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Sample records for hexakisphosphate inhibits mineralization

  1. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, isolated from female gametophyte tissue of loblolly pine, inhibits growth of early-stage somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Sullards, M Cameron; Oldham, Charlie D; Gelbaum, Les; Lucrezi, Jacob; Pullman, Gerald S; May, Sheldon W

    2012-01-01

    • Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)), abundant in animals and plants, is well known for its anticancer activity. However, many aspects of InsP(6) function in plants remain undefined. We now report the first evidence that InsP(6) can inhibit cellular proliferation in plants under growth conditions where phosphorus is not limited. • A highly anionic molecule inhibitory to early-stage somatic embryo growth of loblolly pine (LP) was purified chromatographically from late-stage LP female gametophytes (FGs), and then characterized structurally using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. • Exact mass and mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (MS-MS) fragmentation identified the bioactive molecule as an inositol hexakisphosphate. It was then identified as the myo-isomer (i.e. InsP(6)) on the basis of (1)H-, (31)P- and (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), (1)H-(31)P heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and (1)H-(13)C HSQC. Topical application of InsP(6) to early-stage somatic embryos indeed inhibits embryonic growth. • Recently evidence has begun to emerge that InsP(6) may also play a regulatory role in plant cells. We anticipate that our findings will help to stimulate additional investigations aimed at elucidating the roles of inositol phosphates in cellular growth and development in plants. PMID:22023391

  2. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread.

    PubMed

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption. PMID:25704711

  3. Turnover of inositol pentakisphosphates, inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol polyphosphates in primary cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Glennon, M C; Shears, S B

    1993-01-01

    We have used a non-transformed cell model, the primary cultured hepatocyte, to explore the turnover of inositol hexakisphosphate, multiple isomers of inositol pentakisphosphate and two novel diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. All of these compounds gradually accumulated radioactivity throughout a 70 h period of labelling with [3H]inositol. However, a rapid metabolic rate was revealed upon inhibition of diphosphoinositol polyphosphate biphosphatase(s) with 1 mM fluoride for 40 min: this treatment elevated levels of [3H]diphosphoinositol polyphosphates up to 10-fold, indicating that their cellular pools were normally turning over at least 10 times every 40 min. This was accompanied by a turnover of about 10% of the pool of inositol hexakisphosphate. Control experiments established that 200 nM vasopressin brought about a typical activation of phospholipase C in hepatocytes after 62 h of primary culture. This agonist treatment did not affect steady-state levels of [3H]inositol pentakisphosphates, [3H]inositol hexakisphosphate or [3H]diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. However, prolonged treatment of hepatocytes with 2 microM thapsigargin reduced steady-state levels of [3H]diphosphoinositol polyphosphates by 50-70%. This effect of thapsigargin was also observed in the presence of fluoride, indicating that thapsigargin inhibited the rate of synthesis of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. PMID:8343137

  4. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 3 Regulates Metabolism and Lifespan in Mice.

    PubMed

    Moritoh, Yusuke; Oka, Masahiro; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Hiroyuki; Iwachidow, Kimihiko; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Tozawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3 (IP6K3) generates inositol pyrophosphates, which regulate diverse cellular functions. However, little is known about its own physiological role. Here, we show the roles of IP6K3 in metabolic regulation. We detected high levels of both mouse and human IP6K3 mRNA in myotubes and muscle tissues. In human myotubes, IP6K3 was upregulated by dexamethasone treatment, which is known to inhibit glucose metabolism. Furthermore, Ip6k3 expression was elevated under diabetic, fasting, and disuse conditions in mouse skeletal muscles. Ip6k3(-/-) mice demonstrated lower blood glucose, reduced circulating insulin, deceased fat mass, lower body weight, increased plasma lactate, enhanced glucose tolerance, lower glucose during an insulin tolerance test, and reduced muscle Pdk4 expression under normal diet conditions. Notably, Ip6k3 deletion extended animal lifespan with concomitant reduced phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein in the heart. In contrast, Ip6k3(-/-) mice showed unchanged skeletal muscle mass and no resistance to the effects of high fat diet. The current observations suggest novel roles of IP6K3 in cellular regulation, which impact metabolic control and lifespan. PMID:27577108

  5. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 3 Regulates Metabolism and Lifespan in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moritoh, Yusuke; Oka, Masahiro; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Hiroyuki; Iwachidow, Kimihiko; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Tozawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3 (IP6K3) generates inositol pyrophosphates, which regulate diverse cellular functions. However, little is known about its own physiological role. Here, we show the roles of IP6K3 in metabolic regulation. We detected high levels of both mouse and human IP6K3 mRNA in myotubes and muscle tissues. In human myotubes, IP6K3 was upregulated by dexamethasone treatment, which is known to inhibit glucose metabolism. Furthermore, Ip6k3 expression was elevated under diabetic, fasting, and disuse conditions in mouse skeletal muscles. Ip6k3−/− mice demonstrated lower blood glucose, reduced circulating insulin, deceased fat mass, lower body weight, increased plasma lactate, enhanced glucose tolerance, lower glucose during an insulin tolerance test, and reduced muscle Pdk4 expression under normal diet conditions. Notably, Ip6k3 deletion extended animal lifespan with concomitant reduced phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein in the heart. In contrast, Ip6k3−/− mice showed unchanged skeletal muscle mass and no resistance to the effects of high fat diet. The current observations suggest novel roles of IP6K3 in cellular regulation, which impact metabolic control and lifespan. PMID:27577108

  6. Matrix Gla protein inhibition of tooth mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kaipatur, N R; Murshed, M; McKee, M D

    2008-09-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization is regulated by mineral ion availability, proteins, and other molecular determinants. To investigate protein regulation of mineralization in tooth dentin and cementum, and in alveolar bone, we expressed matrix Gla protein (MGP) ectopically in bones and teeth in mice, using an osteoblast/odontoblast-specific 2.3-kb Col1a1 promoter. Mandibles were analyzed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, light microscopy, histomorphometry, and transmission electron microscopy. While bone and tooth ECMs were established in the Col1a1-Mgp mice, extensive hypomineralization was observed, with values of unmineralized ECM from four- to eight-fold higher in dentin and alveolar bone when compared with that in wild-type tissues. Mineralization was virtually absent in tooth root dentin and cellular cementum, while crown dentin showed "breakthrough" areas of mineralization. Acellular cementum was lacking in Col1a1-Mgp teeth, and unmineralized osteodentin formed within the pulp. These results strengthen the view that bone and tooth mineralization is critically regulated by mineralization inhibitors. PMID:18719210

  7. Mechanism of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate sorption on amorphous aluminum hydroxide: spectroscopic evidence for rapid surface precipitation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yupeng; Li, Wei; Yang, Jun; Zheng, Anmin; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan; Sparks, Donald L

    2014-06-17

    Inositol hexakisphosphates are the most abundant organic phosphates (OPs) in most soils and sediments. Adsorption, desorption, and precipitation reactions at environmental interfaces govern the reactivity, speciation, mobility, and bioavailability of inositol hexakisphosphates in terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, surface complexation and precipitation reactions of inositol hexakisphosphates on soil minerals have not been well understood. Here we investigate the surface complexation-precipitation process and mechanism of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP, phytate) on amorphous aluminum hydroxide (AAH) using macroscopic sorption experiments and multiple spectroscopic tools. The AAH (16.01 μmol m(-2)) exhibits much higher sorption density than boehmite (0.73 μmol m(-2)) and α-Al2O3 (1.13 μmol m(-2)). Kinetics of IHP sorption and accompanying OH(-) release, as well as zeta potential measurements, indicate that IHP is initially adsorbed on AAH through inner-sphere complexation via ligand exchange, followed by AAH dissolution and ternary complex formation; last, the ternary complexes rapidly transform to surface precipitates and bulk phase analogous to aluminum phytate (Al-IHP). The pH level, reaction time, and initial IHP loading evidently affect the interaction of IHP on AAH. In situ ATR-FTIR and solid-state NMR spectra further demonstrate that IHP sorbs on AAH and transforms to surface precipitates analogous to Al-IHP, consistent with the results of XRD analysis. This study indicates that active metal oxides such as AAH strongly mediate the speciation and behavior of IHP via rapid surface complexation-precipitation reactions, thus controlling the mobility and bioavailability of inositol phosphates in the environment. PMID:24871399

  8. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  9. Simultaneous inhibition of carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a forest soil by simulated acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, T.M.; Novick, N.J.; Kreitinger, J.P.; Alexander, M.

    1984-06-01

    One method to simulate the long-term exposure of soil to acid rain involves the addition of single doses of concentrated acid. The inhibition of carbon mineralization accompanied by a stimulation of nitrogen mineralization may result from this severe, unnatural treatment. The present study was designed to determine whether the inhibition of carbon mineralization and the accompanying enhanced nitrogen mineralization would occur when soils are treated with more dilute acid for long periods of time, as takes place in nature.

  10. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  11. Inhibition of Rac and ROCK Signalling Influence Osteoblast Adhesion, Differentiation and Mineralization on Titanium Topographies

    PubMed Central

    Prowse, Paul D. H.; Elliott, Christopher G.; Hutter, Jeff; Hamilton, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the time required for initial integration of bone-contacting implants with host tissues would be of great clinical significance. Changes in osteoblast adhesion formation and reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton in response to altered topography are known to be upstream of osteoblast differentiation, and these processes are regulated by the Rho GTPases. Rac and RhoA (through Rho Kinase (ROCK)). Using pharmacological inhibitors, we tested how inhibition of Rac and ROCK influenced osteoblast adhesion, differentiation and mineralization on PT (Pre-treated) and SLA (sandblasted large grit, acid etched) topographies. Inhibition of ROCK, but not Rac, significantly reduced adhesion number and size on PT, with adhesion size consistent with focal complexes. After 1 day, ROCK, but not Rac inhibition increased osteocalcin mRNA levels on SLA and PT, with levels further increasing at 7 days post seeding. ROCK inhibition also significantly increased bone sialoprotein expression at 7 days, but not BMP-2 levels. Rac inhibition significantly reduced BMP-2 mRNA levels. ROCK inhibition increased nuclear translocation of Runx2 independent of surface roughness. Mineralization of osteoblast cultures was greater on SLA than on PT, but was increased by ROCK inhibition and attenuated by Rac inhibition on both topographies. In conclusion, inhibition of ROCK signalling significantly increases osteoblast differentiation and biomineralization in a topographic dependent manner, and its pharmacological inhibition could represent a new therapeutic to speed bone formation around implanted metals and in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:23505566

  12. myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate is a major component of an extracellular structure in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed Central

    Irigoín, Florencia; Ferreira, Fernando; Fernández, Cecilia; Sim, Robert B; Díaz, Alvaro

    2002-01-01

    myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) is an abundant intracellular component of animal cells. In this study we describe the presence of extracellular IP(6) in the hydatid cyst wall (HCW) of the larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The HCW comprises an inner cellular layer and an outer, acellular (laminated) layer up to 2 mm in thickness that protects the parasite from host immune cells. A compound, subsequently identified as IP(6), was detected in and purified from an HCW extract on the basis of its capacity to inhibit complement activation. The identification of the isolated compound was carried out by a combination of NMR, MS and TLC. The majority of IP(6) in the HCW was found in the acellular layer, with only a small fraction of the compound being extracted from cells. In the laminated layer, IP(6) was present in association with calcium, and accounted for up to 15% of the total dry mass of the HCW. IP(6) was not detected in any other structures or stages of the parasite. Our results imply that IP(6) is secreted by the larval stage of the parasite in a polarized fashion towards the interface with the host. This is the first report of the secretion of IP(6), and the possible implications beyond the biology of E. granulosus are discussed. PMID:11853537

  13. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  14. Inhibition of PHOSPHO1 activity results in impaired skeletal mineralization during limb development of the chick

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Vicky E.; Davey, Megan G.; McTeir, Lynn; Narisawa, Sonoko; Yadav, Manisha C.; Millan, Jose Luis; Farquharson, Colin.

    2010-01-01

    PHOSPHO1 is a bone specific phosphatase implicated in the initiation of inorganic phosphate generation for matrix mineralization. The control of mineralization is attributed to the actions of tissue-non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). However, matrix vesicles (MVs) containing apatite crystals are present in patients with hypophosphatasia as well as TNAP null (Akp2-/-) mice. It is therefore likely that other phosphatases work with TNAP to regulate matrix mineralization. Although PHOSPHO1 and TNAP expression is associated with MVs, it is not known if PHOSPHO1 and TNAP are co-expressed during the early stages of limb development. Furthermore the functional in-vivo role of PHOSPHO1 in matrix mineralization has yet to be established. Here, we studied the temporal expression and functional role of PHOSPHO1 within chick limb bud mesenchymal micromass cultures and also in wild-type and talpid3 chick mutants. These mutants are characterized by defective hedgehog signalling and the absence of endochondral mineralization. The ability of in-vitro micromass cultures to differentiate and mineralize their matrix was temporally associated with increased expression of PHOSPHO1 and TNAP. Comparable changes in expression were noted in developing embryonic legs (developmental stages 23–36HH). Micromass cultures treated with lansoprazole, a small-molecule inhibitor of PHOSPHO1 activity, or FGF2, an inhibitor of chondrocyte differentiation, resulted in reduced alizarin red staining (P<0.05). FGF2 treatment also caused a reduction in PHOSPHO1 (P<0.001) and TNAP (P<0.001) expression. Expression analysis by whole mount RNA in-situ hybridization, correlated with qPCR micromass data and demonstrated the existence of a tightly regulated pattern of Phospho1 and Tnap expression which precedes mineralization. Treatment of developing embryos for 5-days with lansoprazole completely inhibited mineralization of all leg and wing long bones as assessed by alcian blue/alizarin red staining

  15. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  16. Inhibition of sulfide mineral oxidation by surface coating agents: batch and field studies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Gee, Eun-Do; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Young-Tae; Khan, Moonis Ali; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2012-08-30

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH(2)PO(4), MgO and KMnO(4) as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H(2)O(2) or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) production in the presence of KMnO(4) (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO(4)(2-) production was observed in presence of KH(2)PO(4) (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH(2)PO(4) decreased SO(4)(2-) production from 200 to 13 mg L(-1) and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L(-1), respectively to <0.05 mg L(-1) (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites. PMID:22727481

  17. Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its mm-size granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate, and calcium in a stoichiometric ratio of mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater that contained chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over one and two orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid phase U(VI) using various spectroscopes and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by: 1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and 2) the transformation of initially present U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms.

  18. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. The best way to ...

  19. The relief of microtherm inhibition for p-fluoronitrobenzene mineralization using electrical stimulation at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueqin; Feng, Huajun; Liang, Yuxiang; Zhao, Zhiqing; Long, Yuyang; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Meizhen; Yin, Jun; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-05-01

    Low temperature aggravates biological treatment of refractory p-fluoronitrobenzene (p-FNB) because of microtherm inhibition of microbial activity. Considering the potential characterization of energy supply for microbial metabolism and spurring microbial activity by electrical stimulation, a bioelectrochemical system (BES) was established to provide sustaining electrical stimulation for p-FNB mineralization at a low temperature. Electrical stimulation facilitated p-FNB treatment and bioelectrochemical reaction rate constants for the removal and defluorination of p-FNB at 10 °C were 0.0931 and 0.0054 h(-1), which were higher than the sums of the rates found using a biological system and an electrocatalytic system by 62.8 and 64.8%, respectively. At a low temperature, microbial activity in terms of dehydrogenase and ATPase was found to be higher with electrical stimulation, being 121.1 and 100.1% more active than that in the biological system. Moreover, stronger antioxidant ability was observed in the BES, which implied a better cold-resistance and relief of microtherm inhibition by electrical stimulation. Bacterial diversity analysis revealed a significant evolution of microbial community by electrical stimulation, and Clostridia was uniquely enriched. One bacterial sequence close to Pseudomonas became uniquely predominant, which appeared to be crucial for excellent p-FNB treatment performance in the BES at a low temperature. Economic evaluation revealed that the energy required to mineralize an extra mole of p-FNB was found to be 247 times higher by heating the system than by application of electrical stimulation. These results indicated that application of electrical stimulation is extremely promising for treating refractory waste at low temperatures. PMID:25575889

  20. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol® by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. Results: At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P < 0.01) while serum minerals and ALP concentrations showed no significant difference. The treatment group had dramatically decreased biomarkers and increased BMD than OVX group (P < 0.01). Histomorphometry analysis showed worse bone microarchitecture parameters in the OVX group compared with the SHAM group which were significantly improved in the treatment group compared with the OVX group (P < 0.01). Discussion and conclusion: Pycnogenol® (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention. PMID:26379883

  1. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Is Bound in the ADAR2 Core and Required for RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Macbeth, Mark R.; Schubert, Heidi L.; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Lingam, Arunth T.; Hill, Christopher P.; Bass, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    We report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human ADAR2, an RNA editing enzyme, at 1.7 angstrom resolution. The structure reveals a zinc ion in the active site and suggests how the substrate adenosine is recognized. Unexpectedly, inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is buried within the enzyme core, contributing to the protein fold. Although there are no reports that adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) require a cofactor, we show that IP6 is required for activity. Amino acids that coordinate IP6 in the crystal structure are conserved in some adenosine deaminases that act on transfer RNA (tRNA) (ADATs), related enzymes that edit tRNA. Indeed, IP6 is also essential for in vivo and in vitro deamination of adenosine 37 of tRNAala by ADAT1. PMID:16141067

  2. Stereo- and regiospecificity of yeast phytases-chemical synthesis and enzymatic conversion of the substrate analogues neo- and L-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Adelt, Stephan; Podeschwa, Michael; Dallmann, Guido; Altenbach, Hans-Josef; Vogel, Günter

    2003-02-01

    Phytases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate esters in myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytic acid). The precise routes of enzymatic dephosphorylation by phytases of the yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia rhodanensis have been investigated up to the myo-inositol trisphosphate level, including the absolute configuration of the intermediates. Stereoselective assignment of the myo-inositol pentakisphosphates (D-myo-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate and D-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate) generated was accomplished by a new method based on enantiospecific enzymatic conversion and HPLC analysis. Via conduritol B or E derivatives the total syntheses of two epimers of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, neo-inositol hexakisphosphate and L-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate were performed to examine the specificity of the yeast phytases with these substrate analogues. A comparison of kinetic data and the degradation pathways determined gave the first hints about the molecular recognition of inositol hexakisphosphates by the enzymes. Exploitation of the high stereo- and regiospecificity observed in the dephosphorylation of neo- and L-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate made it possible to establish enzyme-assisted steps for the synthesis of D-neo-inositol 1,2,5,6-tetrakisphosphate, L-chiro-inositol 1,2,3,5,6-pentakisphosphate and L-chiro-inositol 1,2,3,6-tetrakisphosphate. PMID:12697168

  3. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-1 interacts with perilipin1 to modulate lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Sarbani; Tyagi, Richa; Zhu, Qingzhang; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2016-09-01

    Lipolysis leads to the breakdown of stored triglycerides (TAG) to release free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol which is utilized by energy expenditure pathways to generate energy. Therefore, a decrease in lipolysis augments fat accumulation in adipocytes which promotes weight gain. Conversely, if lipolysis is not complemented by energy expenditure, it leads to FFA induced insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Thus, lipolysis is under stringent physiological regulation, although the precise mechanism of the regulation is not known. Deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-1 (IP6K1), the major inositol pyrophosphate biosynthetic enzyme, protects mice from high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and insulin resistance. IP6K1-KO mice are lean due to enhanced energy expenditure. Therefore, IP6K1 is a target in obesity and type-2 diabetes. However, the mechanism/s by which IP6K1 regulates adipose tissue lipid metabolism is yet to be understood. Here, we demonstrate that IP6K1-KO mice display enhanced basal lipolysis. IP6K1 modulates lipolysis via its interaction with the lipolytic regulator protein perilipin1 (PLIN1). Furthermore, phosphorylation of IP6K1 at a PKC/PKA motif modulates its interaction with PLIN1 and lipolysis. Thus, IP6K1 is a novel regulator of PLIN1 mediated lipolysis. PMID:27373682

  4. Structure-Function Analysis of Inositol Hexakisphosphate-induced Autoprocessing in Clostridium difficile Toxin A

    SciTech Connect

    Pruitt, Rory N.; Chagot, Benjamin; Cover, Michael; Chazin, Walter J.; Spiller, Ben; Lacy, D. Borden

    2009-09-25

    The action of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B depends on inactivation of host small G-proteins by glucosylation. Cellular inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) induces an autocatalytic cleavage of the toxins, releasing an N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain into the host cell cytosol. We have defined the cysteine protease domain (CPD) responsible for autoprocessing within toxin A (TcdA) and report the 1.6 {angstrom} x-ray crystal structure of the domain bound to InsP6. InsP6 is bound in a highly basic pocket that is separated from an unusual active site by a {beta}-flap structure. Functional studies confirm an intramolecular mechanism of cleavage and highlight specific residues required for InsP6-induced TcdA processing. Analysis of the structural and functional data in the context of sequences from similar and diverse origins highlights a C-terminal extension and a {pi}-cation interaction within the {beta}-flap that appear to be unique among the large clostridial cytotoxins.

  5. Autoinhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and activation by soluble inositol hexakisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Vogan, Erik M; Nocka, Laura M; Rosen, Connor E; Zorn, Julie A; Harrison, Stephen C; Kuriyan, John

    2015-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a Tec-family tyrosine kinase, is essential for B-cell function. We present crystallographic and biochemical analyses of Btk, which together reveal molecular details of its autoinhibition and activation. Autoinhibited Btk adopts a compact conformation like that of inactive c-Src and c-Abl. A lipid-binding PH-TH module, unique to Tec kinases, acts in conjunction with the SH2 and SH3 domains to stabilize the inactive conformation. In addition to the expected activation of Btk by membranes containing phosphatidylinositol triphosphate (PIP3), we found that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), a soluble signaling molecule found in both animal and plant cells, also activates Btk. This activation is a consequence of a transient PH-TH dimerization induced by IP6, which promotes transphosphorylation of the kinase domains. Sequence comparisons with other Tec-family kinases suggest that activation by IP6 is unique to Btk. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06074.001 PMID:25699547

  6. Potentiometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of 3d transition metal ions with inositol hexakisphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, Nicolás; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos; Torres, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Among myo-inositol phosphates, the most abundant in nature is the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6. Although it is known to be vital to cell functioning, the biochemical research into its metabolism needs chemical and structural analysis of all the protonation, complexation and precipitation processes that it undergoes in the biological media. In view of its high negative charge at physiological level, our group has been leading a thorough research into the InsP6 chemical and structural behavior in the presence of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions essential for life. The aim of this article is to extend these studies, dealing with the chemical and structural features of the InsP6 interaction with biologically relevant 3d transition metal ions (Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)), in a non-interacting medium and under simulated physiological conditions. The metal-complex stability constants were determined by potentiometry, showing under ligand-excess conditions the formation of mononuclear species in different protonation states. Under metal ion excess, polymetallic species were detected for Fe(II), Fe(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II). Additionally, the 31P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic studies provided interesting structural aspects of the strong metal ion-InsP6 interaction.

  7. INOSITOL HEXAKISPHOSPHATE MEDIATES APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST ADENOCARCINOMA MCF-7 CELL LINE VIA INTRINSIC PATHWAY

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Ali, Nawab

    2010-04-12

    Inositol polyphosphates (InsP{sub s}) are naturally occurring compounds ubiquitously present in plants and animals. Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP{sub 6}) is the most abundant among all InsP{sub s} and constitutes the major portion of dietary fiber in most cereals, legumes and nuts. Certain derivatives of InsP{sub s} also regulate cellular signaling mechanisms. InsP{sub s} have also been shown to reduce tumor formation and induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, the effects of InsPs on apoptosis were studied in an attempt to investigate their potential anti-cancer therapeutic application and understand their mechanism of action. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining suggested that InsP{sub 6} dose dependently induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Among InsP{sub s} tested (InsP{sub 3}, InsP{sub 4}, InsP{sub 5}, and InsP{sub 6}), InsP{sub 6} was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, effects of InsP{sub 6} were found most potent inducing apoptosis. Etoposide, the drug known to induce apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro, was used as a positive control. Western blotting experiments using specific antibodies against known apoptotic markers suggested that InsP{sub 6} induced apoptotic changes were mediated via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  8. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Mediates Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cell Line via Intrinsic Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Ali, Nawab

    2010-04-01

    Inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) are naturally occurring compounds ubiquitously present in plants and animals. Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) is the most abundant among all InsPs and constitutes the major portion of dietary fiber in most cereals, legumes and nuts. Certain derivatives of InsPs also regulate cellular signaling mechanisms. InsPs have also been shown to reduce tumor formation and induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, the effects of InsPs on apoptosis were studied in an attempt to investigate their potential anti-cancer therapeutic application and understand their mechanism of action. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining suggested that InsP6 dose dependently induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Among InsPs tested (InsP3, InsP4, InsP5, and InsP6), InsP6 was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, effects of InsP6 were found most potent inducing apoptosis. Etoposide, the drug known to induce apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro, was used as a positive control. Western blotting experiments using specific antibodies against known apoptotic markers suggested that InsP6 induced apoptotic changes were mediated via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  9. Enhanced Dissolution and Transformation of ZnO Nanoparticles: The Role of Inositol Hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xionghan; Yan, Yupeng; Wan, Biao; Li, Wei; Jaisi, Deb P; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Fan

    2016-06-01

    The toxicity, reactivity, and behavior of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) released in the environment are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP), a common organic phosphate, may interact with NPs and generate new transformation products. In this study, the role of IHP in mediating the dissolution and transformation of ZnO NPs was investigated in the laboratory kinetic experiments using powder X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The results indicate that IHP shows a dissolution-precipitation effect, which is different from citrate and EDTA that only enhances Zn dissolution. The enhanced dissolution and transformation of ZnO NPs by IHP (<0.5 h) is found to be strikingly faster than that induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi, > 3.0 h) at pH 7.0, and the reaction rate increases with decreasing pH and increasing IHP concentration. Multitechnique analyses reveal that interaction of ZnO NPs with IHP induces rapid transformation of ZnO NPs into zinc phytate complexes initially and poorly crystalline zinc phytate-like (Zn-IHP) phase finally. Additionally, ZnO NPs preferentially react with IHP and transform to Zn-IHP when Pi and IHP concurrently coexist in a system. Overall, results from this study contribute to an improved understanding of the role of organic phosphates (e.g., IHP) in the speciation and structural transformation of ZnO NPs, which can be leveraged for remediation of ZnO-polluted water and soils. PMID:27159895

  10. Synthesis of Biotinylated Inositol Hexakisphosphate To Study DNA Double-Strand Break Repair and Affinity Capture of IP6-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chensong; Summerlin, Matthew; Bruzik, Karol S; Hanakahi, Leslyn

    2015-10-20

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a soluble inositol polyphosphate, which is abundant in mammalian cells. Despite the participation of IP6 in critical cellular functions, few IP6-binding proteins have been characterized. We report on the synthesis, characterization, and application of biotin-labeled IP6 (IP6-biotin), which has biotin attached at position 2 of the myo-inositol ring via an aminohexyl linker. Like natural IP6, IP6-biotin stimulated DNA ligation by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in vitro. The Ku protein is a required NHEJ factor that has been shown to bind IP6. We found that IP6-biotin could affinity capture Ku and other required NHEJ factors from human cell extracts, including the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4, and XLF. Direct binding studies with recombinant proteins show that Ku is the only NHEJ factor with affinity for IP6-biotin. DNA-PKcs, XLF, and the XRCC4:ligase IV complex interact with Ku in cell extracts and likely interact indirectly with IP6-biotin. IP6-biotin was used to tether streptavidin to Ku, which inhibited NHEJ in vitro. These proof-of-concept experiments suggest that molecules like IP6-biotin might be used to molecularly target biologically important proteins that bind IP6. IP6-biotin affinity capture experiments show that numerous proteins specifically bind IP6-biotin, including casein kinase 2, which is known to bind IP6, and nucleolin. Protein binding to IP6-biotin is selective, as IP3, IP4, and IP5 did not compete for binding of proteins to IP6-biotin. Our results document IP6-biotin as a useful tool for investigating the role of IP6 in biological systems. PMID:26397942

  11. Synthesis of an inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) affinity probe to study the interactome from a colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yin, Meng-Xin; Catimel, Bruno; Gregory, Mark; Condron, Melanie; Kapp, Eugene; Holmes, Andrew B; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-14

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 or IP6) is an important signalling molecule in vesicular trafficking, neurotransmission, immune responses, regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases, activation of ion channels, antioxidant functions and anticancer activities. An IP6 probe was synthesised from myo-inositol via a derivatised analogue, which was immobilised through a terminal amino group onto Dynabeads. Systematic analysis of the IP6 interactome has been performed using the IP6 affinity probe using cytosolic extracts from the LIM1215 colonic carcinoma cell line. LC/MS/MS analysis identified 77 proteins or protein complexes that bind to IP6 specifically, including AP-2 complex proteins and β-arrestins as well as a number of novel potential IP6 interacting proteins. Bioinformatic enrichment analysis of the IP6 interactome reinforced the concept that IP6 regulates a number of biological processes including cell cycle and division, signal transduction, intracellular protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport and RNA splicing. PMID:26840369

  12. Determination of neo- and D-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate in soils by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Cheesman, Alexander W; Godage, H Yasmin; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-05-01

    The inositol phosphates are an abundant but poorly understood group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the environment. Four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) occur, although for three of these (scyllo, neo, and D-chiro) the origins, dynamics, and biological function remain unknown, due in large part to analytical limitations in their measurement in environmental samples. We synthesized authentic neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) and used them to identify signals from these compounds in three soils from the Falkland Islands. Both compounds resisted hypobromite oxidation and gave quantifiable (31)P NMR signals at δ = 6.67 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 4-equatorial/2-axial conformer of neo-IP(6)) and δ = 6.48 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 2-equatorial/4-axial conformer of D-chiro-IP(6)) in soil extracts. Inositol hexakisphosphate accounted for 46-54% of the soil organic phosphorus, of which the four stereoisomers constituted, on average, 55.9% (myo), 32.8% (scyllo), 6.1% (neo), and 5.2% (D-chiro). Reappraisal of the literature based on the new signal assignments revealed that neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) occur widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These results confirm that the inositol phosphates can constitute a considerable fraction of the organic phosphorus in soils and reveal the prevalence of neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) in the environment. The hypobromite oxidation and solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of all four IP(6) stereoisomers in environmental samples and provides a platform for research into the origins and ecological significance of these enigmatic compounds. PMID:22489788

  13. Lactic Acid and Thermal Treatments Trigger the Hydrolysis of Myo-Inositol Hexakisphosphate and Modify the Abundance of Lower Myo-Inositol Phosphates in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Deckardt, Kathrin; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2014-01-01

    Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance. PMID:24967651

  14. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization through post-nucleation shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Joshua; Miura, Robert

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are present at high concentrations throughout body fluids - at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. We adapted mean-field classical nucleation theory to the case of surface-shielding in order to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues. Mathematical Biosciences Institute, NSF DMS-1021818, National Institutes of Health, Rehab Medicine.

  15. MEPE-Derived ASARM Peptide Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Impairs Mineralization in Tooth Models of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S.; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnès; McKee, Marc D.; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide − a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization − derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic

  16. Biphasic silica/apatite co-mineralized collagen scaffolds stimulate osteogenesis and inhibit RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Jiao; Niu, Li-na; Li, Qi-hong; Chen, Fa-ming; Zhao, Wei; Li, Jun-jie; Chen, Ji-hua; Cutler, Christopher W; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a biphasic mineralized collagen scaffold (BCS) containing intrafibrillar silica and apatite on osteogenesis of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) and inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis were investigated in the present study. mMSCs were cultured by exposing to BCS for 7 days for cell proliferation/viability examination, and stimulated to differentiate in osteogenic medium for 7–21 days for evaluation of alkaline phosphatase activity, secretion of osteogenic deposits and expression of osteoblast lineage-specific phenotypic markers. The effect of BCS-conditioned mMSCs on osteoclastogenesis of RAW 264.7 cells was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and resorption pit analysis. The contributions of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathways to osteogenesis of mMSCs and their osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL expressions were also evaluated. Compared with unmineralized, intrafibrillarly-silicified or intrafibrillarly-calcified collagen scaffolds, BCS enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mMSCs by activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK)/MAPK and p38/MAPK signaling pathways. After mMSCs were exposed to BCS, they up-regulated OPG expression and down-regulated RANKL expression through activation of the p38/MAPK and PI3K/ protein kinase B (Akt) pathways, resulting in inhibition of the differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells into multinucleated osteoclasts and reduction in osteoclast function. These observations collectively suggest that BCS has the potential to be used in bone tissue engineering when the demand for anabolic activities is higher than catabolic metabolism during the initial stage of wound rehabilitation. PMID:25792280

  17. Size-dependent sorption of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and orthophosphate on nano-γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yupeng; Koopal, Luuk K; Li, Wei; Zheng, Anmin; Yang, Jun; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2015-08-01

    The effects of particle size (5, 35 and 70nm) on the sorption of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) and inorganic phosphate (KH2PO4, Pi) on γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles were investigated using batch sorption experiments, zeta potential measurements and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The results show that the maximum sorption densities (μmolm(-2)) for IHP and Pi increase with decreasing γ-Al2O3 particle size. The sorption affinity of γ-Al2O3 for IHP and Pi generally increases with decreasing particle size, and the sorption affinity for IHP is approximately one order of magnitude greater than that for Pi. In our experimental time scale, surface complexation is the main mechanism for IHP and Pi sorption on large size γ-Al2O3. While an additional surface precipitation mechanism, indicated by solid-state (31)P and (27)Al NMR data, is partly responsible for the greater sorption density on very small size γ-Al2O3. Compared with Pi, the effect of particle size on the sorption of IHP is more pronounced. The results suggest a size-dependent surface reactivity of Al2O3 nanoparticles with Pi/IHP. The underlying mechanism will also be relevant for other small nanosize (hydr)oxide particles and is important for our understanding of the role of small nanoparticles in controlling the mobility and fate of organic and inorganic phosphates in the environment. PMID:25890116

  18. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) generated by IP5K mediates cullin-COP9 signalosome interactions and CRL function.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Paul C; Ding, Yan; Liu, Zhiqing; Xu, Jing; Mao, Haibin; Barrow, James C; Wei, Ning; Zheng, Ning; Snyder, Solomon H; Rao, Feng

    2016-03-29

    The family of cullin-RING E3 Ligases (CRLs) and the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN) form dynamic complexes that mediate ubiquitylation of 20% of the proteome, yet regulation of their assembly/disassembly remains poorly understood. Inositol polyphosphates are highly conserved signaling molecules implicated in diverse cellular processes. We now report that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a major physiologic determinant of the CRL-CSN interface, which includes a hitherto unidentified electrostatic interaction between the N-terminal acidic tail of CSN subunit 2 (CSN2) and a conserved basic canyon on cullins. IP6, with an EC50 of 20 nM, acts as an intermolecular "glue," increasing cullin-CSN2 binding affinity by 30-fold, thereby promoting assembly of the inactive CRL-CSN complexes. The IP6 synthase, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase (IPPK/IP5K) binds to cullins. Depleting IP5K increases the percentage of neddylated, active Cul1 and Cul4A, and decreases levels of the Cul1/4A substrates p27 and p21. Besides dysregulating CRL-mediated cell proliferation and UV-induced apoptosis, IP5K depletion potentiates by 28-fold the cytotoxic effect of the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924. Thus, IP5K and IP6 are evolutionarily conserved components of the CRL-CSN system and are potential targets for cancer therapy in conjunction with MLN4924. PMID:26976604

  19. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization by calcium phosphate through post-nucleation shielding by fetuin-A.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joshua C; Miura, Robert M

    2016-04-21

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are usually present at high concentrations throughout bodily fluids-at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this manuscript, we extend mean-field continuum classical nucleationtheory of the growth of clusters to encompass surface shielding. We use this formulation to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. We develop a mathematical description of this phenomenon using a countable system of hyperbolic partial differential equations. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system. PMID:27389239

  20. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization by calcium phosphate through post-nucleation shielding by fetuin-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Joshua C.; Miura, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are usually present at high concentrations throughout bodily fluids—at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this manuscript, we extend mean-field continuum classical nucleation theory of the growth of clusters to encompass surface shielding. We use this formulation to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. We develop a mathematical description of this phenomenon using a countable system of hyperbolic partial differential equations. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system.

  1. Deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) reduces cell migration and invasion, conferring protection from aerodigestive tract carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Jadav, Rathan S; Kumar, Dharmika; Buwa, Natasha; Ganguli, Shubhra; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi R; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-08-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), a family of enzymes found in all eukaryotes, are responsible for the synthesis of 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) from inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Three isoforms of IP6Ks are found in mammals, and gene deletions of each isoform lead to diverse, non-overlapping phenotypes in mice. Previous studies show a facilitatory role for IP6K2 in cell migration and invasion, properties that are essential for the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, IP6K2 also has an essential role in cancer cell apoptosis, and mice lacking this protein are more susceptible to the development of aerodigestive tract carcinoma upon treatment with the oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Not much is known about the functions of the equally abundant and ubiquitously expressed IP6K1 isoform in cell migration, invasion and cancer progression. We conducted a gene expression analysis on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking IP6K1, revealing a role for this protein in cell receptor-extracellular matrix interactions that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Consequently, cells lacking IP6K1 manifest defects in adhesion-dependent signaling, evident by lower FAK and Paxillin activation, leading to reduced cell spreading and migration. Expression of active, but not inactive IP6K1 reverses migration defects in IP6K1 knockout MEFs, suggesting that 5-IP7 synthesis by IP6K1 promotes cell locomotion. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration support the ability of cancer cells to achieve their complete oncogenic potential. Cancer cells with lower IP6K1 levels display reduced migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. When fed an oral carcinogen, mice lacking IP6K1 show reduced progression from epithelial dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. Thus, our data reveal that like IP6K2, IP6K1 is also involved in early cytoskeleton remodeling events during cancer progression. However, unlike IP6K2, IP6K1 is essential for 4NQO

  2. Inhibited Wnt Signaling Causes Age-Dependent Abnormalities in the Bone Matrix Mineralization in the Apert Syndrome FGFR2S252W/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Peng; Chen, Lin; Weng, Tujun; Zhang, Shichang; Zhou, Xia; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Luchuan

    2015-01-01

    Apert syndrome (AS) is a type of autosomal dominant disease characterized by premature fusion of the cranial sutures, severe syndactyly, and other abnormalities in internal organs. Approximately 70% of AS cases are caused by a single mutation, S252W, in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). Two groups have generated FGFR2 knock-in mice Fgfr2S252W/+ that exhibit features of AS. During the present study of AS using the Fgfr2S252W/+ mouse model, an age-related phenotype of bone homeostasis was discovered. The long bone mass was lower in 2 month old mutant mice than in age-matched controls but higher in 5 month old mutant mice. This unusual phenotype suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), which are vital to maintain bone homeostasis, might be involved. BMSCs were isolated from Fgfr2S252W/+ mice and found that S252W mutation could impair osteogenic differentiation BMSCs but enhance mineralization of more mature osteoblasts. A microarray analysis revealed that Wnt pathway inhibitors SRFP1/2/4 were up-regulated in mutant BMSCs. This work provides evidence to show that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is inhibited in both mutant BMSCs and osteoblasts, and differentiation defects of these cells can be ameliorated by Wnt3a treatment. The present study suggested that the bone abnormalities caused by deregulation of Wnt pathway may underlie the symptoms of AS. PMID:25693202

  3. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of a myo-inositol hexakisphosphate gelated polyaniline hydrogel in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kwang-Hsiao; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Changjian; Yu, Tong; Shang, Tao; Huang, Chen; Zhou, Min; Liu, Cheng; Ran, Feng; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Pan, Lijia

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in understanding the interaction between electricity and cells/biomolecules have generated great interest in developing biocompatible electrically conductive materials. In this study, we investigated the biocompatibility of a myo-inositol hexakisphosphate gelated polyaniline hydrogel using in vitro and in vivo experiments in a rat model. The polyaniline hydrogel was used to coat a polycaprolactone scaffold and was cultured with rat endothelial progenitor cells differentiated from rat adipose-derived stem cells. Compared with the control sample on a pristine polycaprolactone scaffold, the treated polyaniline hydrogel had the same non-poisonous/cytotoxicity grade, enhanced cell adhesion, and a higher cell proliferation/growth rate. In implant studies, the polyaniline hydrogel sample induced milder inflammatory responses than did the control at the same time points. Combining the advantages of a biocompatible hydrogel and an organic conductor, the inositol phosphate-gelated polyaniline hydrogel could be used in bioelectronics applications such as biosensors, neural probes, cell stimulators, medical electrodes, tissue engineering, and electro-controlled drug delivery.

  4. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of a myo-inositol hexakisphosphate gelated polyaniline hydrogel in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kwang-Hsiao; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Changjian; Yu, Tong; Shang, Tao; Huang, Chen; Zhou, Min; Liu, Cheng; Ran, Feng; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Pan, Lijia

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the interaction between electricity and cells/biomolecules have generated great interest in developing biocompatible electrically conductive materials. In this study, we investigated the biocompatibility of a myo-inositol hexakisphosphate gelated polyaniline hydrogel using in vitro and in vivo experiments in a rat model. The polyaniline hydrogel was used to coat a polycaprolactone scaffold and was cultured with rat endothelial progenitor cells differentiated from rat adipose-derived stem cells. Compared with the control sample on a pristine polycaprolactone scaffold, the treated polyaniline hydrogel had the same non-poisonous/cytotoxicity grade, enhanced cell adhesion, and a higher cell proliferation/growth rate. In implant studies, the polyaniline hydrogel sample induced milder inflammatory responses than did the control at the same time points. Combining the advantages of a biocompatible hydrogel and an organic conductor, the inositol phosphate-gelated polyaniline hydrogel could be used in bioelectronics applications such as biosensors, neural probes, cell stimulators, medical electrodes, tissue engineering, and electro-controlled drug delivery. PMID:27073144

  5. Formations of hydroxyapatite and inositol hexakisphosphate in poultry litter during the composting period: sequential fractionation, P K-edge XANES and solution (31)P NMR investigations.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Takamoto, Akira; Kikkawa, Ren; Murakami, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Noriko

    2014-05-20

    Little is known about how the solubility and chemical speciation of phosphorus (P) in poultry litters are altered during the composting period. This study investigated the quantitative and qualitative changes in organic P (Po) and inorganic P (Pi) compositions in poultry litters during the seven-day composting period using sequential extraction in combination with P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result of sequential extraction illustrated that the significant decrease of H2O-P by 55% in poultry litters occurred concomitantly with the increase of HCl-Pi and HCl-Po during the composting period (p < 0.05). X-ray diffraction results for poultry litter samples showed three distinct peaks indicative of hydroxyapatite. Phosphorus K-edge XANES confirmed the increase of hydroxyapatite during the composting period, corresponding to the increase of HCl-Pi determined by the sequential extraction. The NaOH-EDTA extraction for solution (31)P NMR revealed that myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) constituted about 80% of phosphate monoesters and was increased from 16 to 28% in the poultry litter during the composting period. The combined applications of chemical extraction and molecular-spectroscopic techniques determined that water-soluble P in poultry litter was transformed into less soluble phases, primarily hydroxyapatite and IHP, during the composting period. PMID:24735189

  6. Inhibition of Pref-1 (Preadipocyte Factor 1) by Estradiol in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa is Associated with Improvement in Lumbar Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Faje, Alexander T.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Katzman, Debra; Miller, Karen K; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Mendes, Nara; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are amenorrheic and have decreased bone mass accrual and low bone mineral density (BMD). The regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is an important factor governing bone formation. Preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1), an inhibitor of adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation, is elevated in states of estrogen deficiency. In this study, we aim to (i) investigate effects of transdermal estradiol on Pref-1 in adolescent girls with AN, and (ii) examine associations of changes in Pref-1 with changes in lumbar BMD and bone turnover markers. Design Adolescent girls with AN and normal-weight controls were studied cross-sectionally. Girls with AN were examined longitudinally in a double-blind study and received transdermal estradiol (plus cyclic medroxyprogesterone) or placebo for twelve months. Patients 69 girls (44 with AN, 25 normal-weight controls) 13–18 years were studied at baseline; 22 AN girls were followed prospectively. Measurements Pref-1 levels, bone formation and resorption markers, and BMD. Results Pref-1 levels decreased in girls with AN after treatment with transdermal estradiol compared with placebo (−0.015±0.016 vs. 0.060±0.026 ng/ml, p=0.01), although at baseline, levels did not differ in AN versus controls (0.246±0.015 vs. 0.267±0.022 ng/ml). Changes in Pref-1 over twelve months correlated inversely with changes in lumbar BMD (r=−0.48, p=0.02) and positively with changes in CTX (r=0.73, p=0.006). Conclusions For the first time, we show that Pref-1 is negatively regulated by estradiol in adolescent girls with AN. Inhibition of Pref-1 may mediate the beneficial effects of transdermal estradiol replacement on BMD in girls with AN. PMID:23331192

  7. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development. PMID:26259185

  8. Contribution of polymorphic variation of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3 (IP6K3) gene promoter to the susceptibility to late onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Crocco, Paolina; Saiardi, Adolfo; Wilson, Miranda S; Maletta, Raffaele; Bruni, Amalia C; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2016-09-01

    Maintenance of electric potential and synaptic transmission are energetically demanding tasks that neuronal metabolism must continually satisfy. Inability to fulfil these energy requirements leads to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. A prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease is in fact neuronal glucose hypometabolism. Thus understanding the fine control of energetic metabolism might help to understand neurodegenerative disorders. Recent research has indicated that a novel class of signalling molecules, the inositol pyrophosphates, act as energy sensors. They are able to alter the balance between mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic flux, ultimately affecting the cellular level of ATP. The neuronal inositol pyrophosphate synthesis relies on the activity of the neuron enriched inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3 (IP6K3) enzyme. To verify an involvement of inositol pyrophosphate signalling in neurodegenerative disorders, we performed tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of the IP6K3 gene in patients with familial and sporadic late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Two SNPs in the 5'-flanking promoter region of the IP6K3 gene were found to be associated with sporadic LOAD. Characterizing the functionality of the two polymorphisms by luciferase assay revealed that one of them (rs28607030) affects IP6K3 promoter activity, with the G allele showing an increased activity. As the same allele has a beneficial effect on disease risk, this may be related to upregulation of IP6K3 expression, with a consequent increase in inositol pyrophosphate synthesis. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence for a contribution of genetic variability in the IP6K3 gene to LOAD pathogenesis. PMID:27345265

  9. Solution behaviour of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in the presence of multivalent cations. Prediction of a neutral pentamagnesium species under cytosolic/nuclear conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres, Julia; Domínguez, Sixto; Cerdá, M Fernanda; Obal, Gonzalo; Mederos, Alfredo; Irvine, Robin F; Díaz, Alvaro; Kremer, Carlos

    2005-03-01

    myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) is an ubiquitous and abundant molecule in the cytosol and nucleus of eukaryotic cells whose biological functions are incompletely known. A major hurdle for studying the biology of InsP6 has been a deficiency of a full understanding of the chemistry of its interaction with divalent and trivalent cations. This deficiency has limited our appreciation of how it remains in solution within cells, and the likely degree to which it might interact in vivo with physiologically important cations such as Ca2+ and Fe3+. We report here the initial part of the description of the InsP6-multivalent cation chemistry, including its solution equilibria studied by high resolution potentiometry and (for the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple) cyclic voltammetry. InsP6 forms anionic complexes of high affinities and 1:1 stoichiometry with Mg(II), Ca(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II). Of particular importance is the observation that, in the exceptional case of Mg(II), InsP6 forms the species [Mg5(H2L)] (L representing fully deprotonated InsP6); this soluble neutral species is predicted to be the predominant form of InsP6 under nuclear or cytosolic conditions in animal cells. Contrary to previous suggestions, InsP6 is predicted not to interact with cytosolic calcium even when calcium is increased during signalling events. In vitro, InsP6 also forms high affinity 1:1 complexes with Fe(III) and Al(III). However, our data predict that in the biological context of excess free Mg(II), neither Fe(III) nor Fe(II) are complexed by InsP6. PMID:15708805

  10. Mineralization by Inhibitor Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Price, Paul A.; Toroian, Damon; Lim, Joo Eun

    2009-01-01

    One of our goals is to understand the mechanisms that deposit mineral within collagen fibrils, and as a first step we recently determined the size exclusion characteristics of the fibril. This study revealed that apatite crystals up to 12 unit cells in size can access the water within the fibril, whereas molecules larger than a 40-kDa protein are excluded. Based on these observations, we proposed a novel mechanism for fibril mineralization: that macromolecular inhibitors of apatite growth favor fibril mineralization by selectively inhibiting crystal growth in the solution outside of the fibril. To test this mechanism, we developed a system in which crystal formation is driven by homogeneous nucleation at high calcium phosphate concentration and the only macromolecule in solution is fetuin, a 48-kDa inhibitor of apatite growth. Our experiments with this system demonstrated that fetuin determines the location of mineral growth; in the presence of fetuin mineral grows exclusively within the fibril, whereas in its absence mineral grows in solution outside the fibril. Additional experiments showed that fetuin is also able to localize calcification to the interior of synthetic matrices that have size exclusion characteristics similar to those of collagen and that it does so by selectively inhibiting mineral growth outside of these matrices. We termed this new calcification mechanism “mineralization by inhibitor exclusion,” the selective mineralization of a matrix using a macromolecular inhibitor of mineral growth that is excluded from that matrix. Future studies will be needed to evaluate the possible role of this mechanism in bone mineralization. PMID:19414589

  11. The effect of 5alpha-reductase inhibition with finasteride and dutasteride on bone mineral density in older men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mačukat, Indira Radin; Spanjol, Josip; Orlič, Zeljka Crncevič; Butorac, Marta Zuvič; Marinovič, Marin; Ćupič, Dora Fučkar

    2014-09-01

    Testosterone is converted to dihyrotestosterone by two isoenzymes of 5alpha-reductase. Finasteride and dutasteride are 5alpha-reductase inhibitors commonly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We compared indices of bone mineral density in 50 men treated with finasteride, 50 men treated with dutasteride and 50 men as control. Bone mineral density of spine and hip were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring serum osteocalcin and bone resorptionby measuring serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 1. In addition serum total testosteron and estradiol were determined. The dutasteride group had significantly higher mean bone min- eral density, mean bone mineral content, mean T score, mean Z score at femoral neck and mean total hip Z score than control. Mean total testosterone and estradiol levels were higher in the dutasteride group. There were no significant dif- ferences between the groups in lumbar spine bone density parameters or bone turnover markers. Our results provide evidence that long-term 5alpha-reductase suppression does not adversely affect bone mineral density. Dutasteride therapy could have beneficial effect on bone density. PMID:25507347

  12. The effect of 5alpha-reductase inhibition with finasteride and dutasteride on bone mineral density in older men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mačukat, Indira Radin; Spanjol, Josip; Orlič, Zeljka Crncevič; Butorac, Marta Zuvič; Marinovič, Marin; Ćupič, Dora Fučkar

    2014-09-01

    Testosterone is converted to dihyrotestosterone by two isoenzymes of 5alpha-reductase. Finasteride and dutasteride are 5alpha-reductase inhibitors commonly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We compared indices of bone mineral density in 50 men treated with finasteride, 50 men treated with dutasteride and 50 men as control. Bone mineral density of spine and hip were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring serum osteocalcin and bone resorptionby measuring serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 1. In addition serum total testosteron and estradiol were determined. The dutasteride group had significantly higher mean bone min- eral density, mean bone mineral content, mean T score, mean Z score at femoral neck and mean total hip Z score than control. Mean total testosterone and estradiol levels were higher in the dutasteride group. There were no significant dif- ferences between the groups in lumbar spine bone density parameters or bone turnover markers. Our results provide evidence that long-term 5alpha-reductase suppression does not adversely affect bone mineral density. Dutasteride therapy could have beneficial effect on bone density. PMID:25420363

  13. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mineral Chart KidsHealth > For Teens > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size en ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  14. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  15. Fetuin-A/Albumin-Mineral Complexes Resembling Serum Calcium Granules and Putative Nanobacteria: Demonstration of a Dual Inhibition-Seeding Concept

    PubMed Central

    Young, David; Young, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite

  16. Fetuin-A/albumin-mineral complexes resembling serum calcium granules and putative nanobacteria: demonstration of a dual inhibition-seeding concept.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, John D

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite

  17. A Mineral-Rich Red Algae Extract Inhibits Polyp Formation and Inflammation in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Mice on a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum (Pallas), could be used as a dietary supplement for chemoprevention against colon polyp formation. Sixty C57bl/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet. One group received a low-fat, rodent chow diet (AIN76A). The second group received a high-fat “Western style” diet (HFWD). The third group was fed the same HFWD with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement. Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Autopsies were performed at the time of death or at the completion of the study. To summarize, the cumulative mortality rate was higher in mice on the HFWD during the 15 month period (55%) than in mice from the low-fat diet or the extract-supplemented high-fat diet groups (20% and 30%, respectively; p<0.05 with respect to both). Autopsies revealed colon polyps in 20% of the animals on the HFWD and none in animals of the other two groups (p<0.05). In addition to the grossly visible polyps, areas of hyperplasia in the colonic mucosa and inflammatory foci throughout the gastrointestinal tract were observed histologically in animals on the high-fat diet. Both were significantly reduced in animals on the low-fat diet and animals on the extract-supplemented HFWD. These data suggest that the mineral-rich algae extract may provide a novel approach to chemoprevention in the colon. PMID:20150219

  18. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  19. Deep sea minerals prolong life span of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by compensatory augmentation of the IGF-I-survival signaling and inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Pai, Pei-Ying; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lin, Jing-Ying; Wen, Su-Ying; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-07-01

    Consumption of deep sea minerals (DSM), such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium, is known to reduce hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac-apoptosis and provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. Heart diseases develop as a lethal complication among diabetic patients usually due to hyperglycemia-induced cardiac-apoptosis that causes severe cardiac-damages, heart failure, and reduced life expectancy. In this study, we investigated the potential of DSM and its related cardio-protection to increase the life expectancy in diabetic rats. In this study, a heart failure rat model was developed by using streptozotocin (65 mg kg(-1) ) IP injection. Different doses of DSM-1× (37 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), 2× (74 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) and 3× (111 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), were administered to the rats through gavages for 4 weeks. The positive effects of DSM on the survival rate of diabetes rats were determined with respect to the corresponding effects of MgSO4 . Further, to understand the mechanism by which DSM enhances the survival of diabetic rats, their potential to regulate cardiac-apoptosis and control cardiac-dysfunction were examined. Echocardiogram, tissue staining, TUNEL assay, and Western blotting assay were used to investigate modulations in the myocardial contractile function and related signaling protein expression. The results showed that DSM regulate apoptosis and complement the cardiomyocyte proliferation by enhancing survival mechanisms. Moreover DSM significantly reduced the mortality rate and enhanced the survival rate of diabetic rats. Experimental results show that DSM administration can be an effective strategy to improve the life expectancy of diabetic subjects by improving cardiac-cell proliferation and by controlling cardiac-apoptosis and associated cardiac-dysfunction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 769-781, 2016. PMID:25727812

  20. Mineral Quantification.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  1. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  2. Leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Zeadin, Melec G.; Butcher, Martin K.; Shaughnessy, Stephen G.; Werstuck, Geoff H.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation of primary smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leptin regulates the expression of genes involved in osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutively active GSK-3{beta} attenuates leptin-induced osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This suggests that leptin signals through GSK-3{beta} to promote osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: In this study, we begin to investigate the underlying mechanism of leptin-induced vascular calcification. We found that treatment of cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) with leptin (0.5-4 {mu}g/ml) induced osteoblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that leptin significantly increased the mRNA expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, while down-regulating matrix gla protein (MGP) expression in BASMCs. Key factors implicated in osteoblast differentiation, including members of the Wnt signaling pathway, were examined. Exposure to leptin enhanced phosphorylation of GSK-3{beta} on serine-9 thereby inhibiting activity and promoting the nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin. Transfection of BASMCs with an adenovirus that expressed constitutively active GSK-3{beta} (Ad-GSK-3{beta} S9A) resulted in a >2-fold increase in GSK-3{beta} activity and a significant decrease in leptin-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In addition, qRT-PCR analysis showed that GSK-3{beta} activation resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, but a marked increase in MGP mRNA expression. When taken together, our results suggest a mechanism by which leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation and vascular calcification in vivo.

  3. Super pharmacological levels of calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3) inhibits mineral deposition and decreases cell proliferation in a strain dependent manner in chicken mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vivek V; Chousalkar, Kapil C; Bhanugopan, Marie S; Quinn, Jane C

    2015-11-01

    The biologically active form of vitamin D₃, calcitriol (1,25-(OH)₂D₃), plays a key role in mineral homeostasis and bone formation and dietary vitamin D₃deficiency is a major cause of bone disorders in poultry. Supplementary dietary cholecalciferol (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-OH), the precursor of calcitriol, is commonly employed to combat this problem; however, dosage must be carefully determined as excess dietary vitamin D can cause toxicity resulting in a decrease in bone calcification, hypercalcinemia and renal failure. Despite much research on the therapeutic administration of dietary vitamin D in humans, the relative sensitivity of avian species to exogenous vitamin D has not been well defined. In order to determine the effects of exogenous 1,25-(OH)₂D₃during avian osteogenesis, chicken bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were exposed to varying doses of 1,25-(OH)₂D₃during in vitro osteogenic differentiation and examined for markers of early proliferation and osteogenic induction. Similar to humans and other mammals, poultry BM-MSCs were found to be highly sensitive to exogenous 1,25-(OH)₂D₃with super pharmacological levels exerting significant inhibition of mineralization and loss of cell proliferation in vitro. Strain related differences were apparent, with BM-MCSs derived from layers strains showing a higher level of sensitivity to 1,25-(OH)₂D₃than those from broilers. These data suggest that understanding species and strain specific sensitivities to 1,25-(OH)₂D₃is important for optimizing bone health in the poultry industry and that use of avian BM-MSCs are a useful tool for examining underlying effects of genetic variation in poultry. PMID:26500277

  4. Super pharmacological levels of calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3) inhibits mineral deposition and decreases cell proliferation in a strain dependent manner in chicken mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vivek V.; Chousalkar, Kapil C.; Bhanugopan, Marie S.; Quinn, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    The biologically active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3), plays a key role in mineral homeostasis and bone formation and dietary vitamin D3 deficiency is a major cause of bone disorders in poultry. Supplementary dietary cholecalciferol (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-OH), the precursor of calcitriol, is commonly employed to combat this problem; however, dosage must be carefully determined as excess dietary vitamin D can cause toxicity resulting in a decrease in bone calcification, hypercalcinemia and renal failure. Despite much research on the therapeutic administration of dietary vitamin D in humans, the relative sensitivity of avian species to exogenous vitamin D has not been well defined. In order to determine the effects of exogenous 1,25-(OH)2D3 during avian osteogenesis, chicken bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were exposed to varying doses of 1,25-(OH)2D3 during in vitro osteogenic differentiation and examined for markers of early proliferation and osteogenic induction. Similar to humans and other mammals, poultry BM-MSCs were found to be highly sensitive to exogenous 1,25-(OH)2D3 with super pharmacological levels exerting significant inhibition of mineralization and loss of cell proliferation in vitro. Strain related differences were apparent, with BM-MCSs derived from layers strains showing a higher level of sensitivity to 1,25-(OH)2D3 than those from broilers. These data suggest that understanding species and strain specific sensitivities to 1,25-(OH)2D3 is important for optimizing bone health in the poultry industry and that use of avian BM-MSCs are a useful tool for examining underlying effects of genetic variation in poultry. PMID:26500277

  5. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  6. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  7. The behaviour of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in the presence of magnesium(II) and calcium(II): protein-free soluble InsP6 is limited to 49 microM under cytosolic/nuclear conditions.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Nicolás; Torres, Julia; Domínguez, Sixto; Mederos, Alfredo; Irvine, Robin F; Díaz, Alvaro; Kremer, Carlos

    2006-11-01

    Progress in the biology of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) has been delayed by the lack of a quantitative description of its multiple interactions with divalent cations. Our recent initial description of these [J. Torres, S. Dominguez, M.F. Cerda, G. Obal, A. Mederos, R.F. Irvine, A. Diaz, C. Kremer, J. Inorg. Biochem. 99 (2005) 828-840] predicted that under cytosolic/nuclear conditions, protein-free soluble InsP(6) occurs as Mg(5)(H(2)L), a neutral complex that exists thanks to a significant, but undefined, window of solubility displayed by solid Mg(5)(H(2)L).22H(2)O (L is fully deprotonated InsP(6)). Here we complete the description of the InsP(6)-Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) system, defining the solubilities of the Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) (Ca(5)(H(2)L).16H(2)O) solids in terms of K(s0)=[M(2+)](5)[H(2)L(10-)], with pK(s0)=32.93 for M=Mg and pK(s0)=39.3 for M=Ca. The concentration of soluble Mg(5)(H(2)L) at 37 degrees C and I=0.15M NaClO(4) is limited to 49muM, yet InsP(6) in mammalian cells may reach 100muM. Any cytosolic/nuclear InsP(6) in excess of 49muM must be protein- or membrane-bound, or as solid Mg(5)(H(2)L).22H(2)O, and any extracellular InsP(6) (e.g. in plasma) is surely protein-bound. PMID:16920196

  8. The behaviour of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in the presence of magnesium(II) and calcium(II): Protein-free soluble InsP6 is limited to 49 μM under cytosolic/nuclear conditions

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Nicolás; Torres, Julia; Domínguez, Sixto; Mederos, Alfredo; Irvine, Robin F.; Díaz, Alvaro; Kremer, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Progress in the biology of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) has been delayed by the lack of a quantitative description of its multiple interactions with divalent cations. Our recent initial description of these [J. Torres, S. Dominguez, M.F. Cerda, G. Obal, A. Mederos, R.F. Irvine, A. Diaz, C. Kremer, J. Inorg. Biochem. 99 (2005) 828–840] predicted that under cytosolic/nuclear conditions, protein-free soluble InsP6 occurs as Mg5(H2L), a neutral complex that exists thanks to a significant, but undefined, window of solubility displayed by solid Mg5(H2L) · 22H2O (L is fully deprotonated InsP6). Here we complete the description of the InsP6–Mg2+–Ca2+ system, defining the solubilities of the Mg2+ and Ca2+ (Ca5(H2L) · 16H2O) solids in terms of Ks0 = [M2+]5[H2L10−], with pKs0 = 32.93 for M = Mg and pKs0 = 39.3 for M = Ca. The concentration of soluble Mg5(H2L) at 37 °C and I = 0.15 M NaClO4 is limited to 49 μM, yet InsP6 in mammalian cells may reach 100 μM. Any cytosolic/nuclear InsP6 in excess of 49 μM must be protein- or membrane-bound, or as solid Mg5(H2L) · 22H2O, and any extracellular InsP6 (e.g. in plasma) is surely protein-bound. PMID:16920196

  9. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > For Teens > Vitamins and Minerals Print A ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  10. Inositol pyrophosphates inhibit synaptotagmin-dependent exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Sun; Lee, Joo-Young; Kyung, Jae Won; Yang, Yoosoo; Park, Seung Ju; Lee, Seulgi; Pavlovic, Igor; Kong, Byoungjae; Jho, Yong Seok; Jessen, Henning J; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Tae-Young; Kim, Seyun

    2016-07-19

    Inositol pyrophosphates such as 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) are highly energetic inositol metabolites containing phosphoanhydride bonds. Although inositol pyrophosphates are known to regulate various biological events, including growth, survival, and metabolism, the molecular sites of 5-IP7 action in vesicle trafficking have remained largely elusive. We report here that elevated 5-IP7 levels, caused by overexpression of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) kinase 1 (IP6K1), suppressed depolarization-induced neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells. Conversely, IP6K1 depletion decreased intracellular 5-IP7 concentrations, leading to increased neurotransmitter release. Consistently, knockdown of IP6K1 in cultured hippocampal neurons augmented action potential-driven synaptic vesicle exocytosis at synapses. Using a FRET-based in vitro vesicle fusion assay, we found that 5-IP7, but not 1-IP7, exhibited significantly higher inhibitory activity toward synaptic vesicle exocytosis than IP6 Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), a Ca(2+) sensor essential for synaptic membrane fusion, was identified as a molecular target of 5-IP7 Notably, 5-IP7 showed a 45-fold higher binding affinity for Syt1 compared with IP6 In addition, 5-IP7-dependent inhibition of synaptic vesicle fusion was abolished by increasing Ca(2+) levels. Thus, 5-IP7 appears to act through Syt1 binding to interfere with the fusogenic activity of Ca(2+) These findings reveal a role of 5-IP7 as a potent inhibitor of Syt1 in controlling the synaptic exocytotic pathway and expand our understanding of the signaling mechanisms of inositol pyrophosphates. PMID:27364007

  11. Impacts of dietary calcium, phytate, and nonphytate phosphorus concentrations in the presence or absence of phytase on inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) degradation in different segments of broilers digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Brady, K; Yu, S; Plumstead, P W

    2016-03-01

    A total of 1,440 straight-run Heritage 56M × fast-feathering Cobb 500F broiler birds were fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), nonphytate P (NPP) and phytase concentrations on the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) flow through the different parts of gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The experiment was a 2×2×2×3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%), 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%), 2 nPP (0.28 and 0.45%) and 3 phytase (0-, 500-, and 1,000-phytase unit (FTU)/kg) concentrations. The experiment was replicated twice (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (TRT) of 10 birds per block. Concentration of IP6 in crop, proventriculus (PROV) plus (+) gizzard (GIZ) and distal ileum digesta as well as the ileal IP6 disappearance was determined at 13 d of age. In crop, higher IP6 concentration was seen with increased Ca (P < 0.05). Despite the interaction between PP and phytase, higher dietary PP led to greater IP6 concentration (P < 0.05). Similar main effects of PP and phytase were also seen in Prov+Giz and ileum (P < 0.05) without interactions. Interaction between Ca and nPP on IP6 concentration was seen in Prov+Giz (P < 0.05). Decreased ileal IP6 disappearance was found at higher Ca (62.3% at 0.7% Ca vs. 57.5% at 1.0% Ca; P < 0.05). In general, adding phytase improved IP6 degradation but the degree of impact was dependent on nPP and PP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, phytase inclusion significantly reduced IP6 concentration and IP6 disappearance in distal ileum regardless of GIT segments or diet composition, but impacts of dietary Ca, nPP, and PP differed depending on GIT segment examined. PMID:26740131

  12. Impacts of dietary calcium, phytate, and nonphytate phosphorus concentrations in the presence or absence of phytase on inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) degradation in different segments of broilers digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Li, W.; Angel, R.; Kim, S.-W.; Brady, K.; Yu, S.; Plumstead, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 1,440 straight-run Heritage 56M × fast-feathering Cobb 500F broiler birds were fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), nonphytate P (nPP) and phytase concentrations on the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) flow through the different parts of gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The experiment was a 2×2×2×3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%), 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%), 2 nPP (0.28 and 0.45%) and 3 phytase (0-, 500-, and 1,000-phytase unit (FTU)/kg) concentrations. The experiment was replicated twice (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (Trt) of 10 birds per block. Concentration of IP6 in crop, proventriculus (Prov) plus (+) gizzard (Giz) and distal ileum digesta as well as the ileal IP6 disappearance was determined at 13 d of age. In crop, higher IP6 concentration was seen with increased Ca (P < 0.05). Despite the interaction between PP and phytase, higher dietary PP led to greater IP6 concentration (P < 0.05). Similar main effects of PP and phytase were also seen in Prov+Giz and ileum (P < 0.05) without interactions. Interaction between Ca and nPP on IP6 concentration was seen in Prov+Giz (P < 0.05). Decreased ileal IP6 disappearance was found at higher Ca (62.3% at 0.7% Ca vs. 57.5% at 1.0% Ca; P < 0.05). In general, adding phytase improved IP6 degradation but the degree of impact was dependent on nPP and PP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, phytase inclusion significantly reduced IP6 concentration and IP6 disappearance in distal ileum regardless of GIT segments or diet composition, but impacts of dietary Ca, nPP, and PP differed depending on GIT segment examined. PMID:26740131

  13. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  14. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  15. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  16. Age and disease-related changes in the mineral of bone.

    PubMed

    Grynpas, M

    1993-01-01

    Bone mineralization changes with age and disease. The distribution of mineral particles in a given bone (mineralization profile) has been studied using density fractionation as well as microradiography and electron backscattering imaging. The biological determinant of mineralization is the rate of turnover. During rapid growth and periods of high remodeling, mineralization is shifted towards lower mineral density (hypomineralization). During aging and periods of low remodeling, mineralization is shifted towards higher mineral densities (hypermineralization). Chemicals can also influence the mineralization profile of bone. Fluoride induces hypermineralization by stabilizing the apatite lattice and reducing bone mineral solubility, whereas strontium induces hypomineralization by loosening the apatite lattice and increasing bone mineral solubility. Drugs such as bisphosphonates induce hypermineralization by inhibiting resorption and acting as crystal poison. Finally, mineralization can be impaired by defects as in rickets and osteomalacia or made excessive by continuous accretion of mineral without resorption as in osteopetrosis. PMID:8275381

  17. Silicate minerals and the interferon system

    SciTech Connect

    Hahon, N.; Booth, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    Natural-occurring minerals representative of six silicate classes were examined for their influence on interferon induction by influenza virus in Rhesus monkey kidney (LLC-MK/sub 2/) cell monolayers. Minerals within the classes nesosilicate, sorosilicate, cyclosilicate, and inosilicate exhibited either little or marked (50% or greater) inhibition of interferon induction. Within the inosilicate class, however, minerals of the pyroxenoid group (wollastonite, pectolite, and rhodonite) all significantly showed a two- to threefold increase in interferon production. Silicate materials in the phyllosilicate and tectosilicate classes all showed inhibitory activity for the induction process. When silicate minerals were coated with the polymer poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide), the inhibitory activity of silicates on viral interferon induction was counteracted. Of nine randomly selected silicate minerals, which inhibited viral interferon induction, none adversely affected the ability of exogenous interferon to confer antiviral cellular resistance. Increased levels of influenza virus multiplication concomitant with decreased levels of interferon occurred in cell monolayers pretreated with silicates. The findings of this study demonstrate the diverse effects of minerals representative of different silicate classes on the interferon system and indicate that certain silicates in comprising the viral interferon induction process may increase susceptibility to viral infection.

  18. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  19. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  20. Mineral particles, mineral fibers, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

    1985-08-01

    The total fibrous and nonfibrous mineral content of the lung has been analyzed in a series of 14 men with lung cancer but no history of occupational dust exposure, and in a series of 14 control men matched for age, smoking history, and general occupational class. The lung cancer patients had an average of 525 +/- 369 X 10(6) exogenous mineral particles and 17.4 +/- 19.6 X 10(6) exogenous mineral fibers/g dry lung, while the controls had averages of 261 +/- 175 mineral particles and 4.7 +/- 3.2 X 10(6) mineral fibers/g dry lung. These differences are statistically significant for both particles and fibers. Kaolinite, talc, mica, feldspars, and crystalline silica comprised the majority of particles of both groups. Approximately 90% of the particles were smaller than 2 micron in diameter and approximately 60% smaller than 1 micron. In both groups, patients who had smoked more than 35 pack years had greater numbers of particles than patients who had smoked less than 35 pack years. It is concluded that, in this study, lungs from patients with lung cancer had statistically greater numbers of mineral particles and fibers than lungs from controls, and that smoking influences total long-term retention of particles from all sources.

  1. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    formed extensive biofilms or flocs that contained U and V in the exopolymer, but excluded these metals from the bacteria. This suggests a specific mechanism to inhibit metal sorption to cell wall components. The example illustrates the interplay between bacteria and minerals under conditions that model oligotrophic survival, and provides insight on U mobilization from common uranium ore minerals.

  2. The Effect of 5α-Reductase Inhibition With Dutasteride and Finasteride on Bone Mineral Density, Serum Lipoproteins, Hemoglobin, Prostate Specific Antigen and Sexual Function in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Amory, John K.; Anawalt, Bradley D.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Clark, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dutasteride and finasteride are 5α-reductase inhibitors that dramatically decrease serum levels of dihydrotestosterone. Because androgens affect bone, lipids, hematopoiesis, prostate and sexual function, we determined the impact of 5α-reductase inhibitors on these end points. Materials and Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial of 99 men 18 to 55 years old randomly assigned to receive 0.5 mg dutasteride (33), 5 mg finasteride (34) or placebo (32) daily for 1 year. Bone mineral density was measured at baseline, after 1 year of treatment and 6 months after drug discontinuation. In addition, markers of bone turnover, fasting serum lipoprotein concentrations, hemoglobin and prostate specific antigen were measured at baseline, after 26 and 52 weeks of treatment, and again 24 weeks after drug discontinuation. Sexual function was assessed at these points by a validated questionnaire. Results Significant suppression of circulating dihydrotestosterone levels with the administration of dutasteride or finasteride did not significantly affect bone mineral density or markers of bone metabolism. Similarly serum lipoproteins and hemoglobin were unaffected. Serum prostate specific antigen and self-assessed sexual function decreased slightly during treatment with both 5α-reductase inhibitors but returned to baseline during followup. Conclusions Profound suppression of circulating serum dihydrotestosterone induced by 5α-reductase inhibitors during 1 year does not adversely impact bone, serum lipoproteins or hemoglobin, and has a minimal, reversible effect on serum prostate specific antigen and sexual function in normal men. Circulating dihydrotestosterone does not appear to have a clinically significant role in modulating bone mass, hematopoiesis or lipid metabolism in normal men. PMID:18423697

  3. Developing Seeds of Arabidopsis Store Different Minerals in Two Types of Vacuoles and in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Otegui, Marisa S.; Capp, Roberta; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Mineral-accumulating compartments in developing seeds of Arabidopsis were studied using high-pressure-frozen/freeze-substituted samples. Developing seeds store minerals in three locations: in the protein storage vacuoles of the embryo, and transiently in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuolar compartments of the chalazal endosperm. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and enzyme treatments suggest that the minerals are stored as phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) salts in all three compartments, although they differ in cation composition. Whereas embryo globoids contain Mg, K, and Ca as cations, the chalazal ER deposits show high levels of Mn, and the chalazal vacuolar deposits show high levels of Zn. The appearance of the first Zn-phytate crystals coincides with the formation of network-like extensions of the chalazal vacuoles. The core of these networks consists of a branched network of tubular ER membranes, which are separated from the delineating tonoplast membranes by a layer of cytosolic material. Degradation of the networks starts with the loss of the cytosol and is followed by the retraction of the ER, generating a network of collapsed tonoplast membranes that are resorbed. Studies of fertilized fis2 seeds, which hyperaccumulate Zn-phytate crystals in the chalazal vacuolar compartments, suggest that only the intact network is active in mineral sequestration. Mineral determination analysis and structural observations showed that Zn and Mn are mobilized from the endosperm to the embryo at different developmental stages. Thus, Zn appears to be removed from the endosperm at the late globular stage, and Mn stores appear to be removed at the late bent-cotyledon stage of embryo development. The disappearance of the Mn-phytate from the endosperm coincides with the accumulation of two major Mn binding proteins in the embryo, the 33-kD protein from the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II and the Mn superoxide dismutase. The possible

  4. Mineral homeostasis and regulation of mineralization processes in the skeletons of sharks, rays and relatives (Elasmobranchii).

    PubMed

    Dean, Mason N; Ekstrom, Laura; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Ballantyne, Jim; Witten, P Eckhard; Riley, Cyrena; Habraken, Wouter; Omelon, Sidney

    2015-10-01

    Sharks, rays and other elasmobranch fishes are characterized by a skeletal type that is unique among living vertebrates, comprised predominantly of an unmineralized cartilage, covered by a thin outer layer of sub-millimeter, mineralized tiles called tesserae. The mineralized portion of the skeleton appears to grow only by apposition, adding material at the edges of each tessera; maintenance of non-mineralized joints between tesserae is therefore vital, with precise control of mineral deposition and inhibition at the many thousands of growth fronts in the skeleton. Yet, we have only scattered evidence as to how the elasmobranchs mineralize and grow their skeletons. In this review, we take an "environment to skeleton" approach, drawing together research from a vast range of perspectives to track calcium and phosphate from the typical elasmobranch habitats into and through the body, to their deposition at tesseral growth fronts. In the process, we discuss the available evidence for skeletal resorption capability, mineral homeostasis hormones, and nucleation inhibition mechanisms. We also outline relevant theories in crystal nucleation and typical errors in measurements of serum calcium and phosphate in the study of vertebrate biology. We assemble research that suggests consensus in some concepts in elasmobranch skeletal development, but also highlight the very large gaps in our knowledge, particularly in regards to endocrine functional networks and biomineralization mechanisms. In this way, we lay out frameworks for future directions in the study of elasmobranch skeletal biology with stronger and more comparative links to research in other disciplines and into other taxa. PMID:26546857

  5. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  6. Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching

  7. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  8. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  9. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  10. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  11. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  12. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowatsch, Stefan

    Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within the process are described.

  13. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  14. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2011 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2010 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011 contains new chapters on iron oxide pigments, wollastonite, and zeolites. The chapters on mica (natural), scrap and flake and mica (natural), sheet have been combined into a single chapter - mica (natural). Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. "Appendix C - Reserves and Resources" has been divided into "Part A - Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals" and "Part B - Sources of Reserves Data," including some information that was previously in this introduction. A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2011 are welcomed.

  15. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  16. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  17. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  18. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  19. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  20. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials

  1. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  2. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  3. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  4. Mineral Commodity Summaries 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  5. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2004-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  7. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  8. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  9. The Miner's Canary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinier, Lani

    2005-01-01

    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  10. Mineralized cyclodextrin nanoparticles for sustained protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, Maharajan; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Park, Jae Hyung

    2013-09-12

    The extensive therapeutic potential of protein drugs has been severely limited by their instability and short biological half-lives in vivo. To prolong their therapeutic effects, a sustained delivery system is required. In this study, cyclodextrin-based polymeric nanoparticles (CD-NPs), mineralized by calcium phosphate as the diffusion barrier, were developed as a carrier for sustained protein delivery. Spherical CD-NPs were readily prepared by a conjugate, composed of β-CD as the protein-binding moiety and carboxymethyl dextran as the substrate for mineralization in a physiological solution. Owing to the presence of carboxylic acids in CD-NPs, they were effectively mineralized by sequential addition of calcium nitrate and ammonium phosphate. The physicochemical characteristics of mineralized CD-NPs were characterized using FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mineralization reduced CD-NP particle size from 310 nm to 121 nm in PBS (pH 7.4) indicating the formation of compact nanoparticles. Carbonic anhydrase B (CAB), chosen as the model protein, was loaded into the mineralized CD-NPs with a high loading efficiency (80%) by a simple dialysis method. In vitro release tests showed that CAB was completely released from bare CD-NPs in 3 days. Interestingly, the mineralized CD-NPs released CAB in a sustained manner for 21 days, which was due to the stable calcium phosphate barrier inhibiting CAB release. The enzymatic activity of CAB, which was released from the nanoparticles, did not significantly deteriorate compared to native CAB. Overall, mineralized CD-NPs could be a promising carrier for sustained protein delivery. PMID:23911496

  11. N-acetyl cysteine inhibits H2O2-mediated reduction in the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells by down-regulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daewoo; Kook, Sung-Ho; Ji, Hyeok; Lee, Seung-Ah; Choi, Ki-Choon; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2015-11-01

    There are controversial findings regarding the roles of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway on bone metabolism under oxidative stress. We investigated how Nrf2/HO-1 pathway affects osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), or both. Exposing the cells to H2O2 decreased the alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium accumulation, and expression of osteoblast markers, such as osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor-2. In contrast, H2O2 treatment increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the cells. Treatment with hemin, a chemical HO-1 inducer, mimicked the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on osteoblast differentiation by increasing the HO-1 expression and decreasing the osteogenic marker genes. Pretreatment with NAC restored all changes induced by H2O2 to near normal levels in the cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that H2O2-mediated activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway negatively regulates the osteoblast differentiation, which is inhibited by NAC. PMID:26303969

  12. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  13. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  14. Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  15. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  16. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  18. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  19. Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  20. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, many nutrients interact with each other. Most nutritionists believe in designing an overall program of supplements. ... SUPPLEMENTS? In addition to vitamins and minerals, some nutritionists suggest that people with HIV take supplements of ...

  1. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances may be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and ... for recovery. Swallowing such poisons can have severe effects on many parts of the body. The ultimate ...

  2. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  3. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  4. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  5. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  6. Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  7. Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  8. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly nonlinear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26347868

  9. Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  10. A materials science vision of extracellular matrix mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznikov, N.; Steele, J. A. M.; Fratzl, P.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    From an engineering perspective, skeletal tissues are remarkable structures because they are lightweight, stiff and tough, yet produced at ambient conditions. The biomechanical success of skeletal tissues is largely attributable to the process of biomineralization — a tightly regulated, cell-driven formation of billions of inorganic nanocrystals formed from ions found abundantly in body fluids. In this Review, we discuss nature's strategies to produce and sustain appropriate biomechanical properties in mineralizing (by the promotion of mineralization) and non-mineralizing (by the inhibition of mineralization) tissues. We review how perturbations of biomineralization are controlled over a continuum that spans from the desirable (or defective in disease) mineralization of the skeleton to pathological cardiovascular mineralization, and to mineralization of bioengineered constructs. A materials science vision of mineralization is presented with an emphasis on the micro- and nanostructure of mineralized tissues recently revealed by state-of-the-art analytical methods, and on how biomineralization-inspired designs are influencing the field of synthetic materials.

  11. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  13. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  14. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  15. Animal...Vegetable...or Mineral?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Eugene

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the problems facing the United States with mineral reserves being depleted, and the consumption of minerals outstripping production. Expresses concern about the deteriorating mineral position, and the ignorance and confusion of the public with respect to mineral production and supply, energy requirements, and environmental consequences.…

  16. [Mineralization of heart valves].

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, M; Pfitzner, R

    1992-01-01

    Mineralization (calcification) of heart valves (mitral, aortic and aortic bioprosthesis) have been analyzed using; histology, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning microscopy, atomic absorption and electron microprobe. Obtained results showed the presence of two type of mineralization. First type is represented by grains composed of hydroxyapatite containing admixture of carbonates. This mineralization is seen macroscopically. Second type of mineralization is possible to determine only using chemical methods. It is represented by biological structures containing amount of Ca, P and other elements higher then normal heart valves. This second type of the mineralization conducts to the changes of physical features of the tissue. Both types of calcification develops because of the defects of atomic structure of biological components of heart valves (mainly collagen). These defects show the presence of free atomic bindings i.e. electric potential. Because of this, they are able to react with surrounding free joints, starting calcification. Defects of biological structures of heart valves are the results of infections, mechanical destruction of the valves etc. Calcification may be stopped on different stages of its development: or as secret calcification or may pass to the stage seen as apatite grains. PMID:1342999

  17. American Strategic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, John H., Jr.; Chidester, Alfred H.

    American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned “to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington.” The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Delaware: “Strategic minerals and world stability” V. Anthony Cammarota, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines: “America's dependence on strategic minerals” John D. Morgan, U.S. Bureau of Mines: “Future demands of the United States for strategic minerals” J. Robert Moore, University of Texas: “Alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed” Allan I. Mendelowitz and John E. Watson, U.S. General Accounting Office: “U.S. mining investments in developing countries” and James W. Curlin, Nautilus Press: “The political dimensions of strategic minerals.”

  18. Advancements for continuous miners

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-06-15

    Design changes and new technology make the modern continuous miner more user friendly. Two of the major manufacturers, Joy Mining Machinery and DBT, both based near Pittsburgh, PA, USA, have recently acquired other OEMs to offer a greater product line. Joy's biggest development in terms of improving cutting time is the FACEBOSS Control System which has an operator assistance element and Joy Surface Reporting Software (JSRP). Joy's WetHead continuous miners have excellent performance. DBT is researching ways to make the machines more reliable with new drive systems. It has also been experimenting with water sprays to improve dust suppression. 4 photos.

  19. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  20. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  1. Continuous miner noise

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.

    1981-08-01

    Noise generated by continuous miners in underground coal production is an important health hazard. Laboratory tests of simulated cutting operations and in-mine noise measurements have been made. These show that coal cutting noise and conveyor noise are the dominant sources of miner operational noise. Typical noise levels for cutting and conveying operations are 97 dBA. For full operation of all machine systems, the overall sound pressure level is approximately 101 dBA. In-mine and laboratory test results show excellent agreement in both A-weighted overall levels as well as A-weighted one-third octave band spectra.

  2. Lignocellulose Mineralization by Arctic Lake Sediments in Response to Nutrient Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Federle, Thomas W.; Vestal, J. Robie

    1980-01-01

    Mineralization of specifically labeled 14C-cellulose- and 14C-lignin-labeled lignocelluloses by Toolik Lake, Alaska, sediments was examined in response to manipulation of various environmental factors. Mineralization was measured by quantifying the amount of labeled CO2 released from the specifically labeled substrates. Nitrogen (NH4NO3) and, to a greater degree, phosphorus (PO4−3) additions enhanced the mineralization of white pine (Pinus strobus) cellulose during the summer of 1978. Nitrogen and phosphorus together had no cumulative effect. During the summer of 1979, nitrogen or phosphorus alone had only a slight stimulatory effect on the mineralization of a sedge (Carex aquatilis) cellulose; however, together, they had a dramatic effect. This variable response of mineralization to nutrient addition between 1978 and 1979 was probably attributable to year-to-year variation in nutrient availability within the lake. Cellobiose addition and oxygen depletion inhibited the amount of pine cellulose mineralized. Whereas addition of nitrogen to oxygen-depleted treatments had limited effect, addition of phosphorus resulted in mineralizations equal to or greater than that of the controls. Nitrogen had no effect on mineralization of pine or Carex lignins. Phosphorus, however, inhibited mineralization of both lignins. With Carex lignin, the phosphorus inhibition occurred at a concentration as low as 0.1 μM. The antagonistic role of phosphorus in cellulose and lignin mineralizations may be of significance in understanding the increased proportion of lignin relative to cellulose in decomposing litter. PMID:16345594

  3. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  4. Oxalate minerals on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applin, D. M.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Cloutis, E. A.; Goltz, D.; Johnson, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Small amounts of unidentified organic compounds have only recently been inferred on Mars despite strong reasons to expect significant concentrations and decades of searching. Based on X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectroscopic analyses we show that solid oxalic acid and its most common mineral salts are stable under the pressure and ultraviolet irradiation environment of the surface of Mars, and could represent a heretofore largely overlooked reservoir of organic carbon in the martian near-surface. In addition to the delivery to Mars by carbonaceous chondrites, oxalate minerals are among the predicted breakdown products of meteoritic organic matter delivered to the martian surface, as well as any endogenic organic carbon reaching the martian surface from the interior. A reinterpretation of pyrolysis experiments from the Viking, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions shows that all are consistent with the presence of significant concentrations of oxalate minerals. Oxalate minerals could be important in numerous martian geochemical processes, including acting as a possible nitrogen sink (as ammonium oxalate), and contributing to the formation of “organic” carbonates, methane, and hydroxyl radicals.

  5. Identification of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Diane

    2005-01-01

    The lab described in this article was developed to satisfy two major goals. First, the activity is designed to show students the proper techniques used to identify the seven characteristics of all minerals. Second, the lab gives students a glimpse into the life of a professional field geologist. The author has students complete this lab at the end…

  6. Mineral mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Monks, H.

    1980-11-25

    A mineral mining machine hauls itself along a working face by engaging a round link chain. The links of the chain are fed sequentially from link-retaining pockets in a track component arranged around the working face, around a driven sprocket assembly on the machine and returned to the pockets.

  7. Bioleaching of Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    F. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  8. Factors affecting microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene mineralization in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of selected environmental factors on microbial TNT mineralization in soils collected from a TNT-contaminated site at Weldon Spring, MO, was examined using uniformly ring-labeled [14C]TNT. Microbial TNT mineralization was significantly inhibited by the addition of cellobiose and syringate. This response suggests that the indigenous microorganisms are capable of metabolizing TNT but preferentially utilize less recalcitrant substrates when available. The observed inhibition of TNT mineralization by TNT concentrations higher than 100 ??mol/kg of soil and by dry soil conditions suggests that toxic inhibition of microbial activity at high TNT concentrations and the periodic drying of these soils have contributed to the long-term persistence of TNT at Weldon Spring. In comparison to aerobic microcosms, mineralization was inhibited in anaerobic microcosms and in microcosms with a headspace of air amended with oxygen, suggesting that a mosaic of aerobic and anaerobic conditions may optimize TNT degradation at this site.

  9. Minerals yearbook 1977. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report contains chapters on virtually all metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities important to the domestic economy. In addition, it includes a general review chapter on the mineral industries, a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, and a statistical summary.

  10. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  11. Minerals yearbook, 1984. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  12. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Volume I of the 1988 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 79 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines and a statistical summary.

  13. Minerals yearbook, 1985. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the 1985 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  14. Pharmacological inhibition of FTO.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Fiona; Demetriades, Marina; Aik, WeiShen; Merkestein, Myrte; Kramer, Holger; Andrew, Daniel S; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Hough, Tertius A; Wells, Sara; Ashcroft, Frances M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J; Cox, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, a genome wide association study identified a SNP in intron one of the gene encoding human FTO that was associated with increased body mass index. Homozygous risk allele carriers are on average three kg heavier than those homozygous for the protective allele. FTO is a DNA/RNA demethylase, however, how this function affects body weight, if at all, is unknown. Here we aimed to pharmacologically inhibit FTO to examine the effect of its demethylase function in vitro and in vivo as a first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of FTO. We showed that IOX3, a known inhibitor of the HIF prolyl hydroxylases, decreased protein expression of FTO (in C2C12 cells) and reduced maximal respiration rate in vitro. However, FTO protein levels were not significantly altered by treatment of mice with IOX3 at 60 mg/kg every two days. This treatment did not affect body weight, or RER, but did significantly reduce bone mineral density and content and alter adipose tissue distribution. Future compounds designed to selectively inhibit FTO's demethylase activity could be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25830347

  15. Pharmacological Inhibition of FTO

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Fiona; Demetriades, Marina; Aik, WeiShen; Merkestein, Myrte; Kramer, Holger; Andrew, Daniel S.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Hough, Tertius A.; Wells, Sara; Ashcroft, Frances M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Cox, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, a genome wide association study identified a SNP in intron one of the gene encoding human FTO that was associated with increased body mass index. Homozygous risk allele carriers are on average three kg heavier than those homozygous for the protective allele. FTO is a DNA/RNA demethylase, however, how this function affects body weight, if at all, is unknown. Here we aimed to pharmacologically inhibit FTO to examine the effect of its demethylase function in vitro and in vivo as a first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of FTO. We showed that IOX3, a known inhibitor of the HIF prolyl hydroxylases, decreased protein expression of FTO (in C2C12 cells) and reduced maximal respiration rate in vitro. However, FTO protein levels were not significantly altered by treatment of mice with IOX3 at 60 mg/kg every two days. This treatment did not affect body weight, or RER, but did significantly reduce bone mineral density and content and alter adipose tissue distribution. Future compounds designed to selectively inhibit FTO’s demethylase activity could be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25830347

  16. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  17. International minerals: a national perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Seven authors bring a variety of perspectives to the subject of minerals availability. In the domestic area, an overview of the US strategic mineral situation is followed by a discussion of changes in one state's mineral policy decisions over a 200-year period. Later chapters describe the potential of Alaska's mineral resources, with a focus on the immediate need for a thorough inventory of this vast area, and the nature and sources of mineral information available to Canadian policymakers as useful models in making inventories. In the international area, there is a discussion of the key role of South Africa in the world mineral picture and the strategic importance to the Soviet Union of the mineral wealth of Afghanistan. The volume concludes with a review of the history of US mineral policies. Separate abstracts were prepared for the seven chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  18. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, P.D.; Williams, P.L.; Pride, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Metallic and nonmetallic mineral occurrences are abundant in Antarctica. The most significant known deposits are of iron, copper, and coal. In the Precambrian shield of East Antarctica, for example, iron is present as banded iron-formation and as magnetite in veins, pods, and schist. The largest deposits of iron are in the Prince Charles Mountains, where bodies of banded iron-formation at least as thick as 400 m extend, mostly under the ice for at least 120 km. Widely scattered morainal boulders and outcrops of iron-rich rock suggest that undiscovered iron deposits are also distributed over many other parts of East Antarctica. Gondwana reconstructions suggest that many more mineral deposits occur in Antarctica. However, ice covers nearly 98 percent of the continent, and few of the bedrock areas have even been prospected or geologically, geophysically, or geochemically mapped in detail.

  19. Magnetic birefringence of minerals.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Barry R; Wilson, Stephen R; Ridler, Peter J

    2005-01-15

    The earliest reports of magnetically induced optical birefringence included data for liquids, magnetic fluids and colloidal suspensions. Recent work has shown that with relatively straightforward apparatus, when carefully designed and aligned, measurable effects can be recorded even for suspensions of relatively weak diamagnetic materials, including mineral particles. By recording the magnitude of the birefringence induced in magnetic fields of up to two Tesla, a method for the analysis of the magnetic and optical characteristics of these diamagnetic colloids is evidenced. The principles, apparatus and methodology involved are described and novel data reported for the minerals attapulgite, bentonite, hectorite, kaolinite, montmorillonite and vermiculite. Preliminary experiments using pulsed fields on vermiculite sols show that, in favourable circumstances, estimates of particle size can be made by analysing signal response rates. PMID:15571692

  20. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  1. Continuous miner noise

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.; Kovac, J.; Bartholomae, R.

    1981-08-01

    Noise generated by continuous miners in underground coal production is an important health hazard. Bureau of Mines contract J0387229 charters investigation and control of this noise through laboratory tests of simulated cutting operations and through in-mine noise measurements. The results of these investigations indicate that coal cutting noise and conveyor noise are dominant sources of miner operational noise. Typical noise levels for both cutting and conveying operations are approximately 97 dBA. For full operation of all machine systems, the overall sound pressure level is approximately 101 dBA. In-mine and laboratory test results show agreement in both A-weighted overall levels as well as A-weighted one-third octave band spectra. 4 refs.

  2. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cotomacio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P

    2008-08-07

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  3. Reducing miner absenteeism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R.; Randolph, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U. S. Bureau of Mines has prepared this report on strategies for maintaining high job attendance among underground coal miners because high absenteeism is a threat to miners' safety and seriously hampers productivity. A substantial number of research studies on the effectiveness of various strategies for reducing absenteeism among the employees of nonmining industries have been reported in the literature. These strategies have aimed at improving job attendance through one or more of the following: (1) improving employment procedures, (2) overcoming problems that adversely affect one's ability to attend work, and (3) increasing miners' motivation to attend work. Many of these strategies appear applicable to the mining industry, and are reviewed in the first half of this report. The second half of this report describes how one could develop and implement a program for maintaining high attendance at underground coal mines. The steps include measuring and evaluating attendance levels, formulating attendance goals and an absenteeism policy, developing and implementing an attendance promotion program and periodically going through the preceding steps (known as recycling).

  4. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  5. Clay Mineral Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of the orientation of clay minerals, often referred to as texture, may be unique to sediments' deposition, composition, deformation or diagenetic history. The literature is rich with studies that include preferred orientation generation in fault gouge, low-grade metamorphic rocks, sediments with variable clay content and during the smectite-to-illite transformation. Untangling the interplay between many competing factors in any one geologic situation has proven a significant challenge over many years. Understanding how, where and when clay minerals develop a preferred orientation has significant implications for permeability anisotropy in shallow burial, the way mechanical properties are projected from shallower to deeper settings in basin modeling packages and the way velocity anisotropy is accounted for in seismic data processing. The assessment of the anisotropic properties of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks is gaining significant momentum in rock physics research. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of how clay minerals develop a preferred orientation in space and time is crucial to the understanding of anisotropy of physical properties. The current study brings together a wealth of data that may be used in a predictive sense to account for fabric anisotropy that may impact any number of rock properties.

  6. Titanium minerals for new materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, O.; Ozhogina, E.; Ponaryadov, A.; Golubeva, I.

    2016-04-01

    The mineral composition of titanium minerals of modern coastal-marine placer in Stradbroke Island (Australia) and Pizhma paleoplacer in Middle Timan (Russia) has been presented. The physical features of titanium minerals and their modification methods were shown. Photocatalysts on the basis of the Pizhma leucoxene were developed for water purification.

  7. Major issues in miner health.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    1998-01-01

    As recently as the last few decades, thousands of miners died in explosions, roof collapses, fires, and floods each year, and lung disease caused by inhaling mineral dusts was ubiquitous. Miners worked virtually unprotected, and were often treated as expendable bodies fulfilling critical roles in this important industry, which in the United States comprises about 5% of the gross domestic product. PMID:9799195

  8. Minerals yearbook, 1991. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Mineral, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials and nonrenewable organic materials also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 and 1990 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on nonferrous metals recycling has been initiated in this 1991 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  9. Minerals yearbook, 1992. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral and materials industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials, nonrenewable organic materials, and nonferrous metals recycling also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989, 1990, and 1991 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on materials recycling has been initiated in this 1992 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  10. Cr isotope fractionation in metal-mineral-microbe interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiong; Porcelli, Don; Thompson, Ian; Amor, Ken; Galer, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Microbes interact with metals and minerals in the environments, altering their physical and chemical state whilst in turn the metals and minerals affect microbial growth, activity and survival. The interactions between Cr, Fe minerals and bacteria were investigated in this study. Cr(VI) reduction experiments by two iron-reducing bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300 and Shewanella oneidensis MR 1, in the presence of two iron oxide minerals, goethite and hematite, were conducted. Both minerals were found to inhibit the Cr(VI) reduction rate by Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300 but accelerated Shewanella oneidensis MR 1. The Cr isotopic fractionation factor generated by both bacteria was mostly independent of the presence of the minerals, except for hematite with Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300, where the ɛ was much higher. Aqueous Fe(III) in the solution did not have any detectable impact on either bacterial Cr reduction rates or the isotopic fractionation factors, indicating that the reduction of Cr(VI) occurred prior to that of Fe(III). The presence of aqueous Fe(II) induced a very fast abiotic reduction of Cr, but had little impact on the bacterial Cr reduction rates or its isotope fractionations. The evidence suggests that the different impact that Fe minerals had on the bacteria were related to the way they attached to the minerals and the difference in the reduction mechanism. SEM images confirmed that the attachment of Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300 on the mineral surfaces were much more tightly packed than that of Shewanella oneidensis MR 1, so reducing mineral-metal interactions.

  11. FEDERAL MINERAL LAND INFORMATION SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of geographic information systems to combine point, line, and areal data has been widely documented, although the establishment of a particular data base presents its own unique problems. The U. S. Geological Survey is developing a geographic information system consisting of information on Federal surface ownership, Federal subsurface mineral rights, location of actual mineral occurrences and (or) known potential, and formal restrictions to mineral development. By utilizing information already compiled or soon to be collected by other agencies, the Federal Mineral Land Information System should be able to provide answers relating to mineral availability on public lands.

  12. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands:...

  13. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands:...

  14. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands:...

  15. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands:...

  16. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands:...

  17. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

  18. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  19. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  20. Excessive mineralization with growth plate closure in rats on chronic warfarin treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Price, P A; Williamson, M K; Haba, T; Dell, R B; Jee, W S

    1982-01-01

    Rats maintained for 8 months on a level of warfarin sufficient to decrease the vitamin K-dependent protein of bone (bone Gla protein) to 2% of normal have an excessive mineralization disorder characterized by complete fusion of the proximal tibial growth plate and cessation of longitudinal growth. The general features of this abnormality resemble the fetal warfarin syndrome in humans, a disorder also characterized by excessive mineralization of the growth plate. These excessive mineralization disorders may be caused by the decreased levels of bone Gla protein, a protein that potently inhibits mineralization in vitro. Images PMID:6984192

  1. MEPE is a novel regulator of growth plate cartilage mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Staines, K.A.; Mackenzie, N.C.W.; Clarkin, C.E.; Zelenchuk, L.; Rowe, P.S.; MacRae, V.E.; Farquharson, C.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) belongs to the SIBLING protein family which play key roles in biomineralization. Although the growth plates of MEPE-overexpressing mice display severe morphological disruption, the expression and function of MEPE in growth plate matrix mineralization remains largely undefined. Here we show MEPE and its cleavage product, the acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated motif (ASARM) peptide, to be localised to the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate. We also demonstrate that the phosphorylated (p)ASARM peptide inhibits ATDC5 chondrocyte matrix mineralization. Stable MEPE-overexpressing ATDC5 cells also had significantly reduced matrix mineralization in comparison to the control cells. Interestingly, we show that the addition of the non-phosphorylated (np)ASARM peptide promoted mineralization in the ATDC5 cells. The peptides and the overexpression of MEPE did not affect the differentiation of the ATDC5 cells. For a more physiologically relevant model, we utilized the metatarsal organ culture model. We show the pASARM peptide to inhibit mineralization at two stages of development, as shown by histological and μCT analysis. Like in the ATDC5 cells, the peptides did not affect the differentiation of the metatarsals indicating that the effects seen on mineralization are direct, as is additionally confirmed by no change in alkaline phosphatase activity or mRNA expression. In the metatarsal organ cultures, the pASARM peptide also reduced endothelial cell markers and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression. Taken together these results show MEPE to be an important regulator of growth plate chondrocyte matrix mineralization through its cleavage to an ASARM peptide. PMID:22766095

  2. Mineralization (calcification) of coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, M; Pfitzner, R; Wachowiak, J

    1994-01-01

    Mineralogical investigations of calcifications located in coronary vessels were performed on the material obtained from the endarterectomized arteries of 18 patients (15 M, 3 F, aged 36-65) during surgical revascularization procedures consisting in coronary artery bypass grafting. The samples were tested using scanning microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe and neutron activation spectroscopy. The results of analyses were calculated with the use of computer programmes. Two types of mineralization were determined: 1. secret mineralization identified as higher than normal content of elements in biological tissues, not demonstrating any mineral grains, and 2. apparent mineralization, appearing micro- and macroscopically as grains composed mainly of hydroxyapatite containing admixture of carbonate groups, i.e. a mineral identical with apatite present in bones, or as calcification of other tissues (heart valves, lungs etc.). The authors suggest that the phenomenon of mineralization should be taken into consideration in the preventive treatment of coronary atheriosclerosis. PMID:7808039

  3. [Preventing cardiovascular risk in miners].

    PubMed

    Lipatova, L V; Izmailova, O A

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results concerning usage of intravenous laser radiation of blood in miners with cardiovascular diseases. After cardiovascular state assessment, the miners at high cardiovascular risk were subjected to prophylactic procedures with traditional medical treatment added by intravenous laser therapy. Findings are anti-arrhythmic, antihypertensive, antiatherogenic and anti-aggregation effects of complex treatment with intravenous laser radiation of blood in miners at high cardiovascular risk and its subsequent decrease due to treatment. PMID:27265943

  4. Microelectrophoresis of selected mineral particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Alexander, K. D.

    1982-01-01

    Particle mobilities of ilmenite, labradorite plagioclase, enstatite pyroxene, and olivine were measured with a Rank microelectrophoresis system to evaluate indicated mineral separability. Sodium bicarbonate buffer suspension media with and without additives (0.0001 M DTAB and 5 percent v/v ethylene glycol) were used to determine differential adsorption by mineral particles and modification of relative mobilities. Good separability between some minerals was indicated; additives did not enhance separability.

  5. Mineral Time Capsules on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schirber, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Like dinosaur-age insects trapped in amber, biomolecules sequestered in million-year-old sulfate minerals could provide a glimpse into the past, say researchers who've recently analyzed such minerals from N orth America. The same minerals have recently been discovered on Mars , so they may be a good place to look for traces of past life on the red planet, the researchers say.

  6. Minerals Bill introduced in House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A bill that aims to strengthen a national minerals policy and to establish a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of this policy was introduced in the House of Representatives on April 30 by James D. Santini (D-Nev.). Entitled the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), the legislation, if passed, also would amend tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic minerals; it would provide the means for the Secretary of the Interior to make withdrawn public lands available for mineral development; and it would create a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals.Santini estimates that 4 billion tons of minerals are needed annually to sustain the nation's economy. Much of the minerals are supplied by other nations, however; Santini wants to see an end to the United States' dependence on foreign countries, especially those that seem relatively unstable politically. ‘The U.S. has placed its national security in the hands of a few foreign nations,’ Santini said in a recent press conference. ‘We are heavily dependent on the region of southern Africa for 76% of our cobalt, 93% of our platinum, 48% of our chromium, and a host of other strategic and critical minerals. Without these minerals, we cannot build jet aircraft, weapons, or other military hardware vitally important to our national security.’

  7. Computer modelling of minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, C. R. A.; Parker, S. C.

    We review briefly the methodology and achievements of computer simulation techniques in modelling structural and defect properties of inorganic solids. Special attention is paid to the role of interatomic potentials in such studies. We discuss the extension of the techniques to the modelling of minerals, and describe recent results on the study of structural properties of silicates. In a paper of this length, it is not possible to give a comprehensive survey of this field. We shall concentrate on the recent work of our own group. The reader should consult Tossell (1977), Gibbs (1982), and Busing (1970) for examples of other computational studies of inorganic solids. The techniques we discuss are all based on the principle of energy minimization. Simpler, "bridge-buildingrdquo procedures, based on known bond-lengths, of which distance least squares (DLS) techniques are the best known are discussed, for example, in Dempsey and Strens (1974).

  8. Mineral mining machines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgs, R.H.; Nicholls, J.T.; Oven, T.

    1980-06-24

    A mineral mining machine incorporates a guideway defining runs for a cutter chain which carries cutter picks. The guideway is movable as a whole and is formed with runs for the chain. The runs of the guideway are of generally l-shaped cross section, although the invention is not so limited, and have relatively outer and relatively inner supporting guide surfaces for the cutter chain. The relatively inner guide surface is positioned to the rear of the drive member, E.G. A sprocket, for the chain, I.E. Behind the center line of the chain in the cutting direction. The guide surfaces are continuous around the whole of the guideway thus providing continuous support for the chain during the whole of its movement around the guideway.

  9. The Mineral Physics Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineral Physics Committee members for the period July 1, 1986, to J ne 30, 1988, have been announced. They are Murli H. Manghnani (Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, Honolulu), and Orson L. Anderson (University of California, Los Angeles), Thomas J. Ahrens (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.), Subir K. Banerjee (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), William A. Bassett (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.), Gordon E. Brown, Jr. (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.), Michael Brown (University of Washington, Seattle), Robert M. Hazen (Geophysical Laboratory, Washington, D.C.), Raymond F. Jeanloz (University of California, Berkeley), Robert C. Liebermann (State University of New York (SUNY),(Stony Brook), Alexandra Navrotsky (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.), Robert N. Schock (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif.), and Donald J. Weidner (SUNY Stony Brook).

  10. Marine Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, Fren N.

    This book is the forty-first in the Elsevier Oceanography Series, and with it the series has come full circle. Its first title, published in 1964, was John Mero's landmark study The Mineral Resources of the Sea [Mero, 1964]. Looking back at that first major treatise and comparing it with this and other recent books on the topic [e.g., Teleki et al., 1987] one cannot help but be impressed with how well Mero used the sparse data and studies that had been put together by his time. Twenty-two years and many millions of dollars later a substantial mining-oriented base of knowledge has been built — we know much more about the economics and the engineering — yet the basic premises and conclusions that Mero assembled are still intact, and answers to the fundamental questions (e.g., formation processes for manganese nodules) are not in much better condition than they were then.

  11. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Arsuaga, Y.

    1983-07-05

    A mineral mining installation is provided for use in a steeply-inclined longwall working. The installation comprises a ladder-shaped support frame, and a plurality of roof support units. The support frame extends along the entire length of the longwall working, and has a pair of generally parallel longitudinal beams interconnected by a plurality of transverse beams. The roof support units are positioned between the longitudinal beams, and are supported on the transverse beam. Each of the longitudinal beams comprises a plurality of beam sections pivotably connected together end-to-end. The support frame comprises a plurality of detachably connected sub-frames, each of which comprises a respective transverse beam and a respective beam section of each of the longitudinal beams.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.

    1962-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the national Bureau of Standards comprehensive tables of thermochemical properties, by Rossini and other (1952), a very large body of modern calorimetric and equilibrium data has become available. Because of the complex interrelations among many thermochemical data and the necessity for internal consistency among these values, a complete revision of this standard reference is required. This is also true of the summaries of thermochemical data for the sulfides (Richardson and Jeffes 1952) and for the oxides (Coughlin 1954). The following tables present critically selected values for the heat and free energy of formation, the logarithm of the equilibrium constant of formation Log Kf, the entropy and the molar volume, at 298.15°K (25.0°C) and one atmosphere for minerals.

  13. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  14. Minerals yearbook, 1988: Thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Mine production of monazite, the principal source of thorium, decreased slightly in 1988. Associated Minerals (USA) Inc. was the only domestic monazite producer. Monazite produced in the United States was exported, and the thorium products used domestically were derived from imported materials, existing company stocks, and thorium nitrate released from the National Defense Stockpile. Major nonenergy uses were in refractory applications, ceramics, and mantles for incandescent lanterns. The only energy use of thorium in the United States was in the high-temperature gas-cooled (HTGC) nuclear reactor at Fort St. Vrain, CO. Topics discussed in the report include domestic data coverage, legislation and government programs, domestic production, consumption and uses, stocks, prices, foreign trade, world capacity, and world review--(Australia, Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique).

  15. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Robert C.

    2013-04-26

    anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing; 4. An acid-stable red cytochrome with a novel absorbance peak at 579 nm was purified from cell-free extracts of L. ferriphilum. Functional studies demonstrated that this cytochrome was an important component of the aerobic iron respiratory chain in this organism; 5. The specific adhesion of At. ferrooxidans to pyrite is mediated by an extracellular protein that was identified as aporusticyanin. The adhesion of At. ferrooxidans to minerals was characterized by high affinity binding that exhibited a high specificity for pyrite over other sulfide minerals. The principal biopolymer involved in this high-affinity adhesion to pyrite was isolated by mineral affinity chromatography and identified as aporusticyanin. The adhesion of purified aporusticyanin to minerals was observed to adhere to different mineral with a pattern of reactivity identical to that observed with the intact bacterium. Further, preincubation of pyrite with excess exogenous aporusticyanin served to inhibit the adherence of intact cells to the surface of the mineral, indicating that the protein and the cells adhered to the pyrite in a mutually exclusive manner. Taken together, these observations support a model where aporusticyanin located on the surface of the bacterial cell acts as a mineral-specific receptor for the initial adherence of At. ferrooxidans to solid pyrite; 6. The specific adhesion of L. ferriphilum to pyrite was mediated by a different acid-stable extracellular protein than aporusticyanin; and 7. A prototype integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) was assembled to determine whether this novel spectrophotometer could be used to study cellular respiration in situ.

  16. Mineralization of hexachlorocyclohexane in soil during solid-phase bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Theresa M; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T; Seech, Alan G

    2004-06-01

    Soil containing hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) was spiked with (14)C-gamma-HCH and then subjected to bioremediation in bench-scale microcosms to determine the rate and extent of mineralization of the (14)C-labeled HCH to (14)CO(2). The soil was treated using two different DARAMEND amendments, D6386 and D6390. The amendments were previously found to enhance natural HCH bioremediation as determined by measuring the disappearance of parent compounds under either strictly oxic conditions (D6386), or cycled anoxic/oxic conditions (D6390). Within 80 days of the initiation of treatment, mineralization was observed in all of the strictly oxic microcosms. However, mineralization was negligible in the cycled anoxic/oxic microcosms throughout the 275-day study, even after cycling was ceased at 84 days and although significant removal (up to 51%) of indigenous gamma-HCH (146 mg/kg) was detected by GC with electron capture detector. Of the amended, strictly oxic treatments, only one, in which 47% of the spiked (14)C-HCH was recovered as (14)CO(2), enhanced mineralization compared with an unamended treatment (in which 34% recovery was measured). Other oxic treatments involving higher amendment application rates or auxiliary carbon sources were inhibitory to mineralization. Thus, although HCH degradation occurs during the application of either oxic or cycled anoxic/oxic DARAMEND treatments, mineralization of gamma-HCH may be inhibited depending on the amendment and treatment protocol. PMID:15221667

  17. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... FR 80948 (December 23, 2010)]. The original comment period for Release No. 34-63547 is scheduled to... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... 1934 (the ``Exchange Act'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are...

  18. A Mineral Processing Field Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a field course in Cornwall looking at mineral processing with the focus on the chemistry involved. The course was split into two parts. The first looked at tin mining based around Penzance. This involved visiting mines, hunting for mineral samples, carrying out a stream survey and visiting the Camborne School of Mines…

  19. Investigating Minerals: Promoting Integrated Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rudi; Carmack, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    "Mineral Detectives!" is one of eighteen lessons in the "Private Whys?" integrated science unit, which uses a guided inquiry investigation to teach students in grades three through five about the role of minerals in our lives. The University of North Texas developed "Private Whys?" with funding from the Copper Development Association. This lesson…

  20. From Mountain Men to Miners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three of the changes wrought by coal mining: (1) the miner's working conditions; (2) the establishment of company towns; and (3) the violence that ensued when miners from Harlan County, Kentucky, referred to as "Bloody Harlan," tried to better their lives by joining labor unions. (CMK)

  1. Mineral Resources and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of panels created by the Committee on Mineral Resources and the Environment (COMRATE) to study four topic areas of mineral resources and the environment. The topic areas studied by the panels were: technology, supply, the environment, and demand. Section I, the report of the technology panel,…

  2. Ways to defuse miners' anger

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The violence and riots which often occur with mining personnel are considered. The emotions and feelings which miners often experience because of their work environment are dealth with. From recognizing the pressures, the article then works to present methods to help defuse the miners' hostility and anger.

  3. Evaporates, petroleum and mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melvin, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers oxide minerals under the following topics: oxygen fugacity and its petrologic importance; crystal chemistry of oxides and oxyhydroxides; petrogenetic indicators; oxygen barometry of spinel peridotites; iron-titanium oxides in igneous rocks; oxide minerals in metamorphic rocks; and magnetic petrology.

  4. Nitrogen mineralization in production agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the effects of N management and how it relates to the N cycle in soil ecosystems is essential to determining N availability. This manuscript describes the importance of N mineralization to production agriculture and introduces a special issue on “N Mineralization in Production Agricult...

  5. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-08-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by structure type

  6. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  7. Pulmonary complications in lead miners

    SciTech Connect

    Masjedi, M.R.; Estineh, N.; Bahadori, M.; Alavi, M.; Sprince, N.L.

    1989-07-01

    We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of respiratory disease in lead miners and to investigate the roles of silica and lead. We used a questionnaire for symptoms and examinations for signs of respiratory disease, chest roentgenograms, and spirometric study in 45 lead miners. Six underwent bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBB) and five lung lead analysis. Lung lead levels from five patients with no occupational lead exposure were obtained for comparison. Results showed restriction in five of 45 and reticulonodular opacities in 16 of 45 workers. Squamous metaplasia and other histopathologic changes were observed, although silicotic nodules were absent by TBB. Lung lead levels above those of control subjects were observed in four of five lead miners. These findings show that lead miners are at risk for lung disease. Although silica is a likely cause, elevated lung lead content found in these miners merits further investigation.

  8. South Pacific mineral cache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent deep-water sampling of mineral-rich crusts on the seafloor between the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa revealed deposits of cobalt, nickel, and manganese that are richer than previous samples, according to a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Federal Republic of Germany aboard the research vessel S.P. Lee.Thin pieces of crust dredged from a seamount about 260 km northwest of Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef (U.S. territorial possessions roughly midway between Honolulu and American Samoa) had a cobalt concentration of 2.5%, or more than twice the concentration that earlier reconnaissance studies indicated would be found. The rock samples also contained 0.8% nickel and 32% manganese, compared to the estimated concentrations of 0.5% and 25%, respectively. The areas in which the deposits were found are part of the relatively unexplored ocean bottom included in the recently proclaimed 200-nautical-mile U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

  9. Longwall mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.; Beyer, H.

    1982-09-14

    A longwall mineral mining installation comprises a scraper-chain conveyor having a scraper assembly, a first straight conveyor portion extending along the longwall working, a second straight conveyor portion extending along a roadway positioned at one end of the longwall working, and a curved conveyor section connecting the two straight conveyor portions. A guide assembly is provided for guiding the scraper assembly around the curved conveyor section. A guide is fixed to the face side of the first straight conveyor portion, and a winning machine is reciprocable along the guide. A drive station is mounted on the goaf side of the first straight conveyor portion in the region of the curved conveyor section. A drive sprocket is rotatably mounted on the face side of the first straight conveyor portion in said region. The drive sprocket drives the winning machine via a drive chain. A drive shaft drivably connects the drive station and the drive sprocket. The drive station includes a drive motor whose axis of rotation is substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the first straight conveyor portion, and the guide is angled away from the first straight conveyor portion in said region.

  10. Universal ripper miner

    DOEpatents

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A universal ripper miner used to cut, collect and transfer material from an underground mine working face includes a cutter head that is vertically movable in an arcuate cutting cycle by means of drive members, such as hydraulically actuated pistons. The cutter head may support a circular cutter bit having a circular cutting edge that may be indexed to incrementally expose a fresh cutting edge. An automatic indexing system is disclosed wherein indexing occurs by means of a worm gear and indexing lever mechanism. The invention also contemplates a bi-directional bit holder enabling cutting to occur in both the upstroke and the downstroke cutting cycle. Another feature of the invention discloses multiple bits arranged in an in-line, radially staggered pattern, or a side-by-side pattern to increase the mining capacity in each cutting cycle. An on-board resharpening system is also disclosed for resharpening the cutting edge at the end of cutting stroke position. The aforementioned improvement features may be used either singly, or in any proposed combination with each other.

  11. Mineral Commodity Profiles: Selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Brown, R.D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Selenium, which is one of the chalcogen elements in group 16 (or 6A) of the periodic table, is a semiconductor that is chemically similar to sulfur for which it substitutes in many minerals and synthetic compounds. It is a byproduct of copper refining and, to a much lesser extent, lead refining. It is used in many applications, the major ones being a decolorizer for glass, a metallurgical additive to free-machining varieties of ferrous and nonferrous alloys, a constituent in cadmium sulfoselenide pigments, a photoreceptor in xerographic copiers, and a semiconductor in electrical rectifiers and photocells. Refined selenium amounting to more than 1,800 metric tons (t) was produced by 14 countries in 2000. Japan, Canada, the United States, and Belgium, which were the four largest producers, accounted for nearly 85 percent of world production. An estimated 250 t of the world total is secondary selenium, which is recovered from scrapped xerographic copier drums and selenium rectifiers; the selenium in nearly all other uses is dissipated (not recoverable as waste or scrap). The present selenium reserve bases for the United States and the world (including the United States), which are associated with copper deposits, are expected to be able to satisfy demand for selenium for several decades without difficulty.

  12. Miner's rule revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, W.; Heuler, P.

    1994-03-01

    In the first sections, the requirements to be met by hypotheses for fatigue life prediction (including those for the crack initiation and crack propagation phases) are discussed in detail. These requirements are shown to be different for 'scientific' and for 'industrial' fatigue life prediction. Aspects with regard to an assessment of fatigue life prediction hypotheses are discussed. The last section presents the results of a large cooperative program between IABG and several automobile manufacturers, in which Miner's Rule in several versions was assessed against spectrum tests with five different actual automobile components: forged steel stub axle; forged steel stub axle, induction hardened; sheet steel welded rear axle (front wheel drive car); cast aluminum wheel; and welded sheet steel wheel. Since up to 80 components each were available, and two different, but typical, automotive stress-time histories were employed, the assessment was very thorough, avoiding many of the drawbacks of previous assessments. It is shown that damage sums to failure were usually far below 1.0; they also depended on the component in question, the aluminum wheel resulting in the lowest damage sums to failure; the damage sums to failure where always lower for a mild spectrum than for a severe one; and the influence of spectrum variation was predicted best - among the hypotheses tested - by use of a recent proposal of Zenner and Liu.

  13. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, K.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1981-12-29

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (Either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a spring-loaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  14. Mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Weirich, W.

    1984-01-24

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a springloaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  15. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  16. 43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Reclamation Withdrawals § 3816.1 Mineral locations. The Act of April 23, 1932 (47 Stat. 136;...

  17. 43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Reclamation Withdrawals § 3816.1 Mineral locations. The Act of April 23, 1932 (47 Stat. 136;...

  18. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  19. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  20. 43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Reclamation Withdrawals § 3816.1 Mineral locations. The Act of April 23, 1932 (47 Stat. 136;...

  1. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  2. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  3. 43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Reclamation Withdrawals § 3816.1 Mineral locations. The Act of April 23, 1932 (47 Stat. 136;...

  4. Interaction of zinc with dental mineral.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G S; Horay, C P; Stead, W J

    1992-01-01

    As some currently available toothpastes contain zinc compounds, the reaction of zinc with dental mineral and its effect on crystal growth rates were studied using three synthetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (HAP) as being representative of dental mineral. Zinc was readily acquired by all HAP samples in the absence of added calcium, the amount adsorbed being proportional to the HAP surface area; about 9 mumol Zn/m2 was adsorbed at high zinc concentrations. As zinc was acquired, calcium was released, consistent with 1:1 Ca:Zn exchange. Soluble calcium reduced zinc uptake and similarly, calcium post-treatment released zinc. Pretreatment of HAP with 0.5 mM zinc reduced its subsequent ability to undergo seeded crystal growth, as did extracts of a toothpaste containing 0.5% zinc citrate, even in the presence of saliva. The reverse reaction, i.e. displacement of adsorbed zinc by salivary levels of calcium, however, indicates the mechanism by which zinc can reduce calculus formation in vivo by inhibiting plaque mineralisation without adversely affecting the anti-caries effects of fluoride. PMID:1330308

  5. [Mineral water as a cure].

    PubMed

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  6. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  7. Mineral induction by immobilized phosphoproteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, T.; Arsenault, A. L.; Yamauchi, M.; Kuboki, Y.; Crenshaw, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Dentin phosphoproteins are thought to have a primary role in the deposition of mineral on the collagen of dentin. In this study we determined the type of binding between collagen and phosphoproteins necessary for mineral formation onto collagen fibrils and whether the phosphate esters are required. Bovine dentin phosphophoryn or phosvitin from egg yolk were immobilized on reconstituted skin type I collagen fibrils by adsorption or by covalent cross-linking. In some samples the ester phosphate was removed from the covalently cross-linked phosphoproteins by treatment with acid phosphatase. All samples were incubated at 37 degrees C in metastable solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. Reconstituted collagen fibrils alone did not induce mineral formation. The phosphoproteins adsorbed to the collagen fibrils desorbed when the mineralization medium was added, and mineral was not induced. The mineral induced by the cross-linked phosphoproteins was apatite, and the crystals were confined to the surface of the collagen fibrils. With decreasing medium saturation the time required for mineral induction increased. The interfacial tensions calculated for apatite formation by either phosphoprotein cross-linked to collagen were about the same as that for phosphatidic acid liposomes and hydroxyapatite. This similarity in values indicates that the nucleation potential of these highly phosphorylated surfaces is about the same. It is concluded that phosphoproteins must be irreversibly bound to collagen fibrils for the mineralization of the collagen network in solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. The phosphate esters of phosphoproteins are required for mineral induction, and the carboxylate groups are not sufficient.

  8. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  9. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  10. Two inositol hexakisphosphate kinases drive inositol pyrophosphate synthesis in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inositol pyrophosphates are novel cellular signaling molecules with newly discovered roles in energy sensing and metabolic control. Studies in eukaryotes have revealed that these compounds turn over rapidly, and thus only small amounts accumulate. Inositol pyrophosphates have not been the subject of...

  11. Mineral Losses During Extreme Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advisory groups that make recommendations for mineral intakes continue to identify accurate determinations of sweat mineral losses during physical activity as a critical void in their deliberations. Although estimates of sweat mineral concentrations are available, they are highly variable. Practica...

  12. Trace mineral feeding and assessment.

    PubMed

    Swecker, William S

    2014-11-01

    This article gives practitioners an overview of trace mineral requirements, supplementation, and assessment in dairy herds. In addition, a step-by-step guideline for liver biopsy in cows is provided with interpretive results from a sample herd. PMID:25214468

  13. Designing Clothing for Coal Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Susan M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes procedures taken by apparel design students, working in an industrial setting, in designing functional clothing for coal miners as part of the Armco Steel Corporation's Student Design Program. (TA)

  14. Highwall miners pursue thinner seams

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-04-15

    OEMs have implemented design changes to reduce the machine's footprint and to mine more accurately. Three manufacturers offer highwall mining systems, American Highwall Systems (AMS), ICG Addcar and Superior Highwall Miners. Latest developments in their machines are reported. 3 photos.

  15. Regulation of statoconia mineralization in Aplysia californica in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrozo, H. A.; Schwartz, Z.; Dean, D. D.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Boyan, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    Statoconia are calcium carbonate inclusions in the lumen of the gravity-sensing organ, the statocyst, of Aplysia californica. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of carbonic anhydrase and urease in statoconia mineralization in vitro. The experiments were performed using a previously described culture system (Pedrozo et al., J. Comp. Physiol. (A) 177:415-425). Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by acetazolamide decreased statoconia production and volume, while inhibition of urease by acetohydroxamic acid reduced total statoconia number, but had no affect on statoconia volume. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase initially increased and then decreased the statocyst pH, whereas inhibition of urease decreased statocyst pH at all times examined; simultaneous addition of both inhibitors also decreased pH. These effects were dose and time dependent. The results show that carbonic anhydrase and urease are required for statoconia formation and homeostasis, and for regulation of statocyst pH. This suggests that these two enzymes regulate mineralization at least partially through regulation of statocyst pH.

  16. The Zapot pegmatite mineral county

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Soregaroli, A.E.; Gordon, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Zapot pegmatite is currently being mined for mineral specimens (chiefly amazonite, topaz and smoky quartz in miarolitic cavities), for gemstones (topaz and smoky quartz) and for decorative rock (amazonite). The deposit is owned and operated by Harvey Gordon Minerals of Reno, Nevada, and is the only amazonite-topaz mining operation in the state. Thousands of specimens from this operation have reached the collector market.

  17. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ...We are adopting a new form and rule pursuant to Section 1502 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act relating to the use of conflict minerals. Section 1502 added Section 13(p) to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which requires the Commission to promulgate rules requiring issuers with conflict minerals that are necessary to the functionality or production of a......

  18. Mineral of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, often confused with last month’s mineral of the month manganese, is valued primarily because of its light weight and high strength-to-weight ratio. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2 percent of the Earth’s crust. It is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater, with a concentration averaging 0.13 percent. Magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, and also is recovered from seawater, wells, and lake brines and bitterns.

  19. Mineral deposit density; an update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Menzie, W. David; Sutphin, David M.; Mosier, Dan L.; Bliss, James D.; contributions to global mineral resource assessment research edited by Schulz, Klaus J.

    2001-01-01

    A robust method to estimate the number of undiscovered deposits is a form of mineral deposit model wherein numbers of deposits per unit area from well-explored regions are counted and the resulting frequency distribution is used either directly for an estimate or indirectly as a guideline in some other method. The 27 mineral deposit density estimates reported here for 13 different deposit types represent a start at compiling the estimates necessary to guide assessments.

  20. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. derived minerals.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Graf, Kristin H; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2013-12-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5, 12, and 18 months. At each time point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5 months). Cortical bone increased through month 5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5-10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals, but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis-prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  1. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5-months). Cortical bone increased through month-5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5–10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis - prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  2. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  3. Minerals from a strategic viewpoint. [From 1980 Mineral Economics Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.D. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Adequate supplies of virtually all materials, including minerals and food, are essential to national security in the sense that a strong economy is as vital as military strength. The US has recognized the strategic importance of minerals and its vulnerability for over a century, but the problem will intensify with accelerating defense and energy programs. A broad spectrum of nonfuel minerals play a major part in the international commodity trade, giving them political and economic importance. An assessment of US vulnerability in competitive markets must consider the positions of its allies in comparison with the Soviet bloc position. Numerous marginal and submarginal domestic deposits and recovery opportunities have been identified in the event that a defense mobilization becomes necessary through the amended Defense Production Act of 1950, which provides the authority and funding. The government has identified 93 materials with import vulnerability for stockpiling. Other efforts include substitution, accelerated amortization as an investment incentive for domestic mineral exploration and production, and a review of minerals policies affecting allocations and priorities during a supply shortage. 3 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  4. Biomineralization: mineral formation by organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2014-09-01

    Organisms form many different types of minerals, with diverse shapes and sizes. These minerals fulfill a variety of functions. Inspired by the late H A Lowenstam, Steve Weiner and Lia Addadi have addressed many questions that relate to the mechanisms by which biological organisms produce these mineral phases and how their structures relate to their functions. Addadi and Weiner have explored the manner in which macromolecules extracted from mineralized tissues can interact with some crystal planes and not others, how these macromolecules can be occluded inside the forming crystals residing preferentially on specific crystal planes, and how they can induce one polymorph of calcium carbonate and not another to nucleate. Addadi and Weiner have also identified a novel strategy used by the sea urchin to form its smooth and convoluted mineralized skeletal elements. The strategy involves the initial production by cells of a highly disordered mineral precursor phase in vesicles, and then the export of this so-called amorphous phase to the site of skeletal formation, where it crystallizes. This strategy is now known to be used by many different invertebrate phyla, as well as by vertebrates to build bones and teeth. One of the major current research aims of the Weiner--Addadi group is to understand the biomineralization pathways whereby ions are extracted from the environment, are transported and deposited inside cells within vesicles, how these disordered phases are then transferred to the site of skeletal formation, and finally how the so-called amorphous phase crystallizes. Biology has clearly evolved unique strategies for forming crystalline minerals. Despite more than 300 years of research in this field, many challenging questions still remain unanswered.

  5. Synthetic effect between iron oxide and sulfate mineral on the anaerobic transformation of organic substance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian-Hu; Wang, Jin; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Xie, Qiao-Qin; Pan, Min

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic effect between sulfate minerals (gypsum) and iron oxide (hematite) on the anaerobic transformation of organic substance was investigated in the current study. The results showed that gypsum was completely decomposed while hematite was partially reduced. The mineral phase analysis results showed that FeS and CaCO3 was the major mineralization product. Methane generation process was inhibited and inorganic carbon contents in the precipitates were enhanced compared to the control without hematite and gypsum. The inorganic carbon content increased with the increasing of hematite dosages. Co-addition of sulfate minerals and iron oxide would have a potential application prospect in the carbon sequestration area and reduction of the greenhouse gas release. The results would also reveal the role of inorganic mineral in the global carbon cycle. PMID:24189378

  6. Role of mineralization inhibitors in the regulation of hard tissue biomineralization: relevance to initial enamel formation and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Henry C.; Kwak, Seo-Young; Yamazaki, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate mineralized tissues, i.e., enamel, dentin, cementum, and bone, have unique hierarchical structures and chemical compositions. Although these tissues are similarly comprised of a crystalline calcium apatite mineral phase and a protein component, they differ with respect to crystal size and shape, level and distribution of trace mineral ions, the nature of the proteins present, and their relative proportions of mineral and protein components. Despite apparent differences, mineralized tissues are similarly derived by highly concerted extracellular processes involving matrix proteins, proteases, and mineral ion fluxes that collectively regulate the nucleation, growth and organization of forming mineral crystals. Nature, however, provides multiple ways to control the onset, rate, location, and organization of mineral deposits in developing mineralized tissues. Although our knowledge is quite limited in some of these areas, recent evidence suggests that hard tissue formation is, in part, controlled through the regulation of specific molecules that inhibit the mineralization process. This paper addresses the role of mineralization inhibitors in the regulation of biological mineralization with emphasis on the relevance of current findings to the process of amelogenesis. Mineralization inhibitors can also serve to maintain driving forces for calcium phosphate precipitation and prevent unwanted mineralization. Recent evidence shows that native phosphorylated amelogenins have the capacity to prevent mineralization through the stabilization of an amorphous calcium phosphate precursor phase, as observed in vitro and in developing teeth. Based on present findings, the authors propose that the transformation of initially formed amorphous mineral deposits to enamel crystals is an active process associated with the enzymatic processing of amelogenins. Such processing may serve to control both initial enamel crystal formation and subsequent maturation. PMID:25309443

  7. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  8. 43 CFR 3830.10 - Locatable minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locatable minerals. 3830.10 Section 3830..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.10 Locatable minerals....

  9. 1996 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Jill L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifteenth annual report that has been prepared in response to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Current Alaskan mineral projects and events that occurred during 1995 are summarized. For the purpose of this document, the term 'minerals' encompasses both energy resources (oil and gas, coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal) and nonfuel-mineral resources (metallic and industrial minerals).

  10. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  11. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  12. 43 CFR 3830.10 - Locatable minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locatable minerals. 3830.10 Section 3830..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.10 Locatable minerals....

  13. 43 CFR 3861.3 - Mineral surveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral surveyors. 3861.3 Section 3861.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.3 Mineral surveyors....

  14. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  15. 43 CFR 3861.3 - Mineral surveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mineral surveyors. 3861.3 Section 3861.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.3 Mineral surveyors....

  16. 43 CFR 3861.3 - Mineral surveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral surveyors. 3861.3 Section 3861.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.3 Mineral surveyors....

  17. 43 CFR 3861.3 - Mineral surveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral surveyors. 3861.3 Section 3861.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.3 Mineral surveyors....

  18. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  19. 43 CFR 3830.10 - Locatable minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locatable minerals. 3830.10 Section 3830..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.10 Locatable minerals....

  20. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  1. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  2. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  3. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  4. 43 CFR 3830.10 - Locatable minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locatable minerals. 3830.10 Section 3830..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING, AND MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.10 Locatable minerals....

  5. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  6. Portable Radiometer Identifies Minerals in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Machida, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Hand-held optical instrument aids in identifying minerals in field. Can be used in exploration for minerals on foot or by aircraft. The radiometer is especially suitable for identifying clay and carbonate minerals. Radiometer measures reflectances of mineral at two wavelengths, computes ratio of reflectances, and displays ratio to user.

  7. CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF HYDROUS MINERALS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. ZHAO; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Hydrogen has long been appreciated for its role in geological processes of the Earth's crust. However, its role in Earth's deep interior has been neglected in most geophysical thinking. Yet it is now believed that most of our planet's hydrogen may be locked up in high pressure phases of hydrous silicate minerals within the Earth's mantle. This rocky interior (approximately 7/8 of Earth's volume) is conjectured to contain 1-2 orders of magnitude more water than the more obvious oceans (the ''hydrosphere'') and atmosphere. This project is aimed at using the capability of neutron scattering from hydrogen to study the crystal chemistry and stability of hydrogen-bearing minerals at high pressures and temperatures. At the most basic level this is a study of the atomic position and hydrogen bond itself. We have conducted experimental runs on hydrous minerals under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The crystallographic structure of hydrous minerals at extreme conditions and its structural stability, and hydrogen bond at high P-T conditions are the fundamental questions to be addressed. The behavior of the hydrous minerals in the deep interior of the Earth has been discussed.

  8. Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

    This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

  9. Radionuclide release from simulated waste material after biogeochemical leaching of uraniferous mineral samples.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Aimee Lynn; Caron, François; Spiers, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    Biogeochemical mineral dissolution is a promising method for the released of metals in low-grade host mineralization that contain sulphidic minerals. The application of biogeochemical mineral dissolution to engineered leach heap piles in the Elliot Lake region may be considered as a promising passive technology for the economic recovery of low grade Uranium-bearing ores. In the current investigation, the decrease of radiological activity of uraniferous mineral material after biogeochemical mineral dissolution is quantified by gamma spectroscopy and compared to the results from digestion/ICP-MS analysis of the ore materials to determine if gamma spectroscopy is a simple, viable alternative quantification method for heavy nuclides. The potential release of Uranium (U) and Radium-226 ((226)Ra) to the aqueous environment from samples that have been treated to represent various stages of leaching and passive closure processes are assessed. Dissolution of U from the solid phase has occurred during biogeochemical mineral dissolution in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, with gamma spectroscopy indicating an 84% decrease in Uranium-235 ((235)U) content, a value in accordance with the data obtained by dissolution chemistry. Gamma spectroscopy data indicate that only 30% of the (226)Ra was removed during the biogeochemical mineral dissolution. Chemical inhibition and passivation treatments of waste materials following the biogeochemical mineral dissolution offer greater protection against residual U and (226)Ra leaching. Pacified samples resist the release of (226)Ra contained in the mineral phase and may offer more protection to the aqueous environment for the long term, compared to untreated or inhibited residues, and should be taken into account for future decommissioning. PMID:24726552

  10. Phosphorylation-dependent mineral-type specificity for apatite-binding peptide sequences.

    PubMed

    Addison, William N; Miller, Sharon J; Ramaswamy, Janani; Mansouri, Ahmad; Kohn, David H; McKee, Marc D

    2010-12-01

    Apatite-binding peptides discovered by phage display provide an alternative design method for creating functional biomaterials for bone and tooth tissue repair. A limitation of this approach is the absence of display peptide phosphorylation--a post-translational modification important to mineral-binding proteins. To refine the material specificity of a recently identified apatite-binding peptide, and to determine critical design parameters (net charge, charge distribution, amino acid sequence and composition) controlling peptide affinity for mineral, we investigated the effects of phosphorylation and sequence scrambling on peptide adsorption to four different apatites (bone-like mineral, and three types of apatite containing initially 0, 5.6 and 10.5% carbonate). Phosphorylation of the VTKHLNQISQSY peptide (VTK peptide) led to a 10-fold increase in peptide adsorption (compared to nonphosphorylated peptide) to bone-like mineral, and a 2-fold increase in adsorption to the carbonated apatite, but there was no effect of phosphorylation on peptide affinity to pure hydroxyapatite (without carbonate). Sequence scrambling of the nonphosphorylated VTK peptide enhanced its specificity for the bone-like mineral, but scrambled phosphorylated VTK peptide (pVTK) did not significantly alter mineral-binding suggesting that despite the importance of sequence order and/or charge distribution to mineral-binding, the enhanced binding after phosphorylation exceeds any further enhancement by altered sequence order. Osteoblast culture mineralization was dose-dependently inhibited by pVTK and to a significantly lesser extent by scrambled pVTK, while the nonphosphorylated and scrambled forms had no effect, indicating that inhibition of osteoblast mineralization is dependent on both peptide sequence and charge. Computational modeling of peptide-mineral interactions indicated a favorable change in binding energy upon phosphorylation that was unaffected by scrambling. In conclusion

  11. Phosphorylation-dependent mineral type specificity for apatite-binding peptide sequences

    PubMed Central

    Addison, William N.; Miller, Sharon J.; Ramaswamy, Janani; Mansouri, Ahmad; Kohn, David H.; McKee, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    Apatite-binding peptides discovered by phage display provide an alternative design method for creating functional biomaterials for bone and tooth tissue repair. A limitation of this approach is the absence of display peptide phosphorylation – a post-translational modification important to mineral-binding proteins. To refine the material specificity of a recently identified apatite-binding peptide, and to determine critical design parameters (net charge, charge distribution, amino acid sequence and composition) controlling peptide affinity for mineral, we investigated the effects of phosphorylation and sequence scrambling on peptide adsorption to four different apatites (bone-like mineral, and three types of apatite containing initially 0, 5.6 and 10.5% carbonate). Phosphorylation of peptide VTKHLNQISQSY (pVTK) led to a 10-fold increase in peptide adsorption (compared to nonphosphorylated peptide) to bone-like mineral, and a 2-fold increase in adsorption to the carbonated apatite, but there was no effect of phosphorylation on peptide affinity to pure hydroxyapatite (without carbonate). Sequence scrambling of the nonphosphorylated VTK peptide enhanced its specificity for the bone-like mineral, but scrambled pVTK peptide did not significantly alter mineral-binding suggesting that despite the importance of sequence order and/or charge distribution to mineral binding, the enhanced binding after phosphorylation exceeds any further enhancement by altered sequence order. Osteoblast culture mineralization was dose-dependently inhibited by pVTK and to a significantly lesser extent by scrambled pVTK, while the nonphosphorylated and scrambled forms had no effect, indicating that inhibition of osteoblast mineralization is dependent on both peptide sequence and charge. Computational modeling of peptide-mineral interactions indicated a favorable change in binding energy upon phosphorylation that was unaffected by scrambling. In conclusion, phosphorylation of serine residues

  12. Testicular acid phosphatase induces odontoblast differentiation and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwajung; Kim, Tak-Heun; Yun, Chi-Young; Kim, Jung-Wook; Cho, Eui-Sic

    2016-04-01

    Odontoblasts differentiate from dental mesenchyme during dentin formation and mineralization. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling odontoblast differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that expression of testicular acid phosphatase (ACPT) is restricted in the early stage of odontoblast differentiation in proliferating dental mesenchymal cells and secretory odontoblasts. ACPT is expressed earlier than tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and partly overlaps with TNAP in differentiating odontoblasts. In MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells, expression of ACPT appears simultaneously with a decrease in β-catenin activity and is abolished with the expression of Phex and Dsp. Knockdown of ACPT in MDPC-23 cells stimulates cell proliferation together with an increase in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. In contrast, the overexpression of ACPT suppresses cell proliferation with a decrease in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. Expression of TNAP, Osx, Phex and Dsp is reduced by knockdown of ACPT but is enhanced by ACPT overexpression. When ACPT is blocked with IgG, alkaline phosphatase activity is inhibited but cell proliferation is unchanged regardless of ACPT expression. These findings suggest that ACPT inhibits cell proliferation through β-catenin-mediated signaling in dental mesenchyme but elicits odontoblast differentiation and mineralization by supplying phosphate during dentin formation. Thus, ACPT might be a novel candidate for inducing odontoblast differentiation and mineralization for dentin regeneration. PMID:26547858

  13. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  14. Respiratory disability in coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.K.C.; Lapp, N.L.; Seaton, D.

    1980-06-20

    It has been suggested that the assessment of ventilatory capacity alone is inadequate for the determination of disabling occupational respiratory impairment in coal miners. The Department of Labor has accepted this view and now routinely requests blood gas analyses in those claimants not meeting the ventilatory criteria. We tested the validity of this contention by selecting two groups of coal miners claiming total disability. The first consisted of 150 claimants who were referred for spirometry, while the second consisted of 50 claimants who had been referred for blood gas studies. Of those in group 1, eight met the extant criteria for disability, while only two of those in group 2 satisfied the criteria, and, in both, cardiac disease was responsible. We conclude that blood gas analyses are unnecessary in the determination of pulmonary disability in coal miners.

  15. Geochemistry and Minerality of Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oze, C.; Horton, T. W.; Beaman, M.

    2010-12-01

    Kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and gibbsite (Al(OH)3) are capable of forming in a variety of environments including anthropogenic solutions such as wine. Here, we evaluate the geochemistry of twelve white wines in order to assess the potential relationship between kaolinite/gibbsite saturation and minerality, a common wine descriptor used to express the rock and/or soil character in the aromas and flavors of wines. Aluminum and Si concentrations ranged from 228-1,281 µg L-1 and 6,583-19,746 µg L-1, respectively, where Si and Al are the only elements to demonstrate positive covariance with minerality scores. Sulfur levels varied from 25,013-167,383 µg L-1 and show the strongest negative covariance with minerality scores. However, like all of the elements studied (Al, Si, Na, Mg, S, K, Ca, and Fe), these trends were not significantly different than random at the 95% confidence level. In contrast, the relative degrees of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation display strong positive covariance with minerality scores and these trends are not random at the greater than 95% confidence level. Overall, our tasters were able to accurately assess the degree of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation amongst the twelve wines based on the objective of assessing minerality. Although the wines were undersaturated with respect to gibbsite/kaolinite, geochemical modeling reveals that increasing the wines’ pHs from ~3.3 to 4.1-4.6 (which is achievable on the palate where saliva has a pH of 7.4) results in gibbsite/kaolinite oversaturation. By considering that minerality is a function of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation and decreasing S, the origin of minerality’s taste and chemical origin in wine with known physical standards becomes increasingly crystalline.

  16. Geochemical processes at mineral surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.A.; Hayes, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    This volume includes 32 papers which were presented at a symposium on geochemical processes at mineral-water interfaces in 1985 and which bring to bear on this area a very wide range of expertise. The discontinuities in properties which occur at the mineral-water interface have profound effects on the movement of naturally occurring ions. Weathering and precipitation processes control the concentrations and speciation of ions in natural waters and the movements of these within the hydrosphere; both classes of processes take place at mineral-water interfaces. After an introductory overview, the book is divided into seven major sections, each dealing with one of the aspects of the processes occurring at the mineral-water interface. Five papers deal with the physical properties of the mineral-water interface; these represent a well-balanced mix of experimental and theoretical (mathematical modeling) work. Adsorption phenomena are dealt with in another five papers; these are largely experimental in character. Ion-exchange processes are discussed in four papers, one of which addresses the use of relaxation methods to study ion exchange kinetics at the microscopic level. Spectroscopic techniques (including electron-spin resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy) are utilized in four papers. Chemical reactions, mainly redox processes, at mineral-water interfaces are treated in four papers, one of which deals with non-biological organic reactions. Solid-solution formation and equilibria are the subjects of another set of four articles, and the last group of papers deals with the processes involved in precipitation and dissolution, including weathering.

  17. Modeling Hydrothermal Mineralization: Fractal or Multifrcatal Models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.

    2004-05-01

    Hydrothermal mineralization occurs when the natural geo-processes involve the interaction of ore material-carrying hydrothermal fluids with rocks in the earth's crust in a specific geological environment. Mineralization can cause element concentration enrichment or depletion in the country rocks. Local enrichment may form ore body that can be mined for profit at the current economic and technological conditions. To understand the spatial distribution of element concentration enrichment or depletion caused by mineralization in a mineral district is essential for mineral exploration and mineral prediction. Grade-tonnage model and mineral deposits size distribution model are common models used for characterizing mineral deposits. This paper proposes a non-linear mineralization model on the basis of a modified classical igneous differentiation mineralization model to describe the generation of multifractal distribution of element concentration in the country rocks as well as grade-tonnage fractal/multifractal distribution of ore deposits that have been often observed in hydrothermal mineralization. This work may also lead to a singularity model to explain the common properties of mineralization and mineralization-associated geochemical anomaly diversity and the generalized self-similarity of the anomalies. The model has been applied to a case study of mineral deposits prediction and mineral resource assessment in the Abitibi district, northern Ontario, Canada.

  18. 43 CFR 3873.1 - Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregation of mineral from non-mineral...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS AND CONFLICTS Segregation § 3873.1 Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land. Where a survey...

  19. 43 CFR 3873.1 - Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregation of mineral from non-mineral...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS AND CONFLICTS Segregation § 3873.1 Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land. Where a survey...

  20. 43 CFR 3873.1 - Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregation of mineral from non-mineral...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS AND CONFLICTS Segregation § 3873.1 Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land. Where a survey...

  1. 43 CFR 3873.1 - Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregation of mineral from non-mineral...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS AND CONFLICTS Segregation § 3873.1 Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land. Where a survey...

  2. Viewing minerals, atom by atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    With state-of-the-art technology supported by scissors and bungy cords, Earth scientists are beginning to look at mineral surfaces and mineral-fluid interactions on an atomic scale.The instrument that can provide such a detailed view is the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which made a great theoretical and practical splash when it was introduced in 1981 by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, physicists at IBM's laboratory in Zurich. They won a Nobel Prize in Physics for their work 5 years later.

  3. Minerals availability on Federal lands

    SciTech Connect

    Blackstone, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is continuing its effort to make procedures more efficient, and to see if there are areas where it can enhance the possibilities for mineral exploration and development on public lands. The BLM hopes to establish clear and concise policies that will not require constant regulation changes and that wil make needed paper work less burdensome. The goals of the BLM are to make public lands more available and to see more new mineral development take place on these grounds.

  4. Effects of simulated weightlessness on bone mineral metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Bikle, D. D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that prolonged space flight, bedrest, and immobilization are three factors which can produce a negative calcium balance, osteopenia, and an inhibition of bone formation. It is not known whether the effects of gravity on bone mineral metabolism are mediated by systemic endocrine factors which affect all bones simultaneously, or by local factors which affect each bone individually. The present investigation has the objective to test the relative importance of local vs. systemic factors in regulating the bone mineral response to conditions simulating weightlessness. Experiments were conducted with male Sprague-Dawley rats. The test conditions made it possible to compare the data from weighted and unweighted bones in the same animal. The obtained findings indicate that a decrease in bone mass relative to control value occurs rapidly under conditions which simulate certain aspects of weightlessness. However, this decrease reaches a plateau after 10 days.

  5. Effect of the mineralizing agent on the permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Kolmakow, S; Honkala, E; Borovsky, E V; Kuzmina, E M; Vasina, S A

    1991-01-01

    In a two-year pragmatic clinical trial, the effect of the mineralizing agent was evaluated on permanent teeth of the first eruption group among Finnish children (7-years old at the beginning of the study) with a low prevalence of DFS. In the test group (n = 123, biweekly mouthrinsing with a 2% solution of mineralizing agent and 0.2% NaF solution) the percentage reduction in increment of both EFDS and DFS was high, whereas in the control group (n = 123, biweekly mouthrinsing with placebo and 0.2% NaF solutions) the incidence for symptoms of caries disease did not differ from that normally found in this age cohort. Positive clinical effect of tested solution was age-related and was associated with remineralization of old and inhibition of occurrence of new EFD lesions. PMID:1878329

  6. Mechanisms of Bone Mineralization and Effects of Mechanical Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babich, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The data suggest that PTH and PKC inhibit nodule formation, and that alternative energy sources are utilized by osteoblasts in the process of mineralization. The conditions and techniques to grow, fix, photograph, and measure bone mineralization in vitro were defined. The results are presently in preliminary form and require further assessment as follows; quantitate the surface area of nodules + treatments via computer-aided image analysis; use PTH + inhibitors of signaling pathways to determine the mechanism of nodule formation; determine how protein kinase C is involved as a promotor of nodule formation; cell proliferation vs. cell death affected by modulation of signal transduction (i.e., PTH, enzyme inhibitors and activators); identify mRNA induced or decreased in response to PTH and signaling modulators that encode proteins that regulate cell morphology, proliferation, and nodule formation. Therefore, several follow-up studies between the laboratories at NASA-Ames Research Center and my laboratory at the University of Illinois have been initiated.

  7. Mysterious Lava Mineral on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph or spectrum captured by the Moessbauer spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the presence of three different iron-bearing minerals in the soil at the rover's landing site. One of these minerals has been identified as olivine, a shiny green rock commonly found in lava on Earth. The other two have yet to be pinned down. Scientists were puzzled by the discovery of olivine because it implies the soil consists at least partially of ground up rocks that have not been weathered or chemically altered. The black line in this graph represents the original data; the three colored regions denote individual minerals and add up to equal the black line.

    The Moessbauer spectrometer uses two pieces of radioactive cobalt-57, each about the size of pencil erasers, to determine with a high degree of accuracy the composition and abundance of iron-bearing minerals in martian rocks and soil. It is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.'

  8. Dietary fatty acids and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence in animals and humans shows that dietary fatty acids influence the absorption and utilization of certain mineral elements. Fat intake exceeding 10% of energy intake reduces calcium uptake and use by the body, and this effect is more pronounced with saturated compared to unsatu...

  9. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  10. Mineral of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

  11. Mineral of the month: titanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    From paint to airplanes, titanium is important in a number of applications. Commercial production comes from titanium-bearing ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene (altered ilmenite). These minerals are used to produce titanium dioxide pigment, as well as an assortment of metal and chemical products.

  12. Mineral of the month: rhenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magyar, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Rhenium, an exotic, heat-resistant metal, has grown in importance since its discovery nearly 80 years ago. First isolated by a team of German chemists studying a platinum ore, the mineral was named for the Rhine River. From then until the 1960s, only 2 metric tons of rhenium were produced worldwide. In 2004, worldwide production was 40 metric tons.

  13. Mineral of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Micheal W.

    2004-01-01

    Indium was discovered in Germany in 1863. Although it is a lustrous silver-white color, the finders named the new material for the “indigo” spectral lines the mineral created on the spectrograph. Indium ranks 61st in abundance in Earth’s crust and is about three times more abundant than silver or mercury.

  14. Mineral of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  15. Detrital Mineral Grains in Tektites.

    PubMed

    Bairnes, V E

    1963-12-27

    Abundant detrital crystalline mineral grains have been found in layered Muong Nong-type indochinite tektites from Nong Sapong, northeastern Thailand. These grains are an integral part of some tektite layers, and their presence furnishes strong presumptive evidence that indochinites, as well as other tektite groups in which layered specimens occur, formed from surficial earth materials. PMID:17834370

  16. [Minerals in Latin American diets].

    PubMed

    Carrazza, F R

    1988-09-01

    Body minerals (macro and microminerals) are distributed in extra- and intracellular compartments as inorganic salts or organic compounds. A characteristics of mineral compounds is that when they are metabolized, the corresponding ions are liberated and reutilized by the organism, thus reducing dietary needs. This chapter includes a brief discussion of the functions, dietary sources and clinical consequences of deficiencies (or excess) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, zinc, selenium and iodine. Based on metabolic balance studies, body composition, and dietary population surveys, their daily needs are analyzed and dietary recommendations are suggested based on regional diets. Factors that must be taken into account are emphasized, such as bioavailability, intestinal absorption and interrelations with other nutrients that interfere with absorption. Many Latin American populations have a high content of dietary fiber due to the intake of vegetables, fruits, cereals and grains. Dietary fiber may have a negative influence on the intestinal absorption of minerals. However, this effect is not clearly defined. Some population groups who eat diets with a high concentration of fiber do not show clinical signs of mineral deficits. In relation to fluorine, its supplementation is discussed, placing emphasis on its beneficial effects for the prevention of dental caries. Diet fortification with the addition of iodine, iron and fluorine are discussed elsewhere. PMID:2856371

  17. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.

    2012-12-01

    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are

  18. Accelerated Growth Plate Mineralization and Foreshortened Proximal Limb Bones in Fetuin-A Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himadri S.; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W. C.; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix - a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth. PMID:23091616

  19. Nitrogen mineralization rates of the acidic, xeric soils of the New Jersey Pinelands: laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Poovarodom, S.; Tate, R.L. III

    1988-05-01

    In a series of laboratory incubation studies, the authors evaluated the effects of temperature, moisture, and nitrogen amendment on nitrogen mineralization rates in the acidic Lakehurst and Atsion sands of the New Jersey Pinelands. The average potentially mineralizable nitrogen (N/sub 0/) values for the Lakehurst and Atsion sands were 87 and 94 ..mu..g/g, respectively. Mineralization constants (k) were 0.0501 and 0.0756/wk at 25 and 35/degrees/C, respectively, for the Lakehurst sand and were 0.0327 and 0.0452/wk for the Atsion sand. Maximum mineralization occurred at 35/degrees/C for both soils with Q/sub 10/ values ranging from 1.8 to 2.1. Optimal soil moisture tensions for nitrogen mineralization were between /minus/0.01 and /minus/0.03 MPa. A soil moisture tension of /minus/0.01 MPa reduced nitrogen mineralization with the Lakehurst sand, but not with the Atsion sand. Amendment of the soil with ammonium sulfate increased mineralization with the Atsion sand, but had no effect on the Lakehurst soil. Conversely, ammonium chloride amendment increased the nitrogen mineralization rates in the Lakehurst, but not the Atsion sand. Urea amendment inhibited nitrogen mineralization with both soils. No nitrate accumulation was observed in any of the nitrogen-amended samples.

  20. Minerals of the earth's deep interior

    SciTech Connect

    Schiferl, D.; Zhao, Y.; Shankland, T.J.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project addresses the major geophysical issue of the nature of the seismic velocity and density discontinuity at 670 km depth (the boundary between upper and lower mantle with temperature about 1,900 K and pressure about 23 GPa). A phase change at this depth would represent a relatively small barrier to mantle convection through the discontinuity, but compositional change would inhibit thermal convection throughout the mantle. To address this problem the authors measured equation of state parameters in mantle minerals as functions of high P-T using single crystal x-ray diffraction with a unique, new diamond-anvil cell (DAC) at simultaneous high temperature and pressure. Single-crystal diffraction improves absolute accuracy in lattice constants over those from powder diffraction by a factor of 5 to 10. The authors have measured equations of state of orthoenstatite MgSiO{sub 3} and hexagonal boron nitride hBN.

  1. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  2. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  3. USSR and Afghanistan mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Shroder, J.F. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Afghanistan is a geological complex in which plentiful minerals and fuels were formed. Western geologists explored that country during the last 100 years and produced many reports and maps. Real progress in a systematic analysis, however, was not made until the intensive efforts of the Soviet Union during the past two decades. By diplomatic and economic maneuvers, the Soviets took control of Afghanistan's nascent hydrocarbon indusry during the 1960s. Following the 1973 coup, the Soviets and Afghan supporters replaced pro-Western technical advisors and hampered Western-linked development. Intensive field investgations led to the discovery of hundreds of mineral deposits and several good petroleum prospects. The current Russian military occupation is partially subsidized with Afghanistan resources. 83 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Status Update for the MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Perdue, Gabriel

    2011-05-01

    MINER{nu}A (Main INjEctoR {nu}-A) is a few-GeV neutrino cross section experiment that began taking data in the FNAL NuMI beam-line in the fall of 2009. MINER{nu}A employs a fine-grained detector capable of complete kinematic characterization of neutrino interactions. The detector consists of an approximately 6.5 ton active target region composed of plastic scintillator with additional carbon, iron, and lead targets upstream of the active region. The experiment will provide important inputs for neutrino oscillation searches and a pure weak probe of nuclear structure. Here we offer a set of initial kinematic distributions of interest and provide a general status update.

  5. Quarterly minerals outlook, June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is presented of the mineral industry of Wyoming. Petroleum production shows a slight annual decline. Many producers have been shutting in their natural gas wells due to the sharp decline in demand. Activities in the base, precious, and ferrous metals industry are summarized. Uranium and trona production is down from the previous year. Other minerals mentioned are gypsum, limestone, bentonite, and phosphorus. Production of coal is given by county. Electric utilities have not used all the coal they bought last year, and construction of several power plants have been delayed indefinitely. Underground coal gasification projects are mentioned. Tables present production forecasts for coal to 1990, for oil and gas to 1988, and for uranium and trona to 1987. 5 tables.

  6. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  7. [Incidence of chronic bronchitis in coal miners].

    PubMed

    Valutsina, V M; Kiva, A I

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of 2000 Donbass coal miners revealed data on the initial dust bronchitis prevalence and its progress. It was established that the coal miners who work in mines with steep coal strata exhibit higher bronchitis morbidity in comparison with the miners engaged in sloping strata mines. A correlation was established between dust bronchitis prevalence and length of professional service and coal miners' labour specificity. Tobacco smokers displayed a markedly higher percentage of chronic dust bronchitis cases. PMID:2379850

  8. Ukrainian mineral wax from brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Shabad, T.

    1986-07-01

    An unusual mineral enterprise is the mineral wax plant of Semenovskoye in the Aleksandriya brown coal basin of the Ukraine. The only plant of its kind in the Soviet Union, it has been in operation since 1959, extracting mineral wax from the local bitumen-rich brown coal. The plant yields about 7.5 tons of mineral wax a day (about 2700 tons a year), for use in a variety of applications.

  9. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Massachusetts. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Sinnott, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    The value of nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $111.6 million, a decrease of $16 million compared with the 1990 value. The decrease in 1991 was largely attributable to lower sales of construction sand and gravel and crushed stone, the State's two leading mineral commodities. Other mineral commodities produced included common clay, industrial sand, dimension stone, lime, and peat. Nationally, the State ranked 41st in the production of nonfuel minerals. It ranked fifth of 34 States that produced dimension stone.

  10. Mineral of the month: garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Garnet is the general name given to a group of complex silicate minerals, all with isometric crystal structure, similar properties and chemical compositions. Garnet occurs in every color of the spectrum except blue, but it is most commonly red, purple, brown and green. Garnet necklaces dating from the Bronze Age have been found in graves and also among the ornaments adorning the oldest Egyptian mummies.

  11. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... yogurt legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils Zinc Zinc helps your immune system, which is ... peanuts legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils When people don't get enough of these ...

  12. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past two decades, the aquaculture industry has expanded rapidly throughout the world and is expected to continue to grow in the years to come due to the high cost of harvesting fish from the oceans, the un-sustainability of ocean fishing methods, and the increased demand for fish as a resul...

  13. Mortality among Navajo uranium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, R J; Deddens, J A; Salvan, A; Schnorr, T M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To update mortality risks for Navajo uranium miners, a retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of 757 Navajos from the cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners. METHODS. Vital status was followed from 1960 to 1990. Standardized mortality ratios were estimated, with combined New Mexico and Arizona non-White mortality rates used for comparison. Cox regression models were used to evaluate exposure-response relationships. RESULTS. Elevated standardized mortality ratios were found for lung cancer (3.3), tuberculosis (2.6), and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases (2.6). Lowered ratios were found for heart disease (0.6), circulatory disease (0.4), and liver cirrhosis (0.5). The estimated relative risk for a 5-year duration of exposure vs none was 3.7 for lung cancer, 2.1 for pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases, and 2.0 for tuberculosis. The relative risk for lung cancer was 6.9 for the midrange of cumulative exposure to radon progeny compared with the least exposed. CONCLUSIONS. Findings were consistent with those from previous studies. Twenty-three years after their last exposure to radon progeny, these light-smoking Navajo miners continue to face excess mortality risks from lung cancer and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases. PMID:7702118

  14. Effects of biochar on organic nitrogen mineralization of Northeast forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Siyao; Tao, Jun; Luo, Xianxiang

    2016-04-01

    These years,Biochar,as a new environmental functional material,received widespread attention of scholars both in China and abroad.Biochar is applied as a soil conditioner which is because it will improve the soil texture and increase plant yields. But the influence of nitrogen cycle while biochar is added to the forest soil is still controversial. This article takes forest soil as the object of research, aiming at learning the effects of different biochar on nitrogen mineralization of forest soil,and that in the case of different incubation temperature.The results show that it can reduce the net mineralization of soil organic nitrogen. That means the addition of biochar could suppress the mineralization of forest soil organic nitrogen.In a certain range,high temperature significantly facilitate to the mineralization of soill organic nitrogen while the existence of biochar also inhibits of that.

  15. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation,...

  16. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate...

  17. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation,...

  18. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate...

  19. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation,...

  20. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  1. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  2. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  3. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  4. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  5. 76 FR 44892 - Information Collection; Locatable Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Locatable Minerals AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... approved information collection, Locatable Minerals-36 CFR part 228, subpart A. DATES: Comments must be... should be addressed to: USDA, Forest Service, Minerals and Geology Management Staff, Mail Stop 1126,...

  6. Mineral matter identification of some Turkish lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Taptik, Y.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.; Kadioglu, E.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of 15 Turkish lignites were oxidized by performic acid. Their mineral matter was isolated without any important chemical decomposition. The X-ray diffraction method was employed to determine the mineral species in the isolated mineral matter and in the ashes of the lignite samples. The results were compared and discussed.

  7. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  8. MARINE MINERAL RESOURCES - AN UPDATE AND INTRODUCTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruickshank, Michael J.; Siapno, William

    1985-01-01

    This article briefly traces the status of marine minerals development, and it describes papers presented in this special issue on the subject. Subjects covered include types of deposits, marine mining in Canada, Manganese nodules, metalliferous sulfides as seabed minerals, metallurgical processes for reducing sulfide minerals, U. S. phosphate industry, construction materials and placers, and industry problems.

  9. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains.

  10. Effect of bacteria and dissolved organics on mineral dissolution kinetics:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, Oleg; Shirokova, Liudmila; Benezeth, Pascale; Zabelina, Svetlana

    2010-05-01

    Quantification of the effect of microorganisms and associated organic ligands on mineral dissolution rate is one among the last remaining challenges in modeling of water-rock interactions under earth surface and subsurface environments. This is especially true for deep underground settings within the context of CO2 capture, sequestration and storage. First, elevated CO2 pressures create numerous experimental difficulties for performing robust flow-through experiments at a given saturation state. Second, reactivity of main rock-forming minerals in abiotic systems at pCO2 >> 1 atm and circumneutral pH is still poorly constrained. And third, most of microbial habitats of the subsurface biosphere are not suitable for routine culturing in the laboratory, many of them are anaerobic and even strictly anaerobic, and many bacteria and archae cultures can live only in the consortium of microorganisms which is very hard to maintain at a controlled and stable biomass concentration. For experimental modeling of bio-mineral interactions in the laboratory, two other main conceptual challenges exist. Typical concentration of dissolved organic carbon that serves as a main nutrient for heterotrophic bacteria in underground waters rarely exceeds 3-5 mg/L. Typical concentration of DOC in nutrient media used for bacteria culturing is between 100 and 10,000 mg/L. Therefore, performing mineral-bacteria interactions in the laboratory under environmentally-sound conditions requires significant dilution of the nutrient media or the use of flow-through reactors. Concerning the effect of organic ligands and bacterial excudates on rock-forming mineral dissolution, at the present time, mostly empirical (phenomenological) approach can be used. Indeed, the pioneering studies of Stumm and co-workers have established a firm basis for modeling the catalyzing and inhibiting effects of ligands on metal oxide dissolution rate. This approach, very efficient for studying the interaction of organic and

  11. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying...

  12. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying...

  13. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying...

  14. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying...

  15. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying...

  16. Hydrodynamic Coupling in Microbially Mediated Fracture Mineralization: Formation of Self-Organized Groundwater Flow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunn, R. J.; El Mountassir, G.; MacLachlan, E.; Moir, H.

    2013-12-01

    Evidence of fossilized microorganisms embedded within mineral veins and mineral-filled fractures has been observed in a wide range of geological environments. Microorganisms can act as sites for mineral nucleation and also contribute to mineral precipitation by inducing local geochemical changes. In this study, we explore fundamental controls on microbially induced mineralization in rock fractures. Specifically, we systematically investigate the influence of hydrodynamics (velocity, flow rate, aperture) on microbially mediated calcite precipitation. We use a case study of microbially induced calcite precipitation as a model biomineralization system to investigate potential feedback mechanisms between the temporally varying patterns of mineral precipitation within a fracture and the resulting variations in the local velocity field. Fractures are represented as a series of precision-etched parallel channels between a pair of sealed Perspex plates. Multiple channels are designed to maintain a constant flow rate, whilst independently adjusting channel aperture and width to explore the effects of aperture and fluid velocity on biomineral precipitation. Our experimental results demonstrate that a feedback mechanism exists between the gradual reduction in fracture aperture due to precipitation, and its effect on the local fluid velocity. This feedback results in mineral fill distributions that focus flow into a small number of self-organizing channels that remain open, ultimately controlling the final aperture profile that governs flow within the fracture. This feedback mechanism exists because precipitation on the fracture walls (as opposed to in solution) requires the bacteria to be transported to the fracture surface. Bacteria settle out of a quiescent solution at a velocity that is dependent on individual floc size and density. This settling velocity competes with the bed shear velocity, inhibiting deposition via entrainment. As precipitation progresses, the flow

  17. Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. |

    1995-05-05

    Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

  18. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Gehring, A. U.

    1992-01-01

    Iron-enriched smectites have been suggested as important mineral compounds of the Martian soil. They were shown to comply with the chemical analysis of the Martian soil, to simulate many of the findings of the Viking Labeled Release Experiments on Mars, to have spectral reflectance in the VIS-NIR strongly resembling the bright regions on Mars. The analogy with Mars soil is based, in a number of aspects, on the nature and behavior of the iron oxides and oxyhydroxides deposited on the surface of the clay particles. A summary of the properties of these iron phases and some recent findings are presented. Their potential relevance to Mars surface processes is discussed.

  19. Saccadic Inhibition in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold, Eyal M.; Stampe, Dave M.

    2004-01-01

    In 5 experiments, participants read text that was briefly replaced by a transient image for 33 ms at random intervals. A decrease in saccadic frequency, referred to as saccadic inhibition, occurred as early as 60-70 ms following the onset of abrupt changes in visual input. It was demonstrated that the saccadic inhibition was influenced by the…

  20. Strategies Targeting Telomerase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaping; Li, Yuanyuan; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2008-01-01

    Telomerase plays a pivotal role in cellular immortality and tumorigenesis. Its activity is normally not detectable in most somatic cells while it is reactivated in the vast majority of cancer cells. Therefore, inhibition of telomerase has been viewed as a promising anticancer approach due to its specificity for cancer cells. Studies so far have shown that telomerase inhibition can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells or cause apoptosis while it has no effect on most normal cells. Strategies currently being applied to induce telomerase inhibition target virtually all of the major components of the ribonucleoprotein holoenzyme and related cell signal pathways that regulate its activity. These strategies include inhibition of telomerase through targeting at the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) catalytic subunit, the telomerase RNA (TR) component, and associated proteins. Other strategies have been developed to target the proteins associated with telomerase at the telomeric ends of chromosomes such as tankyrase. The specific mechanisms that mediate those inhibition effects include small molecules, antisense RNA, and ribozymes. Although the beneficial evidence of telomerase inhibition is obvious, limitations of strategies remain to be resolved to increase the feasibility of clinical application. This analysis will summarize recent developments of strategies in telomerase inhibition. PMID:18956258

  1. Mineral-binding milk proteins and peptides; occurrence, biochemical and technological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vegarud, G E; Langsrud, T; Svenning, C

    2000-11-01

    Minerals and trace elements in cow's milk occur as inorganic ions and salts or form complexes with proteins and peptides, carbohydrates, fats and small molecules. The main mineral binder or chelators of calcium are the caseins, alphas1-casein, alphas2-casein, beta-casein and kappa-casein, but also whey proteins and lactoferrin bind specific minerals like calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, sodium and potassium. Less documented is the binding of trace elements. Peptides obtained by in vitro or in vivo hydrolysis act as mineral trappers through specific and non-specific binding sites. They may then function as carriers, chelators, of various minerals and thus enhance or inhibit bioavailability. Peptides from milk proteins have found interesting new applications in the food industry as products with improved functionality or as ingredients of dietary products, or used in pharmaceutical industry. Fortification of foods with minerals in a low concentration has for a long time been used in some countries to overcome mineral deficiency, which is an increasing problem in humans. These types of foods are being used to create a new generation of super foods in the industry today. PMID:11242452

  2. Nitrogen mineralization from sludge in an alkaline, saline coal gasification ash environment.

    PubMed

    Mbakwe, Ikenna; De Jager, Pieter C; Annandale, John G; Matema, Taurai

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitating coal gasification ash dumps by amendment with waste-activated sludge has been shown to improve the physical and chemical properties of ash and to facilitate the establishment of vegetation. However, mineralization of organic N from sludge in such an alkaline and saline medium and the effect that ash weathering has on the process are poorly understood and need to be ascertained to make decisions regarding the suitability of this rehabilitation option. This study investigated the rate and pattern of N mineralization from sludge in a coal gasification ash medium to determine the prevalent inorganic N form in the system and assess the effect of ash weathering on N mineralization. An incubation experiment was performed in which fresh ash, weathered ash, and soil were amended with the equivalent of 90 Mg ha sludge, and N mineralization was evaluated over 63 d. More N (24%) was mineralized in fresh ash than in weathered ash and soil, both of which mineralized 15% of the initial organic N in sludge. More nitrification occurred in soil, and most of the N mineralized in ash was in the form of ammonium, indicating an inhibition of nitrifying organisms in the ash medium and suggesting that, at least initially, plants used for rehabilitation of coal gasification ash dumps will take up N mostly as ammonium. PMID:23673951

  3. The mineralization processes in teleost fish scales.

    PubMed

    Schönbörner, A A; Boivin, G; Baud, C A

    1979-11-01

    In Teleost fish scales, growth and mineralization are continuous. Different mineralization processes can be distinguished. The external layer of the scale is the first to be mineralized and may be classified as the initial calcifying structure of the scale. The initial calcification loci are matrix vesicles of cellular origin always observed during the formation of this layer. This mineralization process takes place progressively, closely following the elaboration of the organic matrix in the scale periphery. The outer limiting and internal layers of the scale are developed after the external layer has been formed. A mineral substance is deposited without the mediation of matrix vesicles, but in contact with the previously mineralized external layer. This type of mineralization is called subsequential. However, the mineralization of the outer limiting layer closely follows the secretion of a collagen-free organic matrix and is thus different from the mineralization of the internal layer in which the calcification front remains remote from the collagen matrix surface and corresponds to a delayed mineralization process. The isolated calcifications (Mandl's corpuscles) which develop in the unmineralized laminae of the internal layer are mineralized in the absence of matrix vesicles and without making contact with a pre-existing calcified tissue, probably by a heterogeneous nucleation of the collagen fibrils. PMID:519703

  4. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O'Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  5. Decorin modulates matrix mineralization in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R.; Tanzawa, Hideki; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Decorin (DCN), a member of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, is known to modulate collagen fibrillogenesis. In order to investigate the potential roles of DCN in collagen matrix mineralization, several stable osteoblastic cell clones expressing higher (sense-DCN, S-DCN) and lower (antisense-DCN, As-DCN) levels of DCN were generated and the mineralized nodules formed by these clones were characterized. In comparison with control cells, the onset of mineralization by S-DCN clones was significantly delayed; whereas it was markedly accelerated and the number of mineralized nodules was significantly increased in As-DCN clones. The timing of mineralization was inversely correlated with the level of DCN synthesis. In these clones, the patterns of cell proliferation and differentiation appeared unaffected. These results suggest that DCN may act as an inhibitor of collagen matrix mineralization, thus modulating the timing of matrix mineralization.

  6. Protection of Organic Matter from Enzyme Degradation by Mineral Mesopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; Chorover, J. D.; Brantley, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    Mineral mesopores (2-50 nm diameter) may sequester organic matter (natural and pollutant) and protect it from microbial and fungal enzymatic degradation in soils and sediments. Synthetic mesoporous alumina and silica minerals with uniform pore sizes and shapes were used to test the role of mesopores in protecting organic matter from enzymatic degradation. A model humic compound, L-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), was sorbed to the internal surfaces of mesoporous alumina (8.2 nm diameter pores) and mesoporous silica (3.4 nm diameter pores) as well as to the external surfaces of nonporous alumina and silica analogues. A fungal derived enzyme, laccase, was added to these sorbate-sorbent pairs in aqueous solution and activity was monitored by oxygen consumption. Though enzyme activity was suppressed in both cases by mineral-enzyme interaction (enzyme inhibition likely due to adsorption of the enzyme), both the rate and total extent of enzyme-mediated degradation of mesopore-sorbed L-DOPA was 3-40 times lower than that of the externally-sorbed analogue. These results provide, for the first time, direct evidence for the viability of the proposed mesopore protection mechanism for the sequestration and preservation of sedimentary organic matter and organic contaminants. Mesopore adsorption/desorption phenomena may also help explain the slow degradation of organic contaminants in soil and sediment and may prove useful as delivery vehicles for organic compounds to agricultural, medical or environmental systems.

  7. Mechanistic understanding of enamel mineralization under fluoride regime.

    PubMed

    Aoba, T; Taya, Y; Sato, A; Shimada, T; Mura-Galelli, M J

    1995-01-01

    In order to learn more about how the microenvironment for enamel mineralization is modified by fluoride at low concentrations (0 through 1 ppm) and how excess fluoride retards the degradation and removal of amelogenins, we studied precipitation reactions in an in vitro model utilizing a dialysis chamber. The results showed that, with the limited supply of Ca ions through the ultrafiltration membrane, the solution composition surrounding the seed crystals showed a proximity to the steady-state condition after 12-24 h equilibration. Major findings were that (a) fluoride overcame partially the inhibition of precipitation and growth reactions by enamel proteins and (b), with this accelerating effect of fluoride, the steady-state Ca concentrations in the media surrounding the seed crystals decreased substantially as a function of fluoride concentration. The overall results support the concept that the presence of fluoride in the mineralizing milieu can modify markedly the steady-state concentrations of mineral lattice ions, particularly decreasing free Ca2+ concentrations, which in turn may modulate protease activities in situ. PMID:7554946

  8. The Minerals of Aureum Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation of 3-dimensional model with 5x vertical exaggeration

    This image of chaotic terrain in the Aureum Chaos region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0858UTC (3:58 a.m. EST) on January 24, 2008, near 3.66 degrees south latitude, 26.5 degrees west longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Aureum Chaos is a 368 kilometer (229 mile) wide area of chaotic terrain in the eastern part of Valles Marineris. The chaotic terrain is thought to have formed by collapse of the surrounding Margaritifer Terra highland region. Aureum Chaos contains heavily eroded, randomly oriented mesas, plateaus, and knobs many revealing distinct layered deposits along their slopes. These deposits may be formed from remnants of the collapsed highlands, sand carried by Martian winds, dust or volcanic ash that settled out of the atmosphere, or sediments laid down on the floor of an ancient lake.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data cover a narrow plateau near the edge of the chaotic terrain, that stretches across from the southwest to the northeast.

    The lower left image, an infrared false color image, reveals the plateau and several eroded knobs of varying sizes. The plateau's layer-cake structure is similar to that of other layered outcrops in Valles Marineris.

    The lower right image reveals the strengths of mineral spectral features overlain on a black-and-white version of the infrared image. Areas shaded in red hold more of the mineral pyroxene, a primary component of basaltic rocks that are prevalent in the highlands. Spots of green

  9. Impact of environmental chemistry on mycogenic Mn oxide minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santelli, C. M.; Farfan, G. A.; Post, A.; Post, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial environments and their presence can have broad environmental consequences. In particular, Mn oxides scavenge nutrients and metals, degrade complex organics, and oxidize a variety of inorganic contaminants. The "reactivity" of Mn oxides, however, is highly dependent upon crystallite size, composition, and structure, which are largely determined by environmental factors such as solution chemistry. It is has been suggested that most Mn oxides in terrestrial and aquatic environments are formed by microbial activity; indeed, a diversity of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria and fungi have been isolated and their mineral byproducts are consistent with those observed in natural systems. Previous studies showed that Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi produce highly-disordered, nanocrystalline Mn oxides that are structurally similar to synthetic δ-MnO2 or natural vernadite. Unlike related studies with Mn-oxidizing bacteria, Mn oxides produced by these fungi did not "age" or transform to more crystalline mineral phases with time. We hypothesize that fungal growth conditions, in particular the low concentration of cations, are inhibiting secondary mineral formation. The overall goal of this research is to examine the structure and speciation of fungally-precipitated Mn oxides with respect to fungal species, time, and concentration of soluble Mn(II), Na, and Ca - three environmentally relevant cations that promote the transformation of δ-MnO2 to more crystalline mineral phases such as feitknechtite, birnessite, or ranciéite. For this study, we examined the Mn oxides formed by different species of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi (Pyrenochaeta sp., Stagonospora sp., Plectosphaerella cucumerina., and Acremonium strictum). Isolates were grown for 8 or 16 days in a nutrient lean media consisting of yeast extract, trace elements and 0.2 mM MnCl2 supplemented with varying concentrations of Na, Ca, or Mn(II) compounds. The

  10. Evaluating biodiversity of mineral lands

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L.; Tritton, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    Increasingly, lands intended for mining, or lands that have been mined and reclaimed, are being evaluated in terms of biological diversity (biodiversity). The concept of biodiversity includes die variety and number of living organisms, their organizations, and the environments that support them. This paper presents a framework for discussing and evaluating biodiversity and for constructing checklists for evaluating biodiversity before and after mining. This framework identifies some of the different types of biodiversity applicable to mineral lands, die ranges of scale at which they are applicable, and the social stakes and stakeholders relevant across scale and diversity types.

  11. TLR signalling can modify the mineralization of tooth germ.

    PubMed

    Papp, Tamas; Hollo, Krisztina; Meszar-Katona, Eva; Nagy, Zoltan; Polyak, Angela; Miko, Edit; Bai, Peter; Felszeghy, Szabolcs

    2016-05-01

    Objective The aim of this work is to investigate the possible role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) during the development of mouse tooth germ. TLR4 is well known to inhibit mineralization and cause inflammation in mature odontoblasts and dental pulp cells. However, unlike these pathological functions of TLR4, little is known about the developmental function(s) of TLR4 during tooth development. Materials and methods TLR4 expression was studied via Western blot in developing lower mouse incisors from E13.5 to E18.5. To generate functional data about the effects of TLR4, a specific agonist (LPS) was applied to the medium of in vitro tooth germ cultures, followed by Western blot, histochemical staining, ELISA assay, in situ hybridization and RT-qPCR. Results Increased accumulation of biotin-labelled LPS was detected in the enamel organ and in preodontoblasts. LPS treatment induced degradation of the inhibitor molecule (IκB) of the NF-κB signalling pathway. However, no morphological alterations were detected in cultured tissue after LPS addition at the applied dosage. Activation of TLR4 inhibited the mineralization of enamel and dentin, as demonstrated by alizarin red staining and as decreased levels of collagen type X. mRNA expression of ameloblastin was elevated after LPS administration. Conclusion These results demonstrate that TLR4 may decrease the mineralization of hard tissues of the tooth germ and may trigger the maturation of ameloblasts; it can give valuable information to understand better congenital tooth abnormalities. PMID:26763602

  12. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Caroline

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  13. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    1999-10-05

    This invention provides a system for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, this system can be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  14. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Caroline

    2001-10-09

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  15. Methods of Telomerase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Lucy G.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Telomerase is central to cellular immortality and is a key component of most cancer cells although this enzyme is rarely expressed to significant levels in normal cells. Therefore, the inhibition of telomerase has garnered considerable attention as a possible anticancer approach. Many of the methods applied to telomerase inhibition focus on either of the two major components of the ribonucleoprotein holoenzyme, that is, the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) catalytic subunit or the telomerase RNA (TR) component. Other protocols have been developed to target the proteins, such as tankyrase, that are associated with telomerase at the ends of chromosomes. This chapter summarizes some of these recent advances in telomerase inhibition. PMID:18369812

  16. Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, G.T.; Arndt, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS), a digital system that contained 111,955 records on Sept. 1, 1995. Records describe metallic and industrial commodity deposits, mines, prospects, and occurrences in the United States and selected other countries. These records have been created over the years by USGS commodity specialists and through cooperative agreements with geological surveys of U.S. States and other countries. This CD-ROM contains the complete MRDS data base, several subsets of it, and software to allow data retrieval and display. Data retrievals are made by using GSSEARCH, a program that is included on this CD-ROM. Retrievals are made by specifying fields or any combination of the fields that provide information on deposit name, location, commodity, deposit model type, geology, mineral production, reserves, and references. A tutorial is included. Retrieved records may be printed or written to a hard disk file in four different formats: ascii, fixed, comma delimited, and DBASE compatible.

  17. XANES: Solid state mineral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Researchers in the field of mineral physics have become aware of new analytical techniques for studying the electronic structure of solids; one such technique is the X ray absorption fine structure (XFAS) method. In this technique the fine structure of the X ray K-edge, for example, can b e employed as a critical probe of t h e intricacies of a crystal structure (P. A. Lee, P. H. Citrin, P. Eisenberger, and B. M. Kincaid, Rev. Mod. Phys., 53, 799, 1981).A similar, related technique, X ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), is a relatively unknown method of studying the electronic structure of solids. XANES is new, and due to its complex nature, data on all but very simple solids have not yet been applied rigorously. Among the first XANES results on minerals is the recent study reported by G. Knapp, B. Veal, H. Pan, and T. Klipper (Solid State Comm. 44, 1343, 1982) on perovskites, magnesiowustites, and other 3d oxides in the zircon and spinel groups. The interpretation of these results is still semiquantitative, being based on ground state and basic selection rule considerations. The results show, however, a strong correlation between near-edge spectra and crystal structure.

  18. Minerals, fibrosis, and the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Heppleston, A G

    1991-01-01

    Determinants of pulmonary fibrosis induced by inhaled mineral dusts include quantity retained, particle size, and surface area, together with their physical form and the reactive surface groups presented to alveolar cells. The outstanding problem is to ascertain how these factors exert their deleterious effects. Both compact and fibrous minerals inflict membrane damage, for which chemical mechanisms still leave uncertainty. A major weakness of cytotoxicity studies, even when lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species are considered, lies in tacitly assuming that membrane damage suffices to account for fibrogenesis, whereas the parallel occurrence of such manifestations does not necessarily imply causation. The two-phase procedure established that particles, both compact and fibrous, induce release of a macrophage factor that provokes fibroblasts into collagen synthesis. The amino acid composition of the macrophage fibrogenic factor was characterized and its intracellular action explained. Fibrous particles introduce complexities respecting type, durability, and dimensions. Asbestotic fibrosis is believed to depend on long fibers, but scrutiny of the evidence from experimental and human sources reveals that a role for short fibers needs to be entertained. Using the two-phase system, short fibers proved fibrogenic. Other mechanisms, agonistic and antagonistic, may participate. Growth factors may affect the fibroblast population and collagen production, with cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor exerting control. Immune involvement is best regarded as an epiphenomenon. Downregulation of fibrogenesis may follow collagenase release from macrophages and fibroblasts, while augmented type II cell secretion of lipid can interfere with the macrophage-particle reaction. PMID:1954926

  19. Elastic Properties of Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Prasad, M.; Nur, A.

    2001-12-01

    We present ultrasonic P- and S-waves velocity measurements on pure clay samples using three different experiment setups. These experiments provided petrophysical and acoustic properties of clay minerals as a function both of mineralogy and compaction. In the first experiment, acoustic measurements were performed on cold-pressed clay aggregates at ambient and at hydrostatic pressure conditions. Porosity and grain density values of the different clay mineralogy aggregates ranged from 4 to 43% and 2.13 to 2.83 g cm-3, respectively. In the second experiment, we measured P-wave velocity and attenuation in a kaolinite-water suspension in which clay concentration was increased up to 60%. In the third experiment, P- and S- wave velocities were measured during uniaxial stress compaction of clay powders. Results from all three experiments revealed low bulk (K) and shear (μ ) moduli for kaolinite, montmorillonite, and smectite; the values range between 6-12 GPa for K and 4-6 GPa for μ , respectively. Using these clay moduli values in effective medium and granular porous media models, velocity is predicted in saturated pure kaolinite samples, kaolinite suspension and shaly sandstones fairly well. Experimental results also showed that water interlayers play an important role in the compaction and strength of clay aggregates. Clay minerals carrying on water interlayers in their structure showed high compaction and strength. This study is relevant for a more reliable assessment of the seismic response in reservoirs and/or basins characterized by clay-bearing formations.

  20. Analysis of aquifer mineralization by paleodrainage channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    Mineralization of groundwater resources is a problem in south-central Kansas, due to the penetration of saline water from Permian bedrock formations into the overlying alluvial aquifer. One of the mechanisms involved in the mineralization involves small bedrock features of high permeability located in places occupied by streams and rivers in past geological eras. These geological features are termed 'paleodrainage channels'. The permeability of the overlying aquifer can be significantly smaller than that of the channel fill material. The comparatively fast migration of saline water through these channels of high permeability is associated with the transfer of minerals into the overlying freshwater aquifer. This study applies a set of boundary layer approaches to quantify the process of mineral transfer from the channels into the aquifer. The methods used in the present study provide quick estimation and evaluation of the dilution of the channel flow, as well as mineral concentration profile changes in the mineralized zone created in the overlying aquifer. More generally, the method can also be useful for the analysis and evaluation of various types of groundwater contamination in heterogeneous aquifers. The application of the method is exemplified by a complete set of calculations characterizing the possible mineralization process at a specific channel in south central Kansas. Sensitivity analyses are performed and provide information about the importance of the various parameters that affect the mineralization process. Some possible scenarios for the aquifer mineralization phenomena are described and evaluated. It is shown that the channel mineralization may create either several stream tubes of the aquifer with high mineral concentration, or many stream tubes mineralized to a lesser extent. Characteristics of these two patterns of aquifer mineralization are quantified and discussed. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  2. 30 CFR 48.6 - Experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Experienced miner training. 48.6 Section 48.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS Training and Retraining of Underground Miners § 48.6 Experienced miner training. (a) Except as provided in...

  3. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a)...

  4. Liquid infused porous surfaces for mineral fouling mitigation.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Thibaut V J; Neville, Anne; Baudin, Sophie; Smith, Margaret J; Euvrard, Myriam; Bell, Ashley; Wang, Chun; Barker, Richard

    2015-04-15

    Prevention of mineral fouling, known as scale, is a long-standing problem in a wide variety of industrial applications, such as oil production, water treatment, and many others. The build-up of inorganic scale such as calcium carbonate on surfaces and facilities is undesirable as it can result in safety risks and associated flow assurance issues. To date the overwhelming amount of research has mainly focused on chemical inhibition of scale bulk precipitation and little attention has been paid to deposition onto surfaces. The development of novel more environmentally-friendly strategies to control mineral fouling will most probably necessitate a multifunctional approach including surface engineering. In this study, we demonstrate that liquid infused porous surfaces provide an appealing strategy for surface modification to reduce mineral scale deposition. Microporous polypyrrole (PPy) coatings were fabricated onto stainless steel substrates by electrodeposition in potentiostatic mode. Subsequent infusion of low surface energy lubricants (fluorinated oil Fluorinert FC-70 and ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMIm)) into the porous coatings results in liquid-repellent slippery surfaces. To assess their ability to reduce surface scaling the coatings were subjected to a calcium carbonate scaling environment and the scale on the surface was quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). PPy surfaces infused with BMIm (and Fluorinert to a lesser extent) exhibit remarkable antifouling properties with the calcium carbonate deposition reduced by 18 times in comparison to untreated stainless steel. These scaling tests suggest a correlation between the stability of the liquid infused surfaces in artificial brines and fouling reduction efficiency. The current work shows the great potential of such novel coatings for the management of mineral scale fouling. PMID:25585291

  5. Dynamic Light Scattering Analysis of the Effect of Phosphorylated Osteopontin Peptides on Mineral Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Maryam; Goiko, Maria; de Bruyn, John; Goldberg, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms synthesize minerals. Osteopontin (OPN), a mineral-associated protein, has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of mineral formation, a process that is dependent on phosphorylation. To gain a better understanding of the mechanism of inhibition, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to monitor the initial stages of nucleation, providing information about the size and relative concentration of the growing crystals as a function of time. DLS was used to investigate the effect of phosphorylated (P3, pOPAR) and non-phosphorylated (P0, OPAR) OPN peptides on the formation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals from supersaturated solutions of calcium and phosphate ions. The non-phosphorylated P0 had a limited effect on HA nucleation and growth, while its thrice-phosphorylated isoform, P3, was a potent inhibitor of HA nucleation. The aspartic acid-rich OPAR was found to moderately inhibit nucleation but not growth, while its singly-phosphorylated isoform, pOPAR, inhibited HA nucleation more effectively, with some effect on HA crystal growth. The order of the inhibitory potential of these peptides was pOPAR>OPAR>P3>P0. This work confirms that highly acidic and phosphorylated peptides can inhibit the nucleation of HA more effectively.

  6. AOP description: Acetylcholinesterase inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway (AOP) leverages existing knowledge in the open literature to describe the linkage between inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the subsequent mortality resulting from impacts at cholinergic receptors. The AOP takes a chemical category approa...

  7. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  8. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-11-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  9. Method for inhibiting corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Stapp, P. R.

    1985-12-03

    A composition comprising the reaction adduct or neutralized product resulting from the reaction of a maleic anhydride and an oil containing a polynuclear aromatic compound is provided which, when applied to a metal surface, forms a corrosion-inhibiting film thereon. The composition is particularly useful in the treatment of down-hole metal surfaces in oil and gas wells to inhibit the corrosion of the metal.

  10. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Takao; Nomura, Masao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the 11B /10B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher 11B /10B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing 11B /10B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite ( Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with higher BO 3/BO 4 ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO 3 triangle units to the number of the BO 4 tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher 11B /10B ratios.

  11. Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners.

    PubMed Central

    Kusiak, R A; Ritchie, A C; Springer, J; Muller, J

    1993-01-01

    An excess of mortality from stomach cancer has been found in Ontario gold miners (observed (obs) 104, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 152, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 125-185) and no excess of stomach cancer could be detected in other miners in Ontario (obs 74, SMR 102, 95% CI 80-128). The excess of stomach cancer appeared five to 19 years after the miners began gold mining in Ontario. In that interval, similar patterns of excess mortality from stomach cancer were found in miners born in north America (obs 14, SMR 268, CI 147-450) and in miners born outside north America (obs 12, SMR 280, 95% CI 145-489). Twenty or more years after the miners began mining gold, an excess of mortality from stomach cancer was found in gold miners born outside of north American (obs 41, SMR 160, 95% CI 115-218) but not in gold miners born in north America (obs 37, SMR 113, 95% CI 80-156). The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 (obs 45, SMR 167, 95% CI 122-223) seems larger than the excess in gold miners between the ages of 60 and 74 (obs 59, SMR 143, 95% CI 109-184). Exposures to arsenic, chromium, mineral fibre, diesel emissions, and aluminium powder were considered as possible explanations of the excess of stomach cancer in Ontario gold miners. Exposure to diesel emissions and aluminium powder was rejected as gold miners and uranium miners were exposed to both agents but an excess of stomach cancer was noted only in gold miners. The association between the excess of stomach cancer and the time since the miner began mining gold suggested that duration of exposure to dust in gold mines ought to be weighted according to the time since the exposure to dust occurred and that an appropriate time weighting function would be one in the interval five to 19 years after each year of exposure to dust and zero otherwise. A statistically significant association between the relative risk of mortality from stomach cancer and the time weighted duration of exposure to

  12. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  13. Mineral content of the maternal diet influences ectopic mineralization in offspring of Abcc6(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoli; Kingman, Joshua; Uitto, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization disorders inflicting the connective tissues display a spectrum of severity, some developing in utero and being diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the mineral content of maternal diet can influence the mineralization in the offspring. Pregnant Abcc6(-/-) mice, on 2 different strain backgrounds, were maintained either on normal rodent diet or on "acceleration diet," rich in phosphate and low in magnesium, which has been previously shown to enhance the mineralization processes. The offspring were examined for mineralization by histopathology of various tissues and quantitated by chemical assay of calcium. The ectopic mineralization in the dermal sheath of vibrissae, a progressive biomarker of the overall mineralization, was readily detectable at the age of 4 weeks in the pups whose mothers were on the acceleration diet, while no evidence of mineralization was noted in those on normal diet. The mineralization of the vibrissae progressively increased when examined at 12 weeks of age. There was a significant reduction in urinary calcium and significant increase in urinary phosphorus concentrations both at 4 and 12 weeks of age in mice on the acceleration diet as compared to those on control diet. The results demonstrate that the mineral content of the maternal diet can influence ectopic mineralization in the offspring of mice genetically predisposed to ectopic mineralization (Abcc6(-/-)). These observations have implications for dietary management of pregnancies in which the fetus is diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound to have an ectopic mineralization disorder. PMID:26199043

  14. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  15. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-04-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, (17)O NMR data on bone and compare them with (17)O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate-like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets. PMID:24706850

  16. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2011-04-01

    Carbonation of formation minerals converts low viscosity supercritical CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs for geologic sequestration into an immobile form. Until recently the scientific focus of mineralization reactions with reservoir rocks has been those that follow an aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation mechanism, driven by the sharp reduction in pH that occurs with CO2 partitioning into the aqueous phase. For sedimentary basin formations the kinetics of aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation reactions are sufficiently slow to make the role of mineralization trapping insignificant over a century period. For basaltic saline formations aqueous-phase mineralization progresses at a substantially higher rate, making the role of mineralization trapping significant, if not dominant, over a century period. The overlooked mineralization reactions for both sedimentary and basaltic saline formations, however, are those that occur in liquid or supercritical CO2 phase; where, dissolved water appears to play a catalyst role in the formation of carbonate minerals. A model is proposed in this paper that describes mineral carbonation over sequestration reservoir conditions ranging from dissolved CO2 in aqueous brine to dissolved water in supercritical CO2. The model theory is based on a review of recent experiments directed at understanding the role of water in mineral carbonation reactions of interest in geologic sequestration systems occurring under low water contents.

  17. Mineralization of breccia pipes in northern Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hundreds of breccia pipes, some mineralized with ore-grade Cu and/or U, occur in the Colorado Plateau of N Arizona. The pipes originated in the Mississippian Redwall limestone, on its solution-collapse, and stoped through the overlying strata to the Triassic Chinle formation. Mineralization occurred during the Mesozoic, first with Mississippi Valley-type Cu-Pb-Zn deposits, and later with uraninite. The origin of the mineralizing fluids is unknown. Prospecting criteria and the complete systematics of these pipes and their mineralizations require further research.-G.J.N.

  18. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  19. Mineral-Based Amendments for Remediation

    PubMed Central

    O’Day, Peggy A.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Amending soils with mineral-based materials to immobilize contaminants is both old and new. Although mineral amendments have been used for decades in agriculture, new applications with a variety of natural and reprocessed materials are emerging. By sequestering contaminants in or on solid phases and reducing their ability to partition into water or air, amendments can reduce the risk of exposure to humans or biota. A variety of mineral types are commonly used to amend contaminated soils, with different modes of molecular-scale sequestration. Regulatory, social, and economic factors also influence decisions to employ mineral amendments as a treatment technology. PMID:22203887

  20. In Brief: Astronomer honored with a mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-06-01

    ``I have always been very intrigued by minerals, so it is great to be one,'' commented NASA Stardust mission principal investigator and University of Washington astronomer Donald Brownlee, AGU member, after learning the International Mineralogical Association had named a new mineral in his honor. Brownleeite, a combination of manganese and silicon, is the first mineral discovered in a particle from a comet. The mineral was found inside a particle collected by a high-altitude NASA aircraft from a dust stream that entered Earth's atmosphere in 2003. A team led by NASA scientist Keiko Nakamura-Messenger found the particle and had requested that it be named for Brownlee.

  1. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Massachusetts. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Sinnott, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    The value of nonfuel mineral production in 1990 was $127.5 million, a decrease of $16.6 million compared with the 1989 value. The combined value of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the State's two leading mineral commodities, accounted for 83% of the value. In 1990, the State ranked eighth among 34 States that produced dimension stone. Other commodities produced included common clay, industrial sand, lime, and peat. Industrial minerals processed or manufactured in the State included abrasives, graphite, gypsum, perlite, and vermiculite. The report presents statistical information on the state's mineral industries.

  2. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Louisiana. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Marsalis, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    Louisiana's nonfuel mineral production in 1992 totaled $309.3 million. This was a $42.5 million decline in value from that reported by the mineral industry in 1991. Although there was an increase in the value of gemstones, lime, and industrial sand and gravel, it failed to offset a decline in the demand and sales of gypsum, construction sand and gravel, salt, crushed stone, and sulfur. The values of these five mineral commodities fell $53.9 million between 1991 and 1992. The State ranked 32d nationally in mineral value and accounted for 35% of the Nation's salt tonnage and 42% of the Frasch sulfur production.

  3. mineral sequestration by wollastonite carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenjin; Fu, Liangjie; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Huaming

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a new approach to CO2 mineral sequestration using wollastonite carbonation assisted by sulfuric acid and ammonia. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance. The change in Gibbs free energy from -223 kJ/mol for the leaching reaction of wollastonite to -101 kJ/mol for the carbonation reaction indicated that these two reactions can proceed spontaneously. The leached and carbonated wollastonite showed fibrous bassanite and granular calcium carbonate, respectively, while the crystal structure of pristine wollastonite was destroyed and the majority of the Ca2+ in pristine wollastonite leached. The chemical changes in the phases were monitored during the whole process. A high carbonation rate of 91.1 % could be obtained under the action of sulfuric acid and ammonia at 30 °C at normal atmospheric pressure, indicating its potential use for CO2 sequestration.

  4. Mineral content of commercial pollen.

    PubMed

    Orzáez Villanueva, M T; Díaz Marquina, A; Bravo Serrano, R; Blaźquez Abellán, G

    2001-05-01

    Pollen is a natural product which is extending its marketing day by day, given that it is considered to be a dietetic product and it is consumed everyday by a broad sector of the Spanish population. In its composition it presents valuable nutrients, among which we can find minerals, which is the main object of this study. We have analysed sodium, potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in 15 pollen samples which correspond to different brands. The technique we have used is atomic absortion spectroscopy. The results show us the great potassium contribution of this natural product, with values over 400 mg/100 g, and about microelements, mainly iron and zinc, although with different results, depending on the brand which markets it, with average values of 4.01 +/- 1.00 and 3.66 +/- 1.02, respectively. PMID:11400473

  5. Shock waves data for minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    Shock compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of shock wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. Shock wave equation of state, shock-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and shock temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the shock velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the shock velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the shock wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.

  6. Elastic Properties of Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Prasad, M.; Nur, A.

    We present ultrasonic P- and S-waves velocity measurements on pure clay samples us- ing three different experiment setups. These experiments provided petrophysical and acoustic properties of clay minerals as a function both of mineralogy and compaction. In the first experiment, acoustic measurements were performed on cold-pressed clay aggregates at ambient and at hydrostatic pressure conditions. Porosity and grain den- sity values of the different clay mineralogy aggregates ranged from 4 to 43% and 2.13 to 2.83 g cm-3, respectively. In the second experiment, we measured P-wave velocity and attenuation in a kaolinite-water suspension in which clay concentration was in- creased up to 60%. In the third experiment, P- and S- wave velocities were measured during uniaxial stress compaction of clay powders. Results from all three experiments revealed low bulk (K) and shear (µ) moduli for kaolinite, montmorillonite, and smec- tite; the values range between 6-12 GPa for K and 4-6 GPa for µ, respectively. Using these clay moduli values in effective medium and granular porous media (theories) models, velocity is predicted in saturated pure kaolinite samples, kaolinite suspension and shaly sandstone fairly well. Experimental results also showed that water interlay- ers play an important role in the compaction and strength of clay aggregates. Clay minerals carrying on water interlayers in their structure showed high compaction and strength. This study is relevant for a more reliable assessment of the seismic response in reservoirs and/or basins characterized by clay-bearing formations.

  7. Studies of matrix vesicle-induced mineralization in a gelatin gel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Boyan, B. D.; Doty, S. B.; Feliciano, A.; Greer, K.; Weiland, D.; Swain, L. D.; Schwartz, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Matrix vesicles isolated from fourth-passage cultures of chondrocytes were tested for their ability to induce hydroxyapatite formation in a gelatin gel in order to gain insight into the function of matrix vesicles in in situ mineralization. These matrix vesicles did not appear to be hydroxyapatite nucleators per se since the extent of mineral accumulation in the gel diffusion system was not altered by the presence of matrix vesicles alone, and in the vesicle containing gels, mineral crystals were formed whether associated with vesicles or not. In gels with these matrix vesicles and beta-glycerophosphate, despite the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, there was no increase in mineral deposition. This suggested that in the gel system these culture-derived vesicles did not increase local phosphate concentrations. However, when known inhibitors of mineral crystal formation and growth (proteoglycan aggregates [4 mg/ml], or ATP [1 mM], or both proteoglycan and ATP) were included in the gel, more mineral was deposited in gels with the vesicles than in comparable gels without vesicles, indicating that enzymes within these vesicles were functioning to remove the inhibition. These data support the suggestion that one function of the extracellular matrix vesicles is to transport enzymes for matrix modification.

  8. High temperature and salinity enhance soil nitrogen mineralization in a tidal freshwater marsh.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (≈10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P<0.001) except the interactive effect of salinity and temperature (P>0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001). Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2 = 0.88-0.99, P<0.01). Our results indicated that an enhanced NH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems. PMID:24733366

  9. High Temperature and Salinity Enhance Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in a Tidal Freshwater Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (≈10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P<0.001) except the interactive effect of salinity and temperature (P>0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001). Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2 = 0.88–0.99, P<0.01). Our results indicated that an enhanced NH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems. PMID:24733366

  10. Xeno-Klotho Inhibits Parathyroid Hormone Signaling.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Inoue, Tsutomu; Miyazaki, Takashi; Hayashi, Matsuhiko; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2016-02-01

    Although fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 was recently identified as a phosphatonin that influences vitamin D metabolism, the underlying signaling mechanisms remain unclear. FGF23 elevates the renal levels of membrane-associated klotho as well as soluble klotho. Klotho is expressed on distal tubules. Upon enzymatic cleavage, soluble klotho is released into the renal interstitial space and then into the systemic circulation. The expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase (1-OH) on proximal tubular cells is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Klotho binds to various membrane proteins to alter their function. Here, the interaction between the PTH receptor and klotho was studied using various approaches, including immunoprecipitation, in vitro cell culture, and in vivo animal experiments. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant human klotho protein interacts with human PTH receptors to inhibit the binding of human PTH. Furthermore, when applied to human proximal tubular cells, recombinant human klotho suppresses PTH-stimulated generation of inositol trisphosphate in vitro. Moreover, PTH-induced increase of cyclic AMP secretion and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD) was attenuated by recombinant human klotho in vivo. In addition, recombinant human klotho inhibits the expression of 1-OH by PTH both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that free klotho mediates the FGF23-induced inhibition of 1,25VD synthesis. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26287968

  11. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. The mineral industries of the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf countries. International review

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, B.; Antonides, L.E.; Morgan, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The document contains commodity reviews (metals, mineral fuels, industrial minerals where applicable) for the following countries: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, People's Democratic Republic of Yeman, and Yeman Arab Republic.

  12. Ferrous Minerals and Impactite Mineralization at Missouri's Crooked Creek and Decaturville Impact Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauford, R. E.

    2012-03-01

    Epigenetic hydrothermal mineralization, subsequent to the Crooked Creek and Decaturville impacts, accompanied Paleozoic dolomitization of carbonates at a regional scale in the Ozarks and produced quantities of ferrous minerals at both locations.

  13. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  14. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil.

    PubMed

    Banin, A; Ben-Shlomo, T; Margulies, L; Blake, D F; Mancinelli, R L; Gehring, A U

    1993-11-25

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  15. Pharmacology of cortical inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Krnjević, K.; Randić, Mirjana; Straughan, D. W.

    1966-01-01

    1. We have studied the effects of various pharmacological agents on the cortical inhibitory process described in the previous two papers (Krnjević, Randić & Straughan, 1966a, b); the drugs were mostly administered directly by iontophoresis from micropipettes and by systemic injection (I.V.). 2. Strychnine given by iontophoresis or by the application of a strong solution to the cortical surface potentiated excitatory effects, but very large iontophoretic doses also depressed neuronal firing. Subconvulsive and even convulsive systemic doses had little or no effect at the cortical level. There was no evidence, with any method of application, that strychnine directly interferes with the inhibitory process. 3. Tetanus toxin, obtained from two different sources and injected into the cortex 12-48 hr previously, also failed to block cortical inhibition selectively. As with strychnine, there was some evidence of increased responses to excitatory inputs. 4. Other convulsant drugs which failed to block cortical inhibition included picrotoxin, pentamethylene tetrazole, thiosemicarbazide, longchain ω-amino acids and morphine. 5. The inhibition was not obviously affected by cholinomimetic agents or by antagonists of ACh. 6. α- and β-antagonists of adrenergic transmission were also ineffective. 7. Cortical inhibition was fully developed in the presence of several general anaesthetics, including ether, Dial, pentobarbitone, Mg and chloralose. A temporary reduction in inhibition which is sometimes observed after systemic doses of pentobarbitone, is probably secondary to a fall in blood pressure. 8. Several central excitants such as amphetamine, caffeine and lobeline also failed to show any specific antagonistic action on cortical inhibition. 9. In view of the possibility that GABA is the chemical agent mediating cortical inhibition, an attempt was made to find a selective antagonist of its depressant action on cortical neurones. None of the agents listed above, nor any other

  16. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Africa. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The 53 countries that constituted Africa in 1992 accounted for a significant portion of total world output of a number of mineral commodities. Among the most significant mineral commodities produced in Africa were andalusite, antimony, asbestos, bauxite, chromite, coal, cobalt, copper, diamond, fluorspar, gold, lithium minerals, manganese, phosphate, platinum-group metals, the titanium minerals-ilmenite and rutile, vanadium, vermiculite, uranium, and zircon. Chromite, cobalt, and manganese, were not mined in the Untied States.

  17. 43 CFR 3000.8 - Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates. 3000.8 Section 3000.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  18. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  19. 43 CFR 3000.8 - Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates. 3000.8 Section 3000.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  20. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  1. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  2. 43 CFR 3000.8 - Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates. 3000.8 Section 3000.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  3. 43 CFR 3000.8 - Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates. 3000.8 Section 3000.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  4. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  5. Bone mineral measurement from Apollo experiment M-078. [derangement of bone mineral metabolism in spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.; Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Loss of mineral from bone during periods of immobilization, recumbency, or weightlessness is examined. This report describes the instrumentation, technique, and bone mineral changes observed preflight and postflight for the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions. The bone mineral changes documented during the Apollo Program are reviewed, and their relevance to future missions is discussed.

  6. Mineral Engineering Education in the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgmann, Carl W.; Bartram, John W.

    A large percentage of all US degrees in mineral engineering fields are awarded by 14 institutions of higher education in 13 western states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. But low undergraduate enrollments in the mineral engineering curricula have increased…

  7. Mineral losses during extreme environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minerals are nutrients that are conserved by the body. During exposure to environmental stimuli, such as heat and/or exercise, the excretion of minerals, macro (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and micro (Cu, Fe, Zn), occurs through the body surface in the form of cellular desquamation and sweat, as well as in the u...

  8. Current concepts in perinatal mineral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2016-01-01

    The serum levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphate are maintained higher in the fetus than in the pregnant mother, especially in late gestation, to meet the demands of fetal bone development. In order to maintain this fetal stage-specific mineral homeostasis, the placenta plays a critical role through active transcellular mineral transport. Although the molecular mechanism of transplacental Ca transport has been well studied, little is known about the transport mechanism of phosphate and magnesium. Maternal mineral homeostasis is also altered during pregnancy to supply minerals to the fetus. In the lactating mother, osteocytic osteolysis is suggested to be involved in the supply of minerals to the baby. The levels of some calcitropic and phosphotropic (Ca- and phosphate-regulating, respectively) hormones in the fetus are also different from those in the adult. The PTH level in the fetus is lower than that in the mother and nonpregnant adult. It is suggested, however, that low fetal PTH plays an important role in fetal mineral metabolism. The concentration of PTHrP in the fetus is much higher than that of PTH and plays a critical role in perinatal Ca homeostasis. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms for fetal stage-specific mineral metabolism will lead to better management of perinatal patients with mineral abnormalities. PMID:26865750

  9. Current concepts in perinatal mineral metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The serum levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphate are maintained higher in the fetus than in the pregnant mother, especially in late gestation, to meet the demands of fetal bone development. In order to maintain this fetal stage-specific mineral homeostasis, the placenta plays a critical role through active transcellular mineral transport. Although the molecular mechanism of transplacental Ca transport has been well studied, little is known about the transport mechanism of phosphate and magnesium. Maternal mineral homeostasis is also altered during pregnancy to supply minerals to the fetus. In the lactating mother, osteocytic osteolysis is suggested to be involved in the supply of minerals to the baby. The levels of some calcitropic and phosphotropic (Ca- and phosphate-regulating, respectively) hormones in the fetus are also different from those in the adult. The PTH level in the fetus is lower than that in the mother and nonpregnant adult. It is suggested, however, that low fetal PTH plays an important role in fetal mineral metabolism. The concentration of PTHrP in the fetus is much higher than that of PTH and plays a critical role in perinatal Ca homeostasis. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms for fetal stage-specific mineral metabolism will lead to better management of perinatal patients with mineral abnormalities. PMID:26865750

  10. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  11. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew D; Fischer, Philip R; Reed, Ann M; Wylam, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  12. Near infrared detection of ammonium minerals.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M.D.; Altaner, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic near-infrared spectral features have been identified for minerals with ammonium (NH4+) bound in the crystal structure. Near-infrared detection of NH4-bearing minerals may provide useful information for prospecting for certain ore deposits and may provide a better understanding of the nitrogen cycle within geologic environments.-from Authors

  13. 43 CFR 9239.5 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals. 9239.5 Section 9239.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5 Minerals....

  14. 43 CFR 9239.5 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals. 9239.5 Section 9239.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5 Minerals....

  15. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  19. 43 CFR 9239.5 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals. 9239.5 Section 9239.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5 Minerals....

  20. 43 CFR 9239.5 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals. 9239.5 Section 9239.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5 Minerals....

  1. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  2. Dehydration-induced luminescence in clay minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lahav, N.; Lawless, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports of triboluminescent phenomena in organic crystalline materials prompted a search for related processes in clay minerals. The reported extensive mechanical distortion produced on freezing and drying of montmorillonite was particularly interesting because of studies of condensation reactions in a wet/dry cycled reaction sequence. The discovery of an unusual luminescent process in several clay minerals is reported and its characteristics are described.

  3. Killer clays! Natural antibacterial clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, L.B.; Holland, M.; Eberl, D.D.; Brunet, T.; De Courrsou, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    The clay chemical properties that may be important in medicine were investigated. It was found that natural clay minerals can have striking and very specific effects on microbial populations. The effects can range from potentially enhanced microbial growth to complete sterilization. This paper presents evidence that natural clay minerals can be effective antimicrobial agents.

  4. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  5. Mineral Resource of the Month: Graphite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Donald W.

    2008-01-01

    Graphite, a grayish black opaque mineral with a metallic luster, is one of four forms of pure crystalline carbon (the others are carbon nanotubes, diamonds and fullerenes). It is one of the softest minerals and it exhibits perfect basal (one-plane) cleavage. Graphite is the most electrically and thermally conductive of the nonmetals, and it is chemically inert.

  6. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Idaho. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Minarik, R.J.; Gillerman, V.S.

    1992-09-01

    The 1990 Annual Report is on the Mineral Industry of Idaho. Idaho ranked 26th nationally for total mineral production value compared with 28th in 1989. The State was first in the Nation in antimony and garnet production; second in silver and vandaium production; and third in output of lead, molybdenum, and marketable phosphate rock.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: tantalum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    The article offers information on a rare transition metal called tantalum. It says that the blue-gray mineral resource was discovered in 1801 or 1802 and was used for capacitors in 1940. It adds that the tantalite ore and other minerals in the ore should be separated in order to generate concentrates of tantalum. The use of tantalum are also cited.

  8. Mineral Process Chemistry: A Special Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudeney, A. W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Mineral Process Chemistry is one of the special study options of the Nuffield Advanced Science course in chemistry. Following general comments on mineral process chemistry, the subject matter of the option is described, focusing on copper and china clay. (Author/JN)

  9. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  10. Protocol comparison for quantifying in situ mineralization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ mineralization methods are intended to quantify mineralization under realistic environmental conditions. This study was conducted to compare soil moisture and temperature in intake soil cores contained in cylinders to that in adjacent bulk soil, compare the effect of two resin bag techniques...

  11. A Cooperative Approach To Teaching Mineral Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantopoulos, Terri Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Describes Jigsaw Teaching, a cooperative learning approach, in relation to mineral identification. This technique may also be applied to rock identification. Students work in groups of four and learn to identify 20 minerals, becoming an "expert" on five of them. Helping to teach other students reinforces what each student has learned. Results…

  12. Measuring Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Field Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of animal manure is known to alter rates of nitrogen (N) mineralization in soils, but quantitative information concerning intensity and duration of these effects has been difficult to obtain under field conditions. We estimated net effects of manure on N mineralization in soils unde...

  13. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3−)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43−) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43− concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43− and free

  14. Mineral Changes in Osteoporosis A Review

    PubMed Central

    Faibish, Dan; Ott, Susan M.; Boskey, Adele L.

    2006-01-01

    Bone mineral composition, crystallinity, and bone mineral content of osteoporotic patients are different from those of normal subjects. We review the evidence that these mineralization parameters contribute to the strength (fracture resistance) of bone and the methods that have been used to examine them. A specific example is provided from analysis of biopsies from the Multiple Outcomes in Raloxifene Evaluation trial. For the analyses, randomly selected biopsies from placebo, low-dose, and high-dose groups (n = 5 per group) obtained at time zero and 2 years after treatment were examined by infrared imaging spectroscopy. In all cases, comparable increases in mineral content were found, but there were no significant variations in mineral crystallinity. PMID:16462423

  15. Two centuries of mineral policy in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Wisconsin has experienced several major shifts in mineral policy which reflect changing public attitudes about resources. Early law either encouraged mineral development or was mute during the territory and early statehood period because the prevalent attitude was for rapid development to generate capital which would foster economic growth and development. The development push of the 19th century was followed by a slow shift to environmental and social consciousness. This shift subverted Wisconsin's relationship to and dependence on outside sources of mineals and its posture with regard to mineral developent. Development is now strongly controlled by laws, land access, and social responsibility. Increased mineral dependence and high consumer prices are the price which society pays for such policies, and the author suggests the need for a national minerals policy to serve as a model for the states. 3 references.

  16. [The cellular mechanisms of the physiological action of iodobromide mineral waters].

    PubMed

    Serov, S I; Tereshin, S Iu

    1990-01-01

    The experiments on edible frogs have revealed the relationship between the effect of sodium chloride, skin potential difference and micro-components iodide and bromide present in the solution. The results obtained furnish the additional information on the synergistic action of mineral water iodide and bromide on the body. Iodide ions were found to act mainly through inhibition of sodium channels of cellular membranes, while bromide ions are likely to affect Na, K-ATPase. PMID:2336825

  17. Minerals Yearbook, 1988 international review. The mineral industries of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, I.E.; Gurmendi, A.C.; Velasco, P.

    1988-01-01

    All three countries in this Andean group have diversified mineral industries that play an important role in their respective domestic economies. Peru, as the largest country with a population of over 21 million, is the most diversified mineral producer with the highest value of total output. The values added by the mineral industries in 1988 were $2.78 billion for Peru, $1.98 billion for Ecuador, and $0.64 billion for Bolivia. Each value encompasses production of petroleum, natural gas, metals, and industrial minerals. During the period 1980-88, Ecuador's mineral output in terms of value expanded while that of Bolivia and Peru contracted.

  18. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Larussa, Tiziana; Suraci, Evelina; Nazionale, Immacolata; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Imeneo, Maria; Luzza, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD) and celiac disease (CD), but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed. PMID:22737164

  19. Interior order expands minerals management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a surprise move on May 10, Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt ordered the consolidation of all leasing and resource management functions for the outer continental shelf (OCS) into the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Among those programs shifted to MMS are ‘all functions in direct support of the OCS program’ in the Geologic Division and in the Office of the Assistant Director for Resource Programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including oil and gas resources, energy-related hazards, and marine geology investigations. It is unclear whether research associated with the OCS leasing functions will be considered ‘direct support’ and what will happen to the research if it is so considered.Also to be shuttled to MMS are the oil-spill trajectory functions of the Office of Earth Sciences Applications and all the functions of the Office of Policy Analysis relating to the OCS that had been transferred from the Department of Energy as a result of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

  20. Metallic mineral resources of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirambides, Ananias; Filippidis, Anestis

    2012-12-01

    Today Greece produces and exports raw bauxite and alumina, concentrates of galena and sphalerite and ferronickel. The indicated reserves of bauxite, located in the Mt Helikon-Mt Parnassus-Mt Giona-Mt Iti zone, are estimated at approximately 100 mt and those of aluminum 2.5 mt. The probable and indicated reserves of lead and zinc from Chalkidiki are approximately 3.125 mt. The total production of concentrates of galena and sphalerite is approximately 220,000 tpa. The proven reserves of nickel are approximately 1.392 mt and the production of ferronickel is approximately 18,500 tpa. Production of copper, silver and gold is pending in 2015. The probable and indicated reserves of copper from Skouries Chalkidiki are approximately 1.943 mt. In the Prefecture Units of Chalkidiki and Evros the probable and indicated reserves of gold are approximately 19.37 million ounces and those of silver 131.6 million ounces. Chromium, manganese and molybdenum present good prospects of exploitation. Calculated at current prices, the total gross value of the probable and indicated reserves of the metallic minerals of Greece is €79.4 billion.

  1. Potential role of proprotein convertase SKI-1 in the mineralization of primary bone.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Jeff P; Huffman, Nichole T; Cui, Chaoying; Henderson, Ellen P; Midura, Ronald J; Seidah, Nabil G

    2009-01-01

    The biochemical mechanism controlling nucleation of mineral crystals in developing bone, along with the growth and propagation of these crystals once formed, remains poorly understood. To define the nucleation mechanism, a proteomics analysis was begun on isolated biomineralization foci (BMF), sites of initial crystal nucleation in osteoblastic cell cultures and in primary bone. Comparative analyses of the protein profile for mineralized BMF with that for total osteoblast cultures revealed the latter were enriched in several proteins including BAG-75 and BSP, as well as fragments of each. When 12 protease inhibitors were added separately to UMR 106-01 osteoblastic cultures, only the serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) blocked cleavage of BAG-75 and BSP, and prevented mineral crystal nucleation within BMF. Consideration of the specificities of the inhibitors tested and the fact that AEBSF inhibition was not dependent upon inclusion of FBS in the culture media indicated that mineral nucleation does not require serine protease plasmin, thrombin, kallikrein, urokinase, C1s or furin. In contrast, SKI-1 (S1P or site-1) is a membrane-bound serine protease inhibitable by AEBSF. We show here for the first time that mineralizing UMR 106 cells express a 98-kDa active, soluble form of SKI-1 within BMF. In contrast, nonmineralizing UMR cells appear to differentially process SKI-1 into smaller immunoreactive fragments (<35 kDa). These findings suggest that SKI-1 plays a direct or indirect role in assembly of functional nucleation complexes containing BAG-75 and BSP and their fragments, thus facilitating initial mineral nucleation within these biomineralization foci. PMID:18728345

  2. Effects of simulated acid rain on glucose mineralization and some physicochemical properties of forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, R.F.; Alexander, M.

    1981-10-01

    To study the effects of acid rain, samples of forest soils were exposed to a continuous application of 100 cm of simulated acid rain (pH 3.2-4.1) at 5 cm/hour, or to intermittent 1-hour applications of 5 cm of simulated acid rain three times per week for 7 weeks. The major effects of the simulated acid rain were localized at the top of the soil and included lower pH values and glucose mineralization rates, and higher exchangeable Al and total and exchange acidity. The acidity penetrated further in the more acid soils. The mineralization of /sup 14/C-glucose was measured at concentrations of 1.5-54 ..mu..g glucose/g of soil. Glucose mineralization in the test soils (pH values of 4.4-7.1) was inhibited by the continuous exposure to simulated acid rain at pH 3.2 but not a pH 4.1. The extent of inhibition depended on the soil and the initial glucose concentration. Exposure of one soil to 7 weeks of intermittent applications of simulated acid rain at pH 3.2 reduced the mineralization rate at the three glucose concentrations tested. These data suggest that acid rain may have a significant impact on microbial activity.

  3. 43 CFR 3602.20 - Administration of mineral materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of mineral materials sales... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.20 Administration of mineral materials sales....

  4. 43 CFR 3602.20 - Administration of mineral materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of mineral materials sales... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.20 Administration of mineral materials sales....

  5. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  6. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  7. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements....

  8. 43 CFR 3602.20 - Administration of mineral materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of mineral materials sales... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.20 Administration of mineral materials sales....

  9. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements....

  10. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a)...

  11. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements....

  12. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements....

  13. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  14. 30 CFR 256.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 256.80 Section 256.80 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 256.80 Leases of other minerals....

  15. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a)...

  16. 43 CFR 3602.20 - Administration of mineral materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administration of mineral materials sales... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.20 Administration of mineral materials sales....

  17. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 581.8 Section 581.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 581.8 Rights to minerals....

  18. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 581.8 Section 581.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 581.8 Rights to minerals....

  20. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral... OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a) Unless otherwise specified in the leasing notice, a lease for OCS...

  1. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  2. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements....

  3. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a)...

  4. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a)...

  5. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 581.8 Section 581.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 581.8 Rights to minerals....

  6. 30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Experienced miner training. 48.26 Section 48.26 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS Training and Retraining of Miners Working at Surface Mines and Surface Areas of Underground Mines §...

  7. Inhibition of nitrosation.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, H; Pignatelli, B; Calmels, S; Ohshima, H

    1993-01-01

    Humans are exposed through ingestion or inhalation to preformed N-nitroso compounds (NOC) in the environment and through the endogenous nitrosation of amino precursors in the body. Activated macrophages and bacterial strains isolated from human infections can enzymatically produce nitrosating agents and NOC from precursors at neutral pH. As a consequence, endogenous nitrosation may occur at various sites of the body, such as the oral cavity, stomach, urinary bladder, and at other sites of infection or inflammation. Numerous substances to which humans are exposed have been identified and shown to inhibit formation of NOC. Such inhibitors include vitamins C and E, certain phenolic compounds, and complex mixtures such as fruit and vegetable juices or other plant extracts. Nitrosation inhibitors normally destroy the nitrosating agents and, thus, act as competitors for the amino compound that serves as substrate for the nitrosating species. Independently, epidemiological studies have already established that fresh fruits and vegetables that are sources of vitamin C, other vitamins, and polyphenols have a protective effect against cancers at various sites and in particular gastric cancer. This article briefly reviews (a) the chemistry of NOC formation and inhibition; (b) the studies in experimental animals that showed that inhibition of endogenous NOC synthesis leads to a reduction of toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects; (c) recent studies in humans where the degree of inhibition of endogenous NOC synthesis was directly quantified; and (d) the possible contribution of nitrosation inhibitors to human cancer prevention. PMID:8304939

  8. Nitric oxide inhibition strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Vivian (Wai Chong); Lerner, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide is involved in many physiologic processes. There are efforts, described elsewhere in this volume, to deliver nitric oxide to tissues as a therapy. Nitric oxide also contributes to pathophysiologic processes. Inhibiting nitric oxide or its production can thus also be of therapeutic benefit. This article addresses such inhibitory strategies. PMID:26634146

  9. Zinc Inhibits Hedgehog Autoprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Owen, Timothy; Xia, Ke; Singh, Ajay Vikram; Tou, Emiley; Li, Lingyun; Arduini, Brigitte; Li, Hongmin; Wan, Leo Q.; Callahan, Brian; Wang, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element with wide-ranging biological functions, whereas the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays crucial roles in both development and disease. Here we show that there is a mechanistic link between zinc and Hh signaling. The upstream activator of Hh signaling, the Hh ligand, originates from Hh autoprocessing, which converts the Hh precursor protein to the Hh ligand. In an in vitro Hh autoprocessing assay we show that zinc inhibits Hh autoprocessing with a Ki of 2 μm. We then demonstrate that zinc inhibits Hh autoprocessing in a cellular environment with experiments in primary rat astrocyte culture. Solution NMR reveals that zinc binds the active site residues of the Hh autoprocessing domain to inhibit autoprocessing, and isothermal titration calorimetry provided the thermodynamics of the binding. In normal physiology, zinc likely acts as a negative regulator of Hh autoprocessing and inhibits the generation of Hh ligand and Hh signaling. In many diseases, zinc deficiency and elevated level of Hh ligand co-exist, including prostate cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and autism. Our data suggest a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and the overproduction of Hh ligand. PMID:25787080

  10. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  11. Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles

  12. In Vitro Enzymatic Reduction Kinetics of Mineral Oxides by Membrane Fractions from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruebush,S.; Icopini, G.; Brantley, S.; Tien, M.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the first example of in vitro solid-phase mineral oxide reduction by enzyme-containing membrane fractions. Previous in vitro studies have only reported the reduction of aqueous ions. Total membrane (TM) fractions from iron-grown cultures of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were isolated and shown to catalyze the reduction of goethite, hematite, birnessite, and ramsdellite/pyrolusite using formate. In contrast, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and succinate cannot function as electron donors. The significant implications of observations related to this cell-free system are: (i) both iron and manganese mineral oxides are reduced by the TM fraction, but aqueous U(VI) is not; (ii) TM fractions from anaerobically grown, but not aerobically grown, cells can reduce the mineral oxides; (iii) electron shuttles and iron chelators are not needed for this in vitro reduction, documenting conclusively that reduction can occur by direct contact with the mineral oxide; (iv) electron shuttles and EDTA stimulate the in vitro Fe(III) reduction, documenting that exogenous molecules can enhance rates of enzymatic mineral reduction; and (v) multiple membrane components are involved in solid-phase oxide reduction. The membrane fractions, consisting of liposomes of cytoplasmic and outer membrane segments, contain at least 100 proteins including the enzyme that oxidizes formate, formate dehydrogenase. Mineral oxide reduction was inhibited by the addition of detergent Triton X-100, which solubilizes membranes and their associated proteins, consistent with the involvement of multiple electron carriers that are disrupted by detergent addition. In contrast, formate dehydrogenase activity was not inhibited by Triton X-100. The addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and menaquinone-4 was unable to restore activity; however, menadione (MD) restored 33% of the activity. The addition of AQDS and MD to reactions without added detergent increased the rate of goethite

  13. In vitro enzymatic reduction kinetics of mineral oxides by membrane fractions from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruebush, Shane S.; Icopini, Gary A.; Brantley, Susan L.; Tien, Ming

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the first example of in vitro solid-phase mineral oxide reduction by enzyme-containing membrane fractions. Previous in vitro studies have only reported the reduction of aqueous ions. Total membrane (TM) fractions from iron-grown cultures of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were isolated and shown to catalyze the reduction of goethite, hematite, birnessite, and ramsdellite/pyrolusite using formate. In contrast, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and succinate cannot function as electron donors. The significant implications of observations related to this cell-free system are: (i) both iron and manganese mineral oxides are reduced by the TM fraction, but aqueous U(VI) is not; (ii) TM fractions from anaerobically grown, but not aerobically grown, cells can reduce the mineral oxides; (iii) electron shuttles and iron chelators are not needed for this in vitro reduction, documenting conclusively that reduction can occur by direct contact with the mineral oxide; (iv) electron shuttles and EDTA stimulate the in vitro Fe(III) reduction, documenting that exogenous molecules can enhance rates of enzymatic mineral reduction; and (v) multiple membrane components are involved in solid-phase oxide reduction. The membrane fractions, consisting of liposomes of cytoplasmic and outer membrane segments, contain at least 100 proteins including the enzyme that oxidizes formate, formate dehydrogenase. Mineral oxide reduction was inhibited by the addition of detergent Triton X-100, which solubilizes membranes and their associated proteins, consistent with the involvement of multiple electron carriers that are disrupted by detergent addition. In contrast, formate dehydrogenase activity was not inhibited by Triton X-100. The addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and menaquinone-4 was unable to restore activity; however, menadione (MD) restored 33% of the activity. The addition of AQDS and MD to reactions without added detergent increased the rate of goethite

  14. Uranium (VI) sorption onto selected mineral surfaces: Key geochemical parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Pabalan, R.T.; Bertetti, F.P.; Prikryl, J.D.; Turner, D.R.

    1996-10-01

    Batch U(VI) sorption experiments were conducted using quartz, montmorillonite, clinoptilolite, and {alpha}-alumina to determine the key geochemical parameters that influence sorption onto mineral surfaces. The experiments were done at different initial U concentration, pH, M/V, and ionic strength, and at ambient and elevated PCO{sub 2} (10{sup -3.5} and 10{sup -2.0} atm, respectively). The results show that U(VI) sorption on all the minerals studied reaches a maximum at near-neutral pH ({approximately}6.3-6.8) and decreases sharply towards more acidic or alkaline conditions. The pH range where U sorption occurs corresponds to the predominance field of aqueous monomeric U(VI)-hydroxy complexes. Sorption is inhibited at high pH and PCO{sub 2} due to formation of aqueous U(VI)-carbonate complexes. For montmorillonite and clinoptilolite, ion-exchange was suppressed due to the relatively high ionic strength of the solutions. Surface charge properties of the sorbent are inferred to be relatively unimportant factors in U(VI) sorption. Sorption data plotted in terms of K{sub d} show that M/V ratio has little influence on the distribution of U(VI) between the solid and aqueous phases. Modeling of the sorption behavior of U(VI) was performed using a surface complexation approach (Diffuse-Layer Model).

  15. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. The model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  16. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential numbermore » of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.« less

  17. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential number of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.

  18. Authigenic minerals: Biologically influenced and induced organomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupraz, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Organominerals are minerals precipitated by interactions with organic matter without enzymatic control. Organomineralization of authigenic carbonate minerals depends on two key components: (1) the "carbonate alkalinity engine" impacting the calcium carbonate saturation index and (2) the organic matrix comprised of extracellular organic matter (EOM), which provides a template for carbonate nucleation. The alkalinity engine can be "intrinsic" when microbial metabolisms increase supersaturation or lower the kinetic barrier of precipitation, or "extrinsic" when the physicochemical environment creates the conditions for mineral formation. The organic matrix produced by various communities within the microbial mats is known to influence nucleation, morphology and mineralogy of minerals through binding of cations. By playing with these two key components, three types of authigenic minerals can be formed: (1) a purely physicochemical precipitation on an abiotic substrate, (2) a precipitation "influenced" by the presence of an organic matrix but resulting from a physicochemical forcing (environmentally driven), or (3) a "microbially-induced" precipitation, in which both supersaturation and organic matrix are resulting from microbial activity. In this keynote, we will review important processes involved in the precipitation of authigenic carbonate minerals in modern microbial mats and open the discussion on the potential use of authigenic carbonate minerals as biosignatures in the fossil record.

  19. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  20. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  1. Skeletal biology: Where matrix meets mineral.

    PubMed

    Young, Marian F

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is unique from all other tissues in the body because of its ability to mineralize. The incorporation of mineral into bones and teeth is essential to give them strength and structure for body support and function. For years, researchers have wondered how mineralized tissues form and repair. A major focus in this context has been on the role of the extracellular matrix, which harbors key regulators of the mineralization process. In this introductory minireview, we will review some key concepts of matrix biology as it related to mineralized tissues. Concurrently, we will highlight the subject of this special issue covering many aspects of mineralized tissues, including bones and teeth and their associated structures cartilage and tendon. Areas of emphasis are on the generation and analysis of new animal models with permutations of matrix components as well as the development of new approaches for tissue engineering for repair of damaged hard tissue. In assembling key topics on mineralized tissues written by leaders in our field, we hope the reader will get a broad view of the topic and all of its fascinating complexities. PMID:27131884

  2. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Collagen Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Chesnick, Ingrid E.; Mason, Jeffrey T.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Eidelman, Naomi; Potter, Kimberlee

    2008-01-01

    A model mineralizing system was subjected to magnetic resonance microscopy to investigate how water proton transverse (T2) relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratios can be applied to monitor collagen mineralization. In our model system, a collagen sponge was mineralized with polymer-stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate. The lower hydration and water proton T2 values of collagen sponges during the initial mineralization phase were attributed to the replacement of the water within the collagen fibrils by amorphous calcium carbonate. The significant reduction in T2 values by day 6 (p < 0.001) was attributed to the appearance of mineral crystallites, which were also detected by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In the second phase, between days 6 and 13, magnetic resonance microscopy properties appear to plateau as amorphous calcium carbonate droplets began to coalesce within the intrafibrillar space of collagen. In the third phase, after day 15, the amorphous mineral phase crystallized, resulting in a reduction in the absolute intensity of the collagen diffraction pattern. We speculate that magnetization transfer ratio values for collagen sponges, with similar collagen contents, increased from 0.25 ± 0.02 for control strips to a maximum value of 0.31 ± 0.04 at day 15 (p = 0.03) because mineral crystals greatly reduce the mobility of the collagen fibrils. PMID:18487295

  3. Mineral facilities of Northern and Central Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays almost 900 records of mineral facilities within the countries that formerly constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2

  4. 43 CFR Appendix F to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act...—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As used in... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  5. 43 CFR Appendix F to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  6. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  7. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  8. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  9. 43 CFR Appendix F to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  10. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  11. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  12. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  13. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  14. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; cobalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crockett, R.N.; Chapman, G.R.; Forrest, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Major world resources of cobalt are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory {ISMI}. ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States of America. This report, designed to be of benefit to policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of cobalt on the basis of inventory information. Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource and production data that were collected by ISMI participants.

  15. Lineaments and Mineral Occurrences in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Kowalik, W. S.; Gold, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A conservative lineament map of Pennsylvania interpreted from ERTS-1 channel 7 (infrared) imagery and Skylab photography was compared with the distribution of known metallic mines and mineral occurrences. Of 383 known mineral occurrences, 116 show a geographical association to 1 km wide lineaments, another 24 lie at the intersection of two lineaments, and one lies at the intersection of three lineaments. The Perkiomen Creek lineament in the Triassic Basin is associated with 9 Cu-Fe occurrences. Six Pb-Zn occurrences are associated with the Tyrone-Mount Union lineament. Thirteen other lineaments are associated with 3, 4, or 5 mineral occurrences each.

  16. Thermoluminescence of the mineral components in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartzman, R.G.; Kierstead, J.A.; Levy, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) of the minerals in Climax Stock (Nevada, USA) granite has been studied. The principal mineral constituents are plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar and biotite. Pyrite, sphene apatite and zircon occur at one percent or less. All exhibit TL except biotite. The TL kinetics were determined for plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar and pyrite. Plagioclase and potassium feldspar exhibit second order and pyrite first orker kinetics. Natural TL of quartz follows second order and artificial TL first order kinetics. However, in these four minerals unrealistic kinetic parameters are often obtained; thus more general kinetics, e.g. interactive kinetics, may apply. 8 figures.

  17. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Kralik, M.; Taylor, B.E.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  18. Process for the physical segregation of minerals

    DOEpatents

    Yingling, Jon C.; Ganguli, Rajive

    2004-01-06

    With highly heterogeneous groups or streams of minerals, physical segregation using online quality measurements is an economically important first stage of the mineral beneficiation process. Segregation enables high quality fractions of the stream to bypass processing, such as cleaning operations, thereby reducing the associated costs and avoiding the yield losses inherent in any downstream separation process. The present invention includes various methods for reliably segregating a mineral stream into at least one fraction meeting desired quality specifications while at the same time maximizing yield of that fraction.

  19. Minerals yearbook, 1991: North Carolina. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikich, S.W.; Carpenter, P.A.; Wiener, L.S.

    1993-05-01

    The value of nonfuel minerals produced in North Carolina decreased 6.2% from that of 1990. The value dropped from $589.7 million in 1990 to $552.9 million in 1991, largely as a result of the recession that has impacted the Nation in recent years. Decreases in the sales of the State's leading mineral commodity, crushed stone, as well as clays, feldspar, gemstones, scrap mica, olivine, construction sand and gravel, and pyrophyllite, more than offset small to moderate increases in the sales of lithium minerals, peat, phosphate rock, and industrial sand and gravel. Tables and statistical data are included in the annual report.

  20. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During exercise in the heat, sweat is initially concentrated in minerals, but serial sweat samples appear more dilute. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. PURPOSE: To simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (T...