Malavé, S; Ramakrishna, J; Heylen, E; Bharat, S; Ekstrand, M L
Approximately 2.4 million people in India are living with HIV. Gender inequality affects HIV prevention, detection, and management. The purpose of this paper was to describe gender differences in the experience of living with HIV in Bengaluru, India. A subsample of n = 313 (159 men and 154 women) from a larger cohort was used for these analyses. Participants were recruited through AIDS service organizations. They completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing HIV testing experience, types of stigma, and perceived consequences of stigmatization. The majority of men (67%) reported getting HIV tested because of illness, while women were more likely to be tested after learning their spouse's HIV-positive status (42%). More men (59%) than women (45%, p<0.05) were tested in private care settings. Men reported significantly higher mean levels of internalized stigma (men: M=0.71, SD = 0.63; women: M=0.46, SD = 0.55; p<0.001), whereas the women reported significantly higher scores for enacted stigma (men: M=1.30, SD = 1.69; women: M=2.10, SD = 2.17; p<0.001). These differences remained significant after controlling for potential socio-demographic covariates. Following their diagnosis, more women reported moving out of their homes (men: 16%; women: 26%; p<0.05). More men (89%) than women (66%; p<0.001) reported to have modified their sexual behavior after being diagnosed. These findings suggest that the experience of living with HIV and HIV stigma varies by gender in this population. Suggestions for a gender-based approach to HIV prevention and stigma reduction are provided. PMID:23869716
Rahman, Qazi; Yusuf, Sifat
This study tested whether male sexual orientation and gender nonconformity influenced functional cerebral lateralization for the processing of facial emotions. We also tested for the effects of sex of poser and emotion displayed on putative differences. Thirty heterosexual men, 30 heterosexual women, and 40 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), IQ, and the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT). The CFT depicts vertically split chimeric faces, formed with one half showing a neutral expression and the other half showing an emotional expression and performance is measured using a "laterality quotient" (LQ) score. We found that heterosexual men were significantly more right-lateralized when viewing female faces compared to heterosexual women and gay men, who did not differ significantly from each other. Heterosexual women and gay men were more left-lateralized for processing female faces. There were no significant group differences in lateralization for male faces. These results remained when controlling for age and IQ scores. There was no significant effect of CGN on LQ scores. These data suggest that gay men are feminized in some aspects of functional cerebral lateralization for facial emotion. The results were discussed in relation to the selectivity of functional lateralization and putative brain mechanisms underlying sexual attraction towards opposite-sex and same-sex targets. PMID:25564038
Cerny, Jerome A; Janssen, Erick
The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this stimulus would induce relatively low levels of response in heterosexual and homosexual men. A sample of 59 men (19 homosexual, 13 bisexual, and 27 heterosexual) were presented with a series of 4-min sexual videos while their genital and subjective sexual responses were measured continuously. Bisexual men did not differ significantly in their responses to male homosexual stimuli (depicting men engaging in sex) from homosexual men, and they did not differ significantly in their responses to heterosexual (depicting two women, without same-sex contact, engaged in sex with a man) and lesbian (depicting women engaging in sex) stimuli from heterosexual men. However, bisexual men displayed significantly higher levels of both genital and subjective sexual arousal to a bisexual stimulus (depicting a man engaged in sex with both a man and a woman) than either homosexual or heterosexual men. The findings of this study indicate that bisexuality in men is associated with a unique and specific pattern of sexual arousal. PMID:21387117
Jerome A. Cerny; Erick Janssen
The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential\\u000a genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual\\u000a interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest\\u000a levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this
Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Kleisner, Karel; Havlí?ek, Jan; Neustupa, Ji?í
Previous studies have shown that homosexual men differ from heterosexual men in several somatic traits and lay people accurately attribute sexual orientation based on facial images. Thus, we may predict that morphological differences between faces of homosexual and heterosexual individuals can cue to sexual orientation. The main aim of this study was to test for possible differences in facial shape between heterosexual and homosexual men. Further, we tested whether self-reported sexual orientation correlated with sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity attributed from facial images by independent raters. In Study 1, we used geometric morphometrics to test for differences in facial shape between homosexual and heterosexual men. The analysis revealed significant shape differences in faces of heterosexual and homosexual men. Homosexual men showed relatively wider and shorter faces, smaller and shorter noses, and rather massive and more rounded jaws, resulting in a mosaic of both feminine and masculine features. In Study 2, we tested the accuracy of sexual orientation judgment from standardized facial photos which were assessed by 80 independent raters. Binary logistic regression showed no effect of attributed sexual orientation on self-reported sexual orientation. However, homosexual men were rated as more masculine than heterosexual men, which may explain the misjudgment of sexual orientation. Thus, our results showed that differences in facial morphology of homosexual and heterosexual men do not simply mirror variation in femininity, and the stereotypic association of feminine looking men as homosexual may confound judgments of sexual orientation. PMID:24132775
Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.
This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about…
The anterior hypothalamus of the brain participates in the regulation of male-typical sexual behavior. The volumes of four cell groups in this region [interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) 1, 2, 3, and 4] were measured in postmortem tissue from three subject groups: women, men who were presumed to be heterosexual, and homosexual men. No differences were found between
Nandwani, R; Caswell, S; Boag, F; Lawrence, A G; Coleman, J C
OBJECTIVE--To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in homosexual and heterosexual males attending a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. DESIGN--Prospective study of male patients recruited from a GUM clinic during a 10 week period in 1993. SETTING--Central London outpatient GUM department at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. SUBJECTS--255 patients were recruited, comprising 185 homosexual and 70 heterosexual males. Ninety two men were known to be HIV-positive, of whom 89 were homosexual. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Serum samples were screened for both IgM and IgG antibodies to hepatitis A by enzyme linked immunoassay. Results were matched to an anonymously completed questionnaire. RESULTS--81 of the 255 subjects (31.8%) had been exposed to hepatitis A, two of whom were IgM positive. There were similar hepatitis A seroprevalence rates in homosexual (32.4%) and heterosexual men (30.0%). Although 48.1% of the homosexual men were known to be HIV-positive, compared with 4.3% of the heterosexuals. Hepatitis A seroprevalence remained comparable in both groups after patients with known HIV infection were excluded from the analysis. 11.4% of the heterosexual men admitted to oral-anal sexual contact compared with 62.2% of the homosexual men. This sexual practice was not associated with antibodies or a past history of hepatitis A exposure. CONCLUSIONS--There was no detectable difference in hepatitis A seroprevalence between male homosexual and heterosexual GUM clinic attenders, despite a much higher level of oral-anal sexual activity among the homosexual population. PMID:8001944
Snowden, Robert J; Gray, Nicola S
Patterns of genital arousal to sexual stimuli are somewhat different between men and women. Heterosexual males and homosexual males show clear category specific arousal that is consistent with their self-reported sexual preference. However, heterosexual women do not show this category specificity. In the present study, we attempted to measure a person's automatic appraisals of stimuli with respect to the concept of sex via the use of implicit measures (the Implicit Association Test and the priming task). In three experiments, we showed that heterosexual females did not show a sex-related category specific response in favor of male versus female stimuli. However, this lack of specificity was not due to a lack of sex-related appraisals, but by equal appraisals of both male and female stimuli. On the other hand, heterosexual men, homosexual men, and homosexual women all showed automatic sex-related appraisals of stimuli that were category specific and in line with their self-reported sexual preference. The study shows difference in the pattern of sexual interest between genders at the earliest stages of the evaluation of a stimulus. PMID:22350127
Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.
This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about sex from the media and least often learn about sex from family members. The content of sexual information varies in specifics, but overall tends to equate sex with pleasure, encourage sexual activity with multiple partners, and emphasise using protection. Our goal is to use this data to better understand how sexual socialisation contributes to the prevalence of multiple sexual partners and high rates of HIV among heterosexual black men in order to inform future risk-reduction intervention programmes. PMID:24482611
Bond, Keosha T.; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A.
Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one’s status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of “testing as prevention” as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014
Bond, Keosha T; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A
Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one's status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of "testing as prevention" as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014
Studies of homonegativity in the general population typically use scales to examine the attitudes of a heterosexual sample toward gay men and lesbian women. However, these scales fail to address that accepting gay and lesbian people in theory is not tantamount to accepting the sexual practices engaged in by gay and lesbian people. As a result, relying on homonegativity scales and hypothetical scenarios (i.e., asking a participant to imagine a gay man or lesbian woman from personality characteristics provided) may not offer a complete view of the complexities of homonegativity. To explore this possibility, 83 men self-identifying as either largely or exclusively heterosexual rated one of three groups of images (romantic gay, erotic gay, and control) on the basis of five questions related to their emotional responses. A psychometrically sound homonegativity scale was also completed. Results indicated that homonegativity was a significant predictor of decreased happiness, anger, disgust, task enjoyment, and reported liking of the imagery. Furthermore, homonegativity was found to moderate the association between exposure to the romantic images and four of the five emotional responses (happiness, anger, disgust, and liking). Exposure to the set of erotic gay images, however, was associated with negative emotional responses, regardless of participants' self-reported level of homonegativity (i.e., overt homonegativity possessed less moderational power for this type of imagery). These findings suggest that standard scales of homonegative attitudes may be unable to capture the affective negativity that heterosexual men experience when viewing gay male intimacy. PMID:25153351
Harrison, James B.
The growing literature on men is clearly a response to the cultural ferment generated by feminism. However, as in the discussion of women's lives since the first advent of feminism, centuries of assumptions do not give way readily to appropriate scientific skepticism. (Author/MC)
Gregory M. Herek
This paper discusses the basis for differences among heterosexuals in their reactions to gay people, with special emphasis on the issue of gender differences. Three studies conducted with students at six different universities revealed a consistent tendency for heterosexual males to express more hostile attitudes than heterosexual females, especially toward gay men. The same social psychological variables appear to underlie
James P. Malcolm
There have been few investigations of sexual identity and psychological adjustment among behaviorally-bisexual married men. A critical issue is whether such men experience increased psychological adjustment if they exit their primary heterosexual relationship and assume a gay identity. Two hundred and one ever-married men (n = 201) with same-sex sexual interests and behaviors were administered the Brady and Busse (1994) gay identity
Lodge, Amy C.; Umberson, Debra
This article integrates critical gerontology and masculinities theories to examine how midlife gay and heterosexual men experience their bodies in relation to cultural discourses of aging. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 15 gay and 15 heterosexual men ages 40–60 reveal that while both groups of men describe their bodies as deteriorating or declining in terms of functionality and are often distressed by these changes, midlife gay men also articulate a concern with a perceived decline in bodily appearance. Both gay and heterosexual midlife men frame their bodies as fundamentally different from women’s, possibly in an attempt to protect a masculine identity in response to the threat that aging bodies pose to that identity. We argue that midlife men’s embodied experiences are shaped by a discourse of midlife decline as well as inequalities between gay and heterosexual men. We also discuss the implications of embodiment for midlife men’s well-being. PMID:23849420
Ivankovi?, Iva; Ševi?, Sandra; Štulhofer, Aleksandar
Although research has shown a connection between minority stressors and internalizing mental health problems, the role of minority stress has mainly been neglected in the assessment of sexual problems among non-heterosexual men. Using online samples of heterosexual (n = 933) and non-heterosexual participants (n = 561) aged 18 to 50 years, this study aimed to comparatively assess sexual difficulties and problems and explore the role of minority stress in non-heterosexual men's sexual problems. Although the age-adjusted odds of reporting rapid ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, and sex-related anxiousness significantly differed between the two groups, the overall prevalence of sexual difficulties and the associated levels of distress did not significantly differ between the samples. In multivariate assessment, anxiety and depression significantly increased the odds of reporting distressing sexual difficulties among both heterosexual and non-heterosexual participants. In the non-heterosexual sample, positive body image significantly decreased the odds of experiencing sexual problems. Pointing to a role of minority stress, highest levels of victimization related to sexual orientation increased the risk of sexual problems. This association was partially mediated by negative emotions. Our findings offer some support for a recent call to include sexual orientation among the social determinants of health recognized by the World Health Organization. PMID:24992388
This article examines the presentation of male heterosexuality in British soft-core pornographic and men’s lifestyle magazines, looking across these formats at the range of conventions and discourses they share. It maps out the key features of male heterosexuality in these publications, focusing on a sample of British magazines collected in June 2003 across both soft core and lifestyle formats, and
Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna
The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexual men valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexual men and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire. PMID:21979410
Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M.; Gonzalez, Arnaldo
HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. PMID:24794822
Hu, S-H; Wang, Q-D; Xu, Y; Liao, Z-L; Xu, L-J; Liao, Z-L; Xu, X-J; Wei, E-Q; Yan, L-Q; Hu, J-B; Wei, N; Zhou, W-H; Huang, M-L; Zhang, M-M
The underlying neurobiological factors involved in sexual orientation are largely unknown. This study investigated whether neural circuits or different cognitive processes accounted for differences in brain activation in 14 heterosexual and 14 homosexual males. Brain scans were undertaken in each subject using functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed different sexual stimuli, i.e. heterosexual couple stimuli (HCS), gay couple stimuli (GCS), lesbian couple stimuli (LCS) and neutral stimuli (NS). Ratings of sexual attractiveness of the stimuli were assessed. Subjective sexual arousal was induced by HCS and GCS in heterosexual and homosexual men, respectively. Sexual disgust was induced by GCS and LCS in heterosexual and homosexual men, respectively. Compared with viewing NS, viewing sexual stimuli induced significantly different brain activations, most of which had the characteristics of cognitive processes. These observations suggest that different cognitive patterns may be the major cause of different subjective responses to sexual stimuli between heterosexual and homosexual men. PMID:21672322
Wheeler-Scruggs, Kathy S.
Research conducted on heterosexual women has been generalized to lesbians. However, the question remains whether lesbians differ in their adult development from heterosexual men and women. This article reviews results of 10 one-on-one life story interviews conducted with self-identified lesbians between the ages of 35 and 45. Information from…
Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…
van Aar, Fleur; van Weert, Yolanda; Spijker, Ralph; Götz, Hannelore; Op de Coul, Eline
Partner notification effectiveness among index clients diagnosed with HIV, syphilis and/or gonorrhoea at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics was evaluated between 2010 and 2012. We explored percentages of identifiable, notified and tested partners by sexual preference and gender. Partner notification trends were studied using the national STI database. Men who have sex with men (n?=?304), heterosexual men (n?=?33) and women (n?=?35) reported, respectively, 6.7, 3.8 and 2.3 partners per index. Percentages of identifiable partners differed between groups (men who have sex with men: 46%, heterosexual men: 63%, women: 87%, p?0.001). The percentage of notified partners (of those identifiable) was lowest for heterosexual men (76%; men who have sex with men: 92%; women: 83%; p?0.001). STI positivity rates among notified partners were high: 33%-50% depending on sexual preference. Among men who have sex with men, having HIV was associated with not notifying all identifiable partners. Percentages of notified clients at STI clinics increased between 2010 and 2012: from 13% to 19% among men who have sex with men, from 13% to 18% among heterosexual men and from 8% to 11% among women (p?0.001 for all groups). The percentage of STI/HIV detected through partner notification increased among men who have sex with men (from 22% to 30%) and women (from 25% to 29%; p?0.001). Unidentifiable partners among men who have sex with men, lower partner notification effectiveness for HIV and the relative large proportion of heterosexual men not notifying their partners appear to be important partner notification challenges. PMID:25141854
Bancroft, John; Janssen, Erick; Strong, David; Carnes, Lori; Vukadinovic, Zoran; Long, J Scott
This paper reports on a study of individual variability in the relationship between negative mood and sexuality in men. Part 1 involves a questionnaire survey of 919 white heterosexual men, asking what typically happens to sexual interest and response when (a) depressed and (b) anxious/stressed, using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ). Trait measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, depression, anxiety, and sensation seeking were also used. Relationships between trait measures and MSQ scores were tested using multiple linear and ordinal logistic regression. Of those reporting the experience of depression, 9.4% indicated increased and 42% decreased sexual interest when depressed; for anxiety/stress, the percentages were 20.6 and 28.3%, respectively. Increase in sexual interest during negative mood states was negatively related to age and trait measures of sexual inhibition and positively related to depression proneness and sexual excitation. In Part 2, the relationship between mood and sexuality was explored qualitatively, using in-depth interviews with 43 participants from Part 1. This supported the findings in Part 1, while finding more complex relations with depression than anxiety. Sex when depressed can serve needs for intimacy and self-validation as well as sexual pleasure. Sex when anxious appears to be more simply related to the calming effect of sexual release, plus a possible "excitation transfer" effect of anxious arousal. Further research is needed to explore these relationships in clinical mood disorders. Paradoxical increases of sexual interest with negative mood may help explain high risk as well as "out of control" patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:12807294
Hays, D; Samuels, A
Twenty-one heterosexual women who were or had been married to bisexual or homosexual men and had children by them responded to a 28-page questionnaire that explored their experiences as wives and mothers. All of the married women expected a lasting, monogamous marriage. Only three had partial knowledge of their husband's sexual orientation before marriage. All of them went through a painful grief reaction when they learned that their husbands had emotional or sexual, or both, attachments to other men. The suffering was aggravated by feeling deceived or stupid for not having guessed the truth. What made it difficult for them to seek support from family and friends was the fear of encountering social disapproval or ostracism. They were afraid for themselves, their husbands, and their children. At the time of the study 11 of the 21 women were still married and living with their husbands, but most of them felt unsure that the marriage would last. Ten were in transition, separated, or divorced. Only three of the still married wives had complete confidence in the future stability of their relationships. These marriages were characterized by good communications, husbands who considered themselves bisexual, and an open marriage contract whereby wives could have heterosexual affairs. Findings cannot be generalized from this small convenience sample, but will hopefully encourage further research. The writers are also soliciting more subjects to enlarge the sample. PMID:2794500
Bezemer, Daniela; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Hassan, Amin; Hamers, Raph L; Mutua, Gaudensia; Anzala, Omu; Mandaliya, Kishor; Cane, Patricia; Berkley, James A; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Wallis, Carole; Graham, Susan M; Price, Matthew A; Coutinho, Roel A; Sanders, Eduard J
We performed a molecular phylogenetic study on HIV-1 polymerase sequences of men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual patient samples in Kenya to characterize any observed HIV-1 transmission networks. HIV-1 polymerase sequences were obtained from samples in Nairobi and coastal Kenya from 84 MSM, 226 other men, and 364 women from 2005 to 2010. Using Bayesian phylogenetics, we tested whether sequences clustered by sexual orientation and geographic location. In addition, we used trait diffusion analyses to identify significant epidemiological links and to quantify the number of transmissions between risk groups. Finally, we compared 84 MSM sequences with all HIV-1 sequences available online at GenBank. Significant clustering of sequences from MSM at both coastal Kenya and Nairobi was found, with evidence of HIV-1 transmission between both locations. Although a transmission pair between a coastal MSM and woman was confirmed, no significant HIV-1 transmission was evident between MSM and the comparison population for the predominant subtype A (60%). However, a weak but significant link was evident when studying all subtypes together. GenBank comparison did not reveal other important transmission links. Our data suggest infrequent intermingling of MSM and heterosexual HIV-1 epidemics in Kenya. PMID:23947948
Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Hassan, Amin; Hamers, Raph L.; Mutua, Gaudensia; Anzala, Omu; Mandaliya, Kishor; Cane, Patricia; Berkley, James A.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Wallis, Carole; Graham, Susan M.; Price, Matthew A.; Coutinho, Roel A.; Sanders, Eduard J.
Abstract We performed a molecular phylogenetic study on HIV-1 polymerase sequences of men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual patient samples in Kenya to characterize any observed HIV-1 transmission networks. HIV-1 polymerase sequences were obtained from samples in Nairobi and coastal Kenya from 84 MSM, 226 other men, and 364 women from 2005 to 2010. Using Bayesian phylogenetics, we tested whether sequences clustered by sexual orientation and geographic location. In addition, we used trait diffusion analyses to identify significant epidemiological links and to quantify the number of transmissions between risk groups. Finally, we compared 84 MSM sequences with all HIV-1 sequences available online at GenBank. Significant clustering of sequences from MSM at both coastal Kenya and Nairobi was found, with evidence of HIV-1 transmission between both locations. Although a transmission pair between a coastal MSM and woman was confirmed, no significant HIV-1 transmission was evident between MSM and the comparison population for the predominant subtype A (60%). However, a weak but significant link was evident when studying all subtypes together. GenBank comparison did not reveal other important transmission links. Our data suggest infrequent intermingling of MSM and heterosexual HIV-1 epidemics in Kenya. PMID:23947948
Hoffman, Susie; Dworkin, Shari L.
Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially vulnerable to HIV infection because of biological susceptibility and men's sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexual men are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women's vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of women in the epidemic, mounting challenges undermine its current usefulness. We review the etiology and successes of the paradigm as well as its accruing limitations. We also call for an expanded model that acknowledges biology, gender inequality, and gendered power relations but also directly examines social structure, gender, and HIV risk for heterosexual women and men. PMID:20075321
Gregory M. Herek; John P. Capitanio
Two experiments were embedded in a 1997 telephone survey of U.S. households to assess possible differences in how heterosexuals think about lesbians versus gay men. In each experiment, one half of the sample first responded to one or more attitude items about lesbians, followed by comparable items about gay men. The other half received the gay male item(s) first. Results
Ray Blanchard; Anthony F. Bogaert
Relations between sexual orientation and several biodemographic variables previously reported to differentiate between homosexual\\u000a and heterosexual men were examined. Subjects were 4948 white, postpubertal males, who were never reared in foster homes, orphanages,\\u000a or other institutions, and were never arrested or convicted on criminal charges. These were dichotomously classified as homosexual\\u000a (n=844) or heterosexual (n=4104). Data came from survey interviews
Witelson, Sandra F; Kigar, Debra L; Scamvougeras, Anton; Kideckel, David M; Buck, Brian; Stanchev, Peter L; Bronskill, Michael; Black, Sandra
The results of several studies have shown that homosexual men have an increased prevalence of non-right-handedness and atypical patterns of hemispheric functional asymmetry. Non-right-handedness in men has been associated with increased size of the corpus callosum (CC), particularly of the isthmus, which is the posterior region of the callosal body connecting parietotemporal cortical regions. We hypothesized that isthmal area would be greater in homosexual men, even among right handers. Twelve homosexual and ten heterosexual healthy young men, all consistently right-handed, underwent a research-designed magnetic resonance imaging scan. We found that the isthmal area was larger in the homosexual group, adding to the body of findings of structural brain differences between homosexual and heterosexual men. This result suggests that right-handed homosexual men have less marked functional asymmetry compared to right-handed heterosexual men. The results also indicate that callosal anatomy and laterality for motoric functions are dissociated in homosexual men. A logistic regression analysis to predict sexual orientation category correctly classified 21 of the 22 men (96% correct classification) based on area of the callosal isthmus, a left-hand performance measure, water level test score, and a measure of abstraction ability. Our findings indicate that neuroanatomical structure and cognition are associated with sexual orientation in men and support the hypothesis of a neurobiological basis in the origin of sexual orientation. PMID:17975723
Laura A. Louderback; Bernard E. Whitley Jr
Research on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men commonly shows that heterosexual women hold similar attitudes toward members of the two groups, whereas heterosexual men hold more negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians. We tested the hypothesis that one reason for this sex difference is that heterosexual men attribute a high erotic value to lesbianism and that this
Ross, J; Ghanem, M; Tariq, A; Gilleran, G; Winter, A
Objectives: To compare the seroprevalence of hepatitis A in homosexual and heterosexual men to determine their susceptibility to infection and provide guidance for a policy on vaccination. Methods: A case-control study design was utilised to compare the risk factors associated with hepatitis A in homosexual and heterosexual men attending a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic. Demographic and sexual behavioural characteristics were included in univariate and multivariate models. Results: The overall seropositivity rate was 29% with no significant difference between homosexual and heterosexual men. Ethnicity and age were strongly associated with hepatitis A seropositivity in both homosexuals and heterosexuals. A history of sex in a sauna in homosexual men, and being born outside the United Kingdom for heterosexual men, was associated with hepatitis A seropositivity. Conclusions: Targeted hepatitis A screening and vaccination of homosexual men attending UK genitourinary medicine clinics is not supported by the results of this study. PMID:12238647
Sexual function and satisfaction in heterosexual couples when men are administered sildenafil a Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA b for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction, Morrison Hall 313, Indiana University, 1165 East Third Street
Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime
Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…
Gregory M. Herek; Eric K. Glunt
The association between heterosexuals’ attitudes toward gay men and their interpersonal contact experiences with a lesbian or gay person was examined with data from a national AIDS telephone survey with a probability sample of English?speaking adults in the United States (n = 937). When asked whether any friends or relatives had “let you know that they were homosexual,” approximately one?third
Scott J. Duggan; Donald R. McCreary
This Internet research project examined the relationship between consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and\\/or various indices of pornography and body satisfaction in gay and heterosexual men. Participants (N= 101) were asked to complete body satisfaction questionnaires that addressed maladaptive eating attitudes, the drive for muscularity, and social physique anxiety. Participants also completed scales measuring self-esteem, depression, and socially desirable
Ekere J Essien; Angela F Meshack; Ronald J Peters; Gbadebo O Ogungbade; Nora I Osemene
BACKGROUND: As part of qualitative research for developing a culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate videotape-based HIV prevention intervention for heterosexual African- American men, six focus groups were conducted with thirty African-American men to determine their perceptions of AIDS as a threat to the African-American community, characteristics of past situations that have placed African Americans at risk for HIV infection, their
Zhang, Minming; Hu, Shaohua; Xu, Lijuan; Wang, Qidong; Xu, Xiaojun; Wei, Erqing; Yan, Leqin; Hu, Jianbo; Wei, Ning; Zhou, Weihua; Huang, Manli; Xu, Yi
Few studies demonstrated neural circuits related to disgust were influenced by internal sexual orientation in male. Here we used fMRI to study the neural responses to disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men to investigate that issue. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers (sixteen homosexual and sixteen heterosexual) were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of three types of erotic film: heterosexual couples (F-M), male homosexual couples (M-M), and female homosexual couples (F-F) engaged in sexual activity. All the participants rated their level of disgust and sexual arousal as well. The F-F and M-M stimuli induced disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men, respectively. The common activations related to disgusting stimuli included: bilateral frontal gyrus and occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, and right thalamus. Homosexual men had greater neural responses in the left medial frontal gyrus than did heterosexual men to the sexual disgusting stimuli; in contrast, heterosexual men showed significantly greater activation than homosexual men in the left cuneus. ROI analysis showed that negative correlation were found between the magnitude of MRI signals in the left medial frontal gyrus and scores of disgust in homosexual subjects (p<0.05). This study indicated that there were regions in common as well as regions specific for each type of erotic stimuli during disgust of homosexual and heterosexual men. PMID:20576388
Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J; Noar, Seth M; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M
Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (? = .86), Condom Scripts (? = .82), Alcohol Scripts (? = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (? = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (? = .84), Marijuana Scripts (? = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (? = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men's HIV risk. PMID:24311105
Mor, Z; Parfionov, K; Davidovitch, N; Grotto, I
Objective Lifestyle may be associated with risk behaviours. This study compares gym exercise and sexual risk behaviour between men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men. The research was based on the assumption that men who become muscular and physically attractive increase their number of sex partners and consequently their risk of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Setting Five gyms in central Tel Aviv, Israel. Participants In 2012, a sample of 182 (48%) MSM and 197 (52%) heterosexual men who train in gyms completed anonymous questionnaires regarding their training, health and sexual behaviours. Outcomes Participants in this cross-sectional study who exercised more than the median number of anaerobic training hours were defined as performing intensive anaerobic training (IAT), and those who had performed more than one act of unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse in the preceding 6?months with a partner whose HIV status was unknown were defined as high risk. Results MSM showed a stronger desire to become muscular than heterosexual men, were more likely to perform IAT, and used protein powders or anabolic steroids. They reported that improving their body shape and increasing their self-confidence were their main reasons for training, whereas heterosexual men indicated weight loss and health improvement as the main reasons for training. MSM engaged in riskier sexual behaviour than heterosexual men. Of all the high-risk men, 61.9% (N=70) performed IAT, while 38.1% (N=43) performed moderate anaerobic training (p<0.01). The association between IAT and sexual risk was stronger in MSM than in heterosexual men (p<0.01 vs p=0.05, respectively). The interaction between MSM and IAT in high-risk participants was multiplicative. Conclusions MSM practised more IAT than heterosexual men, and their interaction between IAT and sexual risk was multiplicative. The MSM community could benefit from a holistic approach to sexual health and its association with body image and IAT. The gym MSM culture demonstrates how internal dynamics and social norms are possible factors driving MSM to high-risk behaviour for HIV/STI. Study registration The study was approved by the Wolfson Hospital Review Board, Holon, Israel (WOMC-0058-09). PMID:25421336
Bozett, Frederick W.
Focuses on the spousal relationship of gay men who had been married. Describes the man's disclosure of his homosexuality, the wife's response, and the interactional effects on the marriage relationship. Suggests the wife appeared to be an enabler of his transition to a homosexual life-style. (Author/JAC)
Sylva, David; Safron, Adam; Rosenthal, A M; Reber, Paul J; Parrish, Todd B; Bailey, J Michael
Most men have a category-specific pattern of genital and subjective sexual arousal, responding much more strongly to erotic stimuli depicting their preferred sex than to erotic stimuli depicting their nonpreferred sex. In contrast, women tend to have a less specific arousal pattern. To better understand this sex difference, we used neuroimaging to explore its neural correlates. Heterosexual and homosexual women viewed erotic photographs of either men or women. Evoked neural activity was monitored via fMRI and compared with responses to the same stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men. Overall, a network of limbic (as well as the anterior cingulate) and visual processing regions showed significantly less category-specific activity in women than men. This was primarily driven by weaker overall activations to preferred-sex stimuli in women, though there was also some evidence of stronger limbic activations to nonpreferred-sex stimuli in women. Primary results were similar for heterosexual and homosexual participants. Women did show some evidence of category-specific responses in the visual processing regions, although even in these regions they exhibited less differential activity than men. In the anterior cingulate, a region with high concentrations of sex-hormone receptors, subjective and neural category specificity measures correlated positively for women but negatively for men, suggesting a possible sex difference in the role of the anterior cingulate. Overall, results suggest that men tend to show more differentiated neural responses than do women to erotic photographs of one sex compared to the other sex, though women may not be entirely indifferent to which sex is depicted. PMID:23958585
Kirk D. Henny; Kim M. Williams; Jocelyn Patterson
\\u000a In the United States, the rate of HIV infection transmitted through high-risk heterosexual contact is disproportionately higher\\u000a among African American than among persons of other races or ethnicities (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC],\\u000a 2009). Therefore, African American men who have sex with women represent a critical target for behavioral interventions designed\\u000a to reduce HIV incidence in this community.
Erick Janssen; David Goodrich; John V. Petrocelli; John Bancroft
The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and\\u000a traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined\\u000a the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and\\u000a homosexual men. Measures included genital,
Thienel, Matthias; Heinrichs, Markus; Fischer, Stefan; Ott, Volker; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred
Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved neuropeptide that contributes to the regulation of social interactions including the processing of facial stimuli. We hypothesized that its improving effect on social approach behavior depends on perceived sexual features and, consequently, on sexual orientation. In 19 homosexual and 18 heterosexual healthy young men, we investigated the acute effect of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo, respectively, on the processing of social stimuli as assessed by ratings of trustworthiness, attractiveness and approachability for male and female faces. Faces were each presented with a neutral, a happy, and an angry expression, respectively. In heterosexual subjects, the effect of oxytocin administration was restricted to a decrease in ratings of trustworthiness for angry female faces (p<0.02). In contrast, in homosexual men oxytocin administration robustly increased ratings of attractiveness and approachability for male faces regardless of the facial expression (all p ? 0.05), as well as ratings of approachability for happy female faces (p<0.01). Results indicate that homosexual in comparison to heterosexual men display higher sensitivity to oxytocin's enhancing impact on social approach tendencies, suggesting that differences in sexual orientation imply differential oxytocinergic signaling. PMID:24120269
Dasgupta, Anindita; Goldson, Irvienne; LaFontant, Dumas; Freeman, Elmer; Silverman, Jay G.
Few community-based HIV interventions exist for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. None focus on structural HIV risks such as unemployment and unstable housing. This study involved a pilot evaluation of the MEN [Making Employment Needs] Count HIV intervention, a three session peer counselor-delivered program of HIV risk reduction and gender equity counseling, and employment and housing case management. A single-arm intervention trial of MEN Count was conducted with Black men recruited from a community men’s clinic and social services program. Eligible men were those who reported 2 or more sex partners in the past 6 months and current unemployment and/or recent homelessness. Most participants (68%) had a history of incarceration. Participants (N=50) were surveyed on outcomes at baseline (Time 1), posttest (Time 2; 60–90 days after baseline), and 2 month follow-up (Time 3). The majority of participants were retained in the program (86%) and the final follow-up survey (76%). McNemar tests revealed significant reductions in past 30 day unprotected sex from Time 1 (74%) to Time 2 (47%) and to Time 3 (47%), and in homelessness from Time 1 (58%) to Time 3 (32%). Significant increases in employment from Time 1 (8%) to Time 2 (29%) and Time 3 (32%) were also seen. Participants completed a brief participant satisfaction survey at posttest. Most (n=28, 65%) rated the program as excellent, and an additional 10 (23%) rated it as good. Although there was no significant reduction in multiple sex partners, a trend was observed from Time 1 (56%) to Times 2 (44%) and 3 (42%). Findings suggest that the MEN Count model is a feasible and promising HIV prevention program for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. Larger scale implementation and more rigorous evaluation of MEN Count are needed to confirm study findings. PMID:23767788
Blanken, Irene; Leusink, Peter; van Diest, Selma; Gijs, Luk; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M
The authors investigated whether baseline and therapy process characteristics of 82 heterosexual men participating in an Internet-based sex therapy study predict posttreatment sexual functioning. Problem severity, baseline sexual desire and baseline sexual satisfaction, but also partner problems and quality of the therapeutic relationship are predictive for sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction after finishing Internet-based sex therapy. The obtained outcome predictors could benefit men with sexual dysfunctions by tailoring online therapy programs to their individual characteristics. In addition, therapists should realize that clients suffering from erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation in online sex therapy attach great importance to the therapeutic relationship. PMID:24918965
Wand, Handan; Guy, Rebecca; Law, Matthew; Wilson, David P; Maher, Lisa
We aimed to estimate temporal trends in the proportion of HIV diagnoses which could be characterized as recent infections in Australia for men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), and heterosexual men and women using modified back-projection methodology based on data sources from HIV/AIDS Surveillance database. The proportion of HIV diagnoses among MSM that can be classified as recent infections increased in MSM, heterosexual men and women consistently. However, after initial increases during 1996-2000, the proportion of overall recent infections estimated among PWID declined by 50% in 2007 compared to 2000 (from 23 to 11%). These data suggest that late HIV diagnoses were more common among PWID compared to other groups. Ongoing prevention efforts need to be coupled with targeted testing and treatment efforts to increase the diagnosis of recent infection in PWID and reduce apparent inequities in access to screening. PMID:22218722
Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Meade, Christina S.; Tross, Susan; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Beadnell, Blair
Heterosexual anal intercourse (HAI) is an understudied risk behavior among women and men in substance abuse treatment. Rates of HAI for women (n = 441) and men (n = 539) were identified for any, main and casual partners. More men (32.8 %) than women (27.1 %) reported engaging in HAI in the previous 90 days. These rates are higher than those reported for both men (6.0–15.9 %) and women (3.5–13.0 %) ages 25–59 in the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. Men were significantly more likely to report HAI with their casual partners (34.1 %) than women (16.7 %). In a logistic regression model generated to identify associations between HAI and variables previously shown to be related to high risk sexual behavior, being younger, bisexual, and White were significantly associated with HAI. For men, having more sex partners was also a significant correlate. HAI is a logical target for increased focus in HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23321947
Dageid, Wenche; Govender, Kaymarlin; Gordon, Sarah F
Relationships and constructions of masculinity are central to understanding the process of male HIV disclosure, which is an important step towards accessing HIV-related services. Data from in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with 23 HIV-positive, self-identified heterosexual, Black South African men were used to explore the disclosure process and how this process was negotiated in the context of constructions of masculinity. Of these men, 20 had disclosed to one or more persons, with partners and siblings being the preferred confidants. Disclosure was dependent on the acceptance of HIV status, perceived support and healthy relationships with others, HIV counselling and participation in educational and training activities. Non-disclosure was explained as a result of stigma, fear of rejection, discrimination, a lack of healthy relationships with others and lack of access to suitable disclosure strategies. Negative perceptions of HIV and hegemonic conceptions of masculinity hindered men from disclosing and seeking health services. Many men, however, managed to renegotiate their masculine identities to become responsible, knowledgeable HIV-positive individuals, protecting their families and becoming community educators. Findings suggest the need to consider gendered, contextual, skills-building/income-generating and guided interventions to promote male HIV disclosure and service uptake. PMID:22943462
Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bertens, Madelief G B C; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Schaalma, Herman P
This study explored, from a public health perspective, factors that contribute to inconsistent condom use by men in Curaçao through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 21 heterosexual men. The findings show that there is an important disconnect between what is considered culturally appropriate sexual behaviour for men and women and condom use, that diverging from prescribed notions of masculinity and femininity in order to use condoms consistently is difficult, and that condom use is particularly problematic in the context of concurrent partnerships and sexual economic exchanges. Participants further reported that Caribbean family structures, whereby mothers assume the role as primary caregiver and fathers contribute biologically but, to a much lesser extent socially, also have an impact on condom use. Additionally, consistent condom use was reported to be impeded by a cultural taboo on talking seriously about sex and sexual health. In their totality, findings provide important input from men for the development of sexual health promotion interventions that are cognizant of the cultural context in which inconsistent condom use occurs, and that are geared not only to the individual level but also to the interpersonal and structural levels. PMID:23350609
Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Traxel, Nicole; Brondino, Michael J.; Reed, Barbara; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne
This study describes responses of 172 single heterosexual African American men, ages 18–35, to condom negotiation attempts. Strategies used included reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational strategies, based on Raven’s (1992) influence model. The purpose was: 1) to identify strategies influencing participant acquiescence to request, and 2) to identify predictors of participant compliance/refusal to comply with negotiation attempts. Participants viewed six videotape segments showing an actress, portrayed in silhouette, speaking to the viewer as a ‘steady partner’. After each segment, participants completed measures of: request compliance, positive and negative affect, and attributions concerning the model and themselves. No significant differences were found in men’s ratings across all vignettes. However, differences in response existed across subgroups of individuals, suggesting that while the strategy used had little impact on participant response, the act of suggesting condom use produced responses that differed across participant subgroups. Subgroups differed on levels of AIDS risk knowledge, STD history, and experience with sexual coercion. Also, the “least-willing-to-use” subgroup was highest in anger/rejection and least likely to make attributions of caring for partner. Effective negotiation of condom use with a male sexual partner may not be determined as much by specific strategy used as by partner characteristics. PMID:19760529
Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Wong, Sabrina T
Depression, a disorder often thought of as a women's health issue, is underreported in men, and little is known about how heterosexual couples respond when the male partner is depressed. Within the context of men's depression, couples may be challenged to make life adjustments that impact their gender relations. The findings detailed in this article are drawn from an innovative qualitative study of 26 Canadian heterosexual couples (26 men and their 26 women partners) in which the man had a formal diagnosis and/or self-identified as depressed. Participants completed individual, semi structured interviews that focused on exploring how masculinities and femininities intersect to forge particular heterosexual gender relations in the context of men's depression. A social constructionist gender analysis revealed three couple patterns: trading places, business as usual, and edgy tensions. Trading places refers to couples who embodied some atypical masculine and feminine roles to compensate for the men's depression-induced losses (e.g., men as homemakers and women as breadwinners). Women partners in these dyads broke with feminine ideals in how they provided partner support by employing tough love strategies for self-protection and a means of prompting the men's self-management of their depression. Couples involved in business as usual co-constructed men's alignment with masculine workman ideals and women's support of their partner to counter and conceal men's depression induced-deficits. Also described were edgy tensions, where a mismatch of gender expectations fueled resentment and dysfunction that threatened the viability of some relationships. Overall, the limits of women's resilience and care-giving were evident, yet the findings also reveal how men's management of their depression was directly influenced by their partner. Opportunities for couples to assess their relationship dynamics within a broad range of gender relations might support couples' connectedness and life quality amid the challenges that accompany men's depression. PMID:21807445
Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Massie, Jenné S.; Patel, Aditi; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.
Research documents the link between traditional ideologies of masculinity and sexual risk among multi-ethnic male adolescents and White male college students, but similar research with Black heterosexual men is scarce. This exploratory study addressed this gap through six focus groups with 41 Black, low to middle income heterosexual men aged 19 to 51 years in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses highlighted two explicit ideologies of masculinity: that Black men should have sex with multiple women, often concurrently; and that Black men should not be gay or bisexual. Analyses also identified two implicit masculinity ideologies: the perception that Black heterosexual men cannot decline sex, even risky sex; and that women are primarily responsible for condom use. The study’s implications for HIV prevention with Black heterosexual men are discussed. PMID:21390949
Duggan, Scott J; McCreary, Donald R
This Internet research project examined the relationship between consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and/or various indices of pornography and body satisfaction in gay and heterosexual men. Participants (N = 101) were asked to complete body satisfaction questionnaires that addressed maladaptive eating attitudes, the drive for muscularity, and social physique anxiety. Participants also completed scales measuring self-esteem, depression, and socially desirable responding. Finally, respondents were asked about their consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and pornography. Results indicated that viewing and purchasing of muscle and fitness magazines correlated positively with levels of body dissatisfaction for both gay and heterosexual men. Pornography exposure was positively correlated with social physique anxiety for gay men. The limitations of this study and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:15451703
Vanderlaan, Doug P; Gothreau, Laura M; Bartlett, Nancy H; Vasey, Paul L
The current study tested the hypothesis that elevated childhood separation anxiety is associated with female-typical childhood behavior and identity by comparing retrospective reports of heterosexual and homosexual men and women (N = 399). Participants completed measures of recalled childhood separation anxiety and childhood gender-atypical behavior and identity. Heterosexual men reported significantly less childhood separation anxiety relative to all other groups. Childhood gender atypicality was significantly positively correlated with childhood separation anxiety among homosexual men, but not among members of other participant groups. Discussion focused on the implications of these findings for the proposed hypothesis as well as future directions for research examining the bases of developmental associations among sex, sexual orientation, gender atypicality, and childhood separation anxiety. PMID:21063904
This study investigated why older brothers, which increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males who are right-handed, have no effect or the opposite effect on later-born males who are non-right-handed. The specific question was whether the different results for the non-right-handed men have to do with the heterosexual non-right-handers or the homosexual non-right-handers. The human sex ratio at birth (106 males per 100 females) was used as a gold standard for determining which groups differ from the general population and in which direction. All usable data from previous studies were combined to obtain the largest possible sample (N = 8,201). The observed ratio of older brothers to older sisters was 105 for the heterosexual right-handers, 128 for the homosexual right-handers, 127 for the heterosexual non-right-handers, and 96 for the homosexual non-right-handers. The ratios for the homosexual right-handers and the heterosexual non-right-handers differed significantly from the expected value. These results suggest that both heterosexual and homosexual non-right-handers contribute to the older brothers x handedness x sexual orientation interaction. PMID:17186124
Cathy J. Reback; Sherry Larkins
Discordance between sexual identity and sexual behavior is not new; however, little is known about the HIV risk behaviors of heterosexually identified men who have occasional sex with a male and\\/or a male-to-female transgender woman. Open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 heterosexually identified men who reported at least one sexual encounter with a male and\\/or a transwoman in the
Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Petrocelli, John V; Bancroft, John
The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and homosexual men. Measures included genital, electrodermal, startle eyeblink, and cardiovascular responses, and stimuli included threatening (depicting coercive sexual interactions) and nonthreatening (depicting consensual sexual interactions) sexual film excerpts. Sexual risk taking was hypothesized to be associated with decreased inhibition of sexual arousal and hyporeactive affective and autonomic responses to threatening sexual stimuli. Controlling for age and number of sexual partners in the past year, sexual risk taking (number of partners during the past 3 years with whom no condoms were used) was found to be associated with stronger genital responses and smaller eyeblink responses to both threatening and nonthreatening sexual stimuli. Correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal were relatively low. Sexual risk taking was related to sensation seeking but not to the propensity for sexual inhibition. The findings suggest that risky sexual behavior may involve a role for psychophysiological mechanisms that are specific to sex as well as for ones that are associated with more general approach/avoidance response tendencies. PMID:19030978
Gregory M. Herek; John P. Capitanio
Although the direction and intensity of Black heterosexuals’ attitudes toward homosexuality have been topics for considerable speculation, empirical data from representative samples previously have not been available. In the current article we report findings from a two?wave telephone survey with a national probability sample of 391 Black heterosexual adults. Results indicated that negative attitudes toward homosexuality are widespread but do
Turner, Alezandria K; Jones, Kandice C; Rudolph, Abby; Rivera, Alexis V; Crawford, Natalie; Lewis, Crystal Fuller
Physical victimization has been linked to high-risk sexual partnerships in women. Although illicit drug-using heterosexual men are at high-risk of physical victimization, the association between violence and high-risk partners in heterosexual men has received little attention in the published literature. We examined the association between experience of severe physical victimization and acquisition of a high-risk sexual partner (i.e., a partner who injected drugs or participated in transactional sex) 1 year later among illicit drug-using men in New York City (2006-2009) using secondary cross-sectional data. Injection and non-injection drug-using men (n?=?280) provided a retrospectively recalled history of risk behavior and violence for each year over the past 4 years. Our primary outcome was acquisition of a high-risk sexual partner in any year following the baseline year. Our primary exposure was severe physical victimization (i.e., threatened with a knife or gun, beaten up, shot, or stabbed) in the prior year. Frequency of cocaine, heroin, and crack use and sexual victimization were also assessed. Log-binomial logistic regression with generalized estimating equation (GEE) methods was used to account for repeated measures for up to four time points. After adjustment for important covariates, participants that experienced physical victimization were significantly more likely to have acquired a high-risk sexual partner 1 year later (relative risk (RR), 3.73; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.55-8.97). Our study challenges gender-based stereotypes surrounding physical victimization and provides support for multidisciplinary programs that address both violence and HIV risk among illicit drug-using heterosexual men. PMID:25256949
Golom, Frank D; Mohr, Jonathan J
Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male-male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students were assigned to either a male-male or male-female erotica condition, and their corresponding attitudes toward gay men were assessed. Results revealed that the effect of erotic imagery (male-male vs. male-female) on participants' stereotype and affect scores differed for men and women at varying levels of sexual anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature on exposure to erotic imagery and attitudes toward gay men. In particular, the study highlights the need for additional research that acknowledges within-gender heterogeneity with respect to antigay attitude valence, extremity, and function. PMID:21253924
Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Frederick, David; Harari, Lexi; Grov, Christian
Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185) completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people’s friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender. PMID:26087008
Evans, J L
This article examines the ways in which men have an impact on the lives of young children and illustrates how educating men about the needs of children and getting them more involved in the programming process can strengthen programs for young children. Strategies to increase men's awareness about young children are offered. A review of the published studies on the ways in which fathers are directly involved with their families and the ways fathers contribute to the family materially shows that fathers can use appropriate interactions to positively affect their children's development. For example, the level and type of involvement that a father has with his child can affect the child's scores on intelligence tests and school behavior. However, a crosscultural study has shown that four-year-olds spend very little time alone with their fathers. In many parts of the world, fathers are entirely absent from the household. The relationship between fathers and mothers can also affect the father-child relationship. While men contribute to the material well-being of families, women do so also and allocate their funds to meet the needs of the children. The role of women must be considered when programs are designed to expand the involvement of fathers or others in a child's life. The role that men play in their children's lives is affected by changes in men's ability to give their family economic support, by changes in women's ability to provide economic support, by society's changing expectations, and by men's desire to change their roles. The impact that men can have on children as teachers, healers, community leaders, religious leaders, and policymakers is also shown to be significant. Strategies to increase the involvement of men with children include 1) expanding the understanding of men in power of the importance of the early years, 2) working with men on direct parenting skills, 3) providing men with child development and parenting information, 4) providing appropriate role models, 5) supporting men in their fathering role, and 6) improving the economic environment. A series of recommended questions for consideration in the situational analysis process which can lead to policy and programming efforts to increase and improve the involvement of men ends this article. PMID:12290119
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has several deleterious effects on health and well-being, including increased risk for rape in adulthood. Such revictimization experiences are linked to negative mental health outcomes. The vast majority of literature on prevalence and impact of sexual revictimization has focused on heterosexual women. In an effort to…
Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.
In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…
Carvalheira, Ana; Træen, Bente; Stulhofer, Aleksandar
The relation between masturbation and sexual desire has not been systematically studied. The present study assessed the association between masturbation and pornography use and the predictors and correlates of frequent masturbation (several times a week or more often) among coupled heterosexual men who reported decreased sexual desire. Analyses were carried out on a subset of 596 men with decreased sexual desire (mean age = 40.2 years) who were recruited as part of a large online study on male sexual health in 3 European countries. A majority of the participants (67%) reported masturbating at least once a week. Among men who masturbated frequently, 70% used pornography at least once a week. A multivariate assessment showed that sexual boredom, frequent pornography use, and low relationship intimacy significantly increased the odds of reporting frequent masturbation among coupled men with decreased sexual desire. These findings point to a pattern of pornography-related masturbation that can be dissociated from partnered sexual desire and can fulfill diverse purposes. Clinical implications include the importance of exploring specific patterns of masturbation and pornography use in the evaluation of coupled men with decreased sexual desire. PMID:25189834
Wolfers, Mireille EG; van den Hoek, Caty; Brug, Johannes; de Zwart, Onno
Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS), the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Methods First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives") and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. Results This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. Conclusion This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using Intervention Mapping is feasible in the daily practice of the MPHS, provided that sufficient time and expertise on this approach is available. Further research should test the effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:17615052
Christerson, Linus; Bom, Reinier J M; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Yass, Resha; Hardick, Justin; Bratt, Göran; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Morré, Servaas A; Herrmann, Björn
High-resolution genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis improves the characterization of strains infecting different patient groups and sexual networks. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ompA sequence determination were used for an analysis of C. trachomatis strains from 203 men who have sex with men (MSM) from Sweden, the Netherlands, and the United States. The results obtained were compared with data from 153 heterosexual women from Sweden and the Netherlands. The overlap in MLST/ompA profiles between MSM from Sweden and the Netherlands was 68%, while the overlap between heterosexual populations from these countries was only 18%. The distribution of genotypes in MSM from the United States was less similar to that in MSM from the European countries, with 45% and 46% overlaps for MSM in Sweden and the Netherlands, respectively. Minimum-spanning-tree analysis of MLST/ompA sequence types identified two large clusters that contained almost exclusively samples from MSM and comprised 74% of all MSM samples. Three other clusters were predominated by samples from women but also contained MSM specimens. Of 19 detected variants of the MLST target CT144, three variants were highly associated with MSM. Our study supports the hypotheses of both tissue tropism as well as epidemiological network structures as explanations for the linkage between specific genetic variants and sexual orientation. PMID:22915612
Reback, Cathy J; Kaplan, Rachel L; Larkins, Sherry
This study employed qualitative methods to understand better the disclosure practices of men with their male and female sexual partners. Open-ended, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 heterosexually identified men who reported at least one sexual encounter with a male in the previous year but not more than one sexual encounter with a male per month. Fifty-eight percent of the participants were HIV infected. Most HIV-infected participants reported disclosure of their HIV serostatus to their female sexual partners but did not disclose that they engaged in occasional sexual encounters with a male partner. Disclosure of HIV serostatus to male sexual partners was minimal and inconsistent. PMID:26010314
Samson, Lelia; Janssen, Erick
Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexual men experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexual men experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24473940
E. Sandra Byers; Guy Grenier
This study investigated the relationship between men's and their female partner's perceptions of men's ejaculatory behavior as well as the impact of premature or rapid ejaculation on couple functioning. One hundred fifty-two men and their female partners provided information about the man's ejaculatory behavior, their perceptions of whether the man had a problem with premature or rapid ejaculation (RE), their
Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Pellizzari, Elena
A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts) from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis. PMID:23227237
Sanders, Stephanie A.; Hill, Brandon J.; Crosby, Richard A.; Janssen, Erick
Questionnaire data from 479 heterosexual men 18–24 years old were analyzed for correlates of CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and CAEP during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI). Potential correlates were self-efficacy (condom application, product selection, and maintaining arousal), condom perceptions (condom worry/distraction, negative condom perceptions, concerns about application speed), condom fit, and motivation to use condoms. We conclude that 1) experiencing CAEP may become a repeating cycle, both affecting and being affected by, worry and distraction related to losing erections and maintaining arousal while using a condom, 2) poorly fitting condoms may contribute to CAEP, and 3) CAEP may decrease motivation to use condoms. PMID:23404098
Fernando Luiz Cardoso
This research used interview and questionnaire data from homosexual (n = 177), bisexual (n = 157), and heterosexual (n = 544) men between 20 and 30 years of age among lower class men and university students in three countries: Brazil, Thailand,\\u000a and Turkey. The main goal of the study was to examine the recalled childhood sex-typed behavior and adult sports preferences\\u000a that distinguish homosexuals from bisexuals and
Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; Ewing, Brett
Sexual concurrency poses significant HIV/STI transmission risk. The correlates of concurrency have not been examined among homeless men. A representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles reported on their mental health, substance use, and social network characteristics. Nearly 40% of men reported concurrency with one of their four most recent sex partners. Results indicated that HIV seropositivity (OR = 4.39, CI: 1.10, 17.46; p = 0.04), PTSD (OR = 2.29, CI: 1.05, 5.01; p = 0.04), hard drug use (OR = 2.45, CI: 1.07, 5.58; p = 0.03), and the perception that network alters engage in risky sex (OR = 3.72, CI: 1.49, 9.30; p = 0.01) were associated with increased odds of concurrency. Programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission in this vulnerable population must take into account the roles that behavioral health and social networks may play in sexual concurrency. PMID:22001933
Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759
... news/fullstory_153274.html Many More Women Than Men Living to 100 But male centenarians have fewer ... 25, 2015 THURSDAY, June 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Men are less likely than women to reach 100, ...
Kusagawa, Shigeru; Yokota, Yuko; Negishi, Masayoshi; Kondo, Makiko; Matano, Tetsuro; Kato, Shingo
We report here an HIV-1 recombinant composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B, with a total of eight recombination breakpoints in the gag-pol and vpr-tat regions. This recombinant was identified from a Myanmarese heterosexual male in Japan and showed the chimera structure identical to recently reported CRF69_01B, detected primarily among men who have sex with men in Japan. PMID:26021911
Kogan, Lori R.; Kellaway, Julie A.
The relationship advice columns for two popular magazines (one targeted to female and the other to male readers) were discussed within the conceptual frameworks of centerfold syndrome and appearance obsession. Centerfold syndrome is a theory that describes the way men view women and sexuality. The female counterpart is appearance obsession which…
DiClemente, Ralph J.; Charnigo, Richard; Snow, Gregory; Troutman, Adewale
Objective. We evaluated the efficacy of a brief, clinic-based, safer sex program administered by a lay health adviser for young heterosexual African American men newly diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Methods. Subsequent to STD diagnosis, eligible men (N = 266; aged 18–29 years) were randomized to either a personalized, single-session intervention (delivered by a lay health adviser) or standard of care. We conducted behavioral assessments at baseline and 3 months postintervention (retention was 74.1%). We also conducted a 6-month clinic record review. Results. Compared to men randomized to the control condition, those receiving the intervention were significantly less likely to acquire subsequent STDs (50.4% vs 31.9%; P = .002) and more likely to report using condoms during last sexual intercourse (72.4% vs 53.9%; P = .008). They also reported fewer sexual partners (mean 2.06 vs 4.15; P < .001) and fewer acts of unprotected sex (mean 12.3 vs 29.4; P = .045). Based on a 9-point rating scale, men in the intervention group had higher proficiency scores for condom application skills (mean difference = 3.17; P < .001). Conclusion. A brief clinic-based intervention delivered by a lay health adviser may be an efficacious strategy to reduce incident STDs among young heterosexual African American men. PMID:19218185
Simoni, Jane M.; Walters, Karina L.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Meyers, Seth B.
Objectives.secondary aims included describing condom-use attitudes, beliefs about HIV/AIDS in the Indian community, HIV knowledge, HIV status, and preference for and access to HIV prevention services in this population. Methods. A survey was mailed to all members of an American Indian community organization in New York City. Results. The 20 men self-identifying as gay, two-spirit, or bisexual (hereafter, “two-spirit”) were more likely to report being victimized and engaging in HIV risk behaviors than the 51 heterosexual respondents, although they reported comparable levels of recent substance use. Overall, victimization was associated with lifetime HIV risk behaviors (even after control for sexual orientation) but not with substance use or unsafe sex in the past 12 months. The percentage of HIV infection was surprisingly high (10% of two-spirit men and 6% of heterosexual men). Conclusions. Two-spirit men are a vulnerable population whose victimization must be understood within an appropriate historical and political context. PMID:16670237
Icard, Larry D; Jemmott, John B; Teitelman, Anne; O'Leary, Ann; Heeren, G Anita
HIV/AIDS prevalence in South Africa is one of the highest in the world with heterosexual, transmission predominantly promoting the epidemic. The goal of this study is to examine whether, marijuana use and problem drinking mediate the relationship between histories of childhood sexual, abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual men. Participants were 1181 Black men aged, 18-45 from randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Audio computer assisted, self-interviewing was used to assess self-reported childhood sexual abuse, problem drinking, and marijuana (dagga) use, and HIV sexual transmission behavior with steady and casual partners. Data were analyzed using multiple meditational modeling. There was more support for problem, drinking than marijuana use as a mediator. Findings suggest that problem drinking and marijuana use, mediate HIV sexual risk behaviors in men with histories of CSA. Focusing on men with histories of CSA, and their use of marijuana and alcohol may be particularly useful for designing strategies to reduce, HIV sexual transmission in South Africa. PMID:24041455
Schumm, Walter R; Akagi, Cynthia A; Bosch, Kathy R
A modified version of the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale was administered to 239 women who belonged to 8 different faith communities in Topeka, Kansas in 2001. 12 members of a Metropolitan (gay and lesbian) church identified themselves as lesbians. Lesbian respondents reported significantly higher relationship satisfaction scores than heterosexual women (Cohen's d = 0.69). Controlling for number of children and social desirability reduced the regression coefficient for sexual orientation to a statistically nonsignificant level. Using a matched sample of 12 heterosexual women compared with the lesbians yielded a nonsignificant result (ES = 0.31). Nevertheless, although not statistically significant, comparisons between lesbians and heterosexual women continued to feature effect sizes that represented higher satisfaction for lesbians with no children or with only one child when compared to heterosexual women with no children or only one child. It is apparent that methodology made a difference in the results obtained in this comparative study of lesbian and heterosexual relationships. It was also observed, among members of churches other than the Metropolitan church, that relationship satisfaction was significantly lower (d = 0.22) among females than males, including among wives compared to husbands; significant linear and cubic relationships between a single-item measure of relationship social desirability and relationship satisfaction were also observed. PMID:18567207
Williams, Mark; Bowen, Anne; Atkinson, John S; Nilsson-Schönnesson, Lena; Diamond, Pamela M; Ross, Michael W; Pallonen, Unto E
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of brief group interventions, the positive choices intervention (PCI) and a standard intervention (SI), to increase condom use and intention to use condoms and to change condom use attitudes and beliefs. The design of the study was a randomized comparative trial. Participants were 347 heterosexual African American crack cocaine users living with HIV infection. Data were collected at intake and at three and nine months after intake. Behavioral and sociocognitive data were collected. Although both brief interventions achieved positive results, there were significant differences in outcomes between the interventions groups. The mean number of sex partners was significantly lower in the PCI group at three months. The proportion of those assigned to the PCI reporting sex with a paid partner significantly decreased, while the proportion disclosing their serostatus to their partners increased. There were no significant differences on these measures in the SI group. Significant time effects were found on measures of condom use, condom use attitudes, and self-efficacy beliefs. These measures significantly increased from intake to one month for both groups. One significant time-by-group effect was found. The measure of situational self-efficacy significantly increased in the PCI group, but not the SI group. Results also showed significant time-by-time effects. Mean condom use, intention to use condoms, attitudes, and condom use self-efficacy beliefs showed significant difference between three and nine months. However, there was no clear pattern of change. Findings suggest that brief group interventions designed to reduce HIV can help heterosexual drug users living with HIV infection increase condom use and intention to use condoms and change condom use attitudes and beliefs. A significant time-by-group effect was observed only for situational self-efficacy, suggesting limited additional efficacy of the PCI intervention. Given similar positive findings between groups, more research is needed to determine which components of brief interventions produce changes in motivations and risk behaviors. PMID:21780981
Robert L. Spitzer
Position statements of the major mental health organizations in the United States state that there is no scientific evidence that a homosexual sexual orientation can be changed by psychotherapy, often referred to as “reparative therapy.” This study tested the hypothesis that some individuals whose sexual orientation is predominantly homosexual can, with some form of reparative therapy, become predominantly heterosexual. The
Jeffries, William L; Townsend, Ebony Symone; Gelaude, Deborah J; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Gasiorowicz, Mari; Bertolli, Jeanne
Stigma can compromise the health of persons living with HIV. Although HIV is increasingly affecting young men who have sex with men (MSM), little is known about their experiences with HIV stigma. We used narrative data to examine HIV stigma experienced by young MSM living with HIV. Data came from 28 qualitative interviews with young MSM. We used inductive content analysis to identify themes across these interviews. Participants commonly discussed negative perceptions and treatment of persons living with HIV. Stigma could result in nondisclosure of HIV status, internalized stigma, and avoidance of HIV-related things. Some men discussed strategies that might combat stigma. Findings suggest that HIV stigma might challenge young MSM's health by undermining health-conducive resources (e.g., social support) and contributing to HIV vulnerability. Interventions that counteract HIV stigma may help to create environments that promote well-being among young MSM living with HIV. PMID:25646730
Effectiveness of Respondent-Driven Sampling to Recruit High Risk Heterosexual Men Who Have Multiple Female Sexual Partners: Differences in HIV Prevalence and Sexual Risk Behaviours Measured at Two Time Points
Loraine Townsend; Lisa G. Johnston; Alan J. Flisher; Catherine Mathews; Yanga Zembe
Regular HIV bio-behavioural surveillance surveys (BBSS) among high risk heterosexual (HRH) men who have multiple female sexual\\u000a partners is needed to monitor HIV prevalence and risk behaviour trends, and to improve the provision and assessment of HIV\\u000a prevention strategies for this population. In 2006 and 2008 we used respondent-driven sampling to recruit HRH men and examine\\u000a differences in HIV prevalence
Marie E. Tomeo; Donald I. Templer; Susan Anderson; Debra Kotler
In research with 942 nonclinical adult participants, gay men and lesbian women reported a significantly higher rate of childhood molestation than did heterosexual men and women. Forty-six percent of the homosexual men in contrast to 7% of the heterosexual men reported homosexual molestation. Twenty-two percent of lesbian women in contrast to 1% of heterosexual women reported homosexual molestation. This research
Moji Anderson; Gillian Elam; Sarah Gerver; Ijeoma Solarin; Kevin Fenton; Phillippa Easterbrook
Accounts by 10 Caribbean men who have sex with men living in the UK reveal them to be liminal beings with unstable and unresolved identities. They are between social states: aware they are not heterosexual and not publicly recognised, or in some cases self?accepted, as homosexual. Caribbean?born respondents especially suffer from homophobia, expressing regret and disappointment at their sexuality. They
Gandra, Sumanth; Azar, Aline; Wessolossky, Mireya
Background Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM) and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+) among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women). Methods A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013. Results Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48%) of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28%) of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34%) of women. Among 117 (53%) individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above), 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM). HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49) and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=?0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09). Conclusion Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM. PMID:25670914
Mark Williams; Anne Bowen; John S. Atkinson; Lena Nilsson-Schönnesson; Pamela M. Diamond; Michael W. Ross; Unto E. Pallonen
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of brief group interventions, the positive choices intervention (PCI) and a standard intervention (SI), to increase condom use and intention to use condoms and to change condom use attitudes and beliefs. The design of the study was a randomized comparative trial. Participants were 347 heterosexual African American crack cocaine users
Mark Williams; Anne Bowen; John S. Atkinson; Lena Nilsson-Schönnesson; Pamela M. Diamond; Michael W. Ross; Unto E. Pallonen
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of brief group interventions, the positive choices intervention (PCI) and a standard intervention (SI), to increase condom use and intention to use condoms and to change condom use attitudes and beliefs. The design of the study was a randomized comparative trial. Participants were 347 heterosexual African American crack cocaine users
Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Kirshenbaum, Sheri B.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Remien, Robert H.; Morin, Stephen F.
The NIMH Healthy Living Project (HLP), a randomized behavioral intervention trial for people living with HIV, enrolled 943 individuals, including women, heterosexual men, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men from Los Angeles, Milwaukee, New York, and San Francisco. The intervention, which is based on qualitative formative research…
Snowden, Robert J; Wichter, Jan; Gray, Nicola S
The present study examined how well implicit measures were able to predict sexual orientation. Most previous research in the sexual orientation domain has been dependent upon self-report, which requires explicit, conscious awareness of sexual orientation and/or erotic preferences. On the other hand, implicit measurements are thought to be able to reflect immediate automatic reactions that may not be available to introspection. A total of 50 heterosexual and 25 homosexual men completed two implicit measures: the Implicit Association Task (IAT) and the Priming Task (PT). Sexual orientation was determined by self-report. In the PT, participants classified words as either sexually attractive or unattractive. Each word was preceded by a "prime" that was a picture of either a male or a female. The IAT consisted of classifying these same words as sexually attractive or unattractive, and classifying the pictures as either male or female. Both the IAT and the PT had very good ability to predict sexual orientation with Area Under the Curves (AUC) of 0.97 and 0.86, respectively. Unlike many other reports of implicit measures of behavior, the IAT and the PT correlated strongly with each other, and also with the explicit measurements of sexual orientation. It was concluded that these implicit measures can provide a valuable tool for research into sexual orientation and erotic preference that can complement existing measures, such as self-report questionnaires and physiological changes in sexual arousal in response to erotic stimuli. PMID:17333326
Martinez, Omar; Roth, Alexis M.; Kelle, Guadalupe; Downs, Mario; Rhodes, Scott D.
Over the past decade, the midwestern United States has witnessed a dramatic increase in its Latino population. The lack of culturally and linguistically congruent resources coupled with high incidence and prevalence rates of HIV among Latinos living in the Midwest merits attention. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) is a community-level social network intervention designed for Latino men. We describe the adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS for Latino men living in Indianapolis, Indiana, the second largest city in the Midwest. Five Navegantes (lay health educators) were trained; they provided a total of 34 educational charlas (small group didactic sessions). A total of 270 Latino men attended the charlas and were offered no-cost screening for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). Three participants tested HIV positive and 15 screened positive for STI. The charlas coupled with the testing initiative, served as a successful method to increase sexual health knowledge among Latino men and to link newly-diagnosed HIV/STI-positive individuals to treatment and care. The adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS respond to the CDC and NIH call to increase HIV testing and service provision among vulnerable populations. PMID:24450279
Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut
Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli. PMID:20814814
Letitia Anne Peplau; David A. Frederick; Curtis Yee; Natalya Maisel; Janet Lever; Negin Ghavami
Does the prevalence and degree of body dissatis- faction differ among heterosexual and homosexual men and women? Some theorists have suggested that, compared to their heterosexual peers, gay men are at greater risk for body dis- satisfaction and lesbians at lower risk. Past studies examining this issue have generally relied on small samples recruited from gay or lesbian groups. Further,
Therese Delvaux; Christiana Nostlingerb
From a policy and programmatic point of view, this paper reviews the literature on the fertility-related needs of women and men living with HIV and how the entry points represented by family planning, sexually transmitted infection and HIV-related services can ensure access to contraception, abortion and fertility services for women and men living with HIV. Most contraceptive methods are safe
Jackie Gilfoyle; Jonathan Wilson; Br Own
This article examines talk about sex and heterosexual relationships, based on a study of 12 women and 13 men who participated in semi-structured interviews, in order to identify the `discourses' of sexuality which inform talk about heterosexual sex. One theme in talk about heterosexuality can be understood through the `pseudo-reciprocal gift discourse': women are described as `giving' themselves to men,
Lyons, Minna; Lynch, Aoife; Brewer, Gayle; Bruno, Davide
Although there has been considerable research investigating the ability to identify sexual orientation from static images, or "gaydar," few studies have considered the role of female sexual orientation or sexual interest (for example, sociosexual orientation) in judgment accuracy. In two studies, we investigated the sexuality detection ability, and masculinity and femininity as cues used in judgment. In Study 1, we recruited heterosexual (N = 55) and homosexual (N = 71) women to rate the sexual orientation of homosexual and heterosexual male and female targets (N = 80: 20 heterosexual men, 20 homosexual men, 20 heterosexual women, and 20 homosexual women). We found that detection accuracy was better than chance levels for both male and female targets and that male targets were more likely to be falsely labeled as homosexual than female targets were. Overall, female faces were more accurately identified as heterosexual or homosexual than male faces and homosexual female raters were biased towards labeling targets as homosexual. Sociosexuality did not influence the accuracy with which targets were identified as heterosexual or homosexual. In Study 2, 100 heterosexual and 20 homosexual women rated the stimulus for masculinity and femininity. Heterosexual women were rated as more feminine and less masculine than homosexual women and homosexual men were rated as more feminine and less masculine than heterosexual men. Sexual orientation of the judges did not affect the ratings. The results were discussed with a reference to evolutionary and cultural influences affecting sexual orientation judgment accuracy. PMID:23813041
Strohm, Charles Q.; Seltzer, Judith A.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.
We use two surveys to describe the demographic and attitudinal correlates of being in “Living Apart Together” (LAT), cohabiting, and marital relationships for heterosexuals, lesbians, and gay men. About one third of U.S. adults not married or cohabiting are in LAT relationships – these individuals would be classified as “single” in conventional studies that focus on co-residential unions. Gay men are somewhat more likely than heterosexual men to be in LAT relationships. For heterosexuals and lesbians, LAT relationships are more common among younger people. Heterosexuals in LAT unions are less likely to expect to marry their partners, but more likely to say that couples should be emotionally dependent than are cohabiters. Regardless of sexual orientation, people in LAT relationships perceive similar amounts of emotional support from partners, but less instrumental support than cohabiters perceive. PMID:21566723
... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Men Historically, men have not been comfortable discussing issues ... and sexual dysfunction with your healthcare team. Explore: Men Men’s Health Month Fear of receiving bad news ...
Mueller, John A.; Cole, Jennifer C.
The purpose of this study was to explore how heterosexual college students understand and make meaning of their life experiences and how they incorporate those into their sexual orientation consciousness. We interviewed 14 undergraduate and graduate self-identified heterosexual students, ten women and four men, ranging in age from 20 to 24.…
Mallinson, R K
The gay male communities of the United States have experienced the most AIDS-related deaths over the longest period of time. The burden of grief for these men is unique and largely unaddressed in nursing research and practice. This phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of six HIV-negative gay men with AIDS-related multiple losses. The analysis of the interview data uncovered rich descriptions of the men's lives as uninfected gay males in the midst of an ongoing epidemic. The two overall themes that emerged from the narratives were the meaning of multiple losses and the management of the losses. The effects of AIDS-related losses permeated the lives of these men, resulting in significant emotional, psychological, physical, and spiritual challenges. Concerns for health promotion and disease prevention, and implications for nursing practice, research, and education are offered. PMID:10491801
Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996
A 21-year longitudinal study (1955-1976) was conducted on the educational and professional careers of men who specialized in engineering in Ontario, Canada. Data was collected from schools, universities, employers, and the subjects themselves. In 1956, 683 males and no females enrolled in university engineering courses. In general, the engineering…
Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Johnson, Brianne N.; Wawrzynski, Matthew R.
This qualitative study explored how male undergraduate students experienced living-learning community environments. Findings revealed that living-learning communities provided men a "safe haven" from rigid gender role expectations, offered a plethora of involvement opportunities, and fostered relationships with faculty and peers. The findings…
Claude Crépault; Marcel Couture
Ninety-four men were interviewed about their erotic fantasies. The majority of these men were married and the average duration of cohabitation with a woman was 6.5 years. All admitted to having had erotic fantasies outside their sexual activity and a large majority among them fantasized, at least occasionally, during heterosexual activity and masturbation. The contents during heterosexual activity center on
Abbie E. Goldberg
Little research has explored the child gender preferences of preadoptive parents. This study utilized a mixed-methods approach\\u000a to explore child gender preferences (and individuals’ reasons for such preferences) in a geographically diverse, US sample\\u000a of 93 heterosexual, 61 lesbian, and 48 gay male preadoptive couples. Heterosexual men were the least likely to demonstrate\\u000a a gender preference and gay men were
Letitia Anne Peplau; David A. Frederick; Curtis Yee; Natalya Maisel; Janet Lever; Negin Ghavami
Does the prevalence and degree of body dissatisfaction differ among heterosexual and homosexual men and women? Some theorists\\u000a have suggested that, compared to their heterosexual peers, gay men are at greater risk for body dissatisfaction and lesbians\\u000a at lower risk. Past studies examining this issue have generally relied on small samples recruited from gay or lesbian groups.\\u000a Further, these studies
Delvaux, Thérèse; Nöstlinger, Christiana
From a policy and programmatic point of view, this paper reviews the literature on the fertility-related needs of women and men living with HIV and how the entry points represented by family planning, sexually transmitted infection and HIV-related services can ensure access to contraception, abortion and fertility services for women and men living with HIV. Most contraceptive methods are safe and effective for HIV positive women and men. The existing range of contraceptive options should be available to people living with HIV, along with more information about and access to emergency contraception. Potential drug interaction must be considered between hormonal contraception and treatment for tuberculosis and certain antiretroviral drugs. Couples living with HIV who wish to use a permanent contraceptive method should have access to female sterilisation and vasectomy in an informed manner, free of coercion. How to promote condoms and dual protection and how to make them acceptable in long term-relationships remains a challenge. Both surgical and medical abortion are safe for women living with HIV. To reduce risk of vertical transmission of HIV and in cases of infertility, people with HIV should have access to sperm washing and other assisted conception methods, if these are available. Simple and cost-effective procedures to reduce risk of vertical transmission should be part of counselling for women and men living with HIV who intend to have children. Support for the reproductive rights of people with HIV is a priority. More operations research on best practices is needed. PMID:17531748
Fekete, Erin M.; Antoni, Michael H.; Lopez, Corina R.; Durán, Ron E.; Penedo, Frank J.; Bandiera, Frank C.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil
Background Directly disclosing a positive HIV serostatus to family members can affect psychological and disease status. Perceptions that one is in a supportive family environment may moderate these effects; however, ethnic differences may exist in the support processes of families coping with HIV. Methods We examined the role of serostatus disclosure to parents, HIV-specific family support, and ethnicity (Latino versus non-Hispanic White) in explaining disease status (HIV Viral Load, CD4+ cell count) in a sample of men living with HIV (MLWH). Men (n = 120) reported whether they had disclosed their serostatus to their mothers and fathers, rated their perceptions of HIV-specific social support received from family members, and provided morning peripheral venous blood samples to assess immune function. We also collected psychosocial and urinary neuroendocrine indicators of stress/distress as possible mediator variables. Results A three-way interaction emerged between serostatus disclosure to mothers, HIV-specific family support, and ethnicity in explaining both viral load and CD4+ cell count. Non-Hispanic White men who had disclosed to mothers and were receiving high family support had a lower viral load and higher CD4+ cell count, but Latino men who had disclosed to mothers and were receiving low family support had a higher viral load. These associations were not accounted for by men's medication adherence, psychological distress, or neuroendocrine hormones. Disclosure to fathers was not related to disease status. Conclusions The effects of serostatus disclosure on disease status may depend, in part, on ethnic differences in the interpersonal processes of men's close family relationships. PMID:19486655
Schrimshaw, Eric W; Downing, Martin J; Cohn, Daniel J; Siegel, Karolynn
Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory, we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private, and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: (1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else's, (2) others had no reason to know, (3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal, (4) they were private people in general and (5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health-promotion services for this population. PMID:24597480
Ross, M W
Three matched groups of predominantly homosexual men were compared using Weinberg and Williams' questionnaire. Two of the groups contained men who were currently heterosexually married and men who had been heterosexually married; the third group was unmarried controls. Reasons for marriage were reviewed and found to be a combination of situational factors and, to a greater extent, of the expectations of those men who married of a more negative societal reaction against homosexuality. Implications of these findings for therapy are briefly discussed. PMID:490665
This paper describes challenges that men living with HIV experience in negotiating condom use with sexual partners. After testing HIV-positive, the men in this study attended support groups of people living with HIV. Here they were taught to behave 'responsibly' by adopting safer sex measures. However, some men faced strong resistance from women concerning condom use, particularly from women with whom they had been sexually involved prior to testing HIV-positive. This paper explores the reasoning behind the rejection of condoms by women, focusing specifically on the nature of relationships, disclosure of HIV status and gender power dynamics. Analysis of the findings, which are taken from an ethnographic study conducted over 14 months, indicates that efforts to initiate condom use allowed women to challenge men's authority in sexual affairs and assert their own (limited) agency - albeit by demanding unprotected sex. However, women's rejection of condoms occurred in a knowledge vacuum about their own HIV risk because male partners had failed to disclose their HIV status prior to initiating condoms. Interventions need to encourage men to disclose their HIV status before they initiate condom use with their sexual partners. Furthermore men need to encourage their partners to be open about their sexual needs. PMID:23043556
Bourne, Paul Andrew
Background: An extensive search of the literature found no studies that have examined functional capacity [Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities for Daily Living (I) ADL)] of Jamaican older men as well as factors that determine their functional capacity. Aims: The current study examines 1) ADL, 2) (I) ADL), 3) self-reported health status, 4) functional capacity, and 5) factors that determine functional capacity of older men. Methods and Method: Stratified multistage probability sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 2,000 55+ year men. A132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics provide background information on the sample, cross tabulations were used to examine non-metric variables and logistic regression provides a model of predictors of functional capacity. Result: Fifty-five percent of sample indicated good current health status. Four percent was mostly satisfied with life; 21.7% had moderate dependence; 77.1% had high dependence (i.e. independence); 1.2% had low dependence; 21.9% were ages 75 years and older; 35.6% were ages 65 to 74 years and 42.6% reported ages 55 to 64 years. Functional capacity can be determined by church attendance (?=0.245; 95% CI: 0.264, 1.291); social support (?=0.129; 95% CI: 0.129, 0.258), area of residence (?=-0.060; 95% CI: -0.427, -0.061) and lastly by age of respondents. Conclusion: Ageing in explains deterioration in their (I) ADL, suggesting the challenges of ageing men's independence. More rural men were rarely satisfied with life; but more of them had a greater functional capacity than urban men. Depression was found to negatively relate to functional capacity, and church attendees had a greater functional status than non-attendees. PMID:22666693
Poulain, Michel; Pes, Gianni; Salaris, Luisa
Usually women live longer than men and female centenarians largely outnumber male centenarians. The findings of previous studies identifying a population with a femininity ratio close to 1.0 among centenarians in the mountainous region of Sardinia was the starting point of an in-depth investigation in order to compare mortality trajectories between men and women in that population. The exceptional survival of men compared to women emerges from the comparison with similar Italian data. Age exaggeration for men has been strictly excluded as a result of the age validation procedure. The discussion suggests that besides biological/genetic factors, the behavioral factors including life style, demographic behavior, family support, and community characteristics may play an important role. No single explanation is likely to account for such an exceptional situation and a fully integrated multidisciplinary approach is urgently needed. PMID:22132327
Maisto, Stephen A.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Gordon, Christopher M.; Schum, Jennifer L.; Lynch, Kevin G.
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of alcohol, alcohol sex expectancies, and sexual sensation seeking on determinants of sexual health behavior according to the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model. The participants were 48 heterosexual young adult males who attended two laboratory sessions. During Session 1, participants completed a set of screening and individual differences measures, and during Session 2 they were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 beverage conditions: control, alcohol (.65 g alcohol/kg body weight), or placebo. Following the experimental manipulation, all participants completed measures regarding attitudes toward condom use, intention to engage in risky sex, and condom use negotiation skills. The results showed that participants who consumed alcohol had poorer negotiation skills and greater intention to engage in risky sex compared to participants who did not drink alcohol. Although alcohol did not affect any dimension of attitude regarding condom use, attitude about condoms’ effects on sex, as well as sexual sensation seeking, were correlated with both intention ratings and skills. Multiple regression models including both attitudes and sensation seeking showed that attitudes accounted for 20% – 25% of variance independent of beverage condition in predicting intention ratings and skills. The findings are consistent with past research showing that alcohol consumption can have detrimental effects on determinants of sexual health behavior and that individual differences factors can enhance the power of models like the IMB to predict such behavior. PMID:15483371
Ray Blanchard; Anthony F. Bogaert
Homosexual men erotically attracted to physically mature partners typically have more older brothers than comparable heterosexual men. We investigated whether late fraternal birth positions also occur in homosexuals attracted to children or pubescents. Probands were 710 sex offenders from Gebhard et al.'s (1965) study of sexual offending. Homosexual offenders against adults and pubescents had later fraternal birth positions than heterosexual
Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory
Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions; (2) the continued importance of spirituality among YBMSM; (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches; (4) tension between being an MSM and Christian; (5) religion and spirituality’s impact on men’s sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities; and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive YBMSM may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017
Ray Blanchard; Leonard H. Clemmensen; Betty W. Steiner
This study investigated why more males than females complain of dissatisfaction with their anatomical sex (gender dysphoria). New referrals to a university gender identity clinic were dichotomously classified as heterosexual or homosexual. There were 73 heterosexual and 52 homosexual males; 1 heterosexual and 71 homosexual females. The average heterosexual male was 8 years older at inception than the homosexual groups.
Herrera, Sergio Lino
A feminist point of view is used in this study of gay men living in a small, collegiate community who use leisure travel as a negotiation strategy to achieve freedom of expression. Feminism is concerned with equality, empowerment, social change...
Nagi B. Kumar; Daohai Yu; Titilola O. Akinremi; Folakemi T. Odedina
Background Although African men may share a common genetic predisposition contributing to the higher incidence of prostate cancer (CaP),\\u000a the etiology of the variability in risk observed even among African men living in varying environments and cultures, highlights\\u000a the strong and evolving research regarding the contribution of behavioral factors that may modify these biological risk factors.\\u000a Objective Our aim was
Ronald, A R
HIV-1 is spreading rapidly through heterosexual intercourse in many societies. Slowing the transmission of this virus is the most urgent global public health priority. Our understanding of the biologic differences between societies that account for most vacancies in heterosexual HIV transmission are now understood. Effective interventions to slow transmission must be designed, implemented, and evaluated. Human and fiscal resources must be provided through a shared global effort. The consequences of failing to do so will lead to a world catastrophe of unprecedented magnitude. PMID:7673667
Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L
Researchers have noted a physical resemblance (homophily) between human sex partners. To date, these studies and their related interpretations have been based on heterosexual couples. The present study compared physical resemblances between gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples, using 40 photographs of each from national newspapers, which were rated by 34 men and 56 women (M age = 53 yr., SD = 12.1). Half the photographs were of actual couples and half were randomly mixed within each group. Actual couples were rated as significantly more similar in appearance than random pairings of people. Ratings of similarity were significantly higher (indicating greater perceived homophily) for gay couples than heterosexual couples, while there was no statistically significant difference in similarity ratings between lesbian couples versus gay and heterosexual couples. The results were interpreted in terms of evolutionary and parental imprinting hypotheses. PMID:21879614
Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.
Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…
Sondra E. Solomon; Esther D. Rothblum; Kimberly F. Balsam
This study compared 212 lesbians and 123 gay men who had civil unions in Vermont during the first year legislation made this available with 166 lesbians and 72 gay men in their friendship network who had not had civil unions, and also with 219 heterosexual married women and 193 heterosexual married men consisting of civil union couples' siblings and their
Ahonen, Pirkko S.
The purpose of this study was to examine, describe, and explain experiences of men with eating disorders and to gain understanding of the relevant life issues, perceptions, and attitudes. What are some of the contributing factors and experiences of men who suffer from eating disorders despite the widely held assumption that eating disorders are…
Taras, M E; Matson, J L; Felps, J N
Two groups of students with visual impairments were taught various independent living skills. Of the 7 students, 5 also had a diagnosis of mental retardation. One group (3 first graders) was taught the tasks of folding a shirt, making an emergency telephone call, and spreading soft foods with a knife. The other group (4 young men) was taught to increase leisure skills through three different leather-work tasks. Independence training was conducted in a group format and included social learning components (e.g., self-evaluation, peer evaluation and reinforcement) in addition to traditional operant procedures (e.g., modeling, prompting). However, because of the presence of visual impairments, a physical and verbal modification of modeling was used, whereby the subject was physically guided through the steps and simultaneously provided with a narration of the steps. A multiple baseline design across behaviors demonstrated the efficacy of the comprehensive training package in training various independent living skills to the two groups of visually impaired and mentally retarded students. Social validity measures demonstrated the clinical significance of the subsequent changes in behavioral skills. Follow-up data collected 10 months after the completion of training indicated a good degree of maintenance. The current positive results show that training procedures used exclusively with persons with mental retardation can be modified and be effective with a different and younger population, while targeting different independent living skills. PMID:8471011
Persson, Asha; Brown, Graham; McDonald, Ann; Körner, Henrike
In Australia, unlike much of the rest of the world, HIV transmission through heterosexual contact remains a relatively rare occurrence. In consequence, HIV-prevention efforts have been firmly focused on male-to-male sex as the most frequent source of HIV transmission. There are emerging signs that this epidemiological landscape may be shifting, which raises questions about current and future HIV prevention strategies. Over the past decade, national surveillance data have shown an increase in HIV notifications for which exposure to HIV was attributed to heterosexual contact. This paper offers an epidemiological and sociocultural picture of heterosexual HIV transmission in Australia. We outline recent trends in heterosexually acquired HIV and discuss specific factors that shape transmission and prevention among people at risk of HIV infection through heterosexual contact. To illustrate the contextual dynamics surrounding HIV in this diverse population, we detail two key examples: HIV among people from minority ethnic backgrounds in New South Wales; and overseas-acquired HIV among men in Western Australia. We argue that, despite their differences, there are significant commonalities across groups at risk of HIV infection through heterosexual contact, which not only provide opportunities for HIV prevention, but also call for a rethink of the dominant HIV response in Australia. PMID:24846487
Ray Blanchard; Robert Dickey
Previous studies have shown that homosexual men erotically attracted to physically mature partners (androphiles) reach puberty earlier, on average, than comparable heterosexual men. This study investigated whether the same early onset of puberty is observed in homosexual men attracted to children (pedophiles) or to pubescents (hebephiles). Subjects were 721 white, male, convicted sexual offenders, originally part of a large-scale study
Current sociobiological thought suggests that significant components of mate selection are based on indicators that correlate with the ability to produce and support offspring. Theorists have suggested that men tend to be attracted to and marry younger women, while women tend to be attracted to and marry older men. This behavior is referred to as age hypergamy. I complicate this picture by using gay men as a population in which to explore alternative components of mate selection as reflected in our behavior. Analyses of 120 dating advertisements from gay men and heterosexual men and women indicated that there exists a good measure of hypergamic age preference that is comparable to the heterosexual population and that relates to subjects' gender presentation. Data suggest that the biological-reproductive theory of age hypergamy is incomplete and support a cultural reproduction model of gender role behavior and preference in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. PMID:23179236
Pelling, Cate; Arvay-Buchanan, Marla
The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of women's attachment injuries within heterosexual couple relationships. An interpretative, phenomenological approach (van Manen, 1990) was used in this exploratory study. Four women participated in three separate research interviews in order to illuminate the phenomenon of "attachment…
Murnen, Sarah K; Poinsatte, Katherine; Huntsman, Karen; Goldfarb, Jesse; Glaser, Daniel
In the present study, heterosexual college women (N=327) and men (N=160) were asked about their body type preferences for (hypothetical) romantic partners. Participants chose a particular silhouette value as ideal for a romantic partner, and rated how important it was to them for their partner to have this ideal body type. Men placed more importance on the body silhouette they chose for a partner than women did, and men's importance ratings were positively associated with the rated sexual permissiveness of their peer group and their total media use. Consuming sports media and watching reality television were the best media predictors of men's judgments about women's bodies. Less variability was explained in women's preferences for men partners' bodies, but endorsing adversarial sexual attitudes was positively related to judging the ideals chosen for men's bodies as important. Results were interpreted within both evolutionary and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. PMID:25462878
Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Johnson, Joy L; Carey, Joanne
While men's gendered experiences of depression have been described, the perspectives of women partners who are affected by men's depression have received little attention. Women partners were recruited to explore how men's depression impacts them and its influence on gender regimes. Individual interviews with 29 women spouses were coded and analysed. Although idealized femininity positions women as endlessly patient and caring, our findings reveal significant challenges in attempting to fulfil these gender ideals in the context of living with a male partner who is experiencing depression. The strain and drain of living with a depressed man was a key element of women's experiences. Four sub-themes were identified: (1) resisting the emotional caregiver role, (2) shouldering family responsibilities, (3) connecting men to professional care and (4) preserving the feminine self. The findings suggest that men's depression has great potential to dislocate heterosexual gender regimes, and attention to gender relations should be included to ensure successful care management of men who experience depression. PMID:23426793
Mann, Lilli; Valera, Erik; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Barrington, Clare
Latino men in the Southeastern USA are disproportionately affected by HIV, but little is known about how the migration process influences HIV-related risk. In North Carolina, a relatively new immigrant destination, Latino men are predominantly young and from Mexico. We conducted 31 iterative life history interviews with 15 Mexican-born men living with HIV. We used holistic content narrative analysis methods to examine HIV vulnerability in the context of migration and to identify important turning points. Major themes included the prominence of traumatic early-life experiences, migration as an ongoing process rather than a finite event, and HIV diagnosis as a final turning point in migration trajectories. Findings provide a nuanced understanding of HIV vulnerability throughout the migration process and have implications including the need for bi-national HIV-prevention approaches, improved outreach around early testing and linkage to care, and attention to mental health. PMID:24866206
Mann, Lilli; Valera, Erik; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Barrington, Clare
Latino men in the Southeastern USA are disproportionately affected by HIV, but little is known about how the migration process influences HIV-related risk. In North Carolina (NC), a relatively new immigrant destination, Latino men are predominantly young and from Mexico. We conducted 31 iterative life history interviews with 15 Mexican-born men living with HIV. We used holistic content narrative analysis methods to examine HIV vulnerability in the context of migration and to identify important turning points. Major themes included the prominence of traumatic early life experiences, migration as an ongoing process rather than a finite event, and HIV diagnosis as a final turning point in migration trajectories. Findings provide a nuanced understanding of HIV vulnerability throughout the migration process and have implications including the need for bi-national HIV prevention approaches, improved outreach around early testing and linkage to care, and attention to mental health. PMID:24866206
Heywood, Wendy; Smith, Anthony M A
Anal sex is known to be an important risk factor for anal cancer. Yet compared with vaginal intercourse, little is known about anal sex practices in either heterosexual or male homosexual populations. Of the data that are available, it appears a significant and increasing minority of heterosexuals have ever practised anal intercourse. Among homosexual men, most, but not all, report anal sex, with large proportions of men engaging in both insertive and receptive anal intercourse. The most significant finding of the review was the dearth of population-based data, particularly relating to homosexual men. PMID:22951046
Background Little research has been done on the relationship between malnutrition and mental health in community living elderly individuals. In the present study, we aimed to assess the associations between mental health (particularly anxiety and depression) and both the risk of malnutrition and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in a large sample of elderly men and women from Tromsø, Norway. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, with 1558 men and 1553 women aged 65 to 87 years, the risk of malnutrition was assessed by the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ('MUST'), and mental health was measured by the Symptoms Check List 10 (SCL-10). BMI was categorised into six groups (< 20.0, 20.0-22.4, 22.5-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, ? 30.0 kg/m2). Results The risk of malnutrition (combining medium and high risk) was found in 5.6% of the men and 8.6% of the women. Significant mental health symptoms were reported by 3.9% of the men and 9.1% of the women. In a model adjusted for age, marital status, smoking and education, significant mental health symptoms (SCL-10 score ? 1.85) were positively associated with the risk of malnutrition (odds ratio 3.9 [95% CI 1.7-8.6] in men and 2.5 [95%CI 1.3-4.9] in women), the association was positive also for subthreshold mental health symptoms. For individuals with BMI < 20.0 the adjusted odds ratio for significant mental health symptoms was 2.0 [95% CI 1.0-4.0]. Conclusions Impaired mental health was strongly associated with the risk of malnutrition in community living elderly men and women and this association was also significant for subthreshold mental health symptoms. PMID:21762535
Parsons, J. Kellogg; Pierce, John P.; Mohler, James; Paskett, Electra; Jung, Sin-Ho; Humphrey, Peter; Taylor, John R.; Newman, Vicky A.; Barbier, Leslie; Rock, Cheryl L.; Marshall, James
Background Diet may substantially alter prostate cancer initiation and progression. However, large-scale clinical trials of diet modification have yet to be performed for prostate cancer. The Men’s Eating and Living (MEAL) Study (CALGB 70807 [Alliance]) is investigating the effect of increased vegetable consumption on clinical progression in men with localized prostate cancer. Study Design MEAL is a randomized, Phase III clinical trial designed to test whether an intervention that increases vegetable intake will decrease the incidence of clinical progression in men with clinically localized prostate cancer on active surveillance. We are randomizing 464 patients to either a validated telephone-based diet counseling intervention or a control condition in which patients receive a published diet guideline. The intervention will continue for two years. The primary outcome variable is clinical progression defined by serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and pathological findings on follow-up prostate biopsy. Secondary outcome variables include incidence of surgical and non-surgical treatments for prostate cancer, prostate-cancer related patient anxiety and health-related quality of life. Conclusion The MEAL Study is assessing the effectiveness of a high-vegetable diet intervention for preventing clinical progression in men with localized prostate cancer on active surveillance. PMID:24837543
Meta-analyses of sex differences in physical aggression to heterosexual partners and in its physical consequences are reported. Women were slightly more likely (d = -.05) than men to use one or more act of physical aggression and to use such acts more frequently. Men were more likely (d =. 15) to inflict an injury, and overall, 62% of those injured
LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar
This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a…
Michael P. ArnoldH; H. Raymond Fisher; Willi McFarland
We assess whether there is evidence of an association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and HIV risk-relevant behavior\\u000a among lower income heterosexual men and women in San Francisco. Respondents residing in low income areas with high heterosexual\\u000a AIDS case burden in San Francisco were recruited through long-chain referral in 2006–2007. Risk measures included unprotected\\u000a vaginal intercourse, concurrency and exchange sex. SEP
Gregory M. Herek
Using data from a 1999 national RDD survey (N = 1,335), this paper examines gender gaps in heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians, gay men, and a variety of topics related to homosexuality. Attitudes toward lesbians differed from attitudes toward gay men in several areas, and significant differences were observed between male and female heterosexual respondents. Survey participants generally were more likely
Zivony, Alon; Lobel, Thalma
Bisexual men have little public visibility, yet previous reports indicate that heterosexuals have specific prejudicial attitudes towards them. This article reports on two studies that examined the stereotypical beliefs of heterosexual men and women regarding bisexual men. In Study 1 (n = 88), we examined awareness of social stereotypes (stereotype knowledge). Most of the participants were unable to describe the various stereotypes of bisexual men. Contrary to previous studies, low-prejudiced participants had more stereotype knowledge than high-prejudiced participants. In Study 2 (n = 232), we examined prejudice in a contextual evaluation task that required no stereotype knowledge. Participants evaluated a single target character on a first date: a bisexual man dating a heterosexual woman, a bisexual man dating a gay man, a heterosexual man dating a heterosexual woman, or a gay man dating a gay man. The findings indicated that participants implemented stereotypical beliefs in their evaluation of bisexual men: compared to heterosexual and gay men, bisexual men were evaluated as more confused, untrustworthy, open to new experiences, as well as less inclined towards monogamous relationships and not as able to maintain a long-term relationship. Overall, the two studies suggest that the stereotypical beliefs regarding bisexual men are prevalent, but often not acknowledged as stereotypes. In addition, the implementation of stereotypes in the evaluations was shown to be dependent on the potential romantic partner of the target. Possible theoretical explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24558124
Hall, Jeffrey A.; La France, Betty H.
This manuscript reports two experiments exploring heterosexual men’s use of homophobic slang in social contexts, varied by sex-ratio. Study 1 (N = 127) experimentally demonstrated that compared to a mixed-sex audience, ...
Li, Norman P.; Smith, April R.; Griskevicius, Vladas; Cason, Margaret J.; Bryan, Angela
Restrictive eating attitudes and behaviors have been hypothesized to be related to processes of intrasexual competition. According to this perspective, within-sex competition for status serves the adaptive purpose of attracting mates. As such, status competition salience may lead to concerns of mating desirability. For heterosexual women and gay men, such concerns revolve around appearing youthful and thus, thinner. Following this logic, we examined how exposure to high-status and competitive (but not thin or highly attractive) same-sex individuals would influence body image and eating attitudes in heterosexual and in gay/lesbian individuals. Results indicated that for heterosexuals, intrasexual competition cues led to greater body image dissatisfaction and more restrictive eating attitudes for women, but not for men. In contrast, for homosexual individuals, intrasexual competition cues led to worse body image and eating attitudes for gay men, but not for lesbian women. These findings support the idea that the ultimate explanation for eating disorders is related to intrasexual competition. PMID:20835352
Daksha P Trivedi; Richard Doll; Kay Tee Khaw
Objective To determine the effect of four monthly vitamin D supplementation on the rate of fractures in men and women aged 65 years and over living in the community. Design Randomised double blind controlled trial of 100 000 IU oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation or matching placebo every four months over five years. Setting and participants 2686 people (2037 men
Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki
This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition to adulthood as a normative and linear process. The authors offer that the research presented here provides a more accurate rendering of the transition to adulthood for young disadvantaged men. For disadvantaged young men, the transition to adulthood is often complex and nonlinear, and features a diversity of pathways that are often overlooked in contemporary research on transitions to adulthood. The chapter ends with a call for research and theory that better reflects the precarious nature of pathways to adulthood for disadvantaged men in urban and nonurban settings. Researchers are encouraged to draw on findings from field-based studies to inform policies and practices directed at minimizing the marginalization of disadvantaged men from mainstream society. PMID:24677645
Using in-depth interviews and participant observations, I examine how two groups of heterosexual high school US football players\\u000a alter differently the construction of heterosexuality and masculinity after joining collegiate cheerleading. First, I show\\u000a that informants from both groups make masculinity accessible to gay men before next describing how they reconcile heterosexuality\\u000a with limited forms of same-sex sex. Forty-percent of the
Prah, P; Copas, A J; Mercer, C H; Nardone, A; Johnson, A M
Patterns of sexual mixing are major determinants of sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission, in particular the extent to which high-risk populations mix with low-risk populations. However, patterns of mixing in the general population are poorly understood. We analysed data from a national probability sample survey of households, the Health Survey for England 2010. A total of 943 heterosexual couples living together, where at least one partner was aged between 16-44 years, were included. We used correlation coefficients to measure the strength of similarities between partners with respect to demographic characteristics, general health, health behaviours and sexual history. Males were on average 2 years older than their female partners, although this age difference ranged from a median of 0 years in men aged 16-24 years to a median of 2 years in men aged 35-44 years. A positive correlation between partners was found for all demographic characteristics. With respect to general health and health behaviours, a strongly positive correlation was found between men and women in reporting alcohol consumption at ?3 days a week and smoking. Men typically reported greater numbers of sexual partners than their female partner, although men and women with more partners were more likely to mix with each other. We have been able to elucidate the patterns of sexual mixing between men and women living together in England. Mixing based on demographic characteristics was more assortative than sexual characteristics. These data can better inform mathematical models of STI transmission. PMID:25167088
Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C
A sample of 1,784 individuals responded to an online survey advertised on the Facebook social networking website. We explored the sexual orientation continuum by focusing on three components: self-reported sexual orientation identity, sexual attraction, and sexual partners. Results supported a 5-category classification of identity (heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay/lesbian, gay/lesbian) in that two added identity labels (mostly heterosexual and mostly gay/lesbian) were frequently chosen by participants and/or showed unique patterns of attraction and partners, distinct from their adjacent identities (heterosexual and bisexual, and bisexual and gay/lesbian, respectively). Those who reported an exclusive label (heterosexual, gay/lesbian) were not necessarily exclusive in other components; a significant minority of heterosexuals and the majority of gays/lesbians reported some attraction and/or partners toward their nonpreferred sex. The five identity groups differed in attraction and partners in a manner consistent with a continuous, rather than a categorical, distribution of sexual orientation. Findings also supported a sexual orientation continuum as consisting of two, rather than one, distinct dimensions (same- and other-sex sexuality). Having more same-sex sexuality did not necessarily imply having less other-sex sexuality, and vice versa. More men than women were at the exclusive ends of the continuum; however, men were not bimodally distributed in that a significant minority reported nonexclusivity in their sexuality. PMID:22327566
Kurt Freund; Ron Langevin; Tahoma Wescom; Yaroslaw Zajac
Androphilic, ephebophilic, and homosexual pedophilic males were compared on heterosexual interest and arousal potential. The former was measured by the subjects' retrospective reports and the latter by penile responses to pictures of females. The penile responses of the ephebophilic and homosexual pedophilic groups to pictures of physically mature females were not different from those of androphilic males. In the present
Broderick, Carlfred B.
Extensive cross sectional data suggest a real continuity between prepubertal attitudes and experience and those of adolescence. The preteen years (10-13) represent a period of preparation for later heterosexual involvement. These findings suggest need to modify traditional points of view regarding patterns of sociosexual development. (Author/CJ)
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.
This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…
Jadva, V.; Freeman, T.; Tranfield, E.; Golombok, S.
%) and lesbian and bisexual women (11, 55%) had a partner compared to heterosexual men (4, 20%) and heterosexual women (2, 12%) respectively. Overall, the most important motivation for seeking co-parenting arrangements was in order for both biological parents...
Noel T. Brewer; Terence W. Ng; Annie-Laurie McRee; Paul L. Reiter
While human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with genital warts, anal cancer, and oral cancer, limited research\\u000a has examined what men think causes these diseases. We sought to examine knowledge and beliefs about HPV-related disease among\\u000a gay and bisexual men, who are at high risk for HPV infection and HPV-related cancers, and compare them to heterosexual men.\\u000a We conducted an
Scientists have thus far detected 10 subtypes of HIV-1. HIV-1 subtype B is prevalent in the US and Western Europe and is transmitted mainly through anal sex between gay men or IV drug use. Only 10% of HIV-1 subtype B transmission is through heterosexual vaginal intercourse. Indeed, few non-subtype-B cases of HIV have been identified in the US, mainly because most HIV testing does not screen for subtypes. HIV subtype E, the Thai subtype, was first detected in the US in the Fall of 1995 by scientists at the US Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, California. The subtype-E infections in five American servicemen were discussed in the November 5, 1995 issue of the Lancet; three of the men contracted the virus from Thai prostitutes. HIV-1 subtype E infects the cells which line the female reproductive tract and is more easily transmitted during heterosexual vaginal intercourse. Although Thailand has both subtypes B and E, 90% of HIV transmission in the country involves subtype E through heterosexual sex. It remains unclear whether subtype E will develop into a heterosexual epidemic in the US, but given the accelerated rate and ease with which the subtype spreads among heterosexuals, its presence in the US may pose quite a threat to the health of the heterosexually active population. Dr. Max Essex, chairman of the Harvard AIDS Institute, recommends that subtype surveillance studies be conducted on high-risk, low socioeconomic urban populations being tested for STDs including HIV. Although Dr. Gerald Myers, director of the HIV Sequence Database AIDS Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, believes that the fear of outbreak of subtype E is overly exaggerated, he does agree that countries should expect to see multiple HIV subtypes appear in their populations. These different types of viruses could make it more difficult to develop an effective vaccine against AIDS since most efforts thus far to find an effective vaccine against HIV/AIDS have been directed against subtype B. PMID:12319993
Samuel R. Aymer
Influenced by the national attention that followed the violent episode between pop superstar Rihanna and hip-hop artist Chris\\u000a Brown, this article explores the importance of including the psychosocial experiences of disenfranchised African American\\u000a men in traditional intervention programs for batterers. The article provides an overview of how intimate partner violence\\u000a affects African American women and discusses how racialized stereotypical images
Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Koopman, Cheryl; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl
This study examined the relationships among dissociation, childhood trauma and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in HIV-positive men. Data was collected from 167 men enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (Project RISE) that examined a group therapy intervention to decrease HIV-related risk behavior and trauma-related stress symptoms. Participants completed the Trauma History Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised, and the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire. Overall, 35.3% of the participants reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A total of 55.7% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The intensity of dissociative symptoms that participants endorsed was positively associated with experience of childhood sexual abuse (r = .20, p < .01). Dissociative symptoms were also positively associated with specific PTSD symptoms, notably hyperarousal (r = .69, p < .001). Hierarchical regression indicated that hyperarousal symptoms account for more of the variance in dissociation than childhood sexual abuse. These results suggest that childhood sexual abuse may be involved in the development of dissociative symptoms in the context of adulthood stress reactions. Furthermore, the pattern of the association between dissociation and PTSD is consistent with the possibility of a dissociative PTSD subtype among HIV-positive men. PMID:22211444
David Wyatt Seal; Michael Smith; Brenda Coley; June Perry; Maria Gamez
A heterogeneous sample of 38 young adult heterosexual couples living in a US city (N?=?76) provided narratives about their first, most physically arousing, and most emotionally intimate sexual experiences.\\u000a Physical arousal and passion and emotional intimacy intrapsychic scripts were evident across all three sexual experiences,\\u000a although both discourses encompassed multiple sub-themes. First sexual occasions generally adhered to more traditional interpersonal
Sunilkumar, MM; Boston, Patricia; Rajagopal, MR
Context: Sexual dysfunction is a major concern for Indian men living with a spinal cord injury. Few first-hand reports exist about the experience of living with an altered sense of sexual identity and the inability to express sexual concerns. Aims: In this qualitative study, the authors explore views and attitudes towards sexual functioning in men living with a spinal cord injury in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured and open-ended interviews were conducted with seven participants according to IE Seidman's phenomenological approach. Thematic analysis followed the analytic process outlined by Moustakas (1990). Results: Identification of seven interconnected themes included: Recalling an active sexual life, disconnection with sexual identity, incongruence between emotional and physical capability, spousal isolation, social readjustment of spouse, physical barriers to sexual functioning, coping, and reintegration. Conclusions: Patient's descriptions of suffering demonstrate complexities of experience in sexual functioning. All patients were sexually active prior to the injury. This was now lost causing anxiety, distress, and sadness. A huge gap existed between sexual desire and physical capability. The patient and spouse were now isolated emotionally, socially, and physically. Physical barriers included urinary incontinence and indwelling catheters. While several self-evolved coping strategies were identified, support from palliative care services was not evident. Two important gaps exist in research and practice: (1) Attention to sexual issues and whole-person care. (2) Attention to quality of sexual life. Future qualitative studies on sexual dysfunction could provide a useful adjunct to current literature which is predominantly biomedical in its approach. PMID:25709179
JEFFERIS, BARBARA J.; SARTINI, CLAUDIO; ASH, SARAH; LENNON, LUCY T.; WANNAMETHEE, S. GOYA; LEE, I-MIN; WHINCUP, PETER H.
ABSTRACT Background The steep decline in physical activity (PA) among the oldest old is not well understood; there is little information about the patterns of change in PA and sedentary behaviour (SB) in older people. Longitudinal data on objectively measured PA data can give insights about how PA and SB change with age. Methods Men age 70–90 yr, from a United Kingdom population-based cohort wore a GT3X accelerometer over the hip annually on up to three occasions (56%, 50%, and 51% response rates) spanning 2 yr. Multilevel models were used to estimate change in activity. Men were grouped according to achieving ?150 min·wk?1 of MVPA in bouts of ?10 min (current guidelines) at two or three time points. Results A total of 1419 ambulatory men had ?600 min wear time on ?3 d at ?2 time points. At baseline, men took 4806 steps per day and spent 72.5% of their day in SB, 23.1% in light PA, and 4.1% in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Mean change per year was ?341 steps, +1.1% SB, ?0.7% light PA, and ?0.4% MVPA each day (all P < 0.001). A total of 76.3% (n = 1083) never met guidelines (“stable low”), 7.9% (n = 112) consistently met guidelines (“stable high”), 8.2% (n = 116) stopped meeting guidelines by the last occasion (“decreasers”), and 4.9% (n = 69) started meeting guidelines by the last occasion (“increasers”). “Decreasers” spent 69.3% of each day in SB at baseline, which increased by 2% per year (P < 0.005), light activity remained at 23.3% (change, ?0.2% per year; P = 0.4), and total MVPA decreased from 7.1% by ?1.7% per year, (P < 0.001). The number of sedentary bouts >30 min increased from 5.1 by 0.1 per year (P = 0.02). Conclusions Among older adults, the steep decline in total PA occurred because of reductions in MVPA, while light PA is relatively spared and sedentary time and long sedentary bouts increase. PMID:24988411
James R. Mahalik; Aaron B. Rochlen
This study was designed to investigate (1) men’s most likely and least likely actions in response to a vignette describing\\u000a an episode of depression, (2) whether conformity to masculine norms related to the likelihood of men’s responses, and (3)\\u000a which masculinity norms were associated with men’s responses. One hundred fifty-three mostly White and heterosexual undergraduate\\u000a men were asked to read
Berkowitz, Dana; Marsiglio, William
Our qualitative study examines the social psychology of gay men's experiences with their procreative, father, and family identities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 childless gay men and 20 gay men in the United States who have fathered using diverse means excluding heterosexual intercourse. By focusing on men aged 19-55 residing…
Ponseti, Jorge; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Klöppel, Stefan; Wolff, Stephan; Granert, Oliver; Jansen, Olav; Mehdorn, Hubertus M.; Bosinski, Hartmut A.
Is sexual orientation associated with structural differences in the brain? To address this question, 80 homosexual and heterosexual men and women (16 homosexual men and 15 homosexual women) underwent structural MRI. We used voxel-based morphometry to test for differences in grey matter concentration associated with gender and sexual orientation. Compared with heterosexual women, homosexual women displayed less grey matter bilaterally in the temporo-basal cortex, ventral cerebellum, and left ventral premotor cortex. The relative decrease in grey matter was most prominent in the left perirhinal cortex. The left perirhinal area also showed less grey matter in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women. Thus, in homosexual women, the perirhinal cortex grey matter displayed a more male-like structural pattern. This is in accordance with previous research that revealed signs of sex-atypical prenatal androgenization in homosexual women, but not in homosexual men. The relevance of the perirhinal area for high order multimodal (olfactory and visual) object, social, and sexual processing is discussed. PMID:17712410
Jaime C. Confer; Mark D. Cloud
Based on sexual strategies theory, we predicted that men would be less likely to continue an imagined long-term relationship following a partner’s heterosexual affair compared to homosexual affair. For women, it was expected that both affair types would result in a low willingness to continue the relationship, but especially so for homosexual affairs. We further predicted that the interaction would
Susan Sprecher; Constantine Sedikides
Previous research suggests some support for the stereotype that women are the more emotional gender, but very little research has examined whether women are more emotional than men in the context of close relationships. We examined gender differences in reports of emotions experienced and expressed in close heterosexual relationships. A sample of 197 couples (at different stages of relationship involvement),
Wendt, Sally J.; Solomon, Laura J.
Surveys of heterosexual college students assessed gender differences in barriers to condom use. Data analysis revealed similar barrier factor structures, though the barriers explained more of the variance in condom use among women than men. Low perceived need was the best predictor of category of condom use for both sexes. (SM)
Disorganization theories postulate that black men have largely abandoned their familial roles. Using the NSFH data, this article refutes the hypothesis of black men's familial disengagement by focusing on extended family integration. Black men are more likely than white men to live with or near extended kin, as well as to frequently see kin in…
Skorska, Malvina N; Geniole, Shawn N; Vrysen, Brandon M; McCormick, Cheryl M; Bogaert, Anthony F
Biological models have typically framed sexual orientation in terms of effects of variation in fetal androgen signaling on sexual differentiation, although other biological models exist. Despite marked sex differences in facial structure, the relationship between sexual orientation and facial structure is understudied. A total of 52 lesbian women, 134 heterosexual women, 77 gay men, and 127 heterosexual men were recruited at a Canadian campus and various Canadian Pride and sexuality events. We found that facial structure differed depending on sexual orientation; substantial variation in sexual orientation was predicted using facial metrics computed by a facial modelling program from photographs of White faces. At the univariate level, lesbian and heterosexual women differed in 17 facial features (out of 63) and four were unique multivariate predictors in logistic regression. Gay and heterosexual men differed in 11 facial features at the univariate level, of which three were unique multivariate predictors. Some, but not all, of the facial metrics differed between the sexes. Lesbian women had noses that were more turned up (also more turned up in heterosexual men), mouths that were more puckered, smaller foreheads, and marginally more masculine face shapes (also in heterosexual men) than heterosexual women. Gay men had more convex cheeks, shorter noses (also in heterosexual women), and foreheads that were more tilted back relative to heterosexual men. Principal components analysis and discriminant functions analysis generally corroborated these results. The mechanisms underlying variation in craniofacial structure-both related and unrelated to sexual differentiation-may thus be important in understanding the development of sexual orientation. PMID:25550146
Sherman, Ledric D
to 50 African-American men, ages 18-70, living with type 2 diabetes. Participants had one-on-one semi structured interviews with the primary investigator. The instruments that were used consisted of two parts: one was a self-administered paper...
Reports research on the nature of enduring sexual liaisons among homosexual men. Such relationships vary widely and may be subinstitutional adaptions to lack of community support. Gay men committed to the heterosexual world were less likely to enter enduring relationships. Open marriage is the more enduring form of gay male liaisons. (Author)
Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T
The purpose of this research was to explore the role of masculinity and heterosexual gender relations in new and expectant fathers’ explanations of their continued smoking. We conducted a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 fathers. Two themes were identified: (1) reconciling with partners to maintain a smoke-free family home; and (2) smoking to self-regulate emotions and maintain relationships. Fathers’ decisions to smoke and changes in smoking behavior were shaped by ideals of masculinity and by partner relationships and family and social contexts, including division of domestic duties and childcare. Recognizing the influence of both masculinity and gender relations could provide new directions for supporting men’s smoking cessation efforts during early parenthood. © 2014 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25155799
Judith M. Saunders; S. M. Valente
Without adequate death statistics from completed suicide data, the suicide risk for gay men and lesbians must be determined from empirical studies and from a theoretical understanding of suicide risk. Three large, well designed studies found that gay men and lesbians attempt suicide two to seven times more often than heterosexual comparison groups. Gay men and lesbians have significantly high
William H. George; Kelly Cue Davis; Trevor J. Schraufnagel; Jeanette Norris; Julia R. Heiman; Rebecca L. Schacht; Susan A. Stoner; Kelly F. Kajumulo
Although men often have sex when intoxicated, basic questions remain about how alcohol affects erection. It may depend on whether blood alcohol level is ascending or descending and whether the situation calls for maxi- mizing or suppressing erection. Objective. To evaluate whether descending intoxication affects erection when men are instructed to maximize or suppress arousal. Method. Seventy-eight heterosexual men were
Hald, Gert Martin
The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption. PMID:17039402
Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena
The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality-or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category-and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women. PMID:25257258
Megan R. YostGenea; Genéa D. Thomas
This study assessed the influence of gender on attitudes about bisexuals. A total of 164 heterosexual female and 89 heterosexual\\u000a male undergraduates completed the Biphobia Scale (Mulick & Wright, 2002), rewritten to refer to bisexual men and bisexual women and thus re-named the Gender-Specific Binegativity Scale. A mixed-design\\u000a ANOVA revealed an interaction between rater’s sex and target’s sex: women equally
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
Examined data on frequency with which relationship conflict is experienced in specific content areas and relationship satisfaction for both partners of 75 gay, 51 lesbian, and 108 heterosexual couples who lived together without children. Couple scores fell into six clusters that represented areas of conflict regarding power, social issues,…
The Influence of Substance Use, Social Sexual Environment, Psychosocial Factors, and Partner Characteristics on High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Young Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study
Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny
Abstract Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16–24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions. PMID:21235387
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna
In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals. PMID:24377496
Richard A. Lippa
This study assessed large numbers of heterosexual and homosexual men and women on handedness and gender-related personality traits. Initial analyses employed a dichotomous measure of handedness (right-handed vs. non–right-handed). For men and women combined, homosexual participants had 50% greater odds of being non–right-handed than heterosexual participants, a statistically significant difference. Homosexual men had 82% greater odds of being non–right-handed than
Brewer, Noel T; Ng, Terence W; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Reiter, Paul L
While human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with genital warts, anal cancer, and oral cancer, limited research has examined what men think causes these diseases. We sought to examine knowledge and beliefs about HPV-related disease among gay and bisexual men, who are at high risk for HPV infection and HPV-related cancers, and compare them to heterosexual men. We conducted an online survey in January 2009 with a national sample of men aged 18-59 who self-identified as either gay or bisexual (n = 312) or heterosexual (n = 296). The response rate was 70%. Fewer than half of men knew that HPV can cause genital warts (41%), anal cancer (24%), and oral cancers (23%). However, gay and bisexual men typically knew more than heterosexual men about these topics. Overall, most men believed that sexual behavior causes genital warts (70%) and anal cancer (54%), and tobacco use causes oral cancer (89%). Perceived causal factors differed substantially among the three diseases, while differences by sexual orientation were fewer and smaller in magnitude. Many men were unaware that HPV infection can cause genital warts, oral cancer, and anal cancer. PMID:20162346
Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L
This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity. PMID:23952924
Heterosexual adolescent males’ negative attitudes toward gays were examined using data from a 1988 national survey of male youth 15 to 19 years of age. Results indicated that the vast majority of young males, 89%, found sex between two men “disgusting,” and only 12% felt confident that they could befriend a gay person. Multivariate analyses revealed, as expected, that respondents
Houck, Christopher D.; Brown, Larry K.; Doherty, Glenn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Pugatch, David; Schlenger, William E.; Silver, Barbara J.
Objectives. We sought to learn what factors are associated with anal intercourse among adolescents and young adults. We examined demographic, behavioral, relationship context, attitudinal, substance use, and mental health correlates of recent heterosexual anal intercourse among adolescents and young adults who reported engaging in recent unprotected sex. Methods. Among 1348 at-risk adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 21 years in 3 US cities, we assessed sexual risk behavior with each sexual partner in the past 90 days. Data were collected from 2000 to 2001. Results. Recent heterosexual anal intercourse was reported by 16% of respondents. Females who engaged in anal intercourse were more likely to be living with a sexual partner, to have had 2 or more partners, and to have experienced coerced intercourse. For males, only a sexual orientation other than heterosexual was a significant predictor of engaging in heterosexual anal intercourse. Conclusions. Our findings document the prevalence of heterosexual anal intercourse among adolescents and young adults who had recent unprotected sex. Among females, the variables associated with anal intercourse relate to the context and power balance of sexual relationships. Different influences for males and females suggest different foci for interventions. PMID:19008522
The gene locus known as mtr confers resistance to hydrophobic dyes, detergents, and antibiotics. It has been suggested previously that the host environment is important in the selection of gonococcal strains with this outer membrane phenotype, and thus that strains with mtr gene loci should predominate in environments high in hydrophobic molecules. Furthermore, resistance to hydrophobic molecules has been related
Jacques J. D. M. van Lankveld; Yvonne Grotjohann
Psychiatric comorbidity of sexual dysfunction (SD) in heterosexual couples was investigated with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 1.1 (CIDI; WHO, 1992). Demographic data, diagnoses of sexual dysfunction according to DSM-IV criteria, CIDI data, and scores on the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS7colon; Rust and Golombok, 1986) were collected for 382 men and women with SD who applied
Kolader, Marion-Eliëtte; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.; van der Bij, Akke K.; Dierdorp, Mirjam; Fennema, Johan S. A.; Coutinho, Roel A.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.
Molecular typing, added to epidemiological data, can better identify transmission patterns of gonorrhea in Western countries, where the incidence has recently been rising. From September 2002 to September 2003, patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of gonorrhea at the Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, were subjected to a questionnaire pertaining to sexual risk behavior and sexual partners in the 6 months prior to the diagnosis. The Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were all genotyped using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the porin and opacity genes. All patients with a completed questionnaire and genotyped isolates were included in the study. We obtained 885 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from 696 patients that revealed 88 clusters and 46 unique genotypes. Patients infected at multiple anatomical sites with one or more strains and patients infected several times during the study period were shown to pursue high-risk sexual behavior and were considered core groups. There were 11 clusters of ?20 patients; in seven clusters, 81% to 100% of patients were men who have sex with men (MSM), three clusters contained 87 to 100% heterosexual men and women, and one cluster was formed by equal proportions of MSM and heterosexual male and female patients. However, the various clusters differed in characteristics such as types of coinfections, numbers of sexual partners, Internet use to seek sexual partners, and locations of sexual encounters. Molecular epidemiology of gonococcal isolates in Amsterdam revealed core groups and clusters of MSM and heterosexual patients that probably indicate distinct transmission networks. PMID:16891479
Paul, Ellen Frankel
The men's movement is discussed as the reaction to condemnation of men by radical feminists. Two major trends in the men's movement, a more visible (hairy men) element that courts public exposure and an academic men's movement, are explored as reactions to social change. (SLD)
David, L M; Walzman, M; Rajamanoharan, S
OBJECTIVES: To determine the penile, perianal, and oropharyngeal candidal colonisation rates among homosexual and heterosexual males attending an STD clinic. To determine the prevalence of balanitis and candidal balanitis in the two groups. SUBJECTS: 252 heterosexual and 210 homosexual male patients attending consecutively the STD clinic in Coventry, England. DESIGN: A prospective study recording sexual behaviour, relevant history, symptoms, and examination. Specimens for candida culture were collected from the glans penis, perianal area, and oropharynx. RESULTS: Among the 462 men studied, penile, perianal, and oropharyngeal colonisation rates were 74 (16%), 70 (15%), and 116 (25%) respectively. On examination, 47 (10%) were found to have balanitis. Of the 74 patients with penile colonisation, 26 (37%) were symptomatic and 20 (27%) had balanitis. The 223 heterosexual and the 196 homosexual males who had sexual intercourse within 3 months had comparable colonisation rates of candida on the penis, perianal area, and oropharynx. Balanitis was seen in 31 heterosexuals (14%) and candidal balanitis in 16 (7%); the incidence was significantly less in homosexuals where balanitis was seen in 12 (6%) and candidal balanitis in four (2%). CONCLUSIONS: Itching or burning sensations after sex were the most common symptoms associated with penile colonisation with candida and were present in more than one third. Candidal balanitis was commoner in those who had vaginal than those who had anal intercourse within 3 months. PMID:9534752
Aim: The aim and objective of this scientific research article is to explore the literature with intent to raise attention to the perfidiousness of the experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses. Methods: The article has utilized eclectic data sources in Botswana and elsewhere. Results: The findings indicate that care giving position of men has been found beset by: retrogressive gender unfriendly cultures; patriarchy; weaker gender empowerment campaigns; and inadequate male involvement in care. Conclusions: The article recommends: (1) a paradigm shift of structural gender dynamics; (2) making AIDS care programmes both gender sensitive and gender neutral; (3) Strengthening gender mainstreaming; (4) diluting cultures and patriarchy; (5) and signing and domesticating SADC gender protocol and other gender friendly international agreements by Botswana government. PMID:21218009
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
Partners from four types of couples without children (gay unmarried, lesbian unmarried, heterosexual unmarried, and heterosexual married, Ns=1,412, 1,310, 1,036, and 1,728, respectively) were compared to partners from heterosexual married couples with children ("N"= 3,116) on mean levels of variables from a model of relationship adjustment as well…
Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina
Objectives To characterise the experiences of heterosexual men and women living with HIV postdiagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Setting Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). Participants 41 HIV-infected heterosexual men and women aged 18?years or older. Results People living with HIV have divergent experiences surrounding HIV diagnosis. Postdiagnosis, there are multiple phases of identity transition, including status (non-)disclosure, and attempts at identity repair and normalcy. For some people, this process involves a transition to a new self-identity, incorporating both HIV and antiretroviral treatment (ART) into their lives. For others, it involves a partial transition, with some aspects of their prediagnosis identity persisting, and for others it involves a rejection of HIV identity. Those people who were able to incorporate HIV/AIDS in their identity, without it being disruptive to their biography, were pursuing safer sexual and reproductive lives. By contrast, those people with a more continuous biography continued to reflect their prediagnosis identity and sexual behaviour. Conclusions People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) had to rework their sense of identity following diagnosis in the context of living in a slum setting. Men and women living with HIV in slums are poorly supported by health systems and services as they attempt to cope with a diagnosis of HIV. Given the availability of ART, health services and professionals need to support the rights of PLWHA to be sexually active if they want to and achieve their fertility goals, while minimising HIV transmission risk. PMID:23645922
Amos Zeichner; Dennis E. Reidy
Research has found that proximity to sexual minorities is associated with negative affect in homophobic individuals. To test whether negative feelings serve a protective function in homophobic men against the sexual behavior of gay men, 54 collegiate men assessed for homophobic attitudes were primed with explicit male homosexual or heterosexual erotica followed by a lexical decision task measuring anger, fear,
Price, Jeremy N.
Describes a study investigating two young, working class, African American men's differing meanings of diplomas, relationships with teachers, and relationships with male peers in the production of their racial, masculine identities. Data from interviews with the students indicate that though they were from similar social locations, they developed…
The incidence of myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease was studied in defined samples of 45 to 68 year old Japanese men in Japan, Hawaii and California. The incidence rate was lowest in Japan where it was half that observed in Hawaii (P...
Kurt Freund; Robin Watson; Douglas Rienzo
Heterosexual and homosexual males who erotically preferred physically mature partners were compared with respect to the erotic impact of the nonpreferred age groups (of the preferred gender) and the nonpreferred gender. Erotic impact was assessed by phallometric test of erotic gender and age preferences. This measures penile volume changes during the presentation of potentially erotic stimuli. Homosexual males who preferred
Hoffman, Rose Marie
This article summarizes the work of R. L. Worthington and J. J. Mohr (2002); R. L. Worthington, H. B. Savoy, F. R. Dillon, and E. R. Vernaglia (2002); and J. J. Mohr (2002) on heterosexual identity development that constituted the Major Contribution section of the July 2002 issue of The Counseling Psychologist. The author provides an overview of…
Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.; Shedlin, Michele G.; Penha, Marcelo Montes
This study investigated relationships between Latino gay-identified men in metropolitan New York City and their non-gay-identified male partners. Phase 1 consisted of in-depth interviews (N = 33), and Phase 2 consisted of quantitative surveys (N = 120) with Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). A majority of participants reported having had sex with heterosexually identified men, and in many cases, the relationship was sustained over time. We found mixed results concerning an attitude sometimes attributed to Latinos that sexual orientation is defined by sexual role, with receptive MSM seen as gay and insertive MSM seen as straight. Although there were no significant associations between partner sexual orientation and unprotected anal intercourse, gay men were less likely to take the insertive role in oral or anal sex with straight-identified male partners than with gay partners. PMID:20818527
Morales Knight, Luis F; Hope, Debra A
Few studies have focused on intragroup variations in sexual orientation and fewer on self-identified heterosexuals with same-sex attractions, fantasies, and/or behaviors. Self-identified heterosexual students at a large public midwestern university (N = 263) completed measures of sexuality and gender, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, religious and political beliefs, emotional well-being, and demographics. The sample included 82 individuals (31%; labeled "H+") who endorsed same-sex attraction, fantasy, and/or behavior and 181 (69%; labeled "H") who did not. Women were more likely to be categorized as H+ than men. H+ participants had more positive attitudes toward lesbians and gay and bisexual men and reported more support for LGB-positive public policies than did H participants. H+ participants reported less literalistic beliefs about religious scripture than did H participants. H and H+ groups did not differ significantly on measures of emotional well-being. Results were discussed in the context of recent literature arguing for a more nuanced and gender-differentiated approach toward assessing sexual orientation, as well as literature on the flexibility of sexual orientation and on heterosexual identity development. PMID:22476518
Merli, M Giovanna; Moody, James; Mendelsohn, Joshua; Gauthier, Robin
China's HIV prevalence is low, mainly concentrated among female sex workers (FSWs), their clients, men who have sex with men, and the stable partners of members of these high-risk groups. We evaluate the contribution to the spread of HIV of China's regime of heterosexual relations, of the structure of heterosexual networks, and of the attributes of key population groups with simulations driven by data from a cross-sectional survey of egocentric sexual networks of the general population of Shanghai and from a concurrent respondent-driven sample of FSWs. We find that the heterosexual network generated by our empirically calibrated simulations has low levels of partner change, strong constraints on partner selection by age and education, and a very small connected core, mainly comprising FSWs and their clients and characterized by a fragile transmission structure. This network has a small HIV epidemic potential but is compatible with the transmission of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, which are less susceptible to structural breaks in transmission of infection. Our results suggest that policies that force commercial sex underground could have an adverse effect on the spread of HIV and other STIs. PMID:25904346
Taylor, Tonya N; Mantell, Joanne E; Nywagi, Ntobeko; Cishe, Nomazizi; Cooper, Diane
This paper explores notions of fatherhood and their linkages to fertility desires and intentions among a treatment-naïve cohort of Xhosa-speaking male key informants living with HIV, aged 20-53 in Cape Town, South Africa. Analysis is based on an initial 27, and 20 follow-up, interviews with men who were part of a study that assessed the acceptability of safer conception and alternative parenting strategies among men and women newly diagnosed with HIV to inform an intervention. Grounded theory analysis revealed themes related to the cultural imperative of biologically-connected fatherhood. Certain safer-conception strategies aimed at minimising the risk of HIV transmission were perceived as threats to paternity. These findings suggest that understanding of social and cultural beliefs related to notions of paternity and fatherhood may inform the implementation of acceptable safer-conception options for HIV-positive men and their infected and uninfected female partners in a high-HIV prevalence, low-resource setting. PMID:23862770
Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L
We used cross-sectional focal data collected in adolescent and adult females to elucidate the comparative development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our data fully or partially supported most of our predictions (20 out of 30) related to the "learning hypothesis," which postulated that adolescence would serve to provide young females with a period in which to practice, and gradually acquire, three types of adult female-like heterosexual and homosexual behavioral patterns, namely sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. However, there were marked differences in the development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors. The percentage of homosexual mounts was significantly higher in adolescent than in adult females. Of the fully or partially supported predictions, 13 of 15 pertained to heterosexual activity whereas only seven of 15 pertained to homosexual activity. A number of sexual behavioral patterns (e.g., demonstrative solicitations, range of solicitation patterns and mounting postures, and grasping behavior during consortships) emerged earlier and developed faster when directed to females than when directed to males. We explain such differences in terms of risk of male aggression, males' disinterest in adolescent females' sexual solicitations, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners, social facilitation, and sexual reward. PMID:25420900
Nyitray, Alan G.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Chang, Mihyun; Menezes, Lynette; Lu, Beibei; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Galindo, Claudia M.; Giuliano, Anna R.
Background.?Published data are equivocal about the relative rates of male-to-female and female-to-male human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission. Our objective was to estimate genital HPV incidence among heterosexual partners from a broad age range and to investigate the effects of monogamy and relationship duration on incidence. Methods.?HPV genotyping was conducted for heterosexual partners, aged 18–70 years, from Tampa, Florida, who provided genital exfoliated cell specimens at semiannual visits during a 2-year study. The rate of incident HPV detection was assessed for 99 couples, and transmission incidence was estimated among a subset of 65 discordant couples. We also evaluated the effect of monogamy and relationship duration on transmission incidence. Results.?Couples were followed up for a median of 25 months and had a mean age of 33 years for both sexes. The HPV type-specific transmission incidence rate was 12.3 (95% confidence interval, 7.1–19.6) per 1000 person-months for female-to-male transmission and 7.3 (95% confidence interval, 3.5–13.5) per 1000 person-months for male-to-female transmission. Regardless of monogamy status or relationship duration, there was a similar pattern of increased incident HPV detection among men compared with women. Conclusions.?HPV may be transmitted more often from women to men than from men to women, suggesting a need for prevention interventions, such as vaccination, for men. PMID:24253288
Corliss, Heather L.; Mays, Vickie M.
Objective The study objective was to determine the nature and prevalence of childhood maltreatment experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and to compare findings to those obtained from similar heterosexual adults. Method Data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), which measured both childhood experiences with parental emotional and physical maltreatment and adult sexual orientation, were used to compare childhood maltreatment experiences of 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual individuals, age 25–74 years, separately by gender. Results Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and any physical maltreatment (including major physical maltreatment) by their mother/maternal guardian and major physical maltreatment by their father/paternal guardian. In contrast, homosexual/bisexual women, as compared to heterosexual women, reported higher rates of major physical maltreatment by both their mother/maternal guardian and their father/paternal guardian. Differences among individuals with differing sexual orientations were most pronounced for the more extreme forms of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Adult minority sexual orientation is a risk indicator for positive histories of experiencing parental maltreatment during childhood. While the reasons for this are beyond the scope of the current study, previous research suggests that childhood individual differences, including possibly gender atypicality, may be a causal factor. PMID:12398854
Fernandez, Maria E.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Arvey, Sarah R.; Tyson, Sandra K.; Morales-Campos, Daisy; Flores, Belinda; Useche, Bernardo; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Sanderson, Maureen
Background U.S., Hispanic women have higher cervical cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans and lower rates of cervical cancer screening. Knowledge, attitudes, and cultural beliefs may play a role in higher rates of infection of HPV and decisions about subsequent diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. Study aim To explore the level of HPV knowledge, attitudes, and cultural beliefs among Hispanic men and women on the Texas-Mexico border. Methodological Approach Informed by feminist ethnography, the authors used an interpretive approach to understand local respondents' concerns and interests. Focus group sessions were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Recruitment and sample Promotoras (lay health workers) recruited participants using convenience sampling methods. Group sessions were held in public service centers in Brownsville. Participants' ages ranged from 19 to 76 years. Methods analysis Focus group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed in Spanish. Researchers read and discussed all the transcripts and generated a coding list. Transcripts were coded using ATLAS.ti 5.0. Key findings Participants had little understanding about HPV and its role in the etiology of cervical cancer. Attitudes and concerns differed by gender. Women interpreted a diagnosis of HPV as a diagnosis of cancer and expressed fatalistic beliefs about its treatment. Men initially interpreted a diagnosis of HPV as an indication of their partners' infidelity, but after reflecting upon the ambiguity of HPV transmission, attributed their initial reaction to cultural ideals of machismo. Men ultimately were interested in helping their partners seek care in the event of a positive diagnosis. Implications for practice Results suggest that understanding Hispanics' cultural norms and values concerning disease, sexuality, and gender is essential to the design and implementation of preventive interventions for HPV and cervical cancer. PMID:19953392
Released on September 20, this year's annual report from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) presents a very troubling account of systematic discrimination against women and girls around the world. This gender inequality, the report argues, brings with it economic and societal costs that harm both men and women. Key issues covered in the report include reproductive health care, gender-based violence and domestic abuse, women's rights to privacy, freedom from sexual violence, and voluntary choice in marriage and childbearing. At the site, vistors will find HTML and .pdf files of the report, graphs and charts of key facts and figures, a press kit with summaries and charts, and related links.
YANG, HONGMEI; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; LIU, HONGJIE; LIU, HUI; WANG, NING; FANG, XIAOYI; LIN, DANHUA; CHEN, XINGUANG
Objective: The objective of this study was to address the role of heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Goal: The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence of unsafe sex and the likelihood of HIV spread heterosexually from core populations to others. Study: The authors conducted a review of behavioral studies. Results: Drug users were more likely to be involved in higher-risk sexual behaviors than were those who abstained from using drugs. Most female drug users (52-98%) reported having engaged in commercial sex. Most female sex workers (FSWs) and individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) had concurrent sexual partners. Many continued to have unprotected sex after noticing STD symptoms in themselves or their sexual partners. From 5% to 26% of rural-to-urban migrants had multiple sexual partners and 10% of males patronized FSWs during migration. Conclusions: Factors such as high rates of FSW patronage, low rates of condom use during commercial sex, having sex with both commercial and noncommercial sexual partners, and high rates of STD infection may promote a heterosexual epidemic in China. PMID:15849527
Solomon, Sondra E; Rothblum, Esther D; Balsam, Kimberly F
This study compared 212 lesbians and 123 gay men who had civil unions in Vermont (during the first year legislation made this available) with 166 lesbians and 72 gay men in their friendship network who had not had civil unions, and also with 219 heterosexual married women and 193 heterosexual married men consisting of civil union couples' siblings and their spouses. Married heterosexual couples had been together longer and had more traditional division of labor and child care than did lesbians and gay men in both types of couples. Lesbians in civil unions were more open about their sexual orientation than those not in civil unions, and gay men in civil unions were closer to their family of origin than gay men not in civil unions. This is the first study on same-sex couples with civil unions, and the first to compare lesbians and gay men with their married siblings. At a time of legal changes for same-sex couples, these results indicate that legalized same-sex relationships are related to visibility of same-sex couples to their family and the general public. PMID:15222833
Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Castro-Calvo, Jesus
This study analyzes the relation of sexual orientation and gender to sexual sensation seeking. Participants were 382 individuals (200 men, 182 women) between 17 and 29 years old who completed the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale. Of the 382 participants, 52.46% self-reported heterosexual orientation, and 47.64% self-reported homosexual orientation. The results showed differences with Sexual Sensation Seeking being more frequent among heterosexuals and men. There were no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men. Heterosexual women had higher sexual sensation seeking scores than did homosexual women. These results and their possible implications for the effective development of prevention and intervention programs in affective-sexual education are discussed. PMID:24918266
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Manjarrez, Dianna
In this paper we describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes towards gay and bisexual men and transgender women (GBT) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively impact attitudes towards GBT and PLWHA. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting and film festivals. PMID:24377496
Faure, A C; Viel, J-F; Bailly, A; Blagosklonov, O; Amiot, C; Roux, C
The objective was to examine the impact on sperm parameters of environmental exposure to dioxins around a municipal waste incinerator initially with high emission levels and during reduction levels. An ecological study with quasi-experimental conditions was performed in patients of a reproductive laboratory. The first semen analyses of 251 men living in Besançon, France, between 2001 and 2007, were included. To analyse the contribution of direct exposure (inhalation), the calendar time was dichotomised in two periods 2001-2003 versus 2004-2007 and used as a proxy for exposure. Regarding the indirect exposure pathway (food), the statistical analysis was made with a nonparametric test to assess the trends. There was a negative correlation between the year of exposure and the percentage of abnormal mid-piece and the multiple abnormalities index, even after adjusting for age and days abstention from inter-course. A positive correlation was found between the progressive motile sperm count and the period of exposure. These findings are to be put into the context of a drastic reduction in emissions of dioxins. Our results suggest an effect of chronic exposure to dioxins on spermiogenesis with more abnormalities. These results should be confirmed with concentration measurements of dioxins in infertile men. PMID:23879235
This study reports the epidemiology of urinary incontinence (UI) and its impact on the social lives of older Chinese people\\u000a in Hong Kong, a modern city in China. It also examines the relationship between sex and this impact, as well as the extent\\u000a of UI in a convenience sample of 101 sufferers aged 60 or older. This study was cross-sectional
Stephenson, Rob; Hall, Casey D.; Williams, Whitney; Sato, Kimi; Finneran, Catherine
Introduction: Recent research suggests that gay and bisexual men experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at rates comparable to heterosexual women. However, current screening tools used to identify persons experiencing IPV were largely created for use with heterosexual women. Given the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men in the United States, the lack of IPV screening tools that reflect the lived realities of gay and bisexual men is problematic.This paper describes the development of a short-form IPV screening tool intended to be used with gay and bisexual men. Methods: A novel definition of IPV, informed by formative Focus Group Discussions, was derived from a quantitative survey of approximately 1,100 venue-recruited gay and bisexual men. From this new definition, a draft IPV screening tool was created. After expert review (n=13) and cognitive interviews with gay and bisexual men (n=47), a screening tool of six questions was finalized.A national, online-recruited sample (n=822) was used to compare rates of IPV identified by the novel tool and current standard tools. Results: The six-item, short-form tool created through the six-stage research process captured a significantly higher prevalence of recent experience of IPV compared to a current and commonly used screening tool (30.7% versus 7.5%, p<0.05). The novel short-form tool described additional domains of IPV not currently found in screening tools, including monitoring behaviors, controlling behaviors, and HIV-related IPV. The screener takes less than five minutes to complete and is 6th grade reading level. Conclusion: Gay and bisexual men experiencing IPV must first be identified before services can reach them. Given emergent literature that demonstrates the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men and the known adverse health sequela of experiencing IPV, this novel screening tool may allow for the quick identification of men experiencing IPV and the opportunity for referrals for the synergistic management of IPV. Future work should focus on implementing this tool in primary or acute care settings in order to determine its acceptability and its feasibility of use more broadly. PMID:23997849
Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Siegel, Karolynn; Downing, Martin J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
Objective Although bisexual men report lower levels of mental health relative to gay men, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to bisexual men’s mental health. Bisexual men are less likely to disclose, and more likely to conceal (i.e., a desire to hide), their sexual orientation than gay men. Theory suggests that this may adversely impact their mental health. This report examined the factors associated with disclosure and with concealment of sexual orientation, the association of disclosure and concealment with mental health, and the potential mediators (i.e., internalized homophobia, social support) of this association with mental health. Method An ethnically-diverse sample of 203 non-gay-identified, behaviorally-bisexual men who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to their female partners were recruited in New York City to complete a single set of self-report measures. Results Concealment was associated with higher income, a heterosexual identification, living with a wife or girlfriend, more frequent sex with women, and less frequent sex with men. Greater concealment, but not disclosure to friends and family, was significantly associated with lower levels of mental health. Multiple mediation analyses revealed that both internalized homophobia and general emotional support significantly mediated the association between concealment and mental health. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that concealment and disclosure are independent constructs among bisexual men. Further, they suggest that interventions addressing concerns about concealment, emotional support, and internalized homophobia may be more beneficial for increasing the mental health of bisexual men than those focused on promoting disclosure. PMID:23276123
SAMUEL OSHERSON; STEVEN KRUGMAN
Shame plays a powerful and often hidden role in men’s lives, intimately connected to issues of autonomy and attachment. The struggle with shame and attachment extends into therapy. Shame struggles are often masked by the male patient’s aloof or combative stance, leaving the therapist wondering how to address issues of grief, sadness, and vulnerability.
Miedema, F; Petit, A J; Terpstra, F G; Schattenkerk, J K; de Wolf, F; Al, B J; Roos, M; Lange, J M; Danner, S A; Goudsmit, J
To investigate the effect of persistent HIV infection on the immune system, we studied leukocyte functions in 14 asymptomatic homosexual men (CDC group II/III) who were at least two years seropositive, but who still had normal numbers of circulating CD4+ T cells. Compared with age-matched heterosexual men and HIV-negative homosexual men, the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from seropositive men showed decreased proliferation to anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and decreased CD4+ T-helper activity on PWM-driven differentiation of normal donor B cells. Monocytes of HIV-infected homosexual men showed decreased accessory function on normal T cell proliferation induced by CD3 monoclonal antibody. The most striking defect in leukocyte functional activities was observed in the B cells of HIV-infected men. B cells of 13 out of 14 seropositive men failed to produce Ig in response to PWM in the presence of adequate allogeneic T-helper activity. These findings suggest that HIV induces severe immunological abnormalities in T cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells early in infection before CD4+ T cell numbers start to decline. Impaired immunological function in subclinically HIV-infected patients may have clinical implications for vaccination strategies, in particular the use of live vaccines in groups with a high prevalence of HIV seropositivity. PMID:2974045
Of the East Asian film genres that have captured the attention of film goers internationally, it should be of little surprise that martial and heroically masculine genres have been the most popular, for violent action translates well into any language. Although it has been no secret that male martiality often leaks into homoerotic desire (on the part of the audience, too), three Hong Kong films from 1998 have finally explicated the generic homosexuality that the action genre has been (defensively) ashamed to admit all along. However, rather than posit this textual homosexuality as transgressive, the generic forces under which these films operate rewrite their homosexualities, both gay and lesbian, into generic modes fashioned around regressive oppositions of gender, and not progressive liberations of sexuality. PMID:11133135
Andrew C. McLeod; Isiaah Crawford; Jeanne Zechmeister
Heterosexual college students' attitudes toward gay male couples and their adopted children were assessed. Participants evaluated vignettes depicting either a gay male couple or heterosexual couple and their adopted son along the dimensions of parenting ability, degree to which the child's problems were attributable to the parental relationship, distress of the child (including gender and sexual identity confusion), and the
Robinson, Brandon Andrew; Moskowitz, David A.
Most studies on men seeking men and who use the Internet for sexual purposes have focused on the epidemiological outcomes of Internet cruising. Other research has only focused on online sexual behaviours such as cybersex. The present study examines men who find the acts of Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic as self-contained behaviours. We surveyed 499 men who used craigslist.org for sexually-oriented purposes, and ran an ordinary least squares multiple regression model to determine the demographic characteristics of men seeking men who found Internet cruising erotic. Our results showed that younger compared to older men seeking men found the acts erotic. Likewise, men seeking men from mid-sized cities and large cities compared to men from smaller cities found Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic. Most notably, bisexual- and heterosexual-identifying men seeking men compared to gay-identifying men found these acts to be more erotic. Our results suggested that self-contained Internet cruising might provide dual functions. For some men (e.g., heterosexual-identifying men), the behaviour provides a sexual outlet in which fantasy and experimentation may be explored without risking stigmatization. For other men (e.g., those from large cities), the behaviour may be an alternative to offset sexual risk while still being able to ‘get off’. PMID:23565985
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.
The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men’s motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in part reflect their adoptive status. Men named age, finances, and relationship factors, as well as unique contextual factors such as the need to find and move to gay-friendly neighborhoods, as influencing their readiness to pursue parenthood at the current time. Gay men’s motivations to parent echo normative life course decision-making processes, but also reflect concerns that are uniquely informed by their sexual minority status. PMID:22563135
Carlson, Jonathan M.; Schaefer, Malinda; Monaco, Daniela C.; Batorsky, Rebecca; Claiborne, Daniel T.; Prince, Jessica; Deymier, Martin J.; Ende, Zachary S.; Klatt, Nichole R.; DeZiel, Charles E.; Lin, Tien-Ho; Peng, Jian; Seese, Aaron M.; Shapiro, Roger; Frater, John; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Tang, Jianming; Goepfert, Paul; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A.; Kilembe, William; Heckerman, David; Goulder, Philip J.R.; Allen, Todd M.; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric
SUMMARY Introduction Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission is an inefficient process with rates reported at <1% per unprotected sexual exposure. When transmission occurs, systemic infection is typically established by a single genetic variant, taken from the swarm of genetically distinct viruses circulating in the donor. Whether that founder virus represents a chance event or was systematically favored is unclear. Our work has tested a central hypothesis that founder virus selection is biased toward certain genetic characteristics. Rationale If HIV-1 transmission involves selection for viruses with certain favorable characteristics, then such advantages should emerge as statistical biases when viewed across many viral loci in many transmitting partners. We therefore identified 137 Zambian heterosexual transmission pairs, for whom plasma samples were available for both the donor and recipient partner soon after transmission, and compared the viral sequences obtained from each partner to identify features that predicted whether the majority amino acid observed at any particular position in the donor was transmitted. We focused attention on two features: viral genetic characteristics that correlate with viral fitness, and clinical factors that influence transmission. Statistical modeling indicates that the former will be favored for transmission, while the latter will nullify this relative advantage. Results We observed a highly significant selection bias that favors the transmission of amino acids associated with increased fitness. These features included the frequency of the amino acid in the study cohort, the relative advantage of the amino acid with respect to the stability of the protein, and features related to immune escape and compensation. This selection bias was reduced in couples with high risk of transmission. In particular, significantly less selection bias was observed in women and in men with genital inflammation, compared to healthy men, suggesting a more permissive environment in the female than male genital tract. Consistent with this observation, viruses transmitted to women were characterized by lower predicted fitness than those in men. The presence of amino acids favored during transmission predicted which individual virus within a donor was transmitted to their partner, while chronically infected individuals with viral populations characterized by a predominance of these amino acids were more likely to transmit to their partners. Conclusion These data highlight the clear selection biases that benefit fitter viruses during transmission in the context of a stochastic process. That such biases exist, and are tempered by certain risk factors, suggests that transmission is frequently characterized by many abortive transmission events in which some target cells are nonproductively infected. Moreover, for efficient transmission, some changes that favored survival in the transmitting partner are frequently discarded, resulting in overall slower evolution of HIV-1 in the population. Paradoxically, by increasing the selection bias at the transmission bottleneck, reduction of susceptibility may increase the expected fitness of breakthrough viruses that establish infection and may therefore worsen the prognosis for the newly infected partner. Conversely, preventative or therapeutic approaches that weaken the virus may reduce overall transmission rates via a mechanism that is independent from the quantity of circulating virus, and may therefore provide long-term benefits even upon breakthrough infection. PMID:25013080
Asserts that men's confusion concerning sexual harassment stems primarily from the difficulty inherent in trying to differentiate between traditional male sexual behavior and sexual harassment. Describes the "5C" model of traditional heterosexual male sexuality (control, conquest, competition, climax, and confusion). Presents approaches for…
Savic, Ivanka; Berglund, Hans; Lindström, Per
The testosterone derivative 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and the estrogen-like steroid estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) are candidate compounds for human pheromones. AND is detected primarily in male sweat, whereas EST has been found in female urine. In a previous positron emission tomography study, we found that smelling AND and EST activated regions covering sexually dimorphic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, and that this activation was differentiated with respect to sex and compound. In the present study, the pattern of activation induced by AND and EST was compared among homosexual men, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women. In contrast to heterosexual men, and in congruence with heterosexual women, homosexual men displayed hypothalamic activation in response to AND. Maximal activation was observed in the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, which, according to animal studies, is highly involved in sexual behavior. As opposed to putative pheromones, common odors were processed similarly in all three groups of subjects and engaged only the olfactory brain (amygdala, piriform, orbitofrontal, and insular cortex). These findings show that our brain reacts differently to the two putative pheromones compared with common odors, and suggest a link between sexual orientation and hypothalamic neuronal processes. PMID:15883379
Janet Lever; David A. Frederick; Letitia Anne Peplau
The media equate a man's penis size with his power and masculinity. Views about penis size were assessed in an Internet survey of 52,031 heterosexual men and women. Most men (66%) rated their penis as average, 22% as large, and 12% as small. Self-reported penis size was correlated positively with height and negatively with body fat level. Whereas 85% of
Russell J. Webster; Donald A. Saucier
Terror management research shows that death reminders (mortality salience) increase prejudice toward worldview violators. Two studies investigated whether death reminders exacerbated differences in heterosexual men's and women's reports of sexual prejudice (negative attitudes based on sexual orientation). Results showed that following death reminders, sex differences in anti-gay discrimination and affective prejudice toward gay men (but not toward lesbians) were larger,
Background The emergence of HIV as a chronic condition means that people living with HIV are required to take more responsibility for the self-management of their condition, including making physical, emotional and social adjustments. This paper describes the design and evaluation of Positive Outlook, an online program aiming to enhance the self-management skills of gay men living with HIV. Methods/design This study is designed as a randomised controlled trial in which men living with HIV in Australia will be assigned to either an intervention group or usual care control group. The intervention group will participate in the online group program ‘Positive Outlook’. The program is based on self-efficacy theory and uses a self-management approach to enhance skills, confidence and abilities to manage the psychosocial issues associated with HIV in daily life. Participants will access the program for a minimum of 90 minutes per week over seven weeks. Primary outcomes are domain specific self-efficacy, HIV related quality of life, and outcomes of health education. Secondary outcomes include: depression, anxiety and stress; general health and quality of life; adjustment to HIV; and social support. Data collection will take place at baseline, completion of the intervention (or eight weeks post randomisation) and at 12 week follow-up. Discussion Results of the Positive Outlook study will provide information regarding the effectiveness of online group programs improving health related outcomes for men living with HIV. Trial registration ACTRN12612000642886. PMID:24491034
Grimbos, Teresa; Dawood, Khytam; Burriss, Robert P; Zucker, Kenneth J; Puts, David A
The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D) may serve as a marker for prenatal androgen signaling. Because people are typically unaware of their 2D:4D, its use allows possible effects of early sex hormone regimes and socialization to be disentangled. We conducted a meta-analysis on relationships between 2D:4D and sexual orientation in men and women in 18 independent samples of men and 16 independent samples of women. Collectively, these samples comprised 1,618 heterosexual men, 1,693 heterosexual women, 1,503 gay men, and 1,014 lesbians. In addition to identifying the normative heterosexual sex difference in 2D:4D for both hands, we found that heterosexual women had higher (more feminine) left- and right-hand 2D:4D than did lesbians, but we found no difference between heterosexual and gay men. Moderator analyses suggested that ethnicity explained some between-studies variation in men. These results add to a literature suggesting that early sex hormone signaling affects sexual orientation in women, and highlight the need for further research exploring the relationships among 2D:4D, sexual orientation, and ethnicity in men. PMID:20364887
W. Christopher Skidmore; Joan A. W. Linsenmeier; J. Michael Bailey
Some lesbians and gay men tend to be more gender nonconforming, on average and for certain traits, than their heterosexual\\u000a counterparts. Gender nonconformity in childhood has also been linked to adult homosexuality. Studies of both lesbians and\\u000a gay men also find elevated rates of psychological distress. We hypothesized that these facts may be related. Individuals who\\u000a violate social norms for
... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...
Elin B. Begley; Krishna Jafa; Andrew C. Voetsch; James D. Heffelfinger; Craig B. Borkowf; Patrick S. Sullivan; Landon Myer
BackgroundCircumcision reduces HIV acquisition among heterosexual men in Africa, but it is unclear if circumcision may reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, or whether MSM would be willing to be circumcised if recommended.MethodsWe interviewed presumed-HIV negative MSM at gay pride events in 2006. We asked uncircumcised respondents about willingness to be
Ward, H; Mercer, C; Wellings, K; Fenton, K; Erens, B; Copas, A; Johnson, A
Background: In the United Kingdom the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and risky sexual behaviours is increasing. The role of commercial sex in this trend is poorly understood. Little is known about the men who pay for sex. We examined the epidemiology of female commercial sex contacts reported by men in 1990 and 2000. Methods: National probability sample surveys of sexual attitudes and lifestyles (Natsal) of men aged 16–44 resident in Britain in 1990 (n = 6000) and 2000 (n = 4762). Results: The proportion of men who reported paying women for sex in the previous 5 years increased from 2.0% (95% CI 1.6 to 2.5) in 1990 to 4.2% in 2000 (95% CI 3.6 to 4.9). In both surveys, paying for sex was more frequent in men aged between 25 years and 34 years, who were never or previously married, and who lived in London. There was no association with ethnicity, social class, homosexual contact, or injecting drug use. Men who paid for sex were more likely to report 10 or more sexual partners in the previous 5 years; only a minority of their lifetime sexual partners (19.3%) were commercial. They were more likely to meet partners abroad and to report previous STI. Only 15% reported having had an HIV test. Conclusion: The proportion of men who reported paying for heterosexual sex has increased, and these men have multiple commercial and non-commercial partners. Their higher rates of STI and low level of HIV testing suggest the need for prevention interventions for clients as well as sex workers. PMID:16326848
Lampe, Fiona; Molloy, Tim; Sherr, Lorraine
Background Although the Internet is commonly used to recruit samples in studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors, it has not been used to measure patient-reported well-being. As the burden of long-term chronic HIV infection rises, the Internet may offer enormous potential for recruitment to research and interventions. Objective This study aimed to compare two samples of gay men living with HIV, one recruited via the Web and the other recruited in outpatient settings, in terms of self-reported physical and psychological symptom burden. Methods The Internet sample was recruited from a UK-wide Web-based survey of gay men with diagnosed HIV. Of these, 154 respondents identified themselves as resident in London and were included in this analysis. The HIV clinic sample was recruited from five HIV outpatient clinics. Of these participants, 400 gay men recruited in London clinics were included in this analysis. Results The Web-based sample was younger than the clinic sample (37.3 years, SD 7.0 vs 40.9 years, SD 8.3), more likely to be in paid employment (72.8%, 99/136 vs 60.1%, 227/378), less likely to be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (58.4%, 90/154 vs 68.0%, 266/391), and had worse mean psychological symptom burden compared to the clinic sample (mean scores: 1.61, SD 1.09 vs 1.36, SD 0.96) but similar physical symptom burden (mean scores: 0.78, SD 0.65 vs 0.70, SD 0.74). In multivariable logistic regression, for the physical symptom burden model, adjusted for age, ethnicity, employment status, and ART use, the recruitment setting (ie, Web-based vs clinic) was not significantly associated with high physical symptom score. The only variable that remained significantly associated with high physical symptom score was employment status, with those in employment being less likely to report being in the upper (worst) physical symptom tertile versus the other two tertiles (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.28-0.62, P<.001). For the psychological symptom burden model, those recruited via the Web were significantly more likely to report being in the upper (worst) tertile (adjusted OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.41-3.44, P=.001). In addition, those in employment were less likely to report being in the upper (worst) psychological symptom tertile compared to those not in employment (adjusted OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.21-0.49, P<.001). Conclusions Our data have revealed a number of differences. Compared to the clinic sample, the Web-based sample had worse psychological symptom burden, younger average age, higher prevalence of employment, and a lower proportion on ART. For future research, we recommend that Web-based data collection should include the demographic variables that we note differed between samples. In addition, we recognize that each recruitment method may bring inherent sampling bias, with clinic populations differing by geographical location and reflecting those accessing regular medical care, and Web-based sampling recruiting those with greater Internet access and identifying survey materials through specific searches and contact with specific websites. PMID:25793749
Heterosexual Housing Increases the Retention of Courtship Behavior Following Castration males) continued to display courtship behavior longer after castration than males previously housed males. Because all males were housed individ- ually following castration, the difference is due
Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain
Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR?=?9.59, 95% CI?=?5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885
Peter B. Anderson; Maria Newton
Recent studies of college women’s initiation of heterosexual contact have focused on the relationships among predictors of\\u000a women's heterosexual initiating behaviors, initiating strategies, and theories concerning sexuality and indicate the importance\\u000a of establishing the psychometric properties of the research measurements. The present study of 212 college women (mean age\\u000a =22.3 years) investigated the factor structure underlying one of these tools,
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolensk, Derek J.; Brady, Sonya S.; Rosser, B. R. Simon
Religiosity is associated with behaviors that reduce the risk of HIV/STI infection among general-population and heterosexual-specific samples. Whether this association is similar for homosexual persons is unknown. Measures of religiosity have not been evaluated psychometrically among men who have sex with men (MSM), a population who, because of stigma, experience religiosity differently than heterosexual persons. We assessed the DUREL and the SWB (short form) in two samples of MSM. Neither instrument produced adequate model fit. To study the association between religiosity and HIV/STI risk behaviors among MSM, scales are needed that measure the religious and spiritual experiences of MSM. PMID:22441843
Griffith, Derek M.; King, Andrea; Allen, Julie Ober
Thematic analysis of data from nine exploratory focus groups conducted with 71 middle-aged and older African American men and eight focus groups with 77 key women in their lives revealed how social norms and modeling of physical activity influenced men’s motivation to exercise. Both men and women identified male peers as an important source of ideas, encouragement, and support to initiate and sustain physical activity, yet sedentary peers also could contribute to men being less motivated to be active. The primary difference in men’s and women’s perspectives was that men attributed their decline in activity levels to difficulties in finding time for physical activity, whereas women attributed sedentary lifestyles to an increase in men’s physical illnesses and ailments. Men’s participation in team sports and overall activity levels diminished with age. Peer social support can be critical for interventions to help African American men engage in and sustain physical activity. PMID:23160732
Helmut Schroder; Joan Vila; Jaume Marrugat; Maria-Isabel Covas; CIBER de Epidemiologia
Nutrient adequacy in the diet is of paramount importance to physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to characterize the dietary pattern associated with a low energy density diet and determine its nutrient adequacy in elderly men and women. The subjects were men (n ¼ 1150) and women (n ¼ 1094) .65 y, examined in 2 population-based
Various risk factors were evaluated to explain a significantly greater incidence of coronary heart disease in men of Japanese ancestry resident in Hawaii compared with men resident in Japan. The independent predictors of incidence of coronary heart disease in both Japan and Hawai...
Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E
This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women. PMID:25063473
Valentová, Jaroslava; Roberts, S Craig; Havlícek, Jan
Studies on mate preferences usually examine heterosexual attraction; comparatively little is known about preferences of individuals whose sexuality is aimed at the same sex. We examined preferences of two groups of androphilic individuals--homosexual men and heterosexual women--for male facial and vocal level of masculinity. Facial images of 58 men and vocal recordings of 30 men were rated by 51 heterosexual women and 33 homosexual men for their attractiveness and masculinity--femininity. In both groups of raters, ratings of vocal attractiveness and masculinity were positively correlated, but there was no overall preference for facial masculinity. After splitting raters according to their relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-rated masculinity, we found significant preferences for masculine voices only in single homosexual men and coupled heterosexual women, while a preference for feminine male faces was found in coupled homosexual men. Furthermore, homosexual men describing themselves as relatively masculine significantly preferred masculine voices but also more feminine male faces. Our results demonstrate that conditional mate preferences are not restricted to heterosexual interactions, and homosexual men prefer a mixture of masculine and feminine traits in their potential male partners. PMID:23700957
Tao, Jun; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Vermund, Sten H.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Shao, Yiming
Abstract Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29–39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10–1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52–2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683
Tao, Jun; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Vermund, Sten H; Shepherd, Bryan E; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu
Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29-39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10-1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52-2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683
Goldenberg, S. Larry
Men are more likely to die of cancer, heart disease, or diabetes at younger ages than women – a reality that is compounded by the reluctance of men to use healthcare services. In addition to reduced life expectancy, men can also expect to live fewer healthy years than their female counterparts. As gynecologists and obstetricians have led the women’s health movement in addressing gender-specific gaps in care, urologists are well-poised to take on a leadership role to advocate for, and address, men’s health initiatives. PMID:25243037
Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel
Men's experiences of sexual coercion is seldom the subject of research, yet it is commonly reported in all settings and increasingly evidence from South Africa points to the health risks associated with sexual coercion of men by men. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with heterosexual men aged 18-25 years who were volunteers in a HIV prevention behavioural intervention evaluation in the Eastern Cape. Men chosen included some who had reported coercion by men and women in their baseline structure interviews and some who had not. Sexual coercion by men involved abuse of trust and age-related power, temptation through material goods, as well as use of aggression. The narratives were notable for the anger that was caused by these assaults. In contrast, coercion by women was framed as ‘temptation’. In some cases young men were tempted by much older women and those in a position of trust and the experience did not make them feel good. There are very substantial differences in the circumstances of coercion of young men by men and women. This needs to be taken into account in the growing trend to research coercion of men and present findings in a way that equates these two experiences. PMID:19499390
Robert L. Peralta
This paper explores how homosexual and heterosexual women and men exploit situational and behavioral aspects of alcohol consumption using alcohol-related excuses to justify divergent gender displays. Seventy-eight in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of youth are used to examine how alcohol-related excuses counteract the deviance associated with gender norm violation and ease the shame associated with inappropriate gender displays. It
Parrott, Dominic J.
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440
Taylor, Tonya N.; Joseph, Michael; Henny, Kirk D.; Pinto, Angelo R.; Agbetor, Francis; Camilien, Brignel; Williams, Kim M.; Browne, Ruth C.; White, Marilyn; Gousse, Yolene; Brown, Humberto; Taylor, Raekiela D.; Wilson, Tracey E.
To describe HIV risk factors among adult heterosexual Black men recruited from four barbershops located in high HIV seroprevalent neighborhoods of Brooklyn, NY. Data on HIV-risk related behaviors and other characteristics were collected from barbershop clients. All participants (n=60) completed brief risk assessments; and a subset (n=22) also completed focus groups and/or individual interviews. Of the subset of 22 men, 68% were US born, 59% had been in jail/prison, 32% were unemployed; and during the 3 months before the interviews, 68% reported at least two partners and 45% reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with two or more women. Emergent themes included: 1) the psychological function of multiple partnerships; 2) calculated risk taking regarding condom use; 3) the role of emotional attachment and partner trust in condom use; 4) low perceived HIV risk and community awareness; and 5) lack of relationship between HIV testing and safer sex practices. Interventions among heterosexual Black men should focus not only on increasing HIV awareness and reducing sexual risk, but also on contextual and interpersonal factors that influence sexual risk. PMID:25699198
Cheng, W. Susan; Garfein, Richard S.; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Zians, James K.; Patterson, Thomas L.
Methamphetamine (MA) use has been found to be associated with increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men having sex with men, but it is unknown whether those who inject MA are at greater risk for these infections than those who administer MA by other routes. Furthermore, comparable data from heterosexual MA users are lacking. We investigated whether the HIV and STI risks of male and female heterosexual MA users who inject MA differ from those of comparable users who do not inject. Between 2001 and 2005, we interviewed 452 HIV-negative men and women aged 18 and older who had recently used MA and engaged in unprotected sex. Their mean age was 36.6 years; 68% were male; ethnicity was 49.4% Caucasian, 26.8% African-American, and 12.8% Hispanic. Logistic regression identified factors associated with injecting MA. Compared to non-IDU, IDU were more likely to: be Caucasian; be homeless; have used MA for a longer period and used more grams of MA in the last 30 days; have a history of felony conviction; and report a recent STI. HIV and STI prevention interventions should be tailored according to MA users’ method of administration. PMID:20464802
Holmes, William C.
Objectives: To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods: In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men…
Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin; Reardon, Candice; Johnstone, Leigh; George, Gavin; Gordon, Sarah
Introduction This article explores the complex, dynamic and contextual frameworks within which men working in a mining community and their live-in long-term partners or spouses (termed “couples” in this study) respond to the introduction of HIV into their heterosexual relationships; the way in which partners adopt gendered positions in enabling them to make sense of their illness; how they negotiate their respective masculine and feminine roles in response to the need for HIV-related lifestyle changes; as well as the gendered nature of partner support in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ARV) adherence. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study with a sample of 12 HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual couples in a South African mining organization. Transcripts based on semi-structured couple's interviews were analyzed using an inductive emergent thematic analytical method. Results The findings present compelling evidence that the impact of HIV and AIDS is mitigated, in the main, by the nature of the dyadic relationship. Where power and agency were skewed in accordance with traditional gender scripts, the impact of HIV and AIDS was deleterious in terms of negotiating disclosure, meeting expectations of care and support, and promoting treatment adherence. As a corollary, the study also revealed that where the relational dynamic evidenced a more equitable distribution of power, the challenge of negotiating illness was embraced in a way that strengthened the couples’ affiliation in profound ways, manifested not simply in a reduction in risk behaviours, but in both partner's courage to re-visit sensitive issues related to managing their relationship in the context of a debilitating illness. Conclusions Gendered positioning (by self and others) was found to play a crucial role in the way couples experienced HIV and ARV treatment, and underscored the positive role of a couples-counselling approach in the negotiation of the illness experience. However, as part of a broader social project, the findings highlight the need to address the shortcomings of a public health discourse on illness normalization that reifies and reinforces skewed gender relations. In essence, the findings make a compelling case for targeting couples as the primary unit of analysis and intervention in HIV and AIDS praxis, not only to enhance treatment and prevention outcomes, but to impact on and potentially transform the lived identity of such relationships, in AIDS-affected communities. We recommend early intervention with couples in terms of couples HIV testing, risk-reduction counselling and gender-based interventions giving couples opportunities to revisit and challenge their prevailing gendered identities. We note, however, that these efforts will be undermined in the long term, if the structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability, contained within macro-level social, economic and cultural practices, are not simultaneously addressed. PMID:23680303
Johnston, S G; Thomas, A M
The relationship between parental divorce and intimate relationships in late adolescence was estimated for 60 undergraduates (17 men, 43 women). Subjects from divorced families were assessed to address whether they perceived their present heterosexual relationship to be risky and if they were less trusting of their partners than were subjects from intact families. Divorce appears to be transmitted through generations in a family. Dyadic Trust and Perceived Risk were investigated as two learned components passed down within families, thereby contributing to a cycle of divorce. A correlation was found between parents' marital status and children's trust in their dating partners. An inverse relationship was indicated; when ratings of trust are low, ratings of perceived risk are high. A possible order of this relationship was discussed, i.e., low dyadic trust preceded perceived risk. One implication of these findings was that children of divorced parents may benefit from being shown how failures in relationships may result from negative expectations. PMID:9148291
Corbett, A. Michelle; Dickson-Gómez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Weeks, Margaret R.
Introduction Research shows that condoms are least likely to be used in primary relationships. A deeper understanding of the expectations women and men hold when entering into these relationships, as well as how decisions related to condom use and other prevention behaviors are made, is essential if we are to curb the spread of HIV. Methodology Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 high-risk heterosexual couples, including HIV sero-discordant couples, in Hartford, CT. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed in an iterative inductive and deductive process using Atlas.ti. Results Participants employed non-use of condoms as a strategy to find and maintain a primary relationship, establish trust and increase intimacy. Many did so while recognizing their risk of HIV/STI illustrating the importance of love and the other emotional needs primary relationships satisfy. Second, several couples described practicing negotiated safety or similar strategies as a way to minimize their HIV/STI risk. These strategies varied in potential effectiveness and included sharing sexual and/or drug use history, disclosure of prior HIV test results, and using condoms until it was decided that this was a monogamous relationship, among others. Discussion Findings suggest that men and women may choose not to use condoms as they pursue and attempt to maintain a primary relationship. HIV prevention approaches must recognize the importance of love and the needs primary relationships satisfy if they are to be considered relevant by those at greatest risk. Negotiated safety may be an important risk reduction tool for heterosexuals, particularly those in HIV-affected relationships. PMID:20444176
Levin, Judith G.
vaccines cannot cause HIV infection because do not contain the HIV virus. · Few side effects have beenbethegeneration.nih.gov Men Who Have Sex With Men Answers about HIV vaccine research How is HIV Whites living with AIDS are MSM Whites What is a vaccine? A vaccine "teaches" the immune system
Background HIV prevention efforts have given limited attention to the relational schemas and scripts of adult heterosexual women. These broader schemas and scripts of romantic and other sexual liaisons, partner selection, relationship dynamics, and power negotiations may help to better understand facilitators and barriers to HIV risk-reduction practices. Methods We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 60 HIV-uninfected heterosexual African-American women from rural counties in North Carolina and Alabama, and Hispanic women from an urban county in southern Florida. Data were collected for relationship expectations; relationship experiences, and relationship power and decision-making. Interview transcripts underwent computer-assisted thematic analysis. Results Participants had a median age of 34 years (range 18–59), 34% were married or living as married, 39% earned an annual income of $12,000 or less, 12% held less than a high school education, and 54% were employed. Among the Hispanic women, 95% were foreign born. We identified two overarching relationship themes: contradictions between relationship expectations and desires and life circumstances that negated such ideals, and relationship challenges. Within the contradictions theme, we discovered six subthemes: a good man is hard to find; sex can be currency used to secure desired outcomes; compromises and allowances for cheating, irresponsible, and disrespectful behavior; redefining dating; sex just happens; needing relationship validation. The challenges theme centered on two subthemes: uncertainties and miscommunication, and relationship power negotiation. Gender differences in relationship intentions and desires as well as communication styles, the importance of emotional and financial support, and the potential for relationships to provide disappointment were present in all subthemes. In examining HIV risk perceptions, participants largely held that risk for HIV-infection and the need to take precautions were problems of women who differed from them (i.e., abuse drugs, are promiscuous, exchange sex). Conclusion Underlying women’s relational schemas was a belief that relationship priorities differed for men and women. Consequently, expectations and allowances for partner infidelity and negligent behaviors were incorporated into their scripts. Moreover, scripts endorsed women’s use of sex as currency in relationship formation and endurance, and did not emphasize HIV risk. Both couple- and gender-specific group-level interventions are needed to deconstruct (breakdown) and reconstruct (rewrite) relationship scripts. PMID:23705954
Ormsby, Jennifer; Stanley, Mandy; Jaworski, Katrina
The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the lived experience of older men taking part in community-based shed programmes. Five men, aged 65 and over, who attended two different community sheds participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews in 2007. Data were analysed thematically with six main themes emerging as follows: 'company of fellas'; 'everybody's got a story to tell'; 'still got some kick'; 'passing on your experiences'; 'get on your goat' and; 'nobody's boss'. Participation in community-based men's sheds positively influences the health and well-being of older Australian men through provision of a 'men's space' in which meaningful activities occur. Provision of community-based men's shed programmes as among a range of activity options in the community may contribute positively to the physical, mental, social and occupational health of older men. PMID:20561074
Mark, Kristen P; Janssen, Erick; Milhausen, Robin R
This study aimed to assess the relative importance of demographic, interpersonal, and personality factors in predicting sexual infidelity in heterosexual couples. A total of 506 men (M age = 32.86 years, SD = 10.60) and 412 women (M age = 27.66 years, SD = 8.93), who indicated they were in a monogamous sexual relationship, completed a series of questionnaires, including the Sexual Excitation/Inhibition (SES/SIS) scales and the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire, and answered questions about, among others, religiosity, education, income, relationship and sexual satisfaction, and sexual compatibility. Almost one-quarter of men (23.2%) and 19.2% of women indicated that they had "cheated" during their current relationship (i.e., engaged in sexual interactions with someone other than their partner that could jeopardize, or hurt, their relationship). Among men, a logistic regression analysis, explaining 17% of the variance, revealed that a higher propensity of sexual excitation (SES) and sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance concerns" (SIS1), a lower propensity for sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance consequences" (SIS2), and an increased tendency to engage in regretful sexual behavior during negative affective states were all significant predictors of infidelity. In women, a similar regression analysis explained 21% of the variance in engaging in infidelity. In addition to SIS1 and SIS2, for which the same patterns were found as for men, low relationship happiness and low compatibility in terms of sexual attitudes and values were predictive of infidelity. The findings of this study suggest that, for both men and women, sexual personality characteristics and, for women, relationship factors are more relevant to the prediction of sexual infidelity than demographic variables such as marital status and religiosity. PMID:21667234
Jackson, D J; Martin, H L; Bwayo, J J; Nyange, P M; Rakwar, J P; Kashonga, F; Mandaliya, K; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Kreiss, J K
The acceptability of a theoretical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine trial was investigated in HIV-negative commercial sex workers and trucking company employees in Mombasa, Kenya. The 206 women and 201 men who completed questionnaires were already enrolled in a prospective cohort study of high-risk heterosexuals. 95% of men and 98% of women surveyed agreed that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major problem in Kenya; however, only 14% and 6%, respectively, considered themselves at personal risk of infection. Only 4% of male and 1% of female respondents stated they would refuse an HIV vaccine of proven safety and efficacy. However, 91% of women but only 67% of men indicated they would participate in a double-blind, placebo-controlled vaccine trial that involved vaccine-induced HIV seropositivity and prolonged follow-up. The main concerns about participation in such a trial were the positive HIV blood test result and fear of acquiring HIV from the vaccine. 9% of men and 6% of women anticipated they would decrease their condom use as a result of participation in such a trial, and 9% of men and 3% of women thought they would increase their number of sexual partners. Anticipated higher risk behavior was significantly associated with male gender, but not with age, education, history of prostitution or of sex with prostitutes, or current condom use. If and when vaccine trials become possible, this high-risk cohort would comprise an ideal target population; however, concurrent counseling about the need to continue preventive behavioral measures would be a necessity. PMID:8561982
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…
Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Cribbie, Robert
The objectives of this research were to explore patterns of heterosexual activity in early adolescence and to examine the differential pathways to light and heavy heterosexuality. We utilized the National Longitudinal Survey of Canadian Children and Youth (NLSCY) in which heterosexual behaviors, as well as puberty, parenting processes, peer…
Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.
As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…
Lareau, Annette P.; and Hendrix, Lewellyn
Discusses a classroom simulation designed to teach students about the transmissions of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (the virus causing AIDS), particularly in the heterosexual population. The simulation can be carried out in a 50-minute class period and uses colored paper, string or yarn, and press-on name tags. (Author/AEM)
Pipes, Randolph B.; LeBov-Keeler, Karen
Identifies possible predictors of psychological abuse in nonmarital heterosexual romantic relationships. Responses from 175 undergraduate women reveal 11% claiming psychological abuse as well as more instances of partner behaviors characteristic of psychological abuse. Abused individuals were more likely to have lower self-esteem, had parents'…
Ray Blanchard; James G. McConkey; Vincent Roper; Betty W. Steiner
The purpose of this study was the development of a self-report measure of boyhood aggressiveness for use with adult males. Aggressiveness was defined as a generalized disposition to engage in physically combative or competitive interactions with male peers. This attribute is of sexological interest because of the reported difference in physical aggressiveness between heterosexual and homosexual boys. A physical aggressiveness
and sexual responses. Keywords Sexual orientation Á Sexual identity Á Sexual arousal Á Affect Á Vaginal's physiological sexual responses are greatest when they are observing erotica depicting the ``cate- goriesORIGINAL PAPER Women's Sexual Responses to Heterosexual and Lesbian Erotica: The Role of Stimulus
Phillips, Sarah Rengel
Reviews introductory sociology texts from 1950-89. Reports that heterosexual biases are embedded in sociology as taught. Argues that goals of sociology texts should include the recognition and exploration of difference rather than the homogenization of sexuality. Concludes that, although introductory sociology texts have made advances in…
Ratio of anogenital warts between different anatomical sites in homosexual and heterosexual individuals in Australia, 2002-2013: implications for susceptibility of different anatomical sites to genital warts.
Chow, E P F; Lin, A C; Read, T R H; Bradshaw, C S; Chen, M Y; Fairley, C K
There is little known regarding the transmissibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) between different sites in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual individuals. We conducted a retrospective analysis investigating all new patients attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia between 2002 and 2013. We describe the prevalence and ratio of the first episode of anogenital warts in MSM and heterosexual males and females. The proportion of new MSM clients with anal and penile warts was 4·0% (362/8978) and 1·6% (141/8978), respectively; which gave an anal-to-penile wart ratio of 1:2·6. About 13·7% (1656/12112) of heterosexual males had penile warts and 10·0% (1121/11166) of females had vulval warts, which yielded a penile-to-vulval wart ratio of 1:0·7. Penile-anal transmission has a higher ratio than penile-vulval transmission, suggesting that the anal epithelium may be more susceptible to HPV infection than the vulval epithelium in females; these ratios are important in modelling the control of HPV in MSM. PMID:25835345
Anthony M. A. Smith; Anthony Lyons; Jason A. Ferris; Juliet Richters; Marian K. Pitts; Julia M. Shelley; Judy M. Simpson; Kent Patrick; Wendy Heywood
This study presents data on the prevalence, incidence and persistence\\/recurrence of eight sexual difficulties among men. Overall, 3157 Australian men participated in two computer-assisted interviews approximately 12 months apart. Analyses were based on a weighted sample of 2158 men who were aged 20–64 years, were sexually active in the past 12 months, and were in the same heterosexual relationship at
Kishida, Mariana; Rahman, Qazi
The present study explored whether there were relationships between number of older brothers, handedness, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and sexual orientation in men. We used data from previous British studies conducted in our laboratory (N = 1,011 heterosexual men and 921 gay men). These men had completed measures of demographic variables, number and sex of siblings, CGN, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The results did not replicate the fraternal birth order effect. However, gay men had fewer "other siblings" than heterosexual men (even after controlling for the stopping-rule and family size). In a sub-sample (425 gay men and 478 heterosexual men) with data available on both sibling sex composition and handedness scores, gay men were found to show a significantly greater likelihood of extreme right-handedness and non-right-handedness compared to heterosexual men. There were no significant effects of sibling sex composition in this sub-sample. In a further sub-sample (N = 487) with data available on sibling sex composition, handedness, and CGN, we found that men with feminine scores on CGN were more extremely right-handed and had fewer other-siblings compared to masculine scoring men. Mediation analysis revealed that handedness was associated with sexual orientation directly and also indirectly through the mediating factor of CGN. We were unable to replicate the fraternal birth order effect in our archived dataset but there was evidence for a relationship among handedness, sexual orientation, and CGN. These data help narrow down the number of possible neurodevelopmental pathways leading to variations in male sexual orientation. PMID:25663238
Knight, Daniel A; Jarrett, Diane
Men who have sex with men (MSM) comprise at least 4% of males in the United States. MSM may describe themselves as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. Because current medical practice does not always facilitate discussion of sexual behaviors, this group of men may face barriers to receiving culturally competent, comprehensive health care, including preventive services. Barriers include a lack of a welcoming clinical environment, lack of adequate health insurance, and sexual minority stress. Health issues that have a disproportionate impact on MSM include mental health and behavioral problems, smoking and illicit substance use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Family physicians must be prepared to ask explicit questions about sexual activities to determine risk levels for STIs. MSM should receive the same immunizations routinely recommended for other patients, as well as for hepatitis A and B viruses. Although anal Papanicolaou testing is available to screen for cytologic abnormalities, there are no consistent guidelines about its effectiveness. Preexposure prophylaxis is an option for MSM who are at very high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. For MSM who are not taking preexposure prophylaxis and report a recent high-risk exposure to HIV, postexposure prophylaxis should be offered immediately, preferably within 72 hours of exposure. Because STIs are commonly asymptomatic, screening should be based on risk rather than symptoms. Screening for hepatitis C virus infection is recommended for HIV-positive MSM at least annually and more often for high-risk individuals. PMID:26131944
Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B
Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality. PMID:24045903
da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; Fiuza, Maria Luciana Teles; Gir, Elucir; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the quality of life (QoL) of men with AIDS from the perspective of the model of social determinants of health (MSDH). METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted in an outpatient infectious diseases clinic from a Brazilian university hospital over the course of one year with a sample of 138 patients. A form based on the MSDH was used to collect sociodemographic data addressing individual, proximal, intermediate determinants and the influence of social networks together with an instrument used to assess the QoL of people with HIV/AIDS. The project was approved by the Institutional Review Board (Protocol No. 040.06.12). RESULTS: according to MSDH, most men with AIDS were between 30 and 49 years old (68.1%), mixed race (59.4%), heterosexual (46.4%), single (64.5%), Catholic (68.8%), had a bachelor's degree (39.2%), had no children (61.6%), and had a formal job (71.0%). The perception of QoL in the physical, level of independence, environment, and spirituality domains was intermediate, while QoL was perceived to be superior in the domains of psychological and social relationship. A perception of lower QoL was presented by homosexual (p=0.037) and married men (p=0.077), and those with income below one times the minimum wage (p=0.042). A perception of greater QoL was presented by those without a religion (p=0.005), living with a partner (p=0.049), and those who had a formal job (p=0.045). CONCLUSION: social determinants influence the QoL of men with AIDS. PMID:26039287
Jewell, Lisa M.; Morrison, Melanie A.
The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and types of negative behaviors directed toward gay men on university campuses and to understand heterosexual men's and women's motivations for engaging in antigay discrimination. Using a mixed methods approach, results from a quantitative survey (N = 286) indicated that students primarily…
Silva, Susana; Machado, Helena
This article is about how ovarian stimulation is understood within the context of heterosexual couples' relationships. The empirical research involves 15 semi-structured interviews with patients in Portugal who have undergone IVF programmes performed with eggs collected in stimulated cycles. We argue that the uses and meanings of ovarian stimulation expressed in the patients' narratives represent situated values and knowledges conveyed by existing emotional resources within multiple gendered relations and identities. We discuss how empirical reconfigurations work in a mode of conversion of physical and emotional pain so that the application of subcutaneous injections to women's bodies makes sense within IVF couples' daily routine and in their conjugal relationship. The different practices of men's involvement in the injection of hormones into women's bodies are perceived as emotional moments, and men's cooperation and/ or protection seems to be essential in this domain. The cultural assumptions underlying women's duties regarding maternity reinforce a moral framework in which the pain and the complications associated with the ovarian stimulation are naturalized, normalized and accepted. PMID:21177709
Sichero, L; Nyitray, A G; Nunes, E M; Nepal, B; Ferreira, S; Sobrinho, J S; Baggio, M L; Galan, L; Silva, R C; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Giuliano, A R; Villa, L L
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with the development of anogenital lesions in men. There are no reports describing the distribution of non-? HPV types in the anal canal of a sexually diverse group of men. The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study is a multicentre study on the natural history of HPV infection in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. At baseline, 12% of anal canal PCR HPV-positive specimens were not typed by the Roche Linear Array, and were considered to be unclassified. Our goals were to characterize HPVs among these unclassified specimens at baseline, and to assess associations with participant socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Unclassified HPVs were typed by sequencing of amplified PGMY09/11 products or cloning of PGMY/GP + nested amplicons followed by sequencing. Further analysis was conducted with FAP primers. Of men with unclassified HPV in the anal canal, most (89.1%) were men who have sex with women. Readable sequences were produced for 62.8% of unclassified specimens, of which 75.2% were characterized HPV types. Eighteen, 26 and three different ?-HPV, ?-HPV and ?-HPV types were detected, respectively. ?-HPVs were more commonly detected among young men (18-30 years) than among older men (45-70 years), whereas ?-HPVs were more frequent among mid-adult men (31-44 years). ?-HPVs were more common among heterosexual men (85.0%) than among non-heterosexual men. All ?-HPVs detected among non-heterosexual men were ?2-HPV types. The high prevalence of ?-HPV in the anal canal of men who do not report receptive anal sex is suggestive of other forms of transmission that do not involve penile-anal intercourse. PMID:25698660
This article explores the social conditions that enable heterosexually-identified men to turn in credible sexual performances in gay pornographic videos. These men are widely known in the porn industry and among spectators as gay-for-pay. Drawing on John Gagnon and William Simon's theory of sexual scripts, this article shows that performers adopt a “persona” as a career script that functions as
Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the impact of gout on quality of life (QOL) and study differences by gender and race. Methods Ten race- and sex-stratified nominal groups were conducted, oversampling for African-Americans and women with gout. Patients presented, discussed, combined and rank-ordered their concerns. Results A total of 62 patients with mean age 65.1 years, 60% men, 64% African-American, participated in 10 nominal groups: African-American men (n?=?23; 3 groups); African-American women (n?=?18; 3 groups); Caucasian men (n?=?15; 3 groups); and Caucasian women (n?=?6; 1 group). The most frequently cited high-ranked concerns among the ten nominal groups were: (1) effect of gout flare on daily activities (n?=?10 groups); (2) work disability (n?=?8 groups); (3) severe pain (n?=?8 groups); (4) joint swelling and tenderness (n?=?6 groups); (5) food restrictions (n?=?6 groups); (6) medication related issues (n?=?6 groups); (7) dependency on family and others (n?=?5 groups); (8) emotional Impact (n?=?5 groups); (9) interference with sexual function (n?=?4 groups); (10) difficulty with shoes (n?=?4 groups); and (11) sleep disruption (n?=?4 groups). Compared with men, women ranked the following concerns high more often: problems with shoes (n?=?4 versus n?=?0 groups); dependency (n?=?3 versus n?=?2 groups); and joint/limb deformity (n?=?2 versus n?=?0 group). Compared with Caucasians, African-Americans ranked the following concerns high more often: dietary restrictions (n?=?6 versus n?=?0 groups); severe pain (n?=?6 versus n?=?2 groups); gout bringing the day to a “halt” (n?=?2 versus n?=?0 group); effect on emotional health (n?=?4 versus n?=?1 groups); and the need for canes/crutches during flares (n?=?2 versus n?=?0 group). Conclusions Gout has a significant impact on a patient’s QOL. Important differences in the impact of gout by gender and race were noted. PMID:24961941
Koken, Juline A.
Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are believed to be a bridge to HIV infection among heterosexual Black women, and substance use can increase the risk of infection among men. However, empirical evidence on the social context of MSMW’s sexual behavior and substance use is needed. This study examines the perspectives of Black MSMW with female primary partners on the role of substance use in their sexual encounters with men and their reasons for disclosing or not disclosing this behavior to their female partners. Findings can inform culturally relevant HIV prevention interventions for this population. PMID:23216438
Blashill, Aaron J; Safren, Steven A
The current study assessed skin cancer risk behaviors by sexual orientation in a nationally representative prospective sample of US men (n = 1767), sampled at ages 16 and 29 years. At age 16 years, sexual minority men were 3.9 times as likely as heterosexual men to indoor tan. Participants did not significantly differ in the use of sunscreen or the frequency of outdoor tanning. Thus, sexual minority men might be an at-risk group for developing skin cancers because of their indoor tanning behaviors. PMID:25033138
Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T
This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:23415890
Sherman, Ledric D
Self-care is the key to living a long and healthy life for people with diabetes. Yet numerous studies show that self-care is far from optimal. This has resulted in attempts to understand the progress underlying self-care behavior in the efforts...
Hall, Naomi M.; Applewhite, Sheldon
This study examines the relationship between masculine ideology, adherence to norms, and HIV prevention among young Black heterosexual and gay men on the campus of a historically Black college/university. The data from four focus groups and nine individual interviews (N = 35) were aggregated and two recurring themes emerged: sexual communication, and mate availability. Additional themes related to HIV prevention were stigma, protection, and testing. The importance of investigating masculinity with young men is highlighted and implications for professionals working with college students to prevent the transmission of HIV are included. PMID:25525415
Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J
Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329
Barlow, David H.; Agras, W. Stewart
Heterosexual responsiveness, measured by penile responses and reports of behavior, was strengthened in three homosexuals through a fading procedure. Using two slide projectors, colored slides of nude females were superimposed on colored slides of nude males. As the sexual response was emitted, the nude male was faded out and the nude female faded in. Heterosexual arousal decreased when the fading procedure was reversed or stopped and increased once again when fading was resumed. Homosexual arousal remained high during this experiment but had decreased in two subjects at follow-up. The results suggest that fading was responsible for altering stimulus control of sexual arousal and that aversive techniques may not be necessary in the treatment of sexual deviation. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:16795417
Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael
Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives. PMID:23919322
Hale Bolak Boratav
On the basis of the understanding that the shaping, experience, and meaning of sexual identities is informed by the social\\u000a context, an exploratory study of sexual identities was done with a college sample in urban Turkey. Participants included 225\\u000a students taking an introductory psychology course at a private urban university in ?stanbul (66.5% women, 33.5% men, age range:\\u000a 18–30 years,
Lisa M. Diamond; Sarah Lucas
The current study compared the peer relationships and well-being of 60 sexual-minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) and 65 heterosexual youths between the ages of 15 and 23. Sexual-minority youths had comparable self-esteem, mastery, and perceived stress as did heterosexuals, but greater negative affect. Younger sexual-minority male adolescents had smaller overall peer networks than did young male heterosexuals, whereas older male and fe-
Tonda L. Hughes; Timothy Johnson; Sharon C. Wilsnack
Abstract Purpose: To compare,and contrast lesbians’ and heterosexual women’s,experiences of sexual assault and to investigate relationships between sexual assault and alcohol abuse. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 63 lesbians and a demographically,matched,comparison,group of 57 heterosexual women. Lesbians’ and heterosexual women’s experiences of sexual assault, drinking levels, and alcohol-abuse indicators were compared using descriptive statistics. LISREL analysis was used to
The article deals with a number of Internet sites claiming to specialize in providing pornography for heterosexual women,\\u000a as a vehicle to examine the nascent “gaze” and visual parameters of heterosexual female sexuality. The focus here is semiotic—looking\\u000a at visual coding of website images rather than audience reception (i.e., whether heterosexual women are actually the main\\u000a consumers of women’s porno).
Luis E. Nieves-Rosa; Alex Carballo-Dieguez; Curtis Dolezal
This study was conducted with 273 Latin American men who have sex with men living in the New York metropolitan area. The results show that 51% of the men reported having experienced domestic abuse at least once in their relationships. Up to 12% of these men had been forced to have receptive anal sex without condoms by one of their
Heeren, G Anita; Icard, Larry D; O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa
The primary mode of HIV transmission in South Africa is heterosexual sexual behavior. HIV prevention research specifically focusing on men in South Africa is limited. We assessed self-reported HIV risk behaviors in 1,181 men ages 18 to 45 years in randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Older men were less likely to report having multiple partners. Religiosity was a protective factor for condom use and unprotected sex with steady partners. Discussing using condoms was a protective factor for condom use and unprotected sex with both steady and casual partners. Having a child was associated with decreased condom use with steady partners and employment was associated with decreased condom use with casual partners. The findings suggest the need for HIV risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored for South African men with regard to age, religiosity, and types of sexual partners. Implications for the development of such interventions are discussed. PMID:24722765
Bogaert, Anthony F
The most consistent biodemographic correlate of sexual orientation in men is the number of older brothers (fraternal birth order). The mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. In this article, I provide a direct test pitting prenatal against postnatal (e.g., social/rearing) mechanisms. Four samples of homosexual and heterosexual men (total n = 944), including one sample of men raised in nonbiological and blended families (e.g., raised with half- or step-siblings or as adoptees) were studied. Only biological older brothers, and not any other sibling characteristic, including nonbiological older brothers, predicted men's sexual orientation, regardless of the amount of time reared with these siblings. These results strongly suggest a prenatal origin to the fraternal birth-order effect. PMID:16807297
HIV prevention discourses concern lives, the protection of bodily rights and people's active involvement in the policies and programmes that affect them. HIV prevention discourses also create lives, relying upon the deployment of normative sexual identities at the same time as they invite complex and fluid youth identities to embody the norms of prevention. This paper examines a particular HIV prevention text that is available to teachers in the Western Cape province of South Africa to support the implementation of the national Life Orientation programme. Rather than considering this text as a neutral 'scaffold' upon which teachers and students add cultural meanings, it is important to interrogate the ways in which texts rely upon and reiterate particular discursive constructions of the youth sexual subject. This paper argues that the text deploys a particular discursive framework in order to construct a 'normal' (and hetero) sexuality that validates, rather than questions, social constructions of masculine privilege within heterosexuality. This is achieved through the deployment of a scientific expertise of sexuality; the mobilisation of a valued hetero/homosexual binary to create a 'safe' heterosexuality; the normalisation of bourgeois sexuality through the ideology of marriage; and the naturalisation of heterosexual masculine and feminine identities. PMID:20169478
Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett
HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…
Carvalho, Telma; Alvarez, Maria-João; Barz, Milena; Schwarzer, Ralf
Objective: Motivation is not sufficient to actually use condoms, as self-regulatory processes are needed to translate motivation into action. Buying condoms and carrying them constitute preparatory behaviors that may serve as proximal predictors of action. Whether or not such preparatory behaviors operate as mediators between intention and action…
Yost, Megan R; Thomas, Genéa D
This study assessed the influence of gender on attitudes about bisexuals. A total of 164 heterosexual female and 89 heterosexual male undergraduates completed the Biphobia Scale (Mulick & Wright, 2002), rewritten to refer to bisexual men and bisexual women and thus re-named the Gender-Specific Binegativity Scale. A mixed-design ANOVA revealed an interaction between rater's sex and target's sex: women equally accepted bisexual men and bisexual women, but men were less accepting of bisexual men than bisexual women. A mediation analysis indicated the relationship between rater's sex and greater acceptance of bisexual women was partially explained by eroticization of female same-sex sexuality. Finally, participants also responded to two open-ended items, which provided additional information about the content of binegativity: participants described male bisexuals negatively, as gender-nonconforming, and labeled them "really gay," whereas participants described female bisexuals positively, as sexy, and labeled them "really heterosexual." These findings suggest multiple underlying beliefs about bisexuals that contribute to binegativity, particularly against bisexual men. Results also confirm the importance of considering gender (of both the target and the rater) when assessing sexual prejudice. PMID:21597943
Whitehead, M M; Nokes, K M
Potential volunteers are often screened for sexual orientation and, in most circumstances, excluded if they are gay men or lesbians. This is especially true if the volunteer's work involves children. Big Brothers/Big Sisters of San Francisco deviates from this practice and screens volunteers based on other attributes. This study investigates differences in demographic variables, nurturance, and empathy among homosexual and heterosexual Big Brothers/Big Sisters of San Francisco. Two hundred nineteen questionnaires were returned and results indicated that there were no significant differences in demographic factors, nurturance, or empathy based on sexual orientation. Gender differences for the study variables were found and these are consistent with the results of earlier studies. Three significant factors were identified: stability, social support and personality attributes. Sexual orientation was not a significant factor. PMID:2230112
Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce
Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…
C. L. Mattson; R. C. Bailey; R. Muga; R. Poulussen; T. Onyango
Numerous epidemiologic studies report significant associations between lack of male circumcision and HIV-1 infection, leading some to suggest that male circumcision be added to the limited armamentarium of HIV prevention strategies in areas where HIV prevalence is high and the mode of transmission is primarily heterosexual. This cross-sectional survey of 107 men and 110 women in Nyanza Province, Kenya, assesses
Janniko R. Georgiadis; A. A. T. Simone Reinders; Anne M. J. Paans; Remco Renken; Rudie Kortekaas
Biological differences in male and female sexuality are obvious in the behavioral domain, but the central mechanisms that might explain these behavioral gender differences remain unclear. In this study, we merged two earlier positron emission tomography data sets to enable systematic comparison of the brain responses in heterosexual men and women during sexual tactile genital (penile and clitoral) stimulation and
Tron, Laure; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary
Background Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. Methods We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. Results Among the 3,019 participants aged 18–85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years), 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR): 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.07–1.32), French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10–1.57), and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98–1.45). Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64–0.82) than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.02) and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70–1.01). HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. Conclusions Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups of PLWHIV in France including MSM and heterosexual French-natives, probably resulting from PLWHIV being less likely to quit smoking than their counterparts in the general population. PMID:25202968
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
Little research has examined change in perceived parenting skill across the transition to parenthood or predictors of change in perceived skill. The current study used an ecological framework to examine predictors of self-perceived parenting skill among 47 lesbian, 31 gay, and 56 heterosexual couples who were adopting their first child. Findings revealed that, on average, all new parents perceived themselves as becoming more skilled, although gay men increased the most and lesbians the least. Participants who were male, reported fewer depressive symptoms, expected to do more child care, and reported higher job autonomy viewed themselves as more skilled pre-adoption. With regard to change, parents who reported more relational conflict, and parents who expected to do more child care, experienced lesser increases in perceived skill. These findings suggest that regardless of gender, sexual orientation, and route to parenthood, new parents experience similar, positive changes in perceived skill, thereby broadening our understanding of parenting skill in diverse groups. The findings also highlight the importance of examining how gender, sexual orientation, and the family context may shape perceived skill across the transition to parenthood. PMID:20001145
Richard A. Lippa
The ratio of index and ring finger lengths (2D:4D) is thought to be a marker of prenatal androgen exposure. In a sample of over 2,000 participants, men had significantly lower 2D:4D ratios than women (d =.36 and.23 for right and left hands, respectively), and these results were consistent across ethnic groups. Heterosexual men had significantly lower (more male typical) 2D:4D
Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair
In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more
Kerr, Dianne L.; Santurri, Laura; Peters, Patricia
Objective: To investigate selected mental health characteristics of lesbians and bisexual undergraduate college women as compared with heterosexual college women. Participants: Self-identified lesbians and bisexual and heterosexual female college students who took part in the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment…
Gurit E. Birnbaum
The present studies attempt to portray the unique profile of the subjective meaning of heterosexual intercourse in women with Female Orgasmic Disorder (FOD). In Studies 1 and 2, the Meaning of Heterosexual Intercourse Scale for Women (MHISW) was developed. In Study 3, the MHISW was administered to 36 self-referred women with FOD, 26 nonreferred women with FOD, and 36 sexually
The issue of whether to "come out" in class has a poignant history in the literature by gay, lesbian and bisexual educators on this topic. By comparison few heterosexuals have publicly written about whether they explicitly reveal their heterosexuality to students. This paper contributes to the enduring debate about whether to "come out" in class…
Mathes, Eugene W.
The "information availability model" of heterosexual attraction was tested by having subjects go on a series of five encounters. It was found that both physical attractiveness and the personality variable, anxiety, had early and continuous effects on liking. It was concluded the model is an inadequate explanation of heterosexual attraction.…
Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Clatts, Michael C.; Yi, Huso; Leonard, Noelle R.; Goldsamt, Lloyd
This article describes a study of resilience among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Resilience is defined as positive adaptation in the context of hardship. Using targeted sampling to capture the diversity and range of this hidden population, we recruited 569 YMSM ages 17–28 years old and examined a subset of 134 YMSM who had experienced severe childhood adversity, as indicated by placement in foster care. Most of the YMSM in this subset were from racial or ethnic minority backgrounds and fewer than half identified as gay or homosexual (46.3 percent). More than half (58.3 percent) exhibited positive outcomes on four of seven indicators of adaptive functioning. YMSM who identified as either bisexual or heterosexual exhibited lower rates of resilience. Structural- as well as individual-level factors appear to be implicated in resilience among YMSM. Findings underscore the importance of fostering stable sexual identity as a means of building resilience. PMID:18079993
Verre, Michael C; Peinado, Jesus; Segura, Eddy R; Clark, Jesse; Gonzales, Pedro; Benites, Carlos; Cabello, Robinson; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R
The association of socialization patterns with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and HIV/STI prevalence remains underexplored in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in developing country settings. We evaluated the correlation of UAI, HIV, and syphilis with MSM/TW venue attendance and social network size among high-risk MSM and TW in Peru according to self-reported sexual identity. Frequency of venue attendance and MSM/TW social network size were lowest among heterosexual MSM and highest among TW respondents. Attendance (frequent or occasional) at MSM/TW venues was associated with increased odds of insertive UAI among heterosexual participants. Frequent venue attendance was associated with increased odds of receptive UAI among gay/homosexual, bisexual, and TW participants. Further investigation of the differing socialization patterns and associations with HIV/STI transmission within subgroups of Peruvian MSM and TW will enable more effective prevention interventions for these populations. PMID:24788782
Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo G M
This study compared gender identity, anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement, and psychosocial adjustment of children in lesbian and heterosexual families; it was furthermore assessed whether associations between these aspects differed between family types. Data were obtained in the Netherlands from children in 63 lesbian families and 68 heterosexual families. All children were between 8 and 12 years old. Children in lesbian families felt less parental pressure to conform to gender stereotypes, were less likely to experience their own gender as superior and were more likely to be uncertain about future heterosexual romantic involvement. No differences were found on psychosocial adjustment. Gender typicality, gender contentedness and anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement were significant predictors of psychosocial adjustment in both family types. PMID:20098512
Robert A. Adler
Osteoporosis in men is an unrecognized but growing problem as the number of men who live to old age increases. The 10-year\\u000a fracture risk at age 50 quadruples by age 80, and in general the incidence rate of osteoporotic fracture in men is about half\\u000a that of women. Of note, the mortality and morbidity after hip fracture are much greater
Corona, R.; Stroffolini, T.; Giglio, A.; Cotichini, R.; Tosti, M. E.; Prignano, G.; Di Carlo, A.; Maini, A.; Mele, A.
In 1997, prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were evaluated in 146 homosexual and 286 heterosexual men attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Clinic in Rome, Italy. Total HAV antibody (anti-HAV) was detected in 60.3% of homosexuals and 62.2% of heterosexuals. After adjustment for the confounding effects of age, years of schooling, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, and history of STD, homosexuals were not found to be at increased risk of previous HAV exposure than heterosexuals (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.7-1.9). Independent predictors of the likelihood of anti-HAV seropositivity among homosexuals and heterosexuals were: age older than 35 years and positive syphilis serology which is likely a proxy of lifestyles that increase the risk of faecal-oral infections. These findings do not support a higher risk in homosexual men but could suggest a role for the vaccination of susceptible patients attending STD clinics. PMID:10487644
Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan
The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790
Solimeo, Samantha L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Gold, Deborah T.
Purpose: To explore the nature of men’s experiences of osteoporosis by developing an understanding of men’s explanatory models.?Design and Methods:?This descriptive study invited community-residing male osteoporosis patients aged 50+ to participate in interviews about osteoporosis. Participants were recruited from a hospital-affiliated bone clinic. Men completed a questionnaire on demographic, medication, and fracture-related information, and descriptive statistics were calculated using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Interviews elicited the 5 domains of men’s explanatory model (Kleinman, 1987) and open-ended information regarding men’s experiences living with this disorder. Narrative data were analyzed both for content and inductively.?Results:?Men’s narratives demonstrate that an osteoporosis diagnosis is accompanied by negative psychosocial sequelae in this population. Men defined it as a disease of the bone that may increase the likelihood of fracture and that may cause pain. Participants reported that osteoporosis is diagnosed by bone mineral density (BMD) score and that disease progression is measured by a decrease in BMD and an increase in pain or new fractures. Men described a reluctance to take medications, dissatisfaction with side effects, and a perception that osteoporosis treatment in men had little basis in long-term medication efficacy or safety data. They viewed osteoporosis as a degenerative chronic disease with an overall stable course.?Implications:?Participants’ explanatory models for osteoporosis are substantively different than clinical models. These differences provide a foundation for exploring the importance of gender to osteoporosis outcomes, a context for making sense of men’s bone health behavior, and a clear case for an increase in advocacy and educational efforts for men who have or are at risk for osteoporosis. PMID:21310768
de Kuyper, E
In developing his theory of male sexual preference, Freud asserted that heterosexual as well as homosexual preferences required explanation, that neither could be assumed to be innate. His theory of the oedipal complex, however, held that the heterosexual outcome was the "normal" resolution, while the homosexual outcome represented arrested sexual development. In the normal resolution the boy identifies as a male with the father, gives up the mother as a love object, and later substitutes another woman of his choice for the mother. The author of the following article, following the theorizing of Laplanche, claims that there is an unavoidable homosexual component or residue in the heterosexual resolution which is implicit in Freudian theory. In the resolution of the complex the boy has the choice of both parents as love objects or as persons with whom to identify. In the heterosexual resolution the boy identifies with the father as a rival for the mother's affection. But love and identification are not entirely discrete processes. The identification with the father involves love for the father. The heterosexual resolution of the oedipal conflict is bought at the price of the homosexual resolution which, however, is not completely surrendered. The homophobia of heterosexual males, the author asserts, is the result of the remnants of homosexuality in the heterosexual resolution of the oedipal conflict. PMID:8505533
Moatti, J P; Bajos, N; Durbec, J P; Menard, C; Serrand, C
In September 1988, a sample of French individuals between 18 and 49 years of age, who reported more than one sexual partner in the past six months and who considered themselves heterosexuals (n = 1088), were interviewed at home about risk perception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, sexual behavior, and condom use. Systematic or occasional use of condoms during the previous 12 months was reported by 46.9 percent of respondents. Among condom users, 38.7 percent declared they had never used condoms before the last 12 months, fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) rather than contraception being the main motivation of these recent users. Multivariate analysis indicates that voluntary testing for HIV, average or more than average fear of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and knowledge of HIV carrier in personal relations are associated with condom use. PMID:1983906
McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G.
Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are echo-like waveforms emitted by normal-hearing cochleas in response to a brief transient. CEOAEs are known to be stronger in females than in males. In this experiment, the CEOAEs of homosexual and bisexual females were found to be intermediate to those of heterosexual females and heterosexual males. A parsimonious explanation is that the auditory systems of homosexual and bisexual females, and the brain structures responsible for their sexual orientation, have been partially masculinized by exposure to high levels of androgens prenatally. No difference in CEOAEs was observed between homosexual and heterosexual males. PMID:9482952
Welling, Lisa L M; Singh, Kevin; Puts, David A; Jones, Benedict C; Burriss, Robert P
Recent studies investigating the relationship between self-reported sexual desire and attraction to same- and opposite-sex individuals have found that homosexual men's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to own-sex individuals only, while homosexual women's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to both men and women. These data have been interpreted as evidence that sexual desire strengthens men's pre-existing (i.e., dominant) sexual behaviors and strengthens women's sexual behaviors in general. Here we show that homosexual men's (n = 106) scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (SDI-2) were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in own-sex, but not opposite-sex, faces. Contrary to the hypothesis that sexual desire strengthens women's preferences for sexual dimorphism generally, homosexual women's (n = 83) SDI-2 scores were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in opposite-sex faces only. Together with previous research in heterosexual subjects, our findings support the proposal that sexual desire increases the incidence of existing sexual behaviors in homosexual and heterosexual men, and increases the incidence of sexual responses more generally in heterosexual women, although not necessarily in homosexual women. PMID:23297152
Bakker, A B; Buunk, B P; Siero, F W
In the Netherlands, the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the health belief model (Janz and Becker, 1984), and the protection-motivation theory (Rogers, 1983) were compared for predicting condom use intentions because of AIDS. The 641 respondents were given two questionnaires: one for themselves and another one for a friend, partner, or acquaintance. 514 (80%) of them returned completed forms. 60% of these (307) persons were encouraged to answer and return another questionnaire, thus the final sample consisted of 821 responses. 711 individuals (481 women aged 15-91 years and 230 men aged 15-85 years) admitted having had heterosexual intercourse. 75% had had more than one sex partner in the previous 5 years. 45% had had sex at least once with someone other than their regular partner. Multivariance analysis of variance of promiscuity and condom use revealed that men exhibited more risky sex practices than women (p .001), had more sex partners in the previous 5 years than women (p .01), had more single sexual encounters with other persons than the regular sex partner than women (p .001), and they used condoms less often than women (p .01). 119 respondents had experienced sexually transmitted diseases and 165 had taken HIV tests. The difference between men and women also showed up in terms of their ideas, perceptions, and feelings about condom use when the three theoretical models were considered (p .001). The variables used in the theory of planned behavior explained the variance in intended condom use for 36% of women and 43% of men. The health belief model explained intended condom use only for 15% of women and 32% of men, while the cost-benefit analysis explained it for 9% of women and 18% of men. The protection-motivation theory explained intended condom use variance for 32% of women and 41% of men, but not all variables were included in the model. Fear from AIDS was correlated with inquisitive behavior and with seriousness (both p .001). PMID:12291420
Patrick, Kent; Heywood, Wendy; Simpson, Judy M; Pitts, Marian K; Richters, Juliet; Shelley, Julia M; Smith, Anthony M
This study investigated demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexual people's attitudes toward homosexual behavior. A nationally representative sample of Australian men and women were recruited via random digit dialling in 2004 through 2005. Participants completed annual computer-assisted telephone interviews over the next five years. Questions about attitudes toward male and female homosexual behavior were assessed at Wave 1 (2004-2005) and Wave 3 (2006-2007) of the study. The majority of the sample reported tolerance of both male and female homosexual behavior (with women slightly more tolerant than men). Multivariate analyses showed that those who regularly attended religious services were more likely to consistently disapprove of homosexual behavior and more likely to change from tolerant to disapproving. Among those who were initially tolerant, younger respondents and those with higher educations were less likely to become homophobic. The results of this study show that individual attitudes toward homosexual behavior are open to change, particularly toward a more tolerant position. Religiosity appears to be consistently associated with the development and reinforcement of homophobic tendencies. PMID:22497577
Toleran, Daniel E; Friese, Bettina; Battle, Robynn S; Gardiner, Phillip; Tran, Phu Duc; Lam, John; Cabangun, Ben
Asian Americans are one of the more under-researched groups in the United States. This holds true with regard to research on risk assessment, screening, and testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C (HCV). Here, we address that lack by exploring correlates of risk and testing for the two diseases among Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese men who have sex with men (MSM) and other at-risk men in the San Francisco Bay Area. We do so by analyzing findings from the study of a community-based prevention program, Project 3-3-3 (P333), designed to address the often comorbid conditions of substance abuse, HIV infection, and HCV infection among underserved and high-risk Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese adults, most of whom are MSM. A risk-behavior survey completed at preintervention identified risk factors related to HIV, HCV, and substance use among this population (n = 273). The study of survey data identifies and distinguishes between correlates of HIV and HCV testing. Among our findings, significant differences were found between Asian ethnic subpopulation groups with respect to number of sexual partners (p = .007), and HIV testing rates comparing MSM and heterosexual men differed significantly (p < .002). Those who spoke English at home were more likely to be tested for HIV (p < .008). With HCV testing, the number of partners was positively correlated to getting tested (p < .047), and Filipino men were significantly more likely to get tested for HCV than Chinese men (p < .022). PMID:23631718
Wray, Tyler B.; Celio, Mark A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Monti, Peter M.
Background Global association and experimental studies suggest that alcohol use may increase sexual behavior that poses risk for exposure to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) among heterosexual men and women. However, results from longitudinal and daily recall studies exploring the co-occurrence of alcohol use with various sexual risk outcomes in more naturalistic contexts have been mixed, and the bulk of this research has focused on college students. Methods The current study enrolled heavy-drinking emergency department (ED) patients and used a cross-sectional, 30-day Timeline Followback (TLFB) method to examine the daily co-occurrence between alcohol use and three sexual behavior outcomes: Any sex, unprotected intercourse (UI), and UI with casual partners (vs. protected intercourse [PI] with casual partners, or UI/PI with steady partners). Results Results indicated that increasing levels of alcohol use on a given day increased the odds of engaging in any sexual activity and that heavy drinking (but not very heavy drinking) on a given day was associated with an increased odds of engaging in UI with either steady or casual partners. However, day-level alcohol use was not associated with an increased odds of UI with casual partners. Conclusions These findings suggest that alcohol may play an important role in increasing risk for HIV/STIs among heterosexuals, and support the continued need to target heavy drinking in sex risk reduction interventions. However, our results also suggest that alcohol may not universally result in unprotected sex with casual partners, a behavior posing perhaps the highest risk for HIV/STI transmission. PMID:25962789
David G. Embrick; Carol S. Walther; Corrine M. Wickens
Recent survey research suggests that heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbian and gay rights have become more progressive.\\u000a However, we find in our research that negative attitudes and barriers against gay men and lesbians in workplaces still remain.\\u000a Our project represents one case study of hidden animosity toward homosexuals, which varies from “overt disgust” to “don’t\\u000a ask, don’t tell” policies that reinforce
Cooper, C; Cotton, D W; Hudson, M J; Kirkham, N; Wilmott, F E
Microbiological and electron microscopy studies were carried out on rectal biopsy specimens and faecal samples from eight practising male homosexuals and five heterosexual controls. Rectal spirochaetosis was present in five of the eight homosexual men. The organism was cultured and morphologically identified as a large anaerobic host associated treponeme. The degrees of infestation and depletion of microvilli were also measured. The results are discussed in relation to the possible clinical importance of rectal spirochaetosis. Images PMID:3949351
Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Ma, Yifei; Farhat, Sepideh; Jay, Julie; Hanson, Evelyn; Benningfield, Susanna; Jonte, Janet; Godwin-Medina, Cheryl; Wilson, Robert; Shiboski, Stephen
Background.?Anal cancer is more common in women than in men, yet little is known about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women. The objective was to examine the natural history of anal HPV in heterosexual women. Methods.?Young women participating in an HPV cohort study were seen at 4-month intervals for cervical and anal HPV testing. Time to clearance was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier approach; risks for persistence were assessed using Cox regression models. Results.?Seventy-five women (mean age, 23.5 ± 4.1 years) who tested positive for anal HPV were followed for a mean of 84.5 ± 44.9 months. By 3 years, 82.5% of anal non-16 high-risk (HR) HPV, 82.6% of low-risk (LR) HPV, and 76.2% of HPV-16 infections had cleared. By 3 years, only 36.4% of women had become negative for all HPV types. In the multivariable model, concurrent cervical HPV-16 (P < .001), weekly alcohol use (P = .015), anal touching during sex (P = .045), recent anal sex (P = .04), and no condom use during anal sex (P = .04) were associated with HPV-16 persistence. Greater number of new sex partners (P = .024) and condom use during vaginal sex (P = .003) were associated with clearance. Similar associations were found for clearance in all HR-HPV infections. Only concomitant cervical HPV was associated with non-16 HR-HPV persistence. Conclusions.?The majority of anal HPV infections cleared within 3 years. HPV-16 infections were slower to clear than other HR-HPV infections, consistent with its role in anal cancer. Specific sexual behaviors were associated with persistence, suggesting that education and behavioral interventions may decrease persistence. PMID:24368624
Skovholt, Thomas M.
Discusses the various areas of sex role change as an evolution verging on revolution, and states the result of these changes as being a blurring of gender roles. Reactions of different male groups, from the traditional to the liberal, are given, as well as a complete explanation of emotional trouble spots. (LPG)
Jewell, Lisa M; Morrison, Melanie A
The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and types of negative behaviors directed toward gay men on university campuses and to understand heterosexual men's and women's motivations for engaging in antigay discrimination. Using a mixed methods approach, results from a quantitative survey (N = 286) indicated that students primarily engaged in covert antigay behaviors, such as telling antigay jokes and spreading gossip about gay men. Follow-up qualitative interviews with 8 highly homonegative individuals (4 men, 4 women) were then conducted to better understand their self-perceived motivations for perpetrating antigay discrimination. Results indicated that antigay behaviors were conducted to reinforce traditional male gender roles, alleviate feelings of discomfort, and convey heterosexual identity. Participants also expressed concern about being perceived as prejudiced and were motivated to control their prejudicial reactions to some degree. Implications regarding the contemporary nature of antigay violence on university campuses are discussed. PMID:20056816
Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Alegria-Ortega, Jose; Eng, Eugenia
Purpose: Little is known about the health status of rural immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). These MSM comprise a subpopulation that tends to remain "hidden" from both researchers and practitioners. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and sexual risk behaviors of Latino MSM living in…
studies have found that lesbian women have an advantageous wage effect, compared to their heterosexual counterparts irrespective of marital status. A special focus of comparing the occupational status of cohabiting lesbians with married women...
Blyth, Dale A.; And Others
In a study of the effects of school structure on heterosexual behavior, self-report data on heterosexual behavior were collected from more than 2,000 sixth through tenth graders in 1978 when their district had a 6-3-3 school structure and in 1979 after the district had changed to a 6-2-2-2 structure. The district was located in a medium-size,…
Knud S. Larsen; Michael Reed; Susan Hoffman
This article reports on three phases of the development of a Likert?type scale measuring heterosexual attitudes toward homosexuality. Phase 1 describes the development of the scale. Item analysis yielded 20 statements with item?total correlations ranging from .57 to .74. In Phase 2 the 20?item Heterosexual Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (HATH) Scale was administered to 82 subjects. Analysis yielded a corrected split?half
This paper explores the connection between the promotion of heterosexual norms in women’s fitness books written by or in the name of Jane Fonda during the 1980s and the commodification of women’s fitness space in both the public and private spheres. The paper is set in the absence of overt discussions of normative heterosexuality in leisure studies and draws on
Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R
Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113
Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R.
Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113
Steward, Wayne T.; Miège, Pierre; Choi, Kyung-Hee
Introduction Stigma constitutes a critical challenge to the rising rates of HIV among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). It reduces willingness to disclose one’s sexual orientation and can lead to concurrent sexual partnerships. Disclosure decisions are also affected by cultural norms that place pressures on sons to marry. In this manuscript, we characterize how stigma and cultural factors influenced Chinese MSM’s decisions around disclosure and marriage. We seek to show that MSM’s actions were motivated by moral considerations, even when those choices posed HIV transmission risks. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 MSM in Beijing, China. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English for analysis. Transcripts were coded using a procedure that allowed for themes to emerge organically. Results Participants struggled with feelings of shame and believed that others possessed stigmatizing attitudes about homosexuality. They had experienced relatively little discrimination because they infrequently disclosed their MSM status. In response to marital pressures, participant had to reconcile same-sex attractions with filial expectations. Their choices included: not being involved with women; putting on the appearance of a heterosexual relationship by marrying a lesbian; or fulfilling family expectations by marrying a heterosexual woman. Regardless of the decision, many rooted the justifications for their choices in the considerations they had given to others’ needs. Conclusion The growing epidemic among MSM in China requires action from the public health community. As programs are scaled up to serve these men, it is critical to remember that MSM, who often fear social sanction if they were to reveal their sexual orientation, continue to face the same pressures from culturally normative social duties as heterosexual men. Interventions must find ways to help men navigate a balance between their own needs and the responsibilities they feel toward their parents and others. PMID:23951245
Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.
This study examined masculine gender role stress (MGRS) as a mediator of the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and hostility toward women (HTW). Among a sample of 338 heterosexual men, results indicated that MGRS mediated the relation between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms, but not the toughness norm, and HTW. Adherence to the toughness norm maintained a positive association with HTW. These findings suggest that men's HTW develops via multiple pathways that are associated with different norms of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for the prediction of men's aggression against women are discussed. PMID:21531691
Rostosky, Sharon S; Black, Whitney W; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rosenkrantz, Dani
Research on heterosexual allies has focused on heterosexual identity development models and pathways to ally activism. The positive aspects or positive experiences of identifying as an ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identified individuals and communities have received little attention. Using an online survey of participants recruited from LGBT ally related social media, we collected open-ended responses to a question about the positive aspects of self-identifying as a heterosexual ally. A final analytic sample of 292 self-identified male and female heterosexual adults (age 18-71, M = 33.47, SD = 13.32) provided responses that generated 8 themes. Positive aspects of being a heterosexual ally were: (a) increased knowledge and awareness, (b) upholding values of justice, (c) beneficial individual relationships, (d) community belonging, (e) educating others, (f) being a role model, (g) using social privilege, and (h) speaking out and taking a stand. The findings suggest that being a heterosexual ally is rewarding and may enhance individual well-being. These findings provide information that may contribute to effective ally development efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25798894
... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Mental health for men More information on mental health for ... extremely effective. Return to top More information on Mental health for men Explore other publications and websites Attention ...
Marsicano, Elise; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Aubrière, Cindy; Spire, Bruno; Hamelin, Christine
Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals. Respondents answered a face-to-face questionnaire documenting their health status and living conditions. Discrimination was documented during the previous two years on the grounds of HIV infection, gender, country of birth, skin colour, sexual orientation, place of residence, and substance abuse in a variety of contexts. For each context, we performed logistic regressions on discrimination, controlling for socio-epidemiological group, age, education level and employment status. Discrimination is frequently experienced by PLHIV in France (26%), particularly when applying for a job (24%), interacting with family (11%) or seeking health services (8%). Women from sub-Saharan Africa reported the highest levels of discrimination, whereas heterosexual non-African men reported the lowest. Men who have sex with men experienced levels of discrimination that fell between those of these two groups. The major perceived reason for discrimination was HIV status (13%). Nationality, skin colour and sexual orientation were cited by 5% each, whereas gender was cited by 1% of respondents. Our analyses show that discrimination is a frequent and cross-cutting experience with differences across the various contexts and among the diverse subpopulations. The intertwining of HIV-related stigma with sexism, racism and homophobia needs to be addressed to understand why discrimination against PLHIV persists when the disease itself has greatly evolved. PMID:24738926
McDonagh, Lorraine K; Bishop, C J; Brockman, Mel; Morrison, Todd G
The measurement of subjective components of sexual functioning is of increasing importance in clinical research and practice. Differences have been reported in prevalence rates and experiences of sexual difficulties between heterosexual and gay men. The aim of this article is to identify reliable and valid measures of sexual dysfunction suitable for use with gay men. Seven measures were reviewed; details about item development, dimensionality, reliability, and validity are provided. Heteronormative and heterosexist wording were evident throughout. Several areas of concern emerged in relation to psychometric properties (e.g., questionable validity). No psychometrically robust sexual function measure was identified for use with gay populations. PMID:24447131
Greene, Emily; Frye, Victoria; Mansergh, Gordon; Colfax, Grant N.; Hudson, Sharon M.; Flores, Stephen A.; Hoover, Donald R; Bonner, Sebastian; Koblin, Beryl A.
The role men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) play in heterosexual HIV transmission is not well understood. We analyzed baseline data from Project MIX, a behavioral intervention study of substance-using men who have sex with men (MSM), and identified correlates of unprotected vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or both with women (UVAI). Approximately 10% (n=194) of the men reported vaginal sex, anal sex, or both with a woman; of these substance-using MSMW, 66% (129) reported UVAI. Among substance-using MSMW, multivariate analyses found unemployment relative to full/part-time employment (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.01, 5.17), having a primary female partner relative to no primary female partner (OR=3.44; CI 1.4, 8.46), and higher levels of treatment optimism (OR=1.73; 95% CI 1.18, 2.54) increased odds of UVAI. Strong feelings of connection to a same-race gay community (OR=0.71; 95% CI 0.56, 0.91) and Viagra use (OR=0.31; 95% CI 0.10, 0.95) decreased odds of UVAI. This work suggests that although the proportion of substance-using MSM who also have sex with women is low, these men engage in unprotected sex with women, particularly with primary female partners. This work highlights the need for further research with the substance using MSMW population to inform HIV prevention interventions specifically for MSMW. PMID:23229336
Goldberg, Abbie E.
Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families. PMID:25414543
Kuyper, Lisette; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine
Many studies focus on the differences in mental health between lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), and heterosexual individuals. Less attention has been paid to the differences in various aspects of sexual health and the potential explanations for these differences. Data from a Dutch population study on sexual health (aged 19-70 years; N = 4,333) were used to examine the potential differences in sexual satisfaction, sexual victimization, sexual dysfunction, and sexual health care need. At the same time, this study examined whether the differences could be attributed to differences in general factors influencing sexual health (sociodemographic variables and sexual behavior characteristics) or to LGB-specific factors (minority stress). The results showed that bisexual women and bi- and homosexual men had more often experienced sexual coercion and reported a higher need for sexual health care than their heterosexual counterparts. Both general determinants (e.g., a higher number of sexual partners or being single) and LGB-specific factors (e.g., internalized homonegativity or negative social reactions related to sexual orientation) were associated with different aspects of sexual health. Interventions aimed at improving the sexual health of LGB individuals should focus on general risk factors, as well as on LGB-specific stressors. Methodological limitations of the study and implications for further research are discussed. PMID:20191420
Zoë D. Peterson; Erick Janssen; Ellen Laan
Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a “category-specific” genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on\\u000a average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual\\u000a versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for
Bogaert, Anthony F
Numerous studies indicate that homosexual men have, on average, more older brothers than do heterosexual men. One explanation of the "older brother" effect comes from D. J. Bem (1996), who argued that an increased number of older brothers in homosexual men can result if older brothers enhance a feminine boy's sense of being different from (and hence his attraction to) other males. Thus, he argued that an interaction between older brothers and sex-typing will occur, such that when a boy is high in femininity, number of older brothers may strongly predict a homosexual orientation; and when a boy is low in femininity, number of older brothers may not or may only weakly predict a homosexual orientation. In this study, the relations among sibling characteristics (e.g., older brothers), childhood sex-typing, and sexual orientation were examined using a database of a large sample of homosexual and heterosexual men (N > 1,000) archived at the Kinsey Institute (A. P. Bell, M. S. Weinberg, & S. K. Hammersmith, 1981a). No significant Older Brother x Sex-Typing interaction effect was observed. These results join other recent evidence that postnatal (e.g., learning/environmental) mechanisms probably do not underlie the older brother effect in men. PMID:12710827
Balsam, Kimberly F; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Rothblum, Esther D; Solomon, Sondra E
This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was a sibling to a member of a civil union couple). Despite the legalized nature of their relationships, civil union couples did not differ on any measure from same-sex couples who were not in civil unions. However, same-sex couples not in civil unions were more likely to have ended their relationships than same-sex civil union or heterosexual married couples. Compared with heterosexual married participants, both types of same-sex couples reported greater relationship quality, compatibility, and intimacy and lower levels of conflict. Longitudinal predictors of relationship quality at Time 2 included less conflict, greater level of outness, and a shorter relationship length for men in same-sex relationships and included less conflict and more frequent sex for women in same-sex relationships at Time 1. PMID:18194009
Maini, M K; Gilson, R J; Chavda, N; Gill, S; Fakoya, A; Ross, E J; Phillips, A N; Weller, I V
BACKGROUND: CD4 lymphocyte counts are used to monitor immune status in HIV disease. An understanding of the variability of CD4 counts which occurs in the absence of HIV infection is essential to their interpretation. The sources and degree of such variability have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: To establish reference ranges for CD4 counts in HIV-seronegative women and heterosexual men attending a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic, and to identify possible differences according to gender and cigarette smoking and, in women, any effect of the menstrual cycle, oral contraceptive use and cigarette smoking. DESIGN: Female and heterosexual male patients attending a GUM clinic and requesting an HIV-antibody test were recruited prospectively. Results from an earlier study of CD4 counts in homosexual men were available for comparison. METHODS: Lymphocyte subpopulation analysis on whole blood by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The absolute CD4 count and percentage of CD4 cells (CD4%) were significantly higher in women (n = 195) than heterosexual men (n = 91) [difference between the means 111 x 106/1 (95% CI 41, 180) and 3.1% (1.30, 4.88)]. The absolute CD4 count and CD4% were also significantly higher in smokers (n = 143) than non-smokers (n = 140) [difference 143 (79, 207) and 2.1% (0.43, 3.81)]. Reference ranges for absolute CD4 counts (geometric mean +/- 2SD) were calculated on log transformed data as follows; female smokers 490-1610, female non-smokers 430-1350, heterosexual male smokers 380-1600, heterosexual male non-smokers 330-1280. Among other variables examined, combined oral contraceptive pill use was associated with a trend towards a lower absolute CD4 count. Changes were seen in CD4% with the menstrual cycle. CD4 counts and CD4% did not differ significantly between heterosexual men and homosexual men (n = 45). CONCLUSION: There is a significant gender and smoking effect on CD4 counts. The effects of oral contraceptive use and the menstrual cycle warrant further investigation. PMID:8655163
Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M
Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including "coming out" to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14-19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group. PMID:24549462
Smith, Adrian D; Tapsoba, Placide; Peshu, Norbert; Sanders, Eduard J; Jaffe, Harold W
Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to bear a high burden of HIV infection. In sub-Saharan Africa, same-sex behaviours have been largely neglected by HIV research up to now. The results from recent studies, however, indicate the widespread existence of MSM groups across Africa, and high rates of HIV infection, HIV risk behaviour, and evidence of behavioural links between MSM and heterosexual networks have been reported. Yet most African MSM have no safe access to relevant HIV/AIDS information and services, and many African states have not begun to recognise or address the needs of these men in the context of national HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes. The HIV/AIDS community now has considerable challenges in clarifying and addressing the needs of MSM in sub-Saharan Africa; homosexuality is illegal in most countries, and political and social hostility are endemic. An effective response to HIV/AIDS requires improved strategic information about all risk groups, including MSM. The belated response to MSM with HIV infection needs rapid and sustained national and international commitment to the development of appropriate interventions and action to reduce structural and social barriers to make these accessible. PMID:19616840
Pearlman, Sarah F.
Since the Stonewall riots between gay men and police in New York City in 1969 and the lesbian manifestos of the Women's Liberation Movement in the early 1970s, there has been an intensification of the struggle to end the stigmatization of homosexuality. This study explored retrospectively the experience of mothers (N=10) who had learned that a…
Background In recent years a few cases of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in heterosexuals in Europe have been reported. It is not known whether LGV transmission among heterosexuals occurs on a wider scale. Methods Heterosexual male and female STI clinic clients (n?=?587) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, with a positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) result for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) were screened for IgA anti-MOMP in serum. If the value was above the cut-off index (2.0) the patient’s CT positive urogenital, ocular or rectal sample(s) were selected and tested for LGV by an in-house LGV-specific NAAT. Results Sera of 126 patients were above 2.0 COI. Some patients had >1 CT positive sample. Samples could not be retrieved from 15 of the 126 persons, and 7 samples that were found positive for CT in the diagnostic amplification process could not be confirmed and hence not typed. We did not find a single case of LGV infection in 123 urogenital, ocular or rectal samples from 104 patients. Conclusion We found no indications for significant spread of LGV infection in heterosexuals in Amsterdam. Surveillance in females with cervical or anal CT infection is indicated to monitor LGV occurrence in heterosexuals. PMID:24915990
Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.
Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. PMID:24495493
Results from the PIVOT trial showed that some men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer who forego radical prostatectomy may live as long as men who have immediate surgery. This article explores how the findings may affect clinical practice.
Hendershot, Christian S.; Stoner, Susan A.; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette
Most theoretical models of HIV risk behavior have not considered the role of personality factors, and few studies have examined mechanisms accounting for dispositional influences on sexual risk-taking. This study elaborated on a conceptual model emphasizing sexual sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies and drinking before sex as key predictors of HIV risk (Kalichman, Tannenbaum, & Nachimson, 1998). Multiple groups structural equation modeling was used to determine whether gender moderated relationships among these variables in a sample of 611 heterosexual, young adult drinkers (49% female, 76% Caucasian, mean age = 25). The model provided an excellent fit to the data, and gender differences were not substantiated. Sexual sensation seeking predicted HIV risk directly as well as indirectly via sex-related alcohol expectancies and drinking in sexual contexts. Findings suggest that expectancies and drinking before sex represent proximal mechanisms through which dispositional factors influence sexual risk outcomes. Moreover, these relationships appear similar in men and women. Interventions could benefit from targeting alcohol expectancies and drinking before sex in individuals with a dispositional tendency toward sexual risk-taking. PMID:17874887
Collister, Alex; Bains, Manroop; Jackson, Rachel; Clarke, Emily; Patel, Raj
To manage the rising demand on sexual health services in the UK, many clinics have introduced asymptomatic screening pathways for heterosexuals, which omit examination. In men who have sex with men however the screening of extragenital sites poses additional challenges. This study aimed to establish whether omitting examination of asymptomatic men who have sex with men would lead to clinically significant diagnoses being missed. The notes of all men who have sex with men who attended a UK level 3 sexual health clinic between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Exclusion criteria included HIV-positive patients attending for HIV-related care, attendances for follow-up consultations not requiring a full sexual health screen, symptomatic patients, contacts of sexually transmitted infections and patients requesting an examination or a repeat prescription of a regularly used medication. In all, 920 consultations occurred during 12 months, of which 893 were reviewed; 476 (53.3%) consultations would have been eligible for screening on an asymptomatic pathway and, of these, 21 (4.4%) had abnormalities found at examination. Findings included genital warts, minor dermatological conditions and three cases of minor asymptomatic urological conditions. There were no clinically significant findings on examination of asymptomatic men who have sex with men requiring treatment, indicating that examination in this cohort may be of little benefit. PMID:24810213
M K Maini; R J Gilson; N Chavda; S Gill; A Fakoya; E J Ross; A N Phillips; I V Weller
BACKGROUND: CD4 lymphocyte counts are used to monitor immune status in HIV disease. An understanding of the variability of CD4 counts which occurs in the absence of HIV infection is essential to their interpretation. The sources and degree of such variability have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES: To establish reference ranges for CD4 counts in HIV-seronegative women and heterosexual men
Boily, Marie-Claude; Baggaley, Rebecca F; Wang, Lei; Masse, Benoit; White, Richard G; Hayes, Richard; Alary, Michel
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies of the risk of HIV-1 transmission per heterosexual contact. The search to September 2008 identified 43 publications based on 25 different study populations. Pooled female-to-male (0·0004,95%CI=0·0001-0·0014) and male-to-female (0·0008,CI=0·0006-0·0011) transmission estimates in developed countries reflected a low risk of infection in the absence of antiretrovirals. Developing country female-to-male (0·0038,CI=0·0013-0·0110) and male-to-female (0·0030,CI=0·0014-0·0063) estimates in absence of commercial sex(CS) work were higher. In meta-regression analysis, the infectivity across estimates in absence of CS work was significantly associated with gender, setting, the interaction between setting and gender and HIV prevalence. The pooled receptive anal intercourse estimate was much higher (0·017,CI=0·003-0·089). Estimates for the early and late phase of HIV infection were 9·2(CI=4·5-18·8) and 7·3(CI=4·5-11·9)-fold larger than for the asymptomatic phase, respectively. After adjusting for CS exposure, presence or history of genital ulcers in either couple member increased per-act infectivity 5·3(CI=1·4-19·5)-fold compared to no sexually transmitted infection. Study estimates among non-circumcised men were at least twice those among circumcised men. Developing country estimates were more heterogeneous than developed country estimates, which indicates poorer study quality, greater heterogeneity in risk factors or under-reporting of high-risk behaviour. Efforts are needed to better understand these differences and quantify infectivity in developing countries. PMID:19179227
Prado, Guillermo; Pratt, Indira Abraham; Feaster, Daniel J.; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Smith, Lila; Charles, Marie; Szapocznik, José
This preliminary study explores differences in adjustment in lesbians and heterosexual women by examining three dimensions: psychological distress, major depression, and social support. Surveys were administered to 48 participants. HIV-positive African American lesbians experienced higher levels of psychological distress, anxiety, and current major depression than did their heterosexual counterparts. Lesbians reported less social support from their immediate family, but not from other sources such as friends, compared to the heterosexual women. Lesbians also reported less satisfaction with their social support network. The results presented here highlight the merit of future research to examine factors associated with the lack of family-based social support in HIV-infected lesbians and the potential of developing interventions that assess relationships with members of the immediate family, explore the possibility of repairing these relationships, and capitalize on social support from friends. PMID:16609748
Fleck, J R; Fuller, C C; Malin, S Z; Miller, D H; Acheson, K R
Until recently, research efforts have neglected the father as a significant influence on female personality development. This study proposed that the psychological absence of the father is related to a greater frequency and extent of heterosexual behaviors, increased anxiety as a personality trait and increased anxiety in a dating situation. A positive psychological presence of the father was hypothesized to correlate with androgyny in adolescent females. Measures of perceived parental behavior, extent and frequency of heterosexual behaviors, manifest anxiety and sex-role identification were obtained from 160 single female college students. Results indicated a significant relationship between father psychological absence and a greater extent and frequency of heterosexual behaviors. Father psychologically absent girls also exhibited greater manifest anxiety as a personality trait and in a dating situation. Significant correlations between androgyny and a positive father-daughter relationship were not found. Also reported were additional findings relating several variables to self-rating of attractiveness. PMID:7211544
Mandelbrot, L; Berrebi, A; Rouzioux, C; Partisani, M; Faucher, P; Tubiana, R; Matheron, S; Bujan, L; Morlat, P
The desire for children is a legitimate aspiration that should be part of multidisciplinary care for all men, women or couples living with HIV. The use of effective antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the prevention of sexual, as well as mother-to-child HIV transmission. When the HIV plasma viral load is undetectable on long-term antiretroviral therapy, the risk of mother-to-child transmission is <1% and the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission without condom use in a stable relationship is very low (estimated at less than 1/10,000) in the absence of inflammation of the genital tract. In a man with a long-term undetectable viral load, viral shedding in semen is uncommon, but may occur persistently or intermittently. The same appears true of viral shedding in the vaginal tract of women. Reproductive options are: natural conception, self-insemination when the woman is HIV-infected, assisted reproduction. Natural conception is now considered to be an acceptable option when the conditions are met, after exploring four aspects: (1) virological (viral load undetectable sustained for at least 6 months on therapy), (2) genital (absence of genital infections or lesions), (3) fertility (after appropriate evaluation) and (4) detecting the ovulation period to limit intercourse without condoms. Assisted reproduction has two objectives in the context of HIV, to allow the couple to conceive without abandoning condom use and/or to treat infertility. PMID:24969954
Jocelyn T. Warren; S. Marie Harvey; Christopher R. Agnew
HIV prevention strategies among couples include condom use, mutual monogamy, and HIV testing. Research suggests that condom use is more likely with new or casual partners, and tends to decline as relationships become steady over time. Little is known, however, about explicit mutual monogamy agreements and HIV testing within heterosexual couples. This study used data from 434 young heterosexual couples
Jocelyn T. Warren; S. Marie Harvey; Christopher R. Agnew
HIV prevention strategies among couples include condom use, mutual monogamy, and HIV testing. Research suggests that condom use is more likely with new or casual partners, and tends to decline as relationships become steady over time. Little is known, however, about explicit mutual monogamy agreements and HIV testing within heterosexual couples. This study used data from 434 young heterosexual couples
Kirsch, Alexandra C.; Conley, Colleen S.; Riley, Tracey J.
We compared a matched sample of heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students on 5 psychosocial adjustment composites, longitudinally across the transitional first year of college. Both LGB and heterosexual students experienced a significant increase in psychological distress over the first semester, along with significant decreases…
Ho, Anqi; Sim, Tick Ngee
Thirty-eight lesbian and 38 heterosexual women in Singapore (ages 21 to 35) discussed relationships, sex, and virginity in focus groups. Views were mostly similar between the two groups, although there were differences. All participants defined relationships as romantic involvement. However, while heterosexual participants equated commitment with monogamy, lesbian participants distinguished them. All participants differentiated between having sex (for thrill and fun) and making love (for expressing love), although there were differences in the purposes of making love. Primacy of penetration was found in defining virginity loss, but for many participants, virginity was important only insofar as it indicated sexual permissiveness. PMID:24383860
... in women. Who are the perpetrators of male sexual assault? Those who sexually assault men or boys differ ... male gender socialization affect the recognition of male sexual assault? Men who have not dealt with the symptoms ...
... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...
Mark Davis; Graham Hart; Graham Bolding; Lorraine Sherr; Jonathan Elford
Access to the Internet has increased dramatically over the past decade as has its use for meeting sexual partners (e?dating), particularly among gay men. Between June 2002 and January 2004, 128 gay\\/bisexual men living in London were interviewed one?to?one about their experience of e?dating, sexual risk and HIV prevention. The men were recruited both online (through the Internet) and offline
Examines the early learning experiences of great men and women mathematicians to determine whether their lives were stimulated in symbol modes that generated semiautonomous cognitive systems of acquiring, processing, and originating vast complexities of abstract mathematical concepts. (HOD)
E Henry; F Marcellin; Y Yomb; L Fugon; S Nemande; C Gueboguo; J Larmarange; E Trenado; F Eboko; B Spire
ObjectivesResearch on men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa was neglected for a long time. The objective of this study was to understand factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with male partners among a group of MSM living in the city of Douala, Cameroon.MethodsIn 2008, a survey on the sexual activity and practices of MSM was
Hugues Balthasar; André Jeannin; Françoise Dubois-Arber
The aim of this study was to analyze the circumstances of first anal intercourse (FAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM)\\u000a and to identify factors associated with condom use at this event. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience\\u000a sample of MSM living in Switzerland (N = 2,200). Anonymous questionnaires were distributed using Swiss gay communication channels (newspapers, associations,
Quist, Michelle C; Watkins, Christopher D; Smith, Finlay G; Little, Anthony C; Debruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C
Although men displaying cues of good physical condition possess traits that are desirable in a mate (e.g., good health), these men are also more likely to possess antisocial characteristics that are undesirable in a long-term partner (e.g., aggression and tendency to infidelity). How women resolve this trade-off between the costs and benefits associated with choosing a mate in good physical condition may lead to strategic variation in women's mate preferences. Because the costs of choosing a mate with antisocial personality characteristics are greater in long- than short-term relationships, women's sociosexuality (i.e., the extent to which they are interested in uncommitted sexual relationships) may predict individual differences in their mate preferences. Here we investigated variation in 99 heterosexual women's preferences for facial symmetry, a characteristic that is thought to be an important cue of physical condition. Symmetry preferences were assessed using pairs of symmetrized and original (i.e., relatively asymmetric) versions of 10 male and 10 female faces. Analyses showed that women's sociosexuality, and their sociosexual attitude in particular, predicted their preferences for symmetry in men's, but not women's, faces; women who reported being more interested in short-term, uncommitted relationships demonstrated stronger attraction to symmetric men. Our findings present new evidence for potentially adaptive variation in women's symmetry preferences that is consistent with trade-off theories of attraction. PMID:21882053
Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Gilmore, Amanda K; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H
The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in young heterosexual men's perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of condom use in their casual sexual relationships. Because men who perceive greater disadvantages of condom use may be more likely to resist using them, we also explored the tactics that men employ to avoid using condoms. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with single men who have sex with women (n = 60), aged 21-35 years, all of whom reported using condoms inconsistently. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. As expected, participants reported advantages and disadvantages to condom use that pertained to the likelihood and quality of sex, physical sensations during intercourse, and the risk of sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies. Within each of these topics, however, participants' appraisals of the relative pros and cons of condom use varied considerably. Additionally, participants reported that men use a wide range of condom use resistance tactics, including seduction, deception, and condom sabotage, and that the use of these tactics was viewed as normative behavior for men their age. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of sexual health prevention efforts could be enhanced by increasing young men's motivations to use condoms and by targeting social norms regarding condom use resistance. Additionally, the issue of men's condom use resistance clearly merits increased empirical investigation and intervention attention. PMID:23912776
Devoto, Stephen H.
2012 PROSPECTUS2012 PROSPECTUS WESLEYAN MEN'S SOCCERWESLEYAN MEN'S SOCCER #12;Director of Athletics's Lacrosse...............Holly Wheeler Men's Soccer ........................Geoff Wheeler Women's Soccer info. phone...............(860) 685-2887 men's soccer InformatIon Home field (grass
Harry Drasin; Kristin P. Beals; Marc N. Elliott; Janet Lever; David J. Klein; Mark A. Schuster
As the social context in which gay men live changes due to greater visibility, greater acceptance, and easier access to gay subculture, gay males may self-identify and take part in gay social activities at earlier ages than in the past. This study examined whether developmental milestones associated with sexual orientation for gay men have changed over the past several decades.
Lisa J. Cohen; Konstantin Nikiforov; Sniezyna Gans; Olga Poznansky; Pamela McGeoch; Carrie Weaver; Enid Gertmanian King; Ken Cullen; Igor Galynker
This paper presents data from a series of prelimary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and
de Visser, Richard
The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…
R. S. Gold; A. Karmiloff-smith; M. J. Skinner; J. Morton
Heterosexual students were asked to recall two sexual encounters from the preceding six months: one in which they had unprotected intercourse (‘unsafe’ encounter) and one in which they resisted a strong temptation to have unprotected intercourse (‘safe’ encounter). The aims were to record justifications for unprotected intercourse that respondents had given themselves during the unsafe encounter and to identify factors
Meredith G. F. Worthen
Although sexual experiences among college students have been well documented, few studies have explored how sexual activity may be related to attitudes concerning sex and sexuality. Limited research suggests there may be an important relationship between sexual experiences, feminist self-identification, and supportive attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Using a college sample of heterosexual students (n =
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of…
Kroese, Dirk P.
Stochastic models for the spread of HIV in a mobile heterosexual population A. Sani a,b,*, D Department of Mathematics, Haluoleo University, Kendari, Indonesia Received 17 August 2005; received transmission of HIV is the mobility of the population. We formulate various stochastic models for the spread
Brendan P. Zietsch; Katherine I. Morley; Sri N. Shekar; Karin J. H. Verweij; Matthew C. Keller; Stuart Macgregor; Margaret J. Wright; J. Michael Bailey; Nicholas G. Martin
There is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency. One hypothesis proposes that while genes predisposing to homosexuality reduce homosexuals' reproductive success, they may confer some advantage in heterosexuals who carry them. However, it is
Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Long, Jeffery D.
In this longitudinal, observational study of heterosexual interaction at middle school dances we examined the degree to which boys' and girls' groups became more gender integrated over time. The results show groups became more integrated over time with the pattern differing by gender. Boys had a relatively low level of contact with girls over the…
van den Hoek, J A; van der Linden, M M; Coutinho, R A
Since 1986, an increase in heterosexually acquired syphilis cases has been seen in Amsterdam. The proportion of syphilis patients who reported using hard drugs, increased from 7% in 1985 to 23% in 1988, which was mainly due to increased numbers of addicted prostitute women with syphilis. PMID:2312115
Jill M. Chonody; Scott Edward Rutledge; Scott Smith
Using the word “gay” to refer to something that is “boring” is part of American slang, and heterosexual males commonly call one another a “fag.” The responses of 767 college students were analyzed to explore how this language relates to antigay bias. Results of multiple regression explained 14.8% of the variance for believing that “it's no big deal” to call
Halkitis, Perry N.; Manasse, Ashley N.; McCready, Karen C.
In this study we assess lifetime and recent drug use patterns among 261 heterosexually identified 18- to 25-year-olds through brief street intercept surveys conducted in New York City. Marijuana, hallucinogens, powder cocaine, and ecstasy were the most frequently reported drugs for both lifetime and recent use. Findings further suggest significant…
J. J. Stadler; S. Delany; M. Mntambo
Anal sex within heterosexual relationships is usually underreported or not reported at all, yet is increasingly recognised as a potential mode of HIV transmission. Understanding the circumstances of anal sex is critical for trials that seek to assess the efficacy of microbicides. This article draws on qualitative data collected during a feasibility study for a clinical trial of microbicides in
Monica A. Longmore; Wendi L. Johnson; Wendy D. Manning; Peggy C. Giordano
Using relational theory and survey data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 665), this article examined whether individuals were tested for HIV while intimately involved in a current or recent heterosexual relationship. The analyses included the respondent's and partner's sexual risk factors (non-exclusivity and lifetime number of partners), relational variables, prior testing, and demographic characteristics. It was found that 39%
DiStefano, Teresa M.; Croteau, James M.; Anderson, Mary Z.; Kampa-Kokesch, Shelia; Bullard, Melissa A.
In this qualitative study, heterosexual professionals with an interest in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues were surveyed about their ally work with LGB people. Data were analyzed to describe participants' experiences. Results are discussed in terms of implications for counseling and student affairs professionals who engage in…
Gangamma, Rashmi; Slesnick, Natasha; Toviessi, Paula; Serovich, Julianne
Youth who are homeless and gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) are one of the most disenfranchised and marginalized groups in our society. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare HIV in GLB homeless youth with their heterosexual counterparts. Participants for this study included 268 youth involved in treatment outcome studies with substance…
Robinson, Joseph P.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) experience higher rates of victimization by bullying than do their heterosexual-identified peers. In this article, we investigate the extent to which this difference in rates of victimization can explain LGBTQ youths' greater rates of suicidal ideation, suicide…
Aerts, Saskia; Van Houtte, Mieke; Dewaele, Alexis; Cox, Nele; Vincke, John
This study focuses on the school motivation of LGB (lesbian, gay, and bisexual) students in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, a fairly LGB-friendly country. The authors hypothesize that LGB students in Flemish secondary schools are less motivated for school than heterosexual students because they experience less sense of school belonging and…
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
Both partners from gay and lesbian cohabiting couples without children were compared longitudinally with both partners from heterosexual married couples with children (N at first assessment = 80, 53, and 80 couples, respectively) on variables from 5 domains indicative of relationship health. For 50% of the comparisons, gay and lesbian partners did…
Patricia L. Arena; Charles S. Carver; Michael H. Antoni; Sharlene Weiss; Gail Ironson; Ron E. Durán
This study compared the experiences of 39 self-identified lesbians and 39 heterosexual women who had recently been treated for breast cancer. They were matched by age, stage of disease, time since diagnosis, and ethnicity. Data were collected by a questionnaire completed at home and returned by mail. Variables assessed included emotional adjustment, thought intrusion and avoidance, perceived quality of life,
This article reviews the existing British literature on the micro-social details of young people's heterosexual encounters, emphasizing the cultural factors which impede the adoption of health education advice. Most of the findings cited come from qualitative projects that relied primarily on detailed interviews or group discussions. Six issues are highlighted: difficulties in talking about sex; the gender-role expectations brought to
Villani, Antonella; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Nordvik, Monica K.; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben
Background The Internet has become an important venue for seeking sexual partners and may facilitate transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Methods We examined a 64-day data log of flirt messages expressing sexual interest among MSM within the Qruiser.com community. We used logistic regression to analyze characteristics of MSM sending and receiving flirt messages and negative binomial regression to examine individual activity and popularity. The structural properties, including the core structure of the flirt network, were analyzed. Results The MSM population consisted of approximately 40% homosexuals and 37% bisexuals, while the remaining 23% included men who identified as heterosexual but searched for sex with men and “experimental”. MSM were more likely to send flirt messages if they were homosexual and aged 40+ years; young people aged < 30 years were more likely to receive a flirt. Possession of a webcam was strongly associated with both sending flirt messages and being a flirt target. The distributions of flirts sent (max kout?=?2162) and received (max kin?=?84) were highly heterogeneous. Members in central cores were more likely homosexuals, singles, and aged 31–40 years. The probability of a matched flirt (flirt returned from target) increased from 1% in the outer core to 18% in the central core (core size?=?4). Discussion The flirt network showed high degree heterogeneity similar to the structural properties of real sexual contact networks with a single central core. Further studies are needed to explore use of webcam for Internet dating. PMID:22808052
O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Joseph, Heather A; Flores, Stephen
Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, but few behavioral interventions address their prevention needs. Adaptation of evidence-based interventions is a pragmatic strategy that builds upon lessons learned and has the potential to fill gaps in prevention programming. Yet there are few reports of how transfers are executed and whether effectiveness is achieved. This research reports on the adaptation of VOICES/VOICES, a single-session intervention designed for heterosexual adults, into No Excuses/Sin buscar excuses for Latino MSM. To test the adapted intervention, 370 at-risk Latino MSM were enrolled in a randomized trial. At a three-month follow-up, there was a sharper decrease in unprotected intercourse in the intervention group compared to controls (59 % vs. 39 %, ANOVA p < 0.05, F = 4.10). Intervention participants also reported more condom use at last intercourse (AOR = 1.69; 95 % CI 1.02-2.81, p < 02). Findings support use of adapted models for meeting prevention needs of high-priority populations. PMID:24419993
Yehia, Baligh R.; Herati, Ramin S.; Fleishman, John A.; Gallant, Joel E.; Agwu, Allison L.; Berry, Stephen A.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Moore, Richard D.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Gebo, Kelly A.
Objectives Guidelines recommend hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening for all people living with HIV (PLWH). Understanding HCV testing practices may improve compliance with guidelines and can help identify areas for future intervention. Methods We evaluated HCV screening and unnecessary repeat HCV testing in 8,590 PLWH initiating care at 12 U.S. HIV clinics between 2006 and 2010, with follow-up through 2011. Multivariable logistic regression examined the association between patient factors and the outcomes: HCV screening (?1 HCV antibody tests during the study period) and unnecessary repeat HCV testing (?1 HCV antibody tests in patients with a prior positive test result). Results Overall, 82% of patients were screened for HCV, 18% of those screened were HCV antibody-positive, and 40% of HCV antibody-positive patients had unnecessary repeat HCV testing. The likelihood of being screened for HCV increased as the number of outpatient visits rose (adjusted odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.03). Compared to men who have sex with men (MSM), patients with injection drug use (IDU) were less likely to be screened for HCV (0.63, 0.52–0.78); while individuals with Medicaid were more likely to be screened than those with private insurance (1.30, 1.04–1.62). Patients with heterosexual (1.78, 1.20–2.65) and IDU (1.58, 1.06–2.34) risk compared to MSM, and those with higher numbers of outpatient (1.03, 1.01–1.04) and inpatient (1.09, 1.01–1.19) visits were at greatest risk of unnecessary HCV testing. Conclusions Additional efforts to improve compliance with HCV testing guidelines are needed. Leveraging health information technology may increase HCV screening and reduce unnecessary testing. PMID:25032989
Sarah E. Woolf; Stephen A. Maisto
In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) currently represent more than 50% of those living with HIV and over\\u000a 70% of HIV+ men (CDC 2007, http:\\/\\/www.cdc.gov\\/hiv\\/topics\\/msm\\/resources\\/factsheets\\/pdf\\/msm.pdf). Male-to-male sexual contact has been identified as the predominant route of transmission among this sub-group, which underscores\\u000a the need for research that targets risk factors associated with risky sex-related HIV
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S E; Drummond, Murray; Sta Maria, Estephanie; Bottorff, Joan L; Creighton, Genevieve
Murder-suicide (M-S) is a complex phenomenon that can involve a multifaceted set of interrelated biological and social factors. M-S is also sexed and gendered in that the perpetrators are most often male and their underpinning motives and actions link to masculinities in an array of diverse ways. With the overarching goal to describe connections between men, masculinities, and M-S, 296 newspaper articles describing 45 North American M-S cases were analyzed. The inductively derived findings revealed three themes: (a) domestic desperation, (b) workplace justice, and (c) school retaliation. Cases in the domestic desperation theme were characterized by the murder of a family member(s) and were often underpinned by men's self-perceptions of failing to provide economic security. Workplace justice cases emerged from men's grievances around paid-work, job insecurity, and perceptions of being bullied and/or marginalized by coworkers or supervisors. The school retaliation cases were strongly linked to "pay back" against individuals and/or society for the hardships endured by M-S perpetrators. Prevailing across the three themes was men's loss of control in their lives, hopelessness, and marginalized masculine identities. Also evident were men's alignments to hegemonic masculinities in reasserting one's masculine self by protesting the perceived marginalization invoked on them. Overall, the findings give pause to consider the need for men-centered M-S prevention strategies to quell the catastrophic impacts of this long-standing but understudied men's health issue. PMID:25294867
Calzo, Jerel P.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn
Objective To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Method Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a US prospective cohort spanning ages 9–25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Results Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (? =.10, 95% C.I.= .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (?=.39, 95% C.I.=.21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased three-fold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Conclusions Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males. PMID:23316852
Powers, Kimberly A.; Poole, Charles; Pettifor, Audrey E.; Cohen, Myron S.
Background Studies of cumulative HIV incidence suggest that co-factors such as genital ulcer disease (GUD), HIV disease stage, and circumcision influence HIV transmission; however, the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1 is commonly cited as a fixed value (?0·001, or 1 transmission per thousand contacts). We sought to estimate transmission co-factor effects on the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1 and to quantify the extent to which study methods have affected infectivity estimates. Methods We conducted a systematic search (through April 2008) of PubMed, Web of Science, and relevant bibliographies to identify articles estimating the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1. We used meta-regression and stratified random-effects meta-analysis to assess differences in infectivity by co-factors and study methods. Findings Infectivity estimates were extremely heterogeneous, ranging from zero transmissions after more than 100 penile-vaginal contacts in some sero-discordant couples to one transmission for every 3·1 episodes of heterosexual anal intercourse. Estimates were only weakly associated with study methods. Infectivity differences (95% confidence intervals), expressed as number of transmissions per 1000 contacts, were 8 (0-16) comparing uncircumcised to circumcised male susceptibles, 6 (3-9) comparing susceptible individuals with and without GUD, 2 (1-3) comparing late-stage to mid-stage index cases, and 3 (0-5) comparing early-stage to mid-stage index cases. Interpretation A single value for the heterosexual infectivity of HIV-1 fails to reflect the variation associated with important co-factors. The commonly cited value of ?0·001 was estimated among stable couples with low prevalences of high-risk co-factors, and represents a lower bound. Co-factor effects are important to include in epidemic models, policy considerations, and prevention messages. PMID:18684670
Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Havlí?ek, Jan
Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions. PMID:24358180
The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM) websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316), with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or “curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118). Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex) and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids). This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high. PMID:19543410
Swami, Viren; Diwell, Rachel; McCreary, Donald R
Previous studies have documented associations between sexuality and body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear among men. This study examined whether men's drive for muscularity can be considered a correlate of their sexuality. A community-based sample of 292 heterosexual men from London, UK, completed a survey consisting of measures of drive for muscularity, sociosexuality, sexual assertiveness, sexual esteem, and sexual sensation seeking. A multiple regression analysis showed that greater drive for muscularity was predicted by more unrestricted sociosexuality (i.e., a greater proclivity for short-term, transient relationships), greater sexual sensation seeking, and greater sexual assertiveness, once the effects of participant age and body mass index had been accounted for. Possible avenues for intervention based on a sex-positive approach are discussed in conclusion. PMID:25201097
This paper discusses the gendering of self of a young boy who has two males as parents, from the view point of his female psychotherapist. During the 2 years of psychotherapy, the young boy was preoccupied with the need to create a kind of mother. He referred to his female caretaker as "Real Mommy" whom he loved and to his psychotherapist as "The…
There is virtually no literature concerning the experiences of self-identified heterosexual clients in substance abuse treatment who have a history of same-gender sexual contact (HSGS). In a U.S. urban inpatient program in 2009-2010, 99 HSGS clients were compared to 681 other heterosexual and 86 lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients regarding background factors, program completion rates, and feelings about treatment. Male HSGS participants had lower completion rates than other male heterosexual participants. Qualitative data indicated that most male HSGS participants experienced difficult emotions regarding same-gender sexual encounters, particularly those involving trading sex for money or drugs. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:25364839
Core Curriculum Standard II: Students will understand that organisms depend on living and non living things within their environment. Introduction At the end of this assignment you should know the difference between a living and a non living organism and understand the effect a new environment (both living and non living things) can have on a living organism and the effect that living organism can have on the environment. ...
Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balan, Ivan; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Barreda, Victoria; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ávila, María Mercedes
Background Prior research focusing on men who have sex with men (MSM) conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina, used convenience samples that included mainly gay identified men. To increase MSM sample representativeness, we used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) for the first time in Argentina. Using RDS, under certain specified conditions, the observed estimates for the percentage of the population with a specific trait are asymptotically unbiased. We describe, the diversity of the recruited sample, from the point of view of sexual orientation, and contrast the different subgroups in terms of their HIV sexual risk behavior. Methodology 500 MSM were recruited using RDS. Behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews and Web-based CASI. Conclusion In contrast with prior studies, RDS generated a very diverse sample of MSM from a sexual identity perspective. Only 24.5% of participants identified as gay; 36.2% identified as bisexual, 21.9% as heterosexual, and 17.4% were grouped as “other.” Gay and non-gay identified MSM differed significantly in their sexual behavior, the former having higher numbers of partners, more frequent sexual contacts and less frequency of condom use. One third of the men (gay, 3%; bisexual, 34%, heterosexual, 51%; other, 49%) reported having had sex with men, women and transvestites in the two months prior to the interview. This population requires further study and, potentially, HIV prevention strategies tailored to such diversity of partnerships. Our results highlight the potential effectiveness of using RDS to reach non-gay identified MSM. They also present lessons learned in the implementation of RDS to recruit MSM concerning both the importance and limitations of formative work, the need to tailor incentives to circumstances of the less affluent potential participants, the need to prevent masking, and the challenge of assessing network size. PMID:22102896
He, N; Wong, F Y; Huang, Z J; Thompson, E E; Fu, C
There is a growing awareness that internal migration in China might shift the HIV epidemic by broadening the social and sexual mixing of its population. However, little is known about how drug use/abuse might contribute to the spread of HIV. This qualitative study aims to elucidate factors for preventing substance abuse and HIV among two types of male migrants living in the Shanghai metropolitan area; the general migrant population and so-called 'money boys' (those who engaged in same-sex activities for money). Compared to most male migrants, the 'money boys' had a slightly better economic situation; rarely visited their hometowns; used alcohol less but drugs more; had more knowledge about HIV and sexually transmitted diseases; higher HIV/ STD testing rates and fewer HIV risk behaviors. The general male migrants had more misconceptions about HIV (e.g. the need to pay for HIV testing) than the 'money boys'. However, it was noted that 'money boys' who were new to the enterprise and men who have sex with men but did not engage in commercial sex often lacked HIV knowledge and protective skills. Given the needs of various sub-types of 'migrants', differential approaches to HIV prevention are needed. PMID:17129865
Closson, Elizabeth F; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a 'bridge' population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV-prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk-reduction counselling that attends to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics. PMID:24815724
Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O.
This paper combines relational perspectives on gender identity with social network structural perspectives on health to understand men’s sexual functioning. We argue that network positions that afford independence and control over social resources are consistent with traditional masculine roles and may therefore affect men’s sexual performance. For example, when a heterosexual man’s female partner has more frequent contact with his confidants than he does–a situation that we refer to as partner betweenness – his relational autonomy, privacy, and control are constrained. Analyses of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) show that about a quarter of men experience partner betweenness, and that these men are 92 percent more likely to report problems getting and/or maintaining an erection (95% CI: 1.274, 2.881). This association is strongest among the youngest men in the sample, which may reflect changing conceptions of masculinity in later life. We close by considering several explanations for these findings, and urge additional research on the linkages between health, gender, and network structure. PMID:22003520
Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Research has not yet explored the potential impact of social stress, biphobia, and other factors on the mental health of bisexual men. In-depth interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Interviewers explored potential mental health stressors and supports. Many participants reported personal and social challenges associated with bisexuality, which in turn influenced their mental health. Reported instances of stigma toward bisexuality, from both homosexual and heterosexual individuals, impacted participants’ feelings regarding their own sexualities. Isolation was also commonly reported. Programs are greatly needed that focus on the specific mental health and other concerns voiced by these men. Based on our study findings, such programs should emphasize self-acceptance, social network and community building, and ways to maximize available social support, similar to community-level empowerment interventions that have shown success among gay-identified men. PMID:22745591
This recent addition to the National Women's Health Information Center (NWHIC) (reviewed in the April 23, 1999 Scout Report) explores health risks which are of concern to men. Although specifically aimed to help women learn more about men's health concerns, users of both sexes will benefit from this metasite, which links to a host of publications from various government bodies and related national organizations concerned with health and disease. In addition to ten sections on specific topics such as cancer, fitness, heart disease, HIV/AIDS, prostate health, and smoking, the site includes three sections on the health of three subgroups: college-age men, minority men, and older men. A link to the Healthfinder (discussed in the April 18, 1997 Scout Report) men's health information page is also provided.
Marcel A. van den Hout; Erik G. W. Schouten
Sexually functional (N=26) and sexually dysfunctional heterosexual men with psychogenic erectile disorder (N=23) viewed two sexually explicit videos. Performance demand was manipulated through verbal instruction that a substantial genital response was to be expected from the videos. Self-focused attention was manipulated by introducing a camera pointed at the participant. Dispositional self-consciousness was assessed by questionnaire. Performance demand was found to
Kimberly F. Balsam; Bu Huang; Karen C. Fieland; Jane M. Simoni; Karina L. Walters
In a community-based sample of urban American Indian and Alaska Native adults, 25 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and two-spirit participants were compared with 154 heterosexual participants with respect to sociodemographic characteristics, Native cultural participation, trauma, physical and mental health, and substance use. Compared with their heterosexual counterparts, two-spirit participants reported higher rates of childhood physical abuse and more historical trauma in
V. Anna Gyarmathy; Nan Li; Karin E. Tobin; Irving F. Hoffman; Nikolai Sokolov; Julia Levchenko; Julia Batluk; Andrei A. Kozlov; Andrei P. Kozlov; Carl A. Latkin
We examined the association of individual demographic and behavioral attributes, partnership (dyad) and social network characteristics\\u000a with unprotected sex in the heterosexual dyads of IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia. Of the individual-level characteristics\\u000a female gender and younger age; and of the dyad-level characteristics sharing injecting equipment, social exposure to the sex\\u000a partner (“hanging out with” or seeing each other daily),
The 1991 National Survey of Men was conducted to examine issues related to sexual behavior and condom use among U.S. men aged 20 to 39. Data collection and processing took place between March 1991 and January 1992. This survey was intended to serve as a baseline survey for a long...
Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.
This issue on gender and the media contains the following (1) "Home, Home on the Remote"; (2) "Dads Through the Decades" (Mark Crispin Miller); (3) "The New Man: That's Entertainment!" (John Lehrer); (4) "Singing Men's Songs" (Kerry Skorlich); (5) "Media Myths and Men's Work" (Ian Harris); (6) "Why Are There No Asian Male Anchors?" (Ben…
Controversies in the literature suggest varied views as to whether lesbian and heterosexual women accept different cultural norms about body shape and size. This article explores whether messages about the body from lesbian media deviate from mainstream, heterosexually focused media. In particular, I differentiate the messages within both media by the physical appearance of the model in the photo, and how the body is positioned in the type and context of the ad itself. Three hundred randomly selected photo advertisements from lesbian and mainstream women's magazines were examined. Lesbian models varied more in age and weight than mainstream models, and were more likely to be androgynous in gender appearance. In turn, mainstream models were more likely to be wearing revealing clothing that hindered their mobility, such as a tight skirt or stiletto heels. Advertisements in lesbian magazines placed their models in more defined contexts, such as in travel ads, and with more of a purpose than mainstream advertisements, where models were more likely to be placed in front of a non-descript backdrop. Lesbian advertisements were more likely to sell products that engendered community (e.g., travel, book club), whereas mainstream advertisements more often sold products that emphasized the self (e.g., clothing, beauty products). I consider how lesbian and heterosexual bodies are reproduced and impart messages about "doing" gender. PMID:19042746
Bellatorre, Anna; Muennig, Peter
Objectives. We determined whether individuals who harbor antigay prejudice experience elevated mortality risk. Methods. Data on heterosexual sexual orientation (n?=?20?226, aged 18–89 years), antigay attitudes, and mortality risk factors came from the General Social Survey, which was linked to mortality data from the National Death Index (1988–2008). We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine whether antigay prejudice was associated with mortality risk among heterosexuals. Results. Heterosexuals who reported higher levels of antigay prejudice had higher mortality risk than those who reported lower levels (hazard ratio [HR]?=?1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.09, 1.42), with control for multiple risk factors for mortality, including demographics, socioeconomic status, and fair or poor self-rated health. This result translates into a life expectancy difference of approximately 2.5 years (95% CI?=?1.0, 4.0 years) between individuals with high versus low levels of antigay prejudice. Furthermore, in sensitivity analyses, antigay prejudice was specifically associated with increased risk of cardiovascular-related causes of death in fully adjusted models (HR?=?1.29; 95% CI?=?1.04, 1.60). Conclusions. The findings contribute to a growing body of research suggesting that reducing prejudice may improve the health of both minority and majority populations. PMID:24328664
Graham, James M; Barnow, Zoe B
The beneficial effect of social support on the well-being of individuals and romantic relationships has been extensively studied in married heterosexual relationships. The direct effects model suggests that social support is directly associated with well-being, while the social buffering model describes how social support can protect individual well-being from the negative impact of stress. In the present study, we seek to test the extent to which these processes apply to gay and lesbian couples. We use a sample of 111 gay, lesbian, and married heterosexual couples to test the predictions of the social buffering models across relationship types. Irrespective of sexual orientation, the results suggest that social support from family and friends is directly related to well-being, while support provided by one's romantic partner buffered individual well-being from the negative impact of stress. The direct and buffering effects of partner support on romantic relationship quality were likewise consistent across couple types. While the amount of social support received from family members had a beneficial effect on the relationship quality of heterosexual couples, family support was unrelated to relationship quality in same-sex couples. Furthermore, the relation between friend support and relationship quality differed across couple types. We discuss the results in the context of the unique challenges faced by same-sex couples. PMID:23795604
Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi
Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a noninfant (i.e., older child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, 3 months postadoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low or very high preadoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26053348
Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Mereish, Ethan H
Many heterosexual youth report homophobic victimization but there is little longitudinal research to examine its mental health consequences for them. In a 7-month study across an academic school year among 572 heterosexual high school students (55% females), we tested the short-term effects of homophobic victimization on anxiety and depressive symptoms with attention to gender differences. Homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year predicted higher levels of concurrent anxiety over and above levels attributable to general victimization. Further, when controlling for initial anxiety and general victimization, homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year predicted increased anxiety at the end of the school year for males, but not for females. Homophobic victimization across time points was more strongly associated for males than females, and this accounted for why initial homophobic victimization predicted increased anxiety for males but not females (i.e., it was indicative of mediated moderation). In contrast, homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year did not predict concurrent depressive symptoms over and above general victimization. Similarly, although it predicted increased depressive symptoms at the end of the school year for males but not for females, the effect was weaker than for anxiety. These findings underscore that the effects of homophobic victimization are not temporary, particularly as they pertain to anxiety, and underscore the need to consider the nature of the victimization that youth experience, including for heterosexual youth. PMID:24337663
Marshal, Michael P.; Dermody, Sarah S.; Cheong, JeeWon; Burton, Chad M.; Friedman, Mark S.; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda
Sexual minority youth report higher rates of depression and suicidality than do heterosexual youth. Little is known, however, about whether these disparities continue as youth transition into young adulthood. The primary goals of this study were to describe and compare trajectories of adolescent depressive symptoms and suicidality among sexual minority and heterosexual youth, examine differences in depressive symptoms and suicidality trajectories across sexual orientation subgroups, and determine whether there are gender differences in these longitudinal disparities. Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed using latent curve modeling (N = 12,379; 53% female). Results showed that the rates of depressive symptoms and suicidality in early adolescence were higher among sexual minority youth than among heterosexual youth, and that these disparities persisted over time as participants transitioned into young adulthood. Consistent with previous cross-sectional studies, the observed longitudinal disparities were largest for females and for bisexually-identified youth. Sexual minority youth may benefit from childhood and early adolescent prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23784511
Lehavot, Keren; Simpson, Tracy L
This study examined the impact of various traumas across the life span on screening positive for current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among heterosexual and sexual minority women veterans. Women veterans were recruited over the Internet (N = 706, 37% lesbian or bisexual) to participate in an anonymous, online survey. We assessed childhood trauma; adult sexual assault and adult physical victimization before, during, and after the military; combat exposure; perceived sexist discrimination during military service; sexual minority military stressors; past-year sexist events; and whether participants screened positive for PTSD or depression. Binary logistic regressions were used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PTSD and depression, stratified by sexual orientation and controlling for demographic characteristics. Lesbian and bisexual women reported higher rates of trauma across the life span, although in some instances (e.g., sexual assault during and after military service, combat exposure), they did not differ from their heterosexual counterparts. Childhood trauma and traumas that occurred during military service added the most variance to both PTSD and depression models. Sexual assault during military service appeared to be especially harmful with respect to screening positive for PTSD for both sexual orientation groups. Results revealed a number of other predictors of mental health status for women veterans, some of which differed by sexual orientation. Findings indicate a significant burden of interpersonal trauma for both heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual women veterans and provide information on the distinct association of various traumas with current PTSD and depression by sexual orientation. PMID:25019543
Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 - 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 - 64; Yearly exam - men - ages 40 - 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 - 64; Men's health - ages 40 - 64; Preventive care - men - ages 40 - ...
Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 - 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 - 39; Yearly exam - men - ages 18 - 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 - 39; Men's health - ages 18 - 39; Preventive care exam - men - ages ...
Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...
Thorpe, Roland J; Bell, Caryn N; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Harvey, Jelani; Smolen, Jenny R; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A
Disparities in men's health research may inaccurately attribute differences in chronic conditions to race rather than the different health risk exposures in which men live. This study sought to determine whether living in the same social environment attenuates race disparities in chronic conditions among men. This study compared survey data collected in 2003 from black and white men with similar incomes living in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated to determine whether race disparities in chronic conditions were attenuated among men living in the same social environment. In the national sample, black men exhibited greater odds of having hypertension (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34, 1.86) and diabetes (OR?=?1.62, 95% CI 1.27-2.08) than white men. In the sample of men living in the same social context, black and white respondents had similar odds of having hypertension (OR?=?1.05, 95% CI 0.70, 1.59) and diabetes (OR?=?1.12, 95% CI 0.57-2.22). There are no race disparities in chronic conditions among low-income, urban men living in the same social environment. Policies and interventions aiming to reduce disparities in chronic conditions should focus on modifying social aspects of the environment. PMID:25168686
Bobst, Cora; Lobmaier, Janek S
Women's ovulation is perceivable with different senses. Already subtle face shape differences are enough to trigger men's preference for the ovulatory female. The aim of the present study is to investigate if men's testosterone level can be linked to their preference for the ovulatory female. Thirty-nine heterosexual participants were shown face pairs of which one of them was transformed to the shape of a prototype face of a woman in her luteal cycle phase and the other was transformed to the shape of a prototype face of an ovulatory woman. Participants were asked to choose the face which they perceived as being more attractive (attractiveness task), or the woman with whom they would have better chances to get a date (dating task). In both tasks, the ovulatory female was chosen more often. Testosterone was not predictive for the chosen face; regardless of testosterone level men preferred the ovulatory woman. However testosterone predicted how confident the men were with their choice. Men with lower testosterone levels were more confident with their choice than men with higher testosterone levels. PMID:24975650
MacWilliams, Brent Robert; Schmidt, Bonnie; Bleich, Michael R
This literature review examines the ability of the nursing profession to recruit and retain men in nursing schools and in the nursing workforce. The authors consider such educational barriers as role stress, discrimination, and stereotyping, and explore questions of male touch and the capacity of men to care. In identifying challenges faced by men entering or working in a profession in which women predominate, the authors hope to promote actions on the part of nurse leaders, educators, and researchers that may address issues of sex bias and promote greater sexual diversity within nursing. PMID:23247678
Thorpe, Roland J; Kelley, Elizabeth; Bowie, Janice V; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino; LaVeist, Thomas
National data indicate that Black men have higher rates of obesity than White men. Black men also experience earlier onset of many chronic conditions and premature mortality linked to obesity. Explanations for these disparities have been underexplored, and existing national-level studies may be limited in their ability to explicate these long-standing patterns. National data generally do not account for race differences in risk exposures resulting from racial segregation or the confounding between race and socioeconomic status. Therefore, these differences in obesity may be a function of social environment rather than race. This study examined disparities in obesity among Black and White men living in the same social and environmental conditions, who have similar education levels and incomes using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-SWB (EHDIC-SWB) study. The findings were compared with the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and obesity adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health conditions. In the NHIS, Black men had a higher odds of obesity (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.49) than White men. However in the EHDIC-SWB, which accounts for social and environmental conditions of where these men live, Black men had similar odds of obesity (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval = 0.70-1.62) compared with White men. These data highlight the importance of the role that setting plays in understanding race disparities in obesity among men. Social environment may be a key determinant of health when seeking to understand race disparities in obesity among Black and White men. PMID:25249452
Li, Shuming; Li, Dongliang; Zhang, Lifen; Fan, Wensheng; Yang, Xueying; Yu, Mingrun; Xiao, Dong; Yan, Li; Zhang, Zheng; Shi, Wei; Luo, Fengji; Ruan, Yuhua; Jin, Qi
Objective We investigated the awareness and acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and potential predicting factors. Methods This study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. Study participants, randomly selected from an MSM cohort, completed a structured questionnaire, and provided their blood samples to test for HIV infection and syphilis. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the factors associated with willingness to accept (WTA) PrEP. Factors independently associated with willingness to accept were identified by entering variables into stepwise logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 152 MSM completed the survey; 11.2% had ever heard of PrEP and 67.8% were willing to accept it. Univariate analysis showed that age, years of education, consistent condom use in the past 6 months, heterosexual behavior in the past 6 months, having ever heard of PrEP and the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, and worry about antiretroviral drugs cost were significantly associated with willingness to accept PrEP. In the multivariate logistic regression model, only consistent condom use in the past 6 months (odds ratio [OR]: 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13–0.70) and having ever heard of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs (OR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.14–0.67) were independently associated with willingness to accept PrEP. Conclusions The awareness of PrEP in the MSM population was low. Sexual behavioral characteristics and knowledge about ART drugs may have effects on willingness to accept PrEP. Comprehensive prevention strategies should be recommended in the MSM community. PMID:22479320
Kumar, B; Ross, M W
A comparison of sexual activities in 49 homosexually active northwest Indian men attending STD clinics was made with 173 homosexually active Australian men from a community sample. There were major differences between the two on frequency of marriage and of bisexual behaviour (significantly higher in the Indian sample), condom use for anal intercourse, and of oral sex (significantly higher in the Australian sample). There was also a substantial level of heterosexual anal intercourse reported in the Indian sample. While preliminary and based on nonmatched and nonrandom samples, these data suggest that the sexual activity profile and degree of risk of homosexual behaviour may differ considerably between the two cultures, and that data on homosexual activities in western societies should not be generalized to nonwestern cultures. PMID:1782237
This study explores the motivational bargaining processes that constitute an “act” of heterosexual HIV risk-taking by focusing on the narrative viewpoint of two men in methadone maintenance treatment programs in the Harlem section of New York City. These men reported sexual episodes with complex motivational “event grammars” that were analyzed using qualitative methods. Building on the concept of akrasia (failure to convert intentions into action), I argue that HIV risky heterosex results from temporal displacements of instrumental rationality by two other equally relevant orientations of sexual action, namely, affectual and normative. I conclude that sexual risk occurs in the context of emotions and normative presentations of the masculine self. Consequently, a man's risk of loosing footing or consistent face vis-à-vis his female sex partner, and not the risks of HIV, becomes a priority of the sexual interaction. Sexuality is at its core social and, hence, subject to more powerful forces than personal safety or behaviorist reward. PMID:16755387
C. F. Heyns; M. S. Bornman
While recognizing that the geographic designation ‘Africa’ does not imply a homogeneous race or population, and that the concept ‘men's health’ is not clearly defined, the aim of this paper is to review the non-communicable diseases and socio-economic determinants affecting the health of African men.It is clear that Africa bears a disproportionate burden of disease in relation to health care
Kingsley, Cherry; Peters, Barry; Babaahmady, Kaboutar; Pomeroy, Laura; Rahman, Durdana; Vaughan, Robert; Lehner, Thomas
Background Epidemiological studies suggest that allogeneic immunity may inhibit HIV-1 transmission from mother to baby and is less frequent in multiparous than uniparous women. Alloimmune responses may also be elicited during unprotected heterosexual intercourse, which is associated ex vivo with resistance to HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings The investigation was carried out in well-defined heterosexual and homosexual monogamous partners, practising unprotected sex and a heterosexual cohort practising protected sex. Allogeneic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferative responses were elicited by stimulating PBMC with the partners' irradiated monocytes and compared with 3rd party unrelated monocytes, using the CFSE method. Significant increase in allogeneic proliferative responses was found in the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to the partners' irradiated monocytes, as compared with 3rd party unrelated monocytes (p?0.001). However, a significant decrease in proliferative responses, especially of CD8+ T cells to the partners' compared with 3rd party monocytes was consistent with tolerization, in both the heterosexual and homosexual partners (p<0.01). Examination of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells by flow cytometry revealed a significantly greater proportion of these cells in the homosexual than heterosexual partners practising unprotected sex (p<0.05). Ex vivo studies of infectivity of PBMC with HIV-1 showed significantly greater inhibition of infectivity of PBMC from heterosexual subjects practising unprotected compared with those practising protected sex (p?=?0.02). Conclusions/Significance Both heterosexual and homosexual monogamous partners practising unprotected sex develop allogeneic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferative responses to the partners' unmatched cells and a minority may be tolerized. However, a greater proportion of homosexual rather than heterosexual partners developed CD4+CD25FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. These results, in addition to finding greater inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity in PBMC ex vivo in heterosexual partners practising unprotected, compared with those practising protected sex, suggest that allogeneic immunity may play a significant role in the immuno-pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. PMID:19956755
Ronald A. LaTorre
30 university men chose 1 of 6 women they would most like to date. Half of these men subsequently received feedback that their 1st choice did not choose them in return, and the remainder were informed that the women they chose reciprocally chose them as the men they would most like to date. This procedure was repeated, resulting in 2
Bianchi, Fernanda T; Shedlin, Michele G; Brooks, Kelly D; Montes Penha, Marcelo; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J
This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation. PMID:19688592
Shedlin, Michele G.; Brooks, Kelly D.; Penha, Marcelo Montes; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.
This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation. PMID:19688592
... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...
Peplau, Letitia Anne; Fingerhut, Adam W
This article reviews empirical studies of same-sex couples in the United States, highlighting consistent findings, drawing comparisons to heterosexual couples, and noting gaps in available research. U.S. Census data indicate that there were more than 600,000 same-sex couples living together in 2000. Research about relationship formation, the division of household labor, power, satisfaction, sexuality, conflict, commitment, and relationship stability is presented. Next, we highlight three recent research topics: the legalization of same-sex relationships through civil unions and same-sex marriage, the experiences of same-sex couples raising children, and the impact of societal prejudice and discrimination on same-sex partners. We conclude with comments about the contributions of empirical research to debunking negative stereotypes of same-sex couples, testing the generalizability of theories about close relationships, informing our understanding of gender and close relationships, and providing a scientific basis for public policy. PMID:16903800
Theodore E. Weltzin; Nicolette Weisensel; David Franczyk; Kevin Burnett; Christine Klitz; Pamela Bean
Men with anorexia and bulimia nervosa account for 10% of people with this condition and for binge eating disorder they account for as many as 25%. Risk factors in men include athletics, sexuality, psychiatric co-morbidity and negative life experiences. Differences in eating disorders exist between men and women relating to behavior and psychological symptoms. Men are much more likely than
Maintaining living things in a classroom requires knowledge and preparation. It also requires the proper equipment and space. There are two primary goals in the study of living things: first, we want our students to respect life, and second, we want them to appreciate its complexity in nature. Observing healthy living things in school accomplishes both goals. This chapter describes the appropriate precautions that should be taken into consideration when bringing living organisms into classrooms.
Terrault, Norah A.; Dodge, Jennifer L.; Murphy, Edward L.; Tavis, John E.; Kiss, Alexi; Levin, T. R.; Gish, Robert G.; Busch, Michael P.; Reingold, Arthur L.; Alter, Miriam J.
The efficiency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission by sexual activity remains controversial. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HCV-positive subjects and their partners to estimate the risk for HCV infection among monogamous heterosexual couples. A total of 500 anti–HCV-positive, human immunodeficiency virus–negative index subjects and their long-term heterosexual partners were studied. Couples were interviewed separately for lifetime risk factors for HCV infection, within-couple sexual practices, and sharing of personal grooming items. Blood samples were tested for anti-HCV, HCV RNA, and HCV genotype and serotype. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis determined the relatedness of virus isolates among genotype-concordant couples. The majority of HCV-positive index subjects were non-Hispanic white, with a median age of 49 years (range, 26–79 years) and median of 15 years (range, 2–52 years) of sexual activity with their partners. Overall, HCV prevalence among partners was 4% (n = 20), and nine couples had concordant genotype/serotype. Viral isolates in three couples (0.6%) were highly related, consistent with transmission of virus within the couple. Based on 8,377 person-years of follow-up, the maximum incidence rate of HCV transmission by sex was 0.07% per year (95% confidence interval, 0.01–0.13) or approximately one per 190,000 sexual contacts. No specific sexual practices were related to HCV positivity among couples. Conclusion The results of this study provide quantifiable risk information for counseling long-term monogamous heterosexual couples in which one partner has chronic HCV infection. In addition to the extremely low estimated risk for HCV infection in sexual partners, the lack of association with specific sexual practices provides unambiguous and reassuring counseling messages. PMID:23175457
The relationship between sexual attitudes and number of heterosexual partners in a survey-based and nationally representative random sample of 551 British men aged 16-25 years was examined. The main predictor of the number of partners in the last 5 years was the time since the first sexual intercourse, whereas age, marital status, education, social class, smoking, and alcohol consumption contributed on a smaller but significant level. Sexual attitudes were summarized in terms of three underlying dimensions which could be described as permissiveness, attitudes toward sexual relations of same-sex partners, and importance of orgasm for sex. None of these was a significant predictor of the number of partners in the last 5 years. Both permissiveness and number of partners were associated with the age of first sexual intercourse and other background variables indicating opportunities for social contact. In conclusion, common factors of sexual attitudes and the number of sexual partners are not directly related but rather jointly predicted by a very similar set of background variables such as age, time since first sexual intercourse, social class, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Given the absence of a significant relationship between sexual attitudes and number of young men's partners, promoting safer sex may be a more sensible strategy than trying to change these attitudes. PMID:11286003
Yan, Elsie; Wu, Anise Man-Sze; Ho, Petula; Pearson, Veronica
This study explored the meaning of sexuality for older Chinese people from diverse backgrounds and the role of traditional Chinese cultural values in shaping sexual expression. A total of 20 Hong Chinese elders were interviewed. Most reported a rigid definition of sexual behaviour, confining it to heterosexual sexual intercourse. Kissing, hugging and caressing were not considered 'sexual', and same-sex relationships were virtually absent from respondents' conceptions of sexuality. Traditional patriarchal values in relation to sexuality prevailed. Men and women attached different meanings to sexuality. Neither believed that sex was enjoyable for women or that women needed sex in the same way as men. Female participants saw sex as part of their responsibility to procreate and to fulfill their husband's needs. Male participants considered sex to be important for fulfilling their physical drives. The lack of an appropriate partner due to widowhood, the partner's physical condition or a poor spousal relationship apparently accounted for the low levels of sexual activity reported by informants. PMID:21824033
Bowring, Anna L; van Gemert, Caroline; Vongsaiya, Kongchay; Hughes, Chad; Sihavong, Amphoy; Phimphachanh, Chansy; Chanlivong, Niramonh; Agius, Paul A; Toole, Mike; Hellard, Margaret
Behaviorally bisexual men (BBM) in Vientiane, Laos report high-risk sexual behaviors. We explore settings for meeting sex partners and associated risk behaviors among BBM in Laos. BBM and their sexual partners were recruited in Vientiane Capital using modified snowball sampling (2010). Settings for usually meeting sex partners and associations with risk behaviors were assessed. Among 88 BBM, the most common settings for men meeting male, kathoey, and female sex partners were private residences (48%, 37%, 51%, respectively) and hospitality settings (39%, 31%, 40%, respectively). Hospitality settings were more commonly reported by heterosexual-identifying BBM, and private residences more commonly reported by bisexual/homosexual-identifying BBM. Inconsistent condom use was high across partners and settings. Meeting partners in hospitality settings was associated with reporting a high number of female sex partners and frequently drinking alcohol before sex. Our results suggest that targeted health promotion initiatives in bars, clubs, and beer-shops could reach a high proportion of high-risk bisexual men, particularly heterosexual-identifying BBM. PMID:25490734
Aerts, Saskia; Van Houtte, Mieke; Dewaele, Alexis; Cox, Nele; Vincke, John
This study focuses on differences in sense of belonging between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual students. Data from 1,745 secondary school students were collected with an online survey. Step-wise multiple regression analyses was used to investigate the relationship between sexual orientation and sense of school belonging. The results show that sexual orientation has an impact on sense of belonging for girls, but not for boys. Perceived discrimination and LGB friendliness of the school appeared to be important indicators of sense of belonging for all the respondents, irrespective of their sexual orientation. PMID:22269049
Woodward, Eva N.; Pantalone, David W.; Bradford, Judith
Many sexual minority individuals attempt suicide each year, but little is known about the suicidality of individuals who are questioning their sexual orientation. This study assessed suicidal ideation and attempts of questioning individuals compared to lesbian/gay, bisexual, and heterosexual individuals. This cross-sectional study enrolled participants (N = 2,841) from a community health center. Questioning (OR = 4.286, 95% CI [2.119–8.671]), lesbian/gay (OR = 3.024, 95% CI [2.351–3.890]), and bisexual (OR = 4.389, 95% CI [2.942–6.575]) individuals had significantly greater odds of considering suicide compared to heterosexuals. However, questioning individuals had non-significant odds of attempting suicide compared to heterosexuals. We discuss possible explanations for these findings. PMID:24058715
Shaun Michael Burns; James R. Mahalik; Sigmund Hough; Ashley N. Greenwell
Recent epidemiological statistics suggest approximately 250,000 people in the United States live with a spinal cord injury.\\u000a Men constitute roughly 82% of these individuals. Following spinal cord injury, men frequently experience significant changes\\u000a in their sexual functioning. As a result, men with spinal cord injuries are at an increased risk for experiencing adjustment\\u000a difficulties. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about
Godbole, Sheela; Sane, Suvarna; Kamble, Pranil; Raj, Yujwal; Dulhani, Nisha; Venkatesh, Srinivasan; Reddy, D. C. S.; Chavan, Laxmikant; Bhattacharya, Madhulekha; Bindoria, Suchitra; Kadam, Dilip; Thakur, Savita; Narwani, Prakash; Pereira, Elmira; Paranjape, Ramesh; Risbud, Arun
Background Indian cultural tradition demanding marriage, many MSM howsoever they self-identify are likely to be married or have sex with women. To consolidate India's HIV prevention gains, it is important to understand and address the interaction between the MSM and heterosexual epidemics in India and create specific interventions for bisexual MSM. The challenge is to identify and intervene this hard to reach population. Data from HIV Sentinel Surveillance 2011 among MSM in four Indian states were analyzed to assess predictors and prevalence of bisexual behaviour in MSM. Methods Between March-May 2011, 4682 men (15–49 years) who had anal/oral sex with a male partner in the past month, attending intervention sites and consenting for an un-linked anonymous survey answered an 11- item questionnaire and provided blood for HIV test by finger stick at 19 designated surveillance sites. Results Of 4682 MSM tested overall, 5% were illiterate, 51% reported only receptive anal intercourse, 21% only penetrative and 28% both. 36% MSM had ever received money for sex. Overall 6.8% were HIV infected. 44% MSM were bisexual in the last six months. On multivariate analysis, ‘being bisexual’ was found to be independently associated with ‘older age’: 26–30 years [AOR?=?3.1, 95% CI(2.7, 3.7)], >30 years [AOR?=?6.5, 95% CI(5.5, 7.7)]; ‘reporting penetrative behaviour alone’ with other men [AOR?=?5.8, 95% CI(4.8, 7.0), p<0.01] and ‘reporting both penetrative and receptive behaviour’ [AOR?=?2.7, 95% CI(2.3, 3.1) p<0.01]. Those who both paid and received money for sex [AOR?=?0.49, 95% CI (0.38, 0.62)] were significantly less likely to be bisexual. Conclusions A substantial proportion of men receiving services from Targeted Intervention programs are bisexual and the easy opportunity for intervention in this setting should be capitalised upon. Focusing on older MSM, as well as MSM who show penetrative behaviour with other men, could help in reaching this population. PMID:25211511
Saha, Malay Kumar; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Biswas, Subrata; Ghosh, Piyali; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Deb, Aloke Kumar; Diwan, Kshitiz
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are mostly hidden due to stigma and discrimination and are at a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV Sentinel Surveillance (HSS) reported an increased HIV burden in Chhattisgarh, an important state in central India. This state has the distinction of having the highest HIV prevalence among MSM in India; therefore, it warrants special attention; hence, we focused on the role of MSM in the HIV epidemic in this state. Cross-sectional analysis of the most recent latest (2010-2011) HSS data of 227 MSM in Chhattisgarh revealed a HIV seropositivity of 14.98%. Older age, unemployment, and receiving money for sex with a man were associated with a higher HIV risk. Participants were mostly young (mean age, approximately 26 years), school-level educated (51.98%), urban residents (99.56%), in service (46.26%), not involved in heterosexual activity (97.36%), or paid sex (68.72%). None of the participants reported injection drug use, and almost all of them (98.68%) were kothis. Some of the observed associations lacked statistical power due to sparse data obtained during this initial surveillance among MSM in Chhattisgarh. Therefore, further studies involving a larger population are needed to understand the role of MSM in the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in this state to facilitate the planning of appropriate interventions, as the epidemic is likely to be concentrated among MSM in Chhattisgarh. PMID:25420644
Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris
This article explores Pakistani and Bangladeshi young men's experiences of schooling to examine what inclusion/exclusion means to them. Qualitative research was undertaken with 48 Pakistani and Bangladeshi young men living in areas of the West Midlands, England. The young men highlighted three key areas: the emergence of a schooling regime…
Paul, Jay; Ayala, George; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E.
Objectives. We examined the associations between specific types and sources of discrimination and mental health outcomes among US racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and how these associations varied by race/ethnicity. Methods. A chain-referral sample of 403 African American, 393 Asian and Pacific Islander (API), and 400 Latino MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, California completed a standardized questionnaire. Data were obtained from the Ethnic Minority Men’s Health Study from May 2008 to October 2009. Results. Past-year experiences of racism within the general community and perceived homophobia among heterosexual friends were positively associated with depression and anxiety. Past-year homophobia experienced within the general community was also positively associated with anxiety. These statistically significant associations did not vary across racial/ethnic groups. The positive association of perceived racism within the gay community with anxiety differed by race/ethnicity, and was statistically significant only for APIs. Perceived homophobia within the family was not associated with either depression or anxiety. Conclusions. Higher levels of experiences of discrimination were associated with psychological distress among MSM of color. However, specific types and sources of discrimination were differentially linked to negative mental health outcomes among African American, API, and Latino MSM. PMID:23488483
Palefsky, Joel M
The most common cause of mortality related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is cervical cancer. However, male HPV infection is also an important concern, both for the disease burden in men and for the risk of transmission to women. HPV is associated with a variety of cancers in men, including anal cancer and a subset of penile and oral cancers. The incidence of anal and oral cancers related to HPV is increasing in the general population and is growing even faster among individuals who are immunocompromised because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Penile HPV infection is very common among heterosexual men and remains high throughout a wide range of ages. Likewise, anal HPV infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia are very common throughout a wide range of ages in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Other HPV-related diseases of clinical importance in men include condylomata acuminata (genital warts) and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been shown to be highly efficacious in the prevention of genital warts in women and precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, and vagina. In addition, recent interim data have shown that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine is highly effective in reducing external genital lesions in young men. Although the protective efficacy of HPV vaccination in men has not yet been fully established-pending the outcome of public policy discussions and cost-efficacy studies-there may be a strong rationale for vaccinating boys, similar to girls, at an early age when they have had limited or no prior sexual activity. PMID:20307839
Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.
Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years of age and…
MacCallum, Fiona; Golombok, Susan
Background: An increasing number of lesbian women and single heterosexual women are bringing up children with no male involvement. This study follows up to adolescence a sample of children raised in fatherless families from birth or early infancy. Methods: Twenty-five lesbian mother families and 38 families headed by a single heterosexual mother…
Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.
Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing…
Yoshi Iwasaki; Judith Bartlett; John O'neil
In this study, a series of focus groups were conducted to gain an understanding of the nature of stress among Canadian Aboriginal women and men living with diabetes. Specifically, attention was given to the meanings Aboriginal peoples with diabetes attach to their lived experiences of stress, and the major sources or causes of stress in their lives. The key common
Schuckit, M A; Gunderson, E K
This study compares the characteristics of groups of younger (age 25 or less) and older men hospitalized for alcoholism in calendar years 1966--1969 and 1970--1971. While the percentage of young alcoholics increased from 28 to 43 between the two time samples, such an increase does not necessarily indicate a higher prevalence of alcoholism amoung young Navy men, although this possibility merits further study. Most young men who drink heavily do not become alcoholic, and many may have underlying character and behavior disorders and poor prognoses. Clear criteria for admission to treatment appear to be especially important for young alcoholics because of this diversity in clinical history and prognosis. PMID:615498
SEMAAN, SALAAM; JARLAIS, DON C. DES; MALOW, ROB
Prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV between and from drug users is important for controlling the local and global HIV heterosexual epidemic. Sex risk reduction interventions and health-related interventions are important for reducing the sex risk behaviors of drug users. Sex risk reduction interventions address individual-level, peer-level, and structural-level determinants of risk reduction. Health-related interventions include HIV counseling and testing, prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is important to adapt effective interventions implemented in resource-rich countries to the realities of the resource-constrained settings and to address relevant contextual factors. RESUMEN Il est important de prévenir la transmission hétérosexuelle du VIH à partir des usagers de drogue pour contrôler l’épidémie hétérosexuelle locale et mondiale de VIH. Des interventions ciblant à la fois la réduction de risque sexuel et la santé des usagers de drogue sont nécessaires. Les interventions de réduction de risque sexuel prennent en compte le niveau individuel, le niveau des pairs et celui des déterminants structurels de la réduction des risques. Les interventions visant l’amélioration de la santé comprennent le conseil et le dépistage du VIH, la prévention et le traitement des infections sexuellement transmissibles et la prescription d’antirétroviraux. Il est important d’adapter les interventions efficaces mises en place dans les pays riches aux réalités des contextes de pays à ressources limitées et de tenir compte des facteurs contextuels pertinents. PMID:17002987
Andersen, Judith P.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Zou, Christopher; Wilsnack, Sharon C.
Background Lifetime victimization experiences, including child sexual abuse (CSA), child physical abuse (CPA), adult sexual assault (ASA), and adult physical assault (APA), are associated with health problems. Purpose To examine relationships between cumulative victimization and physical health among heterosexual and lesbian women and determine whether these relationships differ by sexual identity. Methods Large samples of heterosexual (n?=?482) and lesbian women (n?=?394) were interviewed. Questions included lifetime victimization experiences and physical health problems. Results Compared to women who reported no childhood victimization, those who reported experiencing both CSA and CPA were 44% more likely to report health problems and women who experienced all four types of victimization (CSA, CPA, APA, ASA) were nearly 240% as likely to report physical health problems. Interaction analyses revealed the association between victimization and physical health did not differ by sexual identity. Conclusions Although lesbians were more likely to report all types of victimization, results suggest that victimization conferred increased physical health risks regardless of sexual identity. PMID:25068978
Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Cleland, John
This paper describes perceptions of the societal acceptability and acceptability among peers of different types of premarital heterosexual relationships in Iran. Sources of variation in subjective norms are assessed. Results derive from a survey conducted in 2005 of a representative sample of 1743 female college students from four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran using two-stage random cluster sampling. An anonymous pilot-tested questionnaire was used. Respondents displayed remarkable heterogeneity and ambiguity concerning the social acceptability of premarital heterosexual friendship, dating and physical contact, but expressed greater certainty about the unacceptability of premarital sex. The majority (77.5%) reported that premarital sex was socially prohibited, while about one third (33.1%) were unsure about the social acceptability of having a boyfriend and dating before marriage. Peer norms were perceived to be more liberal but, nevertheless, very few peers were thought to be in favour of premarital intercourse. Older students, those with educated fathers and those studying in a mixed-sex university perceived norms to be more liberal than their counterparts. Access to satellite television, a major source of exposure to new information and values about sexuality, was a major predictor of liberal peer norms. It appears that a significant proportion of young people in Tehran have broken with tradition with regard to premarital social interaction and romantic friendships, but the majority still conforms to traditional cultural and religious values regarding abstinence before marriage. PMID:25587802
de Sousa, João Dinis; Alvarez, Carolina; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Müller, Viktor
HIV-1 M originated from SIVcpz endemic in chimpanzees from southeast Cameroon or neighboring areas, and it started to spread in the early 20th century. Here we examine the factors that may have contributed to simian-to-human transmission, local transmission between humans, and export to a city. The region had intense ape hunting, social disruption, commercial sex work, STDs, and traffic to/from Kinshasa in the period 1899–1923. Injection treatments increased sharply around 1930; however, their frequency among local patients was far lower than among modern groups experiencing parenteral HIV-1 outbreaks. Recent molecular datings of HIV-1 M fit better the period of maximal resource exploitation and trade links than the period of high injection intensity. We conclude that although local parenteral outbreaks might have occurred, these are unlikely to have caused massive transmission. World War I led to additional, and hitherto unrecognized, risks of HIV-1 emergence. We propose an Enhanced Heterosexual Transmission Hypothesis for the origin of HIV-1 M, featuring at the time and place of its origin a coincidence of favorable co-factors (ape hunting, social disruption, STDs, and mobility) for both cross-species transmission and heterosexual spread. Our hypothesis does not exclude a role for parenteral transmission in the initial viral adaptation. PMID:23202448
Hershey, D W
This paper delineates a form of heterosexuality whose underlying psychological structure resembles that of perversions. It is characterized by: idealization of instinctual processes, whereby the ego subordinates the object to the actualization of the instinctual event itself; heightened narcissism in an otherwise neurotic ego organization; multiple intrapsychic uses of the object; a special kind of defensive organization; an experienced victory over the superego and associated elevation of certain aspects of the ego ideal; and a resultant alteration in the nature of close interpersonal relationships. I use clinical vignettes from both male and female patients in psychoanalysis to focus on the phenomena in question. The thinking of Chassequet-Smirgel, Freud, Khan, Rangell, Socarides, and others is used in an attempt to gain an encompassing perspective. It is emphasized that patients demonstrating this form of heterosexuality do not possess a perversion per se, but demonstrate a character neurosis which integrates certain perverse mechanisms into its defensive organization. These mechanisms can be isolated and studied in psychoanalytic treatment, with the potential for illuminating their defensive and mood-regulating functions, and eventual working through and resolution of the intrapsychic conflicts underlying them. Some comments on the implications of this form of sexuality for our contemporary culture are included. PMID:2708772
Diez, M; Diaz, A; Garriga, C; Pons, M; Ten, A; Marcos, H; Gutierrez, G; Moreno, S; Gonzalez-Garcia, J; Barrios, Am; Arponen, S; Garcia, Mt; Royo, Mc; Toledo, J; Gonzalez, G; Aranguren, R; Izquierdo, A; Viloria, Lj; Elizalde, L; Martinez, E; Castrillejo, D; Lopez, I; Redondo, C; Cano, A; The Hospital Survey Study Group, C
A second-generation surveillance system of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in Spain. Behavioural and clinical data were collected between 2002 and 2011 through an annual one-day, cross-sectional survey in public hospitals, including all in- and outpatients receiving HIVrelated care on the survey day. Mean age increased over time (from 38.7 years in 2002 to 43.8 years in 2011) and 68.4% of the 7,205 subjects were male. The proportion of migrants increased from 6.1% to 15.9%, while people who inject or used to inject drugs (PWID and Ex-PWID) decreased and men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals increased. Unprotected intercourse at last sex increased among MSM and PWID/Ex-PWID. Patients receiving antiretroviral treatment increased significantly from 76.0% to 88.2% as did those with CD4 T-cell counts ?350 (from 48.2% to 66.9%) and viral copies <200 (from 47.0% to 85.2%). HIV-infected people with hepatitis C virus RNA decreased from 36.0% in 2004 to 29.9% in 2011, while those with HBsAg remained stable at around 4.4%. Implementation of a low-cost, sustainable system for second-generation surveillance in people living with HIV is feasible. In Spain, the information obtained has helped to define and refine public health policy and document treatment effectiveness. PMID:24871758
Rapoport, Rhona; Rapoport, Robert N.
The concept of equity is proposed as having advantages over that of equality. By equity, we mean a fair allocation both of opportunity and of constraints. It is put forward as a concept which goes beyond that of equality; it acknowledges differences between men and women and the need to think in terms of variations of patterns. Paper presented at…
Speismen, Joseph C.; And Others
While there is reasonable agreement about some of the broad parameters of men's and women's marriages, less has been written about their perspectives on marriage, or about the individual characteristics associated with marital satisfaction. Data on marital adjustment, demographics, sex role identity, and sexuality were taken from 50 participants…
Margerum, B. Jean; And Others
An informal consumer interview study, using 187 men, was conducted to highlight directions that clothing and textiles education and research might take. Mentioned most often were problems of fabric durability and garment construction as well as size and fit. Suggestions for curbing economic waste in the male fashion industry and implications for…
... doctor. No 4. Do you have a tender breast lump that feels like a soft grape? Yes You ... feels rubbery and is easily moveable within the breast tissue? Yes Although more common in women, FIBROADENOMAS, benign (not cancerous) lumps, may also occur in men. Make an appointment ...
... not been treated for syphilis, (Men Who Have Sex With Men) and can appear 10-20 years ... into contact with oral and rectal mucosa during sex, increase the infectiousness of and susceptibility to HIV. ...
... men treated? Surgery for breast cancer in men Radiation therapy for breast cancer in men Chemotherapy for breast cancer in men ... is breast cancer in men treated? Next Topic Radiation therapy for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men ...
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Watt, Melissa H; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria
The relationship between transactional sex, HIV risk, and partner violence has been well documented in South Africa, but research has focused primarily on women and has not been conducted in high-risk social contexts. The aim of this study was to examine associations between transactional sex and HIV risk among women and men in alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa. We surveyed 1,989 women and 2,468 men attending alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa to assess transactional sex behavior (i.e., receiving money or goods in exchange for sex), alcohol and drug use, history of childhood abuse, current relationship violence, and sexual risk behaviors. Among both women and men, trading sex was related to higher alcohol use, greater likelihood of drug use, substance use in sexual contexts, and a greater likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Compared to other women, women who traded sex reported a greater proportion of condom-unprotected sex; this relationship was not found for men. Analyses showed that men were almost twice as more likely to report trading sex for items, including money or alcohol, than women (9.7 vs. 5.8 %). Overall, men who traded sex were similar to their female counterparts. Similar associations between trading sex and different risk behaviors were found among women and men with limited economic means and substance use problems. Future research should more closely study transactional sex in high-risk venues as it relates to violence and should examine men who trade sex as a potential bridge population between heterosexual women and men who have sex with men. PMID:23494405
Wirtz, AL; Zelaya, C; Peryshkina, A; Latkin, C; Mogilnyi, V; Galai, N; Dyakonov, K; Beyrer, C
Moscow has a large population of immigrants and migrants from across the Former Soviet Union. Little is studied about men who have sex with men (MSM) within these groups. Qualitative research methods were used to explore identities, practices, and factors affecting HIV prevention and risks among immigrant/migrant MSM in Moscow. Nine interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between April–June 2010 with immigrant/migrant MSM, analyzed as a subset of a larger population of MSM who participated in qualitative research (n=122). Participants were purposively selected men who reported same sex practices (last 12 months). Migrants were men residing in Moscow but from other Russian regions and immigrants from countries outside of Russia. A socio-ecological framework was used to describe distal to proximal factors that influenced risks for HIV acquisition. Stigma and violence related to homophobia in homelands, and concerns about xenophobia and distrust of migrants in Moscow emerged as key themes. Participants reported greater sexual freedom in Moscow but feared relatives in homelands would learn of behaviors in Moscow, often members of their own ethnicity. Internalized homophobia was prevalent and linked to traditional sexual views. MSM ranged from heterosexual to gay-identified. Sexual risks included sex work, high numbers of partners, and inconsistent condom use. Avoidance of HIV testing or purchasing false results was related to reporting requirements in Russia, which may bar entry or expel those testing positive. HIV prevention for MSM should consider immigrant/migrant populations, the range of sexual identities, and risk factors among these men. The willingness of some men to socialize with immigrants/migrants of other countries may provide opportunities for peer-based prevention approaches. Immigrants/migrants comprise important proportions of the MSM population, yet rarely acknowledged in research. Understanding their risks and how to reach them may improve the overall impact of prevention for MSM and adults in Russia. PMID:23875610
Elizabeth S. Cavalier
Research on sexual identity and sport has revealed a shifting narrative about the experiences of gay men. While some suggest the atmosphere is hostile, others posit that homophobia and sexual prejudice are playing less of a role in gay men's experiences. This research focuses on the experiences of 10 gay men working in professional, collegiate, and club sport, as part
Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa has largely focused on the needs of heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the sexual risk histories of men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW). Furthermore, we know very little about the psychosocial health needs or of the possibility of a syndemic (numerous interrelated epidemics) among MSMW. We surveyed 1,203 men attending drinking establishments in a township located in Cape Town, South Africa. We compared the behaviors and experiences of MSMW to men reporting only having sex with women (MSW). Twelve percent of the sample reported having sex with both men and women in the past 4 months. MSMW were twice as likely as MSW to report being HIV positive (10.5 vs. 4.6 %). MSW were more likely to be married than MSMW but reported similar numbers of female sex partners. MSMW were more likely to report a history of childhood sexual abuse, recent experienced and perpetrated physical and sexual partner violence, both receiving and giving sex for money, drugs, or shelter, and a recent STI. These factors were found to be interrelated among MSW but not MSMW. Although MSMW demonstrate considerable risk taking and report higher rates of HIV infection than MSW, their needs are largely unmet and underemphasized. Findings suggest the need to better understand factors contributing to sexual risk taking among MSMW. HIV prevention interventions should consider psychosocial health problems unique to MSMW residing in South African townships. PMID:23519592
The present paper explores the conceptual limitations of the bully discourses that ground UK anti-bullying policy frameworks and psychological research literatures on school bullying, suggesting they largely ignore gender, (hetero)sexuality and the social, cultural and subjective dynamics of conflict and aggression among teen-aged girls. To…
–This analysis argues that Kimberly Peirce's film Boys Don't Cry can be read as a liberatory narrative that queers the centers of heteronormativity and hegemonic masculinity by privileging female masculinity and celebrating its differences from heterosexual norms. My critique emphasizes how the narrative strategically challenges heteronormativity and, in turn, “narrative's heteroideology” (Roof, 1996), in four ways: 1) by dismantling the
Poteat, V. Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian K.
In this study, heterosexual students' willingness to remain friends with peers who disclose that they are gay or lesbian and their willingness to attend schools that include gay and lesbian students were examined among two large middle school and high school samples (Sample 1: n = 20,509; 50.7% girls; Sample 2: n = 16,917; 50.2% girls). Boys were…
Women who become HIV infected through heterosexual transmission are faced with the task of making sense of how they became infected. This paper presents a qualitative analysis based on interviews with 35 HIV-positive South African Black women. A specific theme, that blame of a male partner was avoided or disavowed in interviews, is explored in…
Diamond, Lisa M.; Dube, Eric M.
Assessed gender and sexual orientation differences in the percentage of same-gender peers in youths' friendship networks, the gender of their best friends, and the degree of attachment to these friends. Results for 168 sexual minority and heterosexual youths show notable gender differences among the sexual minority youths, with female sexual…
Mariana A. Preciado; Letitia Anne Peplau
Though sexuality is often described categorically, the sexual experiences that form the basis of heterosexuals' self-perceived sexuality are often not clear cut and can be open to interpretation. Factors other than actual sexual experiences may also be associated with self-perceptions of sexuality. The present research examined how personal need for structure (Neuberg & Newsom, 1993; Thompson, Naccarato, Parker, & Moskowitz,
Mariana A. Preciado; Letitia Anne Peplau
Though sexuality is often described categorically, the sexual experiences that form the basis of heterosexuals' self-perceived sexuality are often not clear cut and can be open to interpretation. Factors other than actual sexual experiences may also be associated with self-perceptions of sexuality. The present research examined how personal need for structure (Neuberg & Newsom, 1993; Thompson, Naccarato, Parker, & Moskowitz,
Niedlich, Claudia; Steffens, Melanie C; Krause, Jacqueline; Settke, Elisabeth; Ebert, Irena D
The traditional stereotype of the typical woman has been described as "nice, but incompetent." However, such general gender stereotypes are applied to individual targets only under certain conditions: They are used to "fill in the blanks" (Heilman, 2012) if little personal information is provided about a target. "Typical lesbians" are regarded to have more typically masculine (agentic) characteristics such as task competence than the typical woman does. We thus hypothesized that if a woman displays behavior coinciding with the stereotype of the typical woman, it is more readily interpreted as stereotypically female if performed by a heterosexual woman than by a lesbian. Participants (N = 296) read a hypothetical job interview in which we manipulated the target's sexual orientation (between subjects). Findings demonstrated that a lesbian was judged as more competent than a heterosexual woman in the presence of behavior that may be interpreted as gender-stereotypical (Experiments 1 and 2). This difference in competence judgments was not found in the absence of gender-stereotypical behavior (Experiment 1). Judging the heterosexual woman as low in masculinity was related to a judgment of lower competence (Experiment 2). Our findings demonstrate that there are conditions under which lesbians, a group often stereotyped negatively, are less susceptible to invoking negative female stereotypes than heterosexual women are. PMID:25510890
This article examines sociocultural expectations of sexual behavior and the reasons why not using condoms may be logical to married heterosexual couples in India. Married women who report monogamous sexual relationships with their husbands are a high-risk group for HIV infection in India. Based on the public health model and a population-based…
Simona Giampaoli; L Uigi Ferrucci; F Rancesca Cecchi; C Inzia Lo Noce; A Gata Poce; FRANCESCO DIMA; A UGUSTO SANTAQUILANI; M ARIA FENICIA VESCIO; A LESSANDRO MENOTTI
Abstract Objectives: to verify if hand-grip performance,in older men,is a predictor of disability. Design: population-based prospective,study. Setting: a sample from the Italian rural cohorts of the FINE study (Finland, Italy, Netherlands Elderly), representative of the general population,of elderly men,surveyed,in 1991 and 1995. Participants: 140 men aged 71?91 years who reported no disability in performing activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental
C. F. Heyns
The highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world have been reported among Black African-American men\\u000a (AAM) living in the United States of America. These rates are significantly higher for AAM compared to White (Caucasian) American\\u000a men (CAM). However, prostate cancer is not the only malignancy which is more common in AAM compared to White American men\\u000a or
Giving some men with prostate cancer chemotherapy after standard treatment with radiation and hormone therapy modestly improves how long they live, according to results from a new NCI-funded clinical trial.
Lee, David S.H.; Markwardt, Sheila; Goeres, Leah; Lee, Christine G.; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Williams, Craig; Fu, Rongwei; Orwoll, Eric; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Mackey, Dawn; Bauer, Douglas C.; Nielson, Carrie M.
Importance Muscle pain, fatigue, and weakness are common adverse effects of statin medications and may decrease physical activity in older men. Objective Determine whether statin use is associated with physical activity, longitudinally and cross-sectionally. Design, Setting, and Participants Men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study, a multicenter prospective cohort study of community-living men age 65+, enrolled between March 2000-April 2002. Exposure Statin use as determined by an inventory of medications (taken within last 30 days). In cross-sectional analyses, statin use categories were: users and nonusers. In longitudinal analyses, categories were: prevalent users (baseline use and throughout study), new users (initiated use during the study) and nonusers (never used). Main Outcomes and Measure Self-reported physical activity at baseline and 2 follow-up visits using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). At the third visit, an accelerometer measured metabolic equivalents (METs; kcal/kg/hr) and minutes of moderate activity (METs ?3.0), vigorous activity (METs ?6.0), and sedentary behavior (METs ?1.5). Results At baseline, 989 men (24%) were users and 3,148 (76%) were nonusers. The adjusted difference in baseline PASE between users and nonusers was ?5.8 points (95% CI, ?10.9 to ?0.7). A total of 3,039 men met the inclusion criteria for longitudinal analysis: 727 (24%) prevalent users, 845 (28%) new users, 1,467 (48%) nonusers. PASE declined by an average of 2.5 points/year (2.0–3.0) for nonusers and 2.8 points/year (2.1, 3.5) for prevalent users, a nonstatistical difference (0.3 point, ?0.5–1). For new users, annual PASE score declined at a faster rate than nonusers (0.9 point difference; 0.1–1.7). 3,071 men had adequate accelerometry data, 1,542 (50%) were statin users. Statin users expended less METS (0.03 kcal/kg/hr less; 0.02–0.04); engaged in less moderate physical activity (5.4 fewer minutes/day; 1.9–8.8), less vigorous activity (0.6 fewer minutes/day; 0.1–1.1), and more sedentary behavior (7.6 greater minutes/day; 2.6–12.4). Conclusion and Relevance Statin use was associated with modestly lower physical activity among community-living men, even after accounting for medical history and other potentially confounding factors. The clinical significance of these findings deserves further investigation. PMID:24911216
Aggarwal, Sanjay; Gerrets, Rene
Despite the Netherlands' reputation as a world leader with respect to gay rights, homosexual Dutch men have much higher rates of mood disorders, anxiety disorders and suicide attempts than heterosexual Dutch men. Epidemiologists report similar disparities elsewhere in Western Europe and North America. These findings have been the focus of a blossoming psychological literature, inspired by minority stress theory and deploying quantitative methods. Our investigation aims to complement this body of work by adopting an ethnographic approach. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in the Netherlands from 2009 to 2010, we explore sociocultural and contextual factors that have received relatively little attention with respect to gay mental health. In the Netherlands - considered a model for gay equality - how can one understand high rates of psychiatric disorders among gay men? This study points to heteronormativity, complex dynamics involving long-term relationships and processes within gay subcultures as key issues. Notwithstanding their putative socioeconomic, legal and political equality, gay men struggled - at various stages of the life cycle - with internalised norms that they found difficult to fulfil. The desire to embody these ideals, and structural constraints in meeting them, could be potent sources of disappointment and distress. PMID:24236852