Rebecca; Claiborne, Daniel T.; Prince, Jessica; Deymier, Martin J.; Ende, Zachary S.; Klatt, Nichole R.; DeZiel, Charles E.; Lin, Tien-Ho; Peng, Jian; Seese, Aaron M.; Shapiro, Roger; Frater, John; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Tang, Jianming; Goepfert, Paul; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A.; Kilembe, William; Heckerman, David; Goulder, Philip J.R.; Allen, Todd M.; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission is an inefficient process with rates reported at <1% per unprotected sexual exposure. When transmission occurs, systemic infection is typically established by a single genetic variant, taken from the swarm of genetically distinct viruses circulating in the donor. Whether that founder virus represents a chance event or was systematically favored is unclear. Our work has tested a central hypothesis that founder virus selection is biased toward certain genetic characteristics. Rationale If HIV-1 transmission involves selection for viruses with certain favorable characteristics, then such advantages should emerge as statistical biases when viewed across many viral loci in many transmitting partners. We therefore identified 137 Zambian heterosexual transmission pairs, for whom plasma samples were available for both the donor and recipient partner soon after transmission, and compared the viral sequences obtained from each partner to identify features that predicted whether the majority amino acid observed at any particular position in the donor was transmitted. We focused attention on two features: viral genetic characteristics that correlate with viral fitness, and clinical factors that influence transmission. Statistical modeling indicates that the former will be favored for transmission, while the latter will nullify this relative advantage. Results We observed a highly significant selection bias that favors the transmission of amino acids associated with increased fitness. These features included the frequency of the amino acid in the study cohort, the relative advantage of the amino acid with respect to the stability of the protein, and features related to immune escape and compensation. This selection bias was reduced in couples with high risk of transmission. In particular, significantly less selection bias was observed in women and in men with genital inflammation, compared to healthy men, suggesting a more permissive environment in the female than male genital tract. Consistent with this observation, viruses transmitted to women were characterized by lower predicted fitness than those in men. The presence of amino acids favored during transmission predicted which individual virus within a donor was transmitted to their partner, while chronically infected individuals with viral populations characterized by a predominance of these amino acids were more likely to transmit to their partners. Conclusion These data highlight the clear selection biases that benefit fitter viruses during transmission in the context of a stochastic process. That such biases exist, and are tempered by certain risk factors, suggests that transmission is frequently characterized by many abortive transmission events in which some target cells are nonproductively infected. Moreover, for efficient transmission, some changes that favored survival in the transmitting partner are frequently discarded, resulting in overall slower evolution of HIV-1 in the population. Paradoxically, by increasing the selection bias at the transmission bottleneck, reduction of susceptibility may increase the expected fitness of breakthrough viruses that establish infection and may therefore worsen the prognosis for the newly infected partner. Conversely, preventative or therapeutic approaches that weaken the virus may reduce overall transmission rates via a mechanism that is independent from the quantity of circulating virus, and may therefore provide long-term benefits even upon breakthrough infection. PMID:25013080

  4. Non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men: formative research results from Seattle, Washington.

    PubMed Central

    Goldbaum, G; Perdue, T R; Higgins, D

    1996-01-01

    Non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To understand these men and to develop interventions to reduce their HIV risks, the authors interviewed staff at agencies that serve non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men, business people who interact with them, and the men themselves. Interviews were augmented with focus groups of non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men and field observations at sites identified as places where they meet to negotiate or have sex. These qualitative data suggested 73 possible groups, which were consolidated into 16 broader "sectors," and then formally ranked by level of HIV risk, ease of access to the sector, psychosocial risks, and influence of other local interventions or research activities. The authors identified six priority groups of non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (and sites where members of these groups could be approached): hustlers, closeted men, experimenters, incarcerated or formerly incarcerated men, men of color, and heterosexually identified bisexuals. Masturbation and oral sex were reportedly common, but anal and vaginal sex were also noted; condom use was rarely reported. Risk behaviors among non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men persist for a variety of reasons and may require a variety of intervention approaches. PMID:8862155

  5. The eroticism of Internet cruising as a self-contained behaviour: a multivariate analysis of men seeking men demographics and getting off online

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Brandon Andrew; Moskowitz, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on men seeking men and who use the Internet for sexual purposes have focused on the epidemiological outcomes of Internet cruising. Other research has only focused on online sexual behaviours such as cybersex. The present study examines men who find the acts of Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic as self-contained behaviours. We surveyed 499 men who used craigslist.org for sexually-oriented purposes, and ran an ordinary least squares multiple regression model to determine the demographic characteristics of men seeking men who found Internet cruising erotic. Our results showed that younger compared to older men seeking men found the acts erotic. Likewise, men seeking men from mid-sized cities and large cities compared to men from smaller cities found Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic. Most notably, bisexual- and heterosexual-identifying men seeking men compared to gay-identifying men found these acts to be more erotic. Our results suggested that self-contained Internet cruising might provide dual functions. For some men (e.g., heterosexual-identifying men), the behaviour provides a sexual outlet in which fantasy and experimentation may be explored without risking stigmatization. For other men (e.g., those from large cities), the behaviour may be an alternative to offset sexual risk while still being able to ‘get off’. PMID:23565985

  6. The eroticism of Internet cruising as a self-contained behaviour: a multivariate analysis of men seeking men demographics and getting off online.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Brandon Andrew; Moskowitz, David A

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on men seeking men and who use the Internet for sexual purposes have focused on the epidemiological outcomes of Internet cruising. Other research has only focused on online sexual behaviours such as cybersex. The present study examines men who find the acts of Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic as self-contained behaviours. We surveyed 499 men who used craigslist.org for sexually-oriented purposes, and ran an ordinary least squares multiple regression model to determine the demographic characteristics of men seeking men who found Internet cruising erotic. Our results showed that younger compared to older men seeking men found the acts erotic. Likewise, men seeking men from mid-sized cities and large cities compared to men from smaller cities found Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic. Most notably, bisexual- and heterosexual-identifying men seeking men compared to gay-identifying men found these acts to be more erotic. Our results suggested that self-contained Internet cruising might provide dual functions. For some men (e.g., heterosexual-identifying men), the behaviour provides a sexual outlet in which fantasy and experimentation may be explored without risking stigmatization. For other men (e.g., those from large cities), the behaviour may be an alternative to offset sexual risk while still being able to 'get off'. PMID:23565985

  7. Sexual Satisfaction in Spanish Heterosexual Couples: Testing the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fuentes, María Del Mar; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    The study of sexual satisfaction in Spain is scarce and has proceeded atheoretically. This study aimed at examining sexual satisfaction in 197 Spanish heterosexual couples based on the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction. Men and women reported equal satisfaction. Men's sexual satisfaction was predicted by their own relationship satisfaction, balance of sexual rewards and costs, and comparison level of sexual rewards and costs. Women's sexual satisfaction was predicted by their own relationship satisfaction, balance of sexual rewards and costs, comparison level of sexual rewards and costs, equality of sexual costs, and their partner's balance of sexual rewards and costs. These results provide with a better understanding of the mechanisms that explain sexual satisfaction in Spanish couples. Implications for research and therapy are discussed. PMID:25629546

  8. Sexual economics: sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes. PMID:15582858

  9. HIV positive men as fathers: Accounts of displacement, ir/responsibility and paternal emergence.

    PubMed

    Highton, Sean; Finn, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    It is now apparent that socio-cultural constructions of masculinity variously impact men's experiences of their HIV positive status, yet how being a father can feature in this mix remains under-researched. This study employed in-depth semi-structured interviews and Foucauldian-informed discourse analysis to explore the accounts of six self-identifying heterosexual fathers (four Black African migrants, two White European) who had been living with HIV from 5 to 24 years. While the HIV-related literature calls for the need to subvert 'traditional' expressions of masculinity as a means of promoting HIV prevention and HIV health, we argue that the lived experience for HIV positive men as fathers is more socially, discursively and thus more psychologically nuanced. We illustrate this by highlighting ways in which HIV positive men as fathers are not simply making sense of themselves as a HIV positive man for whom the modern (new) man and father positions are useful strategies for adapting to HIV and combating associated stigma. Discourses of modern and patriarchal fatherhoods, a gender-specific discourse of irresponsibility and the neoliberal conflation of heath and self-responsibility are also at work in the sense-making frames that HIV positive men, who are also fathers, can variously deploy. Our analysis shows how this discursive mix can underpin possibilities of often conflicted meaning and identity when living as a man and father with HIV in the United Kingdom, and specifically how discourses of fatherhood and HIV 'positive' health can complicate these men's expressions and inhabitations of masculinity. PMID:25908642

  10. Increased Risks of Needing Long-Term Care Among Older Adults Living With Same-Sex Partners

    PubMed Central

    Brodoff, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether older individuals living with same-sex partners face greater risks of needing long-term care than their counterparts living with different-sex partners or spouses. Methods. With data on older couples (at least 1 individual aged 60 years or older) from the 2009 American Community Survey, we estimated logistic regression models of 2 activity limitations that signal a long-term care need: difficulty dressing or bathing and difficulty doing errands alone. Results. When we controlled for age, race/ethnicity, and education, older women who lived with female partners were statistically significantly more likely than those who lived with male partners or spouses to have difficulty dressing or bathing. Older men who lived with male partners were statistically significantly more likely than those who lived with female spouses or partners to need assistance with errands. Conclusions. Older individuals living with same-sex partners face greater risks of needing long-term care than those living with different-sex partners or spouses, but the role of relationship status differs by gender. These findings suggest more broadly that older gay men and lesbians may face greater risks of needing long-term care than their heterosexual counterparts. PMID:23763396

  11. The positive outlook study- a randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an online self-management program targeting psychosocial issues for men living with HIV: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The emergence of HIV as a chronic condition means that people living with HIV are required to take more responsibility for the self-management of their condition, including making physical, emotional and social adjustments. This paper describes the design and evaluation of Positive Outlook, an online program aiming to enhance the self-management skills of gay men living with HIV. Methods/design This study is designed as a randomised controlled trial in which men living with HIV in Australia will be assigned to either an intervention group or usual care control group. The intervention group will participate in the online group program ‘Positive Outlook’. The program is based on self-efficacy theory and uses a self-management approach to enhance skills, confidence and abilities to manage the psychosocial issues associated with HIV in daily life. Participants will access the program for a minimum of 90 minutes per week over seven weeks. Primary outcomes are domain specific self-efficacy, HIV related quality of life, and outcomes of health education. Secondary outcomes include: depression, anxiety and stress; general health and quality of life; adjustment to HIV; and social support. Data collection will take place at baseline, completion of the intervention (or eight weeks post randomisation) and at 12 week follow-up. Discussion Results of the Positive Outlook study will provide information regarding the effectiveness of online group programs improving health related outcomes for men living with HIV. Trial registration ACTRN12612000642886. PMID:24491034

  12. Men's and Women's Perceptions of Non-Consensual Sexual Intercourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freetly, Angela J. Hattery; Kane, Emily W.

    1995-01-01

    Examines reactions of 531 undergraduate men and women to scenarios depicting nonconsensual heterosexual intercourse involving varying levels of prior intimacy. Responses show women were most likely to find the scenarios unacceptable; gender differences increased with higher levels of prior intimacy between victim and offender. Knowing a rape…

  13. Brain response to putative pheromones in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Savic, Ivanka; Berglund, Hans; Lindström, Per

    2005-05-17

    The testosterone derivative 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and the estrogen-like steroid estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) are candidate compounds for human pheromones. AND is detected primarily in male sweat, whereas EST has been found in female urine. In a previous positron emission tomography study, we found that smelling AND and EST activated regions covering sexually dimorphic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, and that this activation was differentiated with respect to sex and compound. In the present study, the pattern of activation induced by AND and EST was compared among homosexual men, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women. In contrast to heterosexual men, and in congruence with heterosexual women, homosexual men displayed hypothalamic activation in response to AND. Maximal activation was observed in the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, which, according to animal studies, is highly involved in sexual behavior. As opposed to putative pheromones, common odors were processed similarly in all three groups of subjects and engaged only the olfactory brain (amygdala, piriform, orbitofrontal, and insular cortex). These findings show that our brain reacts differently to the two putative pheromones compared with common odors, and suggest a link between sexual orientation and hypothalamic neuronal processes. PMID:15883379

  14. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  15. Heterosexual HIV transmission dynamics: implications for prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Chin, James; Bennett, Anthony

    2007-08-01

    Understanding the epidemiologic definition of epidemic versus non-epidemic spread of an infectious disease agent and the different patterns of heterosexual HIV transmission are needed to fully understand the low potential for heterosexual HIV epidemics in most heterosexual populations. Epidemic sexual HIV transmission can occur only in populations where there are large numbers of persons who have unprotected sex with multiple and concurrent sex partners. How high HIV prevalence may reach in these populations depends on the size and overlap of sex networks, and the prevalence of facilitating and protective factors that can greatly increase or limit the amount of infected blood and sexual fluids exchanged during intercourse. The wide difference in potentials for heterosexual HIV epidemics that exists within and between countries must be recognized, accepted and monitored in order to design and focus prevention strategies where they are most needed and most effective. PMID:17686210

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE IN JAPANESE MEN LIVING IN JAPAN, HAWAII AND CALIFORNIA. CORONARY HEART DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN JAPAN AND HAWAII

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various risk factors were evaluated to explain a significantly greater incidence of coronary heart disease in men of Japanese ancestry resident in Hawaii compared with men resident in Japan. The independent predictors of incidence of coronary heart disease in both Japan and Hawai...

  17. Dad Was a Terrible Hard Worker: The Influence of Family and School on Dublin's Men's Working Lives--Preliminary Findings. CLMS Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, John

    The influences that home, family, and education have on Irish men's experiences of working life are explored based on interviews and questionnaire research carried out in North Dublin during 1997 and 1998. A two-stage research design was adopted. The first stage involved a short attitudinal-type questionnaire given to men at a sporting club. The…

  18. Transmission of Non-B HIV Subtypes in the United Kingdom Is Increasingly Driven by Large Non-Heterosexual Transmission Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Ragonnet-Cronin, Manon; Lycett, Samantha J.; Hodcroft, Emma B.; Hué, Stéphane; Fearnhill, Esther; Brown, Alison E.; Delpech, Valerie; Dunn, David; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The United Kingdom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic was historically dominated by HIV subtype B transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Now 50% of diagnoses and prevalent infections are among heterosexual individuals and mainly involve non-B subtypes. Between 2002 and 2010, the prevalence of non-B diagnoses among MSM increased from 5.4% to 17%, and this study focused on the drivers of this change. Methods. Growth between 2007 and 2009 in transmission clusters among 14 000 subtype A1, C, D, and G sequences from the United Kingdom HIV Drug Resistance Database was analysed by risk group. Results. Of 1148 clusters containing at least 2 sequences in 2007, >75% were pairs and >90% were heterosexual. Most clusters (71.4%) did not grow during the study period. Growth was significantly lower for small clusters and higher for clusters of ≥7 sequences, with the highest growth observed for clusters comprising sequences from MSM and people who inject drugs (PWID). Risk group (P < .0001), cluster size (P < .0001), and subtype (P < .01) were predictive of growth in a generalized linear model. Discussion. Despite the increase in non-B subtypes associated with heterosexual transmission, MSM and PWID are at risk for non-B infections. Crossover of subtype C from heterosexuals to MSM has led to the expansion of this subtype within the United Kingdom. PMID:26704616

  19. Examining Sexual Orientation Disparities in Unmet Medical Needs among Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,810), this study examines disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation identity during young adulthood. We use binary logistic regression and expand Andersen’s health care utilization framework to identify factors that shape disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation. We also investigate whether the well-established gender disparity in health-seeking behaviors among heterosexual persons holds for sexual minorities. The results show that sexual minority women are more likely to report unmet medical needs than heterosexual women, but no differences are found between sexual minority and heterosexual men. Moreover, we find a reversal in the gender disparity between heterosexual and sexual minority populations: heterosexual women are less likely to report unmet medical needs than heterosexual men, whereas sexual minority women are more likely to report unmet medical needs compared to sexual minority men. Finally, this work advances Andersen’s model by articulating the importance of including social psychological factors for reducing disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation for women. PMID:25382887

  20. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  1. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection. PMID:26648898

  2. Perceived consequences of casual online sexual activities on heterosexual relationships: a u.s. Online survey.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet

    2011-04-01

    Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet's negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 "ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey" (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner's OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming "more open to new things," and finding it easier "to talk about what [they] want sexually." Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner's OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships. PMID:20174862

  3. Relationships Between Body Image, Body Composition, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women. PMID:25063473

  4. Heterosexual daters' sexual initiation behaviors: use of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Simms, Deanne C; Byers, E Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated sexual initiations within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen & Madden, 1986). Male and female daters in heterosexual dating relationships completed an online survey that assessed their sexual relationship with their partner and the TPB components (perceptions of social norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). The TPB was supported for both men and women in that, as predicted, the more an individual perceived that important others would approve of them initiating sexual activities with their partner, the more positive their evaluations were of the outcomes of initiating, and the more confident they were in their ability to initiate, the stronger were their initiation intentions. In turn, stronger sexual initiation intentions were associated with more frequent initiation behaviors. Compared to women, men initiated more frequently, had stronger sexual initiation intentions, and perceived more positive social norms regarding initiation; men and women did not differ in their attitudes toward sexual initiation or in their perceived behavioral control. Both men and women who reported initiating more frequently and perceived their partner as initiating more frequently reported greater sexual satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the utility of the TPB for understanding sexual initiations and the role of the traditional sexual script in initiation-related cognitions and behavior. PMID:22875717

  5. Disclosure and Concealment of Sexual Orientation and the Mental Health of Non-Gay-Identified, Behaviorally-Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Siegel, Karolynn; Downing, Martin J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although bisexual men report lower levels of mental health relative to gay men, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to bisexual men’s mental health. Bisexual men are less likely to disclose, and more likely to conceal (i.e., a desire to hide), their sexual orientation than gay men. Theory suggests that this may adversely impact their mental health. This report examined the factors associated with disclosure and with concealment of sexual orientation, the association of disclosure and concealment with mental health, and the potential mediators (i.e., internalized homophobia, social support) of this association with mental health. Method An ethnically-diverse sample of 203 non-gay-identified, behaviorally-bisexual men who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to their female partners were recruited in New York City to complete a single set of self-report measures. Results Concealment was associated with higher income, a heterosexual identification, living with a wife or girlfriend, more frequent sex with women, and less frequent sex with men. Greater concealment, but not disclosure to friends and family, was significantly associated with lower levels of mental health. Multiple mediation analyses revealed that both internalized homophobia and general emotional support significantly mediated the association between concealment and mental health. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that concealment and disclosure are independent constructs among bisexual men. Further, they suggest that interventions addressing concerns about concealment, emotional support, and internalized homophobia may be more beneficial for increasing the mental health of bisexual men than those focused on promoting disclosure. PMID:23276123

  6. Sometimes you just have to have a lot of bitter to make it sweet: Substance abuse and partner abuse in the lives of HIV+ men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Andrasik, Michele P.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Pantalone, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Although links between partner abuse (PA) and substance abuse (SA) are well-documented in the literature, we know less about these relations among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted a qualitative study with this group (N = 28). Participants reported (1) social modeling of SA in childhood and in adult social networks, (2) initial use of substance to cope with child abuse and neglect, and (3) the reinforcement of problematic SA by experiences of PA, whereby SA led to PA, resulting in increased SA. Recommendations for clinicians working with HIV+ MSM are discussed. PMID:24163573

  7. Performance of the Duke Religion Index and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in Online Samples of Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolensk, Derek J.; Brady, Sonya S.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    Religiosity is associated with behaviors that reduce the risk of HIV/STI infection among general-population and heterosexual-specific samples. Whether this association is similar for homosexual persons is unknown. Measures of religiosity have not been evaluated psychometrically among men who have sex with men (MSM), a population who, because of stigma, experience religiosity differently than heterosexual persons. We assessed the DUREL and the SWB (short form) in two samples of MSM. Neither instrument produced adequate model fit. To study the association between religiosity and HIV/STI risk behaviors among MSM, scales are needed that measure the religious and spiritual experiences of MSM. PMID:22441843

  8. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21796485

  9. Sexual and reproductive health perceptions and practices as revealed in the sexual history narratives of South African men living in a time of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stern, Erin; Rau, Asta; Cooper, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The frequent positioning of men's sexual risk-taking as driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa has triggered interest in men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) perceptions, attitudes, and practices. Much research, however, presents men as a homogenous group, and focuses on the quantifiable aspects of male sexual behaviors, providing an inadequate basis for understanding men's SRH needs and addressing the gendered aspects of HIV prevention. This study used sexual history narratives to yield more nuanced and contextualized understandings of male sexuality as it relates to SRH. Fifty sexual life history individual interviews and 10 focus-group discussions (FGDs) with men, as well as 25 sexual life history interviews with women, were conducted with participants purposively sampled from three age categories: (18-24, 25-55, and 55+ years), a wide range of cultural and racial backgrounds, and in urban and rural sites across 5 provinces in South Africa. Interviews and FGDs elicited stories of participant's early knowledge of sex and sexual experimentation and then explored sexual relationships and experiences in adulthood-including engagement with HIV risks and SRH management. The data were analyzed using a thematic approach. Many male participants conformed to dominant norms of masculinity associated with a high risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, such as having regular unprotected sex, reluctance to test for HIV, and poor SRH-seeking behaviors. Yet, the narrative accounts reveal instances of men taking steps to protect their own SRH and that of their partners, and the complex ways in which hegemonic gender norms influence men and women's SRH. Ultimately, the study points to the value of sexual biographies for gaining a deeper understanding of male sexuality, and the social structures, meanings, and experiences that underlie it. Such insights are critical to more effectively engaging men in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25495581

  10. Sexual and reproductive health perceptions and practices as revealed in the sexual history narratives of South African men living in a time of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Erin; Rau, Asta; Cooper, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The frequent positioning of men's sexual risk-taking as driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa has triggered interest in men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) perceptions, attitudes, and practices. Much research, however, presents men as a homogenous group, and focuses on the quantifiable aspects of male sexual behaviors, providing an inadequate basis for understanding men's SRH needs and addressing the gendered aspects of HIV prevention. This study used sexual history narratives to yield more nuanced and contextualized understandings of male sexuality as it relates to SRH. Fifty sexual life history individual interviews and 10 focus-group discussions (FGDs) with men, as well as 25 sexual life history interviews with women, were conducted with participants purposively sampled from three age categories: (18–24, 25–55, and 55+ years), a wide range of cultural and racial backgrounds, and in urban and rural sites across 5 provinces in South Africa. Interviews and FGDs elicited stories of participant's early knowledge of sex and sexual experimentation and then explored sexual relationships and experiences in adulthood—including engagement with HIV risks and SRH management. The data were analyzed using a thematic approach. Many male participants conformed to dominant norms of masculinity associated with a high risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, such as having regular unprotected sex, reluctance to test for HIV, and poor SRH-seeking behaviors. Yet, the narrative accounts reveal instances of men taking steps to protect their own SRH and that of their partners, and the complex ways in which hegemonic gender norms influence men and women's SRH. Ultimately, the study points to the value of sexual biographies for gaining a deeper understanding of male sexuality, and the social structures, meanings, and experiences that underlie it. Such insights are critical to more effectively engaging men in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25495581

  11. Sex with Women Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: Prevalence and Sexual Practices

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jun; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Vermund, Sten H.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.2939.98), older age (1.12, 1.101.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.522.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683

  12. Perceptions of HIV Risk and Explanations of Sexual Risk Behavior Offered by Heterosexual Black Male Barbershop Patrons in Brooklyn, NY

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tonya N.; Joseph, Michael; Henny, Kirk D.; Pinto, Angelo R.; Agbetor, Francis; Camilien, Brignel; Williams, Kim M.; Browne, Ruth C.; White, Marilyn; Gousse, Yolene; Brown, Humberto; Taylor, Raekiela D.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2015-01-01

    To describe HIV risk factors among adult heterosexual Black men recruited from four barbershops located in high HIV seroprevalent neighborhoods of Brooklyn, NY. Data on HIV-risk related behaviors and other characteristics were collected from barbershop clients. All participants (n=60) completed brief risk assessments; and a subset (n=22) also completed focus groups and/or individual interviews. Of the subset of 22 men, 68% were US born, 59% had been in jail/prison, 32% were unemployed; and during the 3 months before the interviews, 68% reported at least two partners and 45% reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with two or more women. Emergent themes included: 1) the psychological function of multiple partnerships; 2) calculated risk taking regarding condom use; 3) the role of emotional attachment and partner trust in condom use; 4) low perceived HIV risk and community awareness; and 5) lack of relationship between HIV testing and safer sex practices. Interventions among heterosexual Black men should focus not only on increasing HIV awareness and reducing sexual risk, but also on contextual and interpersonal factors that influence sexual risk. PMID:25699198

  13. Force and temptation: South African men's accounts of coercion into sex by men and women

    PubMed Central

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Men's experiences of sexual coercion is seldom the subject of research, yet it is commonly reported in all settings and increasingly evidence from South Africa points to the health risks associated with sexual coercion of men by men. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with heterosexual men aged 18-25 years who were volunteers in a HIV prevention behavioural intervention evaluation in the Eastern Cape. Men chosen included some who had reported coercion by men and women in their baseline structure interviews and some who had not. Sexual coercion by men involved abuse of trust and age-related power, temptation through material goods, as well as use of aggression. The narratives were notable for the anger that was caused by these assaults. In contrast, coercion by women was framed as ‘temptation’. In some cases young men were tempted by much older women and those in a position of trust and the experience did not make them feel good. There are very substantial differences in the circumstances of coercion of young men by men and women. This needs to be taken into account in the growing trend to research coercion of men and present findings in a way that equates these two experiences. PMID:19499390

  14. The gender role motivation model of women's sexually submissive behavior and satisfaction in heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diana T; Phelan, Julie E; Moss-Racusin, Corinne A; Good, Jessica J

    2012-04-01

    Previous findings suggest that women are more likely than men to take on the submissive role during sexual activities (e.g., waiting for their partner to initiate and orchestrate sexual activities), often to the detriment of their sexual satisfaction. Extending previous research on gender role motivation, the authors recruited 181 heterosexual couples to examine scripted sexual behavior, motivation for such behavior, and relationship outcomes (sexual satisfaction, perceptions of closeness, and relationship satisfaction) for both women and their partners. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, path analyses revealed that women's submissive behavior had negative links to personal sexual satisfaction and their partner's sexual satisfaction but only when their submission was inconsistent with their sexual preferences. Moreover, the authors show there are negative downstream consequences of diminished sexual satisfaction on perceptions of closeness and overall relationship satisfaction for both partners in the relationship. PMID:22207631

  15. Gender, BMI, and eating regulation in the context of same-sex and heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M; August, Kristin J; Nave, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Research suggests that romantic partners may benefit each other's health, but factors contributing to partners' involvement in eating regulation have been relatively unexplored. In this study, 104 heterosexual couples, 72 female same-sex and 72 male same-sex couples were examined in order to understand how partners' weight statuses were related to attempts to regulate eating behaviors. Weight status was assessed via body mass index and eating regulation was assessed using the Partner Feeding Questionnaire. Actor-Partner Interdependence Models revealed that gay men were particularly likely to regulate their partners' eating behaviors. Additionally, partners were found to regulate their significant others' eating behaviors when their significant others were heavy. Women were most likely to attempt to regulate their partners' eating behaviors when they were thin and their partners were heavy. These findings are discussed in the context of current obesity trends and the role of romantic partners in healthy weight management. PMID:26660637

  16. Aggression toward gay men as gender role enforcement: effects of male role norms, sexual prejudice, and masculine gender role stress.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J

    2009-08-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between 2 gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  17. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  18. Gendered constructions of the impact of HIV and AIDS in the context of the HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual relationship

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin; Reardon, Candice; Johnstone, Leigh; George, Gavin; Gordon, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article explores the complex, dynamic and contextual frameworks within which men working in a mining community and their live-in long-term partners or spouses (termed “couples” in this study) respond to the introduction of HIV into their heterosexual relationships; the way in which partners adopt gendered positions in enabling them to make sense of their illness; how they negotiate their respective masculine and feminine roles in response to the need for HIV-related lifestyle changes; as well as the gendered nature of partner support in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ARV) adherence. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study with a sample of 12 HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual couples in a South African mining organization. Transcripts based on semi-structured couple's interviews were analyzed using an inductive emergent thematic analytical method. Results The findings present compelling evidence that the impact of HIV and AIDS is mitigated, in the main, by the nature of the dyadic relationship. Where power and agency were skewed in accordance with traditional gender scripts, the impact of HIV and AIDS was deleterious in terms of negotiating disclosure, meeting expectations of care and support, and promoting treatment adherence. As a corollary, the study also revealed that where the relational dynamic evidenced a more equitable distribution of power, the challenge of negotiating illness was embraced in a way that strengthened the couples’ affiliation in profound ways, manifested not simply in a reduction in risk behaviours, but in both partner's courage to re-visit sensitive issues related to managing their relationship in the context of a debilitating illness. Conclusions Gendered positioning (by self and others) was found to play a crucial role in the way couples experienced HIV and ARV treatment, and underscored the positive role of a couples-counselling approach in the negotiation of the illness experience. However, as part of a broader social project, the findings highlight the need to address the shortcomings of a public health discourse on illness normalization that reifies and reinforces skewed gender relations. In essence, the findings make a compelling case for targeting couples as the primary unit of analysis and intervention in HIV and AIDS praxis, not only to enhance treatment and prevention outcomes, but to impact on and potentially transform the lived identity of such relationships, in AIDS-affected communities. We recommend early intervention with couples in terms of couples HIV testing, risk-reduction counselling and gender-based interventions giving couples opportunities to revisit and challenge their prevailing gendered identities. We note, however, that these efforts will be undermined in the long term, if the structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability, contained within macro-level social, economic and cultural practices, are not simultaneously addressed. PMID:23680303

  19. A little thing called love: Condom use among high-risk primary heterosexual couples

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, A. Michelle; Dickson-Gómez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Research shows that condoms are least likely to be used in primary relationships. A deeper understanding of the expectations women and men hold when entering into these relationships, as well as how decisions related to condom use and other prevention behaviors are made, is essential if we are to curb the spread of HIV. Methodology Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 high-risk heterosexual couples, including HIV sero-discordant couples, in Hartford, CT. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed in an iterative inductive and deductive process using Atlas.ti. Results Participants employed non-use of condoms as a strategy to find and maintain a primary relationship, establish trust and increase intimacy. Many did so while recognizing their risk of HIV/STI illustrating the importance of love and the other emotional needs primary relationships satisfy. Second, several couples described practicing negotiated safety or similar strategies as a way to minimize their HIV/STI risk. These strategies varied in potential effectiveness and included sharing sexual and/or drug use history, disclosure of prior HIV test results, and using condoms until it was decided that this was a monogamous relationship, among others. Discussion Findings suggest that men and women may choose not to use condoms as they pursue and attempt to maintain a primary relationship. HIV prevention approaches must recognize the importance of love and the needs primary relationships satisfy if they are to be considered relevant by those at greatest risk. Negotiated safety may be an important risk reduction tool for heterosexuals, particularly those in HIV-affected relationships. PMID:20444176

  20. The Significance of Privacy and Trust in Providing Health-Related Services to Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that bisexual men face unique health concerns in comparison to their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. However, little is known about behaviorally bisexual men's experiences with health services, including ways of providing services that would be most appropriate to meet the health needs of this…

  1. Attachment and associated sexual health behaviors of heterosexual Mexican housewives.

    PubMed

    Saenz Soto, Norma Elva; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A; Dimmitt Champion, Jane

    2015-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus are international public health concerns. Heterosexual women who are in steady relationships have been described as a particularly vulnerable population at risk for sexually transmitted infections acquired from their male partners. In this pilot study, we describe associations identified via cross-sectional survey among demographic variables, attachment style, and condom use in Mexican heterosexual women (ages 20-44 years, n  =  50) who self-reported current steady partner relationships. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlation analyses were conducted. Secure attachment and condom use were positively correlated with education level. Limited sexual risk prevention knowledge and contraception use, low risk perception within male partner relationships and misconception about proper condom use were identified as sources of elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections via male partners. Implications of findings include sexual health intervention modification to include dialogue concerning the context of steady relationship and sexual risk among Mexican heterosexual women. PMID:25988376

  2. Gender inequality dynamics in the prevention of a heterosexual HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Wathuta, Jane

    2016-03-01

    This paper critiques the approach to the elimination of gender inequality as an HIV prevention strategy in the just ended era of the Millennium Development Goals, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of policy guidelines for sub-Saharan Africa in the Sustainable Development Goals. The aim is to underscore the mutual responsibility of women and men in achieving a sustainable HIV response and ending the epidemic. While taking into account the real vulnerability of women, prevention programmes can reflect gender dynamics more accurately so that attention is given to the role of both sexes in propagating - or stemming - a predominantly heterosexual HIV epidemic. More emphasis could be given to the harm caused to both men and women by certain norms related to masculinity and sexuality, and the subsequent need for combined efforts in reducing intimate partner violence and concurrency. The empowerment and engagement of both women and men as agents of change would need to be dealt with more creatively. PMID:27002358

  3. Infidelity in heterosexual couples: demographic, interpersonal, and personality-related predictors of extradyadic sex.

    PubMed

    Mark, Kristen P; Janssen, Erick; Milhausen, Robin R

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the relative importance of demographic, interpersonal, and personality factors in predicting sexual infidelity in heterosexual couples. A total of 506 men (M age = 32.86 years, SD = 10.60) and 412 women (M age = 27.66 years, SD = 8.93), who indicated they were in a monogamous sexual relationship, completed a series of questionnaires, including the Sexual Excitation/Inhibition (SES/SIS) scales and the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire, and answered questions about, among others, religiosity, education, income, relationship and sexual satisfaction, and sexual compatibility. Almost one-quarter of men (23.2%) and 19.2% of women indicated that they had "cheated" during their current relationship (i.e., engaged in sexual interactions with someone other than their partner that could jeopardize, or hurt, their relationship). Among men, a logistic regression analysis, explaining 17% of the variance, revealed that a higher propensity of sexual excitation (SES) and sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance concerns" (SIS1), a lower propensity for sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance consequences" (SIS2), and an increased tendency to engage in regretful sexual behavior during negative affective states were all significant predictors of infidelity. In women, a similar regression analysis explained 21% of the variance in engaging in infidelity. In addition to SIS1 and SIS2, for which the same patterns were found as for men, low relationship happiness and low compatibility in terms of sexual attitudes and values were predictive of infidelity. The findings of this study suggest that, for both men and women, sexual personality characteristics and, for women, relationship factors are more relevant to the prediction of sexual infidelity than demographic variables such as marital status and religiosity. PMID:21667234

  4. “A man’s gonna do what a man wants to do”: African American and Hispanic women’s perceptions about heterosexual relationships: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV prevention efforts have given limited attention to the relational schemas and scripts of adult heterosexual women. These broader schemas and scripts of romantic and other sexual liaisons, partner selection, relationship dynamics, and power negotiations may help to better understand facilitators and barriers to HIV risk-reduction practices. Methods We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 60 HIV-uninfected heterosexual African-American women from rural counties in North Carolina and Alabama, and Hispanic women from an urban county in southern Florida. Data were collected for relationship expectations; relationship experiences, and relationship power and decision-making. Interview transcripts underwent computer-assisted thematic analysis. Results Participants had a median age of 34 years (range 18–59), 34% were married or living as married, 39% earned an annual income of $12,000 or less, 12% held less than a high school education, and 54% were employed. Among the Hispanic women, 95% were foreign born. We identified two overarching relationship themes: contradictions between relationship expectations and desires and life circumstances that negated such ideals, and relationship challenges. Within the contradictions theme, we discovered six subthemes: a good man is hard to find; sex can be currency used to secure desired outcomes; compromises and allowances for cheating, irresponsible, and disrespectful behavior; redefining dating; sex just happens; needing relationship validation. The challenges theme centered on two subthemes: uncertainties and miscommunication, and relationship power negotiation. Gender differences in relationship intentions and desires as well as communication styles, the importance of emotional and financial support, and the potential for relationships to provide disappointment were present in all subthemes. In examining HIV risk perceptions, participants largely held that risk for HIV-infection and the need to take precautions were problems of women who differed from them (i.e., abuse drugs, are promiscuous, exchange sex). Conclusion Underlying women’s relational schemas was a belief that relationship priorities differed for men and women. Consequently, expectations and allowances for partner infidelity and negligent behaviors were incorporated into their scripts. Moreover, scripts endorsed women’s use of sex as currency in relationship formation and endurance, and did not emphasize HIV risk. Both couple- and gender-specific group-level interventions are needed to deconstruct (breakdown) and reconstruct (rewrite) relationship scripts. PMID:23705954

  5. Social Support and Psychological Well-Being in Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…

  6. Light and Heavy Heterosexual Activities of Young Canadian Adolescents: Normative Patterns and Differential Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Cribbie, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to explore patterns of heterosexual activity in early adolescence and to examine the differential pathways to light and heavy heterosexuality. We utilized the National Longitudinal Survey of Canadian Children and Youth (NLSCY) in which heterosexual behaviors, as well as puberty, parenting processes, peer…

  7. Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Youths' Peer Relationships: Experiences, Expectations, and Implications for Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Lucas, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    The current study compared the peer relationships and well-being of 60 sexual-minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) and 65 heterosexual youths between the ages of 15 and 23. Sexual-minority youths had comparable self-esteem, mastery, and perceived stress as did heterosexuals, but greater negative affect. Younger sexual-minority male adolescents had…

  8. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  9. Social Dominance Orientation Relates to Believing Men Should Dominate Sexually, Sexual Self-Efficacy, and Taking Free Female Condoms Among Undergraduate Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sheri R.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Gendered-based power affects heterosexual relationships, with beliefs in the U.S. prescribing that men dominate women sexually. We draw on social dominance theory to examine whether women’s and men’s level of support for group-based hierarchy (i.e., social dominance orientation; SDO) helps explain gender-based power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. We conducted a laboratory study at a Northeastern U.S. university among 357 women and 126 men undergraduates who reported being heterosexual and sexually active, testing three sets of hypotheses. First, as hypothesized, women endorsed SDO and the belief that men should dominate sexually less than men did. Second, as hypothesized, among women and men, SDO was positively correlated with the belief that men should dominate sexually, and negatively correlated with sexual self-efficacy (confidence in sexual situations) and number of female condoms (a woman-controlled source of protection) taken. Third, structural equation modeling, controlling for age, family income, number of sexual partners in the past month, and perceived HIV/AIDS risk, supported the hypothesis that among women and men, the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO’s association with sexual self-efficacy. The hypothesis that the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO’s association with number of female condoms taken was supported for women only. The hypothesis that sexual self-efficacy mediates SDO’s association with number of female condoms taken was not supported. Results suggest SDO influences power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. Although female condoms are an important woman-controlled source of protection, power-related beliefs may pose a challenge to their use. PMID:24482555

  10. Structural Stigma and Cigarette Smoking in a Prospective Cohort Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual minority youth are more likely to smoke cigarettes than heterosexuals but research into the determinants of these disparities is lacking. Purpose To examine whether exposure to structural stigma predicts cigarette smoking in sexual minority youth. Methods Prospective data from adolescents participating in the Growing Up Today Study (2000–2005). Results Among sexual minority youth, living in low structural stigma states (e.g., states with non-discrimination policies inclusive of sexual orientation) was associated with a lower risk of cigarette smoking after adjustment for individual-level risk factors (Relative Risk[RR]=0.97, 95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 0.96, 0.99, p=0.02). This association remained marginally significant after additional controls for potential state-level confounders (RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00, p=0.06). In contrast, among heterosexual youth, structural stigma was not associated with past-year smoking rates, documenting specificity of these effects to sexual minority youth. Conclusions Structural stigma represents a potential risk factor for cigarette smoking among sexual minority adolescents. PMID:24136092

  11. 'At times, I feel like I'm sinning': the paradoxical role of non-lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender-affirming religion in the lives of behaviourally-bisexual Latino men.

    PubMed

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine non-lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender-affirming religiosity among behaviourally-bisexual Latino men as it relates to sexual attitudes, experiences and behaviours. We asked how does religiosity correspond to masculine identities, sex roles and condom efficacy? And how might religiosity influence contexts of health risks? Data were analysed from a mixed-methods study of 142 behaviourally-bisexual Latino men, aged 18-60 years. Major findings include positive correlations between religiosity and (1) masculine ideologies, (2) internalised homonegativity, (3) less comfort with receptive sex, (4) low condom efficacy and (5) higher levels of loneliness and incidents of discriminatory events. Results are paired with illustrative, descriptive case studies from life history interviews. It is suggested that non-lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender-affirming religiosity plays a paradoxical role in the lives of behaviourally-bisexual Latino men - on one hand, increasing internalised homonegativity and attendant health risks and, on the other, providing social support to members of a marginalised population. PMID:24261850

  12. A Randomized Trial of Diet in Men with Early Stage Prostate Cancer on Active Surveillance: Rationale and Design of the Men’s Eating and Living (MEAL) Study (CALGB 70807 [Alliance])

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, J. Kellogg; Pierce, John P.; Mohler, James; Paskett, Electra; Jung, Sin-Ho; Humphrey, Peter; Taylor, John R.; Newman, Vicky A.; Barbier, Leslie; Rock, Cheryl L.; Marshall, James

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet may substantially alter prostate cancer initiation and progression. However, large-scale clinical trials of diet modification have yet to be performed for prostate cancer. The Men’s Eating and Living (MEAL) Study (CALGB 70807 [Alliance]) is investigating the effect of increased vegetable consumption on clinical progression in men with localized prostate cancer. Study Design MEAL is a randomized, Phase III clinical trial designed to test whether an intervention that increases vegetable intake will decrease the incidence of clinical progression in men with clinically localized prostate cancer on active surveillance. We are randomizing 464 patients to either a validated telephone-based diet counseling intervention or a control condition in which patients receive a published diet guideline. The intervention will continue for two years. The primary outcome variable is clinical progression defined by serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and pathological findings on follow-up prostate biopsy. Secondary outcome variables include incidence of surgical and non-surgical treatments for prostate cancer, prostate-cancer related patient anxiety and health-related quality of life. Conclusion The MEAL Study is assessing the effectiveness of a high-vegetable diet intervention for preventing clinical progression in men with localized prostate cancer on active surveillance. PMID:24837543

  13. Psychological Abuse among College Women in Exclusive Heterosexual Dating Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, Randolph B.; LeBov-Keeler, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Identifies possible predictors of psychological abuse in nonmarital heterosexual romantic relationships. Responses from 175 undergraduate women reveal 11% claiming psychological abuse as well as more instances of partner behaviors characteristic of psychological abuse. Abused individuals were more likely to have lower self-esteem, had parents'…

  14. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  15. Predictors of Heterosexual College Students' Attitudes toward LGBT People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Silverschanz, Perry; Swank, Eric; Scherrer, Kristin S.; Raiz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the predictors of U.S. heterosexual undergraduate and graduate college students' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a group rather than toward individual identities. Findings suggest that affirming LGBT attitudes are most strongly associated with liberal political ideology and whether…

  16. Predictors of Heterosexual College Students' Attitudes toward LGBT People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Silverschanz, Perry; Swank, Eric; Scherrer, Kristin S.; Raiz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the predictors of U.S. heterosexual undergraduate and graduate college students' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a group rather than toward individual identities. Findings suggest that affirming LGBT attitudes are most strongly associated with liberal political ideology and whether

  17. Condom use by heterosexuals attending a department of GUM: attitudes and behaviour in the light of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Sonnex, C; Hart, G J; Williams, P; Adler, M W

    1989-08-01

    The use of condoms to prevent the further spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the main themes of the government's health education campaign against AIDS. A study of the use of and attitudes towards condoms in 222 heterosexual men and women attending a department of genitourinary medicine (GUM) in central London showed that 55% (50/91) to 59% (41/70) of men or women never, and 6% (6/95) to 15% (14/91) always, used condoms with their regular or non-regular sexual partners. No major differences were found in the use of or attitudes to condoms according to age, sex, social class, or civil status. Attitudes towards the use of condoms were generally negative. These attitudes, in combination with the infrequent use of condoms with regular (and even more with non-regular) sexual partners, must be a cause for concern if the further spread of HIV is to be avoided. PMID:2807283

  18. The prevalence and correlates of syphilis and HIV among homosexual and bisexual men in Shijiazhuang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Liu, Shu-Jun; Hu, Ling-Ling; Li, Jie-Fang; Liu, Li-Hua; Wei, Ning

    2016-02-01

    Bisexual men (men who have sex with men and women) are potential epidemiological bridges responsible for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from men who have sex with men only to the heterosexual population. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV and the factors associated with syphilis infection among men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only from Shijiazhuang, China. In 2011-2013, a cross-sectional cohort of 427 men who have sex with men was recruited by a snowball sampling method and tested for syphilis and HIV. Chi square and logistic regression were performed to identify syphilis risk factors. Among the 427 men who have sex with men, 71 (16.6%) cases were syphilis-positive and 16 cases (3.7%) were HIV-positive. The proportions of men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only in the total sample were 31.4% and 68.6%, respectively. Men who have sex with men and women exhibited double the syphilis prevalence of men who have sex with men only and were more likely to practice insertive anal sex. Higher education level, being married, having more male partners, and both receptive and insertive anal sex roles were associated with syphilis among men who have sex with men and women. Residing in suburban areas, being married, being HIV positive, and an absence of desire to change sexual orientation were associated with syphilis among men who have sex with men only. Therefore, men who have sex with men and women represent an important sub-group in the syphilis epidemic and further interventions should be developed to reduce risk among different sub-sets of men who have sex with men. PMID:25725492

  19. Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Prevention of HIV in Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Julie E.; Kurth, Ann E.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Mannheimer, Sharon B.; Simmons, Janie; Pouget, Enrique R.; Trabold, Nicole; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP—injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. PMID:25045996

  20. Comparing the Rates of Early Childhood Victimization across Sexual Orientations: Heterosexual, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Mostly Heterosexual

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Christopher; Andersen, Judith P.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as “mostly heterosexual” (MH) in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals’ experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422) and LGB (n = 561) and MH (n = 120) participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction) and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying). Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups. PMID:26444428

  1. Risk factors for HTLV-I among heterosexual STD clinic attenders.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J P; Morris, J; Brathwaite, A; Ward, E; Peruga, A; Hayes, R; Vermund, S H; Blattner, W

    1995-05-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) status was assessed in 994 patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Kingston, Jamaica, between November 1990 and January 1991 for a new STD complaint. Of 515 heterosexual men, 36 (7.0%) were HTLV-I seropositive, as were 38 (7.9%) of 479 women. HTLV-I seroprevalence increased with age in women. A history of blood transfusion was associated with HTLV-I in both sexes, significantly so in men [odds ratio (OR) 4.7, confidence interval (CI) 1.1-17 for men; OR 1.9, CI 0.6-5.0 for women]. Further analysis excluded all persons reporting a transfusion. On multiple logistic regression analysis, independent associations with HTLV-I infection in men were shown for marital status (OR 3.5, CI 1.2-10 for married/common law vs. single/visiting unions), agricultural occupation (OR 9.0, CI 2.0-41), bruising during sex (OR 2.9, CI 1.0-8.1), > or = 15 years at first sexual intercourse (OR 2.9, CI 1.0-8.2), and a positive test for hepatitis B surface antigen (OR 7.3, CI 1.2-52). In women, associations were shown for two or more sex partners in the 4 weeks prior to complaint (OR 4.9, CI 1.8-13), 11 or more lifetime sexual partners (OR 5.9, CI 1.3-27), aged < 15 years at first sexual intercourse (OR 2.3, 1.0-5.4), bruising during sex (OR 2.7, CI 1.1-6.6), microhaemagglutination-Treponema pallidum positivity (OR 3.6, CI 1.6-8.4), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (OR 14, CI 2.1-92).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7712238

  2. Can Heterosexist Music Cause Hiring Discrimination Against Sexual Minority Men? Testing the Effects of Prejudicial Media Messages.

    PubMed

    Binder, Kevin; Ward, L Monique

    2016-01-01

    Workplace heterosexism is a pervasive issue affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees. This study investigated the influence of heterosexist media on hiring decisions by exposing 171 heterosexual undergraduate men to heterosexist rap music, nonheterosexist rap music, or no music and measuring their evaluations of a heterosexual and gay male professorial job applicant immediately afterward. As expected, participants exposed to the heterosexist music provided lower evaluations of the gay applicant than those exposed to no music, for two of the eight dimensions measured. Also, participants exposed to heterosexist messages were less willing to recommend and meet one-on-one with a gay candidate than a heterosexual one. Music condition effects remained, even with demographic factors controlled. These findings suggest that media heterosexism may affect hiring decisions for GBT men and may also influence the treatment of these men in a workplace environment. PMID:26220854

  3. Predictors and long-term reproducibility of urinary phthalate metabolites in middle-aged men and women living in urban Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Starling, Anne P; Engel, Lawrence S; Calafat, Antonia M; Koutros, Stella; Satagopan, Jaya M; Yang, Gong; Matthews, Charles E; Cai, Qiuyin; Buckley, Jessie P; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2015-11-01

    Phthalate esters are man-made chemicals commonly used as plasticizers and solvents, and humans may be exposed through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Little is known about predictors of phthalate exposure, particularly in Asian countries. Because phthalates are rapidly metabolized and excreted from the body following exposure, it is important to evaluate whether phthalate metabolites measured at a single point in time can reliably rank exposures to phthalates over a period of time. We examined the concentrations and predictors of phthalate metabolite concentrations among 50 middle-aged women and 50 men from two Shanghai cohorts, enrolled in 1997-2000 and 2002-2006, respectively. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in three spot samples per participant taken several years apart (mean interval between first and third sample was 7.5 years [women] or 2.9 years [men]), using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and intra-class correlation coefficients. We detected ten phthalate metabolites in at least 50% of individuals for two or more samples. Participant sex, age, menopausal status, education, income, body mass index, consumption of bottled water, recent intake of medication, and time of day of collection of the urine sample were associated with concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. The reproducibility of an individual's urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites across several years was low, with all intra-class correlation coefficients and most Spearman rank correlation coefficients ≤0.3. Only mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, had a Spearman rank correlation coefficient ≥0.4 among men, suggesting moderate reproducibility. These findings suggest that a single spot urine sample is not sufficient to rank exposures to phthalates over several years in an adult urban Chinese population. PMID:26255822

  4. Exploring the relationships among food insecurity, alcohol use, and sexual risk taking among men and women living in South African townships

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria N.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol’s role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n=1137) and women (n=458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women’s alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates. PMID:24806889

  5. STD Prevalence, Risky Sexual Behaviors, and Sex With Women in a National Sample of Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Stall, Ron; Wong, Frank Y.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the behavioral characteristics and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence of Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 41) from a national probability sample of men (n = 1861). Most MSM were partnered with females (97%) and had a low rate of consistent condom use (7%). More MSM than heterosexual men self-reported a prior STD and risky sexual behaviors. MSM may act as a bridge for HIV transmission to female partners. Targeted interventions may help prevent a generalized HIV epidemic in China. PMID:19762670

  6. Evolution and predictors of change in total bone mineral density over time in HIV-infected men and women in the Nutrition for Healthy Living Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, DL; Spiegelman, D; Knox, TK; Wilson, IB

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteopenia is common in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet the etiology is unclear. We evaluated the association of host factors, disease severity and ART to changes in total body bone mineral density (Total BMD) over time in HIV-infected men (n=283) and women (n=96). Methods Total BMD was measured annually by whole body dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) and medical, dietary and behavioral history was collected. The median time from first to last DXA was 2.5 years (range 0.9 to 6.8). Using a repeated measures regression model, we identified variables independently associated with percent change in Total BMD between consecutive DXA exams (n=799 intervals), adjusted for age, race, sex, menopause and smoking. We estimated percent change in Total BMD over an average interval (one year) standardized for representative levels of each determinant in males, pre- and post-menopausal women. Results Median baseline age, CD4 and viral load were 42 years, 364 cells/mm3 and 2.7 log10 copies/ml, respectively. The estimated change in Total BMD for those not on ART was −0.37%/yr (95%CI −0.76, −0.02) for men, −0.08%/yr (95%CI −0.49, 0.33) for pre-menopausal women and −1.07%/yr (95%CI −1.86, −0.28) for post-menopausal women. Greater loss of Total BMD was associated with lower albumin, lower BMI, prednisone/hydrocortisone use, tenofovir use and longer duration of ddI. Strength training and long duration of d4T and saquinavir prevented or mitigated bone loss. For those on ART for 3 years (not including the above agents), the rate of loss was −0.57%/yr (95%CI −1.00, −0.14) for men, −0.28% (95%CI −0.71, 0.15 ) for pre-menopausal women and −1.27% (95%CI −2.07, −0.47) for post menopausal women. Post-menopausal women had greater loss than pre-menopausal women and men. Conclusion Low body weight, low albumin, catabolic steroid use and menopause may accelerate bone loss, and strength training may be protective. Tenofovir and ddI may also have a deleterious effect on BMD. PMID:18845956

  7. The impact of gout on patient’s lives: a study of African-American and Caucasian men and women with gout

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the impact of gout on quality of life (QOL) and study differences by gender and race. Methods Ten race- and sex-stratified nominal groups were conducted, oversampling for African-Americans and women with gout. Patients presented, discussed, combined and rank-ordered their concerns. Results A total of 62 patients with mean age 65.1 years, 60% men, 64% African-American, participated in 10 nominal groups: African-American men (n = 23; 3 groups); African-American women (n = 18; 3 groups); Caucasian men (n = 15; 3 groups); and Caucasian women (n = 6; 1 group). The most frequently cited high-ranked concerns among the ten nominal groups were: (1) effect of gout flare on daily activities (n = 10 groups); (2) work disability (n = 8 groups); (3) severe pain (n = 8 groups); (4) joint swelling and tenderness (n = 6 groups); (5) food restrictions (n = 6 groups); (6) medication related issues (n = 6 groups); (7) dependency on family and others (n = 5 groups); (8) emotional Impact (n = 5 groups); (9) interference with sexual function (n = 4 groups); (10) difficulty with shoes (n = 4 groups); and (11) sleep disruption (n = 4 groups). Compared with men, women ranked the following concerns high more often: problems with shoes (n = 4 versus n = 0 groups); dependency (n = 3 versus n = 2 groups); and joint/limb deformity (n = 2 versus n = 0 group). Compared with Caucasians, African-Americans ranked the following concerns high more often: dietary restrictions (n = 6 versus n = 0 groups); severe pain (n = 6 versus n = 2 groups); gout bringing the day to a “halt” (n = 2 versus n = 0 group); effect on emotional health (n = 4 versus n = 1 groups); and the need for canes/crutches during flares (n = 2 versus n = 0 group). Conclusions Gout has a significant impact on a patient’s QOL. Important differences in the impact of gout by gender and race were noted. PMID:24961941

  8. "I didn't think I could get out of the fucking park." Gay men's retrospective accounts of neighborhood space, emerging sexuality and migrations.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Egan, James E; Van Tieu, Hong; Cerdá, Magdalena; Ompad, Danielle; Koblin, Beryl A

    2014-03-01

    Young, African American and Latino gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately represented among new HIV cases according to the most recent national surveillance statistics. Analysts have noted that these racial/ethnic disparities in HIV among MSM exist within the wider context of sexual, mental and physical health disparities between MSM and heterosexuals. The intercorrelation of these adverse health outcomes among MSM, termed syndemics, has been theorized to be socially produced by a heterosexist social system that marginalizes lesbian, gay, bisexual, MSM and other sexual minorities. African American and Latino MSM experience overlapping systems of oppression that may increase their risk of experiencing syndemic health outcomes. In this paper, using data from twenty in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM living in four New York City (NYC) neighborhoods, we present accounts of neighborhood space, examining how space can both physically constitute and reinforce social systems of stratification and oppression, which in turn produce social disparities in sexual health outcomes. By analyzing accounts of emerging sexuality in neighborhood space, i.e. across time and space, we identify pathways to risk and contribute to our understanding of how neighborhood space is experienced by gay men, adding to our ability to support young men as they emerge in place and to shape the social topography of urban areas. PMID:24581056

  9. Genital HIV-1 RNA Quantity Predicts Risk of Heterosexual HIV-1 Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jared M.; Kahle, Erin; Lingappa, Jairam R.; Coombs, Robert W.; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Mugo, Nelly R.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Donnell, Deborah; Campbell, Mary S.; Mullins, James I.; Celum, Connie

    2011-01-01

    High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Although plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations are correlated, no study has evaluated the relationship between genital HIV-1 RNA and the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. In a prospective study of 2521 African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, we assessed genital HIV-1 RNA quantity and HIV-1 transmission risk. HIV-1 transmission linkage was established within the partnership by viral sequence analysis. We tested endocervical samples from 1805 women, including 46 who transmitted HIV-1 to their partner, and semen samples from 716 men, including 32 who transmitted HIV-1 to their partner. Genital and plasma HIV-1 concentrations were correlated: For endocervical swabs, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient rho was 0.56 (p<0.001), and for semen rho was 0.55 (p<0.001). Each 1 log10 increase in genital HIV-1 RNA was associated with a 2.20-fold (for endocervical swabs, 95% confidence interval 1.60–3.04, p<0.001) and a 1.79-fold (for semen, 95% confidence interval 1.30–2.47, p<0.001) increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Genital HIV-1 RNA independently predicted HIV-1 transmission risk after adjusting for plasma HIV-1 quantity (hazard ratio 1.67 for endocervical swabs and 1.68 for semen). Seven female-to-male and four male-to-female HIV-1 transmissions (incidence <1% per year) occurred from persons with undetectable genital HIV-1 RNA, but in all eleven plasma HIV-1 RNA was detected. Thus, higher genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with greater risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission, and this effect was independent of plasma HIV-1 concentrations. These data suggest that HIV-1 RNA in genital secretions could be used as a marker of HIV-1 sexual transmission risk. PMID:21471433

  10. Fraternal Birth Order and Extreme Right-Handedness as Predictors of Sexual Orientation and Gender Nonconformity in Men.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Mariana; Rahman, Qazi

    2015-07-01

    The present study explored whether there were relationships between number of older brothers, handedness, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and sexual orientation in men. We used data from previous British studies conducted in our laboratory (N = 1,011 heterosexual men and 921 gay men). These men had completed measures of demographic variables, number and sex of siblings, CGN, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The results did not replicate the fraternal birth order effect. However, gay men had fewer "other siblings" than heterosexual men (even after controlling for the stopping-rule and family size). In a sub-sample (425 gay men and 478 heterosexual men) with data available on both sibling sex composition and handedness scores, gay men were found to show a significantly greater likelihood of extreme right-handedness and non-right-handedness compared to heterosexual men. There were no significant effects of sibling sex composition in this sub-sample. In a further sub-sample (N = 487) with data available on sibling sex composition, handedness, and CGN, we found that men with feminine scores on CGN were more extremely right-handed and had fewer other-siblings compared to masculine scoring men. Mediation analysis revealed that handedness was associated with sexual orientation directly and also indirectly through the mediating factor of CGN. We were unable to replicate the fraternal birth order effect in our archived dataset but there was evidence for a relationship among handedness, sexual orientation, and CGN. These data help narrow down the number of possible neurodevelopmental pathways leading to variations in male sexual orientation. PMID:25663238

  11. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2014-02-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality. PMID:24045903

  12. A Gender-Centered Ecological Framework Targeting Black Men Living With Diabetes: Integrating a “Masculinity” Perspective in Diabetes Management and Education Research

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Leonard; Toston, Tyra; Jack, Nkenge H.; Sims, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Blacks have traditionally experienced a disproportionate burden of diabetes in the United States. Research published from 1980 to 2008 revealed a paucity of diabetes education and management research targeting Black men. There is a paucity of published research that takes into consideration attributes of “being male,” such as masculinity, and how its attributes influence diabetes self-management behaviors. This article discusses three important factors that may help explain diabetes-related disparities among Black men. These factors include absence of consistent sources of health care, lack of health insurance, and the absence of a masculinity perspective in diabetes education and management research. This article offers a gender-centered ecological framework that examines pathways between demographic factors, family functioning, knowledge and psychological health, biological health, behavioral health and medical compliance, masculinity, and diabetes-related outcomes. Recommendations for future research that consider how aspects of masculinity might lead to the identification of gender-based risk factors are presented. PMID:19477741

  13. Mediation effects of problem drinking and marijuana use on HIV sexual risk behaviors among childhood sexually abused South African heterosexual men☆

    PubMed Central

    Icard, Larry D.; Jemmott, John B.; Teitelman, Anne; O'Leary, Ann; Heeren, G. Anita

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevalence in South Africa is one of the highest in the world with heterosexual, transmission predominantly promoting the epidemic. The goal of this study is to examine whether, marijuana use and problem drinking mediate the relationship between histories of childhood sexual, abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual men. Participants were 1181 Black men aged, 18–45 from randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Audio computer assisted, self-interviewing was used to assess self-reported childhood sexual abuse, problem drinking, and marijuana (dagga) use, and HIV sexual transmission behavior with steady and casual partners. Data were analyzed using multiple meditational modeling. There was more support for problem, drinking than marijuana use as a mediator. Findings suggest that problem drinking and marijuana use, mediate HIV sexual risk behaviors in men with histories of CSA. Focusing on men with histories of CSA, and their use of marijuana and alcohol may be particularly useful for designing strategies to reduce, HIV sexual transmission in South Africa. PMID:24041455

  14. Prevalence and Patterns of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Illicit Drug Use in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Greene, George J.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are substantially more likely to use illicit drugs and other substances compared to their heterosexual peers. Substance use during adolescence has critical implications for long-term physical and mental health, and among YMSM may lead to HIV infection. The goal of the current study was to describe lifetime and past six month prevalence and patterns of substance use across multiple substances in a community sample of racially-diverse YMSM. Methods Participants were 450 YMSM aged 16–20 living in Chicago and surrounding areas who were recruited beginning December, 2009 using a modified form of respondent driven sampling. Analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic regression and latent class analysis (LCA). Results Prevalence of substance use was high in this sample of majority racial minority YMSM, and only 17.6% reported no substance use during the past six months. Black YMSM had lower prevalence of use of all substances except marijuana compared to White YMSM, while Latino YMSM had lower prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and club drug use. Bisexual YMSM reported higher prevalence of cigarette smoking, stimulant use, and club drug use compared to gay/mostly gay YMSM but lower numbers of bisexual participants limited the ability to detect statistically significant differences. LCA found that YMSM fell into three general categories of substance users: alcohol and marijuana users, polysubstance users, and low marijuana users. Conclusions Analyses reveal important group differences in prevalence and patterns of substance use in YMSM that have important implications for intervention. PMID:24907774

  15. Perceptions of Victimization Risk and Fear of Crime among Lesbians and Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Melanie D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on fear of crime has evolved to suggest the existence of a complex relationship between individual, lifestyle, and contextual factors. Past work generally focuses on predominantly heterosexual populations; this study examines correlates of fear of crime and perceptions of risk among a sample of 272 self-identified lesbians and gay men.…

  16. Social Capital and HIV Risks among Acculturating Asian Indian Men in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2005-01-01

    This community-based, qualitative study explored social capital resources and their influences upon HIV risk behaviors in a sample of 17 heterosexual Asian Indian immigrant men residing in New York City. Our study defined social capital as the resources available to individuals and society through social relationships. At the family, peer, and…

  17. The sex ratio of older siblings in non-right-handed homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Lippa, Richard A

    2008-12-01

    This study tested the prediction, based on prior research, that non-right-handed homosexual men will report fewer than expected older brothers. Participants were 2486 heterosexual and homosexual, right-handed and non-right-handed, male and female adults, representing five samples collected for various projects by the second author. Data on sibship composition, sexual orientation, and hand-preference were gathered in the original research using on-line (Internet) or self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires. The non-right-handed homosexual men reported 83 older brothers per 100 older sisters, which was significantly lower than the human sex ratio of 106 live-born males per 100 live-born females. In contrast, the right-handed homosexual men reported 125 older brothers per 100 older sisters, which was significantly higher than the expected ratio. One possible explanation of these results is that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in right-handed males but decrease the odds of homosexuality in non-right-handed males. A second possibility is that older brothers decrease the probability that non-right-handed homosexual males will be represented in survey research. The latter scenario could arise if the combination of some biological factor associated with older brothers and some biological factor associated with non-right-handedness is so toxic that it kills the fetus or predisposes the individual to a condition (e.g., mental retardation, major mental illness) that makes him less likely to be available for research recruitment at Gay Pride parades (etc.) than other members of the gay community. PMID:17131198

  18. Men's constructions of masculinity and male sexuality through talk of buying sex.

    PubMed

    Huysamen, Monique; Boonzaier, Floretta

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sex is an everyday occurrence across a range of contexts in South Africa. In this paper we turn our attention to the often-marginalised role of the buyers of sex by drawing on narrative interviews with male clients of female sex workers recruited through online advertisements in order to explore the ways in which heterosexual men construct, negotiate and perform their masculinity and sexuality through talking about their experiences of paying for sex. We highlight parallels between men's narratives of paying for sex and dominant discourses of gender and heterosexuality. We show how men draw on heteronormative sexual scripts in constructing and making sense of paid sexual encounters and how men are simultaneously able to construct and enact a particular idealised version of masculinity and male sexuality through their talk on paying for sex. Finally, we discuss how online resources could be used more extensively in future research with the male clients of sex workers. PMID:25287270

  19. Benevolent Sexism and Support of Romantic Partner's Goals: Undermining Women's Competence While Fulfilling Men's Intimacy Needs.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-09-01

    The current research demonstrates how benevolent sexism functions to undermine women's competence while facilitating men's access to heterosexual intimacy by prompting different support behaviors by men and women. Objective coders rated the support provision exhibited during heterosexual couples' (N = 100) video-recorded discussions of each other's personal goals. Men who endorsed benevolent sexism provided more dependency-oriented support, including directly providing plans and solutions and neglecting the recipient's own abilities, which led to their female partners feeling less competent and less positively regarded. In contrast, women who endorsed benevolent sexism provided greater relationship-oriented support, characterized by affection and emphasizing the positive relationship outcomes associated with their partner's goals, which led their male partners to perceive greater regard and intimacy in their relationship. This study is the first to investigate how benevolent sexism prompts naturalistic support behaviors that can impede women's capacity for independent success while supporting the fulfillment of men's intimacy needs. PMID:26160333

  20. The Role of Masculine Norms and Informal Support on Mental Health in Incarcerated Men

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Gordon, Derrick; Oliveros, Arazais; Perez-Cabello, Arturo; Brabham, Tamika; Lanza, Steve; Dyson, William

    2012-01-01

    Mental health problems, in general, and major depression in particular, are prevalent among incarcerated men. It is estimated that 23% of state inmates report experiencing symptoms of major depression. Despite the high rates of depressive symptoms, there is little understanding about the psychosocial factors that are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms of incarcerated men. One factor relevant to the mental health of incarcerated men is their adherence to traditional masculine norms. We investigated the role of masculine norms and informal support on depressive and anxiety symptoms among 123 incarcerated men. The results revealed that adherence to the masculine norm of emotional control were negatively associated with depressive symptoms while heterosexual presentation and informal support were related to both depressive and anxiety symptoms. High levels of reported informal support moderated the effects of heterosexual presentation on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Public health and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23139638

  1. Quality of life of men with AIDS and the model of social determinants of health1

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; Fiuza, Maria Luciana Teles; Gir, Elucir; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the quality of life (QoL) of men with AIDS from the perspective of the model of social determinants of health (MSDH). METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted in an outpatient infectious diseases clinic from a Brazilian university hospital over the course of one year with a sample of 138 patients. A form based on the MSDH was used to collect sociodemographic data addressing individual, proximal, intermediate determinants and the influence of social networks together with an instrument used to assess the QoL of people with HIV/AIDS. The project was approved by the Institutional Review Board (Protocol No. 040.06.12). RESULTS: according to MSDH, most men with AIDS were between 30 and 49 years old (68.1%), mixed race (59.4%), heterosexual (46.4%), single (64.5%), Catholic (68.8%), had a bachelor's degree (39.2%), had no children (61.6%), and had a formal job (71.0%). The perception of QoL in the physical, level of independence, environment, and spirituality domains was intermediate, while QoL was perceived to be superior in the domains of psychological and social relationship. A perception of lower QoL was presented by homosexual (p=0.037) and married men (p=0.077), and those with income below one times the minimum wage (p=0.042). A perception of greater QoL was presented by those without a religion (p=0.005), living with a partner (p=0.049), and those who had a formal job (p=0.045). CONCLUSION: social determinants influence the QoL of men with AIDS. PMID:26039287

  2. Gender nonconformity and psychological distress in lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, W Christopher; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael

    2006-12-01

    Some lesbians and gay men tend to be more gender nonconforming, on average and for certain traits, than their heterosexual counterparts. Gender nonconformity in childhood has also been linked to adult homosexuality. Studies of both lesbians and gay men also find elevated rates of psychological distress. We hypothesized that these facts may be related. Individuals who violate social norms for gender-appropriate behavior may suffer from stigmatization by both heterosexual and homosexual people, leading to higher levels of psychological distress. We examined whether several measures of gender nonconformity were related to psychological distress in a community-based sample of gay men and lesbians. These included self-reports of childhood and adulthood gender nonconformity, as well as observer ratings of current behavior. Several measures of gender nonconformity were related to each other for both lesbians and gay men. In addition, gender nonconformity was related to psychological distress, but only for gay men. Finally, both lesbian and gay male participants reported more positive attitudes towards gender conformity than nonconformity, although the pattern was somewhat different for each group. We discuss the implications of these results for future studies of gender nonconformity and for the promotion of psychological health in lesbians and gay men. PMID:17109224

  3. Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The essays in this book examine some of the major issues affecting the behavior and status of black men in the United States. The volume is divided into four sections. Part one compares black and white men on such indicators as sex ratio, age distribution, marital and family status, educational attainment, employment, income, social and political…

  4. Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The essays in this book examine some of the major issues affecting the behavior and status of black men in the United States. The volume is divided into four sections. Part one compares black and white men on such indicators as sex ratio, age distribution, marital and family status, educational attainment, employment, income, social and political

  5. Diversity of human papillomavirus in the anal canal of men: the HIM Study.

    PubMed

    Sichero, L; Nyitray, A G; Nunes, E M; Nepal, B; Ferreira, S; Sobrinho, J S; Baggio, M L; Galan, L; Silva, R C; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Giuliano, A R; Villa, L L

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with the development of anogenital lesions in men. There are no reports describing the distribution of non-α HPV types in the anal canal of a sexually diverse group of men. The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study is a multicentre study on the natural history of HPV infection in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. At baseline, 12% of anal canal PCR HPV-positive specimens were not typed by the Roche Linear Array, and were considered to be unclassified. Our goals were to characterize HPVs among these unclassified specimens at baseline, and to assess associations with participant socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Unclassified HPVs were typed by sequencing of amplified PGMY09/11 products or cloning of PGMY/GP + nested amplicons followed by sequencing. Further analysis was conducted with FAP primers. Of men with unclassified HPV in the anal canal, most (89.1%) were men who have sex with women. Readable sequences were produced for 62.8% of unclassified specimens, of which 75.2% were characterized HPV types. Eighteen, 26 and three different α-HPV, β-HPV and γ-HPV types were detected, respectively. α-HPVs were more commonly detected among young men (18-30 years) than among older men (45-70 years), whereas β-HPVs were more frequent among mid-adult men (31-44 years). β-HPVs were more common among heterosexual men (85.0%) than among non-heterosexual men. All β-HPVs detected among non-heterosexual men were β2-HPV types. The high prevalence of β-HPV in the anal canal of men who do not report receptive anal sex is suggestive of other forms of transmission that do not involve penile-anal intercourse. PMID:25698660

  6. Lesbian and heterosexual preadoptive couples' openness to transracial adoption.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from 147 White preadoptive couples (54 lesbian, 93 heterosexual) to examine adopters' subjective explanations for why they are open or not open to adopting transracially. Participant perceptions of racial-ethnic diversity in their communities and families, perceptions of family support or nonsupport, and attitudes about race were among the factors they cited as influencing their openness. These findings hold important implications for training and service delivery in transracial adoption. PMID:19290730

  7. Interactive Voice Response Self-Monitoring to Assess Risk Behaviors in Rural Substance Users Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Blum, Elizabeth R.; Xie, Lili; Roth, David L.; Simpson, Cathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Community-dwelling HIV/AIDS patients in rural Alabama self-monitored (SM) daily HIV risk behaviors using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, which may enhance reporting, reduce monitored behaviors, and extend the reach of care. Sexually active substance users (35 men, 19 women) engaged in IVR SM of sex, substance use, and surrounding contexts for 4–10 weeks. Baseline predictors of IVR utilization were assessed, and longitudinal IVR SM effects on risk behaviors were examined. Frequent (n = 22), infrequent (n = 22), and non-caller (n = 10) groups were analyzed. Non-callers had shorter durations of HIV medical care and lower safer sex self-efficacy and tended to be older heterosexuals. Among callers, frequent callers had lost less social support. Longitudinal logistic regression models indicated reductions in risky sex and drug use with IVR SM over time. IVR systems appear to have utility for risk assessment and reduction for rural populations living with HIV disease. PMID:21311964

  8. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. PMID:24867576

  9. Is cumulative exposure to economic hardships more hazardous to women's health than men's? A 16‐year follow‐up study of the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ahnquist, Johanna; Fredlund, Peeter; Wamala, Sarah P

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown an association between cumulative economic hardships and various health outcomes. However, the cumulative effects of economic hardships in regard to gender differences have not been given enough attention. Methods 1981 women and 1799 men were followed up over a period of 16 years (1981–1997), using data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions panel study. The temporal association between economic hardships and self‐rated health, psychological distress and musculoskeletal disorders was analysed. Results A dose–response effect on women's health was observed with increasing scores of cumulative exposure to financial stress but not with low income. Women exposed to financial stress at both T1 and T2 had an increased risk of 1.4–1.6 for all health measures compared with those who were not exposed. A similar consistent dose–response effect was not observed among men. Conclusions There is a temporal relationship between cumulative economic hardships and health outcomes, and health effects differ by gender. Financial stress seems to be a stronger predictor of poor health outcomes than low income, particularly among women. Policies geared towards reducing health inequalities should recognise that long‐term exposure to economic hardships damages health, and actions need to be taken with a gender perspective. PMID:17372294

  10. Sexual communication self-efficacy, hegemonic masculine norms and condom use among heterosexual couples in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Leddy, Anna; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Dladla, Sibongile; de Bruyn, Guy; Darbes, Lynae

    2016-02-01

    Hegemonic masculine norms (HMN), which promote sexual risk-taking among males and the subordination of women, are believed to play a key role in the HIV epidemic among heterosexual couples in South Africa (SA). Sexual communication self-efficacy (SCSE) (i.e., a couple's confidence in their ability to communicate about HIV prevention) may be a key leverage point for increasing HIV prevention behaviors among this population. We interviewed 163 sexually active heterosexual couples in Soweto, SA to investigate the association between SCSE, HMN, and consistent condom use. We collected information on demographics, relationship dynamics, and sexual activity. We utilized the SCSE scale to measure couples' SCSE, and a subscale of the Gender Equitable Men scale to measure HMN among males. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses to determine the association of consistent condom use with couples' SCSE as well as the male partner's endorsement of HMN. We found that couples with higher SCSE have greater odds of consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15-1.47). Furthermore, male endorsement of HMN was found to be negatively associated with consistent condom use among couples (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89). Joint HIV serostatus was not significantly associated with the outcome. Future interventions that equip heterosexual couples with sexual communication skills, while simultaneously promoting more gender equitable norms, may increase consistent condom use and thereby reduce the transmission of HIV among this at-risk population. PMID:26344386

  11. Skin cancer risk behaviors among US men: the role of sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Safren, Steven A

    2014-09-01

    The current study assessed skin cancer risk behaviors by sexual orientation in a nationally representative prospective sample of US men (n = 1767), sampled at ages 16 and 29 years. At age 16 years, sexual minority men were 3.9 times as likely as heterosexual men to indoor tan. Participants did not significantly differ in the use of sunscreen or the frequency of outdoor tanning. Thus, sexual minority men might be an at-risk group for developing skin cancers because of their indoor tanning behaviors. PMID:25033138

  12. Skin Cancer Risk Behaviors Among US Men: The Role of Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study assessed skin cancer risk behaviors by sexual orientation in a nationally representative prospective sample of US men (n = 1767), sampled at ages 16 and 29 years. At age 16 years, sexual minority men were 3.9 times as likely as heterosexual men to indoor tan. Participants did not significantly differ in the use of sunscreen or the frequency of outdoor tanning. Thus, sexual minority men might be an at-risk group for developing skin cancers because of their indoor tanning behaviors. PMID:25033138

  13. Perspectives on substance use and disclosure among behaviorally bisexual Black men with female primary partners

    PubMed Central

    Koken, Juline A.

    2012-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are believed to be a bridge to HIV infection among heterosexual Black women, and substance use can increase the risk of infection among men. However, empirical evidence on the social context of MSMW’s sexual behavior and substance use is needed. This study examines the perspectives of Black MSMW with female primary partners on the role of substance use in their sexual encounters with men and their reasons for disclosing or not disclosing this behavior to their female partners. Findings can inform culturally relevant HIV prevention interventions for this population. PMID:23216438

  14. Masculine ideology, norms, and HIV prevention among young Black men

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Applewhite, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between masculine ideology, adherence to norms, and HIV prevention among young Black heterosexual and gay men on the campus of a historically Black college/university. The data from four focus groups and nine individual interviews (N = 35) were aggregated and two recurring themes emerged: sexual communication, and mate availability. Additional themes related to HIV prevention were stigma, protection, and testing. The importance of investigating masculinity with young men is highlighted and implications for professionals working with college students to prevent the transmission of HIV are included. PMID:25525415

  15. Sexual orientation and demographic, cultural, and psychological factors associated with the perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence among Hispanic men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; De Santis, Joseph P; Vasquez, Elias P

    2013-02-01

    Hispanics are disproportionately affected by intimate partner violence (IPV). Most of the research describing factors associated with intimate partner violence among Hispanics has focused on Hispanic women or Hispanics in heterosexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual), and demographic, cultural, and psychological factors and intimate partner violence among Hispanic men. A cross sectional questionnaire was administered to 160 Hispanic heterosexual men and men who have sex with men. Demographic factors (age, education, and income), acculturation, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem were assessed using standardized instruments. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, and simple and multiple logistical regression. Differences in education, income, and self-esteem were noted across participants identifying as heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual. Bisexual Hispanic men had almost four times greater odds of reporting the perpetration of IPV than homosexual Hispanic men, even when differences in education, income, and self-esteem were controlled for (AOR = 3.92, 95%CI = 1.11, 14.19). This study suggests the importance of specifically targeting bisexual Hispanic men in IPV research and services. PMID:23369121

  16. Deconstructing heterosexism: becoming an LGB affirmative heterosexual couple and family therapist.

    PubMed

    McGeorge, Christi; Stone Carlson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a three-step model to help heterosexual therapists become more aware of the influence of their own heteronormative assumptions, heterosexual privileges, and heterosexual identities on the therapy process. This article also provides definitions of concepts central to the practice of affirmative therapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and strategies that therapists and clients can use to deconstruct heterosexism in the context of therapy. PMID:21198685

  17. Predicting Self-Protection against Sexual Assault in Dating Relationships among Heterosexual Men and Women, Gay Men, Lesbians, and Bisexuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Crystal Dea; Waterman, Caroline K.

    1999-01-01

    To measure self-protective behavior on dates, the Dating Self-Protection Against Rape Scale (DSPARS) was developed. The relationship among previous sexual victimization, self-perceived risk for sexual assault, rape awareness education, gender of dating partner, and DSPARS scores was assessed among 152 college students. Results, implications, and…

  18. Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbian Women among Heterosexual Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chonody, Jill M.; Woodford, Michael R.; Brennan, David J.; Newman, Bernie; Wang, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This study reports results from a national Internet-based survey administered anonymously to a cross-section of social work faculty in the United States. Drawn from a sampling frame of 700 accredited or in candidacy schools, data were collected between November 2010 and March 2011. We investigate the role of sex, sexual orientation, race,…

  19. HIV Risk Behavior and Access to Services: What Predicts HIV Testing among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV

  20. HIV Risk Behavior and Access to Services: What Predicts HIV Testing among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…

  1. Recreating mother: the consolidation of "heterosexual" gender identification in the young son of homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Eisold, B K

    1998-07-01

    In psychotherapy, the 4 1/2-year-old son of two fathers began immediately to contend with the unmourned loss of "Mommy," his first babysitter, precipitously fired when he was 2 1/2; he then created his own mother figure with whom to take up the task of becoming a boy/man with a woman as his primary love object. Several factors, including internal "working models," are described as having determined this stance preoedipally. Oedipal dynamics are also discussed, and questions raised about when father pairs should disclose to the child the nature of their commitment. PMID:9686295

  2. Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbian Women among Heterosexual Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chonody, Jill M.; Woodford, Michael R.; Brennan, David J.; Newman, Bernie; Wang, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This study reports results from a national Internet-based survey administered anonymously to a cross-section of social work faculty in the United States. Drawn from a sampling frame of 700 accredited or in candidacy schools, data were collected between November 2010 and March 2011. We investigate the role of sex, sexual orientation, race,

  3. A systematic review of the correlates and management of nonpremature ejaculatory dysfunction in heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A better understanding of ejaculatory disorders has led to an increasing interest in nonpremature ejaculatory dysfunction (non-PE EjD). Current reviews on the subject use a symptom-based classification to describe ejaculatory dysfunction even when it is a single case report. While these reviews provide important information on the disorder, a clearer picture of the prevalence of non-PE EjD in relation to the community and various pathophysiologic states is needed. Objectives: The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of studies of non-PE EjD excluding single case reports. Methods: A systematic review of Medline for terms including ejaculation, orgasm or hematospermia. Association with terms delay, pain or headache was made. The search was restricted to male gender and articles written in English. Abstracts were reviewed and those mainly concerned with premature ejaculation were excluded. Results: A total of 333 articles on non-PE EjD were identified. The condition was reported in community-based studies. In certain patient populations, non-PE EjD was commonly reported in association with antidepressant and antipsychotic treatments, in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, patients with lower urinary tract symptoms particularly in association with medical or surgical treatment, patients with retroperitoneal surgery and in patients with neurological diseases. Few articles were concerned with treatment options. Conclusion: There is a significant prevalence of non-PE EjD in the community and in association with particular disease states or as a side effect of medical or surgical interventions. There is a need to direct efforts to prevent and treat these conditions. PMID:24082920

  4. Sexuality, gendered identities and exclusion: the deployment of proper (hetero)sexuality within an HIV-prevention text from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gacoin, Andrée

    2010-05-01

    HIV prevention discourses concern lives, the protection of bodily rights and people's active involvement in the policies and programmes that affect them. HIV prevention discourses also create lives, relying upon the deployment of normative sexual identities at the same time as they invite complex and fluid youth identities to embody the norms of prevention. This paper examines a particular HIV prevention text that is available to teachers in the Western Cape province of South Africa to support the implementation of the national Life Orientation programme. Rather than considering this text as a neutral 'scaffold' upon which teachers and students add cultural meanings, it is important to interrogate the ways in which texts rely upon and reiterate particular discursive constructions of the youth sexual subject. This paper argues that the text deploys a particular discursive framework in order to construct a 'normal' (and hetero) sexuality that validates, rather than questions, social constructions of masculine privilege within heterosexuality. This is achieved through the deployment of a scientific expertise of sexuality; the mobilisation of a valued hetero/homosexual binary to create a 'safe' heterosexuality; the normalisation of bourgeois sexuality through the ideology of marriage; and the naturalisation of heterosexual masculine and feminine identities. PMID:20169478

  5. Higher Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men than Non-Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men: Data from the Urban Men's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, S.G.; Neilands, T.B.; Pollack, L.M.; Paul, J.P.; Catania, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Latino adult men who have sex with men who live in the US was estimated because a history of childhood sexual abuse increases HIV sexual risk behaviors and other negative health outcomes in adulthood. Method:: The Urban Men's Health Study is a random-digit telephone probability survey of

  6. Higher Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men than Non-Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men: Data from the Urban Men's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, S.G.; Neilands, T.B.; Pollack, L.M.; Paul, J.P.; Catania, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Latino adult men who have sex with men who live in the US was estimated because a history of childhood sexual abuse increases HIV sexual risk behaviors and other negative health outcomes in adulthood. Method:: The Urban Men's Health Study is a random-digit telephone probability survey of…

  7. A Minority Stress Model for Suicidal Ideation in Gay Men.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Matthew S; Parent, Mike C; Torrey, Carrie L

    2016-02-01

    There is a dearth of research on mechanisms underlying higher rates of suicidal ideation among gay men compared to heterosexual men. The purpose of this study was to establish the link between social/psychological predictor variables and suicidal ideation by testing a hypothesized minority stress model. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the relationships posited in the model using data from a community sample of 167 gay men. Model fit was adequate and hypothesized relationships were partially supported. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the relationship between (less) outness predicting suicidal ideation. These findings imply that therapeutic approaches targeting the coming out process may be more effective than approaches targeting internalized homophobia when suicidal ideation is indicated in the clinical presentation of gay and bisexual men. PMID:25981684

  8. Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men's sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2006-07-11

    The most consistent biodemographic correlate of sexual orientation in men is the number of older brothers (fraternal birth order). The mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. In this article, I provide a direct test pitting prenatal against postnatal (e.g., social/rearing) mechanisms. Four samples of homosexual and heterosexual men (total n = 944), including one sample of men raised in nonbiological and blended families (e.g., raised with half- or step-siblings or as adoptees) were studied. Only biological older brothers, and not any other sibling characteristic, including nonbiological older brothers, predicted men's sexual orientation, regardless of the amount of time reared with these siblings. These results strongly suggest a prenatal origin to the fraternal birth-order effect. PMID:16807297

  9. Perceived parenting skill across the transition to adoptive parenthood among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2009-12-01

    Little research has examined change in perceived parenting skill across the transition to parenthood or predictors of change in perceived skill. The current study used an ecological framework to examine predictors of self-perceived parenting skill among 47 lesbian, 31 gay, and 56 heterosexual couples who were adopting their first child. Findings revealed that, on average, all new parents perceived themselves as becoming more skilled, although gay men increased the most and lesbians the least. Participants who were female, reported fewer depressive symptoms, expected to do more child care, and reported higher job autonomy viewed themselves as more skilled pre-adoption. With regard to change, parents who reported more relational conflict and parents who expected to do more child care experienced lesser increases in perceived skill. These findings suggest that regardless of gender, sexual orientation, and route to parenthood, new parents experience similar, positive changes in perceived skill, thereby broadening our understanding of parenting skill in diverse groups. The findings also highlight the importance of examining how gender, sexual orientation, and the family context may shape perceived skill across the transition to parenthood. PMID:20001145

  10. Heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male relationships: a comparison of couples in 1975 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay; Rothblum, Esther; Solomon, Sondra; Balsam, Kimberly; Schwartz, Pepper

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the differences among lesbians, gay men, and heterosexuals at two points in time (1975 and 2000) using responses of 6,864 participants from two archival data sets. Groups were compared on variables representing equality of behaviors between partners in seven realms: traditionally "feminine" housework, traditionally "masculine" housework, finances, support, communication, requesting/refusing sex, and decision-making. In addition, the current study compared monogamy agreements and monogamy behaviors reported by the two cohorts of couple types. Overall, the results indicate that on the equality variables, there have been many statistically significant behavioral shifts among the different sexual orientations across 25 years. In addition, all couple types reported substantially greater rates of monogamy in the year 2000 than in 1975. The present study has important clinical implications for therapists working with couples because it provides new baseline evidence regarding how couples now interact with one another (especially about monogamy) and how this has shifted over time. In addition, it elucidates the differences that still exist between different couple types, which could serve to inform couple therapists as they strive to become more culturally competent working with same-sex couples. PMID:21884075

  11. Perceived Parenting Skill Across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Little research has examined change in perceived parenting skill across the transition to parenthood or predictors of change in perceived skill. The current study used an ecological framework to examine predictors of self-perceived parenting skill among 47 lesbian, 31 gay, and 56 heterosexual couples who were adopting their first child. Findings revealed that, on average, all new parents perceived themselves as becoming more skilled, although gay men increased the most and lesbians the least. Participants who were male, reported fewer depressive symptoms, expected to do more child care, and reported higher job autonomy viewed themselves as more skilled pre-adoption. With regard to change, parents who reported more relational conflict, and parents who expected to do more child care, experienced lesser increases in perceived skill. These findings suggest that regardless of gender, sexual orientation, and route to parenthood, new parents experience similar, positive changes in perceived skill, thereby broadening our understanding of parenting skill in diverse groups. The findings also highlight the importance of examining how gender, sexual orientation, and the family context may shape perceived skill across the transition to parenthood. PMID:20001145

  12. Gender and binegativity: men's and women's attitudes toward male and female bisexuals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Megan R; Thomas, Genéa D

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the influence of gender on attitudes about bisexuals. A total of 164 heterosexual female and 89 heterosexual male undergraduates completed the Biphobia Scale (Mulick & Wright, 2002), rewritten to refer to bisexual men and bisexual women and thus re-named the Gender-Specific Binegativity Scale. A mixed-design ANOVA revealed an interaction between rater's sex and target's sex: women equally accepted bisexual men and bisexual women, but men were less accepting of bisexual men than bisexual women. A mediation analysis indicated the relationship between rater's sex and greater acceptance of bisexual women was partially explained by eroticization of female same-sex sexuality. Finally, participants also responded to two open-ended items, which provided additional information about the content of binegativity: participants described male bisexuals negatively, as gender-nonconforming, and labeled them "really gay," whereas participants described female bisexuals positively, as sexy, and labeled them "really heterosexual." These findings suggest multiple underlying beliefs about bisexuals that contribute to binegativity, particularly against bisexual men. Results also confirm the importance of considering gender (of both the target and the rater) when assessing sexual prejudice. PMID:21597943

  13. Community Involvement among Behaviourally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern USA: Experiences and Perceptions across Communities

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Nix, Ryan; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Murray, Maresa; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Limited research exists regarding community involvement and social support among behaviourally bisexual men. Previous studies suggest that bisexual men experience high levels of social stigma in both heterosexual and homosexual community settings. Research focusing on social support has demonstrated that individuals with limited access to similar individuals experience greater risk for negative health outcomes. Using a community-based research design, participants were recruited using multiple methods in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 75 men who reported having engaged in bisexual behaviour within the past six months. Interviews elucidated the experiences of behaviourally bisexual men in heterosexual and homosexual settings, as well as their perceptions of the existence of a bisexual community or bisexual spaces. All participants perceived a lack of a visible bisexual community and expressed difficulty with being comfortable, or feeling belonging, within a variety of heterosexual and homosexual community spaces. Findings suggest the need for interventions focused on community building among, as well as creating spaces specifically designed for, bisexual men in order to increase perceived social support and decrease isolation and possible negative health outcomes. PMID:22978551

  14. "He enjoys giving her pleasure": diversity and complexity in young men's sexual scripts.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Diane M; Masters, N Tatiana; Wells, Elizabeth A; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2015-04-01

    Research on heterosexual men's sexual expectations has focused on self-described personal traits and culturally dominant models of masculinity. In a pair of studies, we used a sexual scripts perspective to explore the range and diversity of young men's thoughts about sex and relationships with women and to develop measures for assessing these scripts. In the first study, we conducted semi-structured interviews to elicit young men's accounts of their sexual relationships. We used these narratives to produce brief sexual script scenarios describing typical sexual situations, as well as conventional survey items assessing sexual behavior themes. In the second study, we administered the scenarios and theme items to an ethnically diverse, national sample of 648 heterosexually active young men in an online survey. Using exploratory factor analysis, we delineated sets of sexual scripts and sexual behavior themes. In the scenarios, we found both a traditional masculine "player" script and a script that emphasized mutual sexual pleasure. Analysis of theme items produced scales of Drinking and Courtship, Monogamy and Emotion, and Sexual Focus and Variety. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding heterosexual men's thinking about sexuality and how cultural change in sexual thinking may arise. We also discuss the need for measures of sexual thinking that better integrate perceptions and expectations about the partner as well as the self in relation to the partner, rather than solely self-assessed traits. PMID:25287971

  15. Mainstream legitimization of homosexual men through Valentine's Day gift-giving and consumption rituals.

    PubMed

    Newman, P J; Nelson, M R

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the gay community has received increased attention from marketers through specially-made television commercials, direct mail pieces, and other media messages. However, little research in consumer behavior has examined the potential attitudinal and behavioral differences and similarities between heterosexuals and homosexuals. Specifically, this paper provides an exploratory look at the meaning and practices surrounding the consumer ritual of Valentine's Day from the perspective of homosexual men. Using depth interviews within an interpretative framework, our research suggests similarities exist for the celebration of Valentine's Day between homosexual and heterosexual singles, while differences may exist for the functions of Valentine's Day gift-giving between these groups. Some homosexual couples feel they cannot "legitimately participate" in the dominant rituals associated with the holiday due to oppression by a "heterosexual society". Marketing implications are discussed. PMID:8827492

  16. Tobacco Smoking in HIV-Infected versus General Population in France: Heterogeneity across the Various Groups of People Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Tron, Laure; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. Methods We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. Results Among the 3,019 participants aged 18–85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years), 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR): 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.07–1.32), French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10–1.57), and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98–1.45). Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64–0.82) than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.02) and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70–1.01). HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. Conclusions Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups of PLWHIV in France including MSM and heterosexual French-natives, probably resulting from PLWHIV being less likely to quit smoking than their counterparts in the general population. PMID:25202968

  17. Condom Use Negotiation in Heterosexual African-American Adults: Responses to Types of Social Power-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been performed on how people respond to different strategies to negotiate condom use in sexual situations, and whether certain strategies tend to be perceived as more or less effective in condom use negotiation. This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually-active African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 35, attending an inner-city community center. Study participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies —coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational--based on Raven’s 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that women participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Men participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of both women—and, to a greater extent, men--indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Finally, response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention programs and media campaigns are discussed. PMID:18569536

  18. "Gay Boy Talk" Meets "Girl Talk": HIV Risk Assessment Assumptions in Young Gay Men's Sexual Health Communication with Best Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we

  19. "They're Just a Good Time and Move On": Fraternity Men Reflect on Their Hookup Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Rebecca D.; Levy, Lauren B.; Alt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Hookups have largely replaced heterosexual dating on campus, but literature suggests men and women may ascribe different motivations and meanings to hookup experiences. This study, utilizing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, makes sense of the responses of three fraternity members reflecting upon their sexual and dating experiences. Four…

  20. "Gay Boy Talk" Meets "Girl Talk": HIV Risk Assessment Assumptions in Young Gay Men's Sexual Health Communication with Best Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…

  1. Men's Self-Definitions of Abusive Childhood Sexual Experiences, and Potentially Related Risky Behavioral and Psychiatric Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods: In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men…

  2. Same-sex sexual attraction, behavior, and practices of Jewish men in Israel and the association with HIV prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to efficiently direct efforts and resources required for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Israel, it is necessary to define their particular behaviors, estimate their size, and asses the HIV-burden. This cross-sectional study included a sub-sample from a random representative National study performed in Israel, which included Jewish males aged 18–44 who completed online anonymous questionnaires regarding their sexual attraction and practices, commercial sex-work, as well as condom and substances' use. Additionally, participants were asked to identify themselves as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. National estimates regarding prevalence of risk-behaviors and HIV-infection among MSM were based on the Statistical Abstract of Israel and the National HIV Registry, respectively. Of the total sample of 997 men, 11.9% reported lifetime male sex encounters, while 4.5% and 3.7% self-identified as gay or bisexual, respectively. The estimated population of self-identified Jewish gays/bisexuals aged 18–44 in Israel was 94,176, and in Tel-Aviv 33,839. HIV prevalence among MSM was estimated at 0.7% in Israel and 1.0% in Tel-Aviv. MSM were more likely to live in Tel-Aviv, had higher levels of education, and were scored higher on several determinants of sexual risk in comparison to those attracted to women, including early sexual debut, greater number of sexual partners, ever paid/been paid for sex, sexually coerced, and substance use. In conclusion, MSM were involved in greater risk behaviors than those who only had female sex partners. Most MSM were living in Tel-Aviv and their estimated HIV prevalence was 1.0%. PMID:26883581

  3. Same-sex sexual attraction, behavior, and practices of Jewish men in Israel and the association with HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi

    2016-03-01

    In order to efficiently direct efforts and resources required for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Israel, it is necessary to define their particular behaviors, estimate their size, and asses the HIV-burden. This cross-sectional study included a sub-sample from a random representative National study performed in Israel, which included Jewish males aged 18-44 who completed online anonymous questionnaires regarding their sexual attraction and practices, commercial sex-work, as well as condom and substances' use. Additionally, participants were asked to identify themselves as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. National estimates regarding prevalence of risk-behaviors and HIV-infection among MSM were based on the Statistical Abstract of Israel and the National HIV Registry, respectively. Of the total sample of 997 men, 11.9% reported lifetime male sex encounters, while 4.5% and 3.7% self-identified as gay or bisexual, respectively. The estimated population of self-identified Jewish gays/bisexuals aged 18-44 in Israel was 94,176, and in Tel-Aviv 33,839. HIV prevalence among MSM was estimated at 0.7% in Israel and 1.0% in Tel-Aviv. MSM were more likely to live in Tel-Aviv, had higher levels of education, and were scored higher on several determinants of sexual risk in comparison to those attracted to women, including early sexual debut, greater number of sexual partners, ever paid/been paid for sex, sexually coerced, and substance use. In conclusion, MSM were involved in greater risk behaviors than those who only had female sex partners. Most MSM were living in Tel-Aviv and their estimated HIV prevalence was 1.0%. PMID:26883581

  4. A Comparison of Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual College Undergraduate Women on Selected Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Dianne L.; Santurri, Laura; Peters, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate selected mental health characteristics of lesbians and bisexual undergraduate college women as compared with heterosexual college women. Participants: Self-identified lesbians and bisexual and heterosexual female college students who took part in the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment

  5. Poverty among Cohabiting Gay and Lesbian, and Married and Cohabiting Heterosexual Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokos, Anastasia H.; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2010-01-01

    Using a subsample ( N = 1,365,145) of the 2000 Census 5% Public Use Microdata Sample, the authors investigate explanations for differing poverty chances of cohabiting gay and lesbian, and married and cohabiting heterosexual families. Gay and lesbian couples fare worse than married couples, but better economically than cohabiting heterosexuals.…

  6. A Comparison of Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual College Undergraduate Women on Selected Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Dianne L.; Santurri, Laura; Peters, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate selected mental health characteristics of lesbians and bisexual undergraduate college women as compared with heterosexual college women. Participants: Self-identified lesbians and bisexual and heterosexual female college students who took part in the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment…

  7. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Anxiety on Heterosexual Attraction Over a Series of Five Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Eugene W.

    1975-01-01

    The "information availability model" of heterosexual attraction was tested by having subjects go on a series of five encounters. It was found that both physical attractiveness and the personality variable, anxiety, had early and continuous effects on liking. It was concluded the model is an inadequate explanation of heterosexual attraction.…

  8. Challenging Discourse Themes Reproducing Gender in Heterosexual Dating: An Analog Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Walker, Sarah J.; McKinney, Sherry; Snell, Jessica L.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated whether male sexual drive discourse themes in heterosexual dating could be reproduced in a laboratory and whether those themes could be disrupted via laboratory intervention. Single, heterosexual college students role played various dating scenarios under differing conditions (dominant discourse themes and disrupted dominant discourse…

  9. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  10. A Comparison of Substance Use Behaviors of Hispanic Men by Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Joseph P.; Valdes, Beatriz; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Gattamorta, Karina A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Significance Substance use is a public health concern in the United States. Hispanic men in the United States experience disproportionate rates of substance use when compared to other ethnic groups. Previous research with the general population of Hispanic men has identified factors that are related and may contribute to substance use. In addition, Hispanic men who have sex with men (HMSM) may experience additional social factors that may result in substance use. Despite the body of research on substance use among Hispanic men, no study to date has compared the substance use behaviors of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the substance use behaviors of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to collect data from 164 community-dwelling Hispanic men (i.e., 77 heterosexual men and 87 HMSM) who resided in the South Florida area. Participants completed standardized measures of substance use and demographic characteristics. Results Findings suggested that heterosexual men had higher rates of substance use when compared to MSM. No differences were found among the two groups of men in terms of alcohol intoxication. Religion, education, and income were not predictors of substance use. When health insurance status was controlled, MSM were less likely to report substance use. Implications As a population, Hispanic men continue to experience health disparities in terms of substance use. Because substance use renders Hispanic men at risk for other health issues, more research is needed to understand the co-occurring health disparities experienced by Hispanic men who reside in the United States. PMID:25419537

  11. PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN

    PubMed Central

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121

  12. Sexual desire, communication, satisfaction, and preferences of men and women in same-sex versus mixed-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Diane; Blair, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more sexual desire than women, while women reported slightly higher levels of general sexual satisfaction than men. Those in same-sex relationships reported slightly higher levels of sexual desire than those in mixed-sex relationships. Compared to the other three groups, heterosexual men reported deriving somewhat less satisfaction from the more tender, sensual, or erotic sexual activities. Implications of these findings for sex therapists are discussed. PMID:19116863

  13. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men's and women's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-07-01

    Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races. PMID:23462019

  14. Coparenting among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples: associations with adopted children's outcomes.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2013-01-01

    Coparenting is associated with child behavior in families with heterosexual parents, but less is known about coparenting among lesbian- and gay-parent families. Associations were studied among self-reported divisions of labor, coparenting observations, and child adjustment (Mage  = 3 years) among 104 adoptive families headed by lesbian, gay, or heterosexual couples. Lesbian and gay couples reported sharing child care, whereas heterosexual couples reported specialization (i.e., mothers did more child care than fathers). Observations confirmed this pattern-lesbian and gay parents participated more equally than heterosexual parents during family interaction. Lesbian couples showed the most supportive and least undermining behavior, whereas gay couples showed the least supportive behavior, and heterosexual couples the most undermining behavior. Overall, supportive coparenting was associated with better child adjustment. PMID:23336749

  15. Differences between heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women in recalled childhood experiences.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G; Over, R

    1995-02-01

    Heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women recalled the extent to which they had engaged in gender conforming (female-stereotypic) behaviors and gender nonconforming (male-stereotypic) behaviors in childhood. Heterosexual women were more likely to recall having had female-stereotypic experiences as children, whereas lesbian women often recalled a childhood characterized by male-stereotypic experiences. Multiple discriminant function allowed the heterosexual women in the sample to be distinguished from the lesbian women with 80% accuracy in classification of individual cases on the basis of four recollected attributes (imagined self as a male character, wished to become a mother, preference for boys' games, and considered a tomboy as a child). However, some heterosexual women reported much the same childhood behaviors as the majority of lesbian women, and some lesbian women reported much the same childhood behaviors as the majority of heterosexual women. Such diversity raises questions about the nature of the relationship between experiences in childhood and adult sexual orientation. PMID:7733801

  16. INFORMAL SOCIAL SUPPORT AND DEPRESSION AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Tobin, Karin; Patterson, Jocelyn; Spikes, Pilgrim

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience greater mental health problems as compared with heterosexual populations. Informal social support plays a critical role in emotional well-being. The primary goal of this article is to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and received social support from family, friends, and sex partners within the social network from a sample of 188 African American MSM in Baltimore, Maryland. We found that receiving emotional support from a family member or a sex partner was associated with reduced odds of having depressive symptoms. Receiving financial support from a family member or a friend was associated with increased odds of having depressive symptoms. The results suggest the importance of emotional support provided by family and sex partner in mental health and the potential value of training African American MSM in skills to enhance the quality of the relationships. PMID:23935226

  17. Resilience Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Clatts, Michael C.; Yi, Huso; Leonard, Noelle R.; Goldsamt, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a study of resilience among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Resilience is defined as positive adaptation in the context of hardship. Using targeted sampling to capture the diversity and range of this hidden population, we recruited 569 YMSM ages 17–28 years old and examined a subset of 134 YMSM who had experienced severe childhood adversity, as indicated by placement in foster care. Most of the YMSM in this subset were from racial or ethnic minority backgrounds and fewer than half identified as gay or homosexual (46.3 percent). More than half (58.3 percent) exhibited positive outcomes on four of seven indicators of adaptive functioning. YMSM who identified as either bisexual or heterosexual exhibited lower rates of resilience. Structural- as well as individual-level factors appear to be implicated in resilience among YMSM. Findings underscore the importance of fostering stable sexual identity as a means of building resilience. PMID:18079993

  18. Human papillomavirus and anorectal carcinoma knowledge in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Christopher W; Eden, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a precursor to the development of anorectal carcinoma. Studies have indicated that men who have sex with men (MSM) have significantly higher rates of HPV and HIV than their heterosexual counterparts and are at greater risk for anorectal carcinoma. This article presents findings from a descriptive study to assess knowledge of HPV, anorectal carcinoma, and anorectal screening in a sample of MSM in Orlando, FL. The 89 participants demonstrated knowledge deficits. The average score on knowledge items was only 38% correct. Of the 49 participants who had heard of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smears, only 5 (10.2%) discussed screening with a physician, while 8 (16.3%) had discussed it with a nurse, and 16 (32.7%) with another health care professional. Findings support the need for community outreach efforts to promote knowledge and the need for discussion with providers regarding HPV and anorectal carcinoma in this vulnerable population. PMID:22035524

  19. Disparities in Depressive Symptoms Between Heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth in a Dutch Cohort: The TRAILS Study.

    PubMed

    la Roi, Chaïm; Kretschmer, Tina; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-03-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms compared to heterosexual youth. This study examined how differences in depressive symptoms between heterosexual and LGB youth developed from late childhood to early adulthood. The association between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms was estimated from age 11 to 22 using data from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a longitudinal Dutch cohort study. Of the 1738 respondents (54.8 % girls) that provided information on sexual orientation, 151 self-identified as LGB. In line with the Minority Stress Framework, it was tested whether self-reported peer victimization and parental rejection mediated the association between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that LB girls and bisexuals were at increased risk of depressive symptoms already at age 11. The difference increased over time and was related to pubertal development in girls and bisexual individuals. Furthermore, self-reported peer victimization (for both boys and girls), as well as parental rejection (for girls/bisexuals), mediated the association between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms. The authors conclude that already in late childhood, associations between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms are found, partly due to minority stress mechanisms. PMID:26748920

  20. Health care seeking among Mexican American men.

    PubMed

    Sobralske, Mary C

    2006-04-01

    This focused ethnography explored health care seeking beliefs and behaviors of Mexican American men living in south central Washington State. Data collection included interviews with 36 research participants living in the community, participant observation in the research setting, and examination of ethnographic documents and cultural artifacts. Four major themes were identified: the identity of manhood dictates health care seeking, health means being able to be a man by fulfilling cultural obligations, illness means not being able to be a man, and men seek health care when their manhood is threatened or impaired. Machismo, the cultural concept of manliness, persisted among men despite the level of acculturation and other factors. Women influenced men's health care seeking behaviors. To fulfill their obligations, men must stay healthy and seek care when needed. Knowing when and why men do not seek health care enables nurses to better understand and serve the Mexican American community. PMID:16595400

  1. Socialization patterns and their associations with unprotected anal intercourse, HIV, and syphilis among high-risk men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru.

    PubMed

    Verre, Michael C; Peinado, Jesus; Segura, Eddy R; Clark, Jesse; Gonzales, Pedro; Benites, Carlos; Cabello, Robinson; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2014-10-01

    The association of socialization patterns with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and HIV/STI prevalence remains underexplored in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in developing country settings. We evaluated the correlation of UAI, HIV, and syphilis with MSM/TW venue attendance and social network size among high-risk MSM and TW in Peru according to self-reported sexual identity. Frequency of venue attendance and MSM/TW social network size were lowest among heterosexual MSM and highest among TW respondents. Attendance (frequent or occasional) at MSM/TW venues was associated with increased odds of insertive UAI among heterosexual participants. Frequent venue attendance was associated with increased odds of receptive UAI among gay/homosexual, bisexual, and TW participants. Further investigation of the differing socialization patterns and associations with HIV/STI transmission within subgroups of Peruvian MSM and TW will enable more effective prevention interventions for these populations. PMID:24788782

  2. Socialization Patterns and Their Association with Unprotected Anal Intercourse, HIV, and Syphilis Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Verre, MC; Peinado, J; Segura, ER; Clark, JC; Gonzales, P; Benites, C; Cabello, R; Sanchez, J; Lama, JR

    2014-01-01

    The association of socialization patterns with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and HIV/STI prevalence remains underexplored in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in developing country settings. We evaluated the correlation of UAI, HIV, and syphilis with MSM/TW venue attendance and social network size among high-risk MSM and TW in Peru according to self-reported sexual identity. Frequency of venue attendance and MSM/TW social network size were lowest among heterosexual MSM and highest among TW respondents. Attendance (frequent or occasional) at MSM/TW venues was associated with increased odds of insertive UAI among heterosexual participants. Frequent venue attendance was associated with increased odds of receptive UAI among gay/homosexual, bisexual, and TW participants. Further investigation of the differing socialization patterns and associations with HIV/STI transmission within subgroups of Peruvian MSM and TW will enable more effective prevention interventions for these populations. PMID:24788782

  3. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    PubMed

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. PMID:23664815

  4. For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... Man's Guide to Living Well with Diabetes. Simpler Diabetes Care: Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) The American Diabetes ...

  5. Alterations of libido in gased Iranian men.

    PubMed

    Pour-Jafari, H; Moushtaghi, A A

    1992-12-01

    This investigation was done on 800 Iranian men who survived the immediate hazards and lethal phase during chemical warfare exposure. At the time of interview they had gone back to their usual lives. Men injured with chemical weapons containing mustards may have impotency and loss of or decreased libido. PMID:1287977

  6. The Freudian construction of sexuality: the gay foundations of heterosexuality and straight homophobia.

    PubMed

    de Kuyper, E

    1993-01-01

    In developing his theory of male sexual preference, Freud asserted that heterosexual as well as homosexual preferences required explanation, that neither could be assumed to be innate. His theory of the oedipal complex, however, held that the heterosexual outcome was the "normal" resolution, while the homosexual outcome represented arrested sexual development. In the normal resolution the boy identifies as a male with the father, gives up the mother as a love object, and later substitutes another woman of his choice for the mother. The author of the following article, following the theorizing of Laplanche, claims that there is an unavoidable homosexual component or residue in the heterosexual resolution which is implicit in Freudian theory. In the resolution of the complex the boy has the choice of both parents as love objects or as persons with whom to identify. In the heterosexual resolution the boy identifies with the father as a rival for the mother's affection. But love and identification are not entirely discrete processes. The identification with the father involves love for the father. The heterosexual resolution of the oedipal conflict is bought at the price of the homosexual resolution which, however, is not completely surrendered. The homophobia of heterosexual males, the author asserts, is the result of the remnants of homosexuality in the heterosexual resolution of the oedipal conflict. PMID:8505533

  7. Heterosexual Gender Relations and Masculinity in Fathers Who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the role of masculinity and heterosexual gender relations in new and expectant fathers’ explanations of their continued smoking. We conducted a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 fathers. Two themes were identified: (1) reconciling with partners to maintain a smoke-free family home; and (2) smoking to self-regulate emotions and maintain relationships. Fathers’ decisions to smoke and changes in smoking behavior were shaped by ideals of masculinity and by partner relationships and family and social contexts, including division of domestic duties and childcare. Recognizing the influence of both masculinity and gender relations could provide new directions for supporting men’s smoking cessation efforts during early parenthood. © 2014 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25155799

  8. Heterosexual students' experiences in sexual orientation intergroup dialogue courses.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Routenberg, Robbie; Breijak, Duane P

    2013-01-01

    Heterosexism contributes to an unsafe campus climate for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students. Intergroup dialogue courses about sexual orientation seek to build awareness, cross-group relationships, and commitment to social action to address anti-LGB prejudice and discrimination. Although dialogue courses are growing in popularity, few courses address sexual orientation. To advance knowledge of these dialogues, this qualitative study explores heterosexual students' motivations and expectations, challenges, and learning outcomes related to their participation in intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation. Core themes include desire to learn about the LGB community, concerns about offending classmates, anxiety around LGB stigma, conflict with classmates around controversial topics, affirming LGB people, and learning about heterosexism, privilege, and intersectionality of identity. Implications for intergroup dialogue pedagogy and research are discussed. PMID:23808350

  9. Heterosexual awareness and practices among Lebanese male conscripts.

    PubMed

    Adib, S M; Akoum, S; El-Assaad, S; Jurjus, A

    2002-11-01

    To assess sexual behaviour and awareness about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among young male adults in Lebanon, and to explore determinants associated with increasing levels of sexual risk, a cross-sectional survey of 730 conscripts was conducted. About 50% reported any lifetime heterosexual experience. Non-mutually exclusive sex predominated, and only half of the respondents reported consistent condom use during insertive vaginal sex. Higher sexual risk-taking was associated with urban residence, higher education, lower family crowding and younger age at first sexual experience. A national strategy with epidemiological and behavioural surveillance and educational programmes must be initiated before sexual risk-taking and incidence of STIs become a major public health issue. PMID:15568454

  10. Disconnected Lives: Men, Masculinity, and Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Rocco L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rape prevention in the context of a problematic masculinity. Reviews conservative, mythopoetic, and feminist perspectives on masculinity. Proposes a feminist foundation for rape prevention programs for college males. (Author/KW)

  11. Rich Men...Poor Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathje, William L.; McGuire, Randall H.

    1982-01-01

    Compares the functional and exploitive impact of social stratification. A case study of the Mayan culture indicates that, as social inequality increases, the standard of living for the majority does not. (AM)

  12. Personality characteristics of men with liberal sex-role attitudes.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R P; Zeldow, P B

    1977-11-01

    The present study was conducted to provide some initial information on the personality attributes of men oriented toward liberal sex-role views. Fifty-one male college students were given the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and divided into conservative, moderate, and liberal groups. Personality differences among the groups were assessed by comparing scores on nine scales from the Adjective Check List. Findings for liberal men were found to parallel results reported for liberal women on some personality dimensions and complement them on others. As with liberal women, liberal men were found to be more spontaneous, action oriented, risk taking, individualistic, and unconventional than the other male groups. There were also some indications of less self-control. Sex-role attitudes and heterosexuality were curvillinearly related. In direct opposition to results for liberal women, male liberals evidenced the least need for achievement and dominance. PMID:926048

  13. Correlates of sexual risk among sexual minority and heterosexual South African youths.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Idia B; Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M; Otwombe, Kennedy N; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E

    2014-07-01

    We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149

  14. Comparison of the auditory systems of heterosexuals and homosexuals: Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G.

    1998-01-01

    Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are echo-like waveforms emitted by normal-hearing cochleas in response to a brief transient. CEOAEs are known to be stronger in females than in males. In this experiment, the CEOAEs of homosexual and bisexual females were found to be intermediate to those of heterosexual females and heterosexual males. A parsimonious explanation is that the auditory systems of homosexual and bisexual females, and the brain structures responsible for their sexual orientation, have been partially masculinized by exposure to high levels of androgens prenatally. No difference in CEOAEs was observed between homosexual and heterosexual males. PMID:9482952

  15. How long-distance truck drivers and villagers in rural southeastern Tanzania think about heterosexual anal sex: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mtenga, S; Shamba, D; Wamoyi, J; Kakoko, D; Haafkens, J; Mongi, A; Kapiga, S; Geubbels, E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore ideas of truck drivers and villagers from rural Tanzania about heterosexual anal sex (HAS) and the associated health risks. Methods Qualitative study using 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) with truck drivers and 16 IDIs and 4 FGDs with villagers from the Morogoro region. Study participants included 24 women and 46 men. Data analysis was performed thematically employing standard qualitative techniques. Results Reasons why men would practice HAS included sexual pleasure, the belief that anal sex is safer than vaginal sex, alternative sexual practice, exploration and proof of masculinity. Reasons why women would practice HAS included financial need, retaining a partner, alternative for sex during menses, pregnancy prevention and beauty enhancement because HAS is believed to ‘fatten the female buttocks’. Most participants believed that condoms are not needed during HAS. This was linked to the ideas that infections only ‘reside in wet places’ (vagina) and that the anus is not ‘conducive’ for condom use; condoms reduce ‘dryness’ and ‘friction’ (pleasure) and may ‘get stuck inside’. Conclusions The study participants reported practices and ideas about HAS that put them at risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Greater attention to education about HAS is urgently needed in Tanzania, where this sexual practice is still regarded as a taboo. This study offers useful information that could be included in sex education programmes. PMID:26113730

  16. Risk factors associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected heterosexual people and intravenous drug users in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nittayananta, W; Chanowanna, N; Sripatanakul, S; Winn, T

    2001-04-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with the presence of oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals in Thailand, to determine the influence of gender and route of HIV transmission on the prevalence of the lesions, and to investigate whether total lymphocyte cell counts can be used as a serologic marker to predict the occurrence of oral lesions. Two hundred and seventy-eight HIV-infected heterosexual persons and intravenous drug users (IVDUs) were enrolled (230 males, 48 females). Eighty-six HIV-free subjects from the same population were included as controls (61 males, 25 females). Oral candidiasis was the most common oral lesion among HIV-infected individuals (39.6%), followed by hairy leukoplakia (HL) (26.3%), exfoliative cheilitis (18.3%), and linear gingival erythema (LGE) (11.5%). Odds ratios (ORs) for factors associated with the presence of oral lesions were as follows for advanced HIV disease defined by clinical status: symptomatic stage [OR= 18.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.3-47.2], AIDS stage [OR 7.3; 95% CI 3.4-15.7] and laboratory investigation of total number of lymphocyte cell counts of 1,000-2,000 cell/mm3 [OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.1] and <1,000 cell/mm3 [OR 4.0; 95% CI 2.3-7.0], alcohol consumption [OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-9.1], and poor oral health [OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-2.9]. Men were significantly more likely to have oral lesions than women. No statistically significant difference in the presence of oral lesions was observed between heterosexuals and IVDUs. This study should help predict the risk of acquiring various types of oral lesions, given that the person is exposed to multiple risk factors compared to another who is not exposed to these factors. PMID:11302242

  17. Heteronormativity and sexual partnering among bisexual Latino men.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-05-01

    Our analyses address the question of how bisexual Latino men organize their sexual partnerships. Heteronormativity can be understood as the set of social norms and normative structures that guide sexual partnering among men and women. We provide descriptive statistics to describe bisexual Latino men's sexual partnerships. Logistic and linear regression modeling were used to explore bivariate and multivariate relationships. Of our total sample (N = 142), 41.6 % had unprotected vaginal intercourse 2 months prior to the interview; 21.8 % had unprotected anal intercourse with female partners; 37.5 % had unprotected insertive anal intercourse with male partners; and 22.5 % had unprotected receptive anal intercourse with male partners. In our multivariate model, machismo was directly associated with meeting female partners through formal spaces (workplace, school, and/or church), but inversely associated with meeting male partners in formal spaces. Machismo was positively associated with meeting male sex partners through social networks (i.e., friendship and kinship networks). The more comfortable men were with homosexuality the less likely they were to meet men online and the more likely they were to meet men through social networks of friends and kinship. Interventions to reduce sexually transmitted diseases that target bisexual behavior as an epidemiological "bridge" of transmission from homosexual to heterosexual networks might very well benefit from a more complex understanding of how Latino bisexuality is patterned. Thus, this exploratory analysis might lead to a rethinking of how to address risk and vulnerability among Latino bisexual men and their sexual networks. PMID:25128415

  18. The Increased Effectiveness of HIV Preventive Intervention among Men Who Have Sex with Men and of Follow-Up Care for People Living with HIV after ‘Task-Shifting’ to Community-Based Organizations: A ‘Cash on Service Delivery’ Model in China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hongjing; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jinkou; Huan, Xiping; Ding, Jianping; Wu, Susu; Wang, Chenchen; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Li; Xu, Fei; Yang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of men who have sex with men (MSM) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are underserved despite increased service availability from government facilities while many community based organizations (CBOs) are not involved. We aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the task shifting from government facilities to CBOs in China. Methods HIV preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA were shifted from government facilities to CBOs. Based on ‘cash on service delivery’ model, 10 USD per MSM tested for HIV with results notified, 82 USD per newly HIV cases diagnosed, and 50 USD per PLHA received a defined package of follow-up care services, were paid to the CBOs. Cash payments were made biannually based on the verified results in the national web-based HIV/AIDS information system. Findings After task shifting, CBOs gradually assumed preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA from 2008 to 2012. HIV testing coverage among MSM increased from 4.1% in 2008 to 22.7% in 2012. The baseline median CD4 counts of newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM increased from 309 to 397 cells/µL. HIV tests among MSM by CBOs accounted for less than 1% of the total HIV tests in Nanjing but the share of HIV cases detected by CBOs was 12.4% in 2008 and 43.6% in 2012. Unit cost per HIV case detected by CBOs was 47 times lower than that by government facilities. The coverage of CD4 tests and antiretroviral therapy increased from 71.1% and 78.6% in 2008 to 86.0% and 90.1% in 2012, respectively. Conclusion It is feasible to shift essential HIV services from government facilities to CBOs, and to verify independently service results to adopt ‘cash on service delivery’ model. Services provided by CBOs are cost-effective, as compared with that by government facilities. PMID:25050797

  19. Urogenital infection due to meningococcus in men and women.

    PubMed

    Conde-Glez, C J; Calderón, E

    1991-01-01

    The authors report six cases of acute urethritis and three cases of acute cervicitis caused in all instances by Neisseria meningitidis group B. The patients, five heterosexual men, one homosexual man, and three female prostitutes were seen at a venereal clinic in Mexico City. All of them were initially diagnosed as having gonorrhea. Treatment with procaine-penicillin G cured all cases, both clinically and bacteriologically. These experiences reinforce the need to distinguish N. meningitidis from N. gonorrhoeae in the setting of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:1907403

  20. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Loneliness Among LGB Adults and Heterosexual Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults. PMID:26244408