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Sample records for hidroxichalconas em pseudomonas

  1. Pseudomonas 2007 Meeting Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is an important genus of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common nosocomial pathogen in our society, associated with chronic and eventually fatal lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients, while Pseudomonas syringae species are prominent plant pathogens. The fluorescen...

  2. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  3. Recombineering Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  4. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  5. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  6. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  11. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A ... the skin and small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of ...

  12. Polymicrobial Ventriculitis Involving Pseudomonas fulva

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, Paulina A.; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L.; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S.; Anderson, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin. PMID:24648556

  13. Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elke; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    Three yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains, C36T, C37 and C39, were isolated in the Medical Clinic for Small Animals and Ungulates at the University for Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Austria. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain C36T was shown to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas oleovorans DSM 1045T was the nearest relative (99.5 % sequence similarity). Other Pseudomonas species shared <97 % sequence similarity with strain C36T. The presence of Q-9 as the major ubiquinone, the predominance of putrescine and spermidine in its polyamine patterns and its fatty acid profile [i.e. the predominance of C(16 : 0), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or 2-OH C(15 : 0) iso), C(18 : 1)omega7c and the presence of 3-OH C(10 : 0), 3-OH C(12 : 0) and 2-OH C(12 : 0)] were in agreement with identification of this strain as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and the results of genomic fingerprinting clearly differentiated strain C36T from its phylogenetic relative P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. Results from DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain C36T represents a species that is distinct from P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. These data demonstrate that strain C36T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C36T (= LMG 21977T = DSM 15758T). Additionally, physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genomic fingerprints indicate that P. oleovorans ATCC 29347 may not be a member of the species P. oleovorans sensu stricto. PMID:15388721

  14. Nucleic Acid Similarities Among Pseudomonas pseudomallei, Pseudomonas multivorans, and Actinobacillus mallei1

    PubMed Central

    Rogul, M.; Brendle, J. J.; Haapala, D. K.; Alexander, A. D.

    1970-01-01

    Annealing experiments on membrane filters were carried out with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from selected strains of the nomen-species of Pseudomonas, Actinobacillus, Chromobacterium, and Micrococcus, with the use of DNA of Pseudomonas pseudomallei and Actinobacillus mallei as reference materials. Under the usual conditions employed in these experiments, the results were not quantitatively reproducible. Incorporation of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) into the incubation medium greatly increased differences in comparative binding. DNA binding in agar matrices was examined in the presence and absence of DMSO at various incubation temperatures. It was found that the greatest specificity, stability, and total binding for DNA containing high amounts of guanine and cytosine occurred in the presence of DMSO. Under the most stringent annealing conditions permitted in agar, DNA species from P. pseudomallei and A. mallei in the presence of DMSO demonstrated interspecific relative bindings of 76 to 86% when compared to the homologous reactions. The thermal elution midpoints (Em) of these duplexed interspecific DNA species were quite close to the homologous Em values. The relative bindings of P. multivorans DNA types to either reference DNA ranged between 6 to 27%, and the Em values were 4 to 7 C less than those for the homologous reactions. PMID:5438051

  15. [Meningoencephalitis caused by Pseudomonas cepacia].

    PubMed

    Pérez Monrás, Miriam Fina; Batlle Almodóvar, María del Carmen; González, Cernero; Tamargo Martínez, Isis; Meneses, Félix Dickinson

    2006-01-01

    A case of meningoencephalitis of bacterial etiology caused by Pseudomonas cepacia was described. The strain was received at the Reference Laboratory of Bacterial Acute Respiratory Infections of "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine, where its microbiological identification was confirmed. This isolation was a finding in an adult immunocompetent patient. The evolution was favourable with no sequelae for his future life. Pseudomona cepacia has been associated with respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients with Pseudomonas cepacia may be asymptomatic or present fatal acute and fulminant infection. PMID:23427437

  16. Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri

    PubMed Central

    Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; García-Valdés, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... becoming more difficult to treat because of increasing antibiotic resistance. Selecting the right antibiotic usually requires that a ... to help educate people about Pseudomonas infections, and antibiotic resistance, and to encourage prevention activities and healthy behaviors ...

  18. Chemotaxis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, R C; Montie, T C

    1979-01-01

    Chemotaxis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa RM46 has been studied, and conditions required for chemotaxis have been defined, by using the Adler capillary assay technique. Several amino acids, organic acids, and glucose were shown to be attractants of varying effectiveness for this organism. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was absolutely required for chemotaxis, and magnesium was also necessary for a maximum response. Serine taxis was greatest when the chemotaxis medium contained 1.5 X 10(-5) M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 0.005 M magnesium chloride. It was not necessary to include methionine in the chemotaxis medium. The strength of the chemotactic responses to glucose and to citrate was dependent on prior growth of the bacteria on glucose and citrate, respectively. Accumulation in response to serine was inhibited by the addition of succinate, citrate, malate, glucose, pyruvate, or methionine to the chemotaxis medium. Inhibition by succinate was not dependent on the concentration of attractant in the capillary. However, the degree to which glucose and citrate inhibited serine taxis was dependent on the carbon source utilized for growth. Further investigation of this inhibition may provide information about the mechanisms of chemotaxis in P. aeruginosa. PMID:104961

  19. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  20. Chromium reduction in Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Y.; Cervantes, C.; Silver, S. )

    1990-07-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium (chromate) to less-toxic trivalent chromium was studied by using cell suspensions and cell-free supernatant fluids from Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. Chromate reductase activity was associated with soluble protein and not with the membrane fraction. The crude enzyme activity was heat labile and showed a K{sub m} of 40 {mu}M CrO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Neither sulfate nor nitrate affected chromate reduction either in vitro or with intact cells.

  1. Phylogenomics and systematics in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Gomila, Margarita; Peña, Arantxa; Mulet, Magdalena; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudomonas currently contains 144 species, making it the genus of Gram-negative bacteria that contains the largest number of species. Currently, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) is the preferred method for establishing the phylogeny between species and genera. Four partial gene sequences of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoD) were obtained from 112 complete or draft genomes of strains related to the genus Pseudomonas that were available in databases. These genes were analyzed together with the corresponding sequences of 133 Pseudomonas type strains of validly published species to assess their correct phylogenetic assignations. We confirmed that 30% of the sequenced genomes of non-type strains were not correctly assigned at the species level in the accepted taxonomy of the genus and that 20% of the strains were not identified at the species level. Most of these strains had been isolated and classified several years ago, and their taxonomic status has not been updated by modern techniques. MLSA was also compared with indices based on the analysis of whole-genome sequences that have been proposed for species delineation, such as tetranucleotide usage patterns (TETRA), average nucleotide identity (ANIm, based on MUMmer and ANIb, based on BLAST) and genome-to-genome distance (GGDC). TETRA was useful for discriminating Pseudomonas from other genera, whereas ANIb and GGDC clearly separated strains of different species. ANIb showed the strongest correlation with MLSA. The correct species classification is a prerequisite for most diversity and evolutionary studies. This work highlights the necessity for complete genomic sequences of type strains to build a phylogenomic taxonomy and that all new genome sequences submitted to databases should be correctly assigned to species to avoid taxonomic inconsistencies. PMID:26074881

  2. [Pseudomonas folliculitis after spa bath exposure].

    PubMed

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2012-06-25

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of folliculitis. Pseudomonas folliculitis can develop after contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, hot tubs and spa baths. Systemic therapy may be indicated in patients with widespread lesions, systemic symptoms or in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect. PMID:22735119

  3. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  4. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  5. Ferrofluid effect on Pseudomonas pyoverdine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, Antoniea; Vlahovici, Al.; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic fluid effect on some pigmented pathogen germs has been investigated. The fluorescence of the pyoverdine pigment obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, cultivated in the presence of different magnetic fluid concentrations, was enhanced by magnetic fluid concentrations of 0.0015-1 ml/l. The antimicrobial activity of pyoverdine, when tested by means of agar diffusimetric method against Sarcina lutea, was found increased for relatively high concentrations of magnetic fluid; in the case of Staphylococcus aureus the pyoverdine antimicrobial activity was not dependent on the magnetic fluid concentration.

  6. Pseudomonas--an opportunistic foe.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    An honest account of some of the lessons learned in how to protect patients, staff, and visitors, against waterborne Pseudomonas aeruginosa by effectively monitoring a large healthcare facility's water supply, identifying potential 'trigger points', harnessing the expertise of a multidisciplinary team, encouraging all staff to 'go the extra mile' preventatively, and above all, 'going beyond compliance', was provided by George McCracken, head of Estates Risk and Environment at the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust--in whose Royal Jubilee Maternity Hospital three young babies died after an outbreak of the bacteraemia in early 2012--at a recent Water Management Society conference. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports. PMID:24516937

  7. Siderophore production by Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H M; Chaowagul, W; Sokol, P A

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four strains of Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolated from patients with melioidosis were examined for siderophore production. All the strains were shown to produce siderophore both on chrome azurol S agar plates and in liquid medium under iron-deficient conditions. Chemical assays indicated that the siderophore belongs to the hydroxamate class. Addition of iron to the culture medium resulted in increased culture growth with markedly decreased yield of siderophore. Siderophore produced by strain U7 was purified by gel filtration chromatography, and the molecular weight was estimated to be 1,000. When this partially purified siderophore was added to culture medium, it promoted iron uptake by P. pseudomallei in the presence of EDTA and enhanced growth of the organism in the presence of transferrin. We have given this siderophore the trivial name malleobactin. PMID:1825486

  8. Maltose metabolism of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Guffanti, A A; Corpe, W A

    1975-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens W uses maltose exclusively by hydrolyzing it to glucose via an inducible alpha-glucosidase (alpha-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.20). No evidence for phosphorolytic cleavage or oxidation to maltobionic acid was found in this organism. The alpha-glucosidase was totally intracellular and was most active at pH of 7.0. Induction occurred when cells were incubated with maltotriose or maltose. Induction was rapid and easily detectable within the first 5 min after the addition of the inducer. Glucose and its derivatives did not repress induction. Cells growing on DL-alanine or succinate plus maltose exhibited lower levels of alpha-glucosidase than those grown on maltose alone or maltose plus glucose. Induction required both messenger ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis. PMID:240805

  9. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  10. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  11. [Vasculitis caused by Pseudomonas: a case report].

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Y; Gutiérrez, M; Martínez, T; Bodoque, M; Gómez, J M; Moreno, A

    1996-01-01

    Pseudomona vasculitis is an exceptional disease. Only a few cases have been reported, non with oropharyngeal involvement. The case of a 30-year-old, HIV-positive man who suddenly developed septicemia and necrotizing lesions with tissue destruction of the oropharynx is reported. Histological study confirmed vasculitis. Pseudomona aeruginosa was isolated in peripheral blood and in the biopsy of the palatal lesion. Antibiotic treatment produced satisfactory results. PMID:8991411

  12. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  13. Potential effects of erythromycin on host defense systems and virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Hirakata, Y; Kaku, M; Mizukane, R; Ishida, K; Furuya, N; Matsumoto, T; Tateda, K; Yamaguchi, K

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated several potential effects of erythromycin (EM) on host defense systems and the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from mice given 250 mg of EM per kg of body weight for 7 days by the intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, or oral route produced significantly greater amounts of thymocyte-activating factors. These data suggest that EM enhances the in vivo production of cytokines, such as interleukins 1 and 6. Treatment of P. aeruginosa D4 with subinhibitory concentrations of EM enhanced the association of bacteria with murine Kupffer cells in vitro and increased bacterial clearance from the blood in mice. EM suppressed the in vitro production of exotoxin A, total protease, elastase, and phospholipase C by P. aeruginosa D4; exotoxin A production by P. aeruginosa PA-103; and total protease production by P. aeruginosa B16 and PAO1 in a generally dose-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that EM produces various effects in addition to its direct antimicrobial activity, suggesting that it has potential as an immunomodulator or bacterial virulence-suppressing agent against P. aeruginosa and other infections. PMID:1416882

  14. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  15. Glycerophospholipid synthesis and functions in Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Kondakova, Tatiana; D'Heygère, François; Feuilloley, Marc J; Orange, Nicole; Heipieper, Hermann J; Duclairoir Poc, Cécile

    2015-09-01

    The genus Pseudomonas is one of the most heterogeneous groups of eubacteria, presents in all major natural environments and in wide range of associations with plants and animals. The wide distribution of these bacteria is due to the use of specific mechanisms to adapt to environmental modifications. Generally, bacterial adaptation is only considered under the aspect of genes and protein expression, but lipids also play a pivotal role in bacterial functioning and homeostasis. This review resumes the mechanisms and regulations of pseudomonal glycerophospholipid synthesis, and the roles of glycerophospholipids in bacterial metabolism and homeostasis. Recently discovered specific pathways of P. aeruginosa lipid synthesis indicate the lineage dependent mechanisms of fatty acids homeostasis. Pseudomonas glycerophospholipids ensure structure functions and play important roles in bacterial adaptation to environmental modifications. The lipidome of Pseudomonas contains a typical eukaryotic glycerophospholipid--phosphatidylcholine -, which is involved in bacteria-host interactions. The ability of Pseudomonas to exploit eukaryotic lipids shows specific and original strategies developed by these microorganisms to succeed in their infectious process. All compiled data provide the demonstration of the importance of studying the Pseudomonas lipidome to inhibit the infectious potential of these highly versatile germs. PMID:26148574

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in disease.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Isabella, Vincent M; Lewis, Kim

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that is the focus of intense research because of its prominent role in disease. Due to its relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capabilities, this organism exploits numerous environmental niches. It is an opportunistic pathogen that sets upon the human host when the normal immune defenses are disabled. Its deadliness is most apparent in cystic fibrosis patients, but it also is a major problem in burn wounds, chronic wounds, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, surface growth on implanted biomaterials, and within hospital surface and water supplies, where it poses a host of threats to vulnerable patients (Peleg and Hooper, N Engl J Med 362:1804-1813, 2010; Breathnach et al., J Hosp Infect 82:19-24, 2012). Once established in the patient, P. aeruginosa can be especially difficult to treat. The genome encodes a host of resistance genes, including multidrug efflux pumps (Poole, J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:255-264, 2001) and enzymes conferring resistance to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibotics (Vahdani et al., Annal Burns Fire Disast 25:78-81, 2012), making therapy against this gram-negative pathogen particularly challenging due to the lack of novel antimicrobial therapeutics (Lewis, Nature 485: 439-440, 2012). This challenge is compounded by the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in a biofilm, which may enhance its ability to cause infections by protecting bacteria from host defenses and chemotherapy. Here, we review recent studies of P. aeruginosa biofilms with a focus on how this unique mode of growth contributes to its ability to cause recalcitrant infections. PMID:24096885

  17. New naphthalene-degrading marine Pseudomonas strains.

    PubMed Central

    García-Valdés, E; Cozar, E; Rotger, R; Lalucat, J; Ursing, J

    1988-01-01

    Over 100 strains that utilized naphthalene as the only carbon and energy source were isolated from samples of marine sediments taken from a heavily polluted area. The isolates were characterized taxonomically and physiologically. Most of these strains belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, and seven of them did not fit any previous taxonomic description. They differed from type strains in a few biochemical characteristics and in the utilization of aromatic compounds. None had catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity, and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase was responsible for the aromatic ring cleavage. DNA hybridization demonstrated a close relationship between two isolates and the Pseudomonas stutzeri type strain, and between five isolates and the Pseudomonas testosteroni type strain. On the basis of nutritional and enzymatic characteristics, it was assumed that the seven isolates represent new biovars belonging to the species P. testosteroni and P. stutzeri that are able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons. Images PMID:3202629

  18. New naphthalene-degrading marine Pseudomonas strains

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Valdes, E.; Cozar, E.; Rotger, R. Lalucat, J. ); Ursing, J. )

    1988-10-01

    Over 100 strains that utilized naphthalene as the only carbon and energy source were isolated from samples of marine sediments taken from a heavily polluted area. The isolates were characterized taxonomically and physiologically. Most of these strains belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, and seven of them did not fit any previous taxonomic description. They differed from type strains in a few biochemical characteristics and in the utilization of aromatic compounds. None had catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity, and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase was responsible for the aromatic ring cleavage. DNA hybridizations demonstrated a close relationship between two isolates and the Pseudomonas stutzeri type strain, and between five isolates and the Pseudomonas testosteroni type strain. On the basis of nutritional and enzymatic characteristics, it was assumed that the seven isolates represent new biovars belonging to the species P. testosteroni and P. stutzeri that are able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P

  20. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  1. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  2. Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. and Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow's milk.

    PubMed

    von Neubeck, M; Huptas, C; Glück, C; Krewinkel, M; Stoeckel, M; Stressler, T; Fischer, L; Hinrichs, J; Scherer, S; Wenning, M

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of the microbiota of raw cow's milk and semi-finished milk products yielded seven isolates assigned to the genus Pseudomonas that formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis based on partial rpoD and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The two groups could be differentiated from each other and also from their closest relatives as well as from the type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and average nucleotide identity (ANIb) values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values within the groups were higher than 97.3 %, whereas similarity values to the closest relatives were 85 % or less. The major cellular lipids of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; the major quinone was Q-9 in both strains, with small amounts of Q-8 in strain WS4917T. The DNA G+C contents of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were 58.08 and 57.30 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, strains WS4917T, WS4995 ( = DSM 29141 = LMG 28434), WS4999, WS5001 and WS5002 should be considered as representatives of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas helleri is strain WS4917T ( = DSM 29165T = LMG 28433T). Strains WS4993T and WS4994 ( = DSM 29140 = LMG 28438) should be recognized as representing a second novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis is strain WS4993T ( = DSM 29166T = LMG 28437T). PMID:26675012

  3. High pressure inactivation of Pseudomonas in black truffle - comparison with Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestra, Patricia; Verret, Catherine; Cruz, Christian; Largeteau, Alain; Demazeau, Gerard; El Moueffak, Abdelhamid

    2010-03-01

    Pseudomonas is one of the most common genera in black Perigord truffle. Its inactivation by high pressure (100-500 MPa/10 min) applied on truffles at sub-zero or low temperatures was studied and compared with those of Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth. Pressurization of truffles at 300 MPa/4 °C reduced the bacterial count of Pseudomonas by 5.3 log cycles. Higher pressures of 400 or 500 MPa, at 4 °C or 20 °C, allowed us to slightly increase the level of destruction to the value of ca. 6.5 log cycles but did not permit us to completely inactivate Pseudomonas. The results showed a residual charge of about 10 CFU/g. Pressure-shift freezing of truffles, which consists in applying a pressure of 200 MPa/-18 °C for 10 min and then quickly releasing this pressure to induce freezing, reduced the population of Pseudomonas by 3.3 log cycles. The level of inactivation was higher than those obtained with conventional freezing. Endogenous Pseudomonas in truffle was shown to be more resistant to high pressure treatments than P. fluorescens used for inoculation of broths.

  4. Pseudomonas septicaemia following tribal tatoo marks.

    PubMed

    Mathur, D R; Sahoo, A

    1984-09-01

    It is tradition in Northern Nigeria to make tribal tatoo marks on the face of a newborn, commonly on both sides of the angle of the mouth. A case of fatal septicaemia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa following such tribal tatoo marks is reported. PMID:6506210

  5. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  6. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. PMID:26837064

  7. [Macrolides, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Guillot, M; Amiour, M; El Hachem, C; Harchaoui, S; Ribault, V; Paris, C

    2006-10-01

    Long-term low dose azithromycin treatment in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is safe and reduces the decline in lung function, the number of acute exacerbations and improves nutritional status; underlying efficacy mechanisms are multiple and synergistic. PMID:17370396

  8. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  9. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas putida toward chlorinated benzoates

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, C.S.; Parales, R.E.; Dispensa, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The chlorinated aromatic acids 3-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate are chemoattractants for Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. These compounds are detected by a chromosomally encoded chemotactic response to benzoate which is inducible by {beta}-ketoadipate, and intermediate of benzoate catabolism. Plasmid pAC27, encoding enzymes for 3-chlorobenzoate degradation, does not appear to carry genes for chemotaxis toward chlorinated compounds.

  10. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 189

    PubMed Central

    Town, Jennifer; Audy, Patrice; Boyetchko, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 189 is a potent inhibitor of the growth of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. We determined the complete, finished sequence of the 6.8-Mbp genome of this strain, consisting of a single contiguous molecule. Strain 189 is closely related to previously sequenced strains of P. chlororaphis. PMID:27340063

  11. Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database.

    PubMed

    Winsor, Geoffrey L; Griffiths, Emma J; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Shay, Julie A; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches. PMID:26578582

  12. Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database

    PubMed Central

    Winsor, Geoffrey L.; Griffiths, Emma J.; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Shay, Julie A.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches. PMID:26578582

  13. Designing recombinant Pseudomonas strains to enhance biodesulfurization.

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, M E; Ferrández, A; De Lorenzo, V; García, J L; Díaz, E

    1997-01-01

    The dsz biodesulfurization cluster from Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 has been engineered under the control of heterologous broad-host-range regulatory signals to alleviate the mechanism of sulfur repression, and it was stably inserted into the chromosomes of different Pseudomonas strains. The recombinant bacteria were able to desulfurize dibenzothiophene more efficiently than the native host. Furthermore, these new biocatalysts combine relevant industrial and environmental traits, such as production of biosurfactants, with the enhanced biodesulfurization phenotype. PMID:9371464

  14. Tryptophan Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, Kenneth S.; Rodriguez, Karien J.; McAnulty, Jonathan F.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Schurr, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been implicated in the pathology of chronic wounds. Both the d and l isoforms of tryptophan inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on tissue culture plates, with an equimolar ratio of d and l isoforms producing the greatest inhibitory effect. Addition of d-/l-tryptophan to existing biofilms inhibited further biofilm growth and caused partial biofilm disassembly. Tryptophan significantly increased swimming motility, which may be responsible in part for diminished biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. PMID:23318791

  15. Adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens onto nanophase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Thomas J.; Tong, Zonghua; Liu, Jin; Banks, M. Katherine

    2005-07-01

    Nanobiotechnology is a growing area of research, primarily due to the potentially numerous applications of new synthetic nanomaterials in engineering/science. Although various definitions have been given for the word 'nanomaterials' by many different experts, the commonly accepted one refers to nanomaterials as those materials which possess grains, particles, fibres, or other constituent components that have one dimension specifically less than 100 nm. In biological applications, most of the research to date has focused on the interactions between mammalian cells and synthetic nanophase surfaces for the creation of better tissue engineering materials. Although mammalian cells have shown a definite positive response to nanophase materials, information on bacterial interactions with nanophase materials remains elusive. For this reason, this study was designed to assess the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on nanophase compared to conventional grain size alumina substrates. Results provide the first evidence of increased adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on alumina with nanometre compared to conventional grain sizes. To understand more about the process, polymer (specifically, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid or PLGA) casts were made of the conventional and nanostructured alumina surfaces. Results showed similar increased Pseudomonas fluorescens capture on PLGA casts of nanostructured compared to conventional alumina as on the alumina itself. For these reasons, a key material property shown to enhance bacterial adhesion was elucidated in this study for both polymers and ceramics: nanostructured surface features.

  16. Pseudomonas biofilm matrix composition and niche biology

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072

  17. Pseudomonas putida Stimulates Primordia on Agaricus bitorquis.

    PubMed

    Colauto, Nelson B; Fermor, Terry R; Eira, Augusto F; Linde, Giani A

    2016-04-01

    Casing layer is one step of Agaricus bisporus cultivation where there is a competitive environment with a high number of microorganisms and diversity interacting with mycelia. It is suggested that a minimal community of these microorganisms would be necessary to stimulate fructification. However, A. bisporus is not able to produce primordia in sterile casing layers or Petri dishes. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize bacterial microbiota of casing layers from A. bisporus cultivation, isolate, identify and characterize the bacteria responsible for the stimulation of primordium and their action mechanism using Agaricus bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Bacterial and Pseudomonas spp. communities of different casing layers of A. bisporus cultivation were collected and quantified. It was concluded that Pseudomonas spp. corresponds to 75-85% of bacterial population of the casing layers in A. bisporus cultivation and among those 12% are Pseudomonas putida. Four biochemical assays were used to identify P. putida. In vitro primordium stimulation of living P. putida and non-living bacterial suspensions, after chemical or physical treatments, was tested using A. bitorquis as a primordium stimulation model. Primordium stimulation assay was registered by photographs, and micrographs of vertical cut of primordium were registered by scanning electron microscope. Interaction of living P. putida with A. bitorquis mycelia is capable of stimulating primordial instead of non-living bacterial suspensions. Stimulation of A. bitorquis primordia does not imply or is related to mycelial growth inhibition, but a hierarchical relation of primordium succession and development is suggested. PMID:26742772

  18. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses. PMID:18944382

  19. [Identification of the Pseudomonas genus bacteria by computer analysis].

    PubMed

    Kotsofliak, O I; Reva, O N; Kiprianova, E A; Smirnov, V V

    2003-01-01

    A computer program for the simplified phenotypic identification of Pseudomonas has been developed. The information concerning 66 species included in up-to-date Pseudomonas genus characterized by 113 tests was accumulated in a database. The identification key is represented in interactive mode on a website http://www.imv.kiev.ua/PsmIK/default.htm. The program was used for the identification of 46 Pseudomonas strains isolated from rhizosphere. For 23 more strains unidentified by conventional technique, the level of similarity was 67-74%. This fact allows suggesting that they might be representatives of new Pseudomonas species. PMID:15077543

  20. High quality draft genome sequences of Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717(T), Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004(T) and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059(T) type strains.

    PubMed

    Peña, Arantxa; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Mulet, Magdalena; Gomila, Rosa M; Reddy, T B K; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; García-Valdés, Elena; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lalucat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas has the highest number of species out of any genus of Gram-negative bacteria and is phylogenetically divided into several groups. The Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch includes at least 13 species of environmental and industrial interest, plant-associated bacteria, insect pathogens, and even some members that have been found in clinical specimens. In the context of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project, we present the permanent, high-quality draft genomes of the type strains of 3 taxonomically and ecologically closely related species in the Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch: Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717(T), Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004(T) and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059(T). All three genomes are comparable in size (4.6-4.9 Mb), with 4,119-4,459 protein-coding genes. Average nucleotide identity based on BLAST comparisons and digital genome-to-genome distance calculations are in good agreement with experimental DNA-DNA hybridization results. The genome sequences presented here will be very helpful in elucidating the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of the Pseudomonas putida species complex. PMID:27594974

  1. Siderotyping of fluorescent pseudomonads: characterization of pyoverdines of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida strains from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J M; Stintzi, A; Coulanges, V; Shivaji, S; Voss, J A; Taraz, K; Budzikiewicz, H

    1998-11-01

    Five independent fluorescent pseudomonad isolates originating from Antarctica were analysed for their pyoverdine systems. A pyoverdine-related siderotyping, which involved pyoverdine-induced growth stimulation, pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake, pyoverdine analysis by electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing, revealed three different pyoverdine-related siderotypes among the five isolates. One siderotype, including Pseudomonas fluorescens 1W and P. fluorescens 10CW, was identical to that of P. fluorescens ATCC 13525. Two other strains, P. fluorescens 9AW and Pseudomonas putida 9BW, showed identical pyoverdine-related behaviour to each other, whereas the fifth strain, P. fluorescens 51W, had unique features compared to the other strains or to a set of 12 fluorescent Pseudomonas strains used as comparison material. Elucidation of the structure of the pyoverdines produced by the Antarctic strains supported the accuracy of the siderotyping methodology by confirming that pyoverdines from strains 1W and 10CW had the same structures as the P. fluorescens ATCC 13525 pyoverdine, whereas the 9AW and 9BW pyoverdines are probably identical with the pyoverdine of P. fluorescens strain 244. Pyoverdine from strain 51W appeared to be a novel pyoverdine since its structure was different from all previously established pyoverdine structures. Together with the conclusion that the Antarctic Pseudomonas strains have no special features at the level of their pyoverdines and pyoverdine-mediated iron metabolism compared to worldwide strains, the present work demonstrates that siderotyping provides a rapid means of screening for novel pyoverdines. PMID:9846748

  2. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Marta; Wolf, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells. PMID:26441897

  3. Recombineering using RecET from Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  4. Genomics of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas spp. are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, and the availability of genomic sequences now opens the door for discovery of novel natural products with potential roles in the ecology and plant growth promoting properties of these bacteria. The rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas f...

  5. CONSERVATION OF THE RESPONSE REGULATOR GENE GACA IN PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The regulator gene gacA influences production of several secondary metabolites in Pseudomonas spp. Primers and a probe for the gacA gene of Pseudomonas spp. were developed and a gacA fragment was sequenced from 10 strains isolated from different plant-associated environments. PCR analysis and Sou...

  6. The Gac Regulon of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 showed that 702 genes were differentially regulated (FC>4, P<0.0001) in a gacS::Tn5 mutant, with 300 and 402 genes up- and down-regulated, respectively. Similar to the Gac-regulon of four other Pseudomonas species, genes involved in motility, b...

  7. Siderotyping of Antarctic fluorescent Pseudomonas strains.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, V A; Meyer, J M

    2004-07-01

    Five fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from Antarctica have been previously recognized as producing three structurally different pyoverdines. In the present work, siderotyping procedures have been used to classify these strains, together with 1282 isolates of different origins, into siderovars. The strain biodiversity encountered within each siderovar, as well as the potential taxonomic value of the siderovars, are described and discussed. It is concluded that a majority of antarctic strains are commonly distributed worldwide. One strain, however, presenting a particular pyoverdine structure found in a unique other isolate, was apparently much more specific to cold environment. PMID:15559975

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection mimicking erythema annulare centrifugum.

    PubMed

    Czechowicz, R T; Warren, L J; Moore, L; Saxon, B

    2001-02-01

    A 3-year-old girl receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukaemia developed a rapidly expanding red annular plaque on her thigh, initially without signs of systemic toxicity or local pain. Subsequently she developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and purpura at the leading edge of the plaque. Skin biopsy showed an extensive necrotizing vasculitis with numerous Gram-negative bacilli in the blood vessel walls. In immunocompromised individuals, skin biopsy and culture of cutaneous lesions for bacteria and fungi should be considered even in the absence of signs of systemic toxicity or multiple lesions. PMID:11233725

  9. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteome during Anaerobic Growth‡

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Manhong; Guina, Tina; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Nguyen, Hai; Eng, Jimmy; Miller, Samuel I.

    2005-01-01

    Isotope-coded affinity tag analysis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins expressed during anaerobic growth. Out of the 617 proteins identified, 158 were changed in abundance during anaerobic growth compared to during aerobic growth, including proteins whose increased expression was expected based on their role in anaerobic metabolism. These results form the basis for future analyses of alterations in bacterial protein content during growth in various environments, including the cystic fibrosis airway. PMID:16291692

  10. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-02-14

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs.

  11. Chromate resistance plasmid in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, L H; Chakrabarty, A M; Ehrlich, H L

    1983-01-01

    Chromate resistance of Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300, isolated from chromium-contaminated sediment in the upper Hudson River, was found to be plasmid specified. Loss of the plasmid (pLHB1) by spontaneous segregation or mitomycin C curing resulted in a simultaneous loss of chromate resistance. Subsequent transformation of such strains with purified pLHB1 plasmid DNA resulted in a simultaneous re-acquisition of the chromate resistance phenotype and the plasmid. When pLHB1 was transferred by conjugation to Escherichia coli, the plasmid still conferred chromate resistance. PMID:6309741

  12. Transposon mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotease genes.

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, M J; Jagger, K S; Warren, R L

    1984-01-01

    Transposon Tn5 was used to generate protease-deficient insertion mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The presence of Tn5 in the chromosome of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated by transduction and DNA-DNA hybridization. The altered protease production and kanamycin resistance were cotransduced into a wild-type P. aeruginosa strain. A radiolabeled probe of Tn5 DNA hybridized to specific BamHI fragments isolated from the insertion mutants. Two independently isolated Tn5 insertion mutants had reduced protease production, partially impaired elastase activity, and no immunologically reactive alkaline protease. Images PMID:6317657

  13. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOAL-CALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. hese results are attributed to differences in the...

  14. Postoperative infant septicemia caused by Pseudomonas luteola (CDC group Ve-1) and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans (CDC group Ve-2).

    PubMed

    Freney, J; Hansen, W; Etienne, J; Vandenesch, F; Fleurette, J

    1988-06-01

    Pseudomonas luteola (CDC group Ve-1) and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans (CDC group Ve-2) were both isolated from the same blood culture of a 5-month-old infant, 8 days after open-heart surgery. He quickly responded to appropriate antibiotics. Carbon substrate assimilation tests and fatty acid analysis clearly differentiated these two rarely pathogenic organisms. PMID:3384937

  15. Methylmercury degradation by Pseudomonas putida V1.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Lucélia; Yu, Ri-Qing; Crane, Sharron; Giovanella, Patricia; Barkay, Tamar; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2016-08-01

    Environmental contamination of mercury (Hg) has caused public health concerns with focuses on the neurotoxic substance methylmercury, due to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. The goals of the present study were to examine: (i) the transformation of methylmercury, thimerosal, phenylmercuric acetate and mercuric chloride by cultures of Pseudomonas putida V1, (ii) the presence of the genes merA and merB in P. putida V1, and (iii) the degradation pathways of methylmercury by P. putida V1. Strain V1 cultures readily degraded methylmercury, thimerosal, phenylmercury acetate, and reduced mercuric chloride into gaseous Hg(0). However, the Hg transformation in LB broth by P. putida V1 was influenced by the type of Hg compounds. The merA gene was detected in P. putida V1, on the other hand, the merB gene was not detected. The sequencing of this gene, showed high similarity (100%) to the mercuric reductase gene of other Pseudomonas spp. Furthermore, tests using radioactive (14)C-methylmercury indicated an uncommon release of (14)CO2 concomitant with the production of Hg(0). The results of the present work suggest that P. putida V1 has the potential to remove methylmercury from contaminated sites. More studies are warranted to determine the mechanism of removal of methylmercury by P. putida V1. PMID:27062344

  16. OXIDATIVE ASSIMILATION OF GLUCOSE BY PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Margaret G.; Campbell, J. J. R.

    1962-01-01

    Duncan, Margaret G. (The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) and J. J. R. Campbell. Oxidative assimilation of glucose by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 84:784–792. 1962—Oxidative assimilation of glucose by washed-cell suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied using C14-labeled substrate. At the time of glucose disappearance, only small amounts of radioactivity were present in the cells, and α-ketoglutaric acid accumulated in the supernatant fluid. Most of the material synthesized by the cells during oxidative assimilation was nitrogenous, the ammonia being supplied by the endogenous respiration. The cold trichloroacetic acid-soluble fraction and the lipid fraction appeared to be important during the early stages of oxidative assimilation, and the largest percentage of the incorporated radioactivity was found in the protein fraction. In the presence of added ammonia, assimilation was greatly increased and no α-ketoglutaric acid was found in the supernatant fluid. Sodium azide partially inhibited incorporation into all major cell fractions, and at higher concentrations depressed the rate of glucose oxidation. During oxidative assimilation, chloramphenicol specifically inhibited the synthesis of protein. Oxidative assimilation of glucose by this organism did not appear to involve the synthesis of a primary product such as is found in the majority of bacteria. PMID:16561965

  17. Management and treatment of contact lens-related Pseudomonas keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, Mark DP

    2012-01-01

    Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles referring to Pseudomonas keratitis between the years 2007 and 2012 to obtain an overview of the current state of this disease. Keyword searches used the terms “Pseudomonas” + “Keratitis” limit to “2007–2012”, and [“Ulcerative” or “Microbial”] + “Keratitis” + “Contact lenses” limit to “2007–2012”. These articles were then reviewed for information on the percentage of microbial keratitis cases associated with contact lens wear, the frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of microbial keratitis around the world, the most common therapies to treat Pseudomonas keratitis, and the sensitivity of isolates of Pseudomonas to commonly prescribed antibiotics. The percentage of microbial keratitis associated with contact lens wear ranged from 0% in a study from Nepal to 54.5% from Japan. These differences may be due in part to different frequencies of contact lens wear. The frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of keratitis ranged from 1% in Japan to over 50% in studies from India, Malaysia, and Thailand. The most commonly reported agents used to treat Pseudomonas keratitis were either aminoglycoside (usually gentamicin) fortified with a cephalosporin, or monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone (usually ciprofloxacin). In most geographical areas, most strains of Pseudomonas sp. (≥95%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but reports from India, Nigeria, and Thailand reported sensitivity to this antibiotic and similar fluoroquinolones of between 76% and 90%. PMID:22791973

  18. Pseudomonas helmanticensis sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Flores-Félix, José David; Mulas, Rebeca; Rivas, Raúl; Castro-Pinto, Joao; Brañas, Javier; Mulas, Daniel; González-Andrés, Fernando; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-07-01

    A bacterial strain, OHA11(T), was isolated during the course of a study of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria occurring in a forest soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain OHA11(T) shared 99.1% similarity with respect to Pseudomonas baetica a390(T), and 98.9% similarity with the type strains of Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas moorei, Pseudomonas umsongensis, Pseudomonas mohnii and Pseudomonas koreensis. The analysis of housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation to the genus Pseudomonas and showed similarities lower than 95% in almost all cases with respect to the above species. Cells possessed two polar flagella. The respiratory quinone was Q9. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, positive for arginine dihydrolase but negative for nitrate reduction, β-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis. It was able to grow at 31 °C and at pH 11. The DNA G+C content was 58.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 49% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the seven closest related species. Therefore, the combined genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strain OHA11(T) to a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helmanticensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OHA11(T) ( = LMG 28168(T) = CECT 8548(T)). PMID:24744015

  19. Oxidation of substituted phenols by Pseudomonas putida F1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.C.; Gibson, D.T.

    1988-06-01

    The biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzenes by Pseudomonas putida involves the initial conversion of the parent molecules to cis-dihydrodiols by dioxygenase enzyme systems. The cis-dihydrodiols are then converted to the corresponding catechols by dihydrodiol dehydrogenase enzymes. Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6 uses a similar system for growth on toluene or dichlorobenzenes. We tested the wild-type organisms and a series of mutants for their ability to transform substituted phenols after induction with toluene. When grown on toluene, both wild-type organisms converted methyl-, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols to the corresponding catechols. Mutant strains deficient in dihydrodiol dehydrogenase or catechol oxygenase activities also transformed the phenols. Oxidation of phenols was closely correlated with the induction and activity of the toluene dioxygenase enzyme system.

  20. The formation of choline O-sulphate by Pseudomonas C12B and other Pseudomonas species

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, John W.

    1973-01-01

    Pseudomonas C12B and other Pseudomonas species released larger amounts of a 35S-labelled metabolite into the medium when cultured on growth-limiting concentrations of Na2SO4 as opposed to growth in SO42−-sufficient media. The metabolite was found at all stages of the culture cycle of Pseudomonas C12B and maximum quantities occurred in stationary-phase culture supernatants. The metabolite was not detected when the bacterium was cultured on growth-limiting concentrations of potassium phosphate. The amount of the metabolite present in the medium greatly exceeded that which could be extracted from intact cells and, except for choline chloride, it was independent of the carbon source used for growth. If choline chloride was present in high concentration, then larger amounts of the metabolite were found in the culture medium. The metabolite was not detected extracellularly or intracellularly when the bacterium was grown in SO42−-deficient media containing 5mm-l-cysteine. The same metabolite was also synthesized in vitro only when Pseudomonas C12B extracts were incubated with choline chloride, ATP, MgCl2 and Na235SO4. The metabolite-forming system was not subject to repression by Na2SO4 and was completely inhibited by 0.5mm-l-cysteine and activated by Na2SO4 (up to 1.0mm). The metabolite was identified as choline O-sulphate by electrophoresis, chromatography and isotope-dilution analysis. Another 35S-labelled metabolite was also detected in culture supernatants, but was not identified. PMID:4590202

  1. Pseudomonas-induced corneal ulcers associated with contaminated eye mascaras.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L A; Ahearn, D G

    1977-07-01

    Seven Pseudomonas-induced corneal ulcers were associated with the use of four brands of mascara contaminated with P. aeruginosa. In laboratory studies, preservative systems of three of the four brands were inadequate in comparison with a control mascara of known antimicrobial activity. If the corneal epithelium is scratched during the application of mascara, particularly if the applicator is old, the cornea should be treated immediately and the mascara cultured to detect Pseudomonas. The high incidence of recurrent corneal ulceration in cases of Pseudomonas-induced keratitis indicates that initial chemotherapy should be intensive and maintained until the lesion stabilizes. PMID:409295

  2. Vesiculation from Pseudomonas aeruginosa under SOS

    PubMed Central

    Maredia, Reshma; Devineni, Navya; Lentz, Peter; Dallo, Shatha F.; Yu, JiehJuen; Guentzel, Neal; Chambers, James; Arulanandam, Bernard; Haskins, William E.; Weitao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections can be aggravated by antibiotic treatment that induces SOS response and vesiculation. This leads to a hypothesis concerning association of SOS with vesiculation. To test it, we conducted multiple analyses of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type in which SOS is induced by ciprofloxacin and from the LexA noncleavable (lexAN) strain in which SOS is repressed. The levels of OMV proteins, lipids, and cytotoxicity increased for both the treated strains, demonstrating vesiculation stimulation by the antibiotic treatment. However, the further increase was suppressed in the lexAN strains, suggesting the SOS involvement. Obviously, the stimulated vesiculation is attributed by both SOS-related and unrelated factors. OMV subproteomic analysis was performed to examine these factors, which reflected the OMV-mediated cytotoxicity and the physiology of the vesiculating cells under treatment and SOS. Thus, SOS plays a role in the vesiculation stimulation that contributes to cytotoxicity. PMID:22448133

  3. Transferable imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Iyobe, S; Inoue, M; Mitsuhashi, S

    1991-01-01

    We isolated an imipenem-resistant strain, GN17203, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strain produced a beta-lactamase that hydrolyzed imipenem. The beta-lactamase was encoded by a 31-MDa plasmid, pMS350, which belongs to incompatibility group P-9. The plasmic conferred resistance to beta-lactams, gentamicin, and sulfonamide and was transferable by conjugation to P. aeruginosa but not to Escherichia coli. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 28,000, and the isoelectric point was 9.0. The enzyme showed a broad substrate profile, hydrolyzing imipenem, oxyiminocephalosporins, 7-methoxycephalosporins, and penicillins. The enzyme activity was inhibited by EDTA, iodine, p-chloromercuribenzoate, CuSO4, and HgCl2 but not by clavulanic acid or sulbactam. Images PMID:1901695

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia management

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Estrada, Sergio; Borgatta, Bárbara; Rello, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising. PMID:26855594

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis masquerading as chronic uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Kalpana Badami; Jayadev, Chaitra

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye of 15-day duration after having undergone an uneventful cataract surgery 10 months back. He had been previously treated with systemic steroids for recurrent uveitis postoperatively on three occasions in the same eye. B-scan ultrasonography showed multiple clumplike echoes suggestive of vitreous inflammation. Aqueous tap revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitive to ciprofloxacin. The patient was treated with intravitreal ciprofloxacin and vancomycin along with systemic ciprofloxacin with good clinical response. Even a virulent organism such as P.aeruginosa can present as a chronic uveitis, which, if missed, can lead to a delay in accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23803484

  6. Regulation of pyrimidine formation in Pseudomonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2007-10-01

    The regulation of pyrimidine formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas oryzihabitans was investigated at the level of enzyme synthesis and at the level of activity for the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase. Although pyrimidine supplementation of succinate-grown P. oryzihabitans cells produced little effect on the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway enzyme activities, pyrimidine limitation experiments undertaken using an orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase mutant strain isolated from P. oryzihabitans ATCC 43272 indicated that repression of enzyme synthesis by pyrimidines was occurring. Following pyrimidine limitation of the succinate-grown decarboxylase mutant strain cells, aspartate transcarbamoylase and dihydroorotase activities were found to increase by about 3-fold while dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase activities were also observed to increase relative to their activities in the mutant strain cells grown on excess uracil. At the level of enzyme activity, aspartate transcarbamoylase in P. oryzihabitans was strongly inhibited by pyrophosphate, ADP, ATP and GTP in the presence of saturating substrate concentrations. PMID:17910097

  7. Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kuwait soil.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Akbar, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    Environmentally ubiquitous bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa evolved mechanisms to adapt and prevail under diverse conditions. In the current investigation, strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrating high rates of crude oil utilization and tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals were found in both crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in Kuwait, and were dominant in the contaminated sites. The incidence of P. aeruginosa in tested soils implies the definitive pattern of crude oil contamination in the selection of the bacterial population in petroleum-contaminated sites in Kuwait. Surprisingly, the unculturable P. aeruginosa in different soil samples showed significant high similarity coefficients based on 16S-RFLP analyses, implying that the unculturable fraction of existing bacterial population in environmental samples is more stable and, hence, reliable for phylogenetic studies compared to the culturable bacteria. PMID:25014900

  8. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  9. Amino Acid Transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kay, W. W.; Gronlund, Audrey F.

    1969-01-01

    Properties of the transport systems for amino acids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. Exogenous 14C-labeled amino acids were shown to equilibrate with the internal native amino acid pool prior to incorporation into protein. When added at low external concentrations, the majority of the amino acids examined entered the protein of the cell unaltered. The rates of amino acid transport, established at low concentrations with 18 commonly occurring amino acids, varied as much as 40-fold. The transport process became saturated at high external amino acid concentrations, was temperature-sensitive, and was inhibited by sodium azide and iodoacetamide. Intracellular to extracellular amino acid ratios of 100- to 300-fold were maintained during exponential growth of the population in a glucose minimal medium. When the medium became depleted of glucose, neither extracellular nor intracellular amino acids could be detected. PMID:4974392

  10. Purification of bromoperoxidase from Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    PubMed Central

    van Pée, K H; Lingens, F

    1985-01-01

    A Bromoperoxidase has been isolated and purified from Pseudomonas aureofaciens ATCC 15926 mutant strain ACN. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. This bromoperoxidase can utilize bromide ions in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and a halogen acceptor for the catalytic formation of carbon-halogen bonds. The homogeneous enzyme also has peroxidase and catalase activity. Based on the results from gel filtration and ultracentrifugation, the molecular weight of this procaryotic bromoperoxidase is 155,000 to 158,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows a single band having the mobility of a 77,000-molecular-weight species. We thus conclude that this bromoperoxidase exists in solution as a dimeric species. The heme prosthetic group of bromoperoxidase is ferriprotoporphyrin IX. The spectral properties of the native and reduced enzyme are reported. This bromoperoxidase is the first halogenating enzyme purified from procaryotic sources. Images PMID:3972772

  11. Human targets of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Huimin; Hassett, Daniel J.; Lau, Gee W.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces copious amounts of the redoxactive tricyclic compound pyocyanin that kills competing microbes and mammalian cells, especially during cystic fibrosis lung infection. Cross-phylum susceptibility to pyocyanin suggests the existence of evolutionarily conserved physiological targets. We screened a Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library to identify presumptive pyocyanin targets with the expectation that similar targets would be conserved in humans. Fifty S. cerevisiae targets were provisionally identified, of which 60% have orthologous human counterparts. These targets encompassed major cellular pathways involved in the cell cycle, electron transport and respiration, epidermal cell growth, protein sorting, vesicle transport, and the vacuolar ATPase. Using cultured human lung epithelial cells, we showed that pyocyanin-mediated reactive oxygen intermediates inactivate human vacuolar ATPase, supporting the validity of the yeast screen. We discuss how the inactivation of VATPase may negatively impact the lung function of cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:14605211

  12. Burn sepsis: bacterial interference with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Levenson, S M; Gruber, D K; Gruber, C; Watford, A; Seifter, E

    1981-05-01

    The pathogenicity of several strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for burned rats (3 degrees scald burns, 20% body surface) following topical application of the bacteria to the burn within 1 hour after burning was established. Following this, it was demonstrated that purposeful infection of such 3 degrees scald burns of rats by a strain of Ps. aeruginosa of low virulence (JB-77) protects the rats from the lethal effect of subsequent (48-hour) topical contamination of the burn by a highly virulent strain of Ps. aeruginosa (VA-134) (p less than 0.001). This finding was confirmed in a similar experiment beginning with germfree rats. When the challenge with the highly virulent Ps. aeruginosa strain was 24 hours (rather than 48 hours) after the burning and topical contamination of the burn with the low virulence strain of Ps. aeruginosa, there was little protection (p N.S.). When burned rats were given the low virulence strain of Ps. aeruginosa by gavage right after burning, there was not protection to subsequent (48 hours) challenge by topical application of the highly virulent strain of Ps. aeruginosa to the burn (11/12 vs 12/12 dying). Our finding that purposeful infection of a 3 degrees burn of rats (conventional and also germfree) by a strain of Ps. aeruginosa of low virulence protects from the lethal effect of subsequent (48-hour) topical contamination of the burn by a highly virulent strain of Ps. aeruginosa is due, we believe, to direct bacterial interference between the two strains of pseudomonas. PMID:6785444

  13. Genetic construction of recombinant Pseudomonas chlororaphis for improved glycerol utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to improve by genetic engineering the glycerol metabolic capability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis which is capable of producing commercially valuable biodegradable poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) and biosurfactant rhamnolipids (RLs). In the study, glycerol uptake facilitat...

  14. Pseudomonas Folliculitis Associated with Use of Hot Tubs and Spas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the history, etiology, diagnosis, histopathology, treatment, and prevention of Pseudomonas Folliculitis, an increasingly common skin infection contracted in hot tubs and, to some extent, in swimming pools. (Author/SM)

  15. A Fatal Case of "Bullous Erysipelas-like" Pseudomonas Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sam Shiyao; Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Huang, Jing Xiang; Tan, Kong-Bing; Aw, Derrick Chen-Wee

    2016-01-01

    Erysipelas is a generally benign superficial bacterial skin infection, and its bullous form constitutes a rare and more severe variant. We describe the first and fatal case of "bullous erysipelas-like" septic vasculitis due to Pseudomonas bacteremi. A 69-year-old Chinese man presenting with diarrhea and septic shock initially began to rapidly develop sharply defined erythematous plaques with non-hemorrhagic bullae over his lower limbs. Culture of the aspirate from the bullae was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This was also consistent with his blood cultures showing Pseudomonas bacteremia. Histology of the skin lesion showed microthrombi and neutrophilic infiltrates in blood vessels with Gram-negative bacilli extruding from the vessel walls, characteristic of septic vasculitis. The bullous erysipelas-like lesions seen in this patient represents a rare manifestation of both septic vasculitis and Pseudomonas infection. PMID:26955132

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae NCPPB 2254.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjun; Jiang, Hongshan; Tian, Qian; Hu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae is a pathogen that causes bacterial decline of stone fruit. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for P. syringae pv. persicae, which was isolated from Prunus persica. PMID:26044420

  18. New strategies for genetic engineering Pseudomonas syringae using recombination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report that DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced directly into bacteria by electroporation can recombine with the bacterial chromosome. This phenomenon was identified in Pseudomonas syringae and we subsequently found that Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri are...

  19. Outbreak of hot-foot syndrome - caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Michl, R K; Rusche, T; Grimm, S; Limpert, E; Beck, J F; Dost, A

    2012-07-01

    Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause the hot-foot syndrome, presenting with painful plantar erythematous nodules. Particularly, the mechanically stressed areas of the foot are affected after contact with contaminated water from saunas, swimming pools, hot tubs, etc. We report an outbreak of hot-foot syndrome caused by Pseudomonas in 10 patients. The therapeutic regimens applied reached from local antiseptic therapy to systemic antibiotics. PMID:22187332

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of the Antimicrobial Producers Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 Isolated from Antarctic Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Presta, Luana; Inzucchi, Ilaria; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Perrin, Elena; Maida, Isabel; Miceli, Elisangela; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Lo Giudice, Angelina; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 strains, isolated from Antarctic sediments during a summer campaign near coastal areas of Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica). Genome sequence knowledge allowed the identification of genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, it will be instrumental for comparative genomics and the fulfillment of both basic and application-oriented investigations. PMID:27469957

  1. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. PMID:25497792

  2. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment

    PubMed Central

    Remold, Susanna K.; Purdy-Gibson, Megan E.; France, Michael T.; Hundley, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms’ distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively). Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found. PMID:26023929

  3. Comparative sensitivity and resistance of some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri to antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A. D.; Mills, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the sensitivities to various antibiotic and non-antibiotic substances of some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. stutzeri, the latter including strains isolated from eye and other cosmetic products and from other sources. Whereas P. aeruginosa strains showed a high resistance to cetrimide and to benzalkonium chloride, the P. stutzeri strains were generally more sensitive to these and to chlorhexidine. The P. stutzeri strains were also more sensitive to the various antibiotics tested. The loss of the ability to transfer an R factor by two strains of P. aeruginosa caused no significant change in their drug sensitivity pattern. PMID:4369876

  4. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Resistance to the Max

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is intrinsically resistant to a variety of antimicrobials and can develop resistance during anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy both of which compromise treatment of infections caused by this organism. Resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials (multidrug resistance) in particular is increasingly common in P. aeruginosa, with a number of reports of pan-resistant isolates treatable with a single agent, colistin. Acquired resistance in this organism is multifactorial and attributable to chromosomal mutations and the acquisition of resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer. Mutational changes impacting resistance include upregulation of multidrug efflux systems to promote antimicrobial expulsion, derepression of ampC, AmpC alterations that expand the enzyme's substrate specificity (i.e., extended-spectrum AmpC), alterations to outer membrane permeability to limit antimicrobial entry and alterations to antimicrobial targets. Acquired mechanisms contributing to resistance in P. aeruginosa include β-lactamases, notably the extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the carbapenemases that hydrolyze most β-lactams, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, and 16S rRNA methylases that provide high-level pan-aminoglycoside resistance. The organism's propensity to grow in vivo as antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms and the occurrence of hypermutator strains that yield antimicrobial resistant mutants at higher frequency also compromise anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy. With limited therapeutic options and increasing resistance will the untreatable P. aeruginosa infection soon be upon us? PMID:21747788

  5. Ribotype analysis of Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, M M; Goebel, L A; Godfrey, A J; Choawagul, W; White, N J; Woods, D E

    1993-01-01

    No epidemiological typing system to differentiate among Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolates has been available. Ribotype analysis was developed and used to examine 74 clinical and 10 environmental isolates of P. pseudomallei from Thailand. Six P. pseudomallei ribotypes were identified from restriction fragment polymorphisms of EcoRI chromosomal digests. The predominant ribotype, A, was found in 59 of the isolates examined. By using patterns from hybridizations with SalI, HindIII, and PstI restriction digests, isolates of ribotype A were subdivided into a further five subtypes, giving a total of 10 differentiable P. pseudomallei types. In 23 of 34 melioidosis patients studied, multiple P. pseudomallei isolates were present. In all but one of these patients, a single ribotype of the organism was present. Isolation of two different ribotypes of P. pseudomallei from one patient, one each in sputum and urine, suggests that superinfection may have occurred. The ribotype was shown to be conserved during the course of antibiotic treatments in seven patients studied, although the antibiotic sensitivity patterns in the isolates from these patients varied. The prevalence of subtype A1 in clinical and environmental specimens suggests that this strain may be predominant in this geographical location. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the ribotyping method for epidemiological studies of P. pseudomallei. Images PMID:7679401

  6. Spaceflight promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooseong; Tengra, Farah K; Young, Zachary; Shong, Jasmine; Marchand, Nicholas; Chan, Hon Kit; Pangule, Ravindra C; Parra, Macarena; Dordick, Jonathan S; Plawsky, Joel L; Collins, Cynthia H

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight. PMID:23658630

  7. Shear-enhanced adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecuyer, Sigolene; Rusconi, Roberto; Shen, Yi; Forsyth, Alison; Stone, Howard

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial adhesion is the first step in the development of surface-associated communities known as biofilms, which are the cause of many problems in medical devices and industrial water systems. However the underlying mechanisms of initial bacterial attachment are not fully understood. We have investigated the effects of hydrodynamics on the probability of adsorption and detachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 on model surfaces under flow, in straight microfluidic channels, and measured the distribution of bacteria residence time as a function of the shear rate. Our main discovery is a counter-intuitive enhanced adhesion as the shear stress is increased over a wide range of shear rates. In order to identify the origin of this phenomenon, we have performed experiments with several mutant strains. Our results show that shear-enhanced adhesion is not regulated by primary surface organelles, and that this process is not specific to a certain type of surface, but rather appears a general feature of the adhesive behavior of P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that shear-induced adhesion could be a very widespread strategy in nature.

  8. Surface attachment induces Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence

    PubMed Central

    Siryaporn, Albert; Kuchma, Sherry L.; O’Toole, George A.; Gitai, Zemer

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infects every type of host that has been examined by deploying multiple virulence factors. Previous studies of virulence regulation have largely focused on chemical cues, but P. aeruginosa may also respond to mechanical cues. Using a rapid imaging-based virulence assay, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa activates virulence in response to attachment to a range of chemically distinct surfaces, suggesting that this bacterial species responds to mechanical properties of its substrates. Surface-activated virulence requires quorum sensing, but activating quorum sensing does not induce virulence without surface attachment. The activation of virulence by surfaces also requires the surface-exposed protein PilY1, which has a domain homologous to a eukaryotic mechanosensor. Specific mutation of the putative PilY1 mechanosensory domain is sufficient to induce virulence in non–surface-attached cells, suggesting that PilY1 mediates surface mechanotransduction. Triggering virulence only when cells are both at high density and attached to a surface—two host-nonspecific cues—explains how P. aeruginosa precisely regulates virulence while maintaining broad host specificity. PMID:25385640

  9. Developing an international Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference panel

    PubMed Central

    De Soyza, Anthony; Hall, Amanda J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Drevinek, Pavel; Kaca, Wieslaw; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R; Toth, Veronika; Coenye, Tom; Zlosnik, James E A; Burns, Jane L; Sá-Correia, Isabel; De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Kidd, Timothy J; Reid, David; Manos, Jim; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard; McClean, Siobhán; Winstanley, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a wide range of infections among other susceptible populations. Its inherent resistance to many antimicrobials also makes it difficult to treat infections with this pathogen. Recent evidence has highlighted the diversity of this species, yet despite this, the majority of studies on virulence and pathogenesis focus on a small number of strains. There is a pressing need for a P. aeruginosa reference panel to harmonize and coordinate the collective efforts of the P. aeruginosa research community. We have collated a panel of 43 P. aeruginosa strains that reflects the organism's diversity. In addition to the commonly studied clones, this panel includes transmissible strains, sequential CF isolates, strains with specific virulence characteristics, and strains that represent serotype, genotype or geographic diversity. This focussed panel of P. aeruginosa isolates will help accelerate and consolidate the discovery of virulence determinants, improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of infections caused by this pathogen, and provide the community with a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:24214409

  10. Genome comparison of Pseudomonas aeruginosa large phages.

    PubMed

    Hertveldt, Kirsten; Lavigne, Rob; Pleteneva, Elena; Sernova, Natalia; Kurochkina, Lidia; Korchevskii, Roman; Robben, Johan; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim; Krylov, Victor N; Volckaert, Guido

    2005-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage EL is a dsDNA phage related to the giant phiKZ-like Myoviridae. The EL genome sequence comprises 211,215 bp and has 201 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). The EL genome does not share DNA sequence homology with other viruses and micro-organisms sequenced to date. However, one-third of the predicted EL gene products (gps) shares similarity (Blast alignments of 17-55% amino acid identity) with phiKZ proteins. Comparative EL and phiKZ genomics reveals that these giant phages are an example of substantially diverged genetic mosaics. Based on the position of similar EL and phiKZ predicted gene products, five genome regions can be delineated in EL, four of which are relatively conserved between EL and phiKZ. Region IV, a 17.7 kb genome region with 28 predicted ORFs, is unique to EL. Fourteen EL ORFs have been assigned a putative function based on protein similarity. Assigned proteins are involved in DNA replication and nucleotide metabolism (NAD+-dependent DNA ligase, ribonuclease HI, helicase, thymidylate kinase), host lysis and particle structure. EL-gp146 is the first chaperonin GroEL sequence identified in a viral genome. Besides a putative transposase, EL harbours predicted mobile endonucleases related to H-N-H and LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases associated with group I intron and intein intervening sequences. PMID:16256135

  11. Spaceflight Effects on Virulence of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadway, S.; Goins, T.; Crandell, C.; Richards, C.; Patel, M.; Pyle, B.

    2008-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen found in the environment. It is known to infect the immunocompromised. The organism has about 25 virulence genes that play different roles in disease processes. Several exotoxin proteins may be produced, including ExoA, ExoS, ExoT and ExoY, and other virulence factors. In spaceflight, possible increased expression of P. aeruginosa virulence proteins could increase health risks for spaceflight crews who experience decreased immunity. Cultures of P. aeruginosa strains PA01 and PA103 grown on orbit on Shuttle Endeavour flight STS-123 vs. static ground controls were used for analysis. The production of ETA was quantitated using an ELISA procedure. Results showed that while flight cultures of PA103 produced slightly more ETA than corresponding ground controls, the opposite was found for PA01. While it appears that spaceflight has little effect on ETA, stimulation of other virulence factors could cause increased virulence of this organism in space flight. Similar increased virulence in spaceflight has been observed for other bacteria. This is important because astronauts may be more susceptible to opportunistic pathogens including P. aeruginosa.

  12. Periplasmic glucans of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    PubMed Central

    Talaga, P; Fournet, B; Bohin, J P

    1994-01-01

    We report the initial characterization of glucans present in the periplasmic space of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (strain R32). These compounds were found to be neutral, unsubstituted, and composed solely of glucose. Their size ranges from 6 to 13 glucose units/mol. Linkage studies and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses demonstrated that the glucans are linked by beta-1,2 and beta-1,6 glycosidic bonds. In contrast to the periplasmic glucans found in other plant pathogenic bacteria, the glucans of P. syringae pv. syringae are not cyclic but are highly branched structures. Acetolysis studies demonstrated that the backbone consists of beta-1,2-linked glucose units to which the branches are attached by beta-1,6 linkages. These periplasmic glucans were more abundant when the osmolarity of the growth medium was lower. Thus, P. syringae pv. syringae appears to synthesize periplasmic glucans in response to the osmolarity of the medium. The structural characteristics of these glucans are very similar to the membrane-derived oligosaccharides of Escherichia coli, apart from the neutral character, which contrasts with the highly anionic E. coli membrane-derived oligosaccharides. PMID:7961404

  13. Spontaneous release of lipopolysaccharide by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Cadieux, J E; Kuzio, J; Milazzo, F H; Kropinski, A M

    1983-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO grown in glucose mineral salts medium released lipopolysaccharide which was chemically and immunologically similar to the cellular lipopolysaccharide. In addition, it possessed identical phage E79-inactivating properties. Through neutralization of phage activity and hemolysis inhibition assays, the organism was found to liberate lipopolysaccharide at a constant rate during log-phase growth equivalent to 1.3 to 2.2 ng/10(8) cells over a growth temperature range of 25 to 42 degrees C. At 19 degrees C, a lipopolysaccharide was released which was deficient in phage-inactivating activity but retained its immunological properties. Chemical analysis of lipopolysaccharide extracted from cells grown at 19 degrees C showed a deficiency in the O-side-chain component fucosamine. Gel exclusion chromatography of the polysaccharide fraction derived from lipopolysaccharide isolated from cells grown at 19 degrees C exhibited a decreased content of side-chain polysaccharide as well as a difference in the hexosamine:hexose ratio. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis confirmed these results as well as establishing that an essentially normal distribution of side-chain repeating unit lengths were to be found in the 19 degrees C preparation. These results suggest a decrease in the frequency of capping R-form lipopolysaccharide at 19 degrees C. Images PMID:6409883

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm: potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Rao, Saloni; Bansal, Ankiti; Dang, Shweta; Gupta, Sanjay; Gabrani, Reema

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogen that has become an important cause of infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. It is frequently related to nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacteremia. The biofilm formed by the bacteria allows it to adhere to any surface, living or non-living and thus Pseudomonal infections can involve any part of the body. Further, the adaptive and genetic changes of the micro-organisms within the biofilm make them resistant to all known antimicrobial agents making the Pseudomonal infections complicated and life threatening. Pel, Psl and Alg operons present in P. aeruginosa are responsible for the biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharide which plays an important role in cell-cell and cell-surface interactions during biofilm formation. Understanding the bacterial virulence which depends on a large number of cell-associated and extracellular factors is essential to know the potential drug targets for future studies. Current novel methods like small molecule based inhibitors, phytochemicals, bacteriophage therapy, photodynamic therapy, antimicrobial peptides, monoclonal antibodies and nanoparticles to curtail the biofilm formed by P. aeruginosa are being discussed in this review. PMID:24309094

  15. Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. |

    1995-05-05

    Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

  16. Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan

    2014-12-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice. PMID:25587430

  17. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 Gene Collection

    PubMed Central

    LaBaer, Joshua; Qiu, QingQing; Anumanthan, Anukanth; Mar, Wenhong; Zuo, Dongmei; Murthy, T.V.S.; Taycher, Helen; Halleck, Allison; Hainsworth, Eugenie; Lory, Stephen; Brizuela, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common inhabitant of soil and water, is an opportunistic pathogen of growing clinical relevance. Its genome, one of the largest among bacteria [5570 open reading frames (ORFs)] approaches that of simple eukaryotes. We have constructed a comprehensive gene collection for this organism utilizing the annotated genome of P. aeruginosa PA01 and a highly automated and laboratory information management system (LIMS)-supported production line. All the individual ORFs have been successfully PCR-amplified and cloned into a recombination-based cloning system. We have isolated and archived four independent isolates of each individual ORF. Full sequence analysis of the first isolate for one-third of the ORFs in the collection has been completed. We used two sets of genes from this repository for high-throughput expression and purification of recombinant proteins in different systems. The purified proteins have been used to set up biochemical and immunological assays directed towards characterization of histidine kinases and identification of bacterial proteins involved in the immune response of cystic fibrosis patients. This gene repository provides a powerful tool for proteome- and genome-scale research of this organism, and the strategies adopted to generate this repository serve as a model for building clone sets for other bacteria. PMID:15489342

  18. Resistance of Pseudomonas to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Frank W.; Geftic, Sam G.; Gelzer, Justus

    1971-01-01

    Tube dilution experiments showed that benzalkonium chloride (BC)-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in the presence of 1,000 μg of BC per ml were at least 20 times more sensitive to polymyxin B and colistin sulfate than the BC-sensitive (BCS) parent strain. BCS cells selected for resistance to 500 μg of polymyxin B per ml remained sensitive to BC. There was little difference in the amount of carbenicillin, gentamicin sulfate, or rifampin needed to prevent growth of either the BCS or BC-resistant (BCR) strains. Growth of BCR cells was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate at a concentration of 400 μg/ml or less, whereas the BCS strain grew at ethylenediaminetetraacetate levels of 10,000 μg/ml. Phenylmercuric acetate and thimerosal inhibited growth of BCR and BCS cells at concentrations of 10 μg/ml or less. BCR cells were cross-resistant to >1,000 μg/ml concentrations of five other quaternary ammonium compounds, including three with C16 alkyls and two with alkyl groups of shorter length. The BCS strain was also resistant to >1,000 μg/ml concentrations of the three quaternary ammonium compounds with C16 alkyl groups but, in addition to BC, was inhibited by 200 μg/ml levels or less of the two quaternary ammonium compounds containing alkyl groups of less than 16 carbon atoms. PMID:4998348

  19. Extracellular Enzyme Secretion by Pseudomonas lemoignei

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, M. W.; Merrick, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    The ability of succinate to repress the secretion of Pseudomonas lemoignei poly-β-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase was a function of pH. Repression only occurred when the pH of the medium was 7.0 or less. At a higher pH, lack of sensitivity to succinate concentration may have been due to a limited ability to transport succinate. Actively secreting cultures (at pH 7.4) continued to secrete enzyme for approximately 30 min after the pH was rapidly decreased to pH 6.8, even though sufficient succinate was present to repress enzyme synthesis. Similarly, after the addition of rifampin to secreting cultures, there was a 30-min delay before secretion was inhibited. Evidence is presented which suggests that continued secretion may be the result of depolymerase messenger ribonucleic acid accumulation within the cells. Studies with chloramphenicol indicated that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for the secretion of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase and that exoenzyme is not released from a preformed pool. Studies with various inhibitors of protein synthesis indicated that synthesis of exoenzyme is 5 to 10 times more susceptible to inhibition than is the synthesis of cell-associated proteins. PMID:4152045

  20. Pseudomonas biofilms: possibilities of their control.

    PubMed

    Masák, Jan; Čejková, Alena; Schreiberová, Olga; Rezanka, Tomáš

    2014-07-01

    Genus Pseudomonas includes a large number of species that can be encountered in biotechnological processes as well as in the role of serious human or plant pathogens. Pseudomonads easily form biofilms on various types of surfaces. The biofilm phenotype is characterized by an increased resistance to environmental influences including resistance to antibiotics and other disinfectants, causing a number of problems in health care, food industry, and other areas. Considerable attention is therefore paid to the possibilities of eradication/destruction of pseudomonads biofilms both in terms of understanding the mechanisms of biofilm formation and at the level of finding suitable antibiofilm tools applicable in practice. The first part of this review is devoted to an overview of the regulatory mechanisms that are directly or indirectly involved in the formation of biofilm. The most effective approaches to suppressing the formation of biofilm that do not cause the development of resistance are based on the application of substances that interfere with the regulatory molecules or block the appropriate regulatory mechanisms involved in biofilm development by the cells. Pseudomonads biofilm formation is, similar to other microorganisms, a sophisticated process with many regulatory elements. The suppression of this process therefore also requires multiple antibiofilm tools. PMID:24754832

  1. Clonal complex Pseudomonas aeruginosa in horses.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Timothy J; Gibson, Justine S; Moss, Susan; Greer, Ristan M; Cobbold, Rowland N; Wright, John D; Ramsay, Kay A; Grimwood, Keith; Bell, Scott C

    2011-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with infectious endometritis in horses. Although infectious endometritis is often considered a venereal infection, there is relatively limited genotypic-based evidence to support this mode of transmission. The study sought to determine the relatedness between genital P. aeruginosa isolates collected from a limited geographical region using molecular strain typing. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR typing was performed on 93 isolates collected between 2005 and 2009 from 2058 thoroughbred horses (including 18 stallions) at 66 studs. While P. aeruginosa was not detected in the stallions, 53/93 (57%) mares harbouring P. aeruginosa had clonally related strains, which included a single dominant genotype detected in 42 (45%) mares from 13 different studs. These novel findings suggest that most equine genital P. aeruginosa infections in this region may have been acquired from mechanisms other than direct horse to horse transmission. Instead, other potential acquisition pathways, as well as strain specific adaptation to the equine genital tract, should be investigated. PMID:21183294

  2. Biodegradation of acyclic isoprenoids by Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed Central

    Cantwell, S G; Lau, E P; Watt, D S; Fall, R R

    1978-01-01

    The ability of various pseudomonads to utilize acyclic isoprenoids as a sole carbon source was investigated. Tests for utilization of acyclic isoprenols such as citronellol and geraniol were complicated by toxic effects of these alcohols, and most species tested were killed by exposure to citronellol or geraniol (0.1%, vol/vol) in liquid culture. In the case of Pseudomonas citronellolis, sensitivity to isoprenols is reduced by prior induction of the isoprenoid degradative pathway via either growth on succinate in the presence of citronellol or growth on citronellic acid. For this species, citronellic acid proved to be the best isoprenoid growth substrate tested. Geraniol utilization as a taxonomic indicator for different subgroups of pseudomonads is discussed. Only a few of the species tested were able to utilize acyclic isoprenoids. Two species which utilize C10 acyclic isoprenoids, P. aeruginosa and P. mendocina, were shown to contain the inducible enzyme geranyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, one of the unique enzymes in the isoprenol degradative pathway known to occur in P. citronellolis. Of the species which utilized geranitol, none showed definite growth on the homologous C15 and C20 isoprenols. PMID:681275

  3. Role of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) in sensitising Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Meichtry, Martín; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

    2015-01-01

    One of the main stress factors that bacteria face in the environment is solar ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation, which leads to lethal effects through oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxi-4-quinolone (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal or PQS) in the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation. PQS is an intercellular quorum sensing signal associated to membrane vesicles which, among other functions, regulates genes related to iron acquisition, forms stable complexes with iron and participates in oxidative phenomena. UVA exposure of the wild-type PAO1 strain and a pqsA mutant unable to produce PQS revealed a sensitising role for this signal. Research into the mechanism involved in this phenomenon revealed that catalase, an essential factor in the UVA defence, is not related to PQS-mediated UVA sensitivity. Absorption of UVA by PQS produced its own photo-degradation, oxidation of the probe 2',7'- dichlorodihydrofluorescein and generation of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion, suggesting that this signal could be acting as an endogenous photosensitiser. The results presented in this study could explain the high sensitivity to UVA of P. aeruginosa when compared to enteric bacteria. PMID:25535873

  4. Interference with Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis inhibits virulence factor expression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, M. Worth; Coleman, James P.; Pesci, Everett C.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that controls numerous virulence factors through intercellular signals. This bacterium has two quorum-sensing systems (las and rhl), which act through the intercellular signals N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), respectively. P. aeruginosa also produces a third intercellular signal that is involved in virulence factor regulation. This signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone [referred to as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS)], is a secondary metabolite that is part of the P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing hierarchy. PQS can induce both lasB (encodes LasB elastase) and rhlI (encodes the C4-HSL synthase) in P. aeruginosa and is produced maximally during the late stationary phase of growth. Because PQS is an intercellular signal that is part of the quorum-sensing hierarchy and controls multiple virulence factors, we began basic studies designed to elucidate its biosynthetic pathway. First, we present data that strongly suggest that anthranilate is a precursor for PQS. P. aeruginosa converted radiolabeled anthranilate into radioactive PQS, which was bioactive. We also found that an anthranilate analog (methyl anthranilate) would inhibit the production of PQS. This analog was then shown to have a major negative effect on elastase production by P. aeruginosa. These data provide evidence that precursors of intercellular signals may provide viable targets for the development of therapeutic treatments that will reduce P. aeruginosa virulence. PMID:11573001

  5. Efflux as a glutaraldehyde resistance mechanism in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Bibby, Kyle J

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in microbial biofilm control is biocide resistance. Phenotypic adaptations and physical protective effects have been historically thought to be the primary mechanisms for glutaraldehyde resistance in bacterial biofilms. Recent studies indicate the presence of genetic mechanisms for glutaraldehyde resistance, but very little is known about the contributory genetic factors. Here, we demonstrate that efflux pumps contribute to glutaraldehyde resistance in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The RNA-seq data show that efflux pumps and phosphonate degradation, lipid biosynthesis, and polyamine biosynthesis metabolic pathways were induced upon glutaraldehyde exposure. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of efflux pumps potentiates glutaraldehyde activity, suggesting that efflux activity contributes to glutaraldehyde resistance. Additionally, induction of known modulators of biofilm formation, including phosphonate degradation, lipid biosynthesis, and polyamine biosynthesis, may contribute to biofilm resistance and resilience. Fundamental understanding of the genetic mechanism of biocide resistance is critical for the optimization of biocide use and development of novel disinfection strategies. Our results reveal genetic components involved in glutaraldehyde resistance and a potential strategy for improved control of biofilms. PMID:25824217

  6. Catabolism of Naphthalenesulfonic Acids by Pseudomonas sp. A3 and Pseudomonas sp. C22

    PubMed Central

    Brilon, C.; Beckmann, W.; Knackmuss, H.-J.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene and two naphthalenesulfonic acids were degraded by Pseudomonas sp. A3 and Pseudomonas sp. C22 by the same enzymes. Gentisate is a major metabolite. Catabolic activities for naphthalene, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, and 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid are induced by growth with naphthalene, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, methylnaphthalene, or salicylate. Gentisate is also an inducer in strain A3. Inhibition kinetics show that naphthalene and substituted naphthalenes are hydroxylated by the same naphthalene dioxygenase. Substrates with nondissociable substituents such as CH3, OCH3, Cl, or NO2 are hydroxylated in the 7,8-position, and 4-substituted salicylates are accumulated. If CO2H, CH2CO2H, or SO3H are substituents, hydroxylation occurs with high regioselectivity in the 1,2-position. Thus, 1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-2-carboxylic acids are formed quantitatively from the corresponding naphthalenecarboxylic acids. Utilization of naphthalenesulfonic acids proceeds by the same regioselective 1,2-dioxygenation which labilizes the C—SO3− bond and eliminates sulfite. PMID:16345814

  7. Pseudomonas cepacia adherence to respiratory epithelial cells is enhanced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Saiman, L.; Cacalano, G.; Prince, A. )

    1990-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia are both opportunistic pathogens of patients with cystic fibrosis. The binding characteristics of these two species were compared to determine if they use similar mechanisms to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. P. cepacia 249 was shown to be piliated, but there was no detectable homology between P. aeruginosa pilin gene probes and P. cepacia genomic DNA. P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa did not appear to compete for epithelial receptors. In the presence of purified P. aeruginosa pili, the adherence of 35S-labeled strain 249 to respiratory epithelial monolayers was unaffected, while that of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was decreased by 55%. The binding of P. cepacia 249 and 715j was increased by 2.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, in the presence of an equal inoculum of PAO1. Interbacterial agglutination contributed to the increased adherence of P. cepacia, as the binding of 249 was increased twofold in the presence of irradiated PAO1. PAO1 exoproducts had a marked effect in enhancing the ability of the P. cepacia strains to adhere to the epithelial monolayers. A PAO1 supernatant increased the binding of 249 by eightfold and that of 715j by fourfold. Thus, there appears to be a synergistic relationship between P. aeruginosa and P. cepacia in which PAO1 exoproducts modify the epithelial cell surface, exposing receptors and facilitating increased P. cepacia attachment.

  8. Efflux as a Glutaraldehyde Resistance Mechanism in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Vikram, Amit; Bomberger, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in microbial biofilm control is biocide resistance. Phenotypic adaptations and physical protective effects have been historically thought to be the primary mechanisms for glutaraldehyde resistance in bacterial biofilms. Recent studies indicate the presence of genetic mechanisms for glutaraldehyde resistance, but very little is known about the contributory genetic factors. Here, we demonstrate that efflux pumps contribute to glutaraldehyde resistance in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The RNA-seq data show that efflux pumps and phosphonate degradation, lipid biosynthesis, and polyamine biosynthesis metabolic pathways were induced upon glutaraldehyde exposure. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of efflux pumps potentiates glutaraldehyde activity, suggesting that efflux activity contributes to glutaraldehyde resistance. Additionally, induction of known modulators of biofilm formation, including phosphonate degradation, lipid biosynthesis, and polyamine biosynthesis, may contribute to biofilm resistance and resilience. Fundamental understanding of the genetic mechanism of biocide resistance is critical for the optimization of biocide use and development of novel disinfection strategies. Our results reveal genetic components involved in glutaraldehyde resistance and a potential strategy for improved control of biofilms. PMID:25824217

  9. Increased Sheep Lung Vascular Permeability Caused by Pseudomonas Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Brigham, Kenneth L.; Woolverton, William C.; Blake, Lynn H.; Staub, Norman C.

    1974-01-01

    In awake sheep, we compared the responses of lung lymph flow and lymph and plasma protein concentrations to steady state elevations of pulmonary vascular pressures made by inflating a left atrial balloon with those after an intravenous infusion of 105-1010Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lymph flow increased when pressure was increased, but lymph-plasma protein concentration ratios always fell and lymph protein flow (lymph flow × lymph protein concentration) increased only slightly. After Pseudomonas, sheep had transient chills, fever, leukopenia, hypoxemia, increased pulmonary artery pressure and lymph flow and decreased left atrial pressure and lymph protein concentration, 3-5 h after Pseudomonas, when vascular pressures and lymph protein concentrations had returned to near base line, lymph flow increased further to 3-10 times base line and remained at a steady level for many hours. During this steady state period, lymph-plasma protein concentration ratios were similar to base line and lymph protein flow was higher than in the increased pressure studies. Two sheep died of pulmonary edema 7 and 9 h after Pseudomonas, but in 16 studies, five other sheep appeared well during the period of highest lymph flow and all variables returned to base line in 24-72 h. Six serial indicator dilution lung water studies in five sheep changed insignificantly from base line after Pseudomonas. Postmortem lung water was high in the two sheep dead of pulmonary edema and one other, but six sheep killed 1-6 h after Pseudomonas had normal lung water. Because of the clear difference between the effects of increased pressure and Pseudomonas on lymphplasma protein concentration ratios and lymph protein flow, we conclude that Pseudomonas causes a prolonged increase in lung vessel permeability to protein. Because we saw lung lymph flow as high as 10 times base line without pulmonary edema, we conclude that lung lymphatics are a sensitive high-capacity mechanism for removing excess filtered fluid. An

  10. MEASURING THE DISPERSAL AND REENTRAINMENT OF RECOMBINANT PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE AT CALIFORNIA TEST SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dispersal of genetically engineered Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas fluorescens was investigated during and after spray applications onto plants at Brentwood and Tulelake, California. ive different sampling devices were used to evaluate the dispersal within and around te...

  11. Pseudomonas soli sp. nov., a novel producer of xantholysin congeners.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Javier; García-López, Marina; Carmona, Cristina; Sousa, Thiciana da S; de Pedro, Nuria; Cautain, Bastien; Martín, Jesús; Vicente, Francisca; Reyes, Fernando; Bills, Gerald F; Genilloud, Olga

    2014-09-01

    A chemoorganotrophic Gram-negative bacterium was isolated by means of a diffusion sandwich system from a soil sample from the Sierra Nevada National Park, Spain. Strain F-279,208(T) was oxidase and catalase positive, strictly aerobic, non-spore-forming and motile by single polar flagellum. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes revealed that strain F-279,208(T) belongs to the Pseudomonas putida group with Pseudomonas mosselii and Pseudomonas entomophila as its closest relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization assays and phenotypic traits confirmed that this strain belongs to a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F-279,208(T) (=DSM 28043(T)=LMG 27941(T)), and during fermentation it produces xantholysins, a family of lipodepsipeptides. The major compound, xantholysin A, showed an interesting activity in a RCC4 kidney tumor cell line with inactivation of VHL linked with the HIF pathway, without any cytotoxic effects against other human tumor cell lines tested including, liver, pancreas and breast. PMID:25097020

  12. Flagellin gene sequence variation in the genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Bellingham, N F; Morgan, J A; Saunders, J R; Winstanley, C

    2001-07-01

    Flagellin gene (fliC) sequences from 18 strains of Pseudomonas sensu stricto representing 8 different species, and 9 representative fliC sequences from other members of the gamma sub-division of proteobacteria, were compared. Analysis was performed on N-terminal, C-terminal and whole fliC sequences. The fliC analyses confirmed the inferred relationship between P. mendocina, P. oleovorans and P. aeruginosa based on 16S rRNA sequence comparisons. In addition, the analyses indicated that P. putida PRS2000 was closely related to P. fluorescens SBW25 and P. fluorescens NCIMB 9046T, but suggested that P. putida PaW8 and P. putida PRS2000 were more closely related to other Pseudomonas spp. than they were to each other. There were a number of inconsistencies in inferred evolutionary relationships between strains, depending on the analysis performed. In particular, whole flagellin gene comparisons often differed from those obtained using N- and C-terminal sequences. However, there were also inconsistencies between the terminal region analyses, suggesting that phylogenetic relationships inferred on the basis of fliC sequence should be treated with caution. Although the central domain of fliC is highly variable between Pseudomonas strains, there was evidence of sequence similarities between the central domains of different Pseudomonas fliC sequences. This indicates the possibility of recombination in the central domain of fliC genes within Pseudomonas species, and between these genes and those from other bacteria. PMID:11518318

  13. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site. PMID:27245129

  14. Pseudomonas tuomuerensis sp. nov., isolated from a bird's nest.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu-Hua; Zhang, De-Chao; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Hui-Ling; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2009-01-01

    Strain 78-123T was isolated from a sample of a bird's nest situated on the bank of Qiongtailan River in the region of Tuomuer Peak of Tianshan Mountain in the Xin-jiang Uygur Autonomous Region in north-western China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain 78-123T was related to members of the genus Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain 78-123T and Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 25411T, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JCM 5968T and Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21T was 97.1, 97.4 and 97.5 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(12 : 0). The G+C content was 60.4 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, the novel species Pseudomonas tuomuerensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 78-123T (=CGMCC 1.1365T =JCM 14085T). PMID:19126738

  15. Vaccination against respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    PubMed Central

    Grimwood, Keith; Kyd, Jennelle M; Owen, Suzzanne J; Massa, Helen M; Cripps, Allan W

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major clinical problem globally, particularly for patients with chronic pulmonary disorders, such as those with cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis (nCFB) and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition, critically ill and immunocompromised patients are also at significant risk of P. aeruginosa infection. For almost half a century, research efforts have focused toward development of a vaccine against infections caused by P. aeruginosa, but a licensed vaccine is not yet available. Significant advances in identifying potential vaccine antigens have been made. Immunisations via both the mucosal and systemic routes have been trialled in animal models and their effectiveness in clearing acute infections demonstrated. The challenge for translation of this research to human applications remains, since P. aeruginosa infections in the human respiratory tract can present both as an acute or chronic infection. In addition, immunisation prior to infection may not be possible for many patients with CF, nCFB or COPD. Therefore, development of a therapeutic vaccine provides an alternative approach for treatment of chronic infection. Preliminary animal and human studies suggest that mucosal immunisation may be effective as a therapeutic vaccine against P. aeruginosa respiratory infections. Nevertheless, more research is needed to improve our understanding of the basic biology of P. aeruginosa and the mechanisms needed to upregulate the induction of host immune pathways to prevent infection. Recognition of variability in the host immune responses for a range of patient health conditions at risk from P. aeruginosa infection is also required to support development of a successful vaccine delivery strategy and vaccine. Activation of mucosal immune responses may provide improved efficacy of vaccination for P. aeruginosa during both acute exacerbations and chronic infection. PMID:25483510

  16. Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa often are hard to treat; inappropriate chemotherapy readily selects multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. This organism can be exposed to a wide range of concentrations of antimicrobials during treatment; learning more about the responses of P. aeruginosa to antimicrobials is therefore important. We review here responses of the bacterium P. aeruginosa upon exposure to antimicrobials at levels below the inhibitory concentration. Carbapenems (e.g., imipenem) have been shown to induce the formation of thicker and more robust biofilms, while fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycosides (e.g., tobramycin) have been shown to induce biofilm formation. Ciprofloxacin also has been demonstrated to enhance the frequency of mutation to carbapenem resistance. Conversely, although macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) typically are not effective against P. aeruginosa because of the pseudomonal outer-membrane impermeability and efflux, macrolides do lead to a reduction in virulence factor production. Similarly, tetracycline is not very effective against this organism, but is known to induce the type-III secretion system and consequently enhance cytotoxicity of P. aeruginosa in vivo. Of special note are the effects of antibacterials and disinfectants on pseudomonal efflux systems. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc.) induce the MexXY multidrug efflux system. This response is known to be mediated by interference with the translation of the leader peptide PA5471.1, with consequent effects on expression of the PA5471 gene product. Additionally, induction of the MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system is observed upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine and benzalkonium. This response is known to be dependent upon the AlgU stress response factor. Altogether, these biological responses of P. aeruginosa provide useful

  17. Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa often are hard to treat; inappropriate chemotherapy readily selects multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. This organism can be exposed to a wide range of concentrations of antimicrobials during treatment; learning more about the responses of P. aeruginosa to antimicrobials is therefore important. We review here responses of the bacterium P. aeruginosa upon exposure to antimicrobials at levels below the inhibitory concentration. Carbapenems (e.g., imipenem) have been shown to induce the formation of thicker and more robust biofilms, while fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycosides (e.g., tobramycin) have been shown to induce biofilm formation. Ciprofloxacin also has been demonstrated to enhance the frequency of mutation to carbapenem resistance. Conversely, although macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) typically are not effective against P. aeruginosa because of the pseudomonal outer-membrane impermeability and efflux, macrolides do lead to a reduction in virulence factor production. Similarly, tetracycline is not very effective against this organism, but is known to induce the type-III secretion system and consequently enhance cytotoxicity of P. aeruginosa in vivo. Of special note are the effects of antibacterials and disinfectants on pseudomonal efflux systems. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc.) induce the MexXY multidrug efflux system. This response is known to be mediated by interference with the translation of the leader peptide PA5471.1, with consequent effects on expression of the PA5471 gene product. Additionally, induction of the MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system is observed upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine and benzalkonium. This response is known to be dependent upon the AlgU stress response factor. Altogether, these biological responses of P. aeruginosa provide useful

  18. Surface action of gentamicin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kadurugamuwa, J L; Clarke, A J; Beveridge, T J

    1993-01-01

    The mode of action of gentamicin has traditionally been considered to be at the 30S ribosomal level. However, the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis alone appears to be insufficient to entirely explain the bactericidal effects. Bacteriolysis is also mediated through perturbation of the cell surface by gentamicin (J.L. Kadurugamuwa, J.S. Lam, and T.J. Beveridge, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:715-721, 1993). In order to separate the surface effect from protein synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, we chemically conjugated bovine serum albumin (BSA) to gentamicin, making the antibiotic too large to penetrate through the cell envelope to interact with the ribosomes of the cytoplasm. Furthermore, this BSA-gentamicin conjugate was also used to coat colloidal gold particles as a probe for electron microscopy to study the surface effect during antibiotic exposure. High-performance liquid chromatography confirmed the conjugation of the protein to the antibiotic. The conjugated gentamicin and BSA retained bactericidal activity and inhibited protein synthesis on isolated ribosomes in vitro but not on intact cells in vivo because of its exclusion from the cytoplasm. When reacted against the bacteria, numerous gentamicin-BSA-gold particles were clearly seen on the cell surfaces of whole mounts and thin sections of cells, while the cytoplasm was devoid of such particles. Disruption of the cell envelope was also observed since gentamicin-BSA and gentamicin-BSA-gold destabilized the outer membrane, evolved outer membrane blebs and vesicles, and formed holes in the cell surface. The morphological evidence suggests that the initial binding of the antibiotic disrupts the packing order of lipopolysaccharide of the outer membrane, which ultimately forms holes in the cell envelope and can lead to cell lysis. It is apparent that gentamicin has two potentially lethal effects on gram-negative cells, that resulting from inhibition of protein synthesis and that resulting from

  19. Chromosomal Organization and Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Boccard, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic γ-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed. PMID:23658532

  20. Ambroxol interferes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qi; Yu, Jialin; Yang, Xiqiang; Wang, Jiarong; Wang, Lijia; Lin, Yayin; Lin, Lihua

    2010-09-01

    The mucolytic agent ambroxol has been reported to interfere with the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived biofilms in addition to reducing alginate production by undefined mechanisms. Since quorum sensing is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation, we examined the effects of ambroxol on P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild-type bacterial clearance rates, adhesion profiles and biofilm formation compared with the quorum sensing-deficient, double-mutant strains DeltalasR DeltarhlR and DeltalasI DeltarhlI. Data presented in this report demonstrated that ambroxol treatment reduced survival rates of the double-mutant strains compared with the wild-type strain in a dose-dependent manner even though the double-mutants had increased adhesion in the presence of ambroxol compared with the wild-type strain. The PAO1 wild-type strain produced a significantly thicker biofilm (21.64+/-0.57 microm) compared with the biofilms produced by the DeltalasR DeltarhlR (7.36+/-0.2 microm) and DeltalasI DeltarhlI (6.62+/-0.31 microm) isolates. Ambroxol treatment reduced biofilm thickness, increased areal porosity, and decreased the average diffusion distance and textual entropy of wild-type and double-mutant strains. However, compared with the double-mutant strains, the changes observed for the wild-type strain were more clearly defined. Finally, ambroxol exhibited significant antagonistic quorum-sensing properties, suggesting that it could be adapted for use clinically in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and to reduce biofilm formation and in the colonisation of indwelling devices. PMID:20580207

  1. 40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance on all raw...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance on all raw...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance on all raw...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance on all raw...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance on all raw...

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudomonas spp. AS AMOEBA-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS IN ISOLATES OF Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Vinicius José; Corção, Gertrudes; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a “Trojan horse” of the microbial world. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of Pseudomonas as an amoeba-resistant microorganism in 12 isolates of Acanthamoeba. All isolates showed the genus Pseudomonas spp. as amoeba-resistant microorganisms. Thus, one can see that the Acanthamoeba isolates studied are hosts of Pseudomonas. PMID:25651331

  7. Genetically enhanced cellulase production in Pseudomonas cellulosa using recombinant DNA technology

    DOEpatents

    Dees, H. Craig

    1999-01-01

    An enhanced strain of Pseudomonas celllulosa was obtained by introducing a recombinant genetic construct comprising a heterologous cellulase gene operably connected to a promoter into ATCC 55702, mutagenizing the transformants by treatment with MNNG, and selecting a high cellulase producing transformant. The transformant, designated Pseudomonas cellulosa ATCC XXXX, exhibits enhanced levels of cellulase production relative to the untransformed Pseudomonas cellulosa strain #142 ATCC 55702.

  8. CXCR1 Regulates Pulmonary Anti-Pseudomonas Host Defense.

    PubMed

    Carevic, M; Öz, H; Fuchs, K; Laval, J; Schroth, C; Frey, N; Hector, A; Bilich, T; Haug, M; Schmidt, A; Autenrieth, S E; Bucher, K; Beer-Hammer, S; Gaggar, A; Kneilling, M; Benarafa, C; Gao, J L; Murphy, P M; Schwarz, S; Moepps, B; Hartl, D

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key opportunistic pathogen causing disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the pulmonary host defense mechanisms regulating anti-P. aeruginosa immunity remain incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate, by studying an airway P. aeruginosa infection model, in vivo bioluminescence imaging, neutrophil effector responses and human airway samples, that the chemokine receptor CXCR1 regulates pulmonary host defense against P. aeruginosa. Mechanistically, CXCR1 regulates anti-Pseudomonas neutrophil responses through modulation of reactive oxygen species and interference with Toll-like receptor 5 expression. These studies define CXCR1 as a novel, noncanonical chemokine receptor that regulates pulmonary anti-Pseudomonas host defense with broad implications for CF, COPD and other infectious lung diseases. PMID:26950764

  9. Subtilase SprP exerts pleiotropic effects in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Alexander; Polen, Tino; Funken, Horst; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Bott, Michael; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2014-02-01

    The open reading frame PA1242 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a putative protease belonging to the peptidase S8 family of subtilases. The respective enzyme termed SprP consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and a so-called S8 domain linked by a domain of unknown function (DUF). Presumably, this DUF domain defines a discrete class of Pseudomonas proteins as homologous domains can be identified almost exclusively in proteins of the genus Pseudomonas. The sprP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and proteolytic activity was demonstrated. A P. aeruginosa ∆sprP mutant was constructed and its gene expression pattern compared to the wild-type strain by genome microarray analysis revealing altered expression levels of 218 genes. Apparently, SprP is involved in regulation of a variety of different cellular processes in P. aeruginosa including pyoverdine synthesis, denitrification, the formation of cell aggregates, and of biofilms. PMID:24376018

  10. Microbial degradation of quinoline and methylquinolines. [Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Aislabie, J.; Bej, A.K.; Hurst, H.; Rothenburger, S.; Atlas, R.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Several bacterial cultures were isolated that are able to degrade quinoline and to transform or to degrade methylquinolines. The degradation of quinoline by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa QP and Pseudomonas. putida QP produced hydroxyquinolines, a transient pink compound, and other undetermined products. The quinoline-degrading strains of P. aeruginosa QP and P. putida QP hydroxylated a limited number of methylquinolines but could not degrade them, nor could they transform 2-methylquinoline, isoquinoline, or pyridine. Another pseudomonad, Pseudomonas sp. strain MQP, was isolated that could degrade 2-methylquinoline. P. aeruginosa QP was able to degrade or to transform quinoline and a few methylquinolines in a complex heterocyclic nitrogen-containing fraction of a shale oil. All of the quinoline- and methylquinoline-degrading strains have multiple plasmids including a common 250-kilobase plasmid. The 225-, 250-, and 320-kilobase plasmids of the P. aeruginosa QP strain all contained genes involved in quinoline metabolism.

  11. [Characterization of manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Na-Na; Bai, Yao-Hui; Liang, Jin-Song; Luo, Jin-Ming; Liu, Rui-Ping; Hu, Cheng-Zhi; Yuan, Lin-Jiang

    2014-02-01

    A manganese-oxidizing bacteria (QJX-1) was isolated from the soil of a manganese mine. It was identified as Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1 by 16S rDNA sequencing. Experimental results showed that the Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1 has a multi-copper oxidase gene CumA, which is an essential component for manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas sp. Under the condition of low initial inoculum level (D600, 0.020), 5.05 mg x L(-1 Mn2+ could be oxidized by QJX-1 within 48 h with a conversion rate of as high as 99.4%. In comparison with the eutrophic conditions, the oligotrophic condition dramatically increased the biological manganese oxidation rate. Biofilm formation by employing the quartz sand could further improve the oxidation rate of Mn2+. Based on these results, it is speculated that biological manganese oxidation in underground water treatment is comparatively high. PMID:24812972

  12. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    PubMed Central

    Khanolkar, Dnyanada S.; Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM). Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2) through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites. PMID:25763027

  13. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas sp. to caffeine and related methylxanthines.

    PubMed

    Dash, Swati Sucharita; Sailaja, Nori Sri; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2008-04-01

    Pseudomonas sp. isolated from soil of coffee plantation area has been shown to degrade higher concentrations of caffeine ( approximately 15 g l(-1)) by N-demethylation at a rate higher than what has been reported for any strain so far. This strain exhibits positive chemotaxis towards caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) in swarm plate assay and modified capillary assay in a dose dependant manner. Related methylxanthines and xanthine also act as chemoattractants for the strain with the highest relative chemotactic response (RCR) seen for xanthine. Chemotaxis in Pseudomonas sp. is possibly plasmid mediated as indicated by positive chemotaxis of plasmid transformed E. coli DH5alpha. The chemotactic abilities of Pseudomonas sp. combined with higher rates of degradation of caffeine can be used in the development of strategies for biodecaffeination of caffeine containing wastes. PMID:18383225

  14. Metabolism of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride in Pseudomonas strain B1.

    PubMed Central

    van Ginkel, C G; van Dijk, J B; Kroon, A G

    1992-01-01

    A bacterium (strain B1) utilizing hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride as a carbon and energy source was isolated from activated sludge and tentatively identified as a Pseudomonas sp. This bacterium only grew on alkyltrimethylammonium salts (C12 to C22) and possible intermediates of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride breakdown such as hexadecanoate and acetate. Pseudomonas strain B1 did not grow on amines. Simultaneous adaptation studies suggested that the bacterium oxidized only the alkyl chain of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. This was confirmed by the stoichiometric formation of trimethylamine from hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. The initial hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride oxygenase activity, measured by its ability to form trimethylamine, was NAD(P)H and O2 dependent. Finally, assays of aldehyde dehydrogenase, hexadecanoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and isocitrate lyase in cell extracts revealed the potential of Pseudomonas strain B1 to metabolize the alkyl chain via beta-oxidation. PMID:1444422

  15. Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov., isolated from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2014-01-01

    Strain MBR(T) was isolated from landfill leachate in a solid-waste disposal site in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. An analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was closely related to members of the genus Pseudomonas, sharing the highest sequence similarities with Pseudomonas toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (99.8 %), Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (99.7 %) and Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (99.4 %). Multi-locus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) provided higher resolution at the species level than that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, which was further confirmed by less than 70 % DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and P. toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (61.3 %), P. alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (51.5 %) and P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (57.8 %). The DNA G+C content of strain MBR(T) was 61.9 mol% and the major ubiquinone was Q-9. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0, and C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c. Polyphasic analysis indicates that strain MBR(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MBR(T) ( = CGMCC 2318(T) = DSM 26382(T)). PMID:24021726

  16. Pseudomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., isolated from saline and alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Kaibiao; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Juquan

    2015-03-01

    Strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) was isolated from saline and alkaline soils in Zhaodong City, Heilongjiang Province, China. It was aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile with a polar flagellum. It produced yellow-orange colonies with a smooth surface, and grew in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %, w/v), at temperatures of 20-40 °C (optimum 28 °C) and at pH 7-11 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analyses based on the separate 16S rRNA gene sequences and concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) belongs to the genus Pseudomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. The most closely related species is Pseudomonas xanthomarina, whose type strain (KMM 1447(T)) showed gene sequence similarities of 99.0 % for 16S rRNA, 81.8 % for gyrB and 85.0 % for rpoD with strain NEAU-ST5-21(T). DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) and P. xanthomarina DSM 18231(T), Pseudomonas kunmingensis CGMCC 1.12273(T), Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM 5190(T), Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T), Pseudomomas chengduensis CGMCC 2318(T), Pseudomonas alcaliphila DSM 17744(T) and Pseudomonas toyotomiensis DSM 26169(T) were 52±0 % to 25±2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) was 65 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c and C16 : 0, the predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9, and polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown aminolipid, one unknown lipid and a glycolipid. The proposed name is Pseudomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., NEAU-ST5-21(T) ( = ACCC 06362(T) = DSM 27559(T)) being the type strain. PMID:25574037

  17. Pseudomonas corneal ulcer. The causative role of contaminated eye cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Reid, F R; Wood, T O

    1979-09-01

    The clinical significance of contaminated ocular cosmetics is illustrated by the case of a 47-year-old woman in whom a Pseudomonas corneal ulcer developed immediately after she sustained minor corneal trauma with a mascara applicator. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured from the corneal ulcer and the mascara. In addition to the causative role in acute corneal ulcers, contaminated eye cosmetics contribute to chronic external eye infections. Retail eye cosmetics are typically free of contamination when purchased. The inoculation of the cosmetic occurs during normal use. PMID:112953

  18. Bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, M. A.; Irannajad, M.; Azadmehr, A. R.; Meshkini, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bioleaching is an environmentally friendly method for extraction of metal from ores. In this study, bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a heterotrophic bacterium that can produce various organic acids in an appropriate culture medium, and these acids can operate as leaching agents. The parameters, such as particle size, glucose percentage in the culture medium, bioleaching time, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized. Optimum bioleaching conditions were found as follows: particle size of 150-177 μm, glucose percentage of 6%, bioleaching time of 8 d, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:80. Under these conditions, 53% of copper was extracted.

  19. Genetic Basis of the Biodegradation of Salicylate in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The genetic basis of the biodegradation of salicylate in Pseudomonas putida R1 has been studied. This strain utilizes the meta pathway for oxidizing salicylate through formation of catechol and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. The enzymes of the meta pathway are induced by salicylate but not by catechol, and the genes specifying these enzymes are clustered. The gene cluster can be eliminated from some salicylate-positive cells by treatment with mitomycin C and appears to exist inside the cell as an extrachromosomal element. This extrachromosomal gene cluster, termed the SAL plasmid, can be transferred by conjugation from P. putida R1 to a variety of other Pseudomonas species. PMID:4628746

  20. Differential habitat use and niche partitioning by Pseudomonas species in human homes.

    PubMed

    Remold, Susanna K; Brown, Christopher K; Farris, Justin E; Hundley, Thomas C; Perpich, Jessica A; Purdy, Megan E

    2011-10-01

    Many species of Pseudomonas have the ability to use a variety of resources and habitats, and as a result Pseudomonas are often characterized as having broad fundamental niches. We questioned whether actual habitat use by Pseudomonas species is equally broad. To do this, we sampled extensively to describe the biogeography of Pseudomonas within the human home, which presents a wide variety of habitats for microbes that live in close proximity to humans but are not part of the human flora, and for microbes that are opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From 960 samples taken in 20 homes, we obtained 163 Pseudomonas isolates. The most prevalent based on identification using the SepsiTest BLAST analysis of 16S rRNA (http://www.sepsitest-blast.de) were Pseudomonas monteilii (42 isolates), Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Pseudomonas fulva, and P. aeruginosa (approximately 25 each). Of these, all but P. fulva differed in recovery rates among evaluated habitat types (drains, soils, water, internal vertebrate sites, vertebrate skin, inanimate surfaces, and garbage/compost) and all four species also differed in recovery rates among subcategories of habitat types (e.g., types of soils or drains). We also found that at both levels of habitat resolution, each of these six most common species (the four above plus Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans) were over- or under-represented in some habitats relative to their contributions to the total Pseudomonas collected across all habitats. This pattern is consistent with niche partitioning. These results suggest that, whereas Pseudomonas are often characterized as generalists with broad fundamental niches, these species in fact have more restricted realized niches. Furthermore, niche partitioning driven by competition among Pseudomonas species may be contributing to the observed variability in habitat use by Pseudomonas in this system. PMID:21503776

  1. Survival of rifampin-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida in soil systems.

    PubMed Central

    Compeau, G; Al-Achi, B J; Platsouka, E; Levy, S B

    1988-01-01

    The fate of spontaneous chromosomal rifampin-resistant (Rifr) mutants of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens in sterile and live organic soil from which they were isolated was studied. In sterile native-soil assays, a Rifr mutant of P. putida showed no decrease in competitive fitness when compared with the wild-type parent. However, mutants of P. fluorescens were of two general categories. Group 1 showed no difference from the wild type in terms of growth rate, competitive fitness, and membrane protein composition. Group 2 showed a slower growth rate in both minimal and enriched media and an altered membrane protein profile. These mutants also demonstrated decreased competitive fitness compared with the wild-type strain. In live soil, the Rifr P. putida strain persisted throughout the 38-day test period with a decay rate of 0.7 log10 CFU/g of soil per 10 days. A group 1 Rifr P. fluorescens mutant maintained its inoculated titer for 7 to 10 days and then decayed at a rate of 0.2 to 0.4 log10 CFU/g of soil per 10 days. A group 2 Rifr P. fluorescens mutant remained at its titer for 1 to 5 days before decaying at a two- to threefold-faster rate. These findings indicate that rifampin resistance may not be an innocuous mutation in some pseudomonads and that marked strains should be compared with wild-type parents before being used as monitors of parental strain survival. Colonization of sterile soil with either the wild-type or mutant strain precluded normal colonization of the second added strain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:3144244

  2. Pseudomonas gessardii sp. nov. and Pseudomonas migulae sp. nov., two new species isolated from natural mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Verhille, S; Baïda, N; Dabboussi, F; Hamze, M; Izard, D; Leclerc, H

    1999-10-01

    Twenty-five non-identified fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from natural mineral waters were previously clustered into three phenotypic subclusters, XIIIb, XVa and XVc. These strains were characterized genotypically in the present study. DNA-DNA hybridization results and DNA base composition analysis revealed that these strains were members of two new species, for which the names Pseudomonas gessardii sp. nov. (type strain CIP 105469T) and Pseudomonas migulae sp. nov. (type strain CIP 105470T) are proposed. P. gessardii included 13 strains from phenotypic subclusters XVa and XVc. P. migulae included 10 strains from phenotypic subcluster XIIIb. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness ranged from 71 to 100% for P. gessardii and from 74 to 100% for P. migulae. The G + C content of the DNA of each type strain was 58 mol%. DNA similarity levels, measured with 67 reference strains of Pseudomonas species, were below 55%, with delta Tm values of 13 degrees C or more. The two new species presented basic morphological characteristics common to all pseudomonads. Various phenotypic features were found to differentiate them: P. gessardii strains utilized L-arabitol, myo-inositol, adonitol, xylitol and meso-erythritol as carbon sources, whereas P. migulae strains assimilated L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-saccharate, meso-tartrate, tricarballylate, D-glucuronate, D-galacturonate, phenylacetate and histamine. The complete 16S rRNA sequences of each type strain were determined and compared with those of the type strains of Pseudomonas species. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was inferred from sequence analysis and demonstrated that the two new species fell into the 'Pseudomonas fluorescens intrageneric cluster'. To date, their clinical significance is unknown. PMID:10555337

  3. Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming motility

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of three types of motilities: swimming, twitching and swarming. The latter is characterized by a fast and coordinated group movement over a semi-solid surface resulting from intercellular interactions and morphological differentiation. A striking feature of swarming motility is the complex fractal-like patterns displayed by migrating bacteria while they move away from their inoculation point. This type of group behaviour is still poorly understood and its characterization provides important information on bacterial structured communities such as biofilms. Using GeneChip® Affymetrix microarrays, we obtained the transcriptomic profiles of both bacterial populations located at the tip of migrating tendrils and swarm center of swarming colonies and compared these profiles to that of a bacterial control population grown on the same media but solidified to not allow swarming motility. Results Microarray raw data were corrected for background noise with the RMA algorithm and quantile normalized. Differentially expressed genes between the three conditions were selected using a threshold of 1.5 log2-fold, which gave a total of 378 selected genes (6.3% of the predicted open reading frames of strain PA14). Major shifts in gene expression patterns are observed in each growth conditions, highlighting the presence of distinct bacterial subpopulations within a swarming colony (tendril tips vs. swarm center). Unexpectedly, microarrays expression data reveal that a minority of genes are up-regulated in tendril tip populations. Among them, we found energy metabolism, ribosomal protein and transport of small molecules related genes. On the other hand, many well-known virulence factors genes were globally repressed in tendril tip cells. Swarm center cells are distinct and appear to be under oxidative and copper stress responses. Conclusions Results reported in this study show that, as opposed to swarm center cells, tendril

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 5329, a White Line-Inducing Principle-Producing Bioindicator for the Mushroom Pathogen Pseudomonas tolaasii

    PubMed Central

    Rokni-Zadeh, Hassan; Zarrineh, Peyman

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, the causative agent of Agaricus bisporus brown blotch disease, can be identified by the white line reaction, occurring upon confrontation of the tolaasin-producing mushroom pathogen with “Pseudomonas reactans,” producing the lipopeptide white line-inducing principle (WLIP). The draft genome sequence of the WLIP-producing indicator Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LMG 5329 is reported here. PMID:23887909

  5. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2014-01-01

    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprints, was generated from whole purified genomic DNA by liquid culture of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas. BOX-PCR generated the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas specific fingerprints to identify the relationship between these strains. This suggests that distribution of BOX elements' sequences in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains is the mirror image of their genomic structure. Therefore, this method appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains and it may be useful tool for fast identification of potential biofertilizer strains. PMID:25580434

  6. Elastase Deficiency Phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Canine Otitis Externa Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Shana R.; Doetkott, Curt; Rust, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa veterinary isolates were assayed for elastase and total matrix protease activity. The elastase activity of canine ear isolates was much less than that of strain PAO1 and that of all other veterinary isolates (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that canine ear isolates have a distinct elastase phenotype. PMID:11329471

  7. Detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea in soybean seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is one of 52 that will compose the second edition of the Laboratory Manual for the Detection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria from Seeds and other Planting Material, to be published by the American Phytopathological Society. The chapter presents a description of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. ...

  8. Functional bacterial amyloid increases Pseudomonas biofilm hydrophobicity and stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Guanghong; Vad, Brian S.; Dueholm, Morten S.; Christiansen, Gunna; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Nielsen, Per H.; Meyer, Rikke L.; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    The success of Pseudomonas species as opportunistic pathogens derives in great part from their ability to form stable biofilms that offer protection against chemical and mechanical attack. The extracellular matrix of biofilms contains numerous biomolecules, and it has recently been discovered that in Pseudomonas one of the components includes β-sheet rich amyloid fibrils (functional amyloid) produced by the fap operon. However, the role of the functional amyloid within the biofilm has not yet been investigated in detail. Here we investigate how the fap-based amyloid produced by Pseudomonas affects biofilm hydrophobicity and mechanical properties. Using atomic force microscopy imaging and force spectroscopy, we show that the amyloid renders individual cells more resistant to drying and alters their interactions with hydrophobic probes. Importantly, amyloid makes Pseudomonas more hydrophobic and increases biofilm stiffness 20-fold. Deletion of any one of the individual members of in the fap operon (except the putative chaperone FapA) abolishes this ability to increase biofilm stiffness and correlates with the loss of amyloid. We conclude that amyloid makes major contributions to biofilm mechanical robustness. PMID:26500638

  9. Engineering the Soil Bacterium Pseudomonas putida for Arsenic Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Qin, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of arsenic has potential health risks through consumption of food. Here, we inserted the arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (ArsM) gene into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Recombinant bacteria methylate inorganic arsenic into less toxic organoarsenicals. This has the potential for bioremediation of environmental arsenic and reducing arsenic contamination in food. PMID:23645194

  10. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF 2,4-DIACETYLPHLOROGLUCINOL-PRODUCING PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens producing the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (phlD+) are biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogens and play a key role in the disease suppressiveness of some soils. Considerable variation among isolates has been observed by using genomic fingerprinting techn...

  11. Chemotaxis to furan compounds by furan-degrading Pseudomonas strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Pseudomonas strains known to utilize furan derivatives were shown to be attracted to furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfuryl alcohol, and 2-furoic acid in the absence of furan metabolism. In addition, a LysR-family regulatory protein known to regulate furan metabolic genes was found to be i...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage AAT-1

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Aspects of the interaction between phages and animals are of interest and importance for medical applications. Here, we report the genome sequence of the lytic Pseudomonas phage AAT-1, isolated from mammalian serum. AAT-1 is a double-stranded DNA phage, with a genome of 57,599 bp, containing 76 predicted open reading frames. PMID:27563032

  13. Genomic Analysis of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a diverse bacterial species known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its production of secondary metabolites. The high degree of ecological and metabolic diversity represented in P. fluorescens is reflected in the genomic diversity displayed among strains. Certain st...

  14. EXPRESSION OF DEGRADATIVE GENES OF 'PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA' IN 'CAULOBACTER CRESCENTUS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recombinant plasmid RP4-TOL was transferred into Caulobacter crescentus at a high frequency, and the plasmid was maintained for at least 50 generations. C. crescentus cells which contained RP4-TOL grew on all the aromatic compounds that the plasmid normally allowed Pseudomona...

  15. Frequency of Antibiotic-Producing Pseudomonas spp. in Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Raaijmakers, J. M.; Weller, D. M.; Thomashow, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    The antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) are major determinants of biological control of soilborne plant pathogens by various strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. In this study, we described primers and probes that enable specific and efficient detection of a wide variety of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains that produce various phenazine antibiotics or Phl. PCR analysis and Southern hybridization demonstrated that specific genes within the biosynthetic loci for Phl and PCA are conserved among various Pseudomonas strains of worldwide origin. The frequency of Phl- and PCA-producing fluorescent pseudomonads was determined on roots of wheat grown in three soils suppressive to take-all disease of wheat and four soils conducive to take-all by colony hybridization followed by PCR. Phenazine-producing strains were not detected on roots from any of the soils. However, Phl-producing fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from all three take-all-suppressive soils at densities ranging from approximately 5 x 10(sup5) to 2 x 10(sup6) CFU per g of root. In the complementary conducive soils, Phl-producing pseudomonads were not detected or were detected at densities at least 40-fold lower than those in the suppressive soils. We speculate that fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. that produce Phl play an important role in the natural suppressiveness of these soils to take-all disease of wheat. PMID:16535555

  16. The Biology and Biological Activity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Pst) is a disease of plants in the family Asteraceae. A distinctive characteristic of this bacterial pathogen is the symptom of apical chlorosis in infected plants, caused by the phytotoxin tagetitoxin. Strains of Pst have been isolated from several plant species ...

  17. MULTIPLE REPLICONS CONSTITUTING THE GENOME OF PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA 17616

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrorestriction fragment analysis of DNA from Pseudomonas cepacia 17616, in conjunction with Southern hybridization experiments using junction n enzyme sites as probes, indicated that this bacterium contains three large circular replicons of 3.4, 2.5, and 0.9 170-kb cryptic plas...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM 223

    PubMed Central

    Roquigny, Roxane; Arseneault, Tanya; Gadkar, Vijay J.; Novinscak, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM 223 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol activity against various plant pathogens. It produces the antimicrobial metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is involved in the biocontrol of Streptomyces scabies, the causal agent of common scab of potato. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. fluorescens LBUM 223. PMID:25953163

  19. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Peter C.; Villenueva, Jacylyn; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a plant-beneficial bacterium that is able to suppress disease caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through a process known as biological control. Here we present a 7.1-Mb assembly of the PA23 genome. PMID:25035328

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas balearica DSM 6083T

    PubMed Central

    Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Seguí, Carolina; Aliaga, Francisco; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Lalucat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas balearica SP1402 (DSM 6083T) has been completed and annotated. It was isolated as a naphthalene degrader from water of a lagooning wastewater treatment plant. P. balearica strains tolerate up to 8.5% NaCl and are considered true marine denitrifiers. PMID:27103708

  1. PHENAZINE COMPOUNDS IN FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS SPP.: BIOSYNTHESIS AN REGULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phenazines include upward of 50 pigmented, heterocyclic nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites synthesized by some strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and a few other bacterial genera. The antibiotic properties of these compounds have been known for over 150 years, but advances within the...

  2. Characterization of two small RNAs of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are important components of many regulatory pathways and have been shown to have key roles in regulation of factors important for virulence. To date, only a few sRNAs have been described for the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. One approach to identify novel candid...

  3. Shotgun Sequencing of the Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 Transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 is a bacterial plant pathogen capable of causing disease in tomatoes and Arabidopsis. The genome of this bacterium has been sequenced, however as with other genomes, accurate annotation and determination of coding vs. non-coding regions has proven to be...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage AAT-1.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Aspects of the interaction between phages and animals are of interest and importance for medical applications. Here, we report the genome sequence of the lytic Pseudomonas phage AAT-1, isolated from mammalian serum. AAT-1 is a double-stranded DNA phage, with a genome of 57,599 bp, containing 76 predicted open reading frames. PMID:27563032

  10. Corneal ulcer caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Siripanthong, S; Teerapantuwat, S; Prugsanusak, W; Suputtamongkol, Y; Viriyasithavat, P; Chaowagul, W; Dance, D A; White, N J

    1991-01-01

    We report three cases of corneal ulcer caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei. In all cases corneal trauma preceded the development of extensive ulcers, subconjunctival abscesses, and hypopyon. Treatment for a total of 8 weeks with topical and/or parenteral ceftazidime followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid produced resolution of infection in each case. PMID:2041966

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223.

    PubMed

    Roquigny, Roxane; Arseneault, Tanya; Gadkar, Vijay J; Novinscak, Amy; Joly, David L; Filion, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol activity against various plant pathogens. It produces the antimicrobial metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is involved in the biocontrol of Streptomyces scabies, the causal agent of common scab of potato. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. fluorescens LBUM223. PMID:25953163

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Rice Isolate Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Spence, Carla A.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105, a strain isolated from rice rhizosphere, has shown antagonistic activities against a rice fungal pathogen, and could be important in defense against rice blast. We report the draft genome sequence of EA105, which is an estimated size of 6.6 Mb. PMID:25540352

  13. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  14. Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov., isolated from an electroactive biofilm, and emended description of the genus Pseudomonas Migula 1894.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guiqin; Han, Luchao; Wen, Junlin; Zhou, Shungui

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-negative, straight to slightly curved rod-shaped bacterium, motile with peritrichous flagella, designated SgZ-6(T), was isolated from an electroactive biofilm and was characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1 %), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 10-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) in trypticase soya broth. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes identified the isolate as a member of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain SgZ-6(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to 'Pseudomonas linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 (97.5 %), followed by Pseudomonas sagittaria JCM 18195(T) (97.4 %), P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T) (96.6 %), P. tuomuerensis JCM 14085(T) (96.5 %) and P. alcaliphila JCM 10630(T) (96.4 %). Strain SgZ-6(T) showed the highest gyrB gene sequence similarity of 93.7 % to 'P. linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 among all type strains of genus Pseudomonas. DNA-DNA pairing studies showed that strain SgZ-6(T) displayed 47.1 and 40.3 % relatedness to 'P. linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 and P. sagittaria JCM 18195(T), respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The whole-cell fatty acids consisted mainly of summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), C16 : 0 and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c). The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.1 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain SgZ-6(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SgZ-6(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012022(T) = KACC 16606(T)). An emended description of the genus Pseudomonas is also proposed. PMID:23918787

  15. Induction of toluene oxidation activity in pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 by chlorinated solvents and alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    McClay, K.; Streger, S.H.; Steffan, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    Toluene oxidation activity in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain ENVPC5 was induced by trichloroethylene (TCE), and induction was followed by the degradation of TCE. Higher levels of toluene oxidation activity were achieved in the presence of a supplemental growth substrate such as glutamate, with levels of activity of up to 86% of that observed with toluene-induced cells. Activity in P. mendocina KR1 was also induced by cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroethane, hexane, pentane, and octane, but not by trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. Toluene oxidation was not induced by TCE in Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4, P. putida F1, Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV110, or Pseudomonas sp. strain ENV113. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis subsp. nov., and reclassification of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes ATCC 17440T as later synonym of Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC 8062 T.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ratul; Spröer, Cathrin; Beck, Brian; Bagley, Susan

    2010-04-01

    Isolate RS1(T) isolated from used metalworking fluid was found to be a Gram-negative, motile, and non-spore forming rod. Based on phylogenetic analyses with 16S rRNA, isolate RS1(T) was placed into the mendocina sublineage of Pseudomonas. The major whole cell fatty acids were C(18:1)omega7c (32.6%), C(16:0) (25.5%), and C(15:0) ISO 2OH/C(16:1)omega7c (14.4%). The sequence similarities of isolate RS1(T) based on gyrB and rpoD genes were 98.9 and 98.0% with Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and 98.5 and 98.1% with Pseudomonas oleovorans, respectively. The ribotyping pattern showed a 0.60 similarity with P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) and 0.63 with P. pseudoalcaligenes ATCC17440(T). The DNA G + C content of isolate RS1(T) was 62.2 mol.%. The DNA-DNA relatedness was 73.0% with P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) and 79.1% with P. pseudoalcaligenes ATCC 17440(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical, and molecular studies, isolate RS1(T) is considered to represent a new subspecies of P. oleovorans. Furthermore, based on the DNA-DNA relatedness (>70%), chemotaxonomic, and molecular profile, P. pseudoalcaligenes ATCC 17440(T) and P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) should be united under the same name; according to the rules of priority, P. oleovorans, the first described species, is the earlier synonym and P. pseudoalcaligenes is the later synonym. As a consequence, the division of the species P. oleovorans into two novel subspecies is proposed: P. oleovorans subsp. oleovorans subsp. nov. (type strain ATCC 8062(T) = DSM 1045(T) = NCIB 6576(T)), P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis subsp. nov. (type strain RS1(T) = ATCC BAA-1494(T) = DSM 21016(T)). PMID:19936829

  17. Structure of a putative acetyltransferase (PA1377) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Anna M.; Tata, Renée; Chauviac, François-Xavier; Sutton, Brian J.; Brown, Paul R.

    2008-05-01

    The crystal structure of an acetyltransferase encoded by the gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Comparison with a related acetyltransferase revealed a structural difference in the active site that was taken to reflect a difference in substrate binding and/or specificity between the two enzymes. Gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a 177-amino-acid conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function. The structure of this protein (termed pitax) has been solved in space group I222 to 2.25 Å resolution. Pitax belongs to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase family and contains all four sequence motifs conserved among family members. The β-strand structure in one of these motifs (motif A) is disrupted, which is believed to affect binding of the substrate that accepts the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA.

  18. Homology study of two polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases from Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    Umeda, F; Nishikawa, T; Miyasaka, H; Maeda, I; Kawase, M; Yagi, K

    2001-11-01

    Recently, we have cloned and analyzed two polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase genes (phaC1 and phaC2 in the pha cluster) from Pseudomonas aureofaciens. In this report, the deduced amino acid (AA) sequences of PHA synthase 1 and PHA synthase 2 from P. aureofaciens are compared with those from three other bacterial strains (Pseudomonas sp. 61-3, P. oleovorans and P. aeruginosa) containing the homologous pha cluster. The level of homology of either PHA synthase 1 or PHA synthase 2 was high with each enzyme from these three bacterial strains. Furthermore, multialignment of PHA synthase AA sequences implied that both enzymes of PHA synthase 1 and PHA synthase 2 were highly conserved in the four strains including P. aureofaciens. PMID:11916262

  19. Porins of Pseudomonas fluorescens MFO as fibronectin-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Rebière-Huët, J; Guérillon, J; Pimenta, A L; Di Martino, P; Orange, N; Hulen, C

    2002-09-24

    Bacterial adherence is a complex phenomenon involving specific interactions between receptors, including matricial fibronectin, and bacterial ligands. We show here that fibronectin and outer membrane proteins of Pseudomonas fluorescens were able to inhibit adherence of P. fluorescens to fibronectin-coated wells. We identified at least six fibronectin-binding proteins with molecular masses of 70, 55, 44, 37, 32 and 28 kDa. The presence of native (32 kDa) and heat-modified forms (37 kDa) of OprF was revealed by immuno-analysis and the 44-kDa band was composed of three proteins, their N-terminal sequences showing homologies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa porins (OprD, OprE1 and OprE3). PMID:12393211

  20. Is levofloxacin as active as ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, G

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of levofloxacin against 300 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hospitalized patients, with the exception of those recovered in intensive care or hematology units, was compared to ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, amikacin, ceftazidime and imipenem. Imipenem showed the best activity (81.6%), followed by piperacillin (80.7%). The activity of levofloxacin was equal to that of ciprofloxacin (75.3%) but was more active than ofloxacin (58.1%). Moreover, the MIC values of levofloxacin did not show any statistical difference using two different inocula. Levofloxacin shows an excellent bactericidal activity being generally within one doubling dilution of the MIC. These results were also confirmed by the time-killing studies. In conclusion, according to the in vitro activity, levofloxacin could be considered a good option for the treatment of infections sustained by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and clinical experiments are required to corroborate our in vitro data. PMID:11399859

  1. Agricultural plants and soil as a reservoir for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Green, S K; Schroth, M N; Cho, J J; Kominos, S K; Vitanza-jack, V B

    1974-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in 24% of the soil samples but in only 0.13% of the vegetable samples from various agricultural areas of California. The distribution of pyocin types of soil and vegetable isolates was similar to that of clinical strains, and three of the soil isolates were resistant to carbenicillin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiplied in lettuce and bean under conditions of high temperature and high relative humidity (27 C and 80-95% relative humidity) but declined when the temperature and humidity were lowered (16 C, 55-75% relative humidity). The results suggest that soil is a reservior for P. aeruginosa and that the bacterium has the capacity to colonize plants during favorable conditions of temperature and moisture. PMID:4217591

  2. Agricultural Plants and Soil as a Reservoir for Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sylvia K.; Schroth, Milton N.; Cho, John J.; Kominos, Spyros D.; Vitanza-Jack, Vilma B.

    1974-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in 24% of the soil samples but in only 0.13% of the vegetable samples from various agricultural areas of California. The distribution of pyocin types of soil and vegetable isolates was similar to that of clinical strains, and three of the soil isolates were resistant to carbenicillin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiplied in lettuce and bean under conditions of high temperature and high relative humidity (27 C and 80-95% relative humidity) but declined when the temperature and humidity were lowered (16 C, 55-75% relative humidity). The results suggest that soil is a reservior for P. aeruginosa and that the bacterium has the capacity to colonize plants during favorable conditions of temperature and moisture. PMID:4217591

  3. Ecthyma gangrenosum in a neonate: not always pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ashish; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Yogendra; Dhaneria, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous manifestation of invasive infection usually caused by pseudomonas, but can be caused by many bacteria, fungal and viral infections. We present the first reported case of EG caused by invasive Escherichia coli in a neonate. A neonate presented with evidence of sepsis and a rapidly evolving 3×3.5 cm2 well-circumscribed haemorrhagic and necrotic ulcer on the left groin. There was evidence of decreased perfusion of the lower limb owing to pressure effect of the ulcer. The child responded well to anticoagulation and antibiotic therapy. It is crucial to clinically suspect EG and promptly start empiric antibiotic therapy covering pseudomonas to decrease the morbidity and mortality. However, other viruses, fungus and bacteria including E coli should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of EG in a neonate. PMID:23715836

  4. Fatty Acids Synthesized from Hexadecane by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ethel M.; Brenner, Rodolfo R.

    1966-01-01

    Romero, Ethel M. (Universidad Nacional de la Plata, La Plata, Argentina), and Rodolfo M. Brenner. Fatty acids synthesized from hexadecane by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 91:183–188. 1966.—The lipids extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa incubated with hexadecane in a mineral medium were separated into a nonpolar and three polar fractions by thin-layer chromatography. The fatty acid composition of the four cellular fractions and that of the lipids excreted into the medium was studied by gas-liquid chromatography. Saturated fatty acids with 14 to 22 carbons were recognized, together with monoenoic, dienoic, and hydroxylated acids. Hydroxylated fatty acids were principally found in two polar fractions containing rhamnose and glucose; the other polar fraction, containing serine, alanine, ethanolamine, and leucine, was richer in monoenoic fatty acids. Octadecadienoic acid was found in the neutral fraction. PMID:4955247

  5. The phylogeny of the genera Chryseomonas, Flavimonas, and Pseudomonas supports synonymy of these three genera.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Y; Kudo, Y; Oyaizu, H

    1997-04-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences of Chryseomonas luteola, the type species of the genus Chryseomonas, and Flavimonas oryzihabitans, the type species of the genus Flavimonas, were determined. These sequences were compared with the sequences of 27 representative strains of the genus Pseudomonas. C. luteola and F. oryzihabitans were located in the cluster that contains Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the type species of genus Pseudomonas Migula 1894, and the levels of 16S rRNA sequence homology between P. aeruginosa and the other two species were more than 93.9%. All of the strains of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto whose sequences have been determined were included in the P. aeruginosa cluster. These results suggested that Chryseomonas, Flavimonas, and Pseudomonas are synonymous, and we concluded that Chryseomonas and Flavimonas are junior subjective synonyms of Pseudomonas. PMID:9103607

  6. Induction of the copper resistance operon from Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect

    Mellano, M.A.; Cooksey, D.A. )

    1988-09-01

    Cupric sulfate induced mRNA specific to the copper resistance gene cluster previously cloned form Pseudomonas syringea pv. tomato PT23. mRNA from each of the four genes of this cluster responded in a similar manner to induction over time and with different concentrations of cupric sulfate. Promoter fusion constructs indicated the presence of single copper-inducible promoter upstream from the first open reading frame.

  7. Involvement of bioemulsifier in heptadecane uptake in Pseudomonas nautica.

    PubMed

    Patricia, B; Jean-Claude, B

    1999-02-01

    A microbial surfactant was investigated for its potential to enhance the biodegradation of heptadecane. The bioemulsifier used in this study was extracted from culture supernatants of Pseudomonas nautica after growth on heptadecane. The heptadecane uptake rate-could be increased 15-fold by the addition of 1.5 mg protein of bioemulsifier per 100 mg of heptadecane. Scanning electron microscopy showed that bioemulsification was the main mode allowing the transfer of hydrocarbon in the presence of the isolated compound. PMID:10028664

  8. Effects of atmospheric conditions on ice nucleation activity of Pseudomonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, E.; Yang, H.; Delort, A.-M.; Amato, P.; Pöschl, U.; Glaux, C.; Koop, T.; Morris, C. E.

    2012-11-01

    Although ice nuclei from bacterial origin are known to be efficient at the highest temperatures known for ice catalysts, quantitative data are still needed to assess their role in cloud processes. Here we studied the effects of three typical cloud conditions (i) acidic pH (ii) NO2 and O3 exposure and (iii) UV-A exposure on the ice nucleation activity (INA) of four Pseudomonas strains. Three of the Pseudomonas syringae strains were isolated from cloud water and the phyllosphere and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CGina-01 was isolated from Antarctic glacier ice melt. Among the three conditions tested, acidic pH caused the most significant effects on INA likely due to denaturation of the ice nucleation protein complex. Exposure to NO2 and O3 gases had no significant or only weak effects on the INA of two P. syringae strains whereas the INA of P. fluorescens CGina-01 was significantly affected. The INA of the third P. syringae strain showed variable responses to NO2 and O3 exposure. These differences in the INA of different Pseudomonas suggest that the response to atmospheric conditions could be strain-specific. After UV-A exposure, a substantial loss of viability of all four strains was observed whereas their INA decreased only slightly. This corroborates the notion that under certain conditions dead bacterial cells can maintain their INA. Overall, the negative effects of the three environmental factors on INA were more significant at the warmer temperatures. Our results suggest that in clouds where temperatures are near 0 °C, the importance of bacterial ice nucleation in precipitation processes could be reduced by some environmental factors.

  9. Effects of atmospheric conditions on ice nucleation activity of Pseudomonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, E.; Yang, H.; Delort, A.-M.; Amato, P.; Pöschl, U.; Glaux, C.; Koop, T.; Morris, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Although ice nuclei from bacterial origin are known to be efficient at the highest temperatures known for ice catalysts, quantitative data are still needed to assess their role in cloud processes. Here we studied the effects of three typical cloud conditions (i) acidic pH (ii) NO2 and O3 exposure and (iii) UV-A exposure on the ice nucleation activity (INA) of four Pseudomonas strains. Three of the Pseudomonas syringae strains were isolated from cloud water and the phyllosphere and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CGina-01 was isolated from Antarctic glacier ice melt. Among the three conditions tested, acidic pH caused the most significant effects on INA likely due to denaturation of the ice nucleation protein complex. Exposure to NO2 and O3 gases had no significant or only weak effects on the INA of two P. syringae strains whereas the INA of P. fluorescens CGina-01 was significantly affected. The INA of the third P. syringae strain showed variable responses to NO2 and O3 exposure. These differences in the INA of different Pseudomonas suggest that the response to atmospheric conditions could be strain-specific. After UV-A exposure, a substantial loss of viability of all four strains was observed whereas their INA decreased only slightly. This corroborates the notion that under certain conditions dead bacterial cells can maintain their INA. Overall, the negative effects of the three environmental factors on INA were more significant at the warmer temperatures. Our results suggest that in clouds where temperatures are near 0 °C, the importance of bacterial ice nucleation in precipitation processes could be reduced by some environmental factors.

  10. Pseudomonas putida which can grow in the presence of toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Akira; Yamamoto, Mami; Horikoshi, Koki )

    1991-05-01

    A Pseudomonas putida strain able to grow in the presence of more than 50% toluene was isolated from soil. The strain was tolerant of other toxic solvents, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, alicyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ethers. The stability of the solvent tolerance of strain IH-2,000 was stimulated by addition of Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} to the medium containing toluene.

  11. Membrane proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Dé, E; Cosette, P; Coquet, L; Siroy, A; Alexandre, S; Duncan, A; Naudin, B; Rihouey, C; Schaumann, A; Junter, G A; Jouenne, T

    2011-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are known for their intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Between mechanisms involved in this resistance, diminished expression of outer membrane proteins and up-regulation of efflux pumps play an important role. The characterization of membrane proteins is consequently necessary because of their importance in the antibiotic resistance but also in virulence. This review presents proteomic investigations aiming to describe the protein content of the membranes of these two bacterial species. PMID:19942379

  12. Empyema Caused by Pseudomonas luteola: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Farid; Shoja, Saeed; Honarvar, Negin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pseudomonas luteola is an uncommon opportunistic pathogen. It is recognized as an uncommon cause of infections in underlying medical disorders. Infections caused by this microorganism are health care associated. Case Presentation: The current study isolated P. luteola from empyema in a patient with tuberculous pleurisy, whose susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole differed from previous reports. Conclusions: P. luteola is resistant to TMP-SMX, but in the present case P. luteola was susceptible to TMP-SMX PMID:25368791

  13. [Genome plasticity and catabolic potential of pseudomonas cepacia]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This progress report describes efforts directed at understanding the genomic structure of Pseudomonas cepacia. Variously reported are descriptions of the replicons in the genome, organization of macrorestriction fragments comprising the genome, use of a Tn-5- 751S to insertionally inactivate and map selected genes, construction of IS407 derivatives containing a trimethoprim resistance marker and SwaI site, and analysis of nucleotide sequences of IS401 and IS408.

  14. Pyochelin potentiates the inhibitory activity of gallium on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Bonchi, Carlo; Minandri, Fabrizia; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Gallium (Ga) is an iron mimetic that has successfully been repurposed for antibacterial chemotherapy. To improve the antibacterial potency of Ga on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the effect of complexation with a variety of siderophores and synthetic chelators was tested. Ga complexed with the pyochelin siderophore (at a 1:2 ratio) was more efficient than Ga(NO3)3 in inhibiting P. aeruginosa growth, and its activity was dependent on increased Ga entrance into the cell through the pyochelin translocon. PMID:24957826

  15. [Phlegmonous gastritis. Report of a case induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Ramos Jiménez, F A; Arocena Cedrón, M G; Goikoetxea Artola, J M; Lázaro Aramburu, S; Múgica Barreiros, P

    1992-06-01

    The authors present a case of phlegmonous gastritis in a 65 year old patient. The diagnosis was made in the operating room and the treatment was conservative; no gastric resection was done. This clinical entity is interesting because it is a least frequent pathology, the pathogenic bacteria which was the cause (Pseudomona aeruginosa) has at this time not been reported in the literature, including the favorable outcome of the patient without gastric resection. PMID:1633018

  16. Different Ancestries of R Tailocins in Rhizospheric Pseudomonas Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ghequire, Maarten G.K.; Dillen, Yörg; Lambrichts, Ivo; Proost, Paul; Wattiez, Ruddy; De Mot, René

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial genomes accommodate a variety of mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophage-related clusters that encode phage tail-like protein complexes playing a role in interactions with eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. Such tailocins are unable to replicate inside target cells due to the lack of a phage head with associated DNA. A subset of tailocins mediate antagonistic activities with bacteriocin-like specificity. Functional characterization of bactericidal tailocins of two Pseudomonas putida rhizosphere isolates revealed not only extensive similarity with the tail assembly module of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R-type pyocins but also differences in genomic integration site, regulatory genes, and lytic release modules. Conversely, these three features are quite similar between strains of the P. putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens clades, although phylogenetic analysis of tail genes suggests them to have evolved separately. Unlike P. aeruginosa R pyocin elements, the tailocin gene clusters of other pseudomonads frequently carry cargo genes, including bacteriocins. Compared with P. aeruginosa, the tailocin tail fiber sequences that act as specificity determinants have diverged much more extensively among the other pseudomonad species, mostly isolates from soil and plant environments. Activity of the P. putida antibacterial particles requires a functional lipopolysaccharide layer on target cells, but contrary to R pyocins from P. aeruginosa, strain susceptibilities surpass species boundaries. PMID:26412856

  17. Biological manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida in trickling filters.

    PubMed

    McKee, Kyle P; Vance, Cherish C; Karthikeyan, Raghupathy

    2016-06-01

    Biological oxidation has been researched as a viable alternative for treating waters with high manganese (Mn) concentrations, typically found in mine drainage or in some geological formations. In this study, laboratory-scale trickling filters were constructed to compare the Mn removal efficiency between filters inoculated with the Mn oxidizing bacteria, Pseudomonas putida, and filters without inoculation. Manganese oxidation and removal was found to be significantly greater in trickling filters with Pseudomonas putida after startup times of only 48 h. Mn oxidation in Pseudomonas putida inoculated trickling filters was up to 75% greater than non-inoculated filters. One-dimensional advective-dispersive models were formulated to describe the transport of Mn in trickling filter porous media. Based on the experimental transport parameters obtained, the model predicted that a filter depth of only 16 cm is needed to reduce influent concentration of 10 mg L(-1) to 0.05 mg L(-1). PMID:26943637

  18. Pyoverdine and histicorrugatin-mediated iron acquisition in Pseudomonas thivervalensis.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, Sandra; Brandt, Nathalie; Ongena, Marc; Achouak, Wafa; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Budzikiewicz, Herbert

    2016-06-01

    The genome of Pseudomonas thivervalensis LMG 21626(T) has been sequenced and a genomic, genetic and structural analysis of the siderophore mediated iron acquisition was undertaken. Pseudomonas thivervalensis produces two structurally new siderophores, pyoverdine PYOthi which is typical for P. thivervalensis strains and a closely related strain, and the lipopeptidic siderophore histicorrugatin which is also detected in P. lini. Histicorrugatin consists out of an eight amino acid long peptide which is linked to octanoic acid. It is structurally related to the siderophores corrugatin and ornicorrugatin. Analysis of the proteome for TonB-dependent receptors identified 25 candidates. Comparison of the TonB-dependent receptors of P. thivervalensis with the 17 receptors of its phylogenetic neighbor, P. brassicacearum subsp. brassicacearum NFM 421, showed that NFM 421 shares the same set of receptors with LMG 21626(T), including the histicorrugatin receptor. An exception was found for their cognate pyoverdine receptor which can be explained by the observation that both strains produce structurally different pyoverdines. Mass analysis showed that NFM 421 did not produce histicorrugatin, but the analogue ornicorrugatin. Growth stimulation assays with a variety of structurally distinct pyoverdines produced by other Pseudomonas species demonstrated that LMG 21626(T) and NFM 421 are able to utilize almost the same set of pyoverdines. Strain NFM 421 is able utilize two additional pyoverdines, pyoverdine of P. fluorescens Pf0-1 and P. citronellolis LMG 18378(T), these pyoverdines are probably taken up by the FpvA receptor of NFM 421. PMID:27007713

  19. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014

  20. Influence of zinc on Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptibilities to imipenem.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G L; Louie, A; Baltch, A L; Chu, R C; Smith, R P; Ritz, W J; Michelsen, P

    1993-01-01

    Serial dilution susceptibility testing of imipenem against 59 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, conducted simultaneously on single lots of Difco and BBL Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA), resulted in MICs for 90% of strains tested of 8 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively. MICs for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas spp. were also higher on BBL MHA. Quantification of the cation content of the two MHAs by atomic absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that the zinc concentration in BBL MHA was 15 times greater than that measured in Difco MHA (2.61 and 0.17 micrograms/ml, respectively). Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, and copper in the two agars were similar. Addition of zinc to Difco MHA resulted in increases in MICs of imipenem for P. aeruginosa but not in the MICs of ceftazidime or cefpirome for P. aeruginosa (P < 0.01). A lesser zinc effect was seen on the activity of imipenem against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas spp. The activities of ceftazidime and cefpirome were similar on both MHAs when tested against all gram-negative organisms in this study. Thus, the effect of zinc in MHA was clearly demonstrated by a significant increase in the MICs of imipenem for P. aeruginosa, and, to a lesser extent, for other gram-negative bacilli. PMID:8408557

  1. DNA sequence-based analysis of the Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Magdalena; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2010-06-01

    Partial sequences of four core 'housekeeping' genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of the type strains of 107 Pseudomonas species were analysed in order to obtain a comprehensive view regarding the phylogenetic relationships within the Pseudomonas genus. Gene trees allowed the discrimination of two lineages or intrageneric groups (IG), called IG P. aeruginosa and IG P. fluorescens. The first IG P. aeruginosa, was divided into three main groups, represented by the species P. aeruginosa, P. stutzeri and P. oleovorans. The second IG was divided into six groups, represented by the species P. fluorescens, P. syringae, P. lutea, P. putida, P. anguilliseptica and P. straminea. The P. fluorescens group was the most complex and included nine subgroups, represented by the species P. fluorescens, P. gessardi, P. fragi, P. mandelii, P. jesseni, P. koreensis, P. corrugata, P. chlororaphis and P. asplenii. Pseudomonas rhizospherae was affiliated with the P. fluorescens IG in the phylogenetic analysis but was independent of any group. Some species were located on phylogenetic branches that were distant from defined clusters, such as those represented by the P. oryzihabitans group and the type strains P. pachastrellae, P. pertucinogena and P. luteola. Additionally, 17 strains of P. aeruginosa, 'P. entomophila', P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. syringae and P. stutzeri, for which genome sequences have been determined, have been included to compare the results obtained in the analysis of four housekeeping genes with those obtained from whole genome analyses. PMID:20192968

  2. Siderophore production and utilization by milk spoilage Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Brown, A G; Luke, R K J

    2010-04-01

    Many bacteria respond to potentially growth-limiting availability of iron by producing low-molecular-weight iron chelators (siderophores). The aim of this work was to examine the siderophores synthesized and utilized by Pseudomonas spp. implicated in milk spoilage. Twenty isolates of Pseudomonas spp. previously shown to have significant milk spoilage potential were tested for the ability to produce siderophores. Of these, 14 produced pyoverdin and 2 of these also produced pyochelin; 1 produced only pyochelin; 1 produced only salicylate; 2 produced non-pyoverdin, hydroxamate-containing siderophore; and 2 produced chrome azurol sulfonate reactive material that was neither pyoverdin nor pyochelin. There was considerable diversity among the pyoverdins produced. All isolates were shown to utilize iron complexed with exogenous pyoverdin, but usage of particular exogenous pyoverdins differed among isolates. Interference with the iron-uptake systems of the Pseudomonas spp. may be a means by which food spoilage can be slowed, and the pyoverdin system would appear to be a potential target. However, given the diversity of pyoverdins produced and utilized, and the presence of other siderophores, successful interference with bacterial iron acquisition in this context may be challenging. PMID:20338412

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of multiple strains of two unusual plant pathogens: Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas mediterranea

    PubMed Central

    Trantas, Emmanouil A.; Licciardello, Grazia; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Witek, Kamil; Strano, Cinzia P.; Duxbury, Zane; Ververidis, Filippos; Goumas, Dimitrios E.; Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Guttman, David S.; Catara, Vittoria; Sarris, Panagiotis F.

    2015-01-01

    The non-fluorescent pseudomonads, Pseudomonas corrugata (Pcor) and P. mediterranea (Pmed), are closely related species that cause pith necrosis, a disease of tomato that causes severe crop losses. However, they also show strong antagonistic effects against economically important pathogens, demonstrating their potential for utilization as biological control agents. In addition, their metabolic versatility makes them attractive for the production of commercial biomolecules and bioremediation. An extensive comparative genomics study is required to dissect the mechanisms that Pcor and Pmed employ to cause disease, prevent disease caused by other pathogens, and to mine their genomes for genes that encode proteins involved in commercially important chemical pathways. Here, we present the draft genomes of nine Pcor and Pmed strains from different geographical locations. This analysis covered significant genetic heterogeneity and allowed in-depth genomic comparison. All examined strains were able to trigger symptoms in tomato plants but not all induced a hypersensitive-like response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genome-mining revealed the absence of type III secretion system and known type III effector-encoding genes from all examined Pcor and Pmed strains. The lack of a type III secretion system appears to be unique among the plant pathogenic pseudomonads. Several gene clusters coding for type VI secretion system were detected in all genomes. Genome-mining also revealed the presence of gene clusters for biosynthesis of siderophores, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, and hydrogen cyanide. A highly conserved quorum sensing system was detected in all strains, although species specific differences were observed. Our study provides the basis for in-depth investigations regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence strategies in the battle between plants and microbes. PMID:26300874

  4. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage. PMID:26453993

  5. Pseudomonas salina sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Hou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Wang, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium, strain XCD-X85(T), was isolated from Xiaochaidan Lake, a salt lake (salinity 9.9%, w/v) in Qaidam basin, Qinghai province, China. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain XCD-X85(T) were non-endospore-forming rods, 0.4-0.6 μm wide and 1.0-1.6 μm long, and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain XCD-X85(T) was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed in the presence of 0-12.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-2.0%) and at 4-35 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C) and pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.0-8.5). Strain XCD-X85(T) contained (>10%) summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C12 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) as the predominant fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 57.4 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XCD-X85(T) was associated with the genus Pseudomonas, and showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6(T) (99.0%) and Pseudomonas bauzanensis BZ93(T) (96.8%). DNA-DNA relatedness of strain XCD-X85T to P. pelagia JCM 15562(T) was 19 ± 1%. On the basis of the data presented above, it is concluded that strain XCD-X85(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas salina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XCD-X85(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12482(T) = JCM 19469(T)). PMID:25985833

  6. A HIGHLY SELECTIVE PCR PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING 16S RRNA GENES OF THE GENUS PSEUDOMONAS (SENSU STRICTO) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas species are plant, animal, and human pathogens; exhibit plant pathogen-suppressing properties useful in biological control; or express metabolic versatilities valued in biotechnology and bioremediation. Specific detection of Pseudomonas species in the environment may ...

  7. pA506: A conjugative plasmid of the plant epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens A506

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 is an plant-epiphytic bacterium that is used commercially in the United States for the biological control of fire blight disease of pear and apple. Here, we demonstrate that A506 has a 57 kB conjugative plasmid that can transfer to other strains of Pseudomonas spp. and ...

  8. Effect of tannic acid on the transcriptome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are plant-produced organic compounds that are found in soils, are able to sequester iron, and have antimicrobial properties. We studied the effect of tannic acid on the molecular physiology of the soil-inhabiting biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (formerly Pseudomonas fluoresce...

  9. Genomic diversity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from aerial or root surfaces of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the diverse strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas chlororaphis inhabiting plant surfaces are those that protect plants from infection by pathogens. To explore the diversity of these bacteria, we derived genomic sequences of seven strains that suppress plant disease. Along with t...

  10. Genomic Analysis of Antifungal Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genomic sequences of several Pseudomonas spp. that inhabit the rhizosphere are now available, providing a new opportunity to advance knowledge of plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria through genomics. Among these is the biological control bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Nearly...

  11. Genomic Analysis of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genomic sequences of several Pseudomonas spp. that live in a commensal relationship with plants are now available. Among these is the biological control bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Nearly 6% of the 7.07 Mb genome of Pf-5 is devoted to the biosynthesis of secondary metaboli...

  12. Genomic Diversity of Biocontrol Strains of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Aerial or Root Surfaces of Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The striking ecological, metabolic, and biochemical diversity of Pseudomonas has intrigued microbiologists for many decades. To explore the genomic diversity of biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas spp., we derived high quality draft sequences of seven strains known to suppress plant disease. The str...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  14. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  15. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  16. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  17. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  18. A Mathematical model to investigate quorum sensing regulation and its heterogenecity in pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a plant-pathogen, which through quorum sensing (QS), controls virulence. In this paper, by means of mathematical modeling, we investigate QS of this bacterium when living on leaf surfaces. We extend an existing stochastic model for the formation of Pseudomonas s...

  19. Draft Genome of Pseudomonas sp. Strain 11/12A, Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Tami L; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the genome sequencing of Pseudomonas sp. strain 11/12A from Lake Washington sediment. From the genome content, a versatile lifestyle is predicted but not one of bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Pseudomonas sp. 11/12A presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25700412

  20. Draft Genome of Pseudomonas sp. Strain 11/12A, Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Tami L.; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the genome sequencing of Pseudomonas sp. strain 11/12A from Lake Washington sediment. From the genome content, a versatile lifestyle is predicted but not one of bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Pseudomonas sp. 11/12A presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25700412

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from wastewater and wastewater-impacted marine coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Luczkiewicz, Aneta; Kotlarska, Ewa; Artichowicz, Wojciech; Tarasewicz, Katarzyna; Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia

    2015-12-01

    In this study, species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. were studied in influent (INF), effluent (EFF), and marine outfall (MOut) of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The susceptibility was tested against 8 antimicrobial classes, active against Pseudomonas spp.: aminoglycosides, carbapenems, broad-spectrum cephalosporins from the 3rd and 4th generation, extended-spectrum penicillins, as well as their combination with the β-lactamase inhibitors, monobactams, fluoroquinolones, and polymyxins. Among identified species, resistance to all antimicrobials but colistin was shown by Pseudomonas putida, the predominant species in all sampling points. In other species, resistance was observed mainly against ceftazidime, ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and aztreonam, although some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas protegens showed multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. Among P. putida, resistance to β-lactams and to fluoroquinolones as well as multidrug resistance become more prevalent after wastewater treatment, but the resistance rate decreased in marine water samples. Obtained data, however, suggests that Pseudomonas spp. are equipped or are able to acquire a wide range of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and thus should be monitored as possible source of resistance genes. PMID:26286796

  2. 40 CFR 180.1212 - Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1212 Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28; exemption... for residues of the microbial pesticide Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28 in or on all...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1304 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1304 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption... for residues of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A in or on all food commodities when applied as...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1212 - Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1212 Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28; exemption... for residues of the microbial pesticide Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28 in or on all...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary... established for residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 when used on...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary... established for residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 when used on...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary... established for residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 when used on...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary... established for residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 when used on...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1212 - Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1212 Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28; exemption... for residues of the microbial pesticide Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28 in or on all...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1304 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1304 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A; exemption... for residues of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A in or on all food commodities when applied as...