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Objectives To characterise the help-seeking experiences of heterosexualmenliving with HIV infection and explain these experiences in relation to the broader social relations and discourses in which they are embedded. Design Qualitative study using focus groups and theoretically informed constructionist grounded theory. Setting With one exception, focus groups were conducted in the offices of community-based AIDS service organisations across Ontario, Canada. Participants 40 HIV-infected heterosexualmen aged 18?years or older. Results Heterosexualmenliving with HIV perceive themselves to be relegated to the margins of a health care and service field that was developed historically within a context that privileges the priorities of gay men and heterosexual women living with the virus. Specifically, gay men are better positioned than heterosexualmen when vying for the services and recognition of AIDS service organisations due to their social capital within these agencies, thereby benefiting by virtue of their membership with the group perceived to control the decision-making apparatuses when resource allocation and programme development are at stake. Relative to women, heterosexualmen are poorly positioned due to their negative symbolic capital, derived from being perceived as the ‘guilty’ parties in the context of heterosexual HIV transmission. As a result, the material and support needs of women have been prioritised, while those of heterosexualmenliving with HIV remain largely unaddressed. Conclusions Heterosexualmenliving with HIV are operating within a health and service field that has not kept pace with their increased representation among the population of persons living with the virus. Researchers, clinicians and policy makers should strive to integrate heterosexualmenliving with HIV in decision making and community-based research initiatives that build capacity among this group while simultaneously generating a research and policy agenda specific to the concerns of this growing demographic.
This research describes the heterosexual male sexual self-schema, or the way heterosexualmen conceptualize their sexual identity. The authors use as their basis of understanding Brooks' five-theme description of heterosexual male sexuality referred to as \\
To understand sexual decision-making processes among people living with HIV, we compared safer sex self-efficacy, condom attitudes, sexual beliefs, and rates of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with at-risk partners (UAVI-AR) in the past 3 months among 476 people living with HIV: 185 men who have sex with men (MSM), 130 heterosexualmen, and 161 heterosexual women. Participants were enrolled in SafeTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a safer sex intervention. We found 15% of MSM, 9% of heterosexualmen, and 12% of heterosexual women engaged in UAVI-AR. Groups did not differ in self-efficacy or sexual attitudes/beliefs. However, the associations between these variables and UAVI-AR varied within groups: greater self-efficacy predicted less UAVI-AR for MSM and women, whereas more positive condom attitudes--but not self-efficacy--predicted less UAVI-AR for heterosexualmen. These results suggest HIV prevention programs should tailor materials to different subgroups. PMID:22252475
Widman, Laura; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; Suchindran, Chirayath
Abstract This investigation examined sexual behaviors among heterosexual persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Study participants (mostly married) were interviewed during August to November 2006 in five Indian states using a quantitative survey (n?=?100 men and 100 women), eight focus groups (n?=?58 participants), and in-depth interviews (n?=?31). One third of men and one fourth of women reported inconsistent condom use with regular sexual partners. Facilitators of condom use with regular partners included a feeling of personal responsibility to protect the health of the partner, desire to prevent acquisition and/or transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and the belief that condoms are needed for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. Barriers to consistent condom use with regular partners included the belief that condoms are unnecessary in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships; lack of sexual satisfaction with condoms; the desire to have a child; husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety; fear that disclosure of HIV status will bring marital discord and family shame; and inadequate counseling by health care providers. Positive prevention programs should include counseling about benefits of safer sex in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships, counseling about integrating condom use with sexual satisfaction and intimacy, condom use self-efficacy and negotiation skills-building, family planning counseling, mental health and alcohol dependence treatment, and counseling and skills-building about disclosure. Health care providers must be trained to provide these services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to promote tolerance for family planning choices made by couples and to counter the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and condoms in the broader society.
Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A.; Shunmugam, Murali
Antigay bias is a well-documented social problem among heterosexualmen, though heterosexual women display a lesser tendency toward this bias. Startle eye blink has been established as a valid measure of the affective component of antigay bias in heterosexualmen. In the current study, a sample of 91 heterosexual women and 87 heterosexualmen were exposed to a variety of
Amanda L. Mahaffey; Angela Bryan; Kent E. Hutchison
Heterosexually identified men who have sex with men are an understudied group for whom there is little knowledge of the social\\u000a and sexual meanings of their same-sex encounters. This study employed qualitative methods to better understand the maintenance\\u000a of a heterosexual identity in the face of discordant sexual behaviors. Open-ended, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were\\u000a conducted with 21 heterosexually identified men
This nationally representative study documents that vibrator use among heterosexually identified men in the United States is common, with 43.8% reporting use of a vibrator at some point in their lives, with most vibrator use by heterosexualmen occurring within the context of sexual interactions with a female partner. Approximately 94% of male vibrator users reported that they had used
Michael Reece; Debby Herbenick; Brian Dodge; Stephanie A. Sanders; Annahita Ghassemi; J. Dennis Fortenberry
We know little about men's beliefs about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and willingness to receive it. In January 2009, the authors recruited 296 heterosexualmen and 312 gay and bisexual men from a national panel of U.S. households to complete an online survey about HPV and HPV vaccine. The authors analyzed data using logistic regression, controlling for age, education, number of lifetime sexual partners, and urban residence. More gay and bisexual men than heterosexualmen were willing to receive HPV vaccine (73% vs. 37%; adjusted odds ratio = 4.99; 95% confidence interval = 3.36, 7.49). Gay and bisexual men reported greater awareness of HPV vaccine, perceived worry about HPV-related diseases, perceived effectiveness of HPV vaccine, and anticipated regret if they declined vaccination and later developed HPV-related disease compared with heterosexualmen (all ps < .05). The lower acceptability and different beliefs among heterosexualmen suggest that novel interventions for this group may be needed. PMID:20798149
Gilbert, Paul; Brewer, Noel T; Reiter, Paul L; Ng, Terence W; Smith, Jennifer S
The anterior hypothalamus of the brain participates in the regulation of male-typical sexual behavior. The volumes of four cell groups in this region [interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) 1, 2, 3, and 4] were measured in postmortem tissue from three subject groups: women, men who were presumed to be heterosexual, and homosexual men. No differences were found between
This paper reports on a study of individual variability in the relationship between negative mood and sexuality in men. Part 1 involves a questionnaire survey of 919 white heterosexualmen, asking what typically happens to sexual interest and response when (a) depressed and (b) anxious\\/stressed, using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ). Trait measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, depression,
John Bancroft; Erick Janssen; David Strong; Lori Carnes; Zoran Vukadinovic; J. Scott Long
The present study investigated links between heterosexualmen’s narcissism and attitudes toward heterosexual and non-heterosexual\\u000a women and men. Male narcissism was predicted to be associated with hostility toward heterosexual women more than toward other\\u000a groups, indicating investment in patriarchal power more than in conservative gender ideology or nonspecific disdain toward\\u000a all people. Hierarchical regression analyses of responses from 104 male
Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4%
R Fitzpatrick; G Hart; M Boulton; J McLean; J Dawson
Heterosexually identified men who have sex with men are an understudied group for whom there is little knowledge of the social and sexual meanings of their same-sex encounters. This study employed qualitative methods to better understand the maintenance of a heterosexual identity in the face of discordant sexual behaviors. Open-ended, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 heterosexually identified men (M age, 39.85 years) who reported at least one sexual encounter with a male in the previous year but not more than one sexual encounter per month with a male. Of the participants, 61.9% were African American/black, 28.6% were currently married, 71.4% reported current substance use, and 57.1% were HIV infected. Participants did not consider their same-sex activities as discrepant with their heterosexual identity as these activities were coded as infrequent, recreational, accidental, or an economic necessity. They avoided intimacy by depersonalizing male sexual partners, limiting gestures (e.g., kissing, hugging, eye contact, conversation), and by distancing themselves from gay-identified venues. Participants transferred responsibility for their same-sex sexual activities by blaming external factors, such as a fight with their wife or substance use, for the sexual encounters. Despite their ability to compartmentalize these sexual encounters, many participants expressed guilt and shame when discussing their same sex experiences. PMID:19030977
The present investigation aimed to shed light on how masculinity and other variables could be combined to predict prejudice against gay men. Therefore, the study tested a hierarchical model including correlates of antigay attitudes and two theoretical explanations for these beliefs: The Functional Approach and the Self-Discrepancy Theory. Responses from 243 heterosexualmen revealed that prejudice toward gay men significantly
Joseph M. Barron; Cindy Struckman-Johnson; Randal Quevillon; Sarah R. Banka
We compared men who have sex with other men on the Internet with the remainder of the sample of men who reported only sex with women on the Internet, in a sample of 1,846 Swedish men recruited from a major Swedish portal. We report on the self-identified heterosexualmen in the sample who reported engaging in cybersex in the past year, and for whom there was complete data on sexual identity and the gender of cybersexual partners. Of the 244 cases with full data, 76% were heterosexual in both identity and behavior, 16% were gay or bisexual in identity and reported both male and female cybersexual contacts on the Internet, and 8% indicated their sexual preference was heterosexual but also reported at least one male sexual partner on the Internet. Thus, 11% of self-identified heterosexualmen had sex with other men online. Comparing the two groups, the men who had sex with men (MSM) who did not identify (MSM-NI) spent significantly more time per week online, although a similar amount of time on sexual pursuits, as the heterosexualmen. The MSM-NI were significantly more likely to agree that their online sexuality had affected their sexuality in a positive way, to have bought sex from prostitutes, to agree that they do things online that they would not do offline, have cybersex more often, use a web-camera and microphone more often, flirt and visit contact sites more often, and agree more often that sexual thoughts and behaviors are causing problems, desire to have sex creates problems, and sometimes fail to meet commitments due to their sexual behavior. These data taken together suggest that MSM-NI online are not uncommon and are characterized by the extent of their cybersexual involvement that sometimes extends to other men. Such men may rationalize this cybersex with other men as not, or minimally, sexual in much the same way as Humphreys characterized MSMs in public restrooms. PMID:15938652
Ross, Michael W; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Daneback, Kristian; Tikkanen, Ronny
In the United States, heterosexual transmission is the second leading cause of HIV/AIDS, and two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 occurred among African-Americans. Few HIV prevention interventions have been designed specifically for African-American heterosexualmen not seeking clinical treatment. Here we report results of a single-arm intervention trial of a theory-based HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American menliving in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. We tested our hypothesis using McNemar discordant pairs exact test for binary variables and paired t-tests for continuous variables. We observed statistically significant declines in mean number of total and new female partners, unprotected sex partners, and partner concurrency in both primary and nonprimary sex partnerships between baseline and 3 months postintervention. PMID:23005899
In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexualmen exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American menliving in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood. PMID:23016501
This paper discusses the basis for differences among heterosexuals in their reactions to gay people, with special emphasis on the issue of gender differences. Three studies conducted with students at six different universities revealed a consistent tendency for heterosexual males to express more hostile attitudes than heterosexual females, especially toward gay men. The same social psychological variables appear to underlie
Objective Men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) than women and heterosexualmen. This elevated risk persists across age groups and reflects biological and behavioral factors, yet there have been few direct comparisons of sexual behavior patterns between these populations. Methods We compared sexual behavior patterns of MSM and male and female heterosexuals aged 18–39 using 4 population-based random digit dialing surveys. A 1996–1998 survey in 4 U.S. cities and 2 Seattle surveys (2003, 2006) provided estimates for MSM; a 2003–2004 Seattle survey provided data about heterosexualmen and women. Results Sexual debut occurred earlier among MSM than heterosexuals. MSM reported longer cumulative lifetime periods of new partner acquisition than heterosexuals, and a more gradual decline in new partnership formation with age. Among MSM, 86% of 18–24 year olds and 72% of 35–39 year olds formed a new partnership during the prior year, compared to 56% of heterosexualmen and 34% of women at ages 18–24, and 21% and 10%, respectively, at ages 35–39. MSM were also more likely to choose partners >5 years older and were 2–3 times as likely as heterosexuals to report recent concurrent partnerships. MSM reported more consistent condom use during anal sex than heterosexuals reported during vaginal sex. Conclusions MSM have longer periods of partnership acquisition, a higher prevalence of partnership concurrency, and more age-disassortative mixing than heterosexuals. These factors likely help explain higher HIV/STI rates among MSM, despite higher levels of condom use.
Glick, Sara Nelson; Morris, Martina; Foxman, Betsy; Aral, Sevgi O.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Holmes, King K.; Golden, Matthew R.
This article examines the presentation of male heterosexuality in British soft-core pornographic and men’s lifestyle magazines, looking across these formats at the range of conventions and discourses they share. It maps out the key features of male heterosexuality in these publications, focusing on a sample of British magazines collected in June 2003 across both soft core and lifestyle formats, and
This article integrates critical gerontology and masculinities theories to examine how midlife gay and heterosexualmen experience their bodies in relation to cultural discourses of aging. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 15 gay and 15 heterosexualmen ages 40-60 reveal that while both groups of men describe their bodies as deteriorating or declining in terms of functionality and are often distressed by these changes, midlife gay men also articulate a concern with a perceived decline in bodily appearance. Both gay and heterosexual midlife men frame their bodies as fundamentally different from women's, possibly in an attempt to protect a masculine identity in response to the threat that aging bodies pose to that identity. We argue that midlife men's embodied experiences are shaped by a discourse of midlife decline as well as inequalities between gay and heterosexualmen. We also discuss the implications of embodiment for midlife men's well-being. PMID:23849420
Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of Hombres Sanos [Healthy Men] a social marketing campaign to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually identified Latino men, especially among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Methods. Hombres Sanos was implemented in northern San Diego County, California, from June 2006 through December 2006. Every other month we conducted cross-sectional surveys with independent samples of heterosexually identified Latino men before (n = 626), during (n = 752), and after (n = 385) the campaign. Respondents were randomly selected from 12 targeted community venues to complete an anonymous, self-administered survey on sexual practices and testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. About 5.6% of respondents (n = 98) were heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. Results. The intervention was associated with reduced rates of recent unprotected sex with both females and males among heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. The campaign was also associated with increases in perception of HIV risk, knowledge of testing locations, and condom carrying among heterosexual Latinos. Conclusions. Social marketing represents a promising approach for abating HIV transmission among heterosexually identified Latinos, particularly for heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. Given the scarcity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for these populations, this prevention strategy warrants further investigation.
Zellner, Jennifer A.; Sanudo, Fernando; Fernandez-Cerdeno, Araceli; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Sipan, Carol L.; Engelberg, Moshe; Carrillo, Hector
The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexualmen and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexualmen valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexualmen and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire. PMID:21979410
Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna
This study examined the construct validity of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1978) for heterosexual and gay men. Sixty heterosexual and 63 gay male participants were recruited through networking and advertisements. These two groups were of equivalent age, socioeconomic background, race, student status, and educational level. They completed the Lifestyle Questionnaire assessing sexual orientation and the BSRI assessing sex-role
Summary: There are limited data on high-risk behaviors among heterosexual African American men with HIV infection. Risk behaviors were examined in a case-control study of HIV-infected (n 90) and uninfected (n 272) African American men who self-identified as heterosexual. Of men who self-identified as heterosexual, 31% (n 28) of the infected men and 16% (n 43) of the uninfected men
Amy Rock Wohl; Denise F. Johnson; Sharon Lu; Wilbert Jordan; Gildon Beall; Judith Currier; Paul A. Simon
We tested hypotheses drawn from three theoretical perspectives—gender belief system, authoritarianism, and social dominance—concerning heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Data from 122 male and 131 female heterosexual college students with mostly White, middle-class backgrounds indicated that constructs postulated by all three perspectives played important roles in predicting attitudes: Gender differences in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were
In this paper we describe sex with men, including the frequency of sex and unprotected sex, among high-risk, heterosexually-identified\\u000a men in urban, low-income, coastal Peru. During 2001–2002, a random community-based sample of these men was administered an\\u000a epidemiologic survey collecting sexual risk behavior data. Among the 924 high-risk heterosexually-identified men, 131 (14.2%)\\u000a reported at least one male partner in the past
Kelika Anne Konda; Andres G. Lescano; Elli Leontsini; Percy Fernandez; Jeffrey D. Klausner; Thomas J. Coates; Carlos F. Cáceres
This study assesses whether characteristics of one's own body image influences preferences of attractiveness in a partner. The role of gender and sexual orientation is also considered. Heterosexual women (n=67), lesbian women (n=73), heterosexualmen (n=61) and gay men (n=82) participated in an internet survey assessing attitudes towards the body and preferences of attractiveness in a partner. Men in particular
Tanja Legenbauer; Silja Vocks; Corinna Schäfer; Sabine Schütt-Strömel; Wolfgang Hiller; Christof Wagner; Claus Vögele
Previous content analyses of magazine images have typically examined within genres but failed to include comparisons between publications intended for various populations. The purpose of this study was to examine depictions of muscularity and thinness of male images in several widely distributed magazines that target male audiences from a variety of genres. Twenty-three magazine titles with the highest circulation rates that targeted heterosexualmen, gay men, and general audiences were selected for image analyses. We found that magazines that target gay male audiences depicted images of men who were thinner in comparison to magazines targeting heterosexualmen. Both gay and heterosexual magazines depicted male images with greater muscularity than magazines intended for general audiences. Differences in male image depictions in magazines may contribute to the promotion of an unattainable body ideal in some subgroups of gay culture. PMID:23352323
Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially vulnerable to HIV infection because of biological susceptibility and men's sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexualmen are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women's vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of women in the epidemic, mounting challenges undermine its current usefulness. We review the etiology and successes of the paradigm as well as its accruing limitations. We also call for an expanded model that acknowledges biology, gender inequality, and gendered power relations but also directly examines social structure, gender, and HIV risk for heterosexual women and men.
Transsexuals, because of their attempts at gender reversal, offer a unique opportunity to study self-presentation, social roles, and stereotypes. The present study is a content analysis of personal advertisements of male-to-female transsexuals (TM, N =99), homosexual (HoM, N =64) and heterosexualmen (HM, N =99), and heterosexual women (HW, N =99). Advertisements were coded for the presence or absence of
Meredith Child; Kathryn Graff Low; Cheryl McDonell McCormick; Andrew Cocciarella
Comparing the behavior of heterosexual and homosexual persons can provide insight into the origins of heterosexual sex differences\\u000a in psychology. Evidence indicates that, aside from sexual partner preference, the mating psychology of homosexual men is sex-typical\\u000a whereas that of homosexual women tends to be more sex-atypical. The current study examined one aspect of mating psychology,\\u000a mate retention behavior, and tested
Relations between sexual orientation and several biodemographic variables previously reported to differentiate between homosexual\\u000a and heterosexualmen were examined. Subjects were 4948 white, postpubertal males, who were never reared in foster homes, orphanages,\\u000a or other institutions, and were never arrested or convicted on criminal charges. These were dichotomously classified as homosexual\\u000a (n=844) or heterosexual (n=4104). Data came from survey interviews
|Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexualmen. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…
Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.
A multidimensional measure of sexual prejudice was developed to assess the increasing complexity of heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a valid and reliable 7-factor measure that assessed: 1) traditional heterosexism; 2) tendency to deny anti-gay discrimination continues; 3) aversion toward gay men; 4) aversion to lesbians; 5) judgments regarding the value of
Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexualmen. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…
Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.
Two experiments were embedded in a 1997 telephone survey of U.S. households to assess possible differences in how heterosexuals think about lesbians versus gay men. In each experiment, one half of the sample first responded to one or more attitude items about lesbians, followed by comparable items about gay men. The other half received the gay male item(s) first. Results
African Americans are overrepresented among heterosexual cases of HIV/AIDS in the USA. Inconsistent condom use and concurrent partnering are two sexual behaviors driving the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the African American community. To inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use among African American heterosexualmen, we conducted formative research, including 61 structured interviews, 5 focus groups with 25 men, and 30 in-depth qualitative interviews between July and December 2009. We used a grounded theoretical approach and categorizing strategies to code and analyze the qualitative data. Results around condom use confirmed earlier findings among heterosexualmen in general: condoms diminish pleasure, interfere with erection, and symbolize infidelity. Although valued by some as a form of disease prevention and pregnancy prevention, condoms are often used only with specific types of female partners, such as new or casual partners, or due to visual risk assessment. Sex partner concurrency was described as normative and ascribed to men's "natural" desire to engage in a variety of sexual activities or their high sex drive, with little recognition of the role it plays in the heterosexual HIV epidemic. Fatherhood emerged among many men as a crucial life event and compelling motivation for reducing sexual risk behavior. Based on these results, we conclude that existing HIV prevention efforts to improve attitudes towards and motivate use of condoms either have not reached or have not been successful with African American heterosexualmen. In designing behavioral interventions to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use, addressing negative attitudes towards condoms and partner risk assessment is critical, as is integrating novel motivational approaches related to identity as fathers and men in the African American community. PMID:22869516
Male circumcision is associated with a lower risk of penile human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) uninfected men. Few studies have evaluated the role of male circumcision in penile HPV infection in HIV-infected men. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between male circumcision and the prevalence of penile HPV infection among HIV-infected men-both men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexualmen. Samples from 706 consecutive men included in the CARH-MEN cohort (overall 24% circumcised: 26% of MSM, 18% of heterosexualmen) were examined by Multiplex-PCR. In the overall group (all HIV-infected men included), the prevalence of any penile HPV infection was 22% in circumcised men and 27% in uncircumcised men (OR?=?1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.6, adjusted analysis). In the circumcised group the overall prevalence of HPV infection was 22% in MSM and 24% in the heterosexualmen, whereas in the uncircumcised group the prevalence was 26% and 28%, respectively. The prevalence of high-risk HPV types tended to be lower in the circumcised MSM (14% vs 21%, OR?=?0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.1, p?0.088), but it was similar in the heterosexualmen (18% in circumcised vs 20% in uncircumcised). These results suggest that male circumcision may be associated with a lower prevalence of oncogenic high-risk penile HPV infection in HIV-infected MSM. PMID:22676057
Canadas, M P; Darwich, L; Videla, S; Sirera, G; Coll, J; Rafael, M-L A; Clotet, B
The present study assessed viewing time as a measure of sexual interest in self-identified heterosexualmen and women. Participants\\u000a (N = 106) rated the sexual appeal of sexually provocative pictures while the length of time they spent viewing each picture\\u000a was unobtrusively measured. As hypothesized, (1) men and women viewed opposite sex pictures significantly longer than same\\u000a sex pictures, (2) men viewed
Previous research posited that butch lesbians are physiologically similar to heterosexualmen, and by implication, femme lesbians\\u000a physiologically resemble heterosexual women. The current study sought to compare partner preferences among butch and femme\\u000a lesbians, as well as heterosexual women and men. More than 600 personal advertisements from newspapers and websites across\\u000a the United States were examined. Forty-seven percent of advertisers
Christine A. Smith; Julie A. Konik; Melanie V. Tuve
The odorous steroid compound 4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone), found in axillary sweat, was previously reported to evoke hypothalamic activation in heterosexual women, but not in heterosexualmen. However, subjects were exposed to the pure crystalline form of androstadienone, which raised the question whether the observed hypothalamic response is physiologically relevant. Therefore, in the present study, we asked whether sexually dimorphic hypothalamic responses could be measured when subjects were exposed to lower, more physiologically relevant concentrations of androstadienone. A total of 21 women and 16 men, all heterosexual, participated in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study (fMRI). Three different concentrations of androstadienone diluted in propylene glycol (10 mM “high,” 0.1 mM “medium” and 0.001 mM “low”) were delivered to the subjects’ nostrils using a computer-controlled stimulator. When exposed to the “high” androstadienone concentration, women showed stronger hypothalamic activation than men. By contrast, men showed more hypothalamic activation when exposed to the “medium” androstadienone concentrations in comparison to women. Thus, we replicated that smelling the chemo-signal androstadienone elicits a hypothalamic activation. However, this effect does not seem to be gender-specific, because androstadienone activated the hypothalamus in both men and women, suggesting that androstadienone exerts specific effects in heterosexual individuals of both sexes.
Burke, Sarah M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Gerber, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas; Bakker, Julie
|Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD)…
Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime
Whereas gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18 to 25, the ways young people grappled with
N. Tatiana Masters; Erin Casey; Elizabeth A. Wells; Diane M. Morrison
This study describes responses of 172 single heterosexual African American men, ages 18 to 35, to condom negotiation attempts. Strategies used included reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational strategies, based on Raven's (1992) influence model. The purpose was (a) to identify strategies influencing participant acquiescence to request and (b) to identify predictors of participant compliance\\/refusal to comply with negotiation
Laura L. Otto-Salaj; Nicole Traxel; Michael J. Brondino; Barbara Reed; Cheryl Gore-Felton; Jeffrey A. Kelly; L. Yvonne Stevenson
The association between heterosexuals’ attitudes toward gay men and their interpersonal contact experiences with a lesbian or gay person was examined with data from a national AIDS telephone survey with a probability sample of English?speaking adults in the United States (n = 937). When asked whether any friends or relatives had “let you know that they were homosexual,” approximately one?third
A comparison was made of heterosexual and homosexual men and women utilizing Loevinger's concept of ego development and focusing on the relationships among ego levels and attitudes toward homosexuality and on personal sex guilt and other sociosexual variables. Previous comparative studies were critically analyzed with respect to the adequacy of definition and description of sampling procedures, and the appropriateness of
Two studies investigated the relation between sexual orientation and gender-related traits. Analyzing data from an Internet survey, Study 1 found that gay men and lesbians differed from same-sex heterosexuals most strongly on gender diagnosticity (GD) measures, which assess male- versus female-typicality of occupational preferences (effect sizes were 1.14 for men and 0.53 for women) and least strongly on instrumentality (I)
Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexualmen. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more sexual risk taking (i.e., sex with multiple partners, unprotected
BACKGROUND: As part of qualitative research for developing a culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate videotape-based HIV prevention intervention for heterosexual African- American men, six focus groups were conducted with thirty African-American men to determine their perceptions of AIDS as a threat to the African-American community, characteristics of past situations that have placed African Americans at risk for HIV infection, their
Ekere J Essien; Angela F Meshack; Ronald J Peters; Gbadebo O Ogungbade; Nora I Osemene
This paper examines heterosexual adults’ attitudes toward bisexual men and women using data from a 1999 national RDD survey (N = 1,335). Ratings on 101?point feeling thermometers were lower (less favorable) for bisexual men and bisexual women than for all other groups assessed—including religious, racial, ethnic, and political groups—except injecting drug users. More negative attitudes toward bisexuals were associated with
The purpose of this investigation was to understand how "fag hags" and gay-supportive heterosexualmen (GSHM) describe the nature and quality of their interpersonal contact experiences with gay men. Eight archival interviews were analyzed using the methodologies outlined in Hill, Thompson, and Williams (1997); i.e., consensual qualitative research. The results yielded suggest that the nature of contact experiences relates to direct contact with gay men in institutional or social settings or via indirect, formative experiences. The possible roles that contact plays in attitudes formation include: (1) normalizing homosexuality, (2) challenging previously held myths and stereotypes, and (3) increasing a person's likelihood of having contact experiences with gay men and developing gay-supportive attitudes. Participants described the quality of the contact as taking place in the context of a friendship that developed between them and a gay male that strengthened after the gay friend came out. Furthermore, the impact of these contact experiences did not change fag hags' sense of morality, but "improved" their attitudes toward gay men. The results from this study have broader social implications in that they contribute to the much-needed discourse, from a qualitative perspective, on the ways in which people form gay-supportive attitudes. Future research should focus on describing the transformational nature of contact between gay men and heterosexuals in order to uncover any processes or stages that heterosexuals go through in developing gay-supportive attitudes. PMID:16048885
Castro-Convers, Kevin; Gray Evans, Laurie A; Ladany, Nicholas; Metzler, April E
Social stigma theory guided this study of social interaction in status-discrepant dyads. Interpersonal trait judgments were characterized by out-group covariation bias at the individual and dyadic levels. Men used shared stereotypes and idiosyncratic generalizations regarding characteristics of out-group members when judging their traits, and this was most pronounced in heterosexualmen's judgments of gays. Heterosexualmen were accurately aware of
Willingness to date members of other races was examined among 200 men with same-sex dating preference (n = 100) and opposite-sex dating preference (n = 100), and 200 women with same-sex dating preference (n = 100) and opposite-sex dating preference (n = 100) who were randomly selected from an Internet dating web site. Overall, results indicated a greater willingness among gay participants than heterosexual participants to date people of other races. A 2 (Sex) x 2 (Sexual Orientation) analysis of variance showed an interaction, with lesbian women more willing to date other races than gay men, while among heterosexual participants men were more willing than women to date other races. The role of mate selection theory, and the importance of the status afforded various races in U.S. society, were applied to interpret people's willingness to date other races. PMID:21879617
McIntosh, William D; Scott, Alison J; Dawson, Bryan L; Locker, Lawrence
Suicide rates among older adolescents is a major concern for researchers. A homosexual lifestyle, with its additional stresses, may erode one's adaptive characteristics. This study sought to identify and compare suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics in homosexual and heterosexual adolescents. Sixty-two individuals were divided into two…
Although the male condom remains the most commonly used method of HIV prevention, sexual health promotion interventions directed toward heterosexuals in the United States have focused primarily on women. In this paper, we discuss limitations of the utility of various HIV-prevention-related sexual health promotion messages as they pertain to the sexual behavior of heterosexualmen. We also present several key
Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male–male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One
|Focuses on the spousal relationship of gay men who had been married. Describes the man's disclosure of his homosexuality, the wife's response, and the interactional effects on the marriage relationship. Suggests the wife appeared to be an enabler of his transition to a homosexual life-style. (Author/JAC)|
Few studies have examined the psychosocial factors associated with sexual transmission behaviors among HIV-positive men who\\u000a have sex with men (MSM), heterosexualmen (MSW) and women. We enrolled 1,050 sexually active HIV-positive patients at seven\\u000a HIV clinics in six US cities as part of a clinic-based behavioral intervention. We describe the sexual transmission behaviors\\u000a and examine demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and
Carol Golin; Gary Marks; Julie Wright; Mary Gerkovich; Hsiao-Chuan Tien; Shilpa N. Patel; Lytt Gardner; Christine O’Daniels; Tracey E. Wilson; Mark Thrun; Melanie Thompson; Stephen Raffanti; E. Byrd Quinlivan
Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Guatemala among the general population is 0.79%, and 94% of transmission is directly related to sexual contact. Studies have been conducted on high- prevalence HIV-positive populations (men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers and prisoners). Heterosexual transmission has gained importance in the epidemic in Central America. To our knowledge, no study addressing knowledge of mechanisms of HIV transmission and condom use has been done on HIV-positive heterosexualmen and women. Methods A closed-ended structured interview that addressed knowledge of mechanisms of HIV transmission and condom use was conducted on 283 heterosexual HIV-positive men (54.8%) and women (45.2%) outpatients who attend the Roosevelt Hospital's Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Guatemala City. Differences between selected characteristics were examined for significance using the Chi-square test. A multiple logistic regression was done to determine socio-demographic variables associated with inconsistent condom use. Results Of the interviewed persons, 68.5% were either living with a partner or married, and 94.3% were currently using antiretroviral therapy. Most respondents knew the mechanisms of transmission of HIV. 81.7% and 87.3% reported always using a condom with their regular and casual sexual partner in the past year, respectively. There was no statistically difference in condom use according to the patient's formal education, gender, type of partner (regular or casual)or number of sexual partners. According to the interviewees, 72% of sexual partners in the past year were either HIV negative or of an unknown serostatus. Potentially, these HIV-negative persons are at risk of contracting the virus. Among the main reasons given for not using a condom were: "my partner did not want to use a condom"; and "the condom irritates or makes my partner uncomfortable". Conclusions Since no socio-demographic or sexual behavior variable was associated with inconsistent condom use, we recommend intensive and regular condom counselling for every heterosexual HIV-positive outpatient who attends the clinic. Further studies should be done to determine condom use negotiation between partners; and to determine social, interpersonal and psychological factors that might affect the decision to use a condom or not.
\\u000a In the United States, the rate of HIV infection transmitted through high-risk heterosexual contact is disproportionately higher\\u000a among African American than among persons of other races or ethnicities (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC],\\u000a 2009). Therefore, African American men who have sex with women represent a critical target for behavioral interventions designed\\u000a to reduce HIV incidence in this community.
Neurohormonal theories of sexual orientation emphasize the organizational effects of testosterone on the developing brain. A recent suggestion, that the ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D) is negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone, has led to a number of studies of 2D:4D in homosexual and heterosexualmen and women. The results have been mixed. In comparison
The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and\\u000a traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined\\u000a the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and\\u000a homosexual men. Measures included genital,
Erick Janssen; David Goodrich; John V. Petrocelli; John Bancroft
ObjectivesTo investigate the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and determine the associations between HPV infection and HIV coinfection in sexually active heterosexualmen with anogenital warts (GW), male urethral discharge or asymptomatic men.MethodsValid specimens for HPV genotyping were obtained from three patient groups consisting of 108 men with GW, 56 men with urethral discharge syndrome and 50 asymptomatic men
We explored patterns of sexual risk behavior among esquineros, heterosexually-identified, socially-marginalized Peruvian men using latent class analysis. We used data from the Peru site\\u000a of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative HIV\\/STD Prevention Trial which included n = 2,109 heterosexually-identified\\u000a men. The latent class analysis used seven risk behaviors to group esquineros into risk classes. We identified four
Kelika A. Konda; David D. Celentano; Susan Kegeles; Thomas J. Coates; Carlos F. Caceres
Background To determine whether chlamydia positivity among heterosexualmen (MSW) and chlamydia and gonorrhea positivity among men who\\u000a have sex with men (MSM), are changing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Computerized records for men attending a large sexual health clinic between 2002 and 2009 were analyzed. Chlamydia and gonorrhea\\u000a positivity were calculated and logistic regression used to assess changes over time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results 17769 MSW and 8328 MSM
Lenka A Vodstrcil; Christopher K Fairley; Glenda Fehler; David Leslie; Jennifer Walker; Catriona S Bradshaw; Jane S Hocking
In most parts of the world women live longer. This gender gap in life expectancy (LE) is remarkable and it has challenged scientific research for decades. Closer analysis of geographic differences related to such gender gap and attempts to recognize its cause may provide a powerful tool to understand the basic process of aging and to device preventive health care strategies. In countries with established socio-economic order women live on the average 4-7 years longer. The main contributing factor is higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in men. In the European established democracies male mortality is on decline and the gender gap in LE is becoming smaller. Current trends in Iceland and in other Scandinavian countries indicate that by the year 2050 men will live as long as women. Unfortunately, the gender gap continues to grow in the countries of the former Soviet influence where it represents up to 13 years. Dependence of the gender gap on the socio-economic order of a particular society points out the importance of environmental factors. Other mechanisms influencing the gender difference are the different hormonal and genetic function (Fig. 6, Ref. 23). PMID:23331196
This study examined friendships between gay male athletes and their heterosexual teammates. Six gay college athletes from various athletic and geographical backgrounds, recruited through a gay sports website and a gay sports documentary, were interviewed. These athletes identified a straight teammate and friend for additional interviewing. Both athletes answered questions about their mutual friendship. The interviews were analyzed through grounded
Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexualmen. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more sexual risk taking (i.e., sex with multiple partners, unprotected sex, and one-night stands) than nonaggressive men, and almost half of the reported incidents of sexual aggression were unprotected (i.e., no condom was worn). Thus, sexual aggression was found to be part of a larger pattern of sexual risk taking. Regression analyses revealed that sexual aggression was associated with greater alcohol use and lower sexual inhibition-two variables that have consistently been found to be related to other forms of sexual risk taking. PMID:19474034
This interview study, the initial qualitative phase of a larger mixed methods HIV prevention study focused on Black heterosexualmen, used intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore: (1) How a sample of Black heterosexualmen describe and experience the multiple intersections of race, gender, and SES; and (2) How these descriptions reflected interlocking systems of social inequality for Black men at the social-structural level. Participants were 30 predominantly low-income self-identified Black heterosexualmen between the ages of 18 and 44. Analyses highlighted four themes that demonstrate how participants’ individual-level experiences as Black men reflect macro social-structural inequality: (1) racial discrimination and microaggressions; (2) unemployment; (3) incarceration; and (4) police surveillance and harassment. We discuss the study’s findings within the context of social-structural factors that disproportionately and adversely impact Black men. We also highlight the implications of the intersectionality perspective for HIV prevention research and interventions for Black heterosexualmen.
Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.
This interview study, the initial qualitative phase of a larger mixed methods HIV prevention study focused on Black heterosexualmen, used intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore: (1) How a sample of Black heterosexualmen describe and experience the multiple intersections of race, gender, and SES; and (2) How these descriptions reflected interlocking systems of social inequality for Black men at the social-structural level. Participants were 30 predominantly low-income self-identified Black heterosexualmen between the ages of 18 and 44. Analyses highlighted four themes that demonstrate how participants' individual-level experiences as Black men reflect macro social-structural inequality: (1) racial discrimination and microaggressions; (2) unemployment; (3) incarceration; and (4) police surveillance and harassment. We discuss the study's findings within the context of social-structural factors that disproportionately and adversely impact Black men. We also highlight the implications of the intersectionality perspective for HIV prevention research and interventions for Black heterosexualmen. PMID:23482810
Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M
This article seeks to extend understandings of heterosexual masculine identities through an examination of young men's constructions of what motivates young men to engage in heterosexual practices and relationships, and what not having sex might mean for them. Using the masculinity literature and work on heterosexuality to frame the discussion and to contextualize the findings, it explores the complex dynamics that frame the relationship between masculinity and heterosexuality. Specifically, how dominant or 'hegemonic' discourses of heterosexuality shape young men's identities, beliefs and behaviour. It considers these questions using empirical data from a qualitative study of young people living in close-knit working-class communities in the North East of England, with a specific focus on cultural and social attitudes towards sexuality and sexual practices. Peer group networks are a key site for the construction and (re)production of masculinity and, therefore, an important arena within which gendered social approval and acceptance is both sought and gained. In this article, I explore the reasons why young men engage in specific types of heterosexual practice in order to gain social approval. A central question is the extent to which heterosexuality is compelling for young men. That young men do feel compelled to behave in certain ways sexually, behaviours that they may be uncomfortable with and/or dislike, and the fact that they feel they are restricted in terms of how they can talk about their experiences within their peer group networks, demonstrates the power of dominant discourses of masculinity in everyday life. This is addressed through an examination of the restrictive effects of normative discourses about male heterosexuality, including their privatizing effects, which suggest that youth masculinities are often experienced in ways that are highly contradictory requiring young men to adopt a range of strategies to deal with this. PMID:21138430
Studies have used manipulated faces to test the preferences of heterosexual individuals for sexually dimorphic facial cues. In contrast to previous studies, which have generally excluded homosexual participants, we directly compared homosexual and heterosexual male and female preferences for manipulated sexual dimorphism in faces (homosexual males: n = 311; heterosexual males: n = 215; homosexual females: n = 159; heterosexual
Aaron N. Glassenberg; David R. Feinberg; Benedict C. Jones; Anthony C. Little; Lisa M. DeBruine
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between sexuality and exercise motivations in 93 British bar staff.\\u000a Participants who self-identified as heterosexual, gay, or lesbian completed the revised version of the Exercise Motivations\\u000a Inventory and reported exercise frequency. Heterosexualmen scored lower on appearance motives than did heterosexual women\\u000a and gay men, higher on enjoyment motives than did gay
Introduction Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces the incidence of acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in men who have sex with men and is a promising approach for preventing HIV-1 in heterosexual populations. Methods We conducted a randomized, three-arm trial of oral antiretroviral PrEP among heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda in which one member was HIV-1 seronegative and the other HIV-1 seropositive. Seronegative partners were randomly assigned to once-daily tenofovir (TDF), combination emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF), or matching placebo and followed monthly for up to 36 months. At enrollment, HIV-1 seropositive partners were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy under national guidelines. All couples received standard HIV-1 treatment and prevention services, including individual and couples risk-reduction counseling and condoms. Results 4758 couples were enrolled; for 62%, the HIV-1 seronegative partner was male. For HIV-1 seropositive participants, the median CD4 count was 495 cells/?L (interquartile range 375–662). Of 82 post-randomization HIV-1 infections, 17 were among those assigned TDF (incidence 0.65 per 100 person-years), 13 among those assigned FTC/TDF (incidence 0.50 per 100 person-years), and 52 among those assigned placebo (incidence 1.99 per 100 person-years), indicating a 67% relative reduction in HIV-1 incidence for TDF (95% CI 44 to 81, p<0.001) and 75% for FTC/TDF (95% CI 55 to 87, p<0.001). HIV-1 protective effects of FTC/TDF and TDF were not significantly different (p=0.23), and both study medications significantly reduced HIV-1 incidence in both men and women. The rate of serious medical events was similar across the study arms. Conclusions Oral TDF and FTC/TDF provided substantial protection against HIV-1 acquisition in heterosexualmen and women, with comparable efficacy of TDF and FTC/TDF. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00557245)
Few studies have examined sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive, heterosexual, injection drug using (IDU) men. We investigated such behaviors and associations with risk among sexually active, HIV-positive IDU men who reported only female sex partners in the 3 months prior to baseline interview. We examined associations separately for four non-exclusive groups of men by crossing partner type (main or casual) and partner serostatus (HIV-positive or HIV-negative/unknown). Of 732 male participants, 469 (64%) were sexually active with only female partners. Of these 469 men, 155 (33%) reported sex with HIV-positive main partners, 127 (27%) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners, 145 (31%) with HIV-positive casual partners, and 192 (41%) with HIV-negative/unknown serostatus casual partners. Significant multivariate associations for unprotected sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners were less self-efficacy to use condoms, weaker partner norms supporting condoms, and more negative condom beliefs. Similar correlates were found for unprotected sex with HIV-positive main and casual partners. In addition, alcohol or drug use during sex was a significant correlate of unprotected sex with HIV-positive main partners, while depression was significant for HIV-positive casual partners. For unprotected sex with HIV-negative/unknown status casual partners, self-efficacy for condom use, sex trade, and education were significant multivariate correlates. A combination of broad and tailored intervention strategies based on the relationship pattern of men's lives may provide the most benefit for reducing unprotected sex with female partners.
Mizuno, Yuko; Metsch, Lisa R.; Garfein, Richard; Tobin, Karin; Knight, Kelly; Latka, Mary H.
Research documents the link between traditional ideologies of masculinity and sexual risk among multi-ethnic male adolescents and White male college students, but similar research with Black heterosexualmen is scarce. This exploratory study addressed this gap through six focus groups with 41 Black, low- to middle-income heterosexualmen aged 19 to 51 years in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses highlighted two explicit
Lisa Bowleg; Michelle Teti; Jenné S. Massie; Aditi Patel; David J. Malebranche; Jeanne M. Tschann
sexual orientation; brain differentiation; mate selection; partner preferences Abstract OBJECTIVES: The current study examined and compared the preferred partner characteristics of heterosexual and homosexual men and women in relation to speculated patterns of brain differentiation underlying the preferences. Further, the study compared the preferences of butch versus femme homosexual women. METHODS: Two hundred twelve heterosexual and homosexual men and women
Frank Muscarella; Vanessa A. Elias; Lenore T. Szuchman
This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men’s involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are significantly more likely to
This study explored, from a public health perspective, factors that contribute to inconsistent condom use by men in Curaçao through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 21 heterosexualmen. The findings show that there is an important disconnect between what is considered culturally appropriate sexual behaviour for men and women and condom use, that diverging from prescribed notions of masculinity and femininity in order to use condoms consistently is difficult, and that condom use is particularly problematic in the context of concurrent partnerships and sexual economic exchanges. Participants further reported that Caribbean family structures, whereby mothers assume the role as primary caregiver and fathers contribute biologically but, to a much lesser extent socially, also have an impact on condom use. Additionally, consistent condom use was reported to be impeded by a cultural taboo on talking seriously about sex and sexual health. In their totality, findings provide important input from men for the development of sexual health promotion interventions that are cognizant of the cultural context in which inconsistent condom use occurs, and that are geared not only to the individual level but also to the interpersonal and structural levels. PMID:23350609
Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bertens, Madelief G B C; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Schaalma, Herman P
This study examined whether alcohol outlet density is associated with male physical and sexual victimization by a female partner. Data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). A total of 3,179 young adult men identified a current heterosexual relationship and had complete intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization data. Almost 16% of this sample reported being the victim of physical only IPV in their relationship over the previous 12 months; an additional 6.4% were victims of sexual only or sexual and physical IPV. Multivariate analyses indicated high alcohol outlet density was associated with greater odds of experiencing physical IPV only (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07). Heavy drinkers experienced increased odds of physical and sexual IPV victimization. Alcohol outlet density should be addressed in prevention efforts.
Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Flewelling, Robert L.; Christ, Sharon L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Moracco, Kathryn E.
Introduction. Internet-based sex therapy for men with erectile dysfunction has been advocated as an easily accessible and cost-effective treatment. Aim. To test whether Internet-based sex therapy is superior to waiting list. Methods. Internet-based therapy was administered to heterosexualmen with erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation, without face-to-face contact, in a waiting-list controlled design, with pre-, post-, and follow-up mea- surements
Peter Leusink; Selma van Diest; Luk Gijs; A. Koos Slob
This study describes responses of 172 single heterosexual African American men, ages 18–35, to condom negotiation attempts. Strategies used included reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational strategies, based on Raven’s (1992) influence model. The purpose was: 1) to identify strategies influencing participant acquiescence to request, and 2) to identify predictors of participant compliance/refusal to comply with negotiation attempts. Participants viewed six videotape segments showing an actress, portrayed in silhouette, speaking to the viewer as a ‘steady partner’. After each segment, participants completed measures of: request compliance, positive and negative affect, and attributions concerning the model and themselves. No significant differences were found in men’s ratings across all vignettes. However, differences in response existed across subgroups of individuals, suggesting that while the strategy used had little impact on participant response, the act of suggesting condom use produced responses that differed across participant subgroups. Subgroups differed on levels of AIDS risk knowledge, STD history, and experience with sexual coercion. Also, the “least-willing-to-use” subgroup was highest in anger/rejection and least likely to make attributions of caring for partner. Effective negotiation of condom use with a male sexual partner may not be determined as much by specific strategy used as by partner characteristics.
Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Traxel, Nicole; Brondino, Michael J.; Reed, Barbara; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne
Research documents the link between traditional ideologies of masculinity and sexual risk among multi-ethnic male adolescents and White male college students, but similar research with Black heterosexualmen is scarce. This exploratory study addressed this gap through six focus groups with 41 Black, low to middle income heterosexualmen aged 19 to 51 years in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses highlighted two explicit ideologies of masculinity: that Black men should have sex with multiple women, often concurrently; and that Black men should not be gay or bisexual. Analyses also identified two implicit masculinity ideologies: the perception that Black heterosexualmen cannot decline sex, even risky sex; and that women are primarily responsible for condom use. The study’s implications for HIV prevention with Black heterosexualmen are discussed.
Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Massie, Jenne S.; Patel, Aditi; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.
Whereas gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding "disjunctures" between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18 to 25, the ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships were delineated. Findings suggest that, although most participants' culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, three styles of working with sexual scripts were found: conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts or interpreted their own nontraditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and well-being, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683
Masters, N Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexualmen recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward
Wilson Vincent; Dominic J. Parrott; John L. Peterson
... Living with Diabetes > Complications > Men's Health > Sexual Health Sexual Health Listen Sex is an important part of life and relationships. But diabetes can affect a man's sex life. It is important to understand that there ...
HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population. PMID:22676465
Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett
Although the direction and intensity of Black heterosexuals’ attitudes toward homosexuality have been topics for considerable speculation, empirical data from representative samples previously have not been available. In the current article we report findings from a two?wave telephone survey with a national probability sample of 391 Black heterosexual adults. Results indicated that negative attitudes toward homosexuality are widespread but do
Discordance between sexual identity and sexual behavior is not new; however, little is known about the HIV risk behaviors of heterosexually identified men who have occasional sex with a male and\\/or a male-to-female transgender woman. Open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 heterosexually identified men who reported at least one sexual encounter with a male and\\/or a transwoman in the
Against the background of an upward trend in newly diagnosed HIV infections and the increasing importance of heterosexual\\u000a HIV transmission in Europe and Switzerland, the theory of planned behaviour has been tested and extended in a prospective\\u000a study on condom use in a community sample of heterosexualmen. Nine hundred eighty-two Swiss men between the ages of 25 and\\u000a 65
Daniel Gredig; Sibylle Nideröst; Anne Parpan-Blaser
We develop a critique of the social psychological hypothesis that media images of women engaged in same-sex activity have a positive effect on heterosexualmen’s general attitudes to lesbians. A content analysis suggests that British print media usually represent lesbians either in news stories that also include gay men, or in entertainment stories. In focus groups, both gay and straight
Recent research suggests that, for most women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both women and men. For men, however, high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to one sex or the other, but not to both, depending on men's sexual orientation (Lippa, R. A., 2006, Psychological Science, 17, 46-52). These findings were replicated in a very large BBC data set and were found to hold true in different nations, world regions, and age groups. Consistent with previous research, lesbians differed from other women in showing the male-typical pattern, that high sex drive is associated with attraction to one sex but not the other. Bisexual women and men were more similar to same-sex heterosexuals than to same-sex homosexuals in their pattern of results. The correlation between same-sex and other-sex attraction was consistently negative for men, was near zero for heterosexual and bisexual women, and negative for lesbians. Thus, same-sex and other-sex attractions were, in general, more bipolar and mutually exclusive for men than for women. The current findings add to evidence that sexual orientation is organized differently in women and men and suggest a biological component to this difference. PMID:17380375
Psychobiological accounts of face processing predict that greater salience is attributed to faces matching a viewer's sexual preference than to faces that do not. However, behaviorally, this effect could only be demonstrated in tasks assessing reward 'wanting' (e.g. work-per-view-tasks) but not in tasks assessing 'liking' (e.g. facial attractiveness ratings), and has been found to be more pronounced in heterosexualmen than women, especially with regard to very attractive faces. Here, we addressed the question if sex differences at the level of 'wanting' persist if participants are uninformed about the attractiveness of an anticipated male or female face. Seventeen heterosexualmen and 13 heterosexual women (all single) participated in a social incentive delay task (SID). Participants were required to react on simple graphical cues in order to view a smiling face. Cues provided a priori information on the level of smile intensity (low/medium/high) as well as sex of the face (male/ female). A significant interaction of sex-of-face and sex-of-participant was observed in a priori defined regions of interest in the brain reward system (including ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex), reflecting enhanced activation to cues signaling opposite-sex faces relative to same-sex faces in both, men and women. Women additionally recruited the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during processing of opposite- vs. same-sex cues, suggesting stronger incorporation of social cognition processes in women than men. The findings speak against a general male bias for opposite-sex faces. Instead they provide preliminary evidence that men and women recruit different brain circuits during reward value assessment of facial stimuli. PMID:23128082
Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Rademacher, Lena; Paulus, Frieder M; Gründer, Gerhard
Objectives. We examined evidence that minority sexual orientation is associated with more-frequent reports of physical health complaints. We also investigated the possible role of HIV infection among gay men and higher rates of psychological distress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexually and homosexually experienced heterosexual individuals in generating these health disparities. Methods. We used data from the California Quality of Life Survey (N=2272 adults) to examine associations between sexual orientation and self-reports about physical health status, common health conditions, disabilities, and psychological distress. Results. Prevalent HIV infection was reported by nearly 18% of gay, bisexual, and homosexually experienced heterosexualmen. Gay men and bisexual and homosexually experienced heterosexual individuals had higher levels of psychological distress compared with exclusively heterosexual individuals. Self-reported physical health status varied by gender and by sexual orientation. Conclusions. Lesbians and bisexual and homosexually experienced heterosexual women reported a greater variety of health conditions and limitations compared with exclusively heterosexual women; however, these differences mostly disappeared when distress levels were taken into account. Among men, differences in health complaints appeared to reflect the ongoing burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases in the gay male community.
Background To determine whether chlamydia positivity among heterosexualmen (MSW) and chlamydia and gonorrhea positivity among men who have sex with men (MSM), are changing. Methods Computerized records for men attending a large sexual health clinic between 2002 and 2009 were analyzed. Chlamydia and gonorrhea positivity were calculated and logistic regression used to assess changes over time. Results 17769 MSW and 8328 MSM tested for chlamydia and 7133 MSM tested for gonorrhea. In MSW, 7.37% (95% CI: 6.99-7.77) were chlamydia positive; the odds of chlamydia positivity increased by 4% per year (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.07; p = 0.02) after main risk factors were adjusted for. In MSM, 3.70% (95% CI: 3.30-4.14) were urethral chlamydia positive and 5.36% (95% CI: 4.82-5.96) were anal chlamydia positive; positivity could not be shown to have changed over time. In MSM, 3.05% (95% CI: 2.63-3.53) tested anal gonorrhea positive and 1.83% (95% CI: 1.53-2.18) tested pharyngeal gonorrhea positive. Univariate analysis found the odds of anal gonorrhea positivity had decreased (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87-1.00; p = 0.05), but adjusting for main risk factors resulted in no change. Urethral gonorrhea cases in MSM as a percentage of all MSM tested for gonorrhea also fell (p < 0.001). Conclusions These data suggest that chlamydia prevalence in MSW is rising and chlamydia and gonorrhea prevalence among MSM is stable or declining. High STI testing rates among MSM in Australia may explain differences in STI trends between MSM and MSW.
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexualmen. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexualmen's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed.
Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
This study examined the relation between dimensions of sex role self schema (assessed by four factor scores of the Bem Sex Role Inventory: Instrumentality, Expressiveness, Autonomy, and Masculinity-Femininity) and psychological adjustment (assessed by the Symptom Checklist-90-R) in 366 homosexuals (230 males and 136 females) and 241 heterosexuals (124 males and 117 females). All subjects were in a cohabitating relationship. Homosexuals
|Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has several deleterious effects on health and well-being, including increased risk for rape in adulthood. Such revictimization experiences are linked to negative mental health outcomes. The vast majority of literature on prevalence and impact of sexual revictimization has focused on heterosexual women. In an effort to…
|In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…
The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes about condoms that may affect condom use by heterosexualmen ages 50 and older who were sexually active and currently using prescribed oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor medications (Viagra(®), Cialis(®), or Levitra(®)) for treatment of erectile dysfunction. The study was part of a larger study that explored the need for safer-sex health promotion and education for these men. Fifty men completed factor subscales of the Condom Attitude Scale. Subscales were scored and analyzed. Positive factors were found with regard to the Interpersonal Impact, Inhibition, Perceived Risk, Perceived Seriousness, and Global Attitudes subscales. Factors with negative or neutral responses included the Effect on Sexual Experience, Relationship Safety, and Promiscuity subscales. Independent t tests revealed no differences between married and nonmarried men for the mean score on any of the subscales, but there was a difference on the Global Attitude Scale, with younger men having a more positive global attitude than older men. Study findings can be used in the development of health promotion educational activities on condom use as a safer-sex practice. PMID:23620541
Jones, Sande Gracia; Fenkl, Eric A; Patsdaughter, Carol A Pat; Chadwell, Katherine
Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexualmen, particularly minority men, into research studies on sexual behaviors and practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges that arose during the recruitment and data collection stages of a study on health and sexual practices of older heterosexualmen using prescribed erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs, and the strategies that were used to meet these challenges. Lessons learned from this study will be discussed, as well as implications for HIV/STD researchers and clinicians.
Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel
A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts) from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis.
Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS), the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Methods First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives") and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. Results This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. Conclusion This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using Intervention Mapping is feasible in the daily practice of the MPHS, provided that sufficient time and expertise on this approach is available. Further research should test the effectiveness of these interventions.
Wolfers, Mireille EG; van den Hoek, Caty; Brug, Johannes; de Zwart, Onno
In this research we explored three aspects of personality relevant to sexual activity and sexual risk taking in heterosexualmen. Men with low inhibition of sexual arousal in the face of risk (low SIS2) reported more partners with whom they use no condoms and more lifetime "one night stands." Men who experience increased sexual interest in states of depression (MSQ) reported more partners in the past year and more one night stands. The disinhibition subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale was predictive of whether sexual intercourse had occurred in the past 6 months, and also of the number of sexual partners in the past year. A measure of an intention to practice safer sex was strongly related to measures of sexual arousability and inhibition (SIS/SES). We discuss some clear similarities and also some interesting differences with a parallel study of gay men. Individual differences in sexual excitation and inhibition proneness and the relation between mood and sexuality are clearly relevant to high-risk sexual behavior and should be taken into consideration when designing behavioral interventions. PMID:15326543
Studies have shown more erectile dysfunction (ED) in menliving with HIV (MLHIV), relative to age matched HIV-negative men. Erection enhancing medication (EEM) is more frequently used by HIV-positive men than in the general male population. Increased sexually transmitted infection has been described in HIV-positive men with ED using EEM. This study investigated the use of EEM and party drugs (methyleendioxymethamfetamine (XTC), gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB) "fluid XTC" and alkyl nitrites "poppers") among MLHIV. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed consecutively to all patients attending 17 European HIV treatment centers. The sample included 1118 HIV-positive men, among whom 74.5% men having sex with men (MSM). The use of EEM was more frequent in MSM than in heterosexualmen (odds ratio (OR) 3.33, p<0.001) and was associated with increased sexual risk behavior (OR 3.27, p<0.001). Nonmedically indicated use of EEM was linked to increased use of party drugs (OR 2.30, p=0.01). Physicians taking care of MLHIV need to be aware of the high prevalence of (nonmedical) use of EEM and party drugs. Medical provision of EEM should be combined with a discussion on safer sex behavior and the risk related to concomitant use of party drugs and illegal EEM. PMID:23244618
De Ryck, Iris; Van Laeken, David; Noestlinger, Christiana; Platteau, Tom; Colebunders, Robert
This study investigated the relationship between men's and their female partner's perceptions of men's ejaculatory behavior as well as the impact of premature or rapid ejaculation on couple functioning. One hundred fifty-two men and their female partners provided information about the man's ejaculatory behavior, their perceptions of whether the man had a problem with premature or rapid ejaculation (RE), their
Using growth mixture modeling, two 12-month trajectories of unprotected sex were identified in 210 heterosexualmen (76% African American, Mage = 33.2 years) attending a sexual risk reduction intervention. Risk Reducers (46%) reported fewer acts of unprotected sex following intervention, whereas Risk Maintainers (54%) reported continuously high levels of unprotected sex. These groups did not differ with respect to demographic characteristics or intervention type. However, Risk Maintainers were more likely than Risk Reducers to report lifetime sex work, forced sex in the past year, and alcohol use before sex at baseline. They had higher levels of peak alcohol use, poorer condom skills, and scored lower on stage of change for condom use at baseline. Risk Maintainers were also more likely to have steady partners at baseline and less likely to change partner status following intervention. Understanding factors distinguishing these groups can contribute to the development of targeted risk reduction interventions.
Walsh, Jennifer L.; Senn, Theresa E.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.
BackgroundThere is conclusive evidence from observational data and three randomized controlled trials that circumcised men have a significantly lower risk of becoming infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this study was to systematically review economic evaluations on adult male circumcision (AMC) for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men.Methods and FindingsStudies were identified from the
Olalekan A. Uthman; Taiwo Aderemi Popoola; Mubashir M. B. Uthman; Olatunde Aremu; Pieter H. M. van Baal
Sexual concurrency poses significant HIV/STI transmission risk. The correlates of concurrency have not been examined among homeless men. A representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles reported on their mental health, substance use, and social network characteristics. Nearly 40% of men reported concurrency with one of their four most recent sex partners. Results indicated that HIV seropositivity (OR = 4.39, CI: 1.10, 17.46; p = 0.04), PTSD (OR = 2.29, CI: 1.05, 5.01; p = 0.04), hard drug use (OR = 2.45, CI: 1.07, 5.58; p = 0.03), and the perception that network alters engage in risky sex (OR = 3.72, CI: 1.49, 9.30; p = 0.01) were associated with increased odds of concurrency. Programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission in this vulnerable population must take into account the roles that behavioral health and social networks may play in sexual concurrency.
Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S.; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; Ewing, Brett
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexualmen recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed.
Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.
Gender is important in the experience of illness generally and HIV specifically. In this study the authors compare 183 HIV positive women with 76 HIV positive heterosexualmen attending United Kingdom HIV clinics on clinical, treatment, and mental health factors. Participants completed a questionnaire on mental health and HIV-related factors. Laboratory measures of HIV viral load and CD4 cell count were obtained at baseline and 6-18 months later. After adjusting for age, employment, and treatment status, men were significantly less likely than women to suffer from high psychological [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17, 0.86] and global symptom distress (adjusted OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.92). However, men were more likely than women to report having suicidal thoughts (adjusted OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 0.95, 3.58). Relational, sexual behavior, and quality of life factors were similar for men and women. Adherence levels did not differ by gender but were sub-optimal in 56% of patients. Men had significantly lower CD4 counts than women at baseline, but not at follow-up. No differences were observed in the proportions with viral suppression. The groups had generally similar HIV experiences with high psychological distress. Adherence monitoring and gender appropriate psychological support are needed for these groups. PMID:22533897
A recent case investigation of secondary syphilis in a 27-year-old heterosexual Micronesian male and his 19-year-old chlamydia\\u000a and syphilis co-infected female partner, conducted by the Hawaii State Department of Health, June to August 2007, identified\\u000a a cluster of 13 case-patients with undiagnosed syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea. The social network of Micronesians uncovered\\u000a was characterized by having transient accommodations but a
Alan R. Katz; Adrianne M. Cadorna; Maria Veneranda C. Lee; Alan Komeya; Mandy Kiaha; Roy G. Ohye
The results of several studies have shown that homosexual men have an increased prevalence of non-right-handedness and atypical\\u000a patterns of hemispheric functional asymmetry. Non-right-handedness in men has been associated with increased size of the corpus\\u000a callosum (CC), particularly of the isthmus, which is the posterior region of the callosal body connecting parietotemporal\\u000a cortical regions. We hypothesized that isthmal area would
Sandra F. Witelson; Debra L. Kigar; Anton Scamvougeras; David M. Kideckel; Brian Buck; Peter L. Stanchev; Michael Bronskill; Sandra Black
This research used interview and questionnaire data from homosexual (n = 177), bisexual (n = 157), and heterosexual (n = 544) men between 20 and 30 years of age among lower class men and university students in three countries: Brazil, Thailand, and Turkey. The main goal of the study was to examine the recalled childhood sex-typed behavior and adult sports preferences that distinguish homosexuals from bisexuals and heterosexuals. In all three cultures and both social groups, homosexual men were almost always more likely as children to have wanted to be a girl, to cross-dress, to play with girls, to do girls' tasks, and to practice fewer sports. They were also less likely to bully others or to engage in physical fights. As children, homosexual men were more likely to prefer swimming and playing volleyball rather than soccer and, as adults, they preferred watching gymnastics and swimming over soccer. The bisexuals scored intermediate mostly in "desire to be a girl" and "cross-dressing," although they were much closer to the heterosexuals. These results, coupled with previous cross-cultural research, suggest that cross-gender behavior in childhood may characterize most male homosexuals regardless of their cultural milieu. PMID:18340519
The relationship advice columns for two popular magazines (one targeted to female and the other to male readers) were discussed within the conceptual frameworks of centerfold syndrome and appearance obsession. Centerfold syndrome is a theory that describes the way men view women and sexuality. The female counterpart is appearance obsession which…
The study examined the association of sexual satisfaction with sexual orientation, body image and well-being among 180 undergraduate male students. Recruitment for participation in the research was conducted in two settings: (1) research questionnaires were distributed during an introductory psychology lecture; and (2) in order to increase the participation of gay men, questionnaires were then distributed during a weekly meeting
Drawing on a larger ethnographic study of four high school young men, this paper foregrounds high school male–male friendships as a context for examining how heterosexism and homophobia operate to limit and delimit the ways masculinities are constructed. I begin this article by first highlighting an inconsistency between recent school initiatives aimed at “helping boys” improve literacy scores and emerging
This paper concerns changes in the spatial structure of British public toilets for men over the last ten years from secluded, indistinctly public\\/private spaces towards open, largely public structures. It examines a number of past and present toilet spaces in the British city of Manchester using spatial syntax analysis to consider how spaces have been adapted and policed differently in
In this article, we provide a discursive reading of twelve men's understandings of sexual boredom in long-term romantic relationships. The empirical study of sexual boredom in psychological arenas has retained a firm commitment to psychological measures of individual performance and has accentuated men's ‘natural’ tendency towards boredom due, for example, to a specialized adaptive psychological mechanism. From a social constructionist
The present study investigated the prevalence of female-to-male intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms among 370 male university students. Participants completed surveys that measured three types of IPV victimization (sexual, physical, and psychological) and four types of mental health symptoms (anxiety, depression, hostility, and somatic symptoms). Correlations revealed strong positive associations between sexual, physical, and psychological IPV among male victims. Multiple regressions identified that males who reported psychological and sexual IPV from their female partner were more likely to report higher hostility, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. Further analyses identified that male victims experienced much higher levels of "insisted" sexual coercion rather than "forced" sexual coercion. Mental health practitioners should be aware of the possible mental health symptoms among male IPV victims, specifically from sexual coercion. The study posits that gender socialization does not allow men to refuse sex from an intimate partner and therefore elicit mental health symptoms. PMID:19477760
Determining rates of HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive individuals is a public health priority, especially as infected persons live longer because of improved medical treatments. Few studies have assessed the potential for transmission to the partners of HIV-positive persons who engage in high-risk activities. A total of 3723 HIV-infected persons (1918 men who have sex with men [MSM], 978 women, and 827 heterosexualmen) were interviewed in clinics and community-based agencies in Los Angeles, Milwaukee, New York City, and San Francisco from June 2000 to January 2002 regarding sexual and drug use behaviors that confer risk for transmitting HIV. Less than one quarter of women and heterosexualmen had 2 or more sexual partners, whereas 59% of MSM reported having multiple partners. Most unprotected vaginal and anal sexual activity took place in the context of relationships with other HIV-positive individuals. Approximately 19% of women, 15.6% of MSM, and 13.1% of heterosexualmen engaged in unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse with partners who were HIV-negative or whose serostatus was unknown. The majority of sexually active participants disclosed their serostatus to all partners with whom they engaged in unprotected intercourse. An estimated 30.4 new infections (79.7% as a result of sexual interactions with MSM) would be expected among the sex partners of study participants during the 3-month reporting period. Eighteen percent of 304 participants who injected drugs in the past 3 months reported lending their used injection equipment to others. In addition to the more traditional approaches of HIV test counseling and of focusing on persons not infected, intensive prevention programs for persons with HIV infection are needed to stem the future spread of the virus. PMID:15247559
Weinhardt, Lance S; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Brondino, Michael J; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Kirshenbaum, Sheri B; Chesney, Margaret A; Remien, Robert H; Morin, Stephen F; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Ehrhardt, Anke A; Johnson, Mallory O; Catz, Sheryl L; Pinkerton, Steven D; Benotsch, Eric G; Hong, Daniel; Gore-Felton, Cheryl
Most studies of social aspects of foods have focused on people in multi-person households, often from the perspective of women. Little is known about the food-related experiences of men who live alone. We therefore conducted a qualitative study with 12 men aged 27–47 who lived alone in Vancouver, Canada. Our goals were to explore their food-related ideals, and their perceptions
Objectives.secondary aims included describing condom-use attitudes, beliefs about HIV/AIDS in the Indian community, HIV knowledge, HIV status, and preference for and access to HIV prevention services in this population. Methods. A survey was mailed to all members of an American Indian community organization in New York City. Results. The 20 men self-identifying as gay, two-spirit, or bisexual (hereafter, “two-spirit”) were more likely to report being victimized and engaging in HIV risk behaviors than the 51 heterosexual respondents, although they reported comparable levels of recent substance use. Overall, victimization was associated with lifetime HIV risk behaviors (even after control for sexual orientation) but not with substance use or unsafe sex in the past 12 months. The percentage of HIV infection was surprisingly high (10% of two-spirit men and 6% of heterosexualmen). Conclusions. Two-spirit men are a vulnerable population whose victimization must be understood within an appropriate historical and political context.
Simoni, Jane M.; Walters, Karina L.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Meyers, Seth B.
On the busy street corners of many U.S. cities, day laborers, known as jornaleros, wait patiently on sidewalks for someone to offer them work. These men remain invisible, however, in sexuality research with\\u000a Latin American immigrant populations. Based on in-depth individual interviews with 20 self-identified heterosexual Mexican\\u000a immigrant menliving in Los Angeles, this article examines two ways in which
This study describes the complex dynamics of the sexual, economic and social interactions between a group of feminized homosexual men and men who have sex with men and self-identify as heterosexual (‘mostaceros’), in lower-income peripheral urban areas of Lima and Trujillo, Peru. The study examined sexual risk between these two groups of men, and the significance of the economic exchanges involved in their sexual interactions. Using a Grounded Theory approach, 23 individual interviews and 7 focus groups were analyzed. The results reveal that cultural, economic and gender factors mold sexual and social relations among a group of men who have sex with men in Peru. Compensated sex is part of the behaviors of these men, reflecting a complicated construction of sexuality based on traditional conceptions of gender roles, sexual identity and masculinity. Several factors (e.g. difficulty in negotiating condom use, low self-esteem, low risk perception, alcohol and drug consumption), in the context of compensated sex, play a role in risk-taking for HIV infection.
Fernandez-Davila, Percy; Salazar, Ximena; Caceres, Carlos F.; Maiorana, Andre; Kegeles, Susan; Coates, Thomas J.; Martinez, Josefa
Position statements of the major mental health organizations in the United States state that there is no scientific evidence that a homosexual sexual orientation can be changed by psychotherapy, often referred to as “reparative therapy.” This study tested the hypothesis that some individuals whose sexual orientation is predominantly homosexual can, with some form of reparative therapy, become predominantly heterosexual. The
BACKGROUND: There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV\\/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations
Mireille EG Wolfers; Caty van den Hoek; Johannes Brug; Onno de Zwart
Emerging out of increased attention to gender equality within HIV and violence prevention programming has been an intensified focus on masculinities. A new generation of health interventions has attempted to shift norms of masculinity to be more gender equitable and has been termed "gender-transformative." We carried out a systematic review of gender-transformative HIV and violence prevention programs with heterosexually-active men in order to assess the efficacy of this programming. After reviewing over 2,500 abstracts in a systematic search, a total of 15 articles matched review criteria. The evidence suggests that gender-transformative interventions can increase protective sexual behaviors, prevent partner violence, modify inequitable attitudes, and reduce STI/HIV, though further trials are warranted, particularly in establishing STI/HIV impacts. In the conclusion, we discuss the promises and limitations of gender-transformative work with men and make suggestions for future research focused on HIV and/or violence prevention. PMID:23934267
Dworkin, Shari L; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Lippman, Sheri A
Infections with hepatitis C virus, (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human T lymphotropic type I\\/II (HTLV-I\\/II) virus are commonly found in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We conducted a seroepidemiologic study among 174 HIV-positive heterosexuals in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1999. Evidence of exposure to HCV, HBV, and HTLV-I\\/II was found in 32%, 17%, and
MIRNA M. BIGLIONE; MAURO FERNÁNDEZ TOSCANO; JORGE A. REY; KEVIN L. RUSSELL; MONICA NEGRETE; SILVIA GIANNI; LILIANA MARTINEZ-PERALTA; HORACIO SALOMÓN; SERGIO SOSA-ESTANI; SILVIA M. MONTANO; JAMES G. OLSON; JOSÉ L. SANCHEZ; JEAN K. CARR; MARIA M. ÁVILA
The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among 157 heterosexual male patients with urethritis and the presence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted\\u000a infections were studied. One hundred seventeen (74.5%) patients, with a mean age of 33.7 years, were Italians, whereas 40\\u000a (25.5%) were immigrants coming from eastern European countries, Africa, and South America. All the immigrants and 82 (70.0%)\\u000a Italian patients
M. Donati; A. Di Francesco; A. D’Antuono; S. Pignanelli; A. Shurdhi; A. Moroni; R. Baldelli; R. Cevenini
Most studies of social aspects of foods have focused on people in multi-person households, often from the perspective of women. Little is known about the food-related experiences of men who live alone. We therefore conducted a qualitative study with 12 men aged 27-47 who lived alone in Vancouver, Canada. Our goals were to explore their food-related ideals, and their perceptions of how those ideals relate to their actual food practices, the context of living alone, and masculine identities. Data were collected through food journals and semi-structured interviews. The men's ideals included being conscious and organized with respect to food so that they could regularly eat meals prepared at home from healthy ingredients. Eating with others was considered an ideal food context, where the meal became an "occasion", as opposed to "just eating". Participants believed that their eating habits often did not live up to these ideals because of lack of time and because the context of living alone was not conducive to eating well. However, they thought their habits were better than what they perceived to be the habits of a stereotypical bachelor who does not know how to cook and has a 'who cares' attitude towards food. PMID:18343534
OBJECTIVE--To compare the progression of HIV-1 infection in men and women followed up for up to nine years after an accurately estimated date of seroconversion. DESIGN--Prospective observational study. SETTING--16 HIV outpatient clinics across Italy. SUBJECTS--321 women and 533 men infected with HIV through injecting drug use or heterosexual sex and with accurately estimated dates of seroconversion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Progression to severe CD4 lymphocytopenia (CD4 lymphocyte count < 200 x 10(6)/l), development of AIDS defining diseases, and death from AIDS. RESULTS--Thirty two women and 67 men developed AIDS at Kaplan-Meier progression rates of 25% (95% confidence interval 13.8% to 35.5%) and 23% (15.6% to 30.4%), respectively, 7 years after seroconversion. In a Cox proportional hazards model the relative hazard was 0.93 (that is, a slightly lower hazard in women) before and 1.10 (0.70 to 1.72) after adjusting for age, HIV exposure group, and year of seroconversion. When CD4 lymphocytopenia and death from AIDS were used as end points the results were similar, with adjusted relative hazards of 0.95 (0.63 to 1.42) and 0.72 (0.48 to 1.79) respectively. In both women and men the risk of developing AIDS before the CD4 lymphocyte count had declined below 200 x 10(6)/l was small (3% in women, 6% in men). The estimated median count at which AIDS developed in women (34 x 10(6)/l; 10 x 10(6) to 44 x 10(6)) was similar to that for men (44 x 10(6)/l; 22 x 10(6) to 60 x 10(6)). CONCLUSION--There seems to be little evidence for appreciable differences in the natural course of HIV infection between men and women followed up from the time of seroconversion.
Cozzi Lepri, A.; Pezzotti, P.; Dorrucci, M.; Phillips, A. N.; Rezza, G.
This paper describes the development and testing of a self-report scale delineating the components of the experience of heterosexual intercourse of both men and women. In a preliminary study, 70 men freely expressed the feelings, thoughts, and motives involved in the experience of heterosexual intercourse. A content analysis revealed that the components of the experience of heterosexual intercourse found in
This study examined the prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a large convenience sample of N?=?2,149 first-year college students from different universities in Germany. Participants were asked about both victimization by, and perpetration of, sexual aggression since the age of 14. Both same-sex and heterosexual victim-perpetrator constellations were examined. Prevalence rates were established for different victim-perpetrator relationships (partners, acquaintances, strangers) and for incidents involving alcohol consumption by one or both partners. The overall perpetration rate was 13.2%, for men and 7.6% for women. The overall victimization rate was 35.9% for women and 19.4% for men. A disparity between victimization and perpetration reports was found for both men and women. Perpetration and victimization rates were highest among participants who had sexual contacts with both opposite-sex and same-sex partners. Sexual aggression and victimization rates were higher between current or former partners and acquaintances than between strangers. Alcohol consumption by one or both partners was involved in almost 75% of all victimization and almost 70% of all perpetration incidents. The findings portray a comprehensive picture of the scale of sexual aggression and victimization in college students with different sexual lifestyles. PMID:23629691
This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Spanish-speaking, heterosexually active immigrant Latino men. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention and selected the study design. Following baseline data collection, 142 immigrant Latino men were randomized to the HIV prevention intervention or the cancer education intervention. Three-month follow-up data were collected from 139 participants, for a 98% retention rate. Mean age of participants was 31.6 years and 60% reported being from Mexico. Adjusting for baseline behaviors, relative to their peers in the cancer education comparison, participants in the HIV prevention intervention were more likely to report consistent condom use and receiving an HIV test. Community-based interventions for immigrant Latino men that are built on state of the art prevention science and developed in partnership with community members can greatly enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:21301948
Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P; Vissman, Aaron T; DiClemente, Ralph J; Duck, Stacy; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Foley, Kristie Long; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R; Eng, Eugenia
This study assessed levels of HIV knowledge and identified factors associated with HIV knowledge among a sample of heterosexual Puerto Rican and Mexican men and women, ages 18 to 45. The sample consisted of 144 men and women living in San Diego County, California, who self-identified as being of Mexican ethnicity and 209 men and women living in Cuyahoga County,
Age preferences expressed by homosexuals and heterosexuals in 783 singles ads were compared. In line with earlier cross-cultural findings, heterosexual women at all ages tend to prefer men from their own age to several years older. Heterosexualmen change with age; young men show an interest in both older and younger women, but older men express progressively stronger interest in
Douglas T. Kenrick; Richard C. Keefe; Angela Bryan; Alicia Barr; Stephanie Brown
This study examined sexual orientation discordance, a mismatch between self-reported sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction, by describing the characteristics, substance use disorders, and mental health risks of heterosexual identified individuals who endorsed this pattern of sexual identification, behavior, and attraction. Using data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we created three groups based on participants' reported sexual identity and either their sexual behavior or sexual attraction: heterosexual concordant, homosexual concordant, and heterosexual discordant. Bivariate models assessed the relationship of discordant status and demographic correlates, lifetime substance use disorders, and mental health diagnoses. Logistic regression models tested associations between both behavior discordance and attraction discordance and the likelihood of having lifetime disorders of substance use, major depression, and generalized anxiety. Results of this study provided evidence of varying levels of substance use and mental health disorder risk by gender, discordance status, and discordance type. Behavioral discordance was associated with increased risk of mental health and substance use disorder among women (compared to heterosexual concordance). Findings among men were less consistent with heightened risk of alcohol and inhalant use only. Attraction discordance was notably different from behavioral discordance. The odds of substance use and mental health disorders were the same or lower compared with both the heterosexual and homosexual concordance groups. Future research should begin to test theoretical explanations for these differences. PMID:22549338
Gattis, Maurice N; Sacco, Paul; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M
Recent research suggests that, for most women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both women\\u000a and men. For men, however, high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to one sex or the other, but not to both,\\u000a depending on men's sexual orientation (Lippa, R. A., 2006, Psychological Science, 17, 46–52). These findings were replicated in
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexualmen and women. However,
David A. Moskowitz; Gerulf Rieger; Michael E. Roloff
The NIMH Healthy Living Project (HLP), a randomized behavioral intervention trial for people living with HIV, enrolled 943 individuals, including women, heterosexualmen, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men from Los Angeles, Milwaukee, New York, and San Francisco. The intervention, which is based on qualitative formative research…
Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Kirshenbaum, Sheri B.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Remien, Robert H.; Morin, Stephen F.
Accounts by 10 Caribbean men who have sex with menliving in the UK reveal them to be liminal beings with unstable and unresolved identities. They are between social states: aware they are not heterosexual and not publicly recognised, or in some cases self?accepted, as homosexual. Caribbean?born respondents especially suffer from homophobia, expressing regret and disappointment at their sexuality. They
Moji Anderson; Gillian Elam; Sarah Gerver; Ijeoma Solarin; Kevin Fenton; Phillippa Easterbrook
San Francisco is known both as one of America's loveliest cities and as home to an unusually large gay community. We argue that this overrepresentation of gays is not coincidental. Gay households face constraints that make having children more costly for them than for similar heterosexual households. This reduces lifetime demand for housing while freeing resources for allocation elsewhere. Therefore,
Dan Black; Gary Gates; Seth Sanders; Lowell Taylor
Questionnaire returns form 225 homosexual and 233 heterosexual adult women revealed 115 cases of rape or attempted rape. Data from 78 follow-up questionnaires are summarized. About the same proportion of lesbians and heterosexuals, age 16 or over, were the object of rape. The lesbians tended to reject all men as sexual partners or companions, while the heterosexuals tended to blame
Although gay American men are afflicted with alcoholism and other forms of chemical dependency at a much higher rate than their heterosexual brothers, many of them are experiencing fulfillment by living the spiritual way of life known as Alcoholics Anonymous.To learn how gay men of AA go about doing spirituality in everyday life, 50 gay American men were interviewed in
Combination HIV prevention is of high priority for increasing the impact of partially efficacious HIV prevention interventions for specific populations and settings. Developing the package requires critical review of local epidemiology of HIV infection regarding most-impacted populations and those at high risk of HIV transmission and acquisition, drivers of HIV infection, and available interventions to address these risk factors. Interventions should be considered in terms of the evidence basis for efficacy, potential synergies, and feasibility of delivery at scale, which is important to achieve high coverage and impact, coupled with high acceptability to populations, which will impact uptake, adherence, and retention. Evaluation requires process measures of uptake, adherence, retention, and outcome measures of reduction in HIV infectiousness and acquisition. Three examples of combination prevention concepts are summarized for men who have sex with men in the Americas, young women in sub-Saharan Africa, and HIV serodiscordant couples. PMID:23764638
Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Hughes, James P; Barnabas, Ruanne; Liu, Albert; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Buchbinder, Susan
This study attempted to use PET and 15O–H2O to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during sexual arousal evoked in 10 young heterosexual males while they watched a pornographic video clip, featuring heterosexual intercourse. This condition was compared with other mental setups evoked by noisy, nature, and talkshow audiovisual clips. Immediately after each clip, the participants answered three
M. Bocher; R. Chisin; Y. Parag; N. Freedman; Y. Meir Weil; H. Lester; E. Mishani; O. Bonne
This investigation is based on in-depth interviews that cover the life histories of ten American men who were born between 1921 and 1937 and came of age with the Depression and\\/or World War II and major historical events in their lives. The major emphasis in this work is on the portrayal of the lives of these men who share an
Ageing is associated with reduced energy intake and loss of appetite. Older men tend to have poorer dietary intakes including consumption of fewer fruits and vegetables in comparison to older women. Living and eating alone further diminishes food consumption and dietary quality. The aim of the present study was to explore food choice and energy intake in older menliving
Georgina Hughes; Kate M. Bennett; Marion M. Hetherington
This study determined risk factors for decreased sexual satisfaction among menliving with HIV (MLHIV). Self-administered questionnaires were distributed consecutively to all MLHIV attending 17 European HIV treatment centres. The sample included 1,017 MLHIV, among whom 79.2% self-identified as homosexual or bisexual. Sexual satisfaction was measured for five domains of sexual functioning and 33.2% reported low satisfaction in at least one domain. Decreased sexual satisfaction was associated with psychosocial factors, i.e. depression (OR 2.77, P < 0.001), anxiety (OR 1.77, P < 0.001), stress (OR 2.27, P < 0.001) and social factors, such as low partner support (OR 2.28, P < 0.001) and experiences of HIV related discrimination (OR 1.69, P < 0.001). Discussing satisfaction with sexuality should be integrated in regular HIV care, considering patients' personal and relationship-related resources next to medical treatment if indicated. PMID:21706310
De Ryck, I; Van Laeken, D; Nöstlinger, C; Platteau, T; Colebunders, R
Does the prevalence and degree of body dissatis- faction differ among heterosexual and homosexual men and women? Some theorists have suggested that, compared to their heterosexual peers, gay men are at greater risk for body dis- satisfaction and lesbians at lower risk. Past studies examining this issue have generally relied on small samples recruited from gay or lesbian groups. Further,
Letitia Anne Peplau; David A. Frederick; Curtis Yee; Natalya Maisel; Janet Lever; Negin Ghavami
As the number of persons living with HIV continues to increase in Jamaica, attitudes and values become more important. This study aimed to examine the attitudes of university students in Jamaica toward persons living with HIV, including homosexual men, heterosexualmen, women sex workers, other women, and children. One thousand two hundred and fifty?two students were surveyed between June 2001
Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexualmen (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexualmen are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexualmen as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexualmen by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses. PMID:23117592
Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira
We use two surveys to describe the demographic and attitudinal correlates of being in “Living Apart Together” (LAT), cohabiting, and marital relationships for heterosexuals, lesbians, and gay men. About one third of U.S. adults not married or cohabiting are in LAT relationships – these individuals would be classified as “single” in conventional studies that focus on co-residential unions. Gay men are somewhat more likely than heterosexualmen to be in LAT relationships. For heterosexuals and lesbians, LAT relationships are more common among younger people. Heterosexuals in LAT unions are less likely to expect to marry their partners, but more likely to say that couples should be emotionally dependent than are cohabiters. Regardless of sexual orientation, people in LAT relationships perceive similar amounts of emotional support from partners, but less instrumental support than cohabiters perceive.
Strohm, Charles Q.; Seltzer, Judith A.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.
To determine the frequency with which living adult Wuchereria bancrofti can be detected by ultrasound in the scrotal area of men with filarial infection, we used a 7·5 MHz transducer to perform weekly ultrasound examinations on 100 microfilaraemic men (18–34 years old) from Greater Recife, Brazil. The peculiar pattern of movement that characterizes the adult worm image on ultrasound (the
Joaqim Norões; David Addiss; Fernando Amaral; Amaury Coutinho; Zulma Medeiros; Gerusa Dreyer
|The purpose of this study was to examine the bereavement experience, psychiatric morbidity, and suicidality in bereaved men and women living with HIV. HIV+ women (n =31) who reported a loss in the recent 12 months were case matched to bereaved HIV+ men (n =62) on the basis of lifetime histories of major depression. Study participants were…
Summers, Jacquelyn; Zisook, Sidney; Sciolla, Andres D.; Patterson, Thomas; Atkinson, J. Hampton
Very little research has focused on the ways that heterosexual people perceive their sexual identity. This paper explores heterosexual identity from the standpoint of an established identity model, that of James Marcia. Twenty-six heterosexual undergraduate students (14 men: 3 African-American, 1 Latino, and 10 White, and 12 women: 3 African-American, 1 Latina, and 8 White) wrote two-three page essays on
Using findings from an exploratory interview study of 30 Boston area men, this article critically examines the traditional assumption that the male role centers on work. Findings indicated that becoming and being husbands and fathers had a greater effect on informants than conventional approaches suggest. Discontinuities between men's role attachments and performances are revealed, and the meaning and sociocultural sources
This investigation is based on in-depth interviews that cover the life histories of ten American men who were born between 1921 and 1937 and came of age with the Depression and/or World War II and major historical events in their lives. The major emphasis in this work is on the portrayal of the lives of these men who share an historic era and their relations to nuclear weapons. The issues explored include how the fundamental changes in the world brought about by the adoption of nuclear-weapons technology have evolved, how the weapons have been understood, how they have been incorporated into the lives of these men, and what implications and call for action have come from these changes. The ten men span a wide spectrum of views on nuclear weapons. Five of the men feel relatively secure living in the nuclear armed world; they are referred to as the men with the established mode of the nuclear armed world. The other five are referred to as the men in opposition to the nuclear armed world; they believe that the nuclear armed world poses a fundamental crisis in the well-being of humanity.
This qualitative study explored how male undergraduate students experienced living-learning community environments. Findings revealed that living-learning communities provided men a "safe haven" from rigid gender role expectations, offered a plethora of involvement opportunities, and fostered relationships with faculty and peers. The findings…
Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Johnson, Brianne N.; Wawrzynski, Matthew R.
|This qualitative study explored how male undergraduate students experienced living-learning community environments. Findings revealed that living-learning communities provided men a "safe haven" from rigid gender role expectations, offered a plethora of involvement opportunities, and fostered relationships with faculty and peers. The findings…
Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Johnson, Brianne N.; Wawrzynski, Matthew R.
Drug regimens and procedures now exist that will prevent parents from transmitting HIV to infants, and the ethical and legal obligation to promote and protect the reproductive rights of those living with HIV should form part of training for HIV\\/AIDS care and prevention. This paper reports a study that investigated issues of sexuality and reproduction with 250 Brazilian menliving
By drawing on ethnographic data collected in two different settings in northern Vietnam, this article considers the ways in which heterosexual masculinity is configured by younger men. The intersection between heterosexuality and masculinity, the article argues, epitomizes a site of contestations between moral ideals, expectations about gendered support, and sexual pleasures disguised as protests. In introducing into a Southeast Asian
Research on disclosure among heterosexual adult person(s) living with HIV (PLH) was reviewed, omitting disclosure of parental HIV to children. Disclosure has been studied within five additional relational contexts: with partners, family members, friends, healthcare professionals and in work settings. Disclosure is higher among women than men, among Latino and white compared to African-American families, and among younger compared to
E. Mayfield Arnold; E. Rice; D. Flannery; M. J. Rotheram-Borus
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexualmen and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996
Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E
In determining the effectiveness of AIDS preventive measures among heterosexuals, trends in visits to two clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam between 1982 and 1989 are described. Also, data on sexual behaviour are presented that were collected in a sample of 635 heterosexual women and 947 heterosexualmen at one of the clinics between September 1986 and December
H J van Haastrecht; J A van den Hoek; R A Coutinho
Conceptualizing heterosexual and homosexual interest as reciprocal constructs can be a source of confusion, and may obstruct understanding of sexual orientation in counseling. We investigated the relationships between homosexual interest, heterosexual interest, and masculinity and femininity. Seventy-eight men attending a homophile organisation completed the Kinsey Scale, and two separate continua measuring degree of homosexual interest and degree of heterosexual interest
Introduction Previously we reported seasonal variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in postmenopausal women living in a subtropical climate. Because studies have suggested that there are gender differences in 25OHD levels, we sought to determine (1) the levels and determinants of 25OHD in men drawn from the same community, (2) whether seasonal variation of 25OHD occurs in men at this latitude
M. J. Bolland; A. B. Grey; R. W. Ames; B. H. Mason; A. M. Horne; G. D. Gamble; I. R. Reid
Little research has explored the child gender preferences of preadoptive parents. This study utilized a mixed-methods approach\\u000a to explore child gender preferences (and individuals’ reasons for such preferences) in a geographically diverse, US sample\\u000a of 93 heterosexual, 61 lesbian, and 48 gay male preadoptive couples. Heterosexualmen were the least likely to demonstrate\\u000a a gender preference and gay men were
Does the prevalence and degree of body dissatisfaction differ among heterosexual and homosexual men and women? Some theorists\\u000a have suggested that, compared to their heterosexual peers, gay men are at greater risk for body dissatisfaction and lesbians\\u000a at lower risk. Past studies examining this issue have generally relied on small samples recruited from gay or lesbian groups.\\u000a Further, these studies
Letitia Anne Peplau; David A. Frederick; Curtis Yee; Natalya Maisel; Janet Lever; Negin Ghavami
Existing research into the information activities of people living with HIV has typically focused on issues of where individuals look and how they search. Little attention has been directed to understanding the meaning health information carries for those who use it or how information practices are contextualised within the social experience of living with a chronic condition. This paper explores
Traumatic experiences are common among populations living with HIV; furthermore, the minority stress model indicates that sexual minority group members, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), are more likely to experience negative psychological outcomes after exposure to trauma, given the stress of minority stigma. The current study examined the prevalence of traumatic events and the impact of these events on trauma symptoms in a sample of 113 MSM and 51 men who have sex with women (MSW) who are living with HIV/AIDS. Rates of experiencing trauma were similar for both MSM and MSW. However, MSM, as sexual minority group members, were more likely to report symptoms of trauma and dissociation than MSW. The current study indicates that MSM may experience additional negative psychological outcomes after exposure to trauma. Findings are discussed in the context of implications for HIV prevention with sexual minority group members. PMID:21344319
Male sexuality in Africa is often associated with harmful sexual practices, which, in the context of HIV and AIDS, often positions men as central to the spread of the epidemic. Despite this focus on men's practices, there is a lack of research exploring the subject positions of menliving with HIV. This study explores how masculinity is constructed by a
Ingrid Lynch; Pierre W. Brouard; Maretha J. Visser
This study investigated why more males than females complain of dissatisfaction with their anatomical sex (gender dysphoria). New referrals to a university gender identity clinic were dichotomously classified as heterosexual or homosexual. There were 73 heterosexual and 52 homosexual males; 1 heterosexual and 71 homosexual females. The average heterosexual male was 8 years older at inception than the homosexual groups.
Ray Blanchard; Leonard H. Clemmensen; Betty W. Steiner
BBC Internet survey participants (119,733 men and 98,462 women) chose from a list of 23 traits those they considered first,\\u000a second, and third most important in a relationship partner. Across all participants, the traits ranked most important were:\\u000a intelligence, humor, honesty, kindness, overall good looks, face attractiveness, values, communication skills, and dependability.\\u000a On average, men ranked good looks and facial
Despite the disproportionate increase in rural, Southern residents and older persons during the third era of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, no known study has examined whether older, rural menliving with HIV infection face a double jeopardy and have poorer psychosocial profiles than other subgroups of men. We investigated whether area of residence (rural, urban), age (young, middle-age, old), and the interaction of residence and age would be related to mental health factors by using two measurement methods to categorize rural and urban residence (US Census Bureau classification and The Office of Rural Health Policy's, Rural Urban Commuting Area Codes [RUCAs]). We conducted 2-3 hour-long, face-to-face interviews with all but 43 patients who met the study criteria and kept their clinic appointments at three different types of healthcare facilities (i.e., VA, university clinic, public health department) over a 20-month period. The sample consisted of 226 menliving in the southeastern US. Rural and urban men of various age groups did not differ in socioeconomic factors, travel distance to clinics, use of medications, satisfaction with care, types of severe stressors, and confidentiality concerns. Using two methods to categorize area of residence, we found that rural men as compared to urban men had similar levels of total stress, AIDS-related stress, social support, active coping and avoidance coping, but higher rates of risk for depression. Rural men had higher levels of non-AIDS-related stress only when the US Census Bureau's categorization was used, which highlights the importance of carefully selecting and describing methods to categorize rural versus urban residence. PMID:16175958
Uphold, Constance R; Rane, Deepali; Reid, Kimberly; Tomar, Scott L
A qualitative study was conducted to explore disclosure decisions of rural African American (AA) menliving with HIV disease. The sample consisted of 20 HIV-infected AA menliving in the rural south, who had been diagnosed with HIV for at least six months. Audio taped semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The men were questioned about who they had told about their disease, reactions to their disclosures, and their advice to others about disclosing. Findings showed initially the men did not disclose their disease to others, and many of them continued not to disclose. They were concerned about negative consequences, such as rejection, fear of contagion, and of the recipients telling others. If and when they disclosed, it was likely to be to sexual partners, immediate family members, and health care providers. Their decision not to disclose protected them from the possible negative reactions, but it also limited the amount of social and emotional support they received related to their HIV disease.
Drug regimens and procedures now exist that will prevent parents from transmitting HIV to infants, and the ethical and legal obligation to promote and protect the reproductive rights of those living with HIV should form part of training for HIV/AIDS care and prevention. This paper reports a study that investigated issues of sexuality and reproduction with 250 Brazilian menliving with HIV in São Paulo. We asked whether they wished to have children and whether health professionals in HIV/AIDS treatment clinics that they attended were supportive of their wishes. Health professionals were not considered by most participants to be supportive enough or even impartial about HIV-positive people having children, and paid little attention to men's fathering role. 80% of the men had sexual relationships, and 43% of them wanted children, especially those who had no children, in spite of expectations of disapproval. Few of the men received information about treatment options that would protect infants, however. In previous studies with HIV-positive women attending the same clinics, by comparison, greater knowledge about prevention of perinatal HIV transmission was reported, but women had fewer sexual relationships, fewer desired to have children, and they expected even more disapproval of having children from health professionals. We conclude that the rights of those with HIV to found a family depend as much on curing the ills of prejudice and discrimination, including among health professionals, as on medical interventions. PMID:14708400
This paper adopts a social constructionist approach to investigate the role of food in the production of identities and social experiences for men. With recognition that relational and experiential processes are central to men's lives, the purpose of the paper is to inductively explore the personal and interpersonal complexities of this group's food related behaviours. Empirical data were collected through a series of semi-structured interviews with 33 men, comprising of 4 age groups, (18-35, 36-54, 55-64, and 65+ years). Regardless of age, an analysis and interpretation yielded three emergent themes, food as a component of: (1) role-play; (2) contextual interactions, (3) and the management of a functional vs. hedonic dialectic. Across these themes various tensions and contradictions emerged suggesting a complex reflexivity to male food life experiences. Relational issues emerged such as the observation that some men concede control to their partners throughout their food experiences. Overall, our men's consumption practices construct a specific socio-cultural articulation of masculine roles whereby their internal paradoxes are leveraged as a means to produce desirable experiences and self-identifications. PMID:22683804
Newcombe, Mark A; McCarthy, Mary B; Cronin, James M; McCarthy, Sinéad N
Relatively little is known about the relationship between methamphetamine (meth) use and sexual risk behavior among heterosexual adults. This descriptive study explores the context of sexual risk behavior among HIV-negative, heterosexual meth-using men and women. Drug use history, motivations for meth use, relationship types, and the social–sexual context of meth use were examined as factors that relate to sexual risk
A local outbreak of infectious syphilis among heterosexualmen and women was noted among residents of a National Health Services board in central Scotland in 2009. This is the first, and remains the only, such outbreak in Scotland reporting transmission in the heterosexual population. It was characterized by the young age of those infected. This highlights the need for increasing knowledge and awareness of syphilis infection among this group. PMID:21890549
This article presents findings from a recent cross-sectional study that was designed to evaluate both the impact of erectile dysfunction (ED) on the lives of Australian men, and explore whether the use of PDE5 inhibitors was able to alter this impact. The sample comprised 410 men with ED, and 242 men who did not have ED. All men were primarily recruited over the internet via men's health web sites. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess their self-esteem, masculinity, quality of life, sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction and usage of oral ED medication. The results demonstrated that men with ED experienced deficits on all of the psychosocial areas when compared to men without ED. Moreover, treatment with ED medication did not alleviate this deficit. Implications of these findings for the treatment of men with ED are discussed in the context of the biopsychosocial model of health and the need for a multidisciplinary approach to ED management is highlighted. PMID:17538638
Menliving with HIV (MLWH), especially younger MLWH, may experience sexual dysfunction in greater numbers than men without HIV infection. This manuscript describes the prevalence of two major causative factors of sexual dysfunction in MLWH: hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction. A description of assessment and evaluation is presented. Additionally, the evidence for use of pharmacological and herbal therapies is presented with recommendations for treatment. MLWH who exhibit hypogonadism and/or erectile dysfunction should receive similar care to those without HIV infection. There is evidence to support the use of testosterone replacement therapy and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors in this population, and there is limited evidence for the use of certain herbs such as yohimbine. The ethics of treating sexual dysfunction for MLWH are discussed. A case study follows as an example of the application of evidence-based treatments recommended for practice. PMID:23290373
The purpose of this paper is to highlight methodological issues and considerations which will be of use to researchers interested\\u000a in further understanding the complexity of intimate partner violence in the lives of Hispanic men who have sex with men. We\\u000a present a brief review of the research on intimate partner violence which highlights intersections of health and behavior\\u000a risk
A population-based case-control study was conducted between 1988 and 1995 in the San Francisco Bay Area of California to determine risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Participants completed in-person interviews, and blood was drawn to test for viruses and lymphocyte subsets. This report includes data for 1,281 cases and 2,095 controls. In multivariate analyses, the factors associated with a decreased risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were allergy to plants, bee and wasp stings, five or more vaccinations, drugs to lower blood cholesterol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, total number of sexual partners, and lifetime marijuana use, whereas an increased risk was associated with cimetidine and other histamine H2-receptor antagonists, splenectomy, gonorrhea, and body mass index. Unique to sex-specific models was an increased risk for endocrine gland disorders among women and for polio among men. Median CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, and lymphocyte counts for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients were significantly lower than those for controls. These results implicate environmental factors that may influence the early stages of lymphomagenesis by stimulating the immune system. Antigen-driven B cells that accumulate to form lymphoma may be suppressed by immunologic stresses such as exposure to an increased number of sexual partners and to certain medications. A history of allergies provides evidence for a persistent capacity for B-cell differentiation and therefore a decreased accumulation of B cells. The decreased risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cholesterol-lowering drugs is consistent with a macrophage inflammatory role in B-cell proliferation. PMID:10453814
Growth curves for relationship quality over the first 10 years of cohabitation, controlling for separation, were estimated on the basis of survey data obtained over part or all of this time interval. Participants were both partners from 95 lesbian, 92 gay male, and 226 heterosexual couples living without children, and both partners from 312 heterosexual couples living with children. Relative
Researchers have noted a physical resemblance (homophily) between human sex partners. To date, these studies and their related interpretations have been based on heterosexual couples. The present study compared physical resemblances between gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples, using 40 photographs of each from national newspapers, which were rated by 34 men and 56 women (M age = 53 yr., SD = 12.1). Half the photographs were of actual couples and half were randomly mixed within each group. Actual couples were rated as significantly more similar in appearance than random pairings of people. Ratings of similarity were significantly higher (indicating greater perceived homophily) for gay couples than heterosexual couples, while there was no statistically significant difference in similarity ratings between lesbian couples versus gay and heterosexual couples. The results were interpreted in terms of evolutionary and parental imprinting hypotheses. PMID:21879614
In Canada, there is a paucity of research aimed at understanding Black gay men and the antecedents to risk factors for HIV. This study is an attempt to move beyond risk factor analysis and explore the role of sexual and ethnic communities in the lives of these men. The study utilized a community-based research and critical race theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight key informants to augment our understanding of Black gay men and to facilitate recruitment of participants. In-depth interviews were done with 24 Black gay men. Our data showed that the construction of community for Black gay men is challenged by their social and cultural environment. However, these men use their resilience to navigate gay social networks. Black gay men expressed a sense of abjuration from both gay and Black communities because of homophobia and racism. It is essential for health and social programmers to understand how Black gay men interact with Black and gay communities and the complexities of their interactions in creating outreach educational, preventive and support services. PMID:22509909
George, Clemon; Adam, Barry A; Read, Stanley E; Husbands, Winston C; Remis, Robert S; Makoroka, Lydia; Rourke, Sean B
The sex-role stereotypes held by heterosexual and homosexual men were examined by comparing their Repertory Grid scores. It was found that homosexual men held less rigid sex-role stereotypes than heterosexuals. Degree of opposite-sex identification was marginally greater in homosexuals, but neither group showed strong masculine or feminine stereotypic identification. Homosexual men perceived themselves as psychologically more distant from their fathers than did their heterosexual counterparts; this was probably an effect of homosexuality rather than a cause. PMID:6644001
|This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…
|Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…
The HIV epidemics in some areas of Yunnan Province, southwestern China, are close to be- coming generalized, demanding the need for a better understanding of sexually transmitted disease (STD) and heterosexual HIV risk. While female heterosexual risk is captured by sen- tinel surveillance, less is known about clients of commercial sex workers and other subsets of men at increased risk
Ruiying Zhao; Hongcai Gao; Xiaoming Shi; Joseph D. Tucker; Zhongmin Yang; Xiangdong Min; Hanzhu Qian; Qinyu Duan; Ning Wang
In two studies, lesbians, gay men and bisexuals were queried concerning mistakes that well-meaning heterosexual people have made when interacting with them. In qualitative, open-ended research, we determined that the most common mistakes concerned heterosexuals' pointing out that they know someone who is gay, emphasizing their lack of prejudice, and relying on stereotypes about gays. Following up with a quantitative,
Terri D. Conley; Christopher Calhoun; Sophia R. Evett; Patricia G. Devine
\\u000a This chapter deals with men’s transition to fatherhood using a qualitative investigation into whether people find fertility\\u000a choices and decisions routine and natural, challenging and difficult, and\\/or whether they approach them in a more or less\\u000a planned, volitional or “rational” way. The data show that the overwhelming majority of men still keenly feel the responsibility\\u000a of becoming a good father
Karen Henwood; Fiona Shirani; Joanne Kellett nee Procter
The purpose of this study was to examine, describe, and explain experiences of men with eating disorders and to gain understanding of the relevant life issues, perceptions, and attitudes. What are some of the contributing factors and experiences of men who suffer from eating disorders despite the widely held assumption that eating disorders are…
This study compared 212 lesbians and 123 gay men who had civil unions in Vermont during the first year legislation made this available with 166 lesbians and 72 gay men in their friendship network who had not had civil unions, and also with 219 heterosexual married women and 193 heterosexual married men consisting of civil union couples' siblings and their
Sondra E. Solomon; Esther D. Rothblum; Kimberly F. Balsam
This study examined patterns of smoked substances (cigarettes and marijuana) among heterosexuals, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals based on data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the United States. We also examined the effect of bar patronage and sensation seeking/impulsivity (SSImp) on tobacco and marijuana use. Sexual orientation was defined as lesbian or gay self-identified, bisexual self-identified, heterosexual self-identified with same-sex partners in the past 5 years, and exclusively heterosexual (heterosexual self-identified, reporting no same-sex partners). Findings indicate that bisexual women and heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners had higher rates of cigarette smoking than exclusively heterosexual women. Bisexual women, lesbians, and heterosexual women with same-sex partners also used marijuana at significantly higher rates than exclusively heterosexual women. Marijuana use was significantly greater and tobacco use was elevated among gay men compared with heterosexualmen. SSImp was associated with greater use of both of these substances across nearly all groups. Bar patronage and SSImp did not buffer the relationship between sexual identity and smoking either cigarettes or marijuana. These findings suggest that marijuana and tobacco use differ by sexual identity, particularly among women, and underscore the importance of developing prevention and treatment services that are appropriate for sexual minorities. PMID:20025368
Trocki, Karen F; Drabble, Laurie A; Midanik, Lorraine T
This study examined patterns of smoked substances (cigarettes and marijuana) among heterosexuals, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals based on data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey (NAS), a population-based telephone survey of adults in the United States. We also examined the effect of bar patronage and sensation-seeking/impulsivity (SSImp) on tobacco and marijuana use. Sexual orientation was defined as: lesbian or gay self-identified, bisexual self-identified, heterosexual self-identified with same-sex partners in the last five years, and exclusively heterosexual (heterosexual self-identified, reporting no same sex partners). Findings indicate that bisexual women and heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners had higher rates of cigarette smoking than exclusively heterosexual women. Bisexual women, lesbians and heterosexual women with same-sex partners also used marijuana at significantly higher rates than exclusively heterosexual women. Marijuana use was significantly greater and tobacco use was elevated among gay men compared to heterosexualmen. SSImp was associated with greater use of both of these substances across nearly all groups. Bar patronage and SSImp did not buffer the relationship between sexual identity and smoking either cigarettes or marijuana. These findings suggest that marijuana and tobacco use differ by sexual identity, particularly among women, and underscore the importance of developing prevention and treatment services that are appropriate for sexual minorities.
Trocki, Karen F.; Drabble, Laurie A.; Midanik, Lorraine T.
The present study represents a cross-sectional examination of the relationship between affect, social support and illness\\u000a adjustment in men diagnosed with HIV\\/AIDS. Positive and negative affect were examined as separate mediators of the relationship\\u000a between emotional support received from a primary support provider and illness adjustment in 105 menliving with HIV. Results\\u000a suggested that depressive symptoms emerged as a
Nathan T. Deichert; Erin M. Fekete; Jessica M. Boarts; Jennifer Ann Druley; Douglas L. Delahanty
The incidence of epilepsy is the same in men and women yet more time and energy has been expended on "women's issues" in recent times. In 2004, Epilepsy Action (The British Epilepsy Association) conducted a nationwide survey of men with epilepsy (MWE), who had contacted their helpline in the previous year. The men were comfortable discussing their epilepsy and confident in asking for information. They felt keenly the lack of driving privileges and the type of work available to them. A majority felt the condition adversely affected their self-esteem and quality of life. Most men expressed satisfaction with the quality of care and information they got from their general practitioners and their neurologist. PMID:17418593
Sare, Gillian; Rawnsley, Margaret; Stoneman, Amanda; Duncan, Susan
Surveyed women consistently specify preferences for egalitarian dates and\\/or mates. A common perception is that many of these same women often select consorts who are inscrutable, assertive, and controlling, ultimately bemoaning their choices. Dominance has been experimentally shown to provide initial attraction advantages. The Byronic Hero, a venerable literary model, embraces protagonists who possess extraordinary masculine traits that include dominance
This study examined the relationship between homophobia (defined as self-reported negative affect, avoidance, and aggression toward homosexuals) and homosexual aggression. Self-identified heterosexual college men were assigned to homophobic (n = 26) and nonhomophobic (n = 26) groups on the basis of their scores on the Homophobia Scale (HS; L. W. Wright, H. E. Adams, & J. A. Bernat, 1999). Physical
Jeffrey A. Bernat; Karen S. Calhoun; Henry E. Adams; Amos Zeichner
A sample of 50 men, 28 overt homosexuals and 22 heterosexuals, completed a Life History Questionnaire and an MMPI. The questionnaire contained items on education, occupation, physical and mental health, marital status, and sexual development and current functioning. The 5s were obtained from nonclinical and nonprison populations and were fairly well matched. The homosexual group was significantly higher than the
This study explores how men make sense of their participation in the feminized practice of salon hair care. By placing white, middle-class, heterosexualmen at the center of analysis, I investigate the meaning of beauty work for a population that has been overlooked in research on gender and the beauty industry. Specifically, I demonstrate that men embed their purchase of
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between gender role attitudes, household tasks, and\\u000a the perception of equity among heterosexual, gay and lesbian couples. One hundred and twenty-four participants (54 heterosexuals,\\u000a 30 gay men and 40 lesbians) were tested. It was found that same-sex couples had more liberal attitudes toward gender roles\\u000a than did heterosexual couples.
The experiences of men from African backgrounds living with HIV who are gay\\/bisexual have so far been overlooked in the research on HIV in the UK. Little is known about the ways that HIV impacts on this population. We report on an exploratory qualitative study with 8 gay\\/bisexual men from 7 different African countries living with HIV in London, based
This study assessed the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in African American men and women affected by HIV\\/AIDS and estimated the relative contribution of demographics, substance use, burden of social strain, and low social support in predicting psychiatric risk. Data are from analyses conducted on a community sample of 234 African American men who have sex with men (75 HIV
In determining the effectiveness of AIDS preventive measures among heterosexuals, trends in visits to two clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam between 1982 and 1989 are described. Also, data on sexual behaviour are presented that were collected in a sample of 635 heterosexual women and 947 heterosexualmen at one of the clinics between September 1986 and December 1988. In 1987, when in The Netherlands for the first time extensive publicity was given to the risk of heterosexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus, the numbers of male and female heterosexual attenders started to decline. Exceptions to this general decline were men of Turkish nationality and foreign prostitutes, each group showing a continuing increase. At the same time, the numbers of customers reported by prostitutes in the sample declined markedly between 1986 and 1988, from a median of 35 to 15 per month (p = 0.001). Condom use with casual contacts generally increased in the sample period. We conclude that the publicity given to "heterosexual AIDS"--contributed to by the national AIDS prevention campaign--apparently led to a considerable decrease in the number of risky contacts of heterosexuals in Amsterdam in 1987 and 1988. This does not seem to apply to men with Turkish nationality. In 1989 a change appeared in several subgroups when the number of visitors started to rise. Also, the probability of an STD diagnosis increased in male attenders. This may indicate a change in the tendency towards safer sexual behaviour.
van Haastrecht, H J; van den Hoek, J A; Coutinho, R A
Factors associated with HIV transmission risk may differ between subgroups of persons living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA). This study\\u000a examined such factors in a sample of PLWHA recruited in 3 US metropolitan areas. Sexually active participants were categorized\\u000a as gay or bisexual men (GBM) (n = 545), heterosexualmen (HSM, n = 223), or women (n = 214). Of 982 participants, 27.1% reported serodiscordant unprotected anal or
Cari Courtenay-Quirk; Sherri L. Pals; Grant Colfax; David McKirnan; Lauren Gooden; Do?an Ero?lu
Background There is clear evidence that men suffer from osteoporosis (OP) in increasing numbers, but that men commonly remain underdiagnosed, undertreated and experience poorer outcomes than do women. The widespread sociocultural association of OP with postmenopausal women reflects their greater risk for developing the disorder, but the sexing of OP as a women's disease disadvantages at-risk men. Methods This paper reports on qualitative data gathered from 23 community-residing men who have an OP diagnosis. Results Interviews with men reveal that the sexing of OP as a female disease may affect men's risk appraisal. Men clearly associate OP risk factors with women and accordingly may feel protected from the disorder. Subsequent to diagnosis, men's OP-related risk management strategies reveal that men's gender identity constrains their ability to enact risk-reducing behavior. Conclusions Men may internalize the association of OP with women and incorporate it into a sense of perceived invulnerability to the condition, which, in turn, contributes to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Limited male-specific treatment and support options as well as social expectations of male gender performance play roles in men's health behavior.
Current sociobiological thought suggests that significant components of mate selection are based on indicators that correlate with the ability to produce and support offspring. Theorists have suggested that men tend to be attracted to and marry younger women, while women tend to be attracted to and marry older men. This behavior is referred to as age hypergamy. I complicate this picture by using gay men as a population in which to explore alternative components of mate selection as reflected in our behavior. Analyses of 120 dating advertisements from gay men and heterosexualmen and women indicated that there exists a good measure of hypergamic age preference that is comparable to the heterosexual population and that relates to subjects' gender presentation. Data suggest that the biological-reproductive theory of age hypergamy is incomplete and support a cultural reproduction model of gender role behavior and preference in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. PMID:23179236
This study examined differences in the way heterosexualmen and women feel about gay men and lesbians who either confirm or disconfirm prevailing stereotypes. Fifty-three heterosexual college men and women read descriptions about 2 fictitious homosexual students at their university, both of whom were either male or female. One of the students was portrayed as being more stereotypically masculine, whereas
Conceptualizing heterosexual and homosexual interest as reciprocal constructs can be a source of confusion, and may obstruct understanding of sexual orientation in counseling. We investigated the relationships between homosexual interest, heterosexual interest, and masculinity and femininity. Seventy-eight men attending a homophile organisation completed the Kinsey Scale, and two separate continua measuring degree of homosexual interest and degree of heterosexual interest independently. The correlation between the two continua was -.51, suggesting that homosexual and heterosexual interest are to some extent independent of one another, and that a single continuum which assumes homosexual interest to be the direct converse of heterosexual interest may not be an adequate measure of sexual orientation. No significant relationships between masculinity, femininity and sexual orientation were found. Implications for counseling people with concerns about sexual orientation and sex of partner are discussed. PMID:19835038
Differences between heterosexual and non-heterosexual college students on measures of defense mechanisms and psycho-pathological symptoms were examined. Fifty-six (28 heterosexual, 28 non-heterosexual) subjects were drawn from a larger study of college student adjustment. Non-heterosexual subjects were matched to a heterosexual peer on several demographic variables as well as on attachment security\\/insecurity. Differences between the two groups on the Defense Mechanism
Background Little research has been done on the relationship between malnutrition and mental health in community living elderly individuals. In the present study, we aimed to assess the associations between mental health (particularly anxiety and depression) and both the risk of malnutrition and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in a large sample of elderly men and women from Tromsø, Norway. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, with 1558 men and 1553 women aged 65 to 87 years, the risk of malnutrition was assessed by the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ('MUST'), and mental health was measured by the Symptoms Check List 10 (SCL-10). BMI was categorised into six groups (< 20.0, 20.0-22.4, 22.5-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, ? 30.0 kg/m2). Results The risk of malnutrition (combining medium and high risk) was found in 5.6% of the men and 8.6% of the women. Significant mental health symptoms were reported by 3.9% of the men and 9.1% of the women. In a model adjusted for age, marital status, smoking and education, significant mental health symptoms (SCL-10 score ? 1.85) were positively associated with the risk of malnutrition (odds ratio 3.9 [95% CI 1.7-8.6] in men and 2.5 [95%CI 1.3-4.9] in women), the association was positive also for subthreshold mental health symptoms. For individuals with BMI < 20.0 the adjusted odds ratio for significant mental health symptoms was 2.0 [95% CI 1.0-4.0]. Conclusions Impaired mental health was strongly associated with the risk of malnutrition in community living elderly men and women and this association was also significant for subthreshold mental health symptoms.
BACKGROUND: During the past decades a rising trend of living alone can be observed in the population especially in urban areas. Living alone is considered a psychosocial risk factor. We studied the relationship between living alone, cardiovascular risk factors and mortality. METHODS: We analysed data from the population-based MONICA\\/KORA cohort study including 3596 men and 3420 women of at least
Relatively little is known about the relationship between methamphetamine (meth) use and sexual risk behavior among heterosexual adults. This descriptive study explores the context of sexual risk behavior among HIV-negative, heterosexual meth-using men and women. Drug use history, motivations for meth use, relationship types, and the social-sexual context of meth use were examined as factors that relate to sexual risk
Shirley J. Semple; Thomas L. Patterson; Igor Grant
In low- and middle-income countries, men who have sex with men (MSM) are 19 times more likely to be HIV positive compared with background populations. Criminalisation and social rejection of homosexuality in most sub-Saharan African countries reinforce stigma and exclude MSM from prevention activities, including HIV testing. This paper's purpose is to identify factors associated with never having been HIV tested (NHT), among a sample of Cameroonian MSM. In 2008, a community-based study was conducted in Douala, the economic capital city of Cameroon, by a local NGO Alternatives-Cameroun, recruiting participants through the snowball technique and administering a questionnaire during face-to-face interviews. Proximity to HIV was investigated according to the following criteria: knowing at least one person living with HIV and having been exposed to HIV prevention interventions. NHT was defined as reporting to have never been HIV tested. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with NHT. Among the 165 MSM of our study group who reported that they were not HIV positive, 19% reported NHT. Factors independently associated with NHT were as follows: being younger, being Muslim, not having a steady male partner, not knowing any person living with HIV and never having been exposed to HIV prevention interventions. In this MSM population, a small proportion reported that they had never been HIV tested and among these, the percentage was higher among individuals not in proximity to HIV. Despite the hostile context of sub-Saharan African countries towards MSM, local and national HIV testing campaigns to date may have played a substantial role in raising HIV awareness in the MSM population living in Douala, and peer-based counselling may have educated those in contact with Alternatives-Cameroun regarding the positive value of HIV testing. This result is a further argument for continuing community-based prevention and extending it to difficult-to-reach MSM. PMID:22519605
Lorente, Nicolas; Henry, Emilie; Fugon, Lionel; Yomb, Yves; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Eboko, Fred; Spire, Bruno
Traditionally, religion has been a major source of institutional support and well-being for Black people in the USA. However, when juxtaposed against sexuality, religion's positive effect upon the lives of non-heterosexual individuals is questionable. Research suggests that non-heterosexuals often abandon structured religion for spirituality due to the homonegativity perpetuated through religious institutions. Although studies have examined religion and spirituality among gays and lesbians, few have examined their roles in the lives of bisexuals. In this study, we analyzed qualitative interviews from 28 bisexual Black men who resided in New York City. In addition to church attendance, participants expressed belonging to religious communities through activities such as music ministry. Despite rejection because of their bisexuality, some participants saw other religious individuals as being accepting of them. Others discussed the church as a place where non-heterosexuals interacted, often for meeting sexual partners. Participants evoked beliefs in God in coping with adverse life experiences; some linked faith to family and sexual responsibilities. Drawing upon relevant literature, we discuss the implications of religion and spirituality for the quality of life of bisexual Black men in the USA.
JEFFRIES, WILLIAM L.; DODGE, BRIAN; SANDFORT, THEO G. M.
Traditionally, religion has been a major source of institutional support and well-being for Black people in the USA. However, when juxtaposed against sexuality, religion's positive effect upon the lives of non-heterosexual individuals is questionable. Research suggests that non-heterosexuals often abandon structured religion for spirituality due to the homonegativity perpetuated through religious institutions. Although studies have examined religion and spirituality among gays and lesbians, few have examined their roles in the lives of bisexuals. In this study, we analyzed qualitative interviews from 28 bisexual Black men who resided in New York City. In addition to church attendance, participants expressed belonging to religious communities through activities such as music ministry. Despite rejection because of their bisexuality, some participants saw other religious individuals as being accepting of them. Others discussed the church as a place where non-heterosexuals interacted, often for meeting sexual partners. Participants evoked beliefs in God in coping with adverse life experiences; some linked faith to family and sexual responsibilities. Drawing upon relevant literature, we discuss the implications of religion and spirituality for the quality of life of bisexual Black men in the USA. PMID:18568870
Jeffries, William L; Dodge, Brian; Sandfort, Theo G M
A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to ac- quire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will en- dow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chas- tity). The
|Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…
This article presents suggestions for avoiding heterosexual bias in language concerning lesbians, gay men, and bisexual persons. Problems in language occur when terminology is unclear or when terminology has been associated with negative stereotypes. The article suggests preferred terminology and also presents ways of increasing the visibility of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual persons in language. PMID:1958016
Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students (N = 143) in a general diversity course completed identical surveys during the
To investigate how some Japanese graduate students understand their masculine identity and negotiate sexual encounters and condom use, the authors interviewed sixty twenty-four-year-old to twenty-six-year-old heterosexualmen during the summer of 1997. They used a set of three interviews covering three areas: home, school and\\/or job, and sexual life. In talking about sexual encounters and decision making about contraception, they
This study examined the relationships among dissociation, childhood trauma and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in HIV-positive men. Data were collected from 167 men enrolled in a randomized clinical trial that examined a group therapy intervention to decrease HIV-related risk behavior and trauma-related stress symptoms. Participants completed the Trauma History Questionnaire, the Impact of Events Scale–Revised, and
Charles Kamen; Jessica Bergstrom; Cheryl Koopman; Susanne Lee; Cheryl Gore-Felton
This study examined the relationships among dissociation, childhood trauma and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in HIV-positive men. Data was collected from 167 men enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (Project RISE) that examined a group therapy intervention to decrease HIV-related risk behavior and trauma-related stress symptoms. Participants completed the Trauma History Questionnaire, the Impact of Event
Charles Kamen; Jessica Bergstrom; Cheryl Koopman; Susanne Lee; Cheryl Gore-Felton
Men infected with HIV are often faced with caregiving responsibilities of aging, ill parents, while simultaneously looking for support from their parents in dealing with their own health problems. Unfortunately, the reciprocal roles of HIV-positive adult sons and aging mothers as caregivers have not been examined. To address this gap in the literature, HIV-positive men (n = 118) answered open-ended
Constance R. Uphold; Constance L. Shehan; Joyce McDonald Bender; Bradley S. Bender
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary fiber consumption and lifestyle on serum lipids in adult men with non-restricted diet and physical activity. Methods: Two groups of 19 men were classified as high (48 g\\/day) and low fiber groups (27 g\\/day). Anthropometry, food frequency, daily weighed intakes and physical activity were done for a
Martha N. Ballesteros; Rosa M. Cabrera; Maria S. Saucedo; Gloria M. Yepiz-Plascencia; M. Isabel Ortega; Mauro E. Valencia
Restrictive eating attitudes and behaviors have been hypothesized to be related to processes of intrasexual competition. According to this perspective, within-sex competition for status serves the adaptive purpose of attracting mates. As such, status competition salience may lead to concerns of mating desirability. For heterosexual women and gay men, such concerns revolve around appearing youthful and thus, thinner. Following this logic, we examined how exposure to high-status and competitive (but not thin or highly attractive) same-sex individuals would influence body image and eating attitudes in heterosexual and in gay/lesbian individuals. Results indicated that for heterosexuals, intrasexual competition cues led to greater body image dissatisfaction and more restrictive eating attitudes for women, but not for men. In contrast, for homosexual individuals, intrasexual competition cues led to worse body image and eating attitudes for gay men, but not for lesbian women. These findings support the idea that the ultimate explanation for eating disorders is related to intrasexual competition. PMID:20835352
Li, Norman P; Smith, April R; Griskevicius, Vladas; Cason, Margaret J; Bryan, Angela
Restrictive eating attitudes and behaviors have been hypothesized to be related to processes of intrasexual competition. According to this perspective, within-sex competition for status serves the adaptive purpose of attracting mates. As such, status competition salience may lead to concerns of mating desirability. For heterosexual women and gay men, such concerns revolve around appearing youthful and thus, thinner. Following this logic, we examined how exposure to high-status and competitive (but not thin or highly attractive) same-sex individuals would influence body image and eating attitudes in heterosexual and in gay/lesbian individuals. Results indicated that for heterosexuals, intrasexual competition cues led to greater body image dissatisfaction and more restrictive eating attitudes for women, but not for men. In contrast, for homosexual individuals, intrasexual competition cues led to worse body image and eating attitudes for gay men, but not for lesbian women. These findings support the idea that the ultimate explanation for eating disorders is related to intrasexual competition.
Li, Norman P.; Smith, April R.; Griskevicius, Vladas; Cason, Margaret J.; Bryan, Angela
Use of health care services has been suggested to be lower among homo- or bisexual persons than among heterosexual persons, due to a lack of trust in the health care system. However, population-based studies on differences in health care utilization according to sexual orientation are scarce. The purpose of the current study was to explore differences in health care utilization and confidence in health care between heterosexual, bisexual and homosexual persons. A survey of a random sample of patients of Dutch general practices (n = 9684) gathered data on socio-demographic variables, sexual orientation, health status, confidence in health care and health care utilization. Differences in health care utilization between homo- or bisexual persons and heterosexual persons were analyzed with logistic regression analysis, in which we statistically adjusted for socio-demographics and health status. Reported health was lower among homosexual men and women as compared to heterosexual persons. There were no sexual orientation-related differences in confidence in health care. Controlling for health status, it appeared that gay men more frequently used mental and somatic health care than heterosexualmen, and that lesbian or bisexual women more frequently used mental health care than heterosexual women. We found a higher rate of health care use among homosexual and bisexual persons as compared to heterosexual persons, that could only be partly explained by differences in health status. To gain a better understanding of our findings, data on the predisposition to use health services among homosexual and bisexual men and women is needed. PMID:16820254
Bakker, Floor C; Sandfort, Theo G M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van Lindert, Hanneke; Westert, Gert P
This community-based study examined emotional and somatic symptoms of 129 Bedouin women whose husbands serve in the Israel Defense Forces. Wives of men diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported more symptoms than wives of men diagnosed with other disorders and wives of men with no diagnosis. Findings indicate that not only was PTSD in Bedouin servicemen positively associated with their wives' symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression and somatic complaints, but that this relationship was fully mediated by husbands' aggression. Unraveling the special circumstances of women from traditional backgrounds faced with the devastating effects of husbands' combat-related posttraumatic pathology may inform an approach to the concept of vicarious trauma that is more specific to non-Western societies. PMID:21171128
|The Reasons for Living Inventory was completed by 95 Black and 132 White male and female students at a predominantly White southern university. Female subjects had a greater fear of, and objection to, suicide. Blacks scored higher than Whites in reasons for living. (DM)|
Extensive cross sectional data suggest a real continuity between prepubertal attitudes and experience and those of adolescence. The preteen years (10-13) represent a period of preparation for later heterosexual involvement. These findings suggest need to modify traditional points of view regarding patterns of sociosexual development. (Author/CJ)
|Forty-six heterosexual members of a college-based gay/straight alliance organization were surveyed to investigate characteristics of students who commit to acting as allies in reducing sexual prejudice. Assessment focused on the students' history of intergroup contact and exposure to sexual prejudice prior to joining the gay/straight alliance,…
|Extensive cross sectional data suggest a real continuity between prepubertal attitudes and experience and those of adolescence. The preteen years (10-13) represent a period of preparation for later heterosexual involvement. These findings suggest need to modify traditional points of view regarding patterns of sociosexual development. (Author/CJ)|
Using in-depth interviews and participant observations, I examine how two groups of heterosexual high school US football players\\u000a alter differently the construction of heterosexuality and masculinity after joining collegiate cheerleading. First, I show\\u000a that informants from both groups make masculinity accessible to gay men before next describing how they reconcile heterosexuality\\u000a with limited forms of same-sex sex. Forty-percent of the
HIV testing was assessed online among men accessing a sexual networking website for men who have sex with men. Most of the 8,040 participants reported HIV testing (58.2% ? 1 year; 33.1% > 1 year) and 17.1% were HIV-positive. Overall, 8.6% of men including 24% of those 18-24 years of age had never been tested. Among never testers, 25% did not know where to get tested. Predictors of never being tested included younger age (18-24), bisexual or heterosexual orientation, living outside of large metropolitan areas, and not having a healthcare provider. Increasing access to and knowledge of HIV testing sites is needed. PMID:21279431
Margolis, Andrew D; Joseph, Heather; Belcher, Lisa; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann
This study evaluated the stereotype that gay men lisp. Two clinicians who were unaware of the specific purpose of the study and the populations involved judged randomized audio-recordings of 175 gay males, 100 heterosexual males and 100 heterosexual females for the presence of lisping during reading of a standardized text. In the gay males a significantly higher prevalence of lisping
John Van Borsel; Els De Bruyn; Evelien Lefebvre; Anouschka Sokoloff; Sophia De Ley; Nele Baudonck
Using explicit, self-report measures, past research has found that heterosexualmen, relative to heterosexual women, often attribute more sexuality to women's behaviors. In the present studies, the Implicit Association Test was used to determine if these findings held at the automatic processing level. The results of Study 1 were consistent with past research: Men, compared to women, had more sexual
Kristen P. Lindgren; Yuichi Shoda; William H. George
Using data from a 1999 national RDD survey (N = 1,335), this paper examines gender gaps in heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians, gay men, and a variety of topics related to homosexuality. Attitudes toward lesbians differed from attitudes toward gay men in several areas, and significant differences were observed between male and female heterosexual respondents. Survey participants generally were more likely
This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth are typically portrayed as a monolithic
This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…
Influenced by the national attention that followed the violent episode between pop superstar Rihanna and hip-hop artist Chris\\u000a Brown, this article explores the importance of including the psychosocial experiences of disenfranchised African American\\u000a men in traditional intervention programs for batterers. The article provides an overview of how intimate partner violence\\u000a affects African American women and discusses how racialized stereotypical images
This study examined the relationships among dissociation, childhood trauma and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in HIV-positive men. Data was collected from 167 men enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (Project RISE) that examined a group therapy intervention to decrease HIV-related risk behavior and trauma-related stress symptoms. Participants completed the Trauma History Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised, and the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire. Overall, 35.3% of the participants reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A total of 55.7% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The intensity of dissociative symptoms that participants endorsed was positively associated with experience of childhood sexual abuse (r = .20, p < .01). Dissociative symptoms were also positively associated with specific PTSD symptoms, notably hyperarousal (r = .69, p < .001). Hierarchical regression indicated that hyperarousal symptoms account for more of the variance in dissociation than childhood sexual abuse. These results suggest that childhood sexual abuse may be involved in the development of dissociative symptoms in the context of adulthood stress reactions. Furthermore, the pattern of the association between dissociation and PTSD is consistent with the possibility of a dissociative PTSD subtype among HIV-positive men.
Invoking social identity theory as an interpretive frame, a previous content analysis of heterosexuals' representations of imagined conversations with gay men revealed a number of communication schemas for talk with the latter (e.g., homonegativity and offense avoidance). This study explores the role of participant sex in determining the prevalence of such schemas, comparatively incorporating representations of conversations with a heterosexual
The issue of pornography as a form of leisure practice has received little attention from researchers. In this study, the impact of pornography consumption on women's lives was examined. A diverse group of thirty-two women was interviewed, with discussion focusing on their individual experiences, meanings, and perceptions of pornography. The women's reactions to pornography, especially to violent pornography, were consistently
In two studies, lesbians, gay men and bisexuals were queried concerning mistakes that well-meaning heterosexual people have made when interacting with them. In qualitative, open-ended research, we determined that the most common mistakes concerned heterosexuals' pointing out that they know someone who is gay, emphasizing their lack of prejudice, and relying on stereotypes about gays. Following up with a quantitative, close-ended questionnaire, we determined that the mistakes respondents experienced most often involved heterosexuals (a) relying on stereotypes and (b) ignoring gay issues; the most annoying mistakes were heterosexuals (a) using subtle prejudicial language and (b) not owning up to their discomfort with gay issues. We used two theoretical perspectives, shared reality theory and the contact hypothesis, to analyze the quantitative responses. Implications for intergroup relationships between heterosexual people and gay people are discussed. PMID:12013573
Based on qualitative data collected in 1999 in Dublin, Ireland and Providence, Rhode Island, this study examines psychosocial tasks for gay men with AIDS who are experiencing "Lazarus Phenomena," significant improvement in health and functioning as a result of current medication advances. The data showed a range of reactions, supportive of the literature on "uncertainty in illness," and suggesting that long term survival with AIDS requires an exceptional tolerance for ambiguity and an ability to reconstruct the future-skills which may co-vary with economic/career opportunities, social supports and individual resilience. PMID:12921407
For men especially, gender roles are highly conflated with sexuality stereotypes (Lehavot & Lambert, 2007). As such, we examined the specific role of gay salience in heterosexualmen's task experience of gender role incongruency. We predicted that heterosexualmen would show a reduction in performance and motivation when working on a feminine task under gay salience. Studies 1a and 1b
Forty-six heterosexual members of a college-based gay\\/straight alliance organization were surveyed to investigate characteristics of students who commit to acting as allies in reducing sexual prejudice. Assessment focused on the students’ history of intergroup contact and exposure to sexual prejudice prior to joining the gay\\/straight alliance, endorsement of positive stereotypes and immutability beliefs, perception of the ally role in terms
Objective To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Design Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. Results From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days – of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one’s own children, and lower education. Conclusions We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.
Mannava, Priya; Geibel, Scott; King'ola, Nzioki; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley
This paper reports on an ethnographic study of male homosexuality in contemporary Chinese society. The study focused on how men negotiated with the mainstream Chinese heterosexual society and in so doing constructed their sexual identities. The factors found to inform sexual identity were: the cultural imperative of heterosexual marriage, normative family obligations, desired gender roles, emotional experiences and a need
The Helping Overcome Problems Effectively (HOPE) intervention was developed by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership to improve mental health and employment outcomes of African American gay menliving with HIV/AIDS. The intervention blended locally collected formative data, social cognitive theory, hope theory, and the lived experiences of African American gay menliving with HIV/AIDS. The HOPE intervention included 7 weekly 3-hour group sessions, with participant assessment at baseline and 3-month post-intervention. A total of 7 African American men, who self-identified as gay and unemployed, participated. Mean age was 46.1 (range = 37-57) years. Throughout the intervention, participants developed goal-setting skills, problem-solving skills, health-promoting behaviors, and employment seeking behaviors. The results suggest that the HOPE intervention may be promising in improving mental health and employment outcomes. PMID:24059878
Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Geishecker, Steve; Clark, Glenn; Rhodes, Scott D
Objective: To assess the effect of graded increases in exercised-induced energy expenditure (EE) on appetite, energy intake (EI), total daily EE and body weight in menliving in their normal environment and consuming their usual diets.Design: Within-subject, repeated measures design. Six men (mean (s.d.) age 31.0 (5.0) y; weight 75.1 (15.96) kg; height 1.79 (0.10) m; body mass index (BMI)
RJ Stubbs; A Sepp; DA Hughes; AM Johnstone; GW Horgan; N King; J Blundell
An oat bran concentrate was prepared by removing non-fibre components by cold-water wet-milling, resulting in a 2- to 3-fold concentration of soluble fibre, with beta-D-glucan as its main component. The concentrate was baked in bread which was consumed for 8 weeks by free-livingmen with mild to moderate hypercholesterolaemia. The effects on serum lipids were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Despite the large daily dose (11.2 g) of beta-glucan, the beta-glucan-enriched bread had only a small and statistically non-significant effect on serum lipid concentrations. Probable reasons for the weakness of the effect could be the poor solubility of beta-glucan in the preparation, its enzymatic hydrolysis after ingestion, and the consequently low viscosity in the intestine. PMID:1396480
Törrönen, R; Kansanen, L; Uusitupa, M; Hänninen, O; Myllymäki, O; Härkönen, H; Mälkki, Y
Objective. To describe the prevalence and correlates of dual-contraceptive methods use (condoms and an effective pregnancy prevention method) and barriers to their use among married persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Methods. We conducted a quantitative survey (93 men, 97 women), 25 in-depth interviews, seven focus groups, and five key informant interviews. Results. Prevalence of dual- contraceptive method use increased from 5% before HIV diagnosis to 23% after diagnosis (P?0.001). Condoms were the most common contraceptive method, with prevalence increasing from 13% before diagnosis to 92% after diagnosis (P?0.001). Barriers to using noncondom contraceptives were lack of discussion about noncondom contraceptives by health care providers, lack of acceptability of noncondom contraceptives among PLHIV, and lack of involvement of husbands in family planning counseling. Conclusion. There is a need for interventions, including training of health care providers, to increase dual-contraceptive methods use among married PLHIV.
Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Kershaw, Trace; Shunmugam, Murali; Newman, Peter A.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Dubrow, Robert
The control of blood pressure (BP) is important in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a dietary educational program for free-living, high-normal, and stage 1 or 2 hypertensive men. The participants were volunteers aged 40-75 years who agreed to the intervention. They were divided into two groups: 39 men for the intervention group and 32 men for the control group. BP, urinary sodium and potassium excretion, dietary and lifestyle data, and nonfasting venous blood sample were collected at baseline and after the intervention period. The intervention was designed to decrease sodium level with an emphasis on a decrease in the consumption of salted foods and to increase potassium level with an emphasis on an increase in the consumption of fruit and vegetables through cooking instructions and self-monitoring of the diet. At the baseline, there were no significant differences observed between the groups, except the diastolic BP. In the intervention group, a greater decrease in the urinary sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio was observed, compared with the control group (net difference 0.6, P = .029). The systolic and diastolic BP (mm Hg) decreased in the intervention group (149.0-143.0, P = .073; 93.0-87.0, P = .002), but no changes were observed in the control group (145.0-143.0, P = .231; 84.9-85.3, P = .381). In the intervention group, the urinary sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio was significantly improved by focusing on cooking instructions and self-monitoring of the diet. PMID:22799766
The aim of the current study was to add to the growing body of research on men with eating disorders by examining the association between different types of body dissatisfaction (muscularity and body fat) and disordered eating in heterosexual and gay men. Two hundred four participants (over one-third were gay) completed measures assessing disordered eating, muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction, and sexual orientation. Body fat dissatisfaction, but not muscularity dissatisfaction, predicted disordered eating, dietary restraint, and concerns about weight and eating in gay and heterosexualmen. These findings were consistent across all measures of body fat and muscularity dissatisfaction, providing stronger evidence that body fat dissatisfaction may be a greater risk factor for disordered eating in both gay and heterosexual college aged men than muscularity dissatisfaction.
Smith, April R.; Hawkeswood, Sean E.; Bodell, Lindsay P.; Joiner, Thomas E.
This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion theory, lesbians were conceived as similar
|This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…
Cyberpunk cinema’s fantasy of freeing the mind from the mortal body appears at odds with the conservatism of brain sex science seeking biological proof of why men and women should adhere to traditional gender roles. But an analysis of some of the genre’s fi lms shows that cyberpunk cinema is also conservative, particularly in its anxious reassertion of “obligatory heterosexuality.”
Whether homosexual feelings are distributed categorically or dimensionally remains controversial. In an earlier series of studies, medical students anonymously reported a dimensional distribution of homosexual feelings, the ratio of homosexual to heterosexual feelings in men correlating with opposite sex-linked behaviors in childhood and adolescence, and, in both sexes, with current degree of opposite sex identity. Prevalence of homosexual feelings was
This paper reports on data from a wider study of young people's heterosexual experiences in Ireland, but focuses in particular on issues of sexual coercion. Data were gathered from 29 focus group interviews with 102 young women and 124 young men and were analysed using a qualitative research strategy. Drawing on concepts of social coercion and interpersonal coercion, we argue
Abbey Hyde; Jonathan Drennan; Etaoine Howlett; Dympna Brady
Is sexual orientation associated with structural differences in the brain? To address this question, 80 homosexual and heterosexualmen and women (16 homosexual men and 15 homosexual women) underwent structural MRI. We used voxel-based morphometry to test for differences in grey matter concentration associated with gender and sexual orientation. Compared with heterosexual women, homosexual women displayed less grey matter bilaterally in the temporo-basal cortex, ventral cerebellum, and left ventral premotor cortex. The relative decrease in grey matter was most prominent in the left perirhinal cortex. The left perirhinal area also showed less grey matter in heterosexualmen than in heterosexual women. Thus, in homosexual women, the perirhinal cortex grey matter displayed a more male-like structural pattern. This is in accordance with previous research that revealed signs of sex-atypical prenatal androgenization in homosexual women, but not in homosexual men. The relevance of the perirhinal area for high order multimodal (olfactory and visual) object, social, and sexual processing is discussed.
Ponseti, Jorge; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Kloppel, Stefan; Wolff, Stephan; Granert, Oliver; Jansen, Olav; Mehdorn, Hubertus M.; Bosinski, Hartmut A.
While many studies have examined correlates of trading sex for money, few have examined factors associated with exclusive trading of sex for drugs. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexualmen and women who were enrolled in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, California. Of 342 participants,
Shirley J. Semple; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Jim Zians; Thomas L. Patterson
Identifying psychosocial factors associated with sexual risk behavior among methamphetamine users is essential to enhancing HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention. This study examined the relationship between positive and negative life events and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 100 HIV-negative, heterosexually identified, methamphetamine-using men and women. Negative life event categories included death of a significant other, negative health
Shirley J. Semple; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Jim Zians; Thomas L. Patterson
This study identified demographic and behavioral correlates of engaging in unprotected anal sex (UAS) with non-main partners among men having sex with men (MSM). Just over 1,000 men completed anonymous surveys with 25% of the men reporting their most recent sexual act with a non-main male partner was UAS. These men tended to be white, older, HIV seropositive, and high
David R. Holtgrave; Richard Crosby; R. Luke Shouse
|This study explored homosexual and heterosexual friend and love relationships as measured by Wright's (1984) Acquaintance Description Form-Final (ADF-F). It was hypothesized that homosexual relationships would vary from heterosexual relationships on certain aspects of the relationships. Homosexual subjects (N=78) responded toward a target person…
In this study I investigated the relation between normal heterosexual attraction and autogynephilia (a man's propensity to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman). The subjects were 427 adult male outpatients who reported histories of dressing in women's garments, of feeling like women, or both. The data were questionnaire measures of autogynephilia, heterosexual interest,
In late midlife, heterosexual women report markedly lower levels of sexual satisfaction than heterosexualmen. This article\\u000a explored the social factors contributing to this difference, using data from 1,035 sexually-active heterosexual adults, aged\\u000a 40–59 years, who participated in the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). Conducted in 1992, NHSLS interviewed\\u000a a nationally representative random sample of U.S. adults about diverse
Laura M. Carpenter; Constance A. Nathanson; Young J. Kim
Anal sexual intercourse represents the highest transmission risk for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),\\u000a yet much of what we know about anal sex is based on men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about heterosexual adults\\u000a who practice anal sex, especially those who may be at risk for HIV such as substance users. The present
Gladys E. IbanezSteven; Steven P. Kurtz; Hilary L. Surratt; James A. Inciardi
Barriers to researching links between drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV risk fall into three categories: (1) institutional barriers, (2) lack of appropriate theoretical models, and (3) stigmatization of sexual minorities. This paper reviews the status of the progress on the first two issues and presents a historical account of research on the role
A healthy diet is essential to maintaining a strong immune system for people living with HIV and AIDS. Prior studies have shown that HIV-positive gay and bisexual men are more susceptible to poor body image, which can negatively impact dietary habits. Interventions that simultaneously address body image and nutrition are therefore critical for this population. This paper describes the curriculum
Matthew B. Feldman; Jenny A. Torino; Margaret Swift
In this study I investigated the relation between normal heterosexual attraction and autogynephilia (a man's propensity to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman). The subjects were 427 adult male outpatients who reported histories of dressing in women's garments, of feeling like women, or both. The data were questionnaire measures of autogynephilia, heterosexual interest, and other psychosexual variables. As predicted, the highest levels of autogynephilia were observed at intermediate rather than high levels of heterosexual interest; that is, the function relating these variables took the form of an inverted U. This finding supports the hypothesis that autogynephilia is a misdirected type of heterosexual impulse, which arises in association with normal heterosexuality but also competes with it. PMID:1583219
In this paper, we analyse the life history narratives of 10 poor gay and bisexual Black men over the age of 50 living with HIV/AIDS in New York City, focusing on experiences of stigma. Three overarching themes are identified. First, participants described the ways in which stigma marks them as just one more body within social and medical institutions, emphasising the dehumanisation they experience in these settings. Second, respondents described the process of knowing your place within social hierarchies as a means through which they are rendered tolerable. Finally, interviewees described the dynamics of stigma as all-consuming, relegating them to the quagmire of an HIV ghetto. These findings emphasise that despite advances in treatment and an aging population of persons living with HIV, entrenched social stigmas continue to endanger the well-being of Black men who have sex with men.
In this paper, we analyse the life history narratives of 10 poor gay and bisexual Black men over the age of 50 living with HIV/AIDS in New York City, focusing on experiences of stigma. Three overarching themes are identified. First, participants described the ways in which stigma marks them as 'just one more body' within social and medical institutions, emphasising the dehumanisation they experience in these settings. Second, respondents described the process of 'knowing your place' within social hierarchies as a means through which they are rendered tolerable. Finally, interviewees described the dynamics of stigma as all-consuming, relegating them to the 'quagmire of an HIV ghetto'. These findings emphasise that despite advances in treatment and an aging population of persons living with HIV, entrenched social stigmas continue to endanger the well-being of Black men who have sex with men. PMID:21229421
Relationships with overt adult Kinsey Scale scores (K) indicate that early sexual experiences are most closely related to K, followed in order by gender related and familial variables. A developmental model emphasizing social learning is presented. Interviewees were 7669 American white males and females. Elevated K (more homosexual scores) was found for females who had few girl companions at age 10 and few male companions at 16, had learned to masturbate by being masturbated by a female, had intense prepubertal sexual contact with boys or men, found thought or sight of females, but not males, arousing by age 18, had homosexual contact by age 18, higher K at 17, and higher first-year homosexual behavior frequency. Elevated K (more homosexual scores) was found for males who reported poorer teenage relationships with their fathers, had more girl companions at age 10, fewer male companions at 10 and 16, avoided sports participation, learned of homosexuality by experience, learned to masturbate by being masturbated by a male, had intense prepubertal sexual contact with boys or men, had neither heterosexual contact nor petting to orgasm by age 18, found thought or sight of males, but not females, arousing by age 18, had homosexual contact by age 18, higher K at ages 16 and 17, and had higher first-year homosexual behavior frequency. Behavioral bisexuals, those scoring between 2.0 and 4.0 on the K scale on the basis of overt behavior (0.7% of females, 1.2% of males), reported more arousal to heterosexual stimuli than did exclusive heterosexuals. PMID:6517686
Japanese men long resident in Honolulu, Hawaii have significantly more ischemic heart disease, but significantly fewer small cardiac scars than men in Hiroshima, Japan. These scars occur in three forms: (1) small scars in the mural myocardium which accoun...
A. Steer S. S. Lee G. N. Stemmermann T. Yamamoto G. G. Rhoads
|The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexualmen, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.|
Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael
|Our qualitative study examines the social psychology of gay men's experiences with their procreative, father, and family identities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 childless gay men and 20 gay men in the United States who have fathered using diverse means excluding heterosexual intercourse. By focusing on men aged 19-55 residing…
Although predictors of willingness to take daily, self-administered pre-exposure HIV prophylaxis (PrEP) for men who have sex with men (MSM) have been studied in the context of several PrEP trials internationally, little is known about MSM interested in participating in a trial on the use of PrEP on an “on -demand” basis, i.e., taking a first dose of combined tenofovir\\/emtricitabine
Nicolas Lorente; Lionel Fugon; Maria Patrizia Carrieri; Christian Andreo; Jean-Marie Le Gall; Emmanuel Cook; Jean-Pierre Aboulker; Catherine Capitant; Jean-Michel Molina; Bruno Spire
Although predictors of willingness to take daily, self-administered pre-exposure HIV prophylaxis (PrEP) for men who have sex with men (MSM) have been studied in the context of several PrEP trials internationally, little is known about MSM interested in participating in a trial on the use of PrEP on an “on -demand” basis, i.e., taking a first dose of combined tenofovir\\/emtricitabine
Nicolas Lorente; Lionel Fugon; Maria Patrizia Carrieri; Christian Andreo; Jean-Marie Le Gall; Emmanuel Cook; Jean-Pierre Aboulker; Catherine Capitant; Jean-Michel Molina; Bruno Spire
Objective: To estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) inci- dence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in the Omega Cohort Study in Montreal, 1996- 2003. Methods: Longitudinal study of 1587 MSM seronegative at base- line with >1 six-month follow-up visit. Multivariate Cox regression with time-dependent variables was used for data analysis. Results: HIV incidence
Elaine Lavoie; Michel Alary; Robert S. Remis; Joanne Otis; Jean Vincelette; Bruno Turmel; René Lavoie; Benoît R. Mâsse; Roger Le Clerc
While research on lay perspectives of health now has a wellestablished history, specific empirical data on male lay perspectives of health and well-being are largely absent. Drawing on focus group data and in-depth interviews with 20 lay men (including sub-samples of gay men and disabled men), and seven health professionals, this article explores how the men conceptualized ‘health’ and the
Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676
BACKGROUND: HIV prevention in India has mostly focussed on heterosexual transmission. Data on homosexual transmission are not readily available from India. We therefore assessed the probability of acquiring and transmitting HIV for men who sell sex to men and compared this with women who sell sex in India. METHODS: Sexual behaviour characteristics of 6661 men who have sex with men
Lalit Dandona; Rakhi Dandona; G Anil Kumar; Juan Pablo Gutierrez; Sam McPherson; Stefano M Bertozzi
|Using explicit, self-report measures, past research has found that heterosexualmen, relative to heterosexual women, often attribute more sexuality to women's behaviors. In the present studies, the Implicit Association Test was used to determine if these findings held at the automatic processing level. The results of Study 1 were consistent with…
Lindgren, Kristen P.; Shoda, Yuichi; George, William H.
This study focuses on multiple masculinities conceptualized in terms of sociality, a concept used to refer to nonsexual interpersonal attractions. Through male homosocial heterosexual interactions, hegemonic masculinity is maintained as the norm to which men are held accountable despite individual conceptualizations of masculinity that depart from that norm. When it is understood among heterosexualmen in homosocial circles that masculinity
Heterosexual transmission of a murine leukemia virus mixture named LP-BM5 MuLV, which is known as the murine AIDS virus, was investigated. Our results indicated that the heterosexual transmission of LP-BM5 MuLV occurs in both directions with high frequency and that the frequencies of virus transmission in the cervix and penis are higher than those in other genital organs. The results suggested that infection by LP-BM5 MuLV via heterosexual transmission may initially take place at particular retrovirus-sensitive sites (cells) in the genital organs.
|Based on survey data of 1000 young people aged 18-29 and semi-structured interviews with 51 young people aged 18-34 living in a north-western Italian region, the article explores how they account for their first heterosexual intercourse. Young people describe and make sense of their experiences by referring to sexual scripts; narrative sequences…
In this qualitative analysis, the author explored heterosexual women's accounts of the lived experience of sexual pain and discomfort. The author's aim was to expand theoretical and empirical knowledge in the area of female sexual dysfunction by providing a detailed description of the subjective experience of female sexual concerns. Empirical phenomenological methodology was used to analyze the data generated during
|Examined data on frequency with which relationship conflict is experienced in specific content areas and relationship satisfaction for both partners of 75 gay, 51 lesbian, and 108 heterosexual couples who lived together without children. Couple scores fell into six clusters that represented areas of conflict regarding power, social issues,…
HIV is disproportionately impacting Black men who have sex with men and heterosexual women in the United States. Current speculation\\u000a posits a “bisexual bridge” of HIV transmission connecting these two subpopulations of the Black community. Specifically, bisexually\\u000a active Black men who identify as heterosexual but do not disclose their same-sex behavior, or “down low” (DL) men, have received\\u000a the most
Abstract Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16–24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions.
Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16-24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions. PMID:21235387
We investigate the association between marital status and living situation (over 5 years) on 10-year subsequent cognitive decline. The study population consisted of 1,042 men aged 70-89 years in 1990, who participated in the longitudinal Finland, Italy, the Netherlands Elderly (known as FINE) Study. We measured cognition by using the Mini-Mental State Examination, and we assessed marital status (married vs
Boukje Maria van Gelder; Marja Tijhuis; Sandra Kalmijn; Simona Giampaoli; Aulikki Nissinen; Daan Kromhout
Background\\/Aims: The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) has been implicated in modulating the rewarding effects of foods high in sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a variation in the DRD2 gene affects habitual consumption of sugars in a free-living population. Methods: Caucasian men (n = 96) and women (n = 217) 20–29 years of age completed a
To determine whether MBSR groups would help gay menliving with HIV improve psychosocial functioning and increase mindfulness\\u000a compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU). Methods: 117 participants were randomized 2:1 to MBSR or TAU. No new psychosocial or\\u000a psychopharmacological interventions were initiated within 2 months of baseline. Standardized questionnaires were administered\\u000a pre-, postintervention and at 6 months. An intent-to-treat analysis found significant benefits of
Bill Gayner; Mary Jane Esplen; Peter DeRoche; Jiahui Wong; Scott Bishop; Lynn Kavanagh; Kate Butler
Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexualmen and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14-18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53 % female) and 27-31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13 % self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16 % were Hispanic, and 36 % were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60 %) and Asian Americans (18 %). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141
Dermody, Sarah S; Marshal, Michael P; Cheong, Jeewon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S
PURPOSE: To identify risk and protective factors associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life, after controlling for key background characteristics, in a population of older gay and bisexual menliving with HIV disease. Previous research examining quality of life among persons living with HIV rarely includes older adults. DESIGN AND METHODS: Survey responses from 226 gay and bisexual men aged 50 and older, and living with HIV disease, which were part of the Caring and Aging with Pride study, were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models. RESULTS: Findings reveal that comorbidity, limitations in activities, and victimization are significant risk factors for decreased physical and mental health-related quality of life. Stigma and HIV progression did not contribute to the overall outcome variables in multivariate models. Social support and self-efficacy serve as protective factors although social support was only significant with mental health-related quality of life. IMPLICATIONS: Comorbidity, functional limitations, and lifetime victimization are risks to quality of life among older gay and bisexual men with HIV disease. Self-efficacy and social support represent intrapersonal and interpersonal resources that can be enhanced through interventions to improve health-related quality of life. PMID:23355449
Emlet, Charles A; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun
This study tested whether synthesized human male pheromones increase the sociosexual behavior of men. Thirty-eight heterosexualmen, ages 26-42, completed a 2-week baseline period and 6-week placebo-controlled, double-blind trial testing a pheromone \\
Winnifred B. Cutler; Erika Friedmann; Norma L. Mccoy
The purpose of this investigation was to understand how “fag hags” and gay-supportive heterosexualmen (GSHM) describe the nature and quality of their interpersonal contact experiences with gay men. Eight archival interviews were analyzed using the methodologies outlined in Hill, Thompson, and Williams (1997); i.e., consensual qualitative research. The results yielded suggest that the nature of contact experiences relates to
Kevin Castro-Convers; Laurie A. Gray; Nicholas Ladany; April E. Metzler
|Reports research on the nature of enduring sexual liaisons among homosexual men. Such relationships vary widely and may be subinstitutional adaptions to lack of community support. Gay men committed to the heterosexual world were less likely to enter enduring relationships. Open marriage is the more enduring form of gay male liaisons. (Author)|
|A sample of 146 male construction industry apprentices (predominantly young men) in Australia self-reported on their significant relationships, as well as the key attributes of these relationships. The findings indicated that the young men shared events, disclosed confidences and looked for help and support from family, romantic partners and…
Objectives. We sought to learn what factors are associated with anal intercourse among adolescents and young adults. We examined demographic, behavioral, relationship context, attitudinal, substance use, and mental health correlates of recent heterosexual anal intercourse among adolescents and young adults who reported engaging in recent unprotected sex. Methods. Among 1348 at-risk adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 21 years in 3 US cities, we assessed sexual risk behavior with each sexual partner in the past 90 days. Data were collected from 2000 to 2001. Results. Recent heterosexual anal intercourse was reported by 16% of respondents. Females who engaged in anal intercourse were more likely to be living with a sexual partner, to have had 2 or more partners, and to have experienced coerced intercourse. For males, only a sexual orientation other than heterosexual was a significant predictor of engaging in heterosexual anal intercourse. Conclusions. Our findings document the prevalence of heterosexual anal intercourse among adolescents and young adults who had recent unprotected sex. Among females, the variables associated with anal intercourse relate to the context and power balance of sexual relationships. Different influences for males and females suggest different foci for interventions.
Houck, Christopher D.; Brown, Larry K.; Doherty, Glenn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Pugatch, David; Schlenger, William E.; Silver, Barbara J.
This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument that measures preferences for specific sexual behaviors of heterosexualmen and women in a dyadic context. In Study 1, 74 statements of preference were reduced to 46 on the basis of reliability and range of responses. Factor analysis revealed that 27 of the 46 items loaded on 6 factors: Erotophilia, Use of Contraception, Conventionality, Use of Erotica, Use of Drugs/Alcohol, and Romanticism. In Study 2, factor analysis of fresh data from a second sample cross-validated these results. To establish construct validity of the revised 27-item Inventory of Dyadic Heterosexual Preferences (IDHP), relationships between each of its 6 scales and 6 criterion measures were examined. These analyses suggested that the last scale is more accurately characterized by the term Romantic Foreplay. We conclude that the IDHP measures 6 distinct domains of sexual preference with a brief, psychometrically sound instrument. Potential applications of the IDHP, suggestions for future research, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are discussed. PMID:8871371
The author surveys his work with gay and bisexual men and his evolving clinical understanding, spanning a thirty-five-year period from 1965 to 2000. Four cases are discussed briefly, one from each decade, to illustrate the changing clinical approach, and the following conclusions drawn: (1) sexual orientation and mental health should be approached as independent dimensions; (2) heterosexual orientation is not a required outcome for successful analysis; (3) an analytic process focused on uncovering a presumed "pathological etiology" inevitably distorts the process and obscures more relevant analytic needs; (4) unrecognized heterosexist assumptions and unfamiliarity with norms of gay men's lives pose special barriers to analytic work with gay men. Ongoing self-analysis and self-education are necessary to reduce interferences that keep analysts from listening to their gay patients with open and unbiased attention. PMID:11809020
Drawing upon 44 in-depth interviews with men in HIV-discordant gay couples (only one man is HIV-positive) in Mexico, I explore whether being aware of the risk of primary infection or re-infection leads to protected sex. The results have policy implications, as the findings show that a significant number of men have participated in unprotected sex. An explanation is that these
This study investigated demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexual people's attitudes toward homosexual behavior. A nationally representative sample of Australian men and women were recruited via random digit dialling in 2004 through 2005. Participants completed annual computer-assisted telephone interviews over the next five years. Questions about attitudes toward male and female homosexual behavior were assessed at Wave 1
Kent Patrick; Wendy Heywood; Judy M. Simpson; Marian K. Pitts; Juliet Richters; Julia M. Shelley; Anthony M. Smith
To define the role of sexual transmission in the spread of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a seroprevalence study of antibodies against HCV was performed in populations at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Subjects included 310 female prostitutes, 88 clients of prostitutes, 168 homosexual men and 147 stable heterosexual partners of index cases reactive for anti-HCV (98 of whom
E. Lissen; H. J. Alter; M. A. Abad; Y. Torres; M. Pérez-Romero; M. Leal; J. A. Pineda; R. Torronteras; A. Sánchez-Quijano
Heterosexual adolescent males’ negative attitudes toward gays were examined using data from a 1988 national survey of male youth 15 to 19 years of age. Results indicated that the vast majority of young males, 89%, found sex between two men “disgusting,” and only 12% felt confident that they could befriend a gay person. Multivariate analyses revealed, as expected, that respondents
Anal sex is becoming increasingly prevalent among heterosexual women and men. Although pain related to receptive anal intercourse is not uncommon, little is known about its phenomenology. This article aims to assess the prevalence and correlates of pain during anoreceptive intercourse, including anodyspareunia, its most severe form, among young women. An online survey focusing on anal eroticism was carried out
In the United States, an estimated 48,100 new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occurred in 2009. Of these, 27% were in heterosexualmen and women who did not inject drugs, and 64% were in men who have sex with men (MSM), including 3% in MSM who inject drugs. In January 2011, following publication of evidence of safety and efficacy of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg (TDF)/emtricitabine 200 mg (FTC) (Truvada, Gilead Sciences) as antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk for HIV acquisition among MSM in the iPrEx trial, CDC issued interim guidance to make available information and important initial cautions on the use of PrEP in this population. Those recommendations remain valid for MSM, including MSM who also have sex with women. Since January 2011, data from studies of PrEP among heterosexualmen and women have become available, and on July 16, 2012, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a label indication for reduction of risk for sexual acquisition of HIV infection among adults, including both heterosexuals and MSM. This interim guidance includes consideration of the new information and addresses pregnancy and safety issues for heterosexually active adults at very high risk for sexual HIV acquisition that were not discussed in the previous interim guidance for the use of PrEP in MSM. PMID:22874836
ObjectiveMale circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition among heterosexualmen but the impact among men who have sex with men (MSM) is not known. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of research into circumcision for HIV prevention among MSM in Scotland.MethodsAnonymous, self-complete questionnaires and Orasure oral fluid collection kits were distributed to men visiting
Men's experience of sexual coercion is seldom the subject of research, yet it is commonly reported in all settings and increasingly evidence from South Africa points to the health risks associated with sexual coercion of men by men. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with heterosexualmen aged 18–25 years who were volunteers in an HIV prevention behavioural intervention evaluation in
:This study explores men's conceptualizations of ideal masculinity in advertising. Specifically, this research uses a qualitative approach to examine a segment of men who fall into the Generation X cohort. These men, many of whom are Caucasian and single, are largely educated, from the Midwest, and outwardly heterosexual. Exploratory findings reveal the salience of eight themes of ideal masculinity. These
This study explores men's conceptualizations of ideal masculinity in advertising. Specifically, this research uses a qualitative approach to examine a segment of men who fall into the Generation X cohort. These men, many of whom are Caucasian and single, are largely educated, from the Midwest, and outwardly heterosexual. Exploratory findings reveal the salience of eight themes of ideal masculinity. These
Without adequate death statistics from completed suicide data, the suicide risk for gay men and lesbians must be determined from empirical studies and from a theoretical understanding of suicide risk. Three large, well designed studies found that gay men and lesbians attempt suicide two to seven times more often than heterosexual comparison groups. Gay men and lesbians have significantly high
OBJECTIVES--To study risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexual behaviour. Especially to assess whether there is a higher risk of being infected with STDs among ethnic minorities, and if so for what reasons. SETTING--STD-clinic of the Municipal Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--Cross-sectional study of heterosexuals (255 men and 343 women) with multiple sexual partners, who participated
C Hooykaas; F W van der Velde; M M van der Linden; G J van Doornum; R A Coutinho
Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), from men to women, involves exposure to infectious HIV-1 in semen. Therefore, the cellular and molecular processes that underlie HIV-1 transmission are closely interconnected with fundamental principles of human reproductive biology. Human ex vivo organ culture systems allow experimental reconstruction of HIV-1 transmission, using human semen and premenopausal cervicovaginal mucosal tissue, with specific
|Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) and the SF-12v2 to determine if the latter is adequate to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of men and women living with HIV\\/AIDS. 112 men and women living with HIV\\/AIDS who access care at a tertiary HIV clinic in
Allyson Ion; Wenjie Cai; Dawn Elston; Eleanor Pullenayegum; Fiona Smaill; Marek Smieja
Receptive anal sex is a well-studied Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) high-risk behavior among gay and bisexual men, yet\\u000a previous research indicates that more women than men may be at risk from heterosexual anal sex (HAS). 1991–1996 data from\\u000a the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Cooperative Agreement (CA) were analyzed to model risk for women who reported\\u000a having had HAS
Grace L. Reynolds; Amanda D. Latimore; Dennis G. Fisher
Aim: The aim and objective of this scientific research article is to explore the literature with intent to raise attention to the perfidiousness of the experiences of men as palliative caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses. Methods: The article has utilized eclectic data sources in Botswana and elsewhere. Results: The findings indicate that care giving position of men has been found beset by: retrogressive gender unfriendly cultures; patriarchy; weaker gender empowerment campaigns; and inadequate male involvement in care. Conclusions: The article recommends: (1) a paradigm shift of structural gender dynamics; (2) making AIDS care programmes both gender sensitive and gender neutral; (3) Strengthening gender mainstreaming; (4) diluting cultures and patriarchy; (5) and signing and domesticating SADC gender protocol and other gender friendly international agreements by Botswana government.
AIDS stigmas interfere with HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and can become internalized by people living with HIV\\/AIDS. However, the effects of internalized AIDS stigmas have not been investigated in Africa, home to two-thirds of the more than 40 million people living with AIDS in the world. The current study examined the prevalence of discrimination experiences and internalized stigmas among
Leickness C. Simbayi; Seth Kalichman; Anna Strebel; Allanise Cloete; Nomvo Henda; Ayanda Mqeketo
Objectives To characterise the experiences of heterosexualmen and women living with HIV postdiagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Setting Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). Participants 41 HIV-infected heterosexualmen and women aged 18?years or older. Results People living with HIV have divergent experiences surrounding HIV diagnosis. Postdiagnosis, there are multiple phases of identity transition, including status (non-)disclosure, and attempts at identity repair and normalcy. For some people, this process involves a transition to a new self-identity, incorporating both HIV and antiretroviral treatment (ART) into their lives. For others, it involves a partial transition, with some aspects of their prediagnosis identity persisting, and for others it involves a rejection of HIV identity. Those people who were able to incorporate HIV/AIDS in their identity, without it being disruptive to their biography, were pursuing safer sexual and reproductive lives. By contrast, those people with a more continuous biography continued to reflect their prediagnosis identity and sexual behaviour. Conclusions People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) had to rework their sense of identity following diagnosis in the context of living in a slum setting. Men and women living with HIV in slums are poorly supported by health systems and services as they attempt to cope with a diagnosis of HIV. Given the availability of ART, health services and professionals need to support the rights of PLWHA to be sexually active if they want to and achieve their fertility goals, while minimising HIV transmission risk.
This study assessed large numbers of heterosexual and homosexual men and women on handedness and gender-related personality traits. Initial analyses employed a dichotomous measure of handedness (right-handed vs. non–right-handed). For men and women combined, homosexual participants had 50% greater odds of being non–right-handed than heterosexual participants, a statistically significant difference. Homosexual men had 82% greater odds of being non–right-handed than
I am arguing for a continuity of interests between lesbians and heterosexual women, and that lesbians and heterosexual women have common experiences which enable them to understand and empathize with each other. I document the history of the feminist critique of heterosexuality from early radical feminism to the contemporary arguments of Rich (1980), Raymond (1986) and Penelope (1985a, 1985b, 1985c).
|Partners from four types of couples without children (gay unmarried, lesbian unmarried, heterosexual unmarried, and heterosexual married, Ns=1,412, 1,310, 1,036, and 1,728, respectively) were compared to partners from heterosexual married couples with children ("N"= 3,116) on mean levels of variables from a model of relationship adjustment as…
|In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…
|This article summarizes the work of R. L. Worthington and J. J. Mohr (2002); R. L. Worthington, H. B. Savoy, F. R. Dillon, and E. R. Vernaglia (2002); and J. J. Mohr (2002) on heterosexual identity development that constituted the Major Contribution section of the July 2002 issue of The Counseling Psychologist. The author provides an overview of…
Urban 6th graders (n = 294) participate in a survey assessing early heterosexual risk behaviors as part of the Reach for Health Middle Childhood Study. About half the boys (47%) and 20% of girls report having a girlfriend or boyfriend; 42% of boys and 10% of girls report kissing and hugging for a long time. Stepwise regressions model the…
Although heterosexualmen typically hold positions of dominance in society, negative aspects of masculinity could lead some men to feel that their gender group is not valued by others (D. A. Prentice & E. Carranza, 2002). Previous research has largely overlooked the impact of men’s own perceptions of their gender group membership on their relationship outcomes. To address this gap,
Corinne A. Moss-Racusin; Jessica J. Good; Diana T. Sanchez
Elderly men are an under-studied group of abuse victims. Although victimization surveys discriminate against all elderly, abused elderly men are especially invisible. This paper will discuss the high rates of self-abuse by older men and their high risk for abuse when they are lonely, living within inner cities, incarcerated, or gay. Since most menlive with a spouse (or significant
This qualitative study highlights the social dynamics affecting people living with HIV (PLH) in Hungary and in the Central-Eastern European region. The study focused on the special needs and concerns of menliving with HIV/AIDS as well as changes in their social relationships and institutional support provision, coping strategies and patterns of social functioning, especially in the context of social stigmatization. Consistent with international qualitative research findings in the field of HIV/AIDS prevention, the present study contributes to a fuller understanding of relationship between sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS related risks and risk perceptions as well as homosexuality-and HIV/AIDS stigma-related social exclusion in a previously under-researched socio-cultural setting. The findings of our study point to several barriers to effective HIV prevention, which should be overcome to improve the present situation by lessening the adverse effects of HIV/AIDS-and homosexuality-related stigma within the gay community, the general population and especially among service providers. One of the main barriers is the lack of public health programs specifically targeting MSM in Hungary, where the predominant mode of HIV transmission remains sex between men. PMID:23439743
Takács, J; Kelly, J A; P Tóth, T; Mocsonaki, L; Amirkhanian, Y A
Men of Mexican descent (MMD) in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV. Understanding MMD’s access to HIV prevention\\u000a is necessary to reduce their transmission rates. We explored disparities in access to HIV prevention among MMD of different\\u000a assimilation status, healthcare access, and sexual risk behavior. 322 Midwestern MMD completed a survey assessing their access\\u000a to passive interventions (e.g., lectures),
Laura R. GlasmanLance; Lance S. Weinhardt; Kristin L. Hackl
In Thailand and elsewhere, some older persons remain sexually active well into late middle and old age. Very little research,\\u000a program, or advocacy effort has targeted this group with respect to HIV and their susceptibility to it. We explore these issues\\u000a using qualitative data from two sets of semi-structured, in-depth interviews of unmarried older Thai men, most of whom were
The present study investigated the content of 48 introductory psychology textbooks published over a five-year period (1975-1979) and recommended by publishing companies or psychology professors for use in Canadian universities. The findings indicated that for every one source of relevant information on homosexuality there were five sources of misrepresentative data that reflect a combination of misleading information, liberalism, and heterosexual bias. Textbook editors and authors have: (1) failed to address the rights and needs of gay people; (2) failed to document accurately the social changes associated with being gay; and (3) perpetuated societal stereotypes, thereby appearing to justify the prejudice and discrimination encountered by gay people in their daily lives. Guidelines for the discussion of lesbianism and male homosexuality in introductory psychology textbooks are proposed. PMID:7341666
Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGBs) are at increased risk for alcohol use during young adulthood, but the mechanisms remain inadequately understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the trajectories and determinants of alcohol use among LGB young adults who were sampled prospectively. The sample included 111 LGB individuals (47 women and 64 men) and 2,109 heterosexuals (1,279 women and 830 men), who were assessed at three time points: during the summer after their senior year of high school and during the fall and spring of their freshman year of college. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that lesbians consumed more alcohol than their heterosexual peers during high school, whereas gay men increased their alcohol use at greater rates than heterosexualmen during the initial transition to college. Positive alcohol expectancies and social norms mediated this relation for both men and women. The results extend the generalizability of these processes and highlight the importance of considering normative social-cognitive influences in the development of alcohol use among LGB young adults. PMID:18194007
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim
Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGBs) are at increased risk for alcohol use during young adulthood, but the mechanisms remain inadequately understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the trajectories and determinants of alcohol use among LGB young adults who were sampled prospectively. The sample included 111 LGB individuals (47 women and 64 men) and 2,109 heterosexuals (1,279 women and 830 men), who were assessed at three time points: during the summer after their senior year of high school and during the fall and spring of their freshman year of college. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that lesbians consumed more alcohol than their heterosexual peers during high school, whereas gay men increased their alcohol use at greater rates than heterosexualmen during the initial transition to college. Positive alcohol expectancies and social norms mediated this relation for both men and women. The results extend the generalizability of these processes and highlight the importance of considering normative social–cognitive influences in the development of alcohol use among LGB young adults.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim
Heterosexual transmission of HIV accounts for 80% of AIDS cases worldwide and is the main mode of transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and some Asian countries. The extent of heterosexual HIV transmission will likely increase in Western countries. The safe sex practices and attitudes of 58 male and 54 female heterosexuals in Melbourne, Australia, aged 20-40 years, of mean age 27.4 years, were assessed through interview and questionnaire. Study participants were recruited at discotheques and bars catering to single adults. Respondents' attitudes toward safe sex were generally positive, although those attitudes were not always reflected in actual sexual practice. High levels of sexual activity were reported, including high risk behaviors such as unprotected anal sex with casual and regular partners by both men and women. Situational and partner characteristics frustrated the practice of safe sex despite intentions to use condoms. Few men and half of the women explicitly discussed condom use with their sex partners. These findings are similar to those which one would expect from a sample of adolescents. PMID:12295216
Anal sexual intercourse represents the highest transmission risk for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet much of what we know about anal sex is based on men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about heterosexual adults who practice anal sex, especially those who may be at risk for HIV such as substance users. The present study examined the demographic, sexual behaviors, substance use, and psychosocial correlates of recent anal intercourse among a heterosexual young adult sample of nightclub goers who also use substances. Data were drawn from an on-going natural history study of participants (n = 597) in Miami's club scene who use club drugs, use prescription medications for non-medical reasons, and were regular attendees of nightclubs. Participants who reported anal sex (n = 118) were more likely to be male, of moderate income, Latino, trade sex, have unprotected sex, and report victimization. Event-based and qualitative studies are needed to better understand the context in which anal sex occurs. Interventions that target heterosexual populations should include discussion about the risks of anal sex. PMID:20217224
Ibañez, Gladys E; Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Inciardi, James A
Background U.S., Hispanic women have higher cervical cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans and lower rates of cervical cancer screening. Knowledge, attitudes, and cultural beliefs may play a role in higher rates of infection of HPV and decisions about subsequent diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. Study aim To explore the level of HPV knowledge, attitudes, and cultural beliefs among Hispanic men and women on the Texas-Mexico border. Methodological Approach Informed by feminist ethnography, the authors used an interpretive approach to understand local respondents' concerns and interests. Focus group sessions were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Recruitment and sample Promotoras (lay health workers) recruited participants using convenience sampling methods. Group sessions were held in public service centers in Brownsville. Participants' ages ranged from 19 to 76 years. Methods analysis Focus group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed in Spanish. Researchers read and discussed all the transcripts and generated a coding list. Transcripts were coded using ATLAS.ti 5.0. Key findings Participants had little understanding about HPV and its role in the etiology of cervical cancer. Attitudes and concerns differed by gender. Women interpreted a diagnosis of HPV as a diagnosis of cancer and expressed fatalistic beliefs about its treatment. Men initially interpreted a diagnosis of HPV as an indication of their partners' infidelity, but after reflecting upon the ambiguity of HPV transmission, attributed their initial reaction to cultural ideals of machismo. Men ultimately were interested in helping their partners seek care in the event of a positive diagnosis. Implications for practice Results suggest that understanding Hispanics' cultural norms and values concerning disease, sexuality, and gender is essential to the design and implementation of preventive interventions for HPV and cervical cancer.
Haemophilia is a complex disease to manage. Home-based management of haemophilia has placed greater responsibility for disease management on individuals with haemophilia, heightening the individual's need for knowledge, particularly among individuals with severe haemophilia. The aim of this study was to identify and understand the knowledge needs and gaps of Canadian men with severe haemophilia from the perspectives of health care providers. A qualitative approach was undertaken. Data were collected using semi-structured focus groups and interviews with health care providers from Haemophilia Treatment Centres (HTCs) across Canada; data were analysed using thematic analysis. Three focus groups and two interviews were conducted; 13 individuals participated in this study. Health care providers identified the following areas of knowledge required by men with severe haemophilia: disease pathology, causes and consequences of bleeds, bleed prevention, recognition, treatment, how and when to access support, activity selection and risk reduction, benefits of exercise, genetic inheritance patterns, impact on career selection, travel and ageing. Knowledge gaps and challenges to knowledge provision were highlighted. In addition, providers emphasized the influences of timing, rapport and context on readiness to receive and assimilate information and recommended tailoring education to the individual and creating a developmental curriculum and knowledge assessment tool. Provision and uptake of disease knowledge is essential to patient self-management. To effectively receive, retain and assimilate information, individuals with severe haemophilia require the right information, from the right source, at the right time. Education should be tailored to the needs of the individual, provided throughout the lifespan. PMID:23551887
Lane, S; Arnold, E; Webert, K E; Chan, A; Walker, I; Heddle, N M
Objectives Heterosexually transmitted HIV infection rates are disproportionately high among African Americans. HIV transmission is influenced by sexual network characteristics, including sexual partnership mixing patterns among sub-populations with different prevalences of infection. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of previously collected data from a North Carolina population-based case-control study. Respondents were heterosexual black men and women who either: 1) had recently reported heterosexually transmitted HIV infection ("cases") or 2) were randomly selected from the general population ("controls"). Methods Respondents reported their own and their three most recent sex partners' education and involvement in illicit drug use, concurrent sex partners, and incarceration. We examined sexual mixing patterns by comparing the characteristics and behaviors respondents reported for themselves with those they reported for their partners. We estimated Newman's assortativity coefficient (?1.0 to 1.0) as an aggregate, quantitative assessment of mixing patterns. Results Across the four strata (male and female cases, male and female controls), mixing was assortative (0.31–0.45) with respect to illicit drug use and minimally assortative with respect to having concurrent partners (0.14–0.22). Mixing patterns for incarceration were assortative for men (0.18 and 0.41) but not women (0.07 and 0.08). Mixing with respect to education was assortative primarily for male controls (0.33). Conclusion These sexual partnership patterns, driven in part by the social and economic context of life for African Americans, likely contribute to the heterosexually transmitted HIV epidemic.
Doherty, Irene A; Schoenbach, Victor J; Adimora, Adaora A
The heterosexual risk group has become the largest HIV infected group in the United Kingdom during the last 10 years, but little is known of the network structure and dynamics of viral transmission in this group. The overwhelming majority of UK heterosexual infections are of non-B HIV subtypes, indicating viruses originating among immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. The high rate of HIV evolution, combined with the availability of a very high density sample of viral sequences from routine clinical care has allowed the phylodynamics of the epidemic to be investigated for the first time. Sequences of the viral protease and partial reverse transcriptase coding regions from 11,071 patients infected with HIV of non-B subtypes were studied. Of these, 2774 were closely linked to at least one other sequence by nucleotide distance. Including the closest sequences from the global HIV database identified 296 individuals that were in UK-based groups of 3 or more individuals. There were a total of 8 UK-based clusters of 10 or more, comprising 143/2774 (5%) individuals, much lower than the figure of 25% obtained earlier for men who have sex with men (MSM). Sample dates were incorporated into relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses to estimate the dates of internal nodes. From the resulting time-resolved phylogenies, the internode lengths, used as estimates of maximum transmission intervals, had a median of 27 months overall, over twice as long as obtained for MSM (14 months), with only 2% of transmissions occurring in the first 6 months after infection. This phylodynamic analysis of non-B subtype HIV sequences representing over 40% of the estimated UK HIV-infected heterosexual population has revealed heterosexual HIV transmission in the UK is clustered, but on average in smaller groups and is transmitted with slower dynamics than among MSM. More effective intervention to restrict the epidemic may therefore be feasible, given effective diagnosis programmes.
Hughes, Gareth J.; Fearnhill, Esther; Dunn, David; Lycett, Samantha J.; Rambaut, Andrew; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.
The rationale for dividing the clinical spectrum of DSM-III-R male heterosexual gender identity disorder into three types was examined. The DSM-III-R category of fetishism for female attire, was included in the analysis. There were 266 male participants divided into three groups: 172 fetishists for female attire or gender identity patients, 52 androphiles, and 42 gynephiles. A 16 item questionnaire was
This article examines two influential post-Wende (fall of the Wall) films about the former GDR and German unification, Wolfgang Beckerâ€™s Good Bye, Lenin! (2003) and Florian Henckel von Donnersmarckâ€™s The Lives of Others (2006). The films radically differ in terms of cinematic strategies, ideological positioning of the spectator, and the narrative function of gender. Considering the two films in terms
Objective: The objective of this study was to address the role of heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Goal: The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence of unsafe sex and the likelihood of HIV spread heterosexually from core populations to others. Study: The authors conducted a review of behavioral studies. Results: Drug users were more likely to be involved in higher-risk sexual behaviors than were those who abstained from using drugs. Most female drug users (52-98%) reported having engaged in commercial sex. Most female sex workers (FSWs) and individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) had concurrent sexual partners. Many continued to have unprotected sex after noticing STD symptoms in themselves or their sexual partners. From 5% to 26% of rural-to-urban migrants had multiple sexual partners and 10% of males patronized FSWs during migration. Conclusions: Factors such as high rates of FSW patronage, low rates of condom use during commercial sex, having sex with both commercial and noncommercial sexual partners, and high rates of STD infection may promote a heterosexual epidemic in China.
A recent reanalysis of Kinsey's data rejected his conclusion that heterosexuality and homosexuality were a continuum. A number of studies have been published over the past decade reporting that 5% or less of adolescents were aware of homosexual feelings, a finding also inconsistent with Kinsey's data. These studies have rejected prenatal hormones and rearing by homosexual parents as influencing sexual orientation. If Kinsey's data are correct and 40% or more of adolescents are aware of homosexual feeling the findings of these studies are invalid. Two replications of an initial study with representative samples of medical students found over 40% of both males and females currently aware of some homosexual feelings, consistent with Kinsey's conclusion. The ratio of reported homosexual to heterosexual feelings correlated with opposite sex-linked behaviors in the male, supporting the validity of the subjects' reports. If subjects representative of other subgroups of the population are investigated with this easily implemented method and report similar data, this theoretically and sociologically significant divergence of belief concerning the incidence of the heterosexual/homosexual balance would be resolved. PMID:3689108
To determine whether MBSR groups would help gay menliving with HIV improve psychosocial functioning and increase mindfulness compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU). Methods: 117 participants were randomized 2:1 to MBSR or TAU. No new psychosocial or psychopharmacological interventions were initiated within 2 months of baseline. Standardized questionnaires were administered pre-, postintervention and at 6 months. An intent-to-treat analysis found significant benefits of MBSR: at post-intervention and 6 months follow up, MBSR participants had significantly lower avoidance in IES and higher positive affect compared to controls. MBSR participants developed more mindfulness as measured by the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) including both TMS subscales, curiosity and decentering, at 8-week and 6 months. For the sample as a whole, increase in mindfulness was significantly correlated with reduction in avoidance, higher positive affect and improvement in depression at 6 months. MBSR has specific and clinically meaningful effects in this population. PMID:21597980
Gayner, Bill; Esplen, Mary Jane; DeRoche, Peter; Wong, Jiahui; Bishop, Scott; Kavanagh, Lynn; Butler, Kate
This paper examines factors influencing the number of female sexual partners for heterosexualmen. Men's pursuit of multiple female sex partners can be measured two ways: the frequency of purchasing sexual services from prostitutes and the maintenance of sexual relationships with multiple women within a short span of time. Factors influencing the number of sexual partners include male differences in
Background Previous research has shown an association between cumulative economic hardships and various health outcomes. However, the cumulative effects of economic hardships in regard to gender differences have not been given enough attention. Methods 1981 women and 1799 men were followed up over a period of 16?years (1981–1997), using data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions panel study. The temporal association between economic hardships and self?rated health, psychological distress and musculoskeletal disorders was analysed. Results A dose–response effect on women's health was observed with increasing scores of cumulative exposure to financial stress but not with low income. Women exposed to financial stress at both T1 and T2 had an increased risk of 1.4–1.6 for all health measures compared with those who were not exposed. A similar consistent dose–response effect was not observed among men. Conclusions There is a temporal relationship between cumulative economic hardships and health outcomes, and health effects differ by gender. Financial stress seems to be a stronger predictor of poor health outcomes than low income, particularly among women. Policies geared towards reducing health inequalities should recognise that long?term exposure to economic hardships damages health, and actions need to be taken with a gender perspective.
Ahnquist, Johanna; Fredlund, Peeter; Wamala, Sarah P
Objectification theory was tested as a suitable framework for explaining sexual orientation differences in disordered eating behaviors in college-aged Italian men. The theory's applicability to 125 homosexual and 130 heterosexualmen was investigated using self-report questionnaires. Gay men scored significantly higher on exposure to sexually objectifying media, body surveillance, body shame, disordered eating behaviors, and depression than heterosexualmen. Although path analyses support the theory's applicability to both groups, for gay men the path model demonstrated a better fit to the objectification theory for disordered eating and depression. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:22985233
Dakanalis, Antonios; Di Mattei, Valentina E; Bagliacca, Elena Pagani; Prunas, Antonio; Sarno, Lucio; Riva, Giuseppe; Zanetti, M Assunta
This study examined the retirement financial planning of gay and bisexual men. Unlike heterosexual adults, gay and bisexual men must consider the costs and benefits of disclosing sexual identity in the workplace. Concealing sexual identity tends to diminish the appeal of the workplace and thus may increase motivation to plan for life beyond work. Analyses showed that the more participants
Steven Edward Mock; Alexandra Sedlovskaya; Valerie Purdie-Vaughns
Although the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Africa preceded the onset of the generalised HIV epidemic by several years, current policies and programmes focus on heterosexual transmission and mother-to-child transmission. We used an adaptation of the UNAIDS Country Harmonised Alignment Tool (CHAT) to assess whether existing HIV policies and programmes in South Africa
Because very little is known about heterosexual identity development, this study assesses and describes sexual orientation questioning processes of heterosexual-identified women and offers a comparison of these processes with those employed by their sexual-minority counterparts. Participants included 333 female college students (ages 18–23; M = 19.2): 228 participants primarily identified as “exclusively straight\\/heterosexual,” and 105 participants indicated a sexual-minority identity. Sixty-seven percent
Recent research has demonstrated increased eating pathology among single bisexual and gay (BG) men compared to BG men in relationships and all heterosexualmen. BG men may be at elevated risk due to pressures to be lean to attract a male partner. No study has examined the specificity of this theory to relationship status or to eating pathology. BG (n?=?23) and heterosexual (n?=?326) men completed surveys to compare the impact of areas of life satisfaction on the association between sexual orientation and eating pathology, as well as another area of psychopathology (substance use problems). For BG men, but not heterosexualmen, being single was associated with drive for thinness. Low friendship satisfaction was more strongly associated with drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms in BG men as compared to heterosexualmen. Low work satisfaction was associated with substance use problems among BG men, but not among heterosexualmen. Results suggest separate constellations of risk factors differentially impact BG men, depending upon the nature of clinical problems. PMID:23767674
This study examines the prevalence of having sex as a means of satisfying one's partner among a random sample of 398 heterosexual couples with non-problematic, mild or manifest reduced sexual desire. Data collection was carried out by questionnaires. Two of three women and one of five men with manifest distressing reduced sexual desire had had obligatory sex. Among women with symptoms of mild reduced sexual desire, there was an association between obligatory sex and lack of acknowledgement of one's sexual needs, as well as a lack of communication with one's partner regarding how to be sexually pleased. In men with manifest reduced sexual desire there was an association between obligatory sex and discussion of one's sexual needs, and sexual fantasies with the partner. Thus, men with desire problems seem to communicate with their partner about their sexuality, whereas women seem not to talk with their partner about their sexual needs. PMID:19037909
In a study of Haitians in Miami and New York, Creole-speaking interviewers questioned 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (45 men and ten women) and 242 control-persons (164 men and 78 women). One male patient was homosexual, and one female patient had received blood within five years. No one admitted to intravenous drug use, hemophilia, or sexual contact with AIDS patients. Male AIDS patients were significantly more likely than control-men to have entered the US after 1977 and to have had gonorrhea, syphilis, and sexual contact with female prostitutes. Female AIDS patients were more likely to have voodoo-priest friends and to have been offered money for sex. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was probably contracted through sexual contact with infected heterosexuals.
Objectives: During the past decade, the number and proportion of reported HIV cases in the United States acquired through heterosexual contact has increased markedly. CDC employs the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) to monitor risk behaviors and HIV prevalence in high-risk populations. To identify a target population for conducting NHBS among heterosexuals at increased risk for HIV (NHBS-HET), CDC designed, implemented and evaluated a pilot study. Methods: The pilot study was conducted in 25 US metropolitan statistical areas in 2006-7. We recruited men and women who reported sex with at least one opposite-sex partner during the past year for a behavioral survey and HIV test. We investigated the relationship between newly diagnosed HIV infection and individual risk behaviors, sexual network characteristics, and social-structural characteristics to arrive at a definition of a heterosexual at increased risk of HIV. Results: Of 14,750 participants in the analysis, 207 (1.4%) had newly diagnosed HIV infection. Using low socioeconomic status (SES) as a criterion for defining a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV resulted in optimal rates of HIV prevalence, specificity, sensitivity and practicality. Conclusions: Results from the NHBS pilot study underscore the key role of social factors as determinants of HIV infection risk among U.S. heterosexuals, and low SES was incorporated into the definition of a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV in NHBS-HET cycles. Future cycles of NHBS-HET will help tailor prevention programs for those populations most at risk of HIV in the US.
DiNenno, Elizabeth A; Oster, Alexandra M; Sionean, Catlainn; Denning, Paul; Lansky, Amy
Gay men entering the health care system present with unique needs essential for health care providers to comprehend and address. While data indicate mental health and substance abuse disorders are more prevalent among gay men compared with their heterosexual counterparts, the literature assessing abuse of alcohol by gay men is conflicting. This article explores the conflicting research examining the use
Gay men entering the health care system present with unique needs essential for health care providers to comprehend and address. While data indicate mental health and substance abuse disorders are more prevalent among gay men compared with their heterosexual counterparts, the literature assessing abuse of alcohol by gay men is conflicting. This article explores the conflicting research examining the use
Previous work suggests that men holding benevolent sexist views also hold favorable attitudes toward traditional women (Glick, Diebold, Bailey-Werner, & Zhu, 1997). This study examined whether priming heterosexualmen (n = 47) with traditional views of women (e.g., the stereotype that women are more communally oriented than men) engenders more benevolent sexist views, as well as greater relational motivation. The
It has been argued that young men's and women's behavior in heterosexual sexual situations follows traditional, culturally defined gender role prescriptions, and alternatively, that expectations have shifted such that young men's and women's gender-relevant personality attributes are converging. Using the Bem Sex Role Inventory, primarily Caucasian men (n =94) and women (n =95) described their attributes globally (GLOBAL), and in
|The current qualitative study of 35 preadoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.
Research has shown that heterosexualmen are more negative toward gay men than women are on measures of attitudes toward homosexual behaviour and homosexual persons (Kite & Whitley, 1996). Gender differences in attitudes toward gay men's civil rights are less clear. No empirical studies, however, have investigated these findings with a scale that measures specifically these three attitudinal subcomponents. This
This study examined how HIV testing history and future testing intentions were related to sexual risk and perceptions of risk in a community sample of 1,052 Hispanic men. This sample is noteworthy in its diverse representation of Hispanics, its high ratio of participants born outside the USA, and its inclusion of heterosexuals and men who have sex with men (MSM).
M. I. Fernández; T. Perrino; S. Royal; D. Ghany; G. S. Bowen
This study aimed to assess the relative importance of demographic, interpersonal, and personality factors in predicting sexual\\u000a infidelity in heterosexual couples. A total of 506 men (M age = 32.86 years, SD = 10.60) and 412 women (M age = 27.66 years, SD = 8.93), who indicated they were in a monogamous sexual relationship, completed a series of questionnaires, including the\\u000a Sexual Excitation\\/Inhibition (SES\\/SIS) scales and the Mood and Sexuality
Kristen P. Mark; Erick Janssen; Robin R. Milhausen
|There is a paucity of literature that examines the narratives of heterosexuals who struggle against the discourse of heteronormativity. There is even less literature that discusses how the discourse of heteronormativity may play out between egalitarian heterosexual counselors and clients who identify as sexual minorities. Employing the…
Much research on the lesbian experience has focused on assessing differences between lesbian and heterosexual adults. Less effort has been expended in analyzing the home environment of the child in a lesbian household. This study compares samples of lesbian and heterosexual mothers in terms of the home setting provided and the caregiver role vis-a-vis children. Results reveal a less affluent
Judith Ann Miller; R. Brooke Jacobsen; Jerry J Bigner
This study examined the differences in childhood play behavior reported by adult male homosexuals (N =198) and heterosexuals (N =198) and those reported by female homosexuals (N =198) and heterosexuals (N =198). Two checklists with a total of 58 sports, games, and play activities were assembled: one for ages 5–8 and the other for ages 9–13. These were administered to
Edward A. Grellert; Michael D. Newcomb; P. M. Bentler
Little research addresses the role of anal sexuality and anal sexual behaviors as a widely practiced but relatively less frequent element of a heterosexual sexual repertoire. However, the importance of anal sex in sexual health is increasingly well-defined by epidemiological and clinical studies. This article reviews existing data on a range of heterosexual anal sex practices and provides conceptual and
Heterosexual college students' attitudes toward gay male couples and their adopted children were assessed. Participants evaluated vignettes depicting either a gay male couple or heterosexual couple and their adopted son along the dimensions of parenting ability, degree to which the child's problems were attributable to the parental relationship, distress of the child (including gender and sexual identity confusion), and the
Andrew C. McLeod; Isiaah Crawford; Jeanne Zechmeister
Studies on the impact of the HIV epidemic among African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) have largely neglected men who self-identify as heterosexual but engage in same-sex behavior. These men, commonly referred to as men on the “down low,” pose formidable challenges to researchers conducting prevention studies. This article addresses the methodological issues that create limitations in sampling
Absract Current research indicates that black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened by depressive distress\\u000a and anxiety disorders as compared to their white gay and heterosexual counterparts. This study utilizes focus groups to qualitatively\\u000a explore issues surrounding the mental health status of this population in an attempt to shed light on potential influencing\\u000a and determinant factors. Twenty-two
Louis F. Graham; Kisha Braithwaite; Pilgrim Spikes; Charles F. Stephens; Ugo F. Edu
Traditionally, religion has been a major source of institutional support and well?being for Black people in the USA. However, when juxtaposed against sexuality, religion's positive effect upon the lives of non?heterosexual individuals is questionable. Research suggests that non?heterosexuals often abandon structured religion for spirituality due to the homonegativity perpetuated through religious institutions. Although studies have examined religion and spirituality among
William L. Jeffries; Brian Dodge; Theo G. M. Sandfort
Introduction: Recent research suggests that gay and bisexual men experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at rates comparable to heterosexual women. However, current screening tools used to identify persons experiencing IPV were largely created for use with heterosexual women. Given the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men in the United States, the lack of IPV screening tools that reflect the lived realities of gay and bisexual men is problematic.This paper describes the development of a short-form IPV screening tool intended to be used with gay and bisexual men. Methods: A novel definition of IPV, informed by formative Focus Group Discussions, was derived from a quantitative survey of approximately 1,100 venue-recruited gay and bisexual men. From this new definition, a draft IPV screening tool was created. After expert review (n=13) and cognitive interviews with gay and bisexual men (n=47), a screening tool of six questions was finalized.A national, online-recruited sample (n=822) was used to compare rates of IPV identified by the novel tool and current standard tools. Results: The six-item, short-form tool created through the six-stage research process captured a significantly higher prevalence of recent experience of IPV compared to a current and commonly used screening tool (30.7% versus 7.5%, p<0.05). The novel short-form tool described additional domains of IPV not currently found in screening tools, including monitoring behaviors, controlling behaviors, and HIV-related IPV. The screener takes less than five minutes to complete and is 6th grade reading level. Conclusion: Gay and bisexual men experiencing IPV must first be identified before services can reach them. Given emergent literature that demonstrates the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men and the known adverse health sequela of experiencing IPV, this novel screening tool may allow for the quick identification of men experiencing IPV and the opportunity for referrals for the synergistic management of IPV. Future work should focus on implementing this tool in primary or acute care settings in order to determine its acceptability and its feasibility of use more broadly.
AbstractWe present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less.
This study examined differences in the way heterosexualmen and women feel about gay men and lesbians who either confirm or disconfirm prevailing stereotypes. Fifty-three heterosexual college men and women read descriptions about 2 fictitious homosexual students at their university, both of whom were either male or female. One of the students was portrayed as being more stereotypically masculine, whereas the other was portrayed as more stereotypically feminine. Participants rated the targets on a variety of dimensions, including liking. Male participants liked the masculine gay man more than the feminine gay man, whereas female participants showed similar degrees of liking for both men. Both male and female participants reported greater liking for the feminine lesbian than the masculine lesbian. Implications for understanding attitudes toward stereotypical versus counterstereotypical gay men and lesbians are discussed. PMID:19132603
Your citation, Dr. Russell, as you have announced my appointment to the Helmus Distinguished Professorship in Humanities and Literature, is most generous, and I find it deeply moving. I will long cherish it, as I will the elegant plague that signalises this appointment. It is my hope that, through this professorship, the confidence of the Board of Trustees in me
... Living with Diabetes > Complications > Men's Health > Sexual Health Sexual Health Listen Sex is an important part of life and relationships. But diabetes can affect a man's sex life. It is important to understand that there ...
Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR?=?9.59, 95% CI?=?5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs.
Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain
This study examined whether traditional gender role attitudes mediated the relation between gender and negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. One hundred and fifty-five heterosexual college students (59% female; 97% Caucasian) completed questionnaires that assessed their attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and their gender role attitudes. Although males reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than females, there
In late midlife, heterosexual women report markedly lower levels of sexual satisfaction than heterosexualmen. This article explored the social factors contributing to this difference, using data from 1,035 sexually-active heterosexual adults, aged 40-59 years, who participated in the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). Conducted in 1992, NHSLS interviewed a nationally representative random sample of U.S. adults about diverse aspects of sexual life (Laumann et al., 1994, The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Contrary to gender stereotypes, women's emotional satisfaction was closely associated with bodily sexual practices, whereas men's physical pleasure was linked to relational factors. Lower levels of sexual satisfaction at older ages appeared to stem from differences between the Baby Boom and older generations rather than from aging per se. PMID:17851747
Carpenter, Laura M; Nathanson, Constance A; Kim, Young J
According to major theories of behavioral prediction, the most proximal psychological predictor of an individual's behavior is that individual's intention. With respect to interdependent behaviors such as condom use, however, relationship dynamics influence individuals' power to make decisions and to act. Objective: The current study examines how relationship dynamics impact 3 condom use relevant outcomes: (a) the individual forming his or her own intention to use condoms, (b) the couple forming their joint intention to use condoms, and (c) actual condom use behavior. Method: We conducted a 2-wave longitudinal study of young heterosexual adult couples at high risk for HIV infection involving the collection of both individual- and couple-derived data. Results: Results demonstrate the importance of both person (e.g., biological sex and dispositional dominance) and relational (e.g., relational power and amount of interest in the relationship, operationalized as commitment and perceived alternatives to the relationship) factors in predicting condom use intentions and behavior. Individuals who are lower in dispositional dominance are likely to incorporate their partner's intentions into their own individual intentions; the intentions of individuals who have less interest in the relationship are more highly predictive of the couple's joint intention; and the intentions of men and individuals higher in relationship power are more likely to exert a direct influence on condom use. Conclusions: These findings have implications for improving the health of high-risk individuals, including suggesting situations in which individuals are highly influenced by their partners' intentions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23025301
Vanderdrift, Laura E; Agnew, Christopher R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T
Most studies on men seeking men and who use the Internet for sexual purposes have focused on the epidemiological outcomes of Internet cruising. Other research has only focused on online sexual behaviours such as cybersex. The present study examines men who find the acts of Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic as self-contained behaviours. We surveyed 499 men who used craigslist.org for sexually-oriented purposes, and ran an ordinary least squares multiple regression model to determine the demographic characteristics of men seeking men who found Internet cruising erotic. Our results showed that younger compared to older men seeking men found the acts erotic. Likewise, men seeking men from mid-sized cities and large cities compared to men from smaller cities found Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic. Most notably, bisexual- and heterosexual-identifying men seeking men compared to gay-identifying men found these acts to be more erotic. Our results suggested that self-contained Internet cruising might provide dual functions. For some men (e.g., heterosexual-identifying men), the behaviour provides a sexual outlet in which fantasy and experimentation may be explored without risking stigmatization. For other men (e.g., those from large cities), the behaviour may be an alternative to offset sexual risk while still being able to 'get off'. PMID:23565985
The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of men’s sexual response and its components as well as the factors\\u000a or types of situations that men describe as facilitating or interfering with sexual arousal. Six focus groups, involving 50\\u000a mostly white, heterosexualmen (M age = 35.2 years; range, 18–70), were conducted. As it was previously found in women (Graham, Sanders,
Erick Janssen; Kimberly R. McBride; William Yarber; Brandon J. Hill; Scott M. Butler
ObjectiveTo describe how men from the Middle East experience Swedish maternity and child health care. An integral part of the aim of this study has also been to describe the experiences of men from the Middle East when becoming and being a father in Sweden.
Pernilla Ny; Lars Plantin; Elisabeth Dejin-Karlsson; Anna-Karin Dykes
Objective: To describe how men from the Middle East experience Swedish maternity and child health care. An integral part of the aim of this study has also been to describe the experiences of men from the Middle East when becoming and being a father in Sweden. Design, setting and participants: an exploratory, qualitative study using focus-group discussions and individual interviews,
Pernilla Ny; Lars Plantin; Elisabeth Dejin-Karlsson; Anna-Karin Dykes
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A growing body of literature suggests that an association exists between sexual compulsivity and participation in sexual behaviors that are high risk in terms of HIV/STD infection. In most of these studies, sexual compulsivity has been measured using the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS; Kalichman & Rompa, 1995). As yet, sexual compulsivity has only been assessed with this scale among individuals who are members of “high risk” groups for HIV infection or who are HIV-positive. In this study, we found support for reliability and construct validity of the SCS in a sample of 876 heterosexual college students, a group not yet examined in the sexual addiction and compulsivity literature. Construct validity was substantiated by the presence of significant relationships of sexual compulsivity with frequencies of sexual behaviors and numbers of sexual partners. The scale was also related to gender and age. Sexual compulsivity scores were associated with frequency of risky sexual behaviors. The relationships between sexual compulsivity and solo, partner, public, and risky sexual behaviors remained significant when we controlled for demographic variables. Although we found support for construct validity of the SCS in our sample, it is not clear whether the scale distinctly measures sexual compulsivity or taps into other constructs, such as sexual desire and sexual exploration.
Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Cole, Sara L.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
A growing body of literature suggests that an association exists between sexual compulsivity and participation in sexual behaviors that are high risk in terms of HIV/STD infection. In most of these studies, sexual compulsivity has been measured using the Sexual Compulsivity Scale. As yet, sexual compulsivity has only been assessed with this scale among individuals who are members of high risk groups for HIV infection or who are HIV-positive. In this study, we found support for reliability and construct validity of the SCS in a sample of 876 heterosexual college students, a group not yet examined in the sexual addiction and compulsivity literature. Construct validity was substantiated by the presence of significant relationships of sexual compulsivity with frequencies of sexual behaviors and numbers of sexual partners. The scale was also related to gender and age. Sexual compulsivity scores were associated with frequency of risky sexual behaviors. The relationships between sexual compulsivity and solo, partner, public, and risky sexual behaviors remained significant when we controlled for demographic variables. Although we found support for construct validity of the SCS in our sample, it is not clear whether the scale distinctly measures sexual compulsivity or taps into other constructs, such as sexual desire and sexual exploration. PMID:15765274
Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Cole, Sara L; Sandfort, Theo G M
Despite a plethora of studies examining attitudes toward gay men, there are no data on heterosexuals’ communicative expectations about conversing with people inferred as belonging to this social category. Building upon prior work on intergenerational communication schemas, the present study represents a first attempt to fulfill this need through a content analysis (accompanied by illustrative discourse) of one hundred American
Research on sexual harassment has recently expanded to include examination of men's experiences. Such research, however, has ignored the power dynamics involved in sexual harassment and typically assumed exclusively heterosexual situations. We examine legal cases illustrating the many forms that male–male harassment may take and the complex array of situations in which such harassment occurs. We then report the frequencies
Craig R. Waldo; Jennifer L. Berdahl; Louise F. Fitzgerald
Research on sexual harassment has recently expanded to include examination of men's experiences. Such research, however, has ignored the power dynamics involved in sexual harassment and typically assumed exclusively heterosexual situations. We examine legal cases illustrating the many forms that male-male harassment may take and the complex array of situations in which such harassment occurs. We then report the frequencies
Craig R. Waldo; Jennifer L. Berdahl; Louise F. Fitzgerald
The testosterone derivative 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and the estrogen-like steroid estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) are candidate compounds for human pheromones. AND is detected primarily in male sweat, whereas EST has been found in female urine. In a previous positron emission tomography study, we found that smelling AND and EST activated regions covering sexually dimorphic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, and that this activation was differentiated with respect to sex and compound. In the present study, the pattern of activation induced by AND and EST was compared among homosexual men, heterosexualmen, and heterosexual women. In contrast to heterosexualmen, and in congruence with heterosexual women, homosexual men displayed hypothalamic activation in response to AND. Maximal activation was observed in the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, which, according to animal studies, is highly involved in sexual behavior. As opposed to putative pheromones, common odors were processed similarly in all three groups of subjects and engaged only the olfactory brain (amygdala, piriform, orbitofrontal, and insular cortex). These findings show that our brain reacts differently to the two putative pheromones compared with common odors, and suggest a link between sexual orientation and hypothalamic neuronal processes.
The testosterone derivative 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and the estrogen-like steroid estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) are candidate compounds for human pheromones. AND is detected primarily in male sweat, whereas EST has been found in female urine. In a previous positron emission tomography study, we found that smelling AND and EST activated regions covering sexually dimorphic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, and that this activation was differentiated with respect to sex and compound. In the present study, the pattern of activation induced by AND and EST was compared among homosexual men, heterosexualmen, and heterosexual women. In contrast to heterosexualmen, and in congruence with heterosexual women, homosexual men displayed hypothalamic activation in response to AND. Maximal activation was observed in the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, which, according to animal studies, is highly involved in sexual behavior. As opposed to putative pheromones, common odors were processed similarly in all three groups of subjects and engaged only the olfactory brain (amygdala, piriform, orbitofrontal, and insular cortex). These findings show that our brain reacts differently to the two putative pheromones compared with common odors, and suggest a link between sexual orientation and hypothalamic neuronal processes. PMID:15883379
Past research demonstrates that heterosexuals perceive gay men to have traditionally feminine characteristics. Guided by Social Role Theory (Eagly, 1987), we predicted that this stereotype would differ depending on a gay man’s specific social role. To test this idea, participants rated five gay targets (father, single man, hairdresser, truck driver, typical gay man) on stereotypically masculine (e.g., ambitious, leader) and
On average, gay men are somewhat feminine and lesbians somewhat masculine, but there is variation within each group. The authors examined the consequences of this variation for gay men's and lesbians’ desirability as romantic partners. In 2 studies the authors analyzed personal advertisements. Homosexual people were more likely than heterosexual people to mention traits related to sex typicality and more
J. Michael Bailey; Peggy Y. Kim; Alex Hills; Joan A. W. Linsenmeier
Terror management research shows that death reminders (mortality salience) increase prejudice toward worldview violators. Two studies investigated whether death reminders exacerbated differences in heterosexualmen's and women's reports of sexual prejudice (negative attitudes based on sexual orientation). Results showed that following death reminders, sex differences in anti-gay discrimination and affective prejudice toward gay men (but not toward lesbians) were larger,
Research shows that gay and bisexual men, in comparison to heterosexualmen, have increased susceptibility to HIV and other negative health conditions, including mental health problems. To understand these disparities, it is important to examine all the risk factors for this population, particularly the gay hypermasculine norms that are theorized to differ from traditional masculine ideology. The present study examined
Beth N. Fischgrund; Perry N. Halkitis; Richard A. Carroll
The media equate a man's penis size with his power and masculinity. Views about penis size were assessed in an Internet survey of 52,031 heterosexualmen and women. Most men (66%) rated their penis as average, 22% as large, and 12% as small. Self-reported penis size was correlated positively with height and negatively with body fat level. Whereas 85% of
Janet Lever; David A. Frederick; Letitia Anne Peplau
Nineteen Brazilian HIV-infected hemophiliacs and their stable heterosexual sexual partners were studied with the aim of assessing the rate of HIV transmission in this at risk group. The mean length of relationship between couples was 7.4 years. The hemophiliac men were Class II (n = 6), III (n = 11) and IVa (n = 2) of the CDC classification. They had decreased CD4+ and elevated CD8+ cell numbers; five had p24 antigenemia. We found 3 HIV-infected women (15.8 percent) by routine and confirmatory tests, a prevalence similar to that seen in other countries. They were asymptomatic and had no detectable p24 antigenemia. The 3 seropositive women's partners were Class II and III-CDC, and had normal CD4+ and CD8+ values and no p24 antigenemia. All seronegative women also had normal CD4+ and CD8+ numbers, except for elevated CD8+ cells in three of them, but immune abnormalities had already been seen in some seronegative partners at high risk for HIV infection. Our results reinforce previous suggestions that heterosexual transmission to stable female partners occurs preferentially early after initiation of sexual exposure, and possibly when the transmitter had high levels of viremia and regular sexual activity. PMID:9181751
Nicolau, J E; Benard, G; Fonseca, L A; Casseb, J S; Sato, M N; Cianga, M; Tanji, M M; Lorenzi, T F; Duarte, A J
Athletic activities are associated with reduced levels of stress and negative mood states among heterosexuals; thus, examining this association among gay\\/bisexual men is warranted. The current study examined the relationship between sports motivation and mood states, self-esteem, body esteem, life satisfaction, perceptions of masculinity\\/femininity, and parental encouragement for athletic endeavors among 195 gay\\/bisexual men. The results were mixed, but suggest
Brian D. Zamboni; Isiaah Crawford; Adam W. Carrico
The etiology of anomalous, or paraphilic, sexual preferences in men is unclear although a growing literature points to their\\u000a prenatal neurodevelopmental ontogenesis. The present study explored whether this was also apparent in a community sample of\\u000a 200 heterosexualmen by examining their sexual fantasies using the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire (WSFQ) and several demographic\\u000a and somatic neurodevelopmental markers, including sibling
Some lesbians and gay men tend to be more gender nonconforming, on average and for certain traits, than their heterosexual\\u000a counterparts. Gender nonconformity in childhood has also been linked to adult homosexuality. Studies of both lesbians and\\u000a gay men also find elevated rates of psychological distress. We hypothesized that these facts may be related. Individuals who\\u000a violate social norms for
W. Christopher Skidmore; Joan A. W. Linsenmeier; J. Michael Bailey
To better understand sexual orientation from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated whether, compared to heterosexual\\u000a men, the fewer direct descendants of homosexual men could be counterbalanced by a larger number of other close biological\\u000a relatives. We also investigated the extent to which three patterns generally studied separately––handedness, number of biological\\u000a older brothers, and hair-whorl rotation pattern––correlated with each other, and
Gene Schwartz; Rachael M. Kim; Alana B. Kolundzija; Gerulf Rieger; Alan R. Sanders
Men who have sex with men (MSM), especially MSM of color, are disproportionately impacted by HIV\\/AIDS compared to heterosexuals\\u000a and Caucasians. Nonetheless, fewer sexual and ethnic minorities participate in prevention interventions for people with HIV.\\u000a We consider recruitment for Positive Connections, a randomized controlled trial comparing unsafe sex prevention interventions\\u000a primarily for HIV-positive (HIV+) MSM in six US epicenters. One
Laura A. Hatfield; Margherita E. Ghiselli; Scott M. Jacoby; Anne Cain-Nielsen; Gunna Kilian; Tara McKay; B. R. Simon Rosser
Introduction This article explores the complex, dynamic and contextual frameworks within which men working in a mining community and their live-in long-term partners or spouses (termed “couples” in this study) respond to the introduction of HIV into their heterosexual relationships; the way in which partners adopt gendered positions in enabling them to make sense of their illness; how they negotiate their respective masculine and feminine roles in response to the need for HIV-related lifestyle changes; as well as the gendered nature of partner support in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ARV) adherence. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study with a sample of 12 HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual couples in a South African mining organization. Transcripts based on semi-structured couple's interviews were analyzed using an inductive emergent thematic analytical method. Results The findings present compelling evidence that the impact of HIV and AIDS is mitigated, in the main, by the nature of the dyadic relationship. Where power and agency were skewed in accordance with traditional gender scripts, the impact of HIV and AIDS was deleterious in terms of negotiating disclosure, meeting expectations of care and support, and promoting treatment adherence. As a corollary, the study also revealed that where the relational dynamic evidenced a more equitable distribution of power, the challenge of negotiating illness was embraced in a way that strengthened the couples’ affiliation in profound ways, manifested not simply in a reduction in risk behaviours, but in both partner's courage to re-visit sensitive issues related to managing their relationship in the context of a debilitating illness. Conclusions Gendered positioning (by self and others) was found to play a crucial role in the way couples experienced HIV and ARV treatment, and underscored the positive role of a couples-counselling approach in the negotiation of the illness experience. However, as part of a broader social project, the findings highlight the need to address the shortcomings of a public health discourse on illness normalization that reifies and reinforces skewed gender relations. In essence, the findings make a compelling case for targeting couples as the primary unit of analysis and intervention in HIV and AIDS praxis, not only to enhance treatment and prevention outcomes, but to impact on and potentially transform the lived identity of such relationships, in AIDS-affected communities. We recommend early intervention with couples in terms of couples HIV testing, risk-reduction counselling and gender-based interventions giving couples opportunities to revisit and challenge their prevailing gendered identities. We note, however, that these efforts will be undermined in the long term, if the structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability, contained within macro-level social, economic and cultural practices, are not simultaneously addressed.
BackgroundCircumcision reduces HIV acquisition among heterosexualmen in Africa, but it is unclear if circumcision may reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, or whether MSM would be willing to be circumcised if recommended.MethodsWe interviewed presumed-HIV negative MSM at gay pride events in 2006. We asked uncircumcised respondents about willingness to be
Elin B. Begley; Krishna Jafa; Andrew C. Voetsch; James D. Heffelfinger; Craig B. Borkowf; Patrick S. Sullivan; Landon Myer
This paper reports on an ethnographic study of male homosexuality in contemporary Chinese society. The study focused on how men negotiated with the mainstream Chinese heterosexual society and in so doing constructed their sexual identities. The factors found to inform sexual identity were: the cultural imperative of heterosexual marriage, normative family obligations, desired gender roles, emotional experiences and a need for social belonging. The four types of sexual identities constructed included: establishing a deliberate non-homosexual identity, accumulating an individual homosexual identity, forming a collective homosexual identity and adopting a flexible sexual identity. For the men interviewed, sexual identity was both fluid and fragmented, derived from highly personalised negotiations between individualised needs and social and cultural constructs. The analysis is set against the background of China's rapid and recent economic development, shifting national and international social environments and improved access to the Internet. PMID:20162481
Li, Haochu Howard; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lau, Joseph T F
Religiosity is associated with behaviors that reduce the risk of HIV/STI infection among general-population and heterosexual-specific samples. Whether this association is similar to homosexual persons is unknown. Measures of religiosity have not been evaluated psychometrically among men who have sex with men (MSM), a population who, because of stigma, experience religiosity differently than heterosexual persons. We assessed the duke religion index and the spiritual well-being in two samples of MSM. Neither instrument produced adequate model fit. To study the association between religiosity and HIV/STI risk behaviors among MSM, scales are needed that measure the religious and spiritual experiences of MSM. PMID:22441843
Wilkerson, J Michael; Smolensk, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Rosser, B R Simon
This paper presents the State Department's Interagency Working Group (IWG) model for the spread of HIV. The model is fully operational for Pattern 2 (heterosexual & blood transmission) and Pattern 3 (heterosexual, homosexual, and IV drug transmission) cou...
E. A. Stanley S. T. Seitz P. O. Way P. D. Johnson T. F. Curry
Incidents of nonconsensual sexual activity among 930 homosexually active menliving in England and Wales are analyzed. Of these men, 27.6% said they had been sexually assaulted or had sex against their will at some point in their lives; one third had been forced into sexual activity (usually anal intercourse) by men with whom they had previously had, or were
Ford C. I. Hickson; Peter M. Davies; Andrew J. Hunt; Peter Weatherburn; Thomas J. McManus; Anthony P. M. Coxon
Cerebral responses to putative pheromones and objects of sexual attraction were recently found to differ between homo- and heterosexual subjects. Although this observation may merely mirror perceptional differences, it raises the intriguing question as to whether certain sexually dimorphic features in the brain may differ between individuals of the same sex but different sexual orientation. We addressed this issue by studying hemispheric asymmetry and functional connectivity, two parameters that in previous publications have shown specific sex differences. Ninety subjects [25 heterosexualmen (HeM) and women (HeW), and 20 homosexual men (HoM) and women (HoW)] were investigated with magnetic resonance volumetry of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Fifty of them also participated in PET measurements of cerebral blood flow, used for analyses of functional connections from the right and left amygdalae. HeM and HoW showed a rightward cerebral asymmetry, whereas volumes of the cerebral hemispheres were symmetrical in HoM and HeW. No cerebellar asymmetries were found. Homosexual subjects also showed sex-atypical amygdala connections. In HoM, as in HeW, the connections were more widespread from the left amygdala; in HoW and HeM, on the other hand, from the right amygdala. Furthermore, in HoM and HeW the connections were primarily displayed with the contralateral amygdala and the anterior cingulate, in HeM and HoW with the caudate, putamen, and the prefrontal cortex. The present study shows sex-atypical cerebral asymmetry and functional connections in homosexual subjects. The results cannot be primarily ascribed to learned effects, and they suggest a linkage to neurobiological entities.
Background There is conflicting evidence about the contribution of heterosexual transmission to the spread of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in southern Africa. This study evaluated the hypothesis that HHV-8 infection is associated with risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other sexually transmitted infections among Zimbabwean men. Methods HHV-8 seroprevalence was determined for 2750 participants in the Zimbabwe AIDS Prevention Project cohort of male factory workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. Potential associations of HHV-8 antibody detection with risk factors for HIV-1 infection were examined by univariate analysis. Variables with P < .1 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic regression model. HHV-8 seroprevalence was also determined among 297 heterosexual couples. Results Prevalence of HHV-8, HIV-1, and HHV-8 and HIV-1 coinfection was 28.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.8%–30.2%), 19.5% (95% CI, 18.0%–20.9%), and 6.5% (95% CI, 5.6%–7.5%), respectively. Detection of HHV-8 antibodies was independently associated with older age and HIV-1 infection but not with number of recent sex partners, marital status, education, condom use, prior sexually transmitted infections, payment for sex, chronic hepatitis B infection, or incident HIV-1 infection. HHV-8 seroprevalence was 31.7% (95% CI, 26.3–37.0) among wives in the couples tested, but HHV-8 infection of wives was not associated with HHV-8 infection of husbands (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.62–1.88; P = .8). Conclusions HHV-8 and HIV-1 infection did not have common sexual risk factors among urban Zimbabwean men. Sexual transmission does not explain the high prevalence of HHV-8 in this population.
... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...
Studies on mate preferences usually examine heterosexual attraction; comparatively little is known about preferences of individuals whose sexuality is aimed at the same sex. We examined preferences of two groups of androphilic individuals--homosexual men and heterosexual women--for male facial and vocal level of masculinity. Facial images of 58 men and vocal recordings of 30 men were rated by 51 heterosexual women and 33 homosexual men for their attractiveness and masculinity--femininity. In both groups of raters, ratings of vocal attractiveness and masculinity were positively correlated, but there was no overall preference for facial masculinity. After splitting raters according to their relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-rated masculinity, we found significant preferences for masculine voices only in single homosexual men and coupled heterosexual women, while a preference for feminine male faces was found in coupled homosexual men. Furthermore, homosexual men describing themselves as relatively masculine significantly preferred masculine voices but also more feminine male faces. Our results demonstrate that conditional mate preferences are not restricted to heterosexual interactions, and homosexual men prefer a mixture of masculine and feminine traits in their potential male partners. PMID:23700957
Valentová, Jaroslava; Roberts, S Craig; Havlícek, Jan
BACKGROUND: HIV prevention efforts have given limited attention to the relational schemas and scripts of adult heterosexual women. These broader schemas and scripts of romantic and other sexual liaisons, partner selection, relationship dynamics, and power negotiations may help to better understand facilitators and barriers to HIV risk-reduction practices. METHODS: We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 60 HIV-uninfected heterosexual African-American women from rural counties in North Carolina and Alabama, and Hispanic women from an urban county in southern Florida. Data were collected for relationship expectations; relationship experiences, and relationship power and decision-making. Interview transcripts underwent computer-assisted thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants had a median age of 34 years (range 18--59), 34% were married or living as married, 39% earned an annual income of $12,000 or less, 12% held less than a high school education, and 54% were employed. Among the Hispanic women, 95% were foreign born. We identified two overarching relationship themes: contradictions between relationship expectations and desires and life circumstances that negated such ideals, and relationship challenges. Within the contradictions theme, we discovered six subthemes: a good man is hard to find; sex can be currency used to secure desired outcomes; compromises and allowances for cheating, irresponsible, and disrespectful behavior; redefining dating; sex just happens; needing relationship validation. The challenges theme centered on two subthemes: uncertainties and miscommunication, and relationship power negotiation. Gender differences in relationship intentions and desires as well as communication styles, the importance of emotional and financial support, and the potential for relationships to provide disappointment were present in all subthemes. In examining HIV risk perceptions, participants largely held that risk for HIV-infection and the need to take precautions were problems of women who differed from them (i.e., abuse drugs, are promiscuous, exchange sex). CONCLUSION: Underlying women's relational schemas was a belief that relationship priorities differed for men and women. Consequently, expectations and allowances for partner infidelity and negligent behaviors were incorporated into their scripts. Moreover, scripts endorsed women's use of sex as currency in relationship formation and endurance, and did not emphasize HIV risk. Both couple- and gender-specific group-level interventions are needed to deconstruct (breakdown) and reconstruct (rewrite) relationship scripts. PMID:23705954
McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Toledo, Lauren; O Daniels, Christine; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Simpson, Cathy; Adimora, Ada A; Marks, Gary
Background HIV prevention efforts have given limited attention to the relational schemas and scripts of adult heterosexual women. These broader schemas and scripts of romantic and other sexual liaisons, partner selection, relationship dynamics, and power negotiations may help to better understand facilitators and barriers to HIV risk-reduction practices. Methods We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 60 HIV-uninfected heterosexual African-American women from rural counties in North Carolina and Alabama, and Hispanic women from an urban county in southern Florida. Data were collected for relationship expectations; relationship experiences, and relationship power and decision-making. Interview transcripts underwent computer-assisted thematic analysis. Results Participants had a median age of 34 years (range 18–59), 34% were married or living as married, 39% earned an annual income of $12,000 or less, 12% held less than a high school education, and 54% were employed. Among the Hispanic women, 95% were foreign born. We identified two overarching relationship themes: contradictions between relationship expectations and desires and life circumstances that negated such ideals, and relationship challenges. Within the contradictions theme, we discovered six subthemes: a good man is hard to find; sex can be currency used to secure desired outcomes; compromises and allowances for cheating, irresponsible, and disrespectful behavior; redefining dating; sex just happens; needing relationship validation. The challenges theme centered on two subthemes: uncertainties and miscommunication, and relationship power negotiation. Gender differences in relationship intentions and desires as well as communication styles, the importance of emotional and financial support, and the potential for relationships to provide disappointment were present in all subthemes. In examining HIV risk perceptions, participants largely held that risk for HIV-infection and the need to take precautions were problems of women who differed from them (i.e., abuse drugs, are promiscuous, exchange sex). Conclusion Underlying women’s relational schemas was a belief that relationship priorities differed for men and women. Consequently, expectations and allowances for partner infidelity and negligent behaviors were incorporated into their scripts. Moreover, scripts endorsed women’s use of sex as currency in relationship formation and endurance, and did not emphasize HIV risk. Both couple- and gender-specific group-level interventions are needed to deconstruct (breakdown) and reconstruct (rewrite) relationship scripts.
Background: AIDS is the main driver of young widowhood in southern Africa. Methods: The demographic characteristics of widows, their reported risk behaviours and the prevalence of HIV were examined by analysing a longitudinal population-based cohort of men and women aged 15–54 years in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. The results from statistical analyses were used to construct a mathematical simulation model with the aim of estimating the contribution of widow behaviour to heterosexual HIV transmission. Results: 413 (11.4%) sexually experienced women and 31 (1.2%) sexually experienced men were reported to be widowed at the time of follow-up. The prevalence of HIV was exceptionally high among both widows (61%) and widowers (male widows) (54%). Widows were more likely to have high rates of partner change and engage in a pattern of transactional sex than married women. Widowers took partners who were a median of 10 years younger than themselves. Mathematical model simulations of different scenarios of sexual behaviour of widows suggested that the sexual activity of widow(er)s may underlie 8–17% of new HIV infections over a 20-year period. Conclusions: This combined statistical analysis and model simulation suggest that widowhood plays an important role in the transmission of HIV in this rural Zimbabwean population. High-risk partnerships may be formed when widowed men and women reconnect to the sexual network.
Lopman, B A; Nyamukapa, C; Hallett, T B; Mushati, P; Preez, N Spark-du; Kurwa, F; Wambe, M; Gregson, S
This study explores how lesbian and heterosexual pre-adoptive couples experience and construct the transition from infertil- ity to adoption as a means to becoming parents. Thirty lesbian couples and 30 heterosexual couples were interviewed about the challenges and benefits they perceived in attempting con- ception and then later choosing adoption. Although similarities in perspectives emerged between heterosexual and lesbian participants
Abbie E. Goldberg; Jordan B. Downing; Hannah B. Richardson
|The current study compared the peer relationships and well-being of 60 sexual-minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) and 65 heterosexual youths between the ages of 15 and 23. Sexual-minority youths had comparable self-esteem, mastery, and perceived stress as did heterosexuals, but greater negative affect. Younger sexual-minority male adolescents had…
|The objectives of this research were to explore patterns of heterosexual activity in early adolescence and to examine the differential pathways to light and heavy heterosexuality. We utilized the National Longitudinal Survey of Canadian Children and Youth (NLSCY) in which heterosexual behaviors, as well as puberty, parenting processes, peer…
Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Cribbie, Robert
Although intimate heterosexual couples often exhibit power imbalances in gender role behaviors, with one partner more dominant and the other more submissive, it is unclear whether the same is true for homosexual relationships. Anecdotal evidence, however, suggests that television portrays both heterosexual and homosexual couples as gendered. This content analysis of intimate relationships on television examined whether heterosexual and homosexual
Adrienne Holz Ivory; Rhonda Gibson; James D. Ivory
The objectives of this research were to explore patterns of heterosexual activity in early adolescence and to examine the differential pathways to light and heavy heterosexuality. We utilized the National Longitudinal Survey of Canadian Children and Youth (NLSCY) in which heterosexual behaviors, as well as puberty, parenting processes, peer…
Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Cribbie, Robert
Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. Prior studies find that gay men and lesbians volunteer in HIV/AIDS service organizations at high rates. However, no population-based study has investigated the mechanisms involved. Using data from the General Social Survey, a nationally representative biennial survey that in 2002 and 2004 interviewed 2031 sexually experienced adults, the authors examine levels of empathic concern, altruistic values, and the past year occurrence of altruistic and reciprocal behaviors among homosexually and exclusively heterosexually experienced adults. Overall, women reported higher levels of empathic concern and stronger altruistic values relative to men while men reported engaging in a wider variety of altruistic behaviors than did women. In gender-specific comparisons, homosexually experienced men reported stronger altruistic values than did exclusively heterosexualmen but levels of empathic concern and the range of altruistic and reciprocal behaviors engaged in did not vary appreciable. Among women, homosexually experienced women reported engaging in a wider range of altruistic behaviors than exclusively heterosexual women, but did not differ in their levels of empathic concern or strength of altruistic values. Findings support the existence of some small sexual orientation-related differences in altruistic values and altruistic and reciprocal behaviors. These have implications for HIV-related volunteerism. One surprising finding in this study was that approximately 17% of homosexually experienced men had donated blood in the year prior to interview despite the prohibition against doing so.
Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie; Corliss, Heather; Smith, Tom W.; Turner, Joseph
Abstract Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29-39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10-1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52-2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexualmen who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement.
This study aimed to assess the relative importance of demographic, interpersonal, and personality factors in predicting sexual infidelity in heterosexual couples. A total of 506 men (M age = 32.86 years, SD = 10.60) and 412 women (M age = 27.66 years, SD = 8.93), who indicated they were in a monogamous sexual relationship, completed a series of questionnaires, including the Sexual Excitation/Inhibition (SES/SIS) scales and the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire, and answered questions about, among others, religiosity, education, income, relationship and sexual satisfaction, and sexual compatibility. Almost one-quarter of men (23.2%) and 19.2% of women indicated that they had "cheated" during their current relationship (i.e., engaged in sexual interactions with someone other than their partner that could jeopardize, or hurt, their relationship). Among men, a logistic regression analysis, explaining 17% of the variance, revealed that a higher propensity of sexual excitation (SES) and sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance concerns" (SIS1), a lower propensity for sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance consequences" (SIS2), and an increased tendency to engage in regretful sexual behavior during negative affective states were all significant predictors of infidelity. In women, a similar regression analysis explained 21% of the variance in engaging in infidelity. In addition to SIS1 and SIS2, for which the same patterns were found as for men, low relationship happiness and low compatibility in terms of sexual attitudes and values were predictive of infidelity. The findings of this study suggest that, for both men and women, sexual personality characteristics and, for women, relationship factors are more relevant to the prediction of sexual infidelity than demographic variables such as marital status and religiosity. PMID:21667234
Mark, Kristen P; Janssen, Erick; Milhausen, Robin R
Men receive conflicting messages about their sexual roles in heterosexual relationships. Men are socialized to initiate and direct sexual activities with women; yet societal norms also proscribe the sexual domination and coercion of women. The authors test these competing hypotheses by assessing whether men inhibit the link between sex and dominance. In Studies 1a and b, using a subliminal priming procedure embedded in a lexical decision task, the authors demonstrate that men automatically suppress the concept of dominance following exposure to subliminal sex primes relative to neutral primes. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors show that men who are less likely to perceive sexual assertiveness as necessary, to refrain from dominant sexual behavior, and who do not invest in masculine gender ideals are more likely to inhibit dominant thoughts following sex primes. Implications for theories of automatic cognitive networks and gender-based sexual roles are discussed. PMID:18000098
A study of coronary heart disease (CHD) among Japanese migrants compared with Japanese living in Japan provided the opportunity to study factors possibly responsible for the high rates of CHD in America as compared with Japan. Comparable methods were empl...
M. G. Marmot S. L. Syme A. Kagan H. Kato J. B. Cohen
This study uses qualitative data from student Web logs (blogs) that were required for a graduate social work course addressing issues of privilege to examine the learning journey trajectory for students in a master's of social work program who participated in a single-identity caucus examining heterosexual privilege. The study includes reflections…
Many experts in the helping professions have agreed that there is no scientific credence to support a gay and lesbian adoption ban. Nevertheless, there continues to be persistent mythology pertaining to outcomes for children adopted by gay and lesbian parents. This position may be somewhat due to the dearth of research that compares heterosexual and homosexual parenting outcomes with adopted
This study uses data from 147 White preadoptive couples (54 lesbian, 93 heterosexual) to examine adopters' subjective explanations for why they are open or not open to adopting transracially. Participant perceptions of racial-ethnic diversity in their communities and families, perceptions of family support or nonsupport, and attitudes about race were among the factors they cited as influencing their openness. These
When a spouse comes out as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, the disclosure is a family matter. However, the impact on the heterosexual partner is usually overlooked. Most cope alone, though some find peer support. The most common issues faced are sexual rejection, challenge to the marriage, concern for their children, and crises of identity, integrity, and belief system. Resolving
This paper explores how heterosexual images structure representations of female elite athletes, and the different practices through which these are perpetuated, both by female athletes themselves, and by others. The focus is on how female athletes experience and reflect upon the relationship between being an athlete and conceptions of femininity with reference to the media, sponsors, fashion\\/sports clothing and the
The purpose of this study was the development of a self-report measure of boyhood aggressiveness for use with adult males. Aggressiveness was defined as a generalized disposition to engage in physically combative or competitive interactions with male peers. This attribute is of sexological interest because of the reported difference in physical aggressiveness between heterosexual and homosexual boys. A physical aggressiveness
Ray Blanchard; James G. McConkey; Vincent Roper; Betty W. Steiner
|Previous research suggests that bisexual men face unique health concerns in comparison to their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. However, little is known about behaviorally bisexual men's experiences with health services, including ways of providing services that would be most appropriate to meet the health needs of this…
Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
|Objectives: To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods: In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men…
Blacks have traditionally experienced a disproportionate burden of diabetes in the United States. Research published from 1980 to 2008 revealed a paucity of diabetes education and management research targeting Black men. There is a paucity of published research that takes into consideration attributes of “being male,” such as masculinity, and how its attributes influence diabetes self-management behaviors. This article discusses three important factors that may help explain diabetes-related disparities among Black men. These factors include absence of consistent sources of health care, lack of health insurance, and the absence of a masculinity perspective in diabetes education and management research. This article offers a gender-centered ecological framework that examines pathways between demographic factors, family functioning, knowledge and psychological health, biological health, behavioral health and medical compliance, masculinity, and diabetes-related outcomes. Recommendations for future research that consider how aspects of masculinity might lead to the identification of gender-based risk factors are presented.
Jack, Leonard; Toston, Tyra; Jack, Nkenge H.; Sims, Mario
Men's experiences of sexual coercion is seldom the subject of research, yet it is commonly reported in all settings and increasingly evidence from South Africa points to the health risks associated with sexual coercion of men by men. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with heterosexualmen aged 18-25 years who were volunteers in a HIV prevention behavioural intervention evaluation in the Eastern Cape. Men chosen included some who had reported coercion by men and women in their baseline structure interviews and some who had not. Sexual coercion by men involved abuse of trust and age-related power, temptation through material goods, as well as use of aggression. The narratives were notable for the anger that was caused by these assaults. In contrast, coercion by women was framed as ‘temptation’. In some cases young men were tempted by much older women and those in a position of trust and the experience did not make them feel good. There are very substantial differences in the circumstances of coercion of young men by men and women. This needs to be taken into account in the growing trend to research coercion of men and present findings in a way that equates these two experiences.
ABSTRACI' In general, vegetarians have lower serum lipids and blood pressures than omnivores have. We tested the blood pressure and serum lipid lowering effects of two fat- modified diets differing primarily in their source ofprotein. Twenty-six men were randomized in an incomplete block design to two ofthree diets: a high-fat diet, a fat-modified lactoovoveg- etarian diet (LOV) and a diet
The use of condoms to prevent the further spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the main themes of the government's health education campaign against AIDS. A study of the use of and attitudes towards condoms in 222 heterosexualmen and women attending a department of genitourinary medicine (GUM) in central London showed that 55% (50/91) to 59% (41/70) of men or women never, and 6% (6/95) to 15% (14/91) always, used condoms with their regular or non-regular sexual partners. No major differences were found in the use of or attitudes to condoms according to age, sex, social class, or civil status. Attitudes towards the use of condoms were generally negative. These attitudes, in combination with the infrequent use of condoms with regular (and even more with non-regular) sexual partners, must be a cause for concern if the further spread of HIV is to be avoided. PMID:2807283
As an exploration of the potential impact of fears of discrimination against GLBTs in long-term health care settings, this study compared perceptions of GLBT persons and heterosexuals. A total of 132 GLBT persons and 187 heterosexualsliving in Eastern Washington completed a survey that contained demographic questions and perceptions of discrimination in long-term care settings. Most respondents suspected that staff
Contingent negative variation and evoked potentials to visual erotic stimuli were recorded from 8 brain sites in a sample of 62 right-handed men aged 20-50, half of whom declared paraphilic interests and half claimed "normal" heterosexual interests. To quantify erotic preferences, a "variance quotient" (VQ) was calculated from scores on the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire using the formula VQ = Impersonal + Sadomasochistic fantasies/Intimate + Exploratory fantasies. Stimuli consisted of 57 paraphilic slides (depicting fetishistic and sadomasochistic themes), 57 heterosexual erotic slides (explicit pictures of nude women, coitus, and oral sex), and 57 neutral slides (landscapes and street scenes). The P600 response appeared to be the best indicator of erotic preferences, butthe locus of maximum arousal was different for paraphilic and heterosexual stimuli. The primary brain site for heterosexual arousal was P4 (right parietal), where there was a -.34 (p < .01) correlation between VQ and P600 (i.e., nonvariant males showed greater responses to normal erotic stimuli at this location). For paraphilic stimuli, there was a correlation of .26 (p < .05) between the VQ and P600 response at the F3 (left frontal) site (i.e., paraphilic men showed greater responses to paraphilic stimuli than normal men at this brain location). Dividing the sample into groups of 23 paraphilics and 23 heterosexual controls on the basis of their VQs showed that "normals" differentiated between stimulus types more at the P4 than paraphilics. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:12710828
Waismann, Rogeria; Fenwick, Peter B C; Wilson, Glenn D; Hewett, Terry D; Lumsden, John
Objective The aim of the study reported here was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among elderly men and its association with sun exposure and skin phototypes. Subjects and methods This was an analytical cross-sectional study, which involved 284 men aged 60 years or over, randomly recruited from a basic care unit in the city of Recife (Brazil). Measurements Serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), sun index, and skin phototypes were evaluated. Results The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 31.5% and 66.7% when cut points of less than 20 and 30 ng/mL, respectively, were used. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 27.86 ± 13.52 standard deviation (SD) ng/mL. There was no difference (P = 0.113) in 25(OH) D (23.98 ± 14.66 SD vs 29.88 ± 13.78 SD) between individuals in the lowest quartile (Q) of the sun index (Q1: 1.96) compared with those in the highest (Q4: 7.86). When considering a cutoff of 20 ng/mL, the sun index was different in the two groups (P = 0.006), but there was no difference when cutoffs of 25 and 30 ng/mL were used. After adjustment, sun index and body mass index were associated positively and negatively, respectively with serum 25(OH)D independently. Most subjects (66.7%) had Fitzpatrick’s skin phototypes IV, V, and VI. Low calcium intake was observed in 72%. There was no difference in serum 25(OH)D levels between patients with low intake and those with intermediate and high intakes. Only 2.5% were taking a vitamin supplement. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among elderly men despite their high sun exposure during the summer months.
Cabral, Marcelo Azevedo; Borges, Carla Nubia; Maia, Juliana Maria Coelho; Aires, Caio Augusto Martins; Bandeira, Francisco
Homosexuality has been shown to be associated with suicidality and mental disorders. It is unclear whether homosexuality is related to suicidality, independently of mental disorders. This study assessed differences in lifetime symptoms of suicidality (death ideation, death wishes, suicide contemplation, and deliberate self-harm) between homosexual and heterosexualmen and women, controlling for lifetime psychiatric morbidity. Interaction effects of age and the role of perceived discrimination were also examined. Data were collected on a representative sample of the Dutch population aged 18-64 years. Classification as heterosexual or homosexual was based upon reported sexual behavior in the preceding year. Of those sexually active, 2.8% of 2,878 men and 1.4% of 3,120 women had had same-sex partners. Homosexual men differed from their heterosexual counterparts on all four suicide symptoms (OR ranging from 2.58 to 10.23, with higher ORs for more severe symptoms), and on the sum total of the four symptoms; homosexual women only differed from heterosexual women on suicide contemplation (OR=2.12). Controlling for psychiatric morbidity decreased the ORs, but among men all associations were still significant; the significance for suicide contemplation among women disappeared. Younger homosexuals were not at lower risk for suicidality than older homosexuals in comparison with their heterosexual counterparts. Among homosexual men, perceived discrimination was associated with suicidality. This study suggests that even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality, homosexual men were at much higher risk for suicidality than heterosexualmen. This relationship could not only be attributed to their higher psychiatric morbidity. In women, there was no such clear relationship. PMID:16799841
de Graaf, Ron; Sandfort, Theo G M; ten Have, Margreet
Given the historical emergence of the AIDS epidemic first among gay men in the developed world, HIV interventions have primarily focused on individuals rather than families. Typically not part of traditional family structures, HIV-positive gay men in Europe and the US lived primarily in societies providing essential infrastructure for survival needs that highly value individual justice and freedom. Interventions were
M. J. Rotheram-Borus; D. Flannery; E. Rice; P. Lester
Community-dwelling HIV/AIDS patients in rural Alabama self-monitored (SM) daily HIV risk behaviors using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, which may enhance reporting, reduce monitored behaviors, and extend the reach of care. Sexually active substance users (35 men, 19 women) engaged in IVR SM of sex, substance use, and surrounding contexts for 4–10 weeks. Baseline predictors of IVR utilization were assessed, and longitudinal IVR SM effects on risk behaviors were examined. Frequent (n = 22), infrequent (n = 22), and non-caller (n = 10) groups were analyzed. Non-callers had shorter durations of HIV medical care and lower safer sex self-efficacy and tended to be older heterosexuals. Among callers, frequent callers had lost less social support. Longitudinal logistic regression models indicated reductions in risky sex and drug use with IVR SM over time. IVR systems appear to have utility for risk assessment and reduction for rural populations living with HIV disease.
Tucker, Jalie A.; Blum, Elizabeth R.; Xie, Lili; Roth, David L.; Simpson, Cathy A.
This article reviews current research evidence on the natural history, epidemiology, and clinical features of acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) and presents guidelines for controlling the sexual transmission of human lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. The rapid spread of HTLV-III infection through homosexual communities in the US and Europe and its association with promiscuity initially obscured the fact that heterosexual transmission is also a significant risk factor for infection. Public health workers and epidemiologists are examining which sexual practices are most associated with the transmission of HTLV-III infection. Case-control studies in homosexuals have suggested that promiscuity, passive anal intercourse, and other sexual practices associated with rectal trauma and bleeding correlate with infection. Similar studies involving heterosexuals have not been conducted. However, the following guidelines have been proposed for couples where 1 partner has been found to be positive for HTLV-III antibodies: 1) sexual partners should be confined to established relationships; 2) anal intercourse should be avoided, even if the male uses a condom; 3) no oral contact with semen should occur; 4) if vaginal intercourse is practiced, the use of condom is essential; and 5) the only practices that are free from risk of infection are mutual masturbation and hand caresses. Since a high proportion of children of women with HTLV-III develop severe immunodeficiency, it is undesirable for women who are HTLV-III antibody positive to become pregnant. Furthermore, there is evidence that women who are HTLV-III antibody positive are more likely to develop AIDS if they become pregnant. A reliable method of permanent or reversible contraception is recommended for these women. Finally, men who are antibody positive should not donate sperm to a sperm bank. PMID:12267664
This study examined whether sexual/relationship satisfaction are differentially associated with mental health issues. Using data from a population-based computer-assisted telephone survey, the authors included in this study 3,800 respondents who had a regular heterosexual partner. The authors used 2 methods of scoring the K6 to produce measures of moderate psychological distress and serious psychological distress. Overall, 8.8% of men and 12.1% of women were classified as having moderate psychological distress, whereas 1.6% of men and 3.2% of women were classified as currently experiencing serious psychological distress. The association between satisfaction and mental health was influenced by sex and the severity of the mental health issue but not by type of satisfaction. After adjusting for demographic differences in mental health, low ratings of sexual/relationship satisfaction were both consistently associated with higher levels of moderate psychological distress in men and women and higher proportions of serious psychological distress in men. Although women may be able to resolve their satisfaction issues during less severe stages of psychological distress, for men there was a strong association between low sexual/relationship satisfaction and serious psychological distress. PMID:23152969
Patrick, Kent; Heywood, Wendy; Smith, Anthony M A; Simpson, Judy M; Shelley, Julia M; Richters, Juliet; Pitts, Marian K
Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329
Heterosexual responsiveness, measured by penile responses and reports of behavior, was strengthened in three homosexuals through a fading procedure. Using two slide projectors, colored slides of nude females were superimposed on colored slides of nude males. As the sexual response was emitted, the nude male was faded out and the nude female faded in. Heterosexual arousal decreased when the fading procedure was reversed or stopped and increased once again when fading was resumed. Homosexual arousal remained high during this experiment but had decreased in two subjects at follow-up. The results suggest that fading was responsible for altering stimulus control of sexual arousal and that aversive techniques may not be necessary in the treatment of sexual deviation. ImagesFig. 1
Gender-related aspects of self-perception were explored for 24 anatomical males consisting of three matched groups of transsexuals, heterosexuals, and homosexuals. MacKenzie's Diagnostic Criteria Scale ratings were used to confirm group membership. Instruments used were the Repertory Grid Technique, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Bem Self Role Inventory, Maferr Inventory of Masculine Values, and Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. Results for transsexual subjects
Islam’s explicit condemnation of homosexuality has created a theologically based homophobia which engenders the intolerance\\u000a of homosexuals by Muslims. In this article I explore Muslim attitudes towards homosexuality and homosexuals as this area has\\u000a elicited very little research. Based on structured interviews with 68 Muslim male and female heterosexuals I examine the connection\\u000a between participants’ attitudes towards homosexuality and their
The Centers for Disease Control reports that African-American women have the highest rates of new HIV infections. This paper\\u000a discusses the cultural meaning of using condoms and proposes examining the social construction of trust and “stability” in\\u000a heterosexual relationships. The paper reviews the scientific literature on how cultural expectations shape the social context\\u000a in which sexual relations occur among high-risk
This study was designed to identify possible predictors of psychological abuse in non-marital heterosexual romantic relationships. In attempting to predict who would self-identify as being psychologically abused, we investigated a number of variables including psychological abuse in past close relationships, psychological abuse within the family of origin, sel