Science.gov

Sample records for hierro como problema

  1. Mode switching in volcanic seismicity: El Hierro 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2016-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter b value is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. Such studies typically analyze discrete time windows or phases, but the choice of such windows is subjective and can introduce significant bias. Here we minimize this sample bias by iteratively sampling catalogs with randomly chosen windows and then stack the resulting probability density functions for the estimated b>˜ value to determine a net probability density function. We examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalog during a period of unrest in 2011-2013 and demonstrate clear multimodal behavior. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b>˜ value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity. Multimodality is primarily associated with intermittent activation and cessation of activity in different parts of the volcanic system rather than with respect to any systematic inferred underlying process.

  2. Estructura orbital en el Problema Restringido Rectilíneo Isósceles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.

    Para definir problemas en Mecánica Celeste se utilizan diferentes parámetros. El conocimiento de la dinámica del problema para valores particulares de estos parámetros nos permite entender el comportamiento en casos más generales. El Problema Restringido Rectilíneo Isósceles puede ser considerado como el caso límite del Problema de Sitnikov cuando la excentricidad tiende a uno o como el Problema Isósceles cuando la masa central tiende a cero. Se ha compactificado el espacio de fases y analizado la dinámica en el límite. Esto ha permitido separar el espacio de fases en diferentes regiones dependiendo de las clases de órbitas.

  3. Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

  4. Mafic intrusion remobilising silicic magma under El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.; Laporte, D.; Marti, J.; Devouard, B.; Cluzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands, has produced volcanic bombs that degas at sea surface, boil seawater and sink when cooled and degassed. At the beginning of the eruption white coloured pumices enveloped in darker coloured spatters floated on land. These composite pumices show evidence of magma mingling with folds and undulations of the darker coloured magma within the white pumice suggesting magma mingling in a viscous regime. The white pumice is highly vesicular and resembles foam. Most of the vesicular structure is made of tightly packed, polygonal bubbles of uniform size (˜ 100 μm), suggesting a single event of homogeneous bubble nucleation. An earlier event of heterogeneous bubble nucleation is indicated by the presence of a few large bubbles developed around tiny quartz crystals. Both the darker and lighter coloured pumices are almost aphyric. A few olivine crystals with perfect euhedral morphology occur within the darker part. Rare olivines of same composition are also found in the white pumice glass but then display somewhat rounded outlines and hopper-type structure. Melt inclusions in olivines of the darker pumice are of the same composition as the enveloping mafic glass, whereas olivines in the mixing boundary layer have melt inclusions of less mafic composition. The whole-rock composition and slightly more evolved glass composition are of basanitc and alkali rhyolitic composition (at the limit of the trachyte field) according to the TAS classification. Such rhyolitic compositions are rare in the Canaries. Analyses of residual volatile concentration in the glasses show that the silicic glass is highly degassed (F: 511 ±222; Cl: 202 ±58; S: below detection limit; values in ppm,1SD, n=10), whereas the basanitic glass still has very high halogene concentrations (F: 1354 ±151; Cl: 1026 ±47; S: 362 ±29; 1SD, n=10). In-situ analysis of trace element compositions of the dark glasses reveal typical basanitic compositions with

  5. Melt inclusion study of the most recent basanites from El Hierro and Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Huertas, Maria Jose; Ancochea, Eumenio

    2015-04-01

    The latest eruptions of both Lanzarote (one of the oldest and easternmost of the Canary Island archipelago) and El Hierro (the youngest and westernmost) produced basanite lavas. Major, volatile and trace element concentrations of melt inclusion (MI) hosted in olivine for both eruptions have been analysed. The basanites display primitive mantle normalized trace element spectra suggesting a magma source largely composed of recycled oceanic crust. In addition, beneath Lanzarote an interaction with a carbonatitic fluid phase or metasome would explain eccentric Ba/U and other trace element ratios. Contribution of carbonatitic component would readily account for extremely volatile-rich (Cl, F, S) MI from Lanzarote (Cl=1577-2500 ppm) whereas the maximum for El Hierro is 1080 ppm. The submarine character of the 2011-12 eruption off El Hierro appears to have affected the degassing behavior, whereas estimated sulfur emission to the atmosphere during the historical Lanzarote eruptions are amongst the highest observed so far. An estimated magma volume (VDRE) of 0.02 km3 yields atmospheric mass loading of 0.2 Mt SO2 from the 1824 Lanzarote eruption. Scaling the volume of the 1824 Lanzarote eruption to that of the previous Timanfaya eruption (1730-6; 5 km3) results in estimated 12 Mt SO2, an atmospheric mass loading only outnumbered by the historical Laki and Eldgjá eruptions in Iceland. The significantly greater volatile budget of basanites from Lanzarote compared to El Hierro is thus controlled by more fertile source composition closer to the African continent.

  6. Psychological aspects in a volcanic crisis: El Hierro Island eruption (October, 2011).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, P.; Llinares, A.; Garcia, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-04-01

    The recent eruption on the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has shown that Psychology plays an important role in the emergence management of a natural phenomenon. However, Psychology continues to have no social coverage it deserves in the mitigation of the effects before, during and after the occurrence of a natural phenomenon. Keep in mind that an unresolved psychological problem involves an individual and collective mismatch may become unrecoverable. The population of El Hierro has been under a state of alert since July 2011, when seismic activity begins, until the occurrence of submarine eruption in October 2011 that is held for more than three months. During this period the inhabitants of the small island have gone through different emotional states ranging from confusion to disappointment. A volcanic eruption occurs not unexpectedly, allowing to have a time of preparation / action before the disaster. From the psychological point of view people from El Hierro Island have responded to different stages of the same natural process. Although the island of El Hierro is of volcanic origin, the population has no historical memory since the last eruption occurred in 1793. Therefore, the educational system does not adequately address the formation in volcanic risk. As a result people feel embarrassment when the seismovolcanic crisis begins, although no earthquakes felt. As an intermediate stage, when the earthquakes are felt by the population, scientists and operational Emergency Plan care to inform and prepare actions in case of a possible eruption. The population feel safe despite the concerns expressed by not knowing where, how and when the eruption will occur. Once started the submarine eruption, taking into account that all the actions (evacuation, relocation, etc.) have worked well and that both their basic needs and security are covered there are new states of mind. These new emotional states ranging from disenchantment with the phenomenology of the

  7. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  8. Precursory diffuse CO2 emission signature of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, N. M.; Padilla, G. D.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Melián, G. V.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is the youngest and southernmost island of the Canarian archipelago and represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. Volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on 10 October, followed on the afternoon of 12 October by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing, and abundant bombs on a decimetre scale found floating on the ocean surface offshore, southwest of La Restinga village, indicating the occurrence of a submarine volcanic eruption at approximately 2 km far the coast line of La Restinga. Further episodes have occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. In order to improve the volcanic surveillance program of El Hierro Island and to provide a multidisciplinary approach, a continuous geochemical station to measure CO2 efflux was installed on September 2003 in Llanos de Guillen, the interception center of the three volcanic-rift zones of the island, with the aim of detecting changes in the diffuse emission of CO2 related to the seismic or volcanic activity. The station measures on an hourly basis the CO2 and H2S efflux, the CO2 and H2S air concentrations, the soil water content and temperature and the atmospheric parameters: wind speed and direction, air temperature and humidity and barometric pressure. The meteorological parameters together with the air CO2 concentration are measured 1 m above the ground and the soil water content and soil temperature

  9. Origin and significance of the 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek-Pedroza, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi; Carracedo, Juan C.; Klügel, Andreas; Harris, Chris; Wiesmaier, Sebastian; Berg, Sylvia E.; Barker, Abigail K.

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of the 2011/2012 submarine eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands), peculiar light-coloured pumiceous rocks (xeno-pumice) were found floating on the sea. The appearance of these rocks led to a potentially inappropriate response from the authorities, because the rocks were viewed as likely indicators of high-silica magma and possible explosive eruptive behaviour. However, the eruption remained a relatively minor and dominantly effusive event and the origin and significance of these peculiar xeno-pumice rocks for volcanic monitoring remains unresolved. Three contrasting models have been put forward, describing them as: a) recycled hydrothermally altered felsic magmatic rocks (Meletlidis et al., 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39:L17302), b) sediment-contaminated high-silica magma (Sigmarsson et al., 2013, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 165:601-622) or c) frothy xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary strata that were melted while immersed in magma (Troll et al., 2012, Solid Earth, 3:97-110). Here, we combine the three available datasets to assess the origin of El Hierro xeno-pumice in the light of texture, mineralogy, major and trace element composition, and oxygen isotope characteristics in order to discuss their significance. We note that: 1) Sedimentary relicts occur frequently in xeno-pumice samples with occasionally observed relict bedding. 2) Vesicle sizes are extremely variable, which documents multiple degassing events. The vesicles are biggest especially close to sedimentary relicts, likely the result of a complex mix of minerals and porewaters originally present. 3) The mineral assemblage of xeno-pumice includes quartz, smectite, illite, wollastonite, jasper and mica (XRD) and is akin to marine sedimentary rocks in the region (Hoernle, 1998, J. Petrol.,39:859-880; Robertson & Stillman, 1979, J. Geol. Soc., 136:47 -60; Aparicio et al., 2006, Geol. Mag. 143:181 -193). 4) CIPW norms calculated from xeno-pumice major element compositions show the

  10. Soil gas radon and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padron, E.; Perez, N.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Nolasco, D.; Dionis, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Calvo, D.; Hernandez, I.

    2012-12-01

    El Hierro is the youngest and southernmost island of the Canarian archipelago and represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since July 16, 2011, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. Volcanic tremor started at 05:15 hours on October 10, followed on the afternoon of October 12 by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing indicating the initial stage of submarine volcanic eruption at approximately 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, El Hierro. Soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn activities were continuously measured during the period of the recent volcanic unrest occurred at El Hierro, at two different geochemical stations, HIE02 and HIE03. Significant increases in soil 222Rn activity and 222Rn/220Rn ratio from the soil were observed at both stations prior the submarine eruption off the coast of El Hierro, showing the highest increases before the eruption onset and the occurrence of the strongest seismic event (M=4.6). A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data corresponded closely to the seismic energy released during the volcanic unrest. The observed increases of 222Rn are related to the rock fracturing processes (seismic activity) and the magmatic CO2 outflow increase, as observed in HIE03 station. Under these results, we find that continuous soil radon studies are important for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil radon to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future

  11. El Hierro's floating stones as messengers of crust-magma interaction at depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchardt, S.; Troll, V. R.; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.; Blythe, L. S.; Longpré, M. A.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    During the early stages of the submarine eruption that started on October 10 2011 south of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface. These centimetre- to decimetre-sized "bombs" have been termed "restingolites" after the nearby village La Restinga and consist of a basaltic rind and a white to light grey core that resembles pumice in texture. According to Troll et al. (2011; see also Troll et al. EGU 2012 Abstracts), this material consists of a glassy matrix hosting extensive vesicle networks, which results in extremely low densities allowing these rocks to float on sea water. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses reveal that the "restingolites" originate from the sedimentary rocks (sand-, silt-, and mudstones) that form layer 1 of the oceanic crust beneath El Hierro. During the onset and early stages of the eruption, magma ponded at the base of this sedimentary sequence, breaking its way through the sedimentary rocks to the ocean floor. The textures of the "restingolites" reveal that crust-magma interaction during fragmentation and transport of the xenoliths involved rapid partial melting and volatile exsolution. Xenoliths strikingly similar to those from El Hierro are known from eruptions on other Canary Islands (e.g. La Palma, Gran Canaria, and Lanzarote). In fact, they resemble in texture xenoliths of various protoliths from volcanic areas worldwide (e.g. Krakatao, Indonesia, Cerro Quemado, Guatemala, Laacher See, Germany). This indicates that the process of partial melting and volatile exsolution, which the "restingolites" bear witness of, is probably occurring frequently during shallow crustal magma emplacement. Thermomechanical numerical models of the effect of the density decrease associated with the formation of vesicle networks in partially molten xenoliths show that xenoliths of crustal rocks initially sink in a magma chamber, but may start to float to the chamber roof once they start to heat up

  12. Physico-chemical changes of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionis, S.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.; Nolasco, D.; Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, D.; Barrancos, J.; Hernández, P.; Calvo, D.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    The island of El Hierro (278 Km2), is the smallest, the southwesternmost and the youngest island (˜1.12 My) of the Canarian archipelago. The main geological characteristics of El Hierro consist on the presence of three convergent ridges of volcanic cones on a truncated trihedron shape and giant landslides between the three rift zones, being the most recent El Golfo on the northwest flank of the island. On July 2011 an anomalous seismic activity at Hierro Island started and suggested the initial stage of a volcanic unrest in the volcanic system. On October 10, after the occurrence of more than 10,000 earthquakes, a submarine eruption started. Evidences of this submarine volcanic eruption were visible on the sea surface to the south of La Restinga village, at the south of the island, in the form of large light-green coloured area, turbulent gas emission and the appearance of steamy volcanic fragments three days later. As part of its volcanic surveillance activities, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical monitoring program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of several physico-chemical parameters of the ground water system of El Hierro. Four observation sites were selected: three wells on the north of the island, where the seismic activity was located at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest (SIMO, FRON and PADO) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south (TACO). Ground water sampling is being regularly collected, three times per week, at each observation site, and in-situ measurements of pH, conductivity and temperature measurements are performed. After 6 month of monitoring, no significant changes have been observed on pH and temperature measurements from all the observation sites. However, clear sharp decrease of conductivity was observed at SIMO on October 10 when the seismic tremor started. In addition, the strongest conductivity decrease pattern was observed later on at SIMO and PADO on

  13. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d‑1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  14. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode. PMID:25609055

  15. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d−1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%. PMID:27157062

  16. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  17. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island.

    PubMed

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L

    2016-01-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%. PMID:27157062

  18. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode. PMID:25609055

  19. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  20. The natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; de Armas, D.; González, A. G.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Escánez, J.

    2013-01-01

    The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Here, we present dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. Our findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem. PMID:23355953

  1. Osteoarthritis among the prehispanic population from La Gomera and El Hierro (Canary Islands): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Castañeyra-Ruiz, María; Trujillo-Mederos, Aioze; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, Matilde; González-Reimers, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is still unclear, and several factors may play a role in its development, including joint trauma or microtrauma (usually related to lifestyle), local inflammation, loading charge, and genetics. Assessment of osteoarthritis among ancient populations is important, since it may yield information relative to life habits. Therefore, we have performed the present study in order to assess the prevalence of osteoarthritis among the prehispanic populations from La Gomera and El Hierro, two islands of the Canary Archipelago with a similar size and altitude which were colonized by individuals of North African origin about 2000 - 2500 years ago. The economy of these people was based on goat herding, shellfishing, and agriculture together with consumption of some wild vegetal species. However, despite a similar geographic environment and a similar economic pattern, prevalence of osteoarthritis was by far higher among the population from La Gomera (78.57 % vs 15.85 %, p < 0.001), and that of eburnation, 11.65 % and 1.05 %, respectively (p = 0.016); in contrast, the population of El Hierro was markedly more robust than that of La Gomera. Globally, a trend to an inverse relationship was observed between epiphyseal robusticity index and the presence of osteoarthritis, which was statistically significant when only men were analysed. However, after performing a multivariate analysis, the only factor that was independently related to the presence of osteoarthritis was the variable "island" (i.e., population group), suggesting that - possibly - genetic factors played a major role in the differences observed. PMID:26244897

  2. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  3. Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Lopez, Carmen; Marti Molist, Joan

    2016-03-01

    A detailed statistical investigation of the seismicity occurred at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 has been performed by analysing the time variation of four parameters: the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the local coefficient of variation, the scaling exponent of the magnitude distribution and the main periodicity of the earthquake sequence calculated by using the Schuster's test. These four parameters are good descriptors of the time and magnitude distributions of the seismic sequence, and their variation indicate dynamical changes in the volcanic system. These variations can be attributed to the causes and types of seismicity, thus allowing to distinguish between different host-rock fracturing processes caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and overpressures. The statistical patterns observed among the studied unrest episodes and between them and the eruptive episode of 2011-2012 indicate that the response of the host rock to the deformation imposed by magma intrusion did not differ significantly from one episode to the other, thus suggesting that no significant local stress changes induced by magma intrusion occurred when comparing between all them. Therefore, despite the studied unrest episodes were caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and locations below El Hierro island, the mechanical response of the lithosphere was similar in all cases. This suggests that the reason why the first unrest culminated in an eruption while the other did not, may be related to the role of the regional/local tectonics acting at that moment, rather than to the forceful of magma intrusion.

  4. Acanthamoeba genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Valerón-Tejera, Marco Antonio; Wagner, Carolina; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-08-01

    The genus Acanthamoeba includes pathogenic strains which are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis that often may end fatal in humans and other animals. In the present study, forty soil samples were collected in the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Samples were cultivated onto 2 % non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was carried out in order to confirm morphological identification of the amoebae. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 47.5 % of soil samples. Moreover, genotypes T2, T4, and T11 were identified in these samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island. PMID:27075307

  5. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  6. Changes in the Diffuse CO2 Emission and Relation to Seismic Activity in and around El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Marrero, Rayco; Nolasco, Dácil; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2008-01-01

    Significant changes in the diffuse emission of carbon dioxide were recorded in a geochemical station located at El Hierro, Canary Islands, before the occurrence of several seismic events during 2004. Two precursory CO2 efflux increases started thirteen and nine days before two seismic events of magnitude 2.3 and 1.7, which took place near El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, on March 23 and April 15, reaching a maximun value of 51.1 and 46.2 g m-2 d-1, respectively, five and eight days before the two seismic events. Other similar increases started thirteen and five days before the occurrence of two seismic events of magnitude 1.3 and 1.5 which took place on October 15 and 21 respectively, reaching the maximum values four and one day before the earthquakes. These changes were not related to variations in atmospheric or soil parameters. The Material Failure Forecast Method (FFM), which analyzes the rate of precursory phenomena, was successfully applied to forecast the first seismic event that took place in El Hierro Island in 2004.

  7. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  8. The 2011 submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    On 10 October 2011 a submarine volcanic eruption began 2 km SW of La Restinga village in the South coast of El Hierro Island (Spain). It became the first submarine eruption reported in 500 years of historical record in the Canary Islands. The eruption took place after three months of intensive seismic activity and ground deformation. The first signal evidencing the eruption was a harmonic tremor signal, located somewhere in the South sector of El Hierro Island and registered in every seismic station on the island. On the following day, the tremoŕs amplitude increased up enough to be felt by the residents of La Restinga. The first visual evidence of the eruption was observed during the afternoon of 12 October, a large light-green coloured area on the sea surface, 2 km to the SW of La Restinga. Three days later, steaming lava fragments were observed floating on the sea, in the area where the vent was supposed to be located. These fragments had a bomb-like shape and their sizes ranged between 10 and 40 cm long. They were bicoloured, a black outer part with a basaltic composition, and a white inner part, highly vesiculated and rich in silica content (>60%). This type of fragments was only observed during the first days of the eruption. Within the next two months further emission episodes have been observed with turbulent water, foam rings and large bubbles on the sea surface. On the 27th of November new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Most of them were "lava balloons" or hollow fragments of lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm, and highly vesiculated outer crust of basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane composition. The emission of these products continues intermitently up to date (January 2012) During the eruption, the GPS monitoring network detected episodes of inflation-deflation and a maximum vertical deformation of 4 cm. The horizontal deformation, which had reached up to 5 cm before the eruption, remains stable. The

  9. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-02-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for territorial planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure qualitative and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterization of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted in the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyze the past eruptive activity (how), the spatial probability (where) and the temporal probability (when) of an eruption on the island. By studying the past eruptive behavior of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result is the first total qualitative volcanic hazard map of the island.

  10. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-07-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for land-use planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure quality and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterisation of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted on the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyse the past eruptive activity to determine the spatial and temporal probability, and likely style of a future eruption on the island, i.e. the where, when and how. By studying the past eruptive behaviour of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result, through the combination of the most probable scenarios (lava flows, pyroclastic density currents and ashfall), is the first qualitative integrated volcanic hazard map of the island.

  11. Eighteen years of geochemical monitoring at the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Sharp, Emerson; Woods, Hannah; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    We report herein the latest results of a diffuse CO2 efflux survey at El Hierro volcanic system carried out during the summer period of 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area a during post-eruptive period. El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island. On October 10, 2011, the dominant character of seismicity changed dramatically from discrete earthquakes to continuous tremor, a clear indication that magma was rapidly approaching the surface immediately before the onset of the eruption, October 12. Eruption was declared over on 5 March, 2012. In order to monitor the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island, from 1998 to 2015 diffuse CO2 emission studies have been performed at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis (˜600 observation sites) according to the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. During the eruption period, soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m‑2 d‑1) up to 457 g m‑2 d‑1, reaching in November 27, 2011, the maximum CO2 output estimated value of all time series, 2,398 t d‑1, just before the episodes of maximum degassing observed as vigorous bubbling at the sea surface and an increment in the amplitude of the tremor signal. During the 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 41 g m‑2 d‑1. The spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 emission values seemed to be controlled by the main volcano structural features of the island. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 575 ± 24 t d‑1, value slightly higher that the background CO2 emission estimated at 422 t

  12. Focal mechanism of the seismic series prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Fresno, C.; Buforn, E.; Cesca, S.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of the submarine eruption of El Hierro (10-Oct-2011) was preceded by three months of low-magnitude seismicity (Mw<4.0) characterized by a well documented hypocenter migration from the center to the south of the island. Seismic sources of this series have been studied in order to understand the physical process of magma migration. Different methodologies were used to obtain focal mechanisms of largest shocks. Firstly, we have estimated the joint fault plane solutions for 727 shocks using first motion P polarities to infer the stress pattern of the sequence and to determine the time evolution of principle axes orientation. Results show almost vertical T-axes during the first two months of the series and horizontal P-axes on N-S direction coinciding with the migration. Secondly, a point source MT inversion was performed with data of the largest 21 earthquakes of the series (M>3.5). Amplitude spectra was fitted at local distances (<20km). Reliability and stability of the results were evaluated with synthetic data. Results show a change in the focal mechanism pattern within the first days of October, varying from complex sources of higher non-double-couple components before that date to a simpler strike-slip mechanism with horizontal tension axes on E-W direction the week prior to the eruption onset. A detailed study was carried out for the 8 October 2011 earthquake (Mw=4.0). Focal mechanism was retrieved using a MT inversion at regional and local distances. Results indicate an important component of strike-slip fault and null isotropic component. The stress pattern obtained corresponds to horizontal compression in a NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the southern ridge of the island, and a quasi-horizontal extension in an EW direction. Finally, a simple source time function of 0.3s has been estimated for this shock using the Empirical Green function methodology.

  13. Transient changes in bacterioplankton communities induced by the submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M; Montero, María F; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1-V3 regions for Bacteria and V3-V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70-200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed. PMID

  14. Transient Changes in Bacterioplankton Communities Induced by the Submarine Volcanic Eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M.; Montero, María F.; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1–V3 regions for Bacteria and V3–V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70–200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed

  15. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

    2013-12-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. (A) Natural color composite from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard ENVISAT Satellite (European Space Agency), (November 9, 2011 at 14:45 UTC). Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the evolution of the volcanic emissions, playing a fundamental role during field cruises in guiding the Spanish government oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. The inset map shows the position of Canary Islands west of Africa and the study area (solid white box). (B) Location of the stations carried out from November 2011 to February 2012 at El Hierro. Black lines denote transects A-B and C-D.

  16. Diffuse degassing He/CO2 ratio before and during the 2011-12 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David

    2015-04-01

    El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island, culminating with the eruption onset in October 12. Since at El Hierro Islands there are not any surface geothermal manifestation (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Between July 2011 to March 2012, seventeen diffuse CO2 and He emissions soil gas surveys were undertaken at El Hierro volcanic system (600 observation sites) with the aim to investigate the relationship between their temporal variations and the volcanic activity (Padrón et al., 2013; Melián et al., 2014). Based on the diffuse He/CO2 emission ratio, a sharp increase before the eruption onset was observed, reaching the maximum value on September 26 (6.8×10-5), sixteen days before the occurrence of the eruption. This increase coincided with an increase in seismic energy release during the volcanic unrest and occurred together with an increase on the 3He/4He isotopic ratio in groundwaters from a well in El Hierro Island (Padrón et al., 2013; from 2-3 RA to 7.2 RA where RA = 3He/4He ratio in air), one month prior to the eruption onset. Early degassing of new gas-rich magma batch at depth could explain the observed increase on the He/CO2 ratio, causing a preferential partitioning of CO2 in the gas phase with respect to the He, due to the lower solubility of CO2 than that of He in basaltic magmas. During the eruptive period (October 2011-March 2012) the prevalence of a magmatic CO2-dominated component is evident, as indicated by the generally lower He/CO2 ratios and high 3He/4He values (Padrón et al., 2013). The onset of the submarine eruption might have produced a sudden release of volcanic gases, and consequently, a decrease in the volcanic gas pressure of the magma bodies moving beneath the island, reflected by a drastic decrease in

  17. Formation of U-depleted rhyolite from a basanite at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Laporte, Didier; Carpentier, Marion; Devouard, Bertrand; Devidal, Jean-Luc; Marti, Joan

    2013-03-01

    Phonolite and trachyte are the felsic magmas of the alkaline magma suites, which characterize the Canary Islands. The October 2011 submarine eruption off El Hierro, the westernmost island, nevertheless, produced a small volume of rhyolitic magma. The rhyolite occurred as highly vesicular, white coloured pumices enveloped in and mingled with darker coloured basanitic pumice. The basanitic pumice is relatively crystal poor with a few euhedral olivines (mostly Fo77-79), clinopyroxenes and Fe-rich spinels, whereas very rare olivine of same composition is found together with equally rare Fe-sulphide and FeTi-rich oxides in the rhyolite. The Fe-Mg exchange equilibrium in the oxides permits to calculate an equilibrium temperature of 970-890 °C for the rhyolite, in agreement with quartz-melt equilibrium at ca. 930 °C. A striking mineralogical feature of the rhyolite is the presence of rounded to contorted grains of milky quartz, which are xenocrysts incorporated and partly dissolved into the magma. Analyses of residual volatile concentrations in the glasses show that the rhyolite melt was highly degassed, whereas the basanitic glass still has important halogen concentrations. Trace element patterns of the mafic glasses and their elevated incompatible element concentrations are typical of the western Canary Island basanites. In contrast, the trace element composition of the rhyolite shows surprisingly low concentrations for all elements except the most incompatible ones (e.g. Rb, Ba, K and Th). All other measured LILE, HFSE and REE have significantly lower concentration than the basanitic counterpart that can be explained by fractionation of accessory phases (1 % apatite, 1 % sphene and 0.1 % zircon). Surprisingly, low U concentration is presumably related to elevated oxygen fugacity in the rhyolite, causing U to be in a hexavalent state, and fluxing of F-rich gas leading to volatilization of UF6, known to emanate at low temperature. The results suggest that a gas

  18. Time-dependent deformation at elevated temperatures in basalt from El Hierro, Stromboli and Teide volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, P. M.; Fahrner, D.; Harnett, C. E.; Fazio, M.

    2014-12-01

    Time dependent deformation describes the process whereby brittle materials deform at a stress level below their short-term material strength (Ss), but over an extended time frame. Although generally well understood in engineering (where it is known as static fatigue or "creep"), knowledge of how rocks creep and fail has wide ramifications in areas as diverse as mine tunnel supports and the long term stability of critically loaded rock slopes. A particular hazard relates to the instability of volcano flanks. A large number of flank collapses are known such as Stromboli (Aeolian islands), Teide, and El Hierro (Canary Islands). Collapses on volcanic islands are especially complex as they necessarily involve the combination of active tectonics, heat, and fluids. Not only does the volcanic system generate stresses that reach close to the failure strength of the rocks involved, but when combined with active pore fluid the process of stress corrosion allows the rock mass to deform and creep at stresses far lower than Ss. Despite the obvious geological hazard that edifice failure poses, the phenomenon of creep in volcanic rocks at elevated temperatures has yet to be thoroughly investigated in a well controlled laboratory setting. We present new data using rocks taken from Stromboli, El Heirro and Teide volcanoes in order to better understand the interplay between the fundamental rock mechanics of these basalts and the effects of elevated temperature fluids (activating stress corrosion mechanisms). Experiments were conducted over short (30-60 minute) and long (8-10 hour) time scales. For this, we use the method of Heap et al., (2011) to impose a constant stress (creep) domain deformation monitored via non-contact axial displacement transducers. This is achieved via a conventional triaxial cell to impose shallow conditions of pressure (<25 MPa) and temperature (<200 °C), and equipped with a 3D laboratory seismicity array (known as acoustic emission, AE) to monitor the micro

  19. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    PubMed Central

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Arístegui, J.; Alonso-González, I. J.; Hernández-León, S.; Blanco, M. J.; Rodríguez-Santana, A.; Hernández-Guerra, A.; Gelado-Caballero, M. D.; Eugenio, F.; Marcello, J.; de Armas, D.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Montero, M. F.; Laetsch, D. R.; Vélez-Belchí, P.; Ramos, A.; Ariza, A. V.; Comas-Rodríguez, I.; Benítez-Barrios, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. PMID:22768379

  20. Spatio-temporal occurrence of eruptions in El Hierro (Canary Islands). Sequential steps for long-term volcanic hazard assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Bartolini, Stefania; Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; María Morales, José; Galindo, Inés; Geyer, Adelina

    2014-05-01

    Long term volcanic hazard assessment requires the attainment of several sequential steps, including the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterization of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios to get qualitative and representative results. Volcanic hazard assessment has not been yet systematically conducted in the Canary Islands, in spite of being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest and latest island affected by an eruption in the Canary Islands. We analyze the past eruptive activity (how), the spatial probability (where), and the temporal probability (when) on the island. Looking at the past eruptive behavior of the island, and assuming future eruptive patterns will be similar, we try to identify the most likely set of volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards that could occur in the future (eg. lava flows, pyroclastic fallout, and pyroclastic density currents) and estimate their probability of occurrence. The final result shows the first volcanic hazard map of the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of long term volcanic hazard at El Hierro Island with regard to previous studies. The obtained results should represent the main pillars on which to build risk mitigation programs as it is required for territorial planning and to develop emergency plans. This research was partially funded by IGME, CSIC and the European Commission (FT7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO"), and MINECO grant GL2011-16144-E.

  1. Geological and petrological aspects of the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Iribarren, I.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Torres, P. A.; Felpeto, A.; Lopez, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Canarian Archipelago comprises seven major and three minor islands, all of them of volcanic origin. The distribution of the islands forms an east-west volcanic chain, starting about 90 km west of the northwest African continental margin. The canary volcanism is unique among ocean islands (long lifetime, multiple periods of volcanic activity, extensive range of magma compositions) and various theories were developed in order to explain that specific volcanism, with such a variety of volcanic phases and chemical diversity. El Hierro, located at the SW end of this island group, is the youngest island with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma and is still in juvenile stage of shield growth. The island is the emergent summit of a 280 km2 volcanic shield which rises from a 3800-4000m depth and grows up to 1500 m above sea level. Although the whole island has been constructed by the volcanic material of two major volcanic edifices, Tiñor in the NE (0.8 -1.2 Ma) and El Golfo edifice in the NW (550 ka-130 ka), rift volcanism (134 ka - AD1793) has been very active after the second major tectonic event (gravitational collapse of El Golfo edifice), specially along the South ridge. Till July 2011 the most recent eruption was the Volcán de Lomo Negro (AD1793) located at the western part of the island. The products of the Tiñor and El Golfo edifice, massive lava flows, are typical mafic basalts with phenocrystals of olivine and only in El Golfo sequence evolved lava flows (trachytes with phenocrystals of plagioclase feldspars) could be observed. However, the recent rift lavas present varied compositional and textural features. During the eruption of 2011-2012 a variety of volcanic material has been observed and sampled. On 15 October, bicoloured lava fragments were observed floating on the sea with a bomb-like shape and sizes between 10 and 40 cm. The outer part, black, vesiculated and no more than 1 cm thick, had a basaltic composition, while the inner part was

  2. Ultramafic Volcanism Associated With the El Golfo Giant Lateral Collapse, El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longpré, M.; Troll, V. R.; Hansteen, T. H.; Walter, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    It is firmly established that giant landslides play a key role in the evolution of ocean island volcanoes. On- and off-shore studies of e.g. Réunion Island, the Hawaiian, Canarian, and Cape Verdean archipelagoes confirm enormous landslide volumes up to thousands of km3 and runout distances frequently exceeding a hundred km [1]. Accelerated post-collapse volcanism has been witnessed at strato-volcanoes (e.g. Bezymianny, Mt. St. Helens), but may also be common for shield-volcanoes (Waianae, Oahu [2]; Teno, Tenerife [3]). The extent of this phenomenon and its consequences for the magmatic plumbing system of the volcanic edifice are poorly constrained. Between 15-134 ka, the El Golfo giant lateral collapse removed a 150-180 km3 sector of the volcanic edifice of El Hierro, the youngest and westernmost of the Canary Islands. Although no major volcanic edifice has been established since the collapse, post-El Golfo landslide volcanic vents concentrate at the base of the collapse scarp while additonal eruptions occurred along the triaxial rift system of the island [4]. Whilst pre- collapse volcanics include relatively differentiated rocks (up to trachytes, SiO2 ~55 wt%, MgO ~1.5 wt% [4]), a drastic change in the volcanic regime is reflected in the post-collapse eruptions of crystal-rich (up to 60 volume %, with megacrysts up to 3 cm in size) lava flows and pyroclastics (basanites, ankaramites, and picrites, SiO2 <45 wt%, MgO = 6-15 wt%). Chemical thermobarometry [5] using augite and olivine (Fo 71-81) rims, fused groundmass, and whole rock compositions of post-collapse samples indicates that crystallisation mostly occurred in the uppermost mantle at pressures and temperatures in the range of 7-13 kbar and 1150-1250°C, respectively. Most volcanics include several crystal populations, including complex normal and reverse zonation patterns. Narrow outer rims (last ~20 μm) of the augite and olivine crystals commonly show a sharp decrease in Mg# (from ~80 to ~70). We propose

  3. Geochemical monitoring network at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and during 2011 submarine eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, P. A.; Meletlidis, S.; Luengo-Oroz, N.; Moure, D.; Rodero, C.; Villasante-Marcos, V.; Abella, R.; López, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Since 17 July 2011 an important increase in the number of seismic events located in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) was detected by the seismic network of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (I.G.N.). This increment was interpreted as a precursory signal of a potential eruption, which in fact took place three months later (10th October 2011). In order to improve and complete the volcano monitoring network several geochemical parameters were measured since the beginning of the anomalous seismic activity. Measurements of CO2 diffuse flux through the soil were carried out in the major part of the island: the central zone, El Golfo (northern area) and the zone delimitated by the western rift. More than 450 measurements were accomplished during July, August, and September 2011. Analysis of the data revealed the existence of a spatial anomaly with relative high CO2 diffuse flux in the southwest part of the El Golfo area, close to the zone where the anomalous seismicity was located. This abnormal flux, almost aligned with the western limit of the seismic swarm, was not detected again in measurements accomplished on September in the same area. Between July and August, four geochemical stations were installed in three sub-horizontal galleries and in one well. Air and soil temperature were measured in all galleries and air 222Rn concentration was determined in the four stations. Two of the galleries were also equipped with a sensor in order to obtain measurements of CO2 concentration in the air. The sampling period for each parameter was established in ten minutes. Anomalous high 222Rn concentrations were detected in the station located in the well, apparently related to increases in the seismic accumulated energy and the GPS deformation rates. Taking into account the location of the earthquake epicentres and in order to study the evolution over the time of some physicochemical parameters of groundwater, four wells in the El Golfo area were regularly sampled since July 2011

  4. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  5. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  6. Xenopumice erupted on 15 October 2011 offshore of El Hierro (Canary Islands): a subvolcanic snapshot of magmatic, hydrothermal and pyrometamorphic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Meletlidis, S.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Agostini, S.; Ridolfi, F.; Renzulli, A.

    2015-06-01

    On 15 October 2011, a submarine eruption offshore of El Hierro Island gave rise to floating volcanic products, known as xenopumices, i.e., pumiceous xenoliths partly mingled and coated with the juvenile basanitic magma. Over the last few years, no consensus in the scientific community in explaining the origin of these products has been reached. In order to better understand the formation of xenopumice, we present a textural, mineralogical, and geochemical study of the possible magmatic, hydrothermal, and pyrometamorphic processes, which usually operate in the plumbing systems of active volcanoes. We carried out a comprehensive SEM investigation and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses on some samples representative of three different xenopumice facies. All the data were compared with previous studies, new data for El Hierro extrusives and a literature dataset of Canary Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks. In the investigated xenopumices, we emphasize the presence of restitic magmatic phases as well as crystallization of minerals (mainly olivine + pyroxene + magnetite aggregates) as pseudomorphs after pre-existing mafic phenocrysts, providing evidence of pyrometamorphism induced by the high-T juvenile basanitic magma. In addition, we identify veins consisting of zircon + REE-oxides + mullite associated with Si-rich glass and hydrothermal quartz, which indicate the fundamental role played by hydrothermal fluid circulation in the xenopumice protolith. The petrological data agree with a pre-syneruptive formation of the xenopumice, when El Hierro basanite magma intruded hydrothermally altered trachyandesite to trachyte rocks and triggered local partial melting. Therefore, the El Hierro xenopumice represents a snapshot of the transient processes at the magma-wall rock interface, which normally occurs in the feeding system of active volcanoes.

  7. The 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption: estimation of erupted lava flow volume on the basis of helicopter thermal surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, P. A.; Calvari, S.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Padron, E.; Pérez, N.; Melian, G.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on 10 October, followed on the afternoon of 12 October by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing, and abundant bombs on a decimetre scale found floating on the ocean surface offshore, southwest of La Restinga village. The Canary Government raised the alert level from green to yellow on 10 October (3 colour basis: green, yellow, and red). Further episodes have occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. Colour of the discoloured area has changed frequently from light green to dark brown, depending on the eruptive activity. During the whole eruptive period, The Volcanological Institute of Canary Islands and the Helicopter Unit of the Spanish Civil Guard have carried out regularly thermal surveys with a hand held FLIR Thermal Camera P65. The images have been collected taking care of avoiding solar reflection (with cloudy weather) or at times of the day without direct sun light. Air temperature and humidity were measured with a handled thermo-hygrometer every time before the thermal image collection, and measurements were always performed at two fixed heights: 2000 and 1000 feet, and images were collected as perpendicular as possible to the surface. Together with thermal images, digital photos of the surface have

  8. Diffuse H_{2} emission: a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity at El Hierro volcano system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; González-Santana, Judit; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of interfering processes affecting reactive gases as CO2 during its ascent from magmatic bodies or hydrothermal systems toward the surface environment hinders the interpretation of their enrichments in the soil atmosphere and fluxes for volcano monitoring purposes (Marini and Gambardella, 2005). These processes include gas scrubbing by ground-waters and interaction with rocks, decarbonatation processes, biogenic production, etc. Within the rest of the soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to light and highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. H2 is one of the most abundant trace species in volcano-hydrothermal systems and is a key participant in many redox reactions occurring in the hydrothermal reservoir gas (Giggenbach, 1987). Although H2 can be produced in soils by N2-fixing and fertilizing bacteria, soils are considered nowadays as sinks of molecular hydrogen (Smith-Downey et al., 2006). Because of its chemical and physical characteristics, H2 generated within the crust moves rapidly and escapes to the atmosphere. These characteristics make H2 one of the best geochemical indicators of magmatic and geothermal activity at depth. El Hierro is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands and the scenario of the last volcanic eruption of the archipelago, a submarine eruption that took place 2 km off the southern coast of the island from October 2011 to March 2012. Since at El Hierro Island there are not any surface geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Here we show the results of soil H2 emission surveys that have been carried out regularly since mid-2012. Soil gas samples were collected in ˜600 sites selected based on their accessibility and geological criteria. Soil gases were sampled at ˜40

  9. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  10. Seismic hydraulic fracture migration originated by successive deep magma pulses: The 2011-2013 seismic series associated to the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Moreno, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; García-Yeguas, A.; Prudencio, J.; Morales, J.; Tuvè, T.; García, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this manuscript we present a new interpretation of the seismic series that accompanied eruptive activity off the coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, during 2011-2013. We estimated temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b value throughout the period of analysis, and performed high-precision relocations of the preeruptive and syneruptive seismicity using a realistic 3-D velocity model. Our results suggest that eruptive activity and the accompanying seismicity were caused by repeated injections of magma from the mantle into the lower crust. These magma pulses occurred within a small and well-defined volume resulting in the emplacement of fresh magma along the crust-mantle boundary underneath El Hierro. We analyzed the distribution of earthquake hypocenters in time and space in order to assess seismic diffusivity in the lower crust. Our results suggest that very high earthquake rates underneath El Hierro represent the response of a stable lower crust to stress perturbations with pulsatory character, linked to the injection of magma from the mantle. Magma input from depth caused large stress perturbations to propagate into the lower crust generating energetic seismic swarms. The absence of any preferential alignment in the spatial pattern of seismicity reinforces our hypothesis that stress perturbation and related seismicity, had diffusive character. We conclude that the temporal and spatial evolution of seismicity was neither tracking the path of magma migration nor it defines the boundaries of magma storage volumes such as a midcrustal sill. Our conceptual model considers pulsatory magma injection from the upper mantle and its propagation along the Moho. We suggest, within this framework, that the spatial and temporal distributions of earthquake hypocenters reflect hydraulic fracturing processes associated with stress propagation due to magma movement.

  11. Submarine seismic monitoring of El Hierro volcanic eruption with a 3C-geophone string: applying new acquisition and data processing techniques to volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lopez, Carmen; Blanco, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose

    2015-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2011 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. Right after the eruption onset, in October 2011 a geophone string was deployed by the CSIC-IGN to monitor seismic activity. Monitoring with the seismic array continued till May 2012. The array was installed less than 2 km away from the new vol¬cano, next to La Restinga village shore in the harbor from 6 to 12m deep into the water. Our purpose was to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. Each geophone consists on a 3-component module based on 3 orthogonal independent sensors that measures ground velocity. Some of the geophones were placed directly on the seabed, some were buried. Due to different factors, as the irregular characteristics of the seafloor. The data was recorded on the surface with a seismometer and stored on a laptop computer. We show how acoustic data collected underwater show a great correlation with the seismic data recorded on land. Finally we compare our data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing). This evidence is disclosing new and innovative tecniques on monitoring submarine volcanic activity. Reference Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), "Serie El Hierro." Internet: http://www.ign.es/ign/resources /volcanologia/HIERRO.html [May, 17. 2013

  12. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F. C.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Pedroza, K.

    2012-03-01

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the

  13. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Vermamoeba vermiformis Strains from Soil Sources in El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Furthermore, some genera/species of FLA such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. are also able to cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals. More recently, FLA have been reported to be environmental carriers of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses, and thus have gained further importance from the public health point of view. Among them, Acanthamoeba spp. and Vermamoeba vermiformis have been described in many occasions as the most common carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium spp. In this study, 24 soil samples were collected from the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Soil samples were cultured on 2 % non-nutrient agar plates covered with a thin layer of heat-killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 5 of the 24 processed samples (20.8 %) incubated at room temperature and 37 °C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirming that the isolated strains belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species. The high percentage of V. vermiformis in the studied soil sources should raise awareness in the region since these amoebae are potential environmental carriers of pathogens of high medical relevance. PMID:27056561

  14. Assessing the vulnerability of the evacuation emergency plan: the case of the El Hierro, Canary Island, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. M.; Garcia, A.; Llinares, A.; Lopez, P.; Ortinz, R.

    2012-04-01

    On July 17, 2011 an unrest was detected in the El Hierro island. A serretian submarine eruption started on October 10th in the southern area of the island, two miles away from La Restinga village. The analysis and interpretation of seismic and deformation data show a large volume of intruded magma. These data also show a high probability of a new vent opening. One of the most complex volcanic hazard scenarios is a new open vent in the El Golfo Valley, in the north slope of the island, where more than 5,000 people live. In this area there are only two possible terrestrial evacuation routes: 1) HI-1 road NE direction, the fastest but most vulnerable one, very near a 1,000 meters height cliff and through a 2 km tunnel with a structural deficiency that had to be closed during high energy periods of seismic activity; and 2) HI-1 road SW direction, a mountain road with many curves, frequent small landslides and fog. The Emergency Plan of the island takes into account the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley in case of eruption. This process will be carried out by means of an assisted evacuation. The evacuees will be transported to a temporally regrouping shelter outside the valley to organize the transport to Tenerife Island. Only those people who have a second residence or relatives outside the affected area will be able to remain in the island. The evacuation time estimated by authorities for the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley is of about 4 hours. This is extremely low considering: the complexity of the area; the number of evacuees; the lack of preparedness by the population; and adverse weather conditions. To evaluate the Evacuation Plan vulnerability, a series of evacuation scenarios have been simulated: self-evacuation; assisted evacuation; both terrestrial evacuation routes. The warning time, the response time by the population and the evacuation time have been taken into account.

  15. CO2-SO3-rich (carbonate-sulfate) melt/fluids in the lithosphere beneath El Hierro, Canary Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglialoro, E.; Ferrando, S.; Malaspina, N.; Villa, I. M.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from the island of El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands, have been studied to characterize fluxes of carbon in the lithosphere of an OIB volcanism region. Fifteen xenoliths (4-10 cm in diameter) were collected in a rift lava flow (15-41 ka) at a new xenolith locality in El Julan cliff (S-SW of the island). Peridotites consist of protogranular to porphyroblastic spinel harzburgites, lherzolites, and subordinate dunites. One spinel clinopyroxenite, and one olivine-websterite were also analyzed. Ultramafic xenoliths were classified as HEXO (harzburgite and dunite with exsolved orthopyroxene), HLCO (harzburgite and lherzolite containing orthopyroxene without visible exsolution lamellae), and HTR (transitional harzburgite with exsolved orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, and poikilitic orthopyroxene) following [1]. While HLCO and HTR peridotites contain mostly CO2 fluid inclusions, HEXO peridotites preserve an early association of melt/fluid inclusions containing dominantly carbonate/sulfate/silicate glass, evolving to carbonate/sulfate/phosphate/spinel aggregates, with exsolved CO2 (± carbonates, anhydrite and H2O). Chemical and Raman analyses identify dolomite, Mg-calcite, anhydrite, sulfohalite [Na6(SO4)2FCl] (± other anhydrous and hydrous alkali-sulfates), apatite, and Cr-spinel in the inclusions. Sulfides are noticeably absent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the metasomatic fluids indicate that the peridotites were infiltrated by a carbonate-sulfate-silicate melt/fluid enriched in CO2, H2O, and P. A mantle origin for this fluid is supported by high densities of CO2inclusions (> 1g/cm3), determined by Raman microspectroscopy and cross-checked by microthermometry. Consequently, El Julan peridotites provide the first evidence for liberating oxidized C and S fluxes from the Earth lithosphere in an OIB source region, and suggest that oxidation of sulfide to sulfate can occur during small-degree partial melting of the upper mantle

  16. Relative and probabilistic non linear relocation of the seismicity of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): Implications for the 2011-2012 eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Garcia-Yeguas, Araceli; De Angelis, Silvio; Prudencio, Janire; Ibañez, Jesus M.; Morales, José; Koulakov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, SPAIN) has recently attracted the interest of the international volcanological community. During a prolonged period of seismic and volcanic unrest, between July 2011 and April 2013, the local seismic network recorded more than 15,000 earthquakes accompanied by a submarine eruption. In this study we present an exhaustive relocation analysis of the original seismic catalog using two well established methods double-difference relative relocation (HypoDD), and probalistic non-linear location (NLLoc). Our relocations are based on 3D velocity models that were obtained from an active-source tomography experiment in the Canary Islands. The relocations constrain the spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity, and help to shed light on the patterns of stress propagation, and areas of crustal weakness under the island. The results show that the seismicity each of unrest recorded during this period is located within a small region close to the center of the island and located around 12 to 14 km depth. Then, the seismicity migrates away from the island. We confirm the presence of a high-velocity block centered underneath El Hierro (up to 15km depth) observed by other authors. This block may represent a barrier to magma propagation and it corresponds to the location of the bulk of seismicity at the beginning of each phase.

  17. Short-term volcano-tectonic earthquake forecasts based on a moving mean recurrence time algorithm: the El Hierro seismo-volcanic crisis experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Alicia; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Marrero, José M.; Ortiz, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Under certain conditions, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes may pose significant hazards to people living in or near active volcanic regions, especially on volcanic islands; however, hazard arising from VT activity caused by localized volcanic sources is rarely addressed in the literature. The evolution of VT earthquakes resulting from a magmatic intrusion shows some orderly behaviour that may allow the occurrence and magnitude of major events to be forecast. Thus governmental decision makers can be supplied with warnings of the increased probability of larger-magnitude earthquakes on the short-term timescale. We present here a methodology for forecasting the occurrence of large-magnitude VT events during volcanic crises; it is based on a mean recurrence time (MRT) algorithm that translates the Gutenberg-Richter distribution parameter fluctuations into time windows of increased probability of a major VT earthquake. The MRT forecasting algorithm was developed after observing a repetitive pattern in the seismic swarm episodes occurring between July and November 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands). From then on, this methodology has been applied to the consecutive seismic crises registered at El Hierro, achieving a high success rate in the real-time forecasting, within 10-day time windows, of volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

  18. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  19. The Submarine Volcano Eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the Scattering Migrant Biota and the Evolution of the Pelagic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. PMID:25047077

  20. Improvement forecasting of volcanic activity by applying a Kalman filter to the SSEM signal. The case of the El Hierro Island eruption (October 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A.; Berrocoso, M.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-04-01

    The FFM (Failure Forecast Method) is developed from the eruption of St. Helens, being repeatedly applied to forecast eruptions and recently to the prediction of seismic activity in active volcanic areas. The underwater eruption of El Hierro Island has been monitored from three months before starting (October 10, 2011). This allowed a large catalogue of seismic events (over 11000) and continuous recording seismic signals that cover the entire period. Since the beginning of the seismic-volcanic crisis (July 2011), the FFM was applied to the SSEM signal of seismic records. Mainly because El Hierro is a very small island, the SSEM has a high noise (traffic and oceanic noise). To improve the signal / noise ratio has been used a Kalman filter. The Kalman filter coefficients are adjusted using an inversion process based on forecasting errors occurred in the twenty days preceding. The application of this filter has been a significant improvement in the reliability of forecasts. The analysis of the results shows, before the start of the eruption, that 90% of the forecasts are obtained with errors less than 10 minutes with more than 24 hours in advance. It is noteworthy that the method predicts the events of greater magnitude and especially the beginning of each swarm of seismic events. At the time the eruption starts reducing the efficiency of the forecast 50% with a dispersion of more than one hour. This fact is probably due to decreased detectability by saturation of some of the seismic stations and decreased the average magnitude. However, the events of magnitude greater than 4 were predicted with an error less than 20 minutes.

  1. El problema de estabilidad de los sistemas Hamiltonianos multidimensionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P. M.

    Se revisarán los aspectos básicos del problema de estabilidad de sistemans Hamiltonianos N-dimensionales, haciendo especial énfasis en los posibles mecanismos que dan lugar a la aparición de ``caos": overlap de resonancias, difusión de Arnol'd y otros procesos difusivos alternativos. Se mencionarán los aspectos aún no resueltos sobre la estabilidad de los sistemas con N > 2. Finalmente, se discutirá cuáles de estos mecanismos podrían tener alguna relevancia en la dinámica de sistemas estelares y planetarios.

  2. The 2011 volcanic crisis at El Hierro (Canary Islands): monitoring ground deformation through tiltmeter and gravimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoso, J.; Montesinos, F. G.; Benavent, M.; Vélez, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is an ocean island located at the western end of the Canary Islands, and along with Tenerife and La Palma islands have been the most geologically active in the recent past. The island has a triple armed rift and, presently, is at the stage of growth, representing the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the seafloor at depth of 4000 m up to 1501 m above the sea level (Münn et al., 2006; Carracedo et al., 1999). Since July 19th, 2011 seismic activity has produced more than 11950 events up to date. The seismic crisis resulted in a volcanic eruption that began on October 10th, being still currently active. The new volcano is located 2 km off the coast and about 300 m depth, in the submarine flank of the southern rift of the island, which is extended some 40 km length. Since September 2004 until November 2010 two continuous tilt stations were installed at the north, Balneario site (BA), and at the center of the island, Aula de la Naturaleza (AU) site. Both stations were used to assess the pattern of local ground movements in the island. When seismic swarm started on past July 2011, we have reinstalled both tilt stations (BA and AU) and 2 new ones located at the south of the island, namely Montaña Quemada (MQ) and Restinga (RE) sites. We have used short base platform tiltmeters that measure ground tilts with resolutions varying from 0.1 up to 0.01 microradians (µrad). On October 8th, a 4.4 magnitude earthquake took place and is supposed that fractured the ocean crust at some 8-10 km off the south coast of the island and about 1000 m depth. Typical spike signals were observed at the tilt stations. Two days after, the eruption onset was recorded also at tilt stations through a remarkable increase of the high frequency signal, being of large amplitude the components (radial) orientated towards the new volcano edifice. When compared with previous tiltmeter records in the island, tilt pattern were clearly modified several times at the stations when strong

  3. Probabilistic approach to decision making under uncertainty during volcanic crises. Retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; Kilburn, Christopher; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the potential evolution of a volcanic crisis is crucial to improving the design of effective mitigation strategies. This is especially the case for volcanoes close to densely-populated regions, where inappropriate decisions may trigger widespread loss of life, economic disruption and public distress. An outstanding goal for improving the management of volcanic crises, therefore, is to develop objective, real-time methodologies for evaluating how an emergency will develop and how scientists communicate with decision makers. Here we present a new model BADEMO (Bayesian Decision Model) that applies a general and flexible, probabilistic approach to managing volcanic crises. The model combines the hazard and risk factors that decision makers need for a holistic analysis of a volcanic crisis. These factors include eruption scenarios and their probabilities of occurrence, the vulnerability of populations and their activities, and the costs of false alarms and failed forecasts. The model can be implemented before an emergency, to identify actions for reducing the vulnerability of a district; during an emergency, to identify the optimum mitigating actions and how these may change as new information is obtained; and after an emergency, to assess the effectiveness of a mitigating response and, from the results, to improve strategies before another crisis occurs. As illustrated by a retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands, BADEMO provides the basis for quantifying the uncertainty associated with each recommended action as an emergency evolves, and serves as a mechanism for improving communications between scientists and decision makers.

  4. Hydrogeochemical variations in groundwater periodically sampled at El Hierro (Canary Islands) and its relationships with the recent eruptive and unrest periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2014-05-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. After the end of the submarine eruption and up to now, several volcanic unrest processes have taken place in the island. The most relevant ones started on June 2012 and March 2013. Each of these periods has been evidenced by intense seismicity and ground deformation. In the framework of this volcanic surveillance program, the IGN team started to periodically sample five groundwater sampling sites. Some parameters have been determined directly in the field (temperature, pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity) and collected samples have been analysed in the laboratory for major (Na, K, NH4, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, CO3, NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO2, Br, F) and trace elements (Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, U) contents. In a few cases samples for the chemical analysis of dissolved gases and for the determination of the isotopic composition of He have been collected at two of the sites. Significant increases in alkalinity have been recorded in all sampling sites correlated both to the eruptive period and also to the following unrest episodes. Such increases are probably related to the dissolution of magmatic CO2 exsolved from the rising magma batches. The magmatic contribution can be confirmed by the isotopic composition of dissolved He showing values in the range from 7.76 to 8.91 R/Ra. Since July 2011, only one important CO2 soil degassing anomaly has been detected. This anomalous flux (620 g/m2.d) was measured in a small area (0.36 km2) before the beginning of the submarine eruption and has not been detected again after the eruption onset

  5. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  6. Problemas de nervos: a multivocal symbol of distress for Portuguese immigrants.

    PubMed

    James, Susan; Fernandes, Mark; Navara, Geoffrey S; Harris, Sara; Foster, Durwin

    2009-06-01

    This article outlines research on a previous unstudied form of suffering specific to the Portugese immigrant community: problemas de nervos. Thirty-two Portuguese immigrant women (in Waterloo, ON and Boston, MA) were interviewed and each completed a questionnaire. Cluster analysis demonstrated that problemas de nervos has many meanings. The study profiled symptoms, causes and therapies associated with four variations of this culture-specific form of distress: "mal da cabeca" meaning problems with/in the head (e.g., lack of control, visions); " aflição" meaning affliction (e.g., nervous attacks, heart problems); immigration stress (causing sleep disturbances); and, conflicts with others (resulting in pressure within the body). None of the symptom clusters reported matched criteria for a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis, suggesting that problemas de nervos represents an idiomatic rather than universal expression of distress. PMID:19541751

  7. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the outcome of a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey carried out in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), during May and June of 2003. The MARTE Peña de Hierro field area is located between the towns of Rio Tinto and Nerva in the Andalucia region of Spain. It is about one hour drive West of the city of Sevilla, and also about one hour drive North of Huelva. The high concentration of dissolved iron (and smaller amounts of other metals) in the very acidic water in the Rio Tinto area gives the water its characteristic wine red color, and also means that the water is highly conductive, and such an acidic and conductive fluid is highly suited for exploration by electromagnetic methods. This naturally acidic environment is maintained by bacteria in the groundwater and it is these bacteria that are the main focus of the MARTE project overall, and of this supporting geophysical work. It is the goal of this study to be able to map the subsurface extent of the high conductivity (low resistivity) levels, and thus by proxy the subsurface extent of the acidic groundwater and the bacteria populations. In so doing, the viability of using electromagnetic methods for mapping these subsurface metal-rich water bodies is also examined and demonstrated, and the geophysical data will serve to support drilling efforts. The purpose of this field survey was an initial effort to map certain conductive features in the field area, in support of the drilling operations that are central to the MARTE project. These conductive features include the primary target of exploration for MARTE, the very conductive acidic groundwater in the area (which is extremely rich in metals). Other conductive features include the pyretic ore bodies in the area, as well as extensive mine tailings piles.

  8. "Mastery Learning" Como Metodo Psicoeducativo para Ninos con Problemas Especificos de Aprendizaje. ("Mastery Learning" as a Psychoeducational Method for Children with Specific Learning Problems.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coya, Liliam de Barbosa; Perez-Coffie, Jorge

    1982-01-01

    "Mastery Learning" was compared with the "conventional" method of teaching reading skills to Puerto Rican children with specific learning disabilities. The "Mastery Learning" group showed significant gains in the cognitive and affective domains. Results suggested Mastery Learning is a more effective method of teaching reading skills to children…

  9. Geologic evolution of the Canarian Islands of Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria and La Gomera and comparison of landslides at these islands with those at Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, J.; Uchupi, E.; Muñoz, A.; Herranz, P.; Palomo, C.; Ballesteros, M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of a swath bathymetric investigation of the Canary archipelago offshore area. These new data indicate that volcanism is pervasive throughout the seafloor in the region, much more that would be suggested by the islands. We have mapped tens of volcanic edifices between Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria and offshore Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro and La Palma. Volcanic flows are present between Tenerife and La Gomera and salic necks dominate the eastern insular slope of La Gomera. This bathymetry also supports land geologic studies that indicate that the oceanic archipelago has acquired its present morphology in part by mass wasting, a consequence of the collapse of the volcanic edifices. In the younger islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro, the Quaternary (1.2 to 0.15 Ma) debris avalanches are readily recognizable and can be traced offshore for distances measured in tens of km. Off the older islands, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria and La Gomera (<20 to 3.5 Ma), the avalanches have been obscured by subsequent turbidity current deposition and erosion as well as hemipelagic processes. The failure offshore western Lanzarote is in the form of a ramp at the base of the insular slope bound on the seaward side by a scarp. Its size and the lack of evidence of rotation along its landwards side precludes the possibility that it is a slump. It probably represents a slide whose outer scarp is caused by break-up of the slide. Mounds on the ramp’s surface may represent post-displacement volcanic structures or exotic blocks transported to their present locations by the slide. The failures offshore Fuerteventura are so large that, although they occurred in the Miocene-Pliocene, exotic blocks displaced from upslope are still recognizable in the insular margin morphology. The Canary Island insular margin appears to be a creation of Miocene-Pliocene mass wasting and more recent turbidity current deposition and erosion, and hemilepagic

  10. Como Lo Hago Yo: Lipomas Medulares

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Basados en la experiencia de 82 casos; en 5% se observaron anomalías pélvicas asociadas. En los menores de 3 años el motivo de consulta (85%) fue la tumoración. En los mayores de 3 años (42%) tenía problemas neurológicos. Solo el 24% preocupados por la tumoración. El objetivo de la cirugía es desanclar la médula y no remover la totalidad del lipoma. El lipoma de filum es el que es mas simple para operar. Aún cuando la escuela francesa propone operar solamente cuando hay síntomas favorezco cirugía preventiva. Favorezco una segunda cirugía si hay signos de anclaje postoperatorio, aún cuando observamos empeoramiento postoperatorio motor en 2.5% de los operados y urológico a largo plazo en 6% de los operados. PMID:24791218

  11. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusi

  12. Estimated CO2, SO2 and H2S emission to the atmosphere from the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption (Canary Islands) on the basis of helicopter gas surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Pérez, N. M.; Melian, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.

    2012-04-01

    An accurate estimation of SO2 emission rates is an important issue to elucidate the activity of volcanoes, moreover the monitoring of its temporal evolution might help to predict a possible eruption and thus, save the loss of human's lives in cities nearby volcanoes. In the lasts years new instruments have been developed and improved, in order to be more portable, cheaper and lighter. The miniDOAS consist of a small spectrometer with a lens for collecting scattered UV light, and are controlled/powered via USB with a laptop. Recently, new technical developments have allowed monitoring the emission of other gas species such as CO2, H2S, etc from volcanic plumes by means of portable multisensor system. With both devices we were able to evaluate the SO2 emission rates and the molar ratios of major volcanic gas components, respectively. Multiplying the observed SO2 emission rate times the observed (gas)i/SO2 mass ratios (CO2/SO2 and H2S/SO2) allowed us to estimate other volatiles emission rates. Between November 11, 2011, and January 16, 2012, and as a consequence of the submarine volcanic eruption started on October 10, 2011, south off shore El Hierro, Canary Islands, a regularly monitoring of the volcanic plume from the submarine volcano has been performed with remote sensors, always depending of helicopter availability. The instruments are mounted aboard on a helicopter belonged to the Helicopter Unit of Spanish Civil Guard. The SO2 flux measured during this period showed a maximum SO2 emission of 109 ± 19 t/d on November 6, just two days before the occurrence of a intense bubbling at the sea surface on November 8, producing a water, gas and ash column of about 15 meters over the sea surface. That day, CO2 and H2S emission also reached the maximum measured, with 5400 t/d and 3.6 t/d, respectively. Since then, SO2, CO2 and H2S emission rates have declined to values close to detection limit (~ 2 t/d for SO2). These results report the first SO2 emission rates measured

  13. 15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  14. DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACIÓN ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA

    PubMed Central

    Silvia, Mejía-Arango; Clemente, y Zúñiga-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

  15. Harold Varmus investido bajo juramento como 14.º director d

    Cancer.gov

    Ganador del Premio Nobel, doctor Harold E. Varmus, prestó juramento hoy como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).  "Es muy estimulante que estés de regreso con nosotros", dijo la secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos K

  16. LA BIOÉTICA COMO QUEHACER FILOSÓFICO

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jorge José

    2009-01-01

    El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar. PMID:20463860

  17. Recent DDT and PCB contamination in the sediment and biota of the Como Bay (Lake Como, Italy).

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, R; Quadroni, S; Boggio, E; Galassi, S

    2016-01-15

    Due to its peculiar geographical and morphological characteristics, Lake Como (Northern Italy) represents an interesting study-case for investigating the sub-basin scale circulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that, despite being banned since the 1970s, have reached surprisingly high concentrations in some southern alpine lakes as a consequence of their release from melting glaciers in recent years. In particular, the Como Bay, which is located in the city of Como, seems noteworthy because its waters have a longer residence time than the other areas of the lake. The analyses of the historical concentration of PCBs, pp′DDT and its metabolites in a sediment core sampled from the Como Bay covering a time-period from their ban to recent times, showed that the DDTs have never experienced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease over time, with concentrations of the most abundant homologue, pp′DDE, ranging from 27 to 75 ng g(-1) d.w. Conversely PCBs significantly (p < 0.05) decreased towards recent times, reaching concentrations around 80 ng g(-1) d.w. The contribution of high altitude and local sources was recorded also in the food web: both zooplankton and the zooplanktivorous fish agone were mainly contaminated by pp′DDE (81.4 ng g(-1) w.w. and 534.6 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively) and by the PCB metabolite hexa-CB (449.7 ng g(-1) w.w. and 1672.1 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively). The DDT concentrations in the agone (sampled during the years 2006–2009) never exceeded the limits for human consumption in Italy, while concentrations of six selected PCBs exceeded human health advisory recommendations in one of the fish samples analysed, when it was approximately two times higher than the recommended value of 125 ng g(-1) w.w. PMID:26520265

  18. Il problema del litio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  19. Valorisation of Como Historical Cadastral Maps Through Modern Web Geoservices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2012-07-01

    Cartographic cultural heritage preserved in worldwide archives is often stored in the original paper version only, thus restricting both the chances of utilization and the range of possible users. The Web C.A.R.T.E. system addressed this issue with regard to the precious cadastral maps preserved at the State Archive of Como. Aim of the project was to improve the visibility and accessibility of this heritage using the latest free and open source tools for processing, cataloguing and web publishing the maps. The resulting architecture should therefore assist the State Archive of Como in managing its cartographic contents. After a pre-processing consisting of digitization and georeferencing steps, maps were provided with metadata, compiled according to the current Italian standards and managed through an ad hoc version of the GeoNetwork Opensource geocatalog software. A dedicated MapFish-based webGIS client, with an optimized version also for mobile platforms, was built for maps publication and 2D navigation. A module for 3D visualization of cadastral maps was finally developed using the NASA World Wind Virtual Globe. Thanks to a temporal slidebar, time was also included in the system producing a 4D Graphical User Interface. The overall architecture was totally built with free and open source software and allows a direct and intuitive consultation of historical maps. Besides the notable advantage of keeping original paper maps intact, the system greatly simplifies the work of the State Archive of Como common users and together widens the same range of users thanks to the modernization of map consultation tools.

  20. 78 FR 36163 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... FHP covers approximately 5,640 acres of national forest land between Lake Como and Lost Horse Roads... project area lies between Lake Como Road and Lost Horse Road, about three miles northwest of...

  1. Morphological investigation of nanostructured CoMo catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelec, B.; Castaño, P.; Zepeda, T. A.

    2008-04-01

    This work reports the morphological investigation of nanostructured sulfided CoMo catalysts by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The catalysts were supported on Ti-modified hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS-Ti) and P-modified HMS-Ti (P/HMS-Ti) materials. The oxide precursors were characterized by specific surface area (S BET), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy in the OH region (DRIFTS-OH) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the influence of the impregnation sequence (successive vs. simultaneous) and the effect of P-incorporation into HMS-Ti material on the morphology of calcined CoMo catalysts. Both TPR and XPS measurements indicate that the catalysts prepared by successive impregnation possess well-dispersed MoO 3 and CoO phases, whereas their counterparts prepared by simultaneous impregnation additionally possess the CoMoO 4 phase. For all sulfided catalysts, the presence of MoS 2 phase with particle size in the range 3.3-4.4 nm was confirmed by HRTEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in the reaction of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) carried out in a flow reactor at 593 K and hydrogen pressure of 5.5 MPa. P-incorporation into the HMS-Ti material led to an overall increase in HDS activity and the hydrogenation ability of the sulfided catalysts. All catalysts proved to be stable during 10 h time-on-stream (TOS) operation. The activity of sulfide catalysts in the target reaction depends linearly on the surface exposure of Co species in the oxide precursors, as determined by XPS, and on the morphology of the sulfide form of catalysts (surface density of MoS 2 particles and their sizes) as determined by HRTEM.

  2. Como Lo Hago Yo: Defectos Del Cierre Del Tubo Neural En Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Juan Bosco

    2014-01-01

    En Nicaragua no hay un plan de forltificación de alimentos con ácido fólico. Las madres son muy jóvenes. En La Mascota operamos mas de cuarenta niños por año. Derivación tardía es un problema. La infección preoperatoria tiene que ser descartada. Vancomicina y Ceftriaxone estan indicadas. Estricta regla de asepsia operatoria. Suturamos la plaqueta para asemejar su forma al cilindro normal de la médula. No ceramos la capa de músculo. PMID:24791221

  3. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    .... Correction In the Federal Register of June 17, 2013, in FR DOC 2013- 14229 on page 36163 in the second column...,640 acres of national forest between Lake Como and Lost Horse roads, about 6 miles northwest of...

  4. Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

  5. Prevalence of previously undiagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysms in the area of Como: the ComoCuore "looking for AAA" ultrasonography screening.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giovanni; Durante, Alessandro; Genchi, Vincenzo; Trabattoni, Loris; Beretta, Sandro; Rovelli, Enza; Foglia-Manzillo, Giovanni; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is poor. Long-term follow-up of population-based randomized trials has demonstrated that ultrasound (US) screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) measuring 3 cm or greater decreases AAA-related mortality rates and is cost-effective. We though to prospectively perform during a 26-month period a limited US examination of the infrarenal aorta in volunteers of both gender aged 60-85 years without history of AAA living in the area of Como, Italy. From September 2010 to November 2013 ComoCuore, a no-profit nongovernmental association, enrolled 1555 people (aged 68.8 ± 6.8 years; 48.6 % males). Clinical data and a US imaging of the aorta were collected for each participant. AAA was found in 22 volunteers (1.4 %) mainly males (2.5 % in males vs. 0.4 % in females p = 0.005). Overall, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in patients with vs. without AAA (mean 2.9 ± 3.0 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0 respectively, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors of AAA on multivariate analysis were age (OR 1.14, 1.06-1.22; p < 0.0001), male gender (OR 8.23, 1.79-37.91; p = 0.007), and both current (OR 4.98, 1.57-15.79; p = 0.007) and previous smoking (OR 2.76, 1.12-8.94; p = 0.03). Our study confirms the feasibility of one time US screening for AAA in a large cohort of asymptomatic people. Independent predictors of AAA were male sex, older age and a history of smoking. Accordingly to recent data the prevalence of AAA seems to be declining, maybe due to a reduction of smoking in Italy. PMID:27215751

  6. The Sefwi-Comoé belt Ghana/Ivory Coast : a major crustal shear zone ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessell, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Sefwi-Comoé region that straddles Ghana and the Ivory Coast in West Africa has been characterised as resulting from a combination of compression and simple shear during late synkinematic leucogranite intrusion. The analysis of regional geophysical datasets allows us to better define the geometry of the major lithostratigraphic packages and their structural contacts in this region. This analysis reveals a series of well defined leucogranites intrusions enveloped by high strain zones. Recent finite element modelling of two-phase aggregates has shown that we can analyse the geometry of these systems both in terms of their finite defomation and their mechanical contrast. We interpret the geometries we see in the Sefwi-Comoé region as reflecting the activity of a major crustal deformation zone which was dominated by simple shear. The comparison with the modelling suggests a finite shear strain of approximately 5 gamma, which in turn implies a lateral displacement of 400 km across the belt. Our analysis suggests that the leucogranites were already acting as more rigid bodies during the (dextral?) shearing, suggesting that their emplacement was predominantly pre-kinematic, and which has implications for their potential subsequent remobilization by gravitational forces.

  7. Como Lo Hago Yo: Anomalías del Tubo Neural en Guatemala — Mielomeningocele Unidad de Espina Bífida e Hidrocefalia

    PubMed Central

    Manucci, Graciela; von Quednow, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    En Guatemala nacen por añ 786 niños con defectos de tubo neural. Operamos 65 a 70 niños con mielomenigocele por año. Tenemos equipo multidisciplinario. Recomendamos parto por cesárea. Infección antes de la cirugía es un problema mayor. Derivación tardía es un problema. Disecamos la plaqueta con la técnica clásica. Suturamos la plaqueta para restituir la forma de la médula. Corpectomía en casos de cifósis. Hidrocefalía: Operamos el 80% de los niños. Chiari II: Operamos basados en los síntomas, primero nos aseguramos que la válvula funciona bien. Médula anclada: Operamos basados en los síntomas. PMID:24791216

  8. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the Comoe River Basin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Yéo, Wonnan Eugène; Goula, Bi Tié Albert; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Afouda, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is impacting water users in many sectors: water supply, farming, industry, hydropower, fishing, housing, navigation and health. Existing situations, like population growth, movement of populations from rural to urban areas, poverty and pollution can aggravate the impacts of climate change. The aim of the study is to evaluate the vulnerability of different water user groups to climate change and define communities' adaptation strategies in the Comoe River Basin. Information was collected on communities' concerns and perception on changes in climate and potential adaptation measures and strategies. Results show that 95 % of the sample in the study communities had heard of it and are aware that climate change is occurring. They have been experiencing changes in economic activity and cropping pattern, reduced water level in rivers, crop failure, delay in cropping season, new pests and diseases, food insecurity, drop in income and decline in crop yield. Results also show that communities employ various adaptation strategies including crops diversification, substitution and calendar redefinition, agroforestry, borrowing from friends and money lenders and increasing fertilizer application. PMID:27386296

  9. Catalytic functionalities of supported sulfides. I. Effect of support and additives on the CoMo catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidhar, G.; Massoth, F.E.; Shabtai, J.

    1984-01-01

    C-S hydrogenolysis (HDS) of thiophene, hydrogenation (HYD) of 1-hexene, and hydrocracking (HCG) of 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, were used as separate model test reactions to differentiate and assess the catalytic functionalities of sulfided CoMo catalysts, and their dependence on the nature of the support and incorporation of additives. Rate constants and relative catalyst activities for these three reaction types were determined. HDS and HYD activities of CoMo supported on different types of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were higher, while the HCG activity was lower compared with CoMo supported on SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SiO/sub 2/-MgO, or TiO/sub 2/. For SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ supports both HDS and HYD activities decreased with increase in SiO/sub 2/ content from 10 to 75%, while HCG activity showed the opposite trend. Additives to a finished CoMo catalyst at 0.5% level caused variations in HDS and HCG activities, while HYD was essentially unaffected. HDS was promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4/Cl, but depressed by NaNO/sub 3/, Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. HCG was promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/, NH/sub 4/Cl, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. Additives at 5% level, prior to or after CoMo impregnation, showed a strong depressing effect on HDS and a lesser effect on HYD, while HCG was strongly promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/, Ti isopropoxide, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. The changes in catalytic functionalities are rationalized in terms of different interactions between CoMo phase, support, and additives. 3 tables, 1 figure.

  10. The Prisoner Problem--A Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a generalization to the classic prisoner problem, which is inherently interesting and has a solution within the reach of most high school mathematics students. Suggests the problem as a way to emphasize to students the final step in a problem-solver's tool kit, considering possible generalizations when a particular problem has been…

  11. Infezioni virali in ginecologia: un problema risolto?

    PubMed

    Agnello, Antonella; Bevilacqua, Luciano; Ariviello, Rosa; Bandieramonte, Gaetano; Peroni, Mario; Simoncini, Ettore; Verdi, Piero; Zanardi, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a dietary integrator containing methionine, zinc, Echinacea angustifolia and E. purpurea, probiotics, and antioxidant factors (Immuno Gin) in the treatment of mild cervical dysplasia associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The study sample was 95 women (age range, 31-55 years) resident in various cities in Italy. Initial Pap test results showed abnormal changes in cervical cells described as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and HPV infection in 23/95 women, 3 of which received the study product. Follow-up repeat Pap testing at 6 months returned normal test results in all 3. In 12 of the 20 women who did not receive treatment with the study product, the repeat Pap test at 6 months showed normal results, whereas persistence of lesions was observed in the other 8 women, with progression to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in one case. Forty-five women presented initially with abnormal changes in cervical cells described as LSIL and HPV infection. Twenty received treatment with the study product; the repeat Pap test at 6 months showed normal results in 15 and no change in lesions in the other 5. Among the 25 women who did not receive treatment with the study product, the repeat Pap test at 6 months showed normal results in 13, whereas persistence of lesions was noted in the other 12, with progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion - moderate cervical intraepithelial lesion 2 (HSIL - CIN 2) in one case. Twenty-seven women with vulvoperineal condylomatosis received treatment with the study product, as described above, plus biophysical treatment of the lesions. At the 6-month follow-up assessment, no relapse of lesions occurred in 19, whereas relapse was noted in the other 8. Though the study sample is too small to draw statistically significant conclusions, the percentage of cases of lesion regression among the women treated with the study product was slightly higher than in those who did not receive treatment. Use of the study product may provide clinical benefit by stimulating immune defenses against HPV infection. PMID:27206065

  12. Hydrotreatment of Athabasca bitumen derived gas oil over Ni-Mo, Ni-W, and Co-Mo catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Real, R.A.; Mann, R.S.; Sambi, I.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    The hydrotreatment of Athabasca bitumen derived heavy gas oil containing 4.08% S and 0.49% N was carried out in a trickle bed reactor over Ni-W, Ni-Mo, and Co-Mo catalysts supported on zeolite-alumina-silica at 623-698 K, LHSV of 1-4, gas flow rate 890 m[sup 3][sub H2]/m[sup 3][sub oil] (5,000 sef/bbl), and pressure of 6.89 MPa. Analyses for viscosity, density, aniline point, ASTM mid boiling point distillation, C/H ratio, and percentage of N and S in the final product were carried out to characterize the product oil. The amounts of N and S removed indicated the hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodesulfurization activity of the catalysts. Results of zeolite-alumina-silica-supported catalysts are compared to those obtained with commercially available Ni-Mo, Ni-W, and Co-Mo on [gamma]-alumina. Ni-Mo supported on zeolite-alumina-silica was most active and could remove as much as 99 % S and 89% N present in the oil at 698 K. The data for HDN and HDS fitted the pseudo first order model. The kinetic model is described in detail.

  13. Ab initio study of energetics and magnetism of sigma phase in Co-Mo and Fe-Mo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlů, J.; Vřešťál, J.; Šob, M.

    2016-02-01

    We analyse, from first-principles, the energetics and magnetic ordering of sigma phases in Co-Mo and Fe-Mo systems. Total energy differences between the sigma phase and Standard Element Reference (SER) structures are calculated in the whole concentration range at equilibrium volumes by means of the linear muffin-tin orbitals method in the atomic-sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA), the full-potential linearised augmented-plane waves (FLAPW) method and the pseudopotential approach. They are compared with the enthalpy of formation of sigma phase obtained from the phase equilibria calculations at higher temperature based on the semiempirical CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) method. It turns out that the binary sigma phases are more stable than the weighted average of the sigma phase of elemental constituents and that this stability for Fe-Mo is higher than for Co-Mo. On the other hand it was found that the binary sigma phases do not exhibit any stability with respect to the weighted average of the SER structures. The magnetic configurations in all systems are investigated and the stabilizing effect of magnetic order in sigma phase at 0 K is presented. It turns out that the atomic magnetic moment strongly depends on the type of occupied sublattice and total composition of the alloy.

  14. Alejarse como proceso social: niños y ancianos «abandonados» en Ayacucho1

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    En investigaciones previas sobre el acogimiento familiar y la adopción en Ayacucho, se ha podido descubrir cómo los ayacuchanos adquieren y producen relaciones sociales. Mientras negocian creativamente los discursos y espacios construidos simultáneamente por instituciones, comunidades, y estructuras sociales, van adquiriendo nuevas formas de relacionarse. Este artículo discute el proceso opuesto: el deshacerse de relaciones de parentesco, y el proceso social del abandono o alejamiento. Cuando se aleja a una persona de su familia o su comunidad, los que se quedan en ella llegan a entenderse como ciertos tipos de personas. En los estudios de caso discutidos aquí, recopilados a través de una detallada y cuidadosa observación participante y de entrevistas etnográficas grabadas entre 2001 y 2007, se puede ver cómo, después de un alejamiento social, los individuos que alejan se reinterpretan como sujetos que se encuentran superándose o volviéndose modernos, o bien sacrificándose. PMID:25177044

  15. The stucco decorations from St. Lorenzo in Laino (Como, Italy): The materials and the techniques employed by the "Magistri Comacini".

    PubMed

    Rampazzi, Laura; Rizzo, Biagio; Colombo, Chiara; Conti, Claudia; Realini, Marco; Bartolucci, Ugo; Colombini, Maria Perla; Spiriti, Andrea; Facchin, Laura

    2008-12-01

    The paper reports a cross-cutting and systematic approach to the analytical study of Baroque stucco decorations by Italian artists known as "Magistri Comacini". Samples from the Church of St. Lorenzo in Laino (Como, Italy) were analysed using chemical and mineralogical techniques and the results interpreted with the help of art historians in order to enlighten the artistic techniques. The characterisation of the binder, aggregate and organic fractions was carried out through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with microprobe, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and laser ablation mass spectrometry equipped with plasma source spectrometry. The results on major, minor and trace components ascertained various recipes. In particular, the investigation of the finishing layers corroborated hypotheses of attribution and chronology and stressed the different skills of the artists working in the building, shedding a light on details of the decoration technique. PMID:19068330

  16. A Utilização da Astronomia como Tema Interdisciplinar e Aplicações de Objetos de Aprendizagem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Este trabalho visa analisar a possibilidade de relacionar conteúdos aplicados no ensino fundamental e médio de forma interdisciplinar por intermédio da astronomia, com a intervenção de objetos de aprendizagem que possam integrar as disciplinas e a utilização de recursos tecnológicos. Em uma pesquisa prévia com 20 professores de uma escola estadual situada na cidade de Guarulhos foi observado que apenas 25% dos professores utilizam algum recurso tecnológico para o desenvolvimento de conteúdos pertinentes à sua disciplina, tais como sites e softwares educativos, sendo que a maioria absoluta continua ensinando apenas com livros didáticos. A maior parte dos professores apresenta dificuldades em trabalhar sua disciplina de forma interdisciplinar, ou seja, 75% dos professores preferem aplicar os conteúdos seguindo uma hierarquia linear de tópicos, evitando a discussão de temas que de alguma forma estão relacionados. A astronomia pode vir à fascinar o ser humano e despertar sua curiosidade promovendo um maior interesse no aprendizado, podendo favorecer análises interdisciplinares de forma lógica e objetiva, desta forma colocar a astronomia como tema motivador interdisciplinar, pode ser relevante no que se refere ao distanciamento da fragmentação dos conteúdos. No Estado de São Paulo, a implantação da proposta curricular no ensino fundamental e médio mostra claramente a inserção da astronomia na maior parte das séries, principalmente na 6ª série em que todo o bimestre se fala de astronomia.

  17. Las fulguraciones como manifestación de reconexión en el campo magnético solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagalá, L. G.; Mandrini, M. C.; Rovira, M. G.; Démoulin, P.

    Las fulguraciones solares son fenómenos transitorios de liberación de energía que se desarrollan en las estructuras magnéticas de las regiones activas del Sol. Las fulguraciones pueden llegar a liberar hasta 1032 erg en 100 seg. en todo el rango electromagnético, y acelerar partículas. En este trabajo mostramos que la ubicación de los abrillantamientos en Hα de diversas fulguraciones está relacionado con las propiedades de las conexiones de las líneas del campo magnético de la región, como se espera por las teorías de reconexión en 3D recientemente desarrolladas (Démoulin et al, 1996a). El campo magnético coronal se extrapola del campo fotosférico observado suponiendo una configuración libre de fuerzas lineal. Por medio de un algoritmo se determinan las regiones donde existe un cambio drástico en la conectividad de las líneas de campo (límites ``cuasi-discontinuos'', o cuasi-separatrices CS). Las CS son bandas abiertas que identifican zonas donde el campo magnético se reconectará con más probabilidad y, siempre que las mismas sean lo suficientemente finas, se producirá allíla liberación de energía proveniente del campo magnético. Hemos encontrado que en todas las regiones fulgurantes estudiadas (Démoulin et al, 1996b) existen CS en los mismos lugares donde se observaron los abrillantamientos en Hα. Allídonde coinciden los abrillantamientos con las CS, éstas tienen un espesor menor que 1 Mm. Las líneas de campo coronales extrapoladas de nuestro modelo tienen sus orígenes fotosféricos a ambos lados de las CS, como se espera dados los recientes estudios de reconexión magnética en 3D. Estos resultados ponen a prueba los modelos presentes sobre fulguraciones solares.

  18. In-situ HRTEM study of the reactive carbide phase of Co/MoS2 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Manuel; Ferrer, Domingo; Martinez-Soto, Eduan; Lopez-Lippmann, Hugo; Torres, Brenda; Berhault, Gilles; Chianelli, Russell R

    2013-04-01

    Hydrotreatment catalytic operations are commonly performed industrially by layered molybdenum sulfide promoted by cobalt or nickel in order to remove heteroelements (S, N, O) from fossil fuels and biofuels. Indeed, these heteroelements are responsible of the emission of pollutants when these fuels are used in vehicles. In this respect, previous studies made by our research group have shown that the active phase under steady state conditions is partially carbided while strong bending effects of MoS2 slabs were also observed. However, up to now, the morphology of the resulting Co/MoSxCy carbided catalyst has not been fully characterized. In the present study, for the first time, a chemical reaction between the carbon content of a TEM Cu/C grid and a freshly sulfide Co/MoS2 catalyst was in situ observed at 300 °C and 450 °C by HRTEM experimental techniques at ~10 nm of resolution. Results indicate that bending of MoS2 layers occurred due to carbon addition on MoS2 edge sites, as observed in stabilized catalysts after HDS reaction. Using a silicon grid, only cracks of MoS2 slabs were observed without bending effect confirming the role of structural-carbon in this change of morphology. PMID:22925737

  19. XAS Study at Mo and Co K-Edges of the Sulfidation of a CoMo / Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichon, C.; Gandubert, A. D.; Legens, C.; Guillaume, D.

    2007-02-01

    Because of its impact on environment, the removal of sulfur is an indispensable step, called hydrotreatment, in the refining of petroleum. One of the most commonly used hydrotreating catalysts is CoMo-type catalyst which is composed of molybdenum disulfide slabs promoted by cobalt atoms (CoMoS phase) and well dispersed on a high specific area alumina. As far as the highest sulfur content allowed in gasoline and diesel is continually decreasing, more and more efficient and active hydrotreating catalysts are required. In order to optimize the reactivity of the CoMo-type catalyst in hydrotreatment, a better understanding of the processes used to produce the active phase (CoMoS slabs) of the catalyst is necessary. The study reported here deals with the sulfiding mechanism of the slabs and the influence of temperature on the phenomenon. Ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) was used to study the evolution of the structure of CoMo-type catalyst sulfided at various temperatures (from 293 to 873 K). XAS analysis was performed at both molybdenum and cobalt K-edges to obtain a cross-characterization of the sulfidation of the slabs. It evidenced the formation of various compounds, including two molybdenum oxides, MoS3 (or MoS3-like compound) and Co9S8, at specific steps of the sulfiding process. It showed the role of intermediate played by MoS3 (or MoS3-like compound) during the formation of the slabs and the competition between the appearance of promoted slabs (CoMoS phase) and Co9S8. At last, it leaded to the proposal of a mechanism for the sulfidation of the catalyst.

  20. XAS Study at Mo and Co K-Edges of the Sulfidation of a CoMo / Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Pichon, C.; Gandubert, A. D.; Legens, C.; Guillaume, D.

    2007-02-02

    Because of its impact on environment, the removal of sulfur is an indispensable step, called hydrotreatment, in the refining of petroleum. One of the most commonly used hydrotreating catalysts is CoMo-type catalyst which is composed of molybdenum disulfide slabs promoted by cobalt atoms (CoMoS phase) and well dispersed on a high specific area alumina. As far as the highest sulfur content allowed in gasoline and diesel is continually decreasing, more and more efficient and active hydrotreating catalysts are required. In order to optimize the reactivity of the CoMo-type catalyst in hydrotreatment, a better understanding of the processes used to produce the active phase (CoMoS slabs) of the catalyst is necessary. The study reported here deals with the sulfiding mechanism of the slabs and the influence of temperature on the phenomenon. Ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) was used to study the evolution of the structure of CoMo-type catalyst sulfided at various temperatures (from 293 to 873 K). XAS analysis was performed at both molybdenum and cobalt K-edges to obtain a cross-characterization of the sulfidation of the slabs. It evidenced the formation of various compounds, including two molybdenum oxides, MoS3 (or MoS3-like compound) and Co9S8, at specific steps of the sulfiding process. It showed the role of intermediate played by MoS3 (or MoS3-like compound) during the formation of the slabs and the competition between the appearance of promoted slabs (CoMoS phase) and Co9S8. At last, it leaded to the proposal of a mechanism for the sulfidation of the catalyst.

  1. Telescópio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluição luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmissão de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar fórmulas e, eventualmente, a repetição de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, é conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da ciência. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu caráter observacional, é uma das áreas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenário. A Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescópio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as câmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino médio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a condução de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nível apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com técnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulação de dados e gráficos, programas de tratamento e redução de dados, uso de equipamentos óptico-eletrônicos (telescópio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisição de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenômenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrência relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o céu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no último ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observação da variável pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da variável cataclísmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trânsito da lua de Júpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras estão concordantes com as da literatura, assim

  2. Tal Como Somos/Just As We Are: An Educational Film to Reduce Stigma towards Gay and Bisexual Men, Transgender Individuals & Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes towards gay and bisexual men and transgender women (GBT) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively impact attitudes towards GBT and PLWHA. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  3. Tal Como Somos/just as we are: an educational film to reduce stigma toward gay and bisexual men, transgender individuals, and persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2014-04-01

    In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  4. Emotional Disturbance. Fact Sheet = Problemas Emocionales. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of emotional disturbance. The definition is from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and incidence in 1999-2000 is reported as about 470,000 children and youth. Educational…

  5. Puertorriquenos En Chicago: El Problema Educativo Del Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Isidro

    1974-01-01

    Article written in Spanish. Defines the term "dropout," discusses the characteristics and motivations of Puerto Rican school dropouts in Chicago, and outlines the problems in educating them. (Author/RJ)

  6. Hydro-geochemical modeling of subalpine urbanized area: geochemical characterization of the shallow and deep aquifers of the urban district of Como (first results).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrana, Silvia; Brunamonte, Fabio; Frascoli, Francesca; Ferrario, Maria Francesca; Michetti, Alessandro Maria; Pozzi, Andrea; Gambillara, Roberto; Binda, Gilberto

    2016-04-01

    One of the greatest environmental and social-economics threats is climate change. This topic, in the next few years, will have a significant impact on the availability of water resources of many regions. This is compounded by the strong anthropization of water systems that shows an intensification of conflicts for water resource exploitation. Therefore, it is necessary a sustainable manage of natural resources thorough knowledge of the hosting territories. The development of investigation and data processing methods are essential to reduce costs for the suitable use and protection of resources. Identify a sample area for testing the best approach is crucial. This research aims to find a valid methodology for the characterization, modeling and management of subalpine urban aquifers, and the urban district of Como appears perfect. The city of Como is located at the southern end of the western sector of Lake Como (N Italy). It is a coastal town, placed on a small alluvial plain, therefore in close communication with the lake. The plain is drained by two streams, which are presently artificially buried, and have an underground flow path in the urban section till the mouth. This city area, so, is suitable for this project as it is intensely urbanized, its dimensions is not too extensive and it is characterized by two aquifers very important and little known. These are a shallow aquifer and a deep aquifer, which are important not only for any water supply, but also for the stability of the ground subsidence in the city. This research is also the opportunity to work in a particular well-known area with high scientific significance; however, there is complete absence of information regarding the deep aquifer. Great importance has also the chosen and used of the more powerful open source software for this type of area, such as PHREEQC, EnvironInsite, PHREEQE etc., used for geological and geochemical data processing. The main goal of this preliminary work is the

  7. Congressional Hispanic Caucus: Como Va?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Denice

    1978-01-01

    The Caucus aims to develop a national policy on behalf of the Spanish-speaking, and to strengthen the Federal commitment toward Hispanics. The Caucus also plans to serve an educational purpose, informing the Hispanic population about the political process and functioning of government. (NQ)

  8. Tailoring (n,m) structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes by modifying reaction conditions and the nature of the support of CoMo catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Giulio; Zhang, Liang; Balzano, Leandro; Sakulchaicharoen, Nataphan; Tan, Yongqiang; Resasco, Daniel E

    2006-02-01

    The (n,m) population distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes obtained on supported CoMo catalysts has been determined by photoluminescence and optical absorption. It has been found that the (n,m) distribution can be controlled by varying the gaseous feed composition, the reaction temperature, and the type of catalyst support used. When using CO as a feed over CoMo/SiO2 catalysts, increasing the synthesis temperature results in an increase in nanotube diameter, without a change in the chiral angle. By contrast, by changing the support from SiO2 to MgO, nanotubes with similar diameter but different chiral angles are obtained. Finally, keeping the same reaction conditions but varying the composition of the gaseous feed results in different (n,m) distribution. The clearly different distributions obtained when varying catalysts support and/or reaction conditions demonstrate that the (n,m) distribution is a result of differences in the growth kinetics, which in turn depends on the nanotube cap-metal cluster interaction. PMID:16471791

  9. From Management to Negotiation: Technical and Institutional Innovations for Integrated Water Resource Management in the Upper Comoé River Basin, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J.; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users’ needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management.

  10. From management to negotiation: technical and institutional innovations for integrated water resource management in the Upper Comoé River Basin, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users' needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management. PMID:19707708

  11. Co-Doped MoS₂ Nanosheets with the Dominant CoMoS Phase Coated on Carbon as an Excellent Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoping; Du, Kangli; Li, Zhanzhao; Liu, Mengzhao; Ma, Yangde; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Ying

    2015-12-16

    Highly active and low-cost catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are crucial for the development of efficient water splitting. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets possess unique physical and chemical properties, which make them promising candidates for HER. Herein, we reported a facile, effective, and scalable strategy by a deposition-precipitation method to fabricate metal-doped (Fe, Co, Ni) molybdenum sulfide with a few layers on carbon black as noble metal-free electrocatalysts for HER. The CoMoS phase after thermal annealing in Co-doped MoS2 plays a crucial role for the enhanced HER. The optimized Co-doped MoS2 catalyst shows superior HER performance with a high exchange current density of 0.03 mA·cm(-2), low onset potential of 90 mV, and small Tafel slope of 50 mV·dec(-1), which also exhibits excellent stability of 10000 cycles with negligible loss of the cathodic current. The superior HER activity originates from the synergistically structural and electronic modulations between MoS2 and Co ions, abundant defects in the active edge sites, as well as the good balance between active sites and electronic conductivity. Thanks to their ease of synthesis, low cost, and high activity, the Co-doped MoS2 catalysts appear to be promising HER catalysts for electrochemical water splitting. PMID:26599427

  12. Detection and identification of pathogenic trypanosome species in tsetse flies along the Comoé River in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Djohan, Vincent; Kaba, Dramane; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Salou, Ernest; Dofini, Fabien; Kouadio, Alain De Marie Koffi; Menan, Hervé; Solano, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify pathogenic trypanosomes responsible for African trypanosomiasis, and to better understand tsetse-trypanosome relationships, surveys were undertaken in three sites located in different eco-climatic areas in Côte d’Ivoire during the dry and rainy seasons. Tsetse flies were caught during five consecutive days using biconical traps, dissected and microscopically examined looking for trypanosome infection. Samples from infected flies were tested by PCR using specific primers for Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type, T. congolense forest type and T. vivax. Of 1941 tsetse flies caught including four species, i.e. Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. p. gambiensis, G. tachinoides and G. medicorum, 513 (26%) were dissected and 60 (12%) were found positive by microscopy. Up to 41% of the infections were due to T. congolense savannah type, 30% to T. vivax, 20% to T. congolense forest type and 9% due to T. brucei s.l. All four trypanosome species and subgroups were identified from G. tachinoides and G. p. palpalis, while only two were isolated from G. p. gambiensis (T. brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type) and G. medicorum (T. congolense forest, savannah types). Mixed infections were found in 25% of cases and all involved T. congolense savannah type with another trypanosome species. The simultaneous occurrence of T. brucei s.l., and tsetse from the palpalis group may suggest that human trypanosomiasis can still be a constraint in these localities, while high rates of T. congolense and T. vivax in the area suggest a potential risk of animal trypanosomiasis in livestock along the Comoé River. PMID:26035296

  13. Detection and identification of pathogenic trypanosome species in tsetse flies along the Comoé River in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Djohan, Vincent; Kaba, Dramane; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Salou, Ernest; Dofini, Fabien; Kouadio, Alain De Marie Koffi; Menan, Hervé; Solano, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify pathogenic trypanosomes responsible for African trypanosomiasis, and to better understand tsetse-trypanosome relationships, surveys were undertaken in three sites located in different eco-climatic areas in Côte d'Ivoire during the dry and rainy seasons. Tsetse flies were caught during five consecutive days using biconical traps, dissected and microscopically examined looking for trypanosome infection. Samples from infected flies were tested by PCR using specific primers for Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type, T. congolense forest type and T. vivax. Of 1941 tsetse flies caught including four species, i.e. Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. p. gambiensis, G. tachinoides and G. medicorum, 513 (26%) were dissected and 60 (12%) were found positive by microscopy. Up to 41% of the infections were due to T. congolense savannah type, 30% to T. vivax, 20% to T. congolense forest type and 9% due to T. brucei s.l. All four trypanosome species and subgroups were identified from G. tachinoides and G. p. palpalis, while only two were isolated from G. p. gambiensis (T. brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type) and G. medicorum (T. congolense forest, savannah types). Mixed infections were found in 25% of cases and all involved T. congolense savannah type with another trypanosome species. The simultaneous occurrence of T. brucei s.l., and tsetse from the palpalis group may suggest that human trypanosomiasis can still be a constraint in these localities, while high rates of T. congolense and T. vivax in the area suggest a potential risk of animal trypanosomiasis in livestock along the Comoé River. PMID:26035296

  14. Percepción de competencia y adiestramiento profesional especializado relativos al VIH/SIDA en estudiantes y profesionales de la salud: el estigma como un indicador de necesidad

    PubMed Central

    RODRÍGUEZ, Yarimar ROSA; DÍAZ, Nelson VARAS

    2009-01-01

    El proceso de estigmatización asume una devaluación de la persona debido a una característica o marca que haya sido identificada socialmente y que permita que se le describa como diferente. Desde que se desató la epidemia del VIH/SIDA, vivir con la enfermedad ha sido señalado de manera social como una marca estigmatizante. Las manifestaciones de dicha estigmatización se han documentado entre profesionales de la salud. Este estigma puede afectar los servicios de salud que las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA reciben de estos profesionales. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron explorar: 1) la percepción que tienen estudiantes y profesionales de la salud sobre su nivel de competencia para ofrecer servicios a personas que viven con VIH/SIDA, 2) las opiniones de éstos sobre el tipo de adiestramiento profesional recibido y la necesidad del mismo, y 3) la manifestación de actitudes estigmatizantes como indicadores de necesidad de adiestramiento profesional. La muestra total del estudio estuvo compuesta por 80 de diversas profesiones de la salud. Los resultados reflejan que algunos/as de los/as participantes han recibido formación en VIH pero ésta no ha sido suficiente para contrarrestar las nociones estigmatizantes. Discutimos las implicaciones de los resultados para investigaciones futuras y el desarrollo de intervenciones con vías de minimizar las nociones estigmatizantes en los escenarios de salud. PMID:20011236

  15. The Astronomy Club of Araranguá: Educating Science Teachers as Science Communicators. (Breton Title: Clube de Astronomia de AraranguÁ: a Formação de Professores de Ciências Como Divulgadores Científicos. ) Club de Astronomía de Araranguá: la Formación del Profesorado Como Comunicadores de la Ciencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasio, Felipe; Allain, Olivier; Antunes Rodrigues, Adriano

    2013-07-01

    The study reported in this work takes place since 2009 at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Santa Catarina, Campus Araranguá. Our main goal is to help form teachers, training undergraduate students in Natural Sciences with specialization in Physics as science communicators, as well as to promote actions of broader scientific popularization in the region of the town of Araranguá through an Astronomy Club called CA2. Among the actions of scientific popularization that the students promote are: video production, radio broadcasts, lectures, nightly observations, preparation and exhibition of posters, physics teaching for children, continuing education activities for teachers and regular physics teaching using Astronomy as a theme. The Club's teacher education and scientific dissemination work is based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning, always trying to reach the student's predisposition to learn and produce potentially meaningful material, the two essential conditions for meaningful learning to occur. O estudo que este trabalho relata ocorre desde 2009 no Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. Nele procura-se formar divulgadores científicos durante a formação inicial de docentes do curso de Licenciatura em Ciências da Natureza com habilitação em Física, além de promover ações de divulgação científica para o público geral da região da cidade de Araranguá por meio de um Clube de Astronomia chamado CA² (Clube de Astronomia de Araranguá). Entre as ações de divulgação científica que os licenciandos promovem estão: produção de vídeos, programas de rádio, palestras, observações noturnas, confecção e exposição de pôsteres, ensino de física para crianças, formação continuada de professores em atividades e ensino de Física regular utilizando a Astronomia como tema gerador. O trabalho de formação docente e divulgação científica do Clube fundamenta

  16. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  17. Particle-associated contaminants in street dust, parking lot dust, soil, lake-bottom sediment, and suspended and streambed sediment, Lake Como and Fosdic Lake watersheds, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Werth, Charles J.; Yang, Yanning

    2006-01-01

    A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey of impaired water bodies in Fort Worth, Texas, reported elevated but variable concentrations of particle-associated contaminants (PACs) comprising chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace elements in suspended and bed sediment of lakes and streams affected by urban land use. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Fort Worth, collected additional samples during October 2004 to investigate sources of PACs in the watersheds of two impaired lakes: Lake Como and Fosdic Lake. Source materials and aquatic sediment were sampled and analyzed for PACs. Source materials sampled consisted of street dust and soil from areas with residential and commercial land use and parking lot dust from sealed and unsealed parking lots. Aquatic sediment sampled consisted of bottom-sediment cores from the two lakes and suspended and streambed sediment from the influent stream of each lake. Samples were analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons (organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, major and trace elements, organic carbon, grain size, and radionuclides.

  18. La historia de la Literatura: sus problemas y methodos (The History of Literature: Problems and Methods)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopico, Blanca

    1975-01-01

    In order to achieve its goals, the study of literary history should follow a "programmed process." Such a process would help solve problems in the following areas: bibliography, text criticism, interpretation and explanation, dates and chronology, authenticity, source and origin etc. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  19. 101 Short Problems from EQUALS = 101 Problemas Cortos del programma EQUALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenmark, Jean Kerr, Ed.

    EQUALS is a teacher advisory program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. The program supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics, including having students working in groups, using active assessment methods, and incorporating a broad mathematics…

  20. Educational Policy and the Drug Problem--A Redistributive Politics Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P.

    1975-01-01

    The drug problem exists as a cluster of problems affecting broad interests or groups. The issues are redistributive in that everything relates to everything else. It seems apparent that a cluster of policies and programs need development as well as genuine citizen participation in the formulation of these policies. (Author)

  1. El Ruido: Un Problema para la Salud (Noise: A Health Problem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Noise Abatement and Control.

    This booklet contains nine sections describing ways in which noise may endanger health and well-being. Sections are included on: (1) hearing loss; (2) heart disease; (3) other reactions by the body; (4) effects on the unborn; (5) special effects on children; (6) intrusion at home and work; (7) mental and social well-being; and (8) danger to life…

  2. Colonias: Problems and Promise. Desperate Situations, Local Innovations = Colonias: Problemas y Promesa. Situaciones Dificiles, Innovaciones Locales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borderlines, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Colonias--unincorporated, low-income settlements endemic to the U.S. borderlands--have inadequate infrastructure and dismal living conditions, but also provide a creative solution to the housing dilemma faced by many border families. Colonias are most common in Texas and New Mexico, primarily as a result of weak rural planning laws, and are…

  3. Solucion de Problemas y Procesos Cognoscitivos (Problem Solving and Cognitive Processes). Publication No. 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.

    The study of problem solving is made through the analysis of the process that leads to the final answer. The type of information obtained through the study of the process is compared with the information obtained by studying the final answer. The experimental technique used permits to identify the sequence of questions (tactics) that subjects ask…

  4. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os

  5. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingsong; Li, Yijun; Wu, Xiaolu; Liu, Qingqing; Tang, Xue; Wang, Zuo

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: oligoelementos como zinc (Zn), hierro (Fe) y cobre (Cu) tienen una influencia significativa en el mantenimiento de la función inmune y del metabolismo normales; modulan la función immune e influyen en la susceptibilidad del organismo ante infecciones. Pero la relación entre trazas de estos elementos y la bronconeumonía resultó incierta. Métodos: en este estudio fueron incluidos 28 niños con bronconeumonía y 46 niños sanos agrupados por edad. Se determinaron los niveles de Zn, Cu, Fe, calcio (Ca) y/o magnesio (Mg) en el suero de los niños con bronconeumonía y sin ella mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Resultados: los resultados muestran que varios niveles de microelementos como Zn, Ca, Mg y Fe en el grupo con bronconeumonía son menores que en el grupo control. En el grupo de niños con bronconeumonía el nivel de Ca en el suero está asociado positivamente con el zinc (Zn) (p < 0,05) y el hierro (Fe) (p < 0,05), mientras que hay una correlación positiva entre el cobre (Cu) y el calcio (Ca) (p < 0,05), magnesio (mg) (p < 0,05). Conclusión: el nivel de oligoelemento en el suero puede estar asociado con el riesgo de bronconeumonía entre los niños. PMID:27238780

  6. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, impacción, obstrucción intestinal y diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  7. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, la retención fecal, la obstrucción intestinal y la diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  8. Neuropatía persistente aumenta el riesgo de caídas entre supervivientes de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas mujeres supervivientes de cáncer tienen problemas de movilidad y de otras funciones físicas como resultado de la neuropatía periférica persistente causada por el tratamiento de quimioterapia, según un estudio nuevo.

  9. Hacer frente - Su imagen propia y su sexualidad

    Cancer.gov

    El cáncer y su tratamiento pueden cambiar la forma como usted se ve y siente de su persona y de su cuerpo. Puede tomar algunas medidas para superar los cambios de su cuerpo y problemas relacionados con su sexualidad e intimidad.

  10. Delimitacion de las Zonas Dialectales de Mexico: Objetivos y Problemas (Delimitation of Dialect Zones in Mexico: Objectives and Problems)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanch, Juan M. Lope

    1975-01-01

    Before creating a linguistic map of Mexican dialects, it is necessary to determine the dialect regions of the country. An extensive questionnaire must be written and distributed to collect data from a representative sample of the population for an accurate picture of the language. (CK) (Text in Spanish.)

  11. Espanol mexicano y espanol chicano: Problemas y propuestas fundamentales (Mexican Spanish and Chicano Spanish: Fundamental Problems and Proposals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Margarita

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the rise of Mexican Spanish as a distinct variety of Spanish and describes the regional and social dialects of contemporary Mexican Spanish. Although countless similarities exist between Mexican Spanish and the Chicano Spanish spoken in the southwestern United States, Mexican Spanish shows greater variability. (GR)

  12. Los problemas de contenido y de empleo del verbo haber (Problems of Meaning and Use of the Verb "Haber.")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Botero, Luis A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the derivation, meaning and both past and present uses of the Spanish verb "haber." The verb refers to relationships of possession, duration and existence, and is used as an auxiliary. Extant derivative forms of the verb in other languages and earlier Spanish meanings are noted. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  13. REASSESSMENT OF THE SCHOOL LOCATION PROBLEM--A MULTI-FUNCTIONAL ROLE FOR THE SCHOOL IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOST, JEANNE

    RISING PRESSURES OF COMPETITION FOR LAND IN URBAN AREAS SUGGEST THE NEED FOR NOVEL APPROACHES TO PLANNING PUBLIC LAND USE FOR FOSTERING HIGHER LEVELS OF LIVING DESIRABILITY OF THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT. EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN BOTH ECONOMIC AND NON-ECONOMIC DISCIPLINES SERVE AS THE BASIS FOR A BROADER CONCEPT OF THE URBAN SCHOOL LOCATION PROBLEM.…

  14. Temas y problemas del idioma espanol en la prensa (Spanish Language Topics and Problems in the Press).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Brocense; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This section consists of reprints on the following topics: (1) the misuse of "en"; (2) anglicisms; (3) widespread use of vulgar language; (4) an interview with Emilio Criado on Spanish language variation; (5) use of the feminine in professional titles; and (6) Spanish, the national language of Latin American countries. (AMH)

  15. Una formalizacion tentativa del problema de la barrera linguistica (A Tentative Formalization of the Problem of Linguistic Barriers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1971-01-01

    The formulas presented in this paper provide the means for showing the ease with which scientific information can be passed from one language into another. The formulas are based on several factors. The linguistic barrier can be measured to illustrate the relative degree of difference between two languages based on a comparison of vocabulary,…

  16. Decision e Informacion en Solucion de Problemas. Publicacion No. 77 (Information and Decision Making in Problem Solving. Publication No. 77).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.; And Others

    A technique using information and decision-making theories to evaluate problem solving tactics is presented. In problem solving, the process of solution is evaluated by investigating the questions that the subject doing the problem solving asks. The sequence of questions asked is called a tactic. It is assumed that: (1) tactics are the observable…

  17. Aportes del Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas (ABP) en la ensenanza de la Fisiologia Animal en un programa de Zootecnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinartz-Estrada, Monica

    Based on difficulties observed on the subject of technical-scientific conceptualization and the integration of theory and practice in learning animal physiology for students in the Animal Science program at the National University of Colombia in Medellin, this research paper proposes a problem-based learning strategy founded on the method of Problem Based Learning (PBL), applied specifically to the issues of thermoregulation and physiological stress in domestic animals. In this case study, a sample size of eight students was presented with a pedagogical problem during the first session that would then be solved during the course. In order to evaluate the process, three surveys were conducted called Level Test Formulations (NF) performed at different times of the trial: one before beginning the topic (NF 1), one after three theoretical classes had been given and before beginning the fieldwork (NF 2), and another one after the end of the process (NF 3). Finally, individual interviews were conducted with each student to know the students' perceptions regarding the method. The information obtained was subjected to a qualitative analysis and categorization, using the QDA Miner program which reviewed and coded texts from the surveys and individual interviews, supplemented in turn, by field observation, analyzing the conceptual change, the theory-practice relationship and the correlation between the variables and categories established. Among the main results obtained, it should be noted that following the implementation of PBL in this Animal Physiology course, support for conceptual change was demonstrated and the formulated problem served as a connector between theory and practice. Moreover, there was a fusion of prior knowledge with newly acquired knowledge, meaningful learning, improvement in the level of conceptualization and an increase in the scientificness of definitions; it also led to problem-solving and overcoming epistemological obstacles such as multidisciplinarity and nonlinearity. As a result of this research, it is recommended that this method be evaluated in other topics related to Animal Physiology, in other sciences, in larger sample sizes, as well as to address the issue of evaluation applied directly to this method. Key words: Problem Based Learning (PBL), conceptual change, integration of theory and practice, significatif learning, animal physiology, thermoregulation, physiological stress.

  18. Como Planear Mi Vida = Make a Life for Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra; Casey, Sean

    This booklet for teenagers about life planning is presented in parallel English and Spanish versions with a special focus on young Hispanics growing up in America. It discusses hopes and dreams that adolescents may have and gives tips for reaching goals. A sentence completion exercise is included to help readers set goals. Four important goals for…

  19. Los mitos como memoria colectiva de Los Pueblos.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, P. T.

    Myths are essentially something practical that allows those who believe in them to solve any ambiguity which could come up in their relation with nature. Since they bring information about the condition of the reality to which they belong, they are but the appropriate instrument to insert nature into culture by actually achieving an adaptation to the environment. The purpose of this essay is to show how the deification of plants, animals, and stars, which are present in the daily lives of "Amerindian" people, not only constitutes a source of rich mythology but also turns out to be an effective measure towards the continuity of social groups. Similarities or identifications between human life and the life of plants, animals and stars as well as mutual interplay are somehow present in those myths: stars which create or are changed into human being, animals or plants; human beings who create or are transformed into astral bodies; battles between peoples and stars, etc. On this base, mythology can provide not only keys to show how certain human groups have achieved their adaptation to the environment and how the different social systems and their relations to nature have developed, but also hints of changes which have taken place in other heavenly spheres such as the falling of meteors, the appearance of comets or any other significant events of this kind in the lives of these groups.

  20. Make a Life for Yourself = Como Planear Mi Vida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    This booklet was devised to help Hispanic teenagers develop a life plan. It provides information for making decisions, and is written in both English and Spanish. Tips are provided for setting goals. A sentence-completion task helps the teenager focus on specific issues, and use concrete language when talking about the goals. Specific goals are…

  1. El Espanol como Idioma Universal (Spanish as a Universal Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijares, Jose

    1977-01-01

    A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  2. [Parenting Information. Informacion Sobre Como Ser Padres Mejores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These five booklets, containing information on how parenting can effect children's school achievement, are part of a series of 22 innovative booklets designed specifically to help parents understand and help their children learn. Booklet #1, "Parents--Teach Your Children to Learn [Before They Go to School]," defines intelligence and suggests…

  3. Understanding Your Child's Learning Differences = Entienda como aprende su hijo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Elizabeth N.

    Children who are bright and hard-working, yet find school a struggle, or children who can discuss things they have learned but whose written work is of surprisingly poor quality, might have learning differences that are hindering them from reaching their full potential. Some children are visual learners, others are auditory learners, and others…

  4. Como Lo Hago Yo: Tratamiento Quirurgico Del Mielomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    En Argentina hay plan de fortificación con ácido fólico. Diagnostico prenatal no siempre es correcto. Cierre según técnica. Cerramos músculo. No favorecemos corpectomía temprana en casos de cifosis. Suturamos la plaqueta. Cerramos el plano muscular. Hidrocefalia: Válvula de derivación, generalmente dentro de los dos primeros meses. Ventriculostomía no está indicada. Chiari II. Laminectomia cervical alta. Siringomielia: Derivación desde la cavidad al peritoneo. PMID:24791219

  5. Entropía de la información: una herramienta útil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P.

    En este trabajo se presenta una muy breve introducción al concepto de Entropía de la Información y se muestran distintas aplicaciones de una misma técnica para estudiar problemas tan variados como la determinación de periodicidad en una serie de tiempo arbitraria o de estimar el grado de caoticidad de una trayectoria en un sistema dinámico de N grados de libertad.

  6. Datirovka zvezdnogo kataloga Ptolemeya po sobstvennym dvizheniyam: tysyacheletnyaya problema reshena %t Dating Ptolemy's star catalogue based on proper motions: the thousand-year-old problem solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambis, A. K.; Efremov, Yu. N.

    The thousand-year-old problem of the origin of the star catalogue included in Ptolemy's "Almagest" is considered. The dilemma whether stellar coordinates were based on Hipparchus' or Ptolemy's observations has arisen long ago, because the 1 degree error in ecliptic longitudes may be explained either by Ptolemy's error in the initial longitudes of the Sun, or by the fact that Ptolemy adopted the original Hipparchus' coordinates and transformed them to a 265-year later epoch using an erroneous constant for precession. In fact, only indirect evidence for the Hipparchan origin of most of the coordinates was available so far, and most specialists considered the issue still to be resolved. We have successfully applied a new approach based on stellar proper motions. The time-dependent mutual distances in the configurations including 8 fast stars yield an epoch of -53 ± 130 B.C., whereas the bulk method based on an analysis of the Almagest minus computed coordinate differences for 40 fastest stars yields an epoch of -90 ± 120 B.C. Standard errors in the ancient ecliptic longitudes and latitudes are found to be σ(λcosβ) = 18' and σβ = 13', respectively. It is concluded that the stellar coordinates in the Almagest catalogue were observed during Hipparchus' lifetime and that Ptolemy's authorship claim can be rejected at a 94% significance level. Ptolemy's assertion that "we observed as many stars as we could sight down to the sixth magnitude" might simply imply that he found each star of the original catalogue to be near its position in the sky given by Hipparchus, and then adopted Hipparchus' coordinates as measured by a more skilled observer.

  7. Hacia Una Pedagogia de Solucion de Problemas en La Educacion Ambiental. Serie Educacion Ambiental 15 (Pedagogy of Solutions and Problems in Environmental Education. Environmental Education Series 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This document discusses the teaching of problem solving in environmental education. From an interdisciplinary viewpoint, this study describes some strategies for teaching that can favor the practice of educational activities oriented toward solving the concrete problems of the surrounding environment. The volume is divided into seven chapters. The…

  8. Hablando Con Maestros Guia para Padres para Resolver Problemas Con La Escuela = Talking With Teachers: A Problem-Solving Handbook for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Roberto L.

    Designed to help parents communicate with teachers about the school problems of their children, the handbook provides strategies which can guide parents to collect accurate information about a problem and to use it to initiate an open exchange with the teacher. The strategies can be used whether parents are becoming aware of a problem or have been…

  9. Adolescent Illiteracy: What Libraries Can Do to Solve the Problem--A Report on the Research of the Project on Adolescent Illiteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Judith

    1988-01-01

    Describes characteristics of effective adolescent literacy programs and discusses the role of the public library. Library collections for adolescents with literacy needs and the professionals who work with them, referral to literacy programs, library sponsored programs, and staff development are identified as areas that public libraries need to…

  10. Para muchos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer, los efectos tardíos representan problemas duraderos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los efectos tardíos en la salud que afectan a ciertos adolescentes y adultos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer, y la necesidad de aumentar la concientización y la vigilancia de estos efectos tardíos.

  11. Problemas del Lenguaje Espanol en la Prensa: El Castellano, Esta Lengua Enferma (Problems of the Spanish Language in the Press: Castillian, That Closed-In Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quijada, Carlos Alonso

    1977-01-01

    Learned academies deplore the deterioration of Castillian Spanish due to foreign contamination. They ignore the real source of the problem within Spain itself where everyone speaks the language badly except those in the remote towns and a few intellectuals. A ray of hope comes from the Americans. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  12. Temas y Problemas del idioma espanol en la prensa: El lenguaje, arma peligrosa (Themes and Problems of the Spanish Language in the Press: Language, a Dangerous Weapon).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Senillosa, Antonio

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the important role that language has in our society and compares human communication to animal group communication. Gives specific examples of corruption in the Spanish language today. (NCR)

  13. Muchos adolescentes y adultos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer tienen problemas crónicos de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los resultados de un estudio realizado en 2012 que subrayan la importancia de abordar las necesidades especiales e inquietudes de los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer.

  14. El problema de la barrera linguistica en el desarrollo cientifico y tecnologico (The Problem of the Language Barrier in Scientific and Technological Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    This monograph discusses the problem of the language barrier in scientific and technological development in terms of several parameters describing the flow of scientific information from one language to another. The numerical values of the language barrier parameters of the model are calculated in the field of information on second language…

  15. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la esperanza de vida está aumentando y convirtiéndose en un fenómeno característico de los países desarrollados y, cada vez más, de los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiológicas, como la pérdida del olfato o gusto o pérdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos más longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.Métodos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Missões - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos y dietéticos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuación de nutrientes se evaluó de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 años y el 15.6% (n = 66) con más de 80 años. La ingesta de energía y proteínas fue insuficiente tanto para jóvenes adultos como para los más ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepción del hierro, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores sólo en cuanto al consumo de lípidos y vitamina B12. Conclusión: la mayoría de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este artículo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, por lo tanto, a cambios fisiológicos y patológicos que pondrían en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energía y de macronutrientes resultó insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos más longevos. Además, el consumo de vitaminas y

  16. La tasa de decaimiento del ciclo solar como indicador de actividad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    The length of the solar cycle has been linked to solar forcing of global climate. Usually, cycle length is defined as the time difference between consecutive sunspot minima. However, sunspot minima is determined both by the diminishing number of spots of the old cycle and by the increasing number of spots of the new one. Therefore, the date of the minimum depends on the properties of both cycles, and is generally ill defined. Furthermore, changes in solar activity should precede climatic changes. On the other hand, it has been suggested that the length of the cycle is related to changes in the Sun's convective energy transport, through the decay rate of individual sunspots. Here, using the concept of extended activity cycle, we define an activity index based on the decay rate of the cycle, and study its correlation with other indexes.

  17. Co/Mo bimetallic addition to electrolytic manganese dioxide for oxygen generation in acid medium.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Dario; Minakshi, Manickam; McGinnity, Justin; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    An efficient electrocatalyst comprising inexpensive and earth-abundant materials for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for the development of water electrolysis. In this work, in-situ addition of cobalt/molybdenum ions to the electrolytic manganese dioxide has been shown to be beneficial for the OER in acid solution as its overpotential performed better (305 mV) than that of the commercial DSA(®) (341 mV) at 100 mA cm(-2). The OER was investigated at ambient temperature in 2 M H2SO4 solution on the modified EMD (MnMoCoO) electrodes. The energy efficiency of the MnMoCoO electrodes improved significantly with the amount of Co in the plating solution. For the electrodeposited catalysts, physico-chemical and electrochemical measurements were conducted including static overpotentials. The better performance of the modified EMD was attributed to an improved charge transfer resistance (Rct; 0.290 Ω cm(2)), average roughness factor (rf; 429) and decrease in water content in the electrodeposited catalysts. The kinetic parameters obtained on MnMoCoO catalysts were compared and discussed according to the cobalt concentration. PMID:26469204

  18. The New Room Arrangement as a Teaching Strategy = La Nueva Organizacion del Salon como Estrategia Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister

    Many typical classroom behavior problems--running in the classroom, inability to make choices, failure to stick with activities, fighting over toys, and poor use of materials-- can be traced to how the room is arranged and how materials are displayed. By making a few changes in the classroom environment, early childhood teachers can create a…

  19. Co/Mo bimetallic addition to electrolytic manganese dioxide for oxygen generation in acid medium

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Dario; Minakshi, Manickam; McGinnity, Justin; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    An efficient electrocatalyst comprising inexpensive and earth-abundant materials for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for the development of water electrolysis. In this work, in-situ addition of cobalt/molybdenum ions to the electrolytic manganese dioxide has been shown to be beneficial for the OER in acid solution as its overpotential performed better (305 mV) than that of the commercial DSA® (341 mV) at 100 mA cm−2. The OER was investigated at ambient temperature in 2 M H2SO4 solution on the modified EMD (MnMoCoO) electrodes. The energy efficiency of the MnMoCoO electrodes improved significantly with the amount of Co in the plating solution. For the electrodeposited catalysts, physico-chemical and electrochemical measurements were conducted including static overpotentials. The better performance of the modified EMD was attributed to an improved charge transfer resistance (Rct; 0.290 Ω cm2), average roughness factor (rf; 429) and decrease in water content in the electrodeposited catalysts. The kinetic parameters obtained on MnMoCoO catalysts were compared and discussed according to the cobalt concentration. PMID:26469204

  20. Como ayudar a sus hijos a usar la biblioteca (Helping Your Child Use the Library).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkinson, Kathryn

    Focusing on the cooperative role of parents and public libraries in stimulating reading interests in children of all ages, this booklet addresses the following issues: (1) getting children interested in reading (reading aloud to children; encouraging children to read to you; starting a home library; showing children that you enjoy reading;…

  1. Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes (How To Apply for Federal Student Aid).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This guide, written in Spanish, discusses reasons for going to college, how to pay for college, and how to apply for federal student aid in a series of brief, clear illustrations. Following outlines of financial benefits of college, college costs, and space to note costs for the student's area, the guide outlines these steps in the application…

  2. Co/Mo bimetallic addition to electrolytic manganese dioxide for oxygen generation in acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Dario; Minakshi, Manickam; McGinnity, Justin; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-01

    An efficient electrocatalyst comprising inexpensive and earth-abundant materials for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for the development of water electrolysis. In this work, in-situ addition of cobalt/molybdenum ions to the electrolytic manganese dioxide has been shown to be beneficial for the OER in acid solution as its overpotential performed better (305 mV) than that of the commercial DSA® (341 mV) at 100 mA cm-2. The OER was investigated at ambient temperature in 2 M H2SO4 solution on the modified EMD (MnMoCoO) electrodes. The energy efficiency of the MnMoCoO electrodes improved significantly with the amount of Co in the plating solution. For the electrodeposited catalysts, physico-chemical and electrochemical measurements were conducted including static overpotentials. The better performance of the modified EMD was attributed to an improved charge transfer resistance (Rct; 0.290 Ω cm2), average roughness factor (rf; 429) and decrease in water content in the electrodeposited catalysts. The kinetic parameters obtained on MnMoCoO catalysts were compared and discussed according to the cobalt concentration.

  3. Escuelas sin Drogas. Como Actuar. Edicion 1992. (Schools without Drugs. What Works. 1992 Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Across the United States, schools and communities have found ways to turn the tide in the battle against drugs. This guidebook describes the methods they have used and the actions they have taken. The first section, "Children and Drugs" outlines the nature and extent of the drug problem and summarizes the latest research on the effects of drugs on…

  4. Spanish Oral Language Guide: Kindergarten Level. Espanol como Segundo Idioma. Teacher's Guide: Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbell, Gloria; And Others

    This teacher's guide to Spanish language at the kindergarten level includes a recommended subject presentation sequence for the Spanish curriculum, a sample schedule, a grouping of students using three stations, and a classroom layout. The grouping would be effective when at least one-third of the children are Spanish-speaking or bilingual. The…

  5. Como Ayudar a sus Hijos a Aprender Ciencia (Helping Your Child Learn Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy; Martin, Margery

    Because most parents say they do not or cannot help their children with science, this booklet was designed to help them do so, easily and with pleasure for both parent and child. The introduction presents information on why and how parents should help their children and provides a general orientation to the ideas and activities offered in the…

  6. Cosmic ray soil moisture observing systems comos in cap fields at El Reno Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water content (SWC) partitions rainfall into runoff and infiltration, modulates surface and atmospheric exchanges of water and energy, affects plant growth and crop yields, and impacts chemical and biological activities of soil, among other things. Thus, SWC, especially over large scales, is a...

  7. International Perspectives on Affirmative Action. A Bellagio Conference (Lake Como, Italy, August 16-20, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    This volume presents nine papers read at a conference on affirmative action, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation and held at Columbia University in August 1982; a preface, summary paper, and list of participants are also included. Each paper addresses the issue of affirmative action within a different country and describes: (1) the policies…

  8. Contributions of local knowledge to the physical limnology of Lake Como, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Sarah; Imberger, Jörg; Toussaint, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how local knowledge may be valuably integrated into a scientific approach in the study of large and complex hydrological systems where data collection at high resolution is a challenge. This claim is supported through a study of the hydrodynamics of a large lake where qualitative data collected from professional fishers was combined with theory to develop a hypothesis that was then verified by numerical modeling. First the fishermen’s narratives were found to describe with accuracy internal wave motions that were evident in water column temperature records, which revealed their practical knowledge of the lake’s hydrodynamics. Second, local knowledge accounts emphasized the recurrent formation of mesoscale gyres and return flows in certain zones of the lake in stratified conditions, which did not appear in the physical data because of limitations of sampling resolution. We hypothesized that these features developed predominantly because of the interaction of wind-driven internal motions with the lake’s bathymetry, and the Earth’s rotation in the widest areas of the basin. Numerical simulation results corroborated the fishers’ descriptions of the flow paths and supported the hypothesis about their formation. We conclude that the collaboration between scientific and local knowledge groups, although an unusual approach for a physical discipline of the geosciences, is worth exploring in the pursuit of a more comprehensive understanding of complex geophysical systems such as large lakes. PMID:22493231

  9. Como pagar to educacion, 2004-2005 (Funding Your Education, 2004-2005).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This publication, written in Spanish, describes financial aid programs of the U.S. Department of Education and advises students about paying for college. It outlines things a student should ask about college and how to obtain financial aid, whether grants, work-study, or loans. Chapters provide information on: (1) "Education after High School";…

  10. Como pagar tu educacion, 2003-2004 (How To Pay for Your Education, 2003-2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish language booklet discusses paying for college. The guide presents information in question-and-answer form about things an applicant should ask and how to obtain financial aid. It describes the criteria for receiving aid and provides information about complying with aid requirements. The booklet also describes federal Pell grants and…

  11. Como si le Falta un Brazo: Latino Immigrant Parents and the Costs of Not Knowing English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of Latino/a immigrant parents about the place of English in their lives. The parents described how they had come to the United States with intentions of learning English, but various obstacles made it an overwhelming challenge. The author questions whether, despite rhetoric to the contrary, financially…

  12. "Tanto Necesitamos De Aqui Como Necesitamos De Alla": "Leer Juntas" among Mexican Transnational Mothers and Daughters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents part of the results of a qualitative study about literacy practices of Mexican transnational mothers, who live in and frequently cross the border between two countries (the United States and Mexico). Drawing on sociocultural approaches to literacy and literature on transnationalism, I analyze one practice: "leer juntas"…

  13. The Struggle for Mexico's First Gay-Straight Alliance: Como una Novela Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, a group of high school students at a private American school in Mexico City started the first gay-straight alliance in Mexico. A small group of conservative parents and a Mormon principal organized in opposition. This paper details the students' struggle to keep their club and offers lessons learned about student activism, school change,…

  14. Difusión de Arnold en un modelo simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P. M.; Nuñez, J. A.; Miloni, O.

    Investigadores como Merritt, Valluri, Pfenniger o Contopoulos (por citar los más relevantes) consideran seriamente la hipótesis que la difusión de Arnold juega un rol importante en la evolución dinámica de los sistemas estelares y planetarios. Sin embargo no existe ninguna evidencia. El mayor problema para investigar fenómenos como éste es que uno debe estudiar numéricamente sistemas multidimensionales (más de dos grados de libertad) y visualizar de alguna manera el espacio de fases (más de cuatro dimensiones). Más complicado aún es el caso de difusión de Arnold, donde deben considerarse tiempos de movimiento extremadamente largos y tratar con parámetros exponencialmente pequeños. El propósito de este trabajo es estudiar, en un modelo simple 3D, la existencia o no de difusión de Arnold mediante experimentos numéricos y estimaciones analíticas. Siguiendo los trabajos de Cincotta (2000) y Cincotta, Nuñez y Simo (2000), aquí se pretende ``visualizar" la difusión y, a la vez, determinar la escala de tiempo en la que ésta se podría manifestar. Este trabajo es el escalón inicial para luego abordar este problema en modelos.

  15. New data on the Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Canary Islands, with a description of a new species of Apseudopsis.

    PubMed

    Esquete, Patricia; Ramos, Eva; Riera, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Benthic samples from two harbours at El Hierro and Tenerife (Canary Islands) yielded three species of Tanaidacea. Tanais dulongii and Leptochelia savignyi are recorded for the first time in Tenerife and El Hierro, respectively. A new species of Apseudomorpha, Apseudopsis rogi, was collected in both harbours and can be differentiated from other species of the genus by the male having a cheliped merus with a distinctive, cylindrical dorso-proximal spur. This is the first species of Apseudopsis described for the Macaronesian region. A key to the Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Apseudopsis is provided. PMID:27394493

  16. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  17. Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Kostantin V.

    This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

  18. SOS! Ayuda para Padres: Una Guia Practica para Manejar Problemas de Conducta Comunes y Corrientes. (SOS! Help for Parents: A Practical Guide for Handling Common Everyday Behavior Problems.) Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lynn

    This Spanish-language version of "SOS" provides parents with guidance for handling a variety of common behavior problems based on the behavior approach to child rearing and discipline. This approach suggests that good and bad behavior are both learned and can be changed, and proposes specific methods, skills, procedures, and strategies for parents…

  19. Il fattore "eta'" nell'acquisizione linguistica (L1 e L2): dimensioni di un "meta-problema" (The "Age" Factor in Language Acquisition [L1 and L2]: The Dimensions of a "Meta-Problem").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Renzo

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes and comments on two recent books, one by Birgit Harley and the other by David Singleton, that review the language research carried out to determine the importance of age in learning a second language. (CFM)

  20. Educational Assistance Overpayments, A Billion Dollar Problem--A Look at the Causes, Solutions, and Collection Efforts. Veterans Administration. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Overpayments to veterans and veterans' dependents under the VA's educational assistance programs have increased dramatically in recent years; as of the end of 1975, cumulative overpayments totaled almost $1.4 billion. In fiscal year 1967, overpayments represented 0.7 percent of VA's total educational benefits paid, whereas in the first six months…

  1. Il problema della scelta e della continuita della lingua straniera nella scuola dell'obbligo (Problems of Choice and Continuity of a Foreign Language in Elementary and Junior High School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotti, Maurizio

    1987-01-01

    Discusses two current problems with foreign language study in Italy: (1) Students are frequently unable to study English, the most popular language, because of a lack of qualified English teachers; and (2) Students sometimes cannot continue studying in junior high school the language they began in elementary school. (CFM)

  2. Studiar L'inglese dalle elementari--Problema europeo: Una proposta nuova della pedagogia cibernetica (Beginning the Study of English in the Elementary School Grades--A European Problem: A New Proposal from Cibernetic Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiti-Batelli, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    Warns the European community of the dangers of accepting English as the international language and urges the adoption of Esperanto, a neutral language without its own cultural tradition, as the international lingua franca. (CFM)

  3. Lunnoe zatmenie -330, sept. 20 i problema izmereniya dolgoty v antichnoj geografii %t The -330, Sept. 20 lunar eclipse and the problem of the determination of longitude in ancient geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, D. A.

    The attempt to reconstruct the Hipparchus system of is proposed. The offered analysis of certain passages in the treatises of Ptolemy, Pliny, and Strabo allows to trace the latent semantic connection between them and to advance a hypothesis to clarify it. Ptolemy's passage (sect. 3) states Hipparchus to propose in his geography a certain system of meridians and to use the -330, Sept. 20 eclipse to determine the relative longitudes of Arbela and Carthage. Pliny's evidence (4) shows that Hipparchus must have known about the observation of this eclipse from Sicily, which demands to situate this island far eastward of Carthage. Strabo's data (5) confirm that Hipparchus, while criticising Eratosthenes, suggested situating Sicily far eastward of Carthage. Ptolemy's data (6) show that Marinus, whose work Ptolemy's geography was based on, in his early redaction, must situate Sicily farther eastward than in the final variant. Posidonius' passage (7) demonstrates the latitude of Sicily in Ptolemy's geography to go back to Hipparchus. In "Almagest" (9) the longitude of Babylon (relative to Alexandria) is directly ascribed to Hipparchus and the longitude of Rome agrees with that of Sicily in Pliny's evidence. The data of Ptolemy's geography (9.3-9.5) permit that Arbela and Babylon were situated on the same meridian initially. All these enable us to suggest that Hipparchus determined the longitudes not only of Arbela and Babylon, but also of Babylon and Sicily, Alexandria and Rome.

  4. Keys to the Future: A Handbook for Parents of Children with Disabilities [and] Las Llaves para el Futuro: Un Libro para los Padres de Ninos con Problemas de Desarrollo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Council on Developmental Disabilities.

    Designed for parents of children with disabilities, this handbook (in both English and Spanish versions) provides information about services available in Idaho, how to use these services, and how to approach the job of parenting a child with disabilities. Chapters include: (1) "Beginnings: Understanding Your Family and Your Child with a…

  5. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  6. Insertion of Astronomy as a High School Subject. (Spanish Title: Inserción de Astronomia Como Materia del Ciclo Secundario.) Inserção da Astronomia Como Disciplina Curricular do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Claudio André C. M.; Santa Rita, Josué R.

    2008-12-01

    Astronomy is considered among the first sciences that man dominated, however, the basic skills for the construction of knowledge, relatively to the contents "Earth and the Universe" are not being developed properly for the majority of students concluding the high school level. The students are concluding this teaching cycle without proper knowledge of several subjects in the area of Astronomy, which are mandatory in the national Curricular National Parameters (PCN). Because of this discrepancy, this work stresses the need of the incorporation of a specific subject of Astronomy in the high school, in order to reduce the gap between what is taught and which should be taught. La Astronomía es considerada una de las primeras ciencias que el hombre dominó. Sin embargo, las habilidades básicas para la construcción del conocimento, relativo al eje temático "Tierra y Universo", no vienen siendo trabajadas adecuadamente con la mayoría de los alumnos que concluyen el ciclo escolar medio. Los alumnos están concluyendo este nivel de enseñanza sin conocimentos de varios temas en el área de Astronomía, que son obligatorios según los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN). En virtud de esta discrepancia, este trabajo enfatiza la necesidad de incorporar una disciplina específica de Astronomía em el ciclo medio, em pro de la reducción de las distorsiones entre lo que es enseñado y lo que se debe enseñar. A Astronomia é considerada uma das primeiras ciências que o homem dominou, porém as competências básicas para a construção do conhecimento, relativo ao eixo temático "Terra e Universo", não vêm sendo trabalhadas a contento com a maioria dos alunos que concluem o ensino médio. Os alunos estão concluindo este nível de ensino sem conhecimento de vários temas na área de Astronomia, que são obrigatórios nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN). Em virtude desta discrepância, este trabalho vem evidenciar a necessidade da incorporação de uma disciplina específica de Astronomia, no ensino médio, em prol da redução das distorções entre o que é ensinado e o que se deve ensinar.

  7. How Families Teach, Support, Learn, Make Decisions: Ways for Families To Help Children Do Better in School = Como las Familias Ensenan, Apoyan, Aprenden, Toman Decisiones: Como las Familias Ayudan a los Ninos a Mejorar en la Escuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Hampton, NH.

    This booklet contains ideas about how families can help children in school in the following basic ways by: (1) teaching their children; (2) learning new things to help their children learn; (3) supporting children and the school; and (4) making decisions about what and how children learn. For each of these areas, a chart is included so that…

  8. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Field Study at the Mars Analog Site of Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) study at the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), near the towns Rio Tinto and Nerva, Andalucia region, Spain.

  9. Contextualizacion y "Expresiones Pragmaticas": "Che" como Senal de Marco (Contextualization and "Pragmatic Expressions": "Che" as Deictic Marker).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, Isolda

    The pragmatic expressions of Argentine Spanish (e.g., "bueno, viste, no? mira") are defined as deictic signals. They are deictic because they indicate elements of the communicative situation: transitions between text segments, conversational roles, or the social relationship between participants. They also signal contextual suppositions and help…

  10. El doblete D del Sodio como indicador de la actividad cromosférica en estrellas de la secuencia principal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. F.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    We study the line profile of the sodium D doublet (5890 A and 5896 A) in dwarf stars with spectral type between M5.5 and F6. We find that the equivalent width of these lines shows a very good correlation with spectral type for stars later than K4. The flux absorbed in this region of the spectrum is then compared with the flux absorbed in the calcium H&K lines -a traditional activity indicator. For stars with (B-V)> 1.15 the correlation between absorbed fluxes is good and hence the sodium doublet is a good activity indicator. Since the doublet is found at longer wavelenghts than the calcium H & K lines, it is particularly useful for the study of chromospheric activity in late-type stars.

  11. La Traduccion Simultanea como Materia en Una Carrera de Lenguas (Simultaneous Translation as a Course in a Foreign Language Program)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, D.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the foreign language curriculum at the university level in which courses in simultaneous translation are required. The size and composition of the groups are described as well as methods used to develop skill in translating and interpreting. Results are assessed. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  12. How To Start a Family Day Care = Como Iniciar una Guarderia en El Hogar. [Videotape and Viewer's Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Doris; Weisman, Douglas

    Being a family day care provider is work that requires professional responsibilities and attention to the physical, emotional, and educational well-being of children; listening and responding to parents; and running a business. This videotape, in English- and Spanish-language versions, explores the elements involved in starting up a family day…

  13. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  14. Caracteristicas de la Instruccion Programada como Tecnica de Ensenanza (Characteristics of Programed Instruction as a Teaching Technique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrego, Maria Elena

    This discussion of programed instruction begins with the fundamental psychological aspects and learning theories behind this teaching method. Negative and positive reinforcement, conditioning, and their relationship to programed instruction are considered. Different types of programs, both linear and branching, are discussed; criticism of the…

  15. "Tras de un Amoroso Lance" como Estructura Expresiva (The Poem, "Behind the Amorous Cast" as an Expressive Structure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratosevich, Nicolas

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of a poem by San Juan de la Cruz (St. John of the Cross), the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, identifies symbols and images, explains themes, and offers a synthesis of his structural patterns. The poem, "Tras de amoroso lance", deals with the theme of the search of the beloved (i.e., the soul) for the lover, and incorporates the…

  16. Significant Learning Experiences for English Foreign Language Students (Experiencias significativas para estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, Luz María; McNulty, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This action research examines experiences that students in a grade 10 EFL class had with redesigning a grammar-unit into a topic-based unit. Strategies were formulating significant learning goals and objectives, and implementing and reflecting on activities with three dimensions of Dee Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning: the human…

  17. Las líneas de aluminio neutro como diagnóstico cromosférico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Borda, R.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    Se presenta un modelo atómico para el cálculo de las lí neas del Aluminio neutro que se forman en la cromósfera solar. En particular, se estudia la línea λ 3961 Å, que, por estar muy próxima a la lí nea H del Ca II y a Hɛ es muy frecuentemente observada. Observaciones en esta lí nea obtenidas con el espectrógrafo a instalarse en el CASLEO, serán utilizadas para el estudio de fulguraciones solares.

  18. The English as a Foreign Language/Lingua Franca Debate: Sensitising Teachers of English as a Foreign Language towards Teaching English as a Lingua Franca (El debate del inglés como lengua extranjera o como lengua franca: sensibilización de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera hacia la enseñanza del inglés como lengua franca)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Gillian; Poppi, Franca

    2012-01-01

    The function of English as a lingua franca for communication needs rethinking in the teaching of English as a foreign language classroom as a consequence of globalisation. The present contribution is an empirical study carried out in an Italian university environment which aims to show how teachers should take on board awareness raising activities…

  19. How Can We Provide Safe Playgrounds? = Como podemos proveer lugares con juegos infantiles que no sean peligrosos para los ninos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACCESS ERIC, Rockville, MD.

    Outdoor playgrounds can be exciting places where children explore their environment and develop motor and social skills; however, they can also pose serious safety hazards. With the exception of California, no mandatory state or federal standards currently exist regarding manufacture or installation of playground equipment or surfaces. The…

  20. Parámetros fundamentales de objetos catalogados como cúmulos estelares en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.

    We present the results of 16 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) clusters ob- tained for the first time from CCD Washington CT1 T2 photometry. CMD cluster features turn out to be identifiable when performing annular extrac- tions around their respective centres, once they were cleaned from field star contamination; their main sequences extending from one up to four mag- nitudes downwards. The clusters resulted to be small angular size objects projected or immersed in dense star fields, as judged from their radial stellar density profiles, so that crowding effect could be responsible for the limited magnitude reached in some cases. We estimated their ages from isochrone fitting - along with the E(B - V ) colour excesses - assuming a metallicity of Z = 0.008 ([Fe/H] = -0.4 dex) and a LMC distance modulus of (m - M)o = 18.50 ± 0.10 mag. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. Determinação de regiões de órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    2003-08-01

    Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regiões do sistema Terra-Lua que contêm órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilização destas órbitas em futuras missões de veículos espaciais como alternativas de trajetórias com baixo custo de manutenção. Adotando-se o problema restrito de três corpos, Terra-Lua-partícula, a localização e a extensão destas regiões de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estável toda órbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mínimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partícula em relação à Lua negativa. A estabilidade de tais regiões está associada a duas famílias de órbitas periódicas simples H1 e H2 e a órbitas quase-periódicas associadas a elas. Uma vez identificadas as regiões de estabilidade passamos a analisá-las introduzindo, paulatinamente, outras interações relevantes ao sistema como as perturbações do Sol (via problema restrito de quatro corpos), das marés, da pressão de radiação e do achatamento terrestre. Os resultados encontrados até o momento mostram que a perturbação do Sol é a única que reduz significativamente o tamanho das regiões de estabilidade. Também estamos investigando o comportamento de tais regiões quando características intrínsecas do sistema como as excentricidades das órbitas da Terra e da Lua e a inclinação da órbita Lua são consideradas. Com este estudo estamos reunindo informações que nos permitirão compreender a evolução das regiões de estabilidade no sistema Terra-Lua, bem como estabelecer parâmetros adequados para a utilização das trajetórias estáveis em futuras missões espaciais. Agradecimentos: Este projeto conta com o apoio do CNPq, da Capes e da Fapesp.

  2. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  3. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    Se presenta una revisión de los conocimientos actuales sobre el proceso de acreción del sistema solar exterior. En base a nuevas y más realistas simulaciones numéricas, se analiza el impacto que tuvo dicho proceso en otras regiones del sistema solar tales como la nube de Oort, el cinturón de Kuiper y el sistema solar interior. Se presentan entonces, las principales limitaciones de los modelos numéricos actuales, los principales puntos aún oscuros en el problema, y algunos de los posibles caminos a seguir para mejorar nuestro conocimiento en el tema. Se discute a continuación la posible utilidad de este tipo de estudios para el diseño de estrategias de búsqueda de otros sistemas planetarios.

  4. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Molina Villaverde, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    El cáncer es un problema sanitario de primera magnitud a escala mundial. Su tratamiento es uno de los mayores campos de innovación y desarrollo en medicina. La visión del cáncer como una enfermedad sistémica, heterogénea y de una elevada complejidad hace que los enfermos deban recibir una atención oncológica de calidad, proporcionada por equipos multidisciplinares altamente cualificados. Además de la gran incidencia de malnutrición en estos pacientes, la intervención nutricional precoz puede mejorar su pronóstico, aumentar la calidad de vida y disminuir la tasa de complicaciones de la enfermedad. Por ello, es necesaria una estrecha colaboración entre el oncólogo y el experto en nutrición. PMID:27269214

  5. PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio G

    2010-11-01

    Argentina ha sido un campo fértil para los intentos de reforma del sector salud, en la búsqueda por mejorar la calidad de sus servicios y, consecuentemente, la accesibilidad y la equidad del mismo. Los resultados obtenidos no han sido proporcionales a los esfuerzos desarrollados. Aunque la bioética debería, como forma de reflexión interdisciplinaria, participar en la fundamentación de nuevas políticas sanitarias y sus efectos sobre los usuarios, parece haber permanecido ajena, en general, a los graves problemas derivados de la corrupción, prefiriendo enfocarse en cuestiones vinculadas a planteos abstractos de justicia y solidaridad, atribuyendo los fracasos a la imposición de modelos económicos foráneos. PMID:21660255

  6. QUALITY, HEALTH SYSTEM AND GOVERNANCE. THE ARGENTINEAN CASE

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio G.

    2011-01-01

    Argentina ha sido un campo fértil para los intentos de reforma del sector salud, en la búsqueda por mejorar la calidad de sus servicios y, consecuentemente, la accesibilidad y la equidad del mismo. Los resultados obtenidos no han sido proporcionales a los esfuerzos desarrollados. Aunque la bioética debería, como forma de reflexión interdisciplinaria, participar en la fundamentación de nuevas políticas sanitarias y sus efectos sobre los usuarios, parece haber permanecido ajena, en general, a los graves problemas derivados de la corrupción, prefiriendo enfocarse en cuestiones vinculadas a planteos abstractos de justicia y solidaridad, atribuyendo los fracasos a la imposición de modelos económicos foráneos. PMID:21660255

  7. Consentimiento informado: una praxis dialogica para la investigacion

    PubMed Central

    Mondragon-Barrios, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    El consentimiento informado es un proceso, en el que una persona acepta participar en una investigation, conociendo los riesgos, beneficios, consecuencias o problemas que se puedan presenter durante el desarrollo de la misma. El objetivo de este trabajo es reunir las caracteristicas del proceso de consentimiento informado (PCI) pare que su discernimiento y cumplimiento posibilite el ejercicio etc° dialogico, reflexivo y responsable del investigador. Se presentan los resultados de una extensa revision de les elementos del PCI, desde sus cornponentes hasta su fundamento etico y legal, incluyendo los mites y realidades que existen sobre el formato de consentimiento informado come recurso legal de protection. El consentimiento informado no es un formato establecido que los investigadores repliquen, se trata de que la praxis del PCI sea una tarea cotidiana dentro de la investigation con seres humanos, como comunicaciOn deliberative y critica, responsable y comprometida entre dos agentes morales, investigador-investigado. PMID:19507477

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Muros, José Joaquín; Cofre-Bolados, Cristian; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Castro-Sánchez, Manuel; Linares-Manrique, Marta; Chacón-Cuberos, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la sociedad actual está experimentando reducciones significativas en los niveles de actividad física, y estos niveles de sedentarismo están asociados a un aumento de la obesidad. Objetivo: describir y analizar las relaciones entre composición corporal, realización de actividad física y condición física, además de describir los índices de sobrepeso/obesidad de una muestra de escolares de la provincia de Santiago (Chile). Material y métodos: se diseñó un estudio transversal con una muestra representativa de 515 alumnos (10,6 ± 0,5). Se determinaron diferentes índices antropométricos (IMC y porcentaje graso), así como la actividad física y la condición física (capacidad aeróbica y fuerza muscular máxima en tren superior e inferior). Resultados: alrededor del 55% de la muestra estudiada presentó problemas de sobrepeso/obesidad. Los valores de volumen de oxígeno máximo (VO 2 máx) y fuerza del tren superior fueron estadísticamente superiores en el grupo de los niños que en el de las niñas. Los alumnos clasificados como obesos presentaron unos niveles superiores de porcentaje graso, así como unos niveles inferiores de actividad física y de condición física que el grupo con normopeso. Se encontró una correlación negativa entre las puntuaciones del PAQ-C (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children) y los parámetros antropométricos, así como entre los parámetros antropométricos y los valores obtenidos en todas las pruebas de condición física. Conclusión: ante los alarmantes niveles de sobrepeso y obesidad infantil detectados en Santiago parece de importante relevancia crear planes de intervención centrados en la mejora de la condición física; los grupos con problemas de sobrepeso y obesidad y los grupos de sexo femeninos donde se debería hacer una mayor incidencia. PMID:27238792

  9. CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL, VARIABILIDAD CLIMÁTICA Y CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA REVISIÓN DEL IMPACTO EN LA SALUD DE LA POBLACIÓN PERUANA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Zevallos, Alisson; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Nuñez, Denisse; Gastañaga, Carmen; Cabezas, César; Naeher, Luke; Levy, Karen; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN El presente artículo es una revisión sobre la contaminación del agua, el aire y el efecto del cambio climático en la salud de la población peruana. Uno de los principales contaminantes del aire es el material particulado menor de 2,5 μ (PM 2,5), en la ciudad de Lima, anualmente 2300 muertes prematuras son atribuibles a este contaminante. Otro problema es la contaminación del aire domiciliario por el uso de cocinas con combustible de biomasa, donde la exposición excesiva a PM 2,5 dentro de las casas es responsable de aproximadamente 3000 muertes prematuras anuales entre adultos, con otro número desconocido de muertes entre niños debido a infecciones respiratorias. La contaminación del agua tiene como principales causas los desagües vertidos directamente a los ríos, minerales (arsénico) de varias fuentes, y fallas de las plantas de tratamiento. En el Perú, el cambio climático puede impactar en la frecuencia y severidad del fenómeno de El Niño oscilación del sur (ENSO) que se ha asociado con un incremento en los casos de enfermedades como cólera, malaria y dengue. El cambio climático incrementa la temperatura y puede extender las áreas afectadas por enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, además de tener efecto en la disponibilidad del agua y en la contaminación del aire. En conclusión, el Perú, pasa por una transición de factores de riesgo ambientales, donde coexisten riesgos tradicionales y modernos, y persisten los problemas infecciosos y crónicos, algunos de los cuales se asocian con problemas de contaminación de agua y de aire. PMID:25418656

  10. Esquizofrenia y trastorno en el consumo de sustancias: prevalencia y characterísticas sociodemográficas en la población Latina

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Castro, Lorena; Raventós-Vorst, Henriette; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-01-01

    El interés por comprender la co-morbilidad de la esquizofrenia y el trastorno en el uso de sustancias, ha aumentado debido al incremento de este diagnóstico, a los efectos negativos observados en el sujeto y a los costos en los servicios de salud. Este trastorno dual puede tener efectos dramáticos en el curso clínico del trastorno psicótico tales como: mayores recaídas, re-hospitalizaciones, síntomas más severos, no adherencia al tratamiento antipsicótico, cambios marcados del humor, aumento en el grado de hostilidad e ideación suicida, así como alteraciones en otras áreas del funcionamiento incluyendo violencia, victimización, indigencia y problemas legales. La literatura proveniente en particular de Estados Unidos y Europa sugiere que el rango de prevalencia para este diagnóstico puede oscilar entre el 10% hasta el 70%. En este estudio, revisamos la prevalencia del diagnóstico dual de esquizofrenia y trastorno en el uso sustancias, así como sus características sociodemográficas, con base en la literatura disponible alrededor del mundo dando énfasis en la poblacion latina. A pesar de que este diagnóstico es ampliamente aceptado, se conoce poco sobre su prevalencia en la población latina, sobre los factores ambientales, demográficos, clínicos y otras características de estos individuos. Un mejor conocimiento sobre este diagnóstico permitiría mejorar los métodos para la detección y adecuada valoración del trastorno en el uso de sustancias en personas con trastornos metales severos como la esquizofrenia. PMID:21404151

  11. Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.

    pyrite et dans les sulfates dissous et la corrélation entre les concentrations en sulfates, en fer et en arsenic dissous laissent penser que l'oxydation des sulfures est le processus dominant contrôlant la libération de l'arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Cependant, les oxy-hydroxydes contenant de l'arsenic sont susceptibles d'être une autre source d'arsenic si des conditions réductrices apparaissent ou s'ils sont transportés dans l'aquifère sous forme de colloïdes. L'analyse des données provenant de puits montre que l'intersection entre le SCH et les niveaux statiques des puits domestiques est fortement corrélée à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Des données de terrain et de laboratoire conduisent à penser que la contamination en arsenic la plus forte est causée par l'interaction localisée aux forages entre l'air, l'eau et les sulfures. Bien que la contamination en arsenic soit causée par l'oxydation de sulfures présents naturellement, elle est influencée par les fluctuations du niveau piézométrique causées par les pompages du captage municipal ou par les variations climatiques, ce qui peut conduire au déplacement des zones géographiques où se produisent les contaminations. Resumen Se han medido concentraciones de arsénico muy altas (de hasta 12000μg/L) en las aguas subterráneas de un acuífero confinado, en areniscas, localizado en la parte oriental de Wisconsin (EEUU). La fuente principal de arsénico es un horizonte de cementación secundaria (SCH) con un alto contenido en sulfuros, y con una gran variabilidad en espesor, morfología y concentraciones de As. El arsénico aparece en piritas y marcasitas, además de en oxihidróxidos de hierro, pero no como una fase independiente de arsenopiritas. El hecho que la marca isotópica de piritas y sulfatos disueltos sea muy similar, y que exista una gran correlación entre las concentraciones de sulfato disuelto, hierro y arsénico sugiere que la oxidación de

  12. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  13. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors - such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses - relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11–15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011–2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  14. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  15. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  16. Experiencias y repercusión de una formación en ética de investigación

    PubMed Central

    Rupaya, Carmen Rosa García

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como propósito describir los logros y repercusiones de la capacitación en ética de la investigación que brinda el Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, sirviendo de estímulo, motivación y orientación a profesionales que requieren conocer y aplicar las normas y el raciocinio conducente a la deliberación de los problemas en esta disciplina. Asimismo, describe cómo este conocimiento genera un efecto multiplicador en aspectos tales como la participación en un comité de ética de la investigación (CEI), organización de cursos y creación y desarrollo de líneas de investigación, que repercuten en publicaciones realizadas con estudiantes de posgrado. Relata además los contenidos y estrategias didácticas que pueden ser empleados en cursos de ética y bioética para estudiantes de estomatología y concluye mencionando la aplicación práctica de esta capacitación en los ámbitos docente, institucional y de investigación. PMID:24482556

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Perales-García, Aránzazu; Estévez-Martínez, Isabel; Urrialde, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la hidratación se define como el aporte de agua proveniente de alimentos y bebidas. Su estudio constituye desde hace unos años un área en sí misma dentro de la nutrición, que ha supuesto que en 2010 la European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) aprobara las recomendaciones de ingesta de agua; pero el estudio del estado de hidratación implica un elevado nivel metodológico que presenta ciertos desafíos. Objetivo: ofrecer una visión general de los principales problemas metodológicos en estudios sobre el estado de hidratación. Material y métodos: revisión de la bibliografía científica existente. Resultados: los principales problemas metodológicos presentes son: selección de la muestra (ámbito de investigación y diseño muestral), selección del método de evaluación del estado de hidratación (técnicas de dilución, impedancia bioeléctrica, indicadores plasmáticos y urinarios, cambios en la composición corporal, pérdidas de agua y síntomas clínicos), selección del método de valoración de la ingesta de agua (biomarcadores, cuestionarios, programas informáticos, uso de smartphones, registro 24 h, historia dietética y frecuencia de consumo de alimentos), así como sus principales fuentes dietéticas. Conclusiones: el estado de hidratación debe ser entendido como un modelo rutinario, de frecuencia diaria y variable en función de la edad, sexo, actividad física y condiciones ambientales; por todo ello es de especial importancia un correcto diseño metodológico capaz de recoger estos matices. PMID:27571857

  18. Interculturalidad y anglofonia en la ensenanza del ingles como lengua extranjera (Interculturalism and Anglophone Studies in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee; Revilla, Teresa Flores

    This article, written in Spanish, proposes to incorporate the subject "Anglophonism" into the curriculum of English as a Foreign Language (EILE) with a view to providing universities with an intercultural division. It provides a brief summary of John Dewey's philosophy with regard to anthropology, politics, and education. It explains the term…

  19. Uso de exámenes de detección como oportunidad para ayudar a fumadores a dejar el tabaco

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI ha publicado un anuncio de financiamiento para ayudar a estimular la investigación sobre métodos óptimos para dejar de fumar cigarrillos que se entreguen junto con los exámenes de detección.

  20. Effect of the pore size distribution on the activities of alumina supported Co-Mo catalysts in the hydrotreatment of boscan crude

    SciTech Connect

    Plumail, J.C.; Jacquin, Y.; Martino, G.; Toulhoat, H.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of pore size and distribution on the activity of Co-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts in the hydrotreatment of asphaltenes have been studied using testing methodology designed to provide initial activities for the catalysis of the critical reactions in the process, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodemineralization (HDM) (V,NI) and asphaltene conversion to resins and oils (HDA) suitable for subsequent use as refining feedstocks. Nine monomodal (micropores) and seven bimodal (micro- and macropores) were tested. Maximum HDS occurs with mono- and bimodal catalysts having an average pore diameter of 100 A/sup 0/. Maximum HDA and HDM activity appears at a pore diameter between 150 and 200 A/sup 0/ and increases with increasing macroporosity, macropores allowing more efficient access of the large asphaltene molecular units to active sites. Overall catalytic efficiency is dependent upon but HDS and asphaltene hydrogenation rates. Variation of pore structures allowed reaction selectivities to be varied and provided control a asphaltene product (resins, oils) composition.

  1. Collaborative Work as an Alternative for Writing Research Articles (El trabajo colaborativo como alternativa para la escritura de artículos investigativos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal Medina, Nancy Emilce; Roberto Flórez, Eliana Edith

    2014-01-01

    Academic writing in English in our context is a significant aspect that can be innovative when a convergence model of writing stages is used along with collaborative work. This article reports on a study aimed at analyzing how collaborative work relates to undergraduate electronics students' academic writing development in English as a foreign…

  2. La anglofonia y literaturas poscoloniales en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (Anglophonism and Postcolonial Literature in Teaching English as a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper, written in Spanish, focuses on the instruction of English as a Second Language in the context of cultural understanding, rather than from a purely linguistic point of view. It argues that foreign language instruction should include lessons in the field of sociology, anthropology, history, geography, politics, the arts, and popular…

  3. Prevalence of sarcopenia among community‐dwelling elderly of a medium‐sized South American city: results of the COMO VAI? study

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata M.; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina; Menezes, Ana Maria B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background There is insufficient data concerning sarcopenia prevalence in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate sarcopenia prevalence and its clinical subgroups in a Southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross‐sectional population‐based study was performed among community‐dwelling elderly aged 60 years or over. Subjects were evaluated according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People established criteria. Muscle mass was estimated by calf circumference (CC). Cut‐off CC points were defined by a subsample's dual X‐ray absorptiometry estimation of the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), which was subsequently compared with the values of a young adult population from the same city. Muscle strength was measured by manual dynamometry. Muscle performance was assessed through the 4 m gait speed test. Results The three diagnostic tests were performed in 1291 subjects. CC of ≤34 cm (males) and ≤33 cm (females) were defined as indicatives of low ASMI. The overall sarcopenia prevalence was 13.9% (CI95% 12.0; 15.8%). Its frequency was significantly higher among elderly with low schooling, without a partner, with low socioeconomic status, smokers, inactive, and with low body mass index. A higher prevalence of pre‐sarcopenia was found in the youngest elderly; a higher prevalence of the clinical stages of the syndrome was found in older age groups. Conclusions Approximately one in ten elderly aged 60–69 years was in the preclinical stage of the disease. This is the age group in which public policies should focus to establish early diagnosis and prevent clinical progression of the syndrome. PMID:27493867

  4. Planeamiento de la unidad didactica en le ensenanza del ingles como idioma extranjero (Planning the Teaching Unit in the Instruction of English as a Foreign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina T., Rene

    1971-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the teaching unit as a means for organization in English-as-a-foreign-language classes. It lists the essential elements in the construction of such a unit: cultural topic, linguistic elements, time period, main objectives, instructional materials, focus, specific activities, intended results, evaluation techniques,…

  5. Como evalvar la actuacion del profesor en una clase de segundo idioma (How to Evaluate a Teacher in a Second Language Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvez de Bracamonte, Teresa

    This guide in Spanish provides performance criteria for evaluating the foreign language teacher. It provides an outline for analyzing the teacher's actions and teaching methods in the classroom. Through the evaluation by an outsider, the teacher can learn his or her faults in the views of others and can improve on them. The aspects to be analyzed…

  6. Estudio de NIH indica que la actividad física en tiempo libre alarga la vida tanto como 4,5 años

    Cancer.gov

    La actividad física en tiempo libre está asociada con una expectativa de vida más larga, aun en un grado de actividad relativamente bajo e independientemente del peso corporal, de acuerdo con un estudio llevado a cabo por un equipo de investigadores del I

  7. Como los padres ocupados pueden ayudar a sus hijos a aprender y desarrollarse (How Busy Parents Can Help Their Children Learn and Develop). Early Childhood Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Ellen; Kreider, Holly; Vaughan, Peggy

    Although parents are often very busy with work and family responsibilities, there are many things they can do to help their school-age children learn and develop. This Spanish-language early childhood digest for parents provides tips obtained from parents of first and second graders in the School Transition Study on creative ways to stay involved…

  8. Emotions as Learning Enhancers of Foreign Language Learning Motivation (Las emociones como potenciadoras de la motivación en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez López, Mariza G.; Peña Aguilar, Argelia

    2013-01-01

    The present article reports on a study that explores the effects of the emotional experiences of Mexican language learners on their motivation to learn English. In this qualitative research we present how emotions impact the motivation of university language learners in south Mexico. Results suggest that emotions, both negative and positive,…

  9. The Why, What, and How of a Bilingual Approach for Young Children [and] El Porque, el Cual y el Como de un Enfoque Bilingue para Ninos Preescolares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfredo R.; Riley, Mary Tom

    This guide, in parallel English and Spanish volumes, provides information necessary for implementing bilingual/multicultural programs. Section 1 defines and describes the bilingual approach, examining instructional goals, rationale, philosophical justification, legal foundations, and practical considerations. Section 2 discusses attitudinal…

  10. The Nature of Recognition in TEFL Teachers' Lives (La naturaleza del reconocimiento en la vida de los maestros de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes Gillingsde González, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at sharing a vital issue that emerged from the findings of a qualitative research study into collective responses of teachers of English as a foreign language to an extended change process in their Mexican university context from 1989 to 2003. The data generation process employed was comprised of semi-structured interviews as…

  11. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  12. Estadísticas de visitas en portales web institucionales como indicador de respuesta del público a propuestas de divulgación

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lares, M.

    The presence of institutions on the internet is nowadays very important to strenghten communication channels, both internal and with the general public. The Córdoba Observatory has several web portals, including the official web page, a blog and presence on several social networks. These are one of the fundamental pillars for outreach activities, and serve as communication channel for events and scientific, academic, and outreach news. They are also a source of information for the staff, as well as data related to the Observatory internal organization and scientific production. Several statistical studies are presented, based on data taken from the visits to the official web pages. I comment on some aspects of the role of web pages as a source of consultation and as a quick response to information needs. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  14. Tips for Parents on Keeping Children Drug Free = Consejos para Los Padres Sobre Como Mantener a Los Hijos Libres de La Droga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Research shows that recent trends in youth drug use have stabilized; however, the rates of use remain at high levels. It has been shown that the earlier drug use is initiated, the more likely a person is to develop drug problems later in life. Youth substance abuse may lead to many other problems that affect not only the child, but also the…

  15. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between Theodor Adorno…

  16. Me escuchas? Como conversar con ninos de cuatro a doce anos (Are You Listening to Me? Communicating with Children from Four to Twelve Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfos, Martine F.

    Although talking to children is a daily activity for almost everyone at some stage in one's life and an essential activity for professionals who work with children, there is little research on activity. This Spanish-language book describes communication with children between the ages of 4 and 12 years, focusing on open question-and-answer sessions…

  17. La Imagen Publica y Professional del Espanol en Yanquilandia - y Como Mejorarla (The Public and Professional Image of Spanish in "Yankee-Land" and How to Improve It).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Robert G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Decries the stereotypes and prejudices that affect U. S. relations with the Hispanic world and with its own Hispanic minorities. Points out that these attitudes also affect the study of Spanish as a foreign language and suggests means by which educators can improve the Hispanic image among Anglo Americans. (MES)

  18. El Reto: A Leer America! A Leer Y Escribir Ya! Como Divertirse Leyendo Y Escribiendo. (America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now! Activities for Reading and Writing Fun)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameenui, Edward J.; Simmons, Deborah C.

    Developed by national reading experts for the "America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now!" initiative and translated into Spanish, this booklet provides 45 ideas for families, teachers, librarians, and other learning partners to use with all children--including those with disabilities--to help them read well and independently by the end of third…

  19. Building Your Baby's Brain: A Parent's Guide to the First Five Years = Como estimular el cerebro infantil: Una guia para padres de familia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Heroman, Cate

    Noting that all parents can help their baby's brain to grow, this guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, explores what science has learned about infant brain development and how parents and caregivers can influence cognitive development. Topics covered include: prenatal care, touching your baby, teaching about feelings and self-control,…

  20. The Accented EFL Teacher: Classroom Implications (El acento del profesor de inglés como lengua extranjera: implicaciones pedagógicas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arboleda Arboleda, Argemiro; Castro Garcés, Ángela Yicely

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research study on how significant having a foreign accent is for non-native English as a foreign language teachers and learners at university level. It points out the perceptions that teachers and students have about the most relevant issues in the teaching and learning processes. Data were collected by means…

  1. La efectividad de la educacion a distancia como metodologia en la desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento (Effectiveness of Distance Education as a Methodology for Developing Thinking Skills).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melendez Alicea, Juan

    1992-01-01

    Presents steps taken in designing, justifying, and implementing an experimental study designed to investigate the effectiveness of distance education as a methodology for developing thinking skills. A discussion reviews major findings of the study by comparing student experiences from multimedia distance education and student experiences from…

  2. Sound in ecclesiastical spaces in Cordoba. Architectural projects incorporating acoustic methodology (El sonido del espacio eclesial en Cordoba. El proyecto arquitectonico como procedimiento acustico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Rafael

    2003-11-01

    This thesis is concerned with the acoustic analysis of ecclesiastical spaces, and the subsequent implementation of acoustic design methodology in architectural renovations. One begins with an adequate architectural design of specific elements (shape, materials, and textures), with the intention of elimination of acoustic deficiencies that are common in such spaces. These are those deficiencies that impair good speech intelligibility and good musical audibility. The investigation is limited to churches in the province of Cordoba and to churches built after the reconquest of Spain (1236) and up until the 18th century. Selected churches are those that have undergone architectural renovations to adapt them to new uses or to make them more suitable for liturgical use. The thesis attempts to summarize the acoustic analyses and the acoustical solutions that have been implemented. The results are presented in a manner that should be useful for the adoption of a model for the functional renovation of ecclesiastical spaces. Such would allow those involved in architectural projects to specify the nature of the sound, even though somewhat intangible, within the ecclesiastical space. Thesis advisors: Jaime Navarro and Juan J. Sendra Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Jaime Navarro, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: jnavarro@us.es

  3. Metodo de Archivar las Observaciones del Comportamiento del Nino, Como Guia para Entenderlo Mejor (Methods of Recording Observations of Children's Behavior, A Guide for Better Understanding)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Isla M.

    1971-01-01

    Copies of the Behaviour Study Technique described in this article may be obtained in English from the Australian Council for Educational Research, Frederick St., Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia 3122. (RY)

  4. Un currículo interdisciplinario de base teórica para enseñar inglés como segunda lengua1

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Brenda O.; Mas, Francisco Soto; Mein, Erika; Jacobson, Holly E.

    2013-01-01

    Among Hispanic immigrants in the United States (US), learning English is considered necessary for economic and social achievement. As a consequence, there is a high demand for English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. Despite the recognized benefits of ESL programs, both at the individual and social levels, more research is needed to identify education strategies that effectively promote all aspects of learning English as a second language. This article describes an ESL curriculum that incorporates a theory-based pedagogical approach specifically designed for immigrant Hispanic adults on the US-Mexico border region. The article also describes the implementation of the curriculum as well as the results of the evaluation, which was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative results indicate that the participants significantly improved their English proficiency (L2). Qualitative results suggest that participants were positively impacted by both the content and pedagogical approaches used by the curriculum. Their experience with the ESL class was positive in general. It can be concluded that the curriculum achieved its objective. This approach could serve as a model for second language teaching for adults. PMID:25284915

  5. Finding an Appropriate Preschool for Your Child with Special Needs = Como Encontrar un Programa Pre-escolar para su nino con desabilidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Sandra; Wonderlick, Mary; Madden, Drina

    This booklet, with English and Spanish versions, provides a step-by-step procedure to help families find an appropriate preschool program in the community for their child with disabilities. The booklet lists six steps for locating a program: (1) decide what kind of program is wanted for the child; (2) complete included form outlining child's needs…

  6. A+chieving Excellence. A Parent's Guide to Site-Based Decision Making. Noteworthy = A+lcanzar la Excelencia. Un manual para padres sobre como hacer decisiones. Notable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, C. L.

    The parents' guide in English and Spanish versions, offers a synthesis of the Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory's (McRel) "A+chieving Excellence," a 480-page manual on educational decision-making and management. Four sections examine four broad areas in which policies must be established for improving student achievement--efficiency,…

  7. Como Puede Mejorar el Programa de Educacion Migrante con el Poder e Influencia de los Padres. Parent Power in the Migrant Education Program: How to Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    The bilingual (English-Spanish) handbook explains the established rights that parents with children enrolled in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I Migrant Education Program have and presents ways in which parents can use these rights to help ensure that their children receive a quality education. Chapters discuss: (1) content of…

  8. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, María Soledad; Pascual Jimeno, Aitziber; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Polo-López, Rocío; Echeburúa Odriozola, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los problemas relacionados con el peso constituyen un problema importante de salud pública debido a su alta prevalencia y a las adversas consecuencias que tienen para la salud.Objetivo: el objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar si la depresión y la ansiedad tienen un papel mediador en la relación entre la insatisfacción corporal y las conductas de control del peso en chicas adolescentes con sobrepeso.Material y métodos: en el estudio participaron 140 mujeres de 16 a 20 años con sobrepeso. Las participantes tuvieron que cumplimentar la escala de insatisfacción corporal del EDI-2, las escalas de ansiedad y depresión del GHQ-28 y una adaptación de las escalas del EAT survey para evaluar las conductas de control del peso. Para los análisis estadísticos se utilizaron métodos de diferencias de medias, correlaciones y de mediación secuencial.Resultados: las adolescentes con sobrepeso y alta insatisfacción corporal presentaban más sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva, así como mayor cantidad de conductas de control del peso. Los resultados del análisis de mediación secuencial evidencian que el efecto de la insatisfacción corporal en las conductas de control del peso está parcialmente mediado por las variables depresión y ansiedad. Mientras que la sintomatología ansiosa presenta efectos directos e indirectos sobre las conductas de control de peso, la sintomatología depresiva solamente presenta un efecto indirecto.Conclusiones:los resultados del estudio destacan el rol mediador de la sintomatología depresiva y, especialmente, de la ansiedad en el desarrollo de conductas no saludables de control del peso. PMID:27571670

  9. Teorí­as de primer y segundo orden sobre el potencial de ciertas figuras de equilibrio de cuerpos celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbau, Manuel Forner

    2010-11-01

    Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mecánica Celeste es la determinación de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su solución mediante métodos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitación, el generado por su fuerza centrí­fuga y el generado por la fuerza de atracción entre los cuerpos. Los métodos clásicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos métodos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casuí&stica y que permiten una manipulación efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de armónicos esféricos como combinacióon lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios próximos. Se ha elaborado un método analítico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinación del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios próximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema

  10. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Cuadrado Soto, Esther; López Sobaler, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: la hipertensión arterial es un problema sanitario frecuente y con repercusiones sanitarias graves, infradiagnosticado y modulado por los hábitos alimentarios, estilo de vida e ingesta de diversos nutrientes, por lo que analizar los datos más recientes sobre la implicación de la nutrición en la prevención y control de la hipertensión es el objeto de la presente revisión.Métodos: búsqueda bibliográfica en relación con el tema.Resultados: aunque las pautas más conocidas y seguidas son la restricción en la ingesta de sodio, el control de peso y la moderación en el consumo de alcohol, la mejora de la dieta (aumento en el consumo de cereales, verduras, frutas...) y la actividad física parecen tener un gran impacto en el control de las cifras de presión arterial (PA). Asimismo, un menor consumo de grasa saturada (con aumento de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados y omega-3), el aporte adecuado de calcio, magnesio, proteínas, vitamina D y fibra, y la mejora de la capacidad antioxidante de la dieta pueden tener gran importancia en la lucha contra el problema de la hipertensión. Teniendo en cuenta que la dieta media española no alcanza los aportes aconsejados para muchos de los nutrientes mencionados como favorables en el control de la PA, una aproximación de la dieta al ideal teórico puede ser de gran ayuda en la lucha contra este problema, que tiene gran impacto sanitario.Conclusiones: mejorar la alimentación, aumentando el consumo de verduras, legumbres, cereales integrales, pescado… puede tener un mayor beneficio en el control de la presión arterial que el seguimiento de pautas restrictivas más extendidas en la práctica. PMID:27571866

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Ferrán Padrós; Navarro Contreras, Gabriela; Garcidueñas Gallegos, Diana; Fulgencio Juárez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la obesidad es una enfermedad asociada a diferentes trastornos físicos y emocionales que inciden en la calidad de vida y que representan un problema de elevada prevalencia en el mundo. La etiología es múltiple y compleja; se ha señalado la culpa como consecuencia del sobrepeso y, al mismo tiempo, como factor asociado al aumento de peso. En México no existen instrumentos para evaluar la culpa por obesidad y sobrepeso en niños y adolescentes. Objetivos: analizar la fiabilidad y validez de la Escala de Culpa por Obesidad o Sobrepeso para Niños y Adolescentes (ECOSNA) en población de Morelia (México). Material y métodos: se elaboró una versión preliminar basada en la bibliografía que se sometió a la revisión de jueces expertos. La escala obtenida de 6 ítems se aplicó a una muestra de 1.418 estudiantes de educación básica de 7 a 15 años. Se realizó un análisis factorial confir- matorio y se estudió la relación de la escala con otras variables como autoestima, sintomatología depresiva y ansiedad. Resultados: la escala resultó unifactorial, se obtuvo un índice alfa de Cronbach de 0,853. La escala ECOSNA mostró una correlación moderada e inversa con la escala de autoestima, y directa y baja con la sintomatología depresiva y la ansiedad clínica. Conclusión: los datos empíricos indican que la escala presenta una validez y confiabilidad satisfactorias. PMID:27238779

  13. The Problem of "Just Tell Us": Insights from Playing with Poetic Inquiry and Dialogical Self Theory (El problema con la actitud de "díganos lo que tenemos que aprender": Comprensiones a partir del juego con indagación poética y la teoría del self dialógico)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimmett, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary approaches to pre-service teacher education and in-service teachers' professional development increasingly reflect the general paradigm swing in education, advocating for dialogic co-construction of understandings of teaching and learning rather than monologic telling of how to be a teacher or how to improve teaching practice.…

  14. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  15. Communicacion Expresiva: Como los ninos nos envian mensajes [and] Comunicacion Receptiva: Como los ninos entienden nuestros mensajes [and] Interacciones de Comunicacion: Hacen falta dos. Hojas informativa de DB-LINK (Communication Interactions: It Takes Two [and] Receptive Communication: How Children Understand Your Messages to Them [and] Expressive Communication: How Children Send Their Messages to You. DB-LINK Fact Sheets).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremel, Kathleen

    This document consists of three separately published fact sheets combined here because of the close relationship of their subject matter. The first fact sheet, "Communication Interactions: It Takes Two" (Kathleen Stremel), defines communication; suggests ways to find opportunities for interactive communication; offers specific suggestions for…

  16. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

  17. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  18. Abundância química de simbióticas na direção do bojo galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Costa, R. D. D.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo da distribuição de metalicidades de gigantes K no Bojo indica um largo intervalo com valores entre 0.1 a 10 vezes o valor solar. As razões elementais Ca/Fe, Si/Fe, Mg/Fe são típicas de estrelas do halo, apontando para um processo rápido de enriquecimento, via estrelas masssivas (SN's tipo II). No entanto, este cenário não combina com os resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias do bojo tais como os de Ratag et al. (1992, A&A,255,270), Cuisinier et al.(2000, A&A,353, 543), Escudero e Costa (2001, A&A,380, 300),que obtêm abundâncias análogas às do disco. Neste cenário, o estudo de estrelas simbióticas possibilita uma abordagem particularmente apropriada para o problema das abundâncias químicas de estrelas de massa intermediária em estágios avançados da evoluçao estelar. Apresentamos aqui os resultados da determinacão das abundâncias do grupo do CNO numa extensa amostra de simbióticas do bojo. Aliás, com a disponibilidade de espectros no visível determinamos também abundâncias de Ar, Ne, S e He, fundamentais para analisar os processos de enriquecimento químico ocorridos ao longo da evolução estelar, bem como a evolução química do meio interestelar. Com os espectros UV do satelite IUE obtivemos abundâncias de C, necessárias no estudo da evolução dos sistemas. As relaçoes C/N-O/N mostram que o material nebular é produto do vento da componente gigante e não dos eventos de nova que às vezes acontecem nestes sistemas, como foi mostrado por Nussbaumer et al (1988,A&A,198,179). As abundâncias de Ar, S, Ne e O são compativeis com resultados de fontes no disco e bojo, seguindo o gradiente proposto por muitos autores na literatura a partir de diferentes objetos como cefeidas, nebulosas planetárias e anãs G. (CAPES,FAPESP,CNPq)

  19. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  20. Variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Vucetich, H.

    La variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales es un problema que ha motivado numerosos trabajos teóricos y experimentales desde la hipótesis de los grandes números de Dirac en 1937. Entre los métodos experimentales y observacionales para establecer restricciones sobre la variación de las constantes fundamentes es importante mencionar: comparación entre relojes atómicos[1], métodos geofísicos[2][3], análisis de sistemas de absorción en quasares[4][5][6] y cotas provenientes de la nucleosíntesis primordial[7]. En un trabajo reciente[5], se reportó una significativa variación en la constante de estructura fina. Intentos de unificar las cuatro interacciones fundamentales dieron como resultado teorías con múltiples dimensiones como las teorías de Kaluza-Klein y teorías de supercuerdas. Estas teorías proporcionan un marco teórico natural para el estudio de la variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales. A su vez, un modelo sencillo para estudiar la variación de la constante de estructura fina, fue propuesto en [8], a partir de premisas muy generales como ser covarianza, invarianza de gauge, causalidad y invarianza ante reversiones temporales en el electromagnetismo. Diferentes versiones de las teorías antes mencionadas coinciden en predecir variaciones temporales de las constantes fundamentales pero difieren en la forma de esta variación[9][10]. De esta manera, las restricciones establecidas experimentalmente sobre la variación de las constantes fundamentales pueden ser una herramienta importante para testear estas diferentes teorías. En este trabajo, utilizamos las cotas provenientes de diversas técnicas experimentales, para testear si las mismas son consistentes con alguna de las teorías antes mencionadas. En particular, establecemos cotas sobre la variación de los parámentros libres de las diferentes teorías como por ejemplo el radio de las dimensiones extras en las teorías tipo Kaluza-Klein.

  1. Reviving Erathostenes. (Breton Title: Revivendo Eratóstenes.) Reviviendo a Eratóstenes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo Cesar R.

    2006-12-01

    problemas. Como parte de las conmemoraciones del Año Internacional de la Física y con el objetivo principal de introducir a los estudiantes secundarios al método científico, la Fundación Planetario Rio de Janeiro, en conjunto con diversas instituciones de Brasil y de Europa, coordinó la actividad denominada "Reviviendo a Eratóstenes" cuyo objetivo consistió en la determinación de la cincunferencia de la Tierra. Para esto se utilizó un procedimiento semejante al empleado por Eratóstenes hace más de 2.000 años, con algunas adaptaciones. Este trabajo expone y analiza el método empleado, con la intención de aplicarlo en las escuelas. La posibilidad de trabajar en lugares situados en diferentes meridianos permite una mejor comprensión de los conceptos más abstractos, tales como coordenadas y husos horarios. La precisión de los resultados resultó razonable, mejorando para aquellas ciudades mas apartadas. Finalmente, una de las conclusiones más importantes es la de la percepción, por parte de los estudiantes, de la importancia de la colaboración (en este caso internacional) para resolver problemas.

  2. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  3. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  4. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  5. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  6. Population attributable fraction: planning of diseases prevention actions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado de; Eluf-Neto, José

    2016-06-10

    Epidemiology is the study of occurrence, distribution and determinants of health-related events, including the application of that knowledge to the prevention and control of health problems. However, epidemiological studies, in most cases, have limited their research questions to determinants of health outcomes. Research related to the application of knowledge for prevention and control of diseases have been neglected. In this comment, we present a description of how population attributable fraction estimates can provide important elements for planning of prevention and control of diseases in Brazil. RESUMO Epidemiologia é o estudo da ocorrência, distribuição e determinantes de eventos relacionados à saúde da população, incluindo a aplicação desse conhecimento para a prevenção e o controle dos problemas de saúde. Entretanto, estudos epidemiológicos, na maioria das vezes, têm limitado suas perguntas de pesquisa aos fatores determinantes de desfechos em saúde. Pesquisas relacionadas à aplicação do conhecimento para ações de prevenção e controle de doenças têm sido negligenciadas. Nesse comentário, apresentamos uma descrição de como as estimativas de fração atribuível populacional podem fornecer importantes elementos para planejamento de ações de prevenção e controle de doenças no Brasil. PMID:27305404

  7. Un modelo general de eyección de materia estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstein, N. O.

    Posiblemente, la más directa y dramática evidencia de la pérdida de masa por parte de diferentes objetos astrofísicos la constituye el fenómeno de eyección persistente de materia. En el caso particular de las estrellas, las características y los mecanismos que impulsan a sus atmósferas externas hacia el medio interestelar varían a lo largo del diagrama evolutivo. En parte por este motivo, en parte por las dificultades matemáticas involucradas, es muy difícil elaborar un modelo que pueda dar cuenta de los diferentes mecanismos que originan e impulsan el viento estelar. Cabe entonces preguntarse si es posible desarrollar un único modelo en el que estos mecanismos puedan ser considerados (y variados) como parámetros externos que responden a las características de cada región de la secuencia evolutiva. La respuesta es que, en función de la geometría del campo electromagnético involucrado, todo depende de la simetría del problema. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis detallado de una de tales simetrías, discutiendo en particular los resultados obtenidos a la luz de las observaciones disponibles.

  8. Órbitas caóticas en satelites galácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Vergne, M. M.; Wachlin, F. C.

    En trabajos anteriores investigamos las órbitas de estrellas que forman los satelites galácticos utilizando análisis de frecuencias. Su uso estaba plenamente justificado por su velocidad y la gran información que brinda, amén de haber dado resultados muy concordantes con los exponentes de Liapunov. Sin embargo, más recientemente, encontramos algunos problemas en la utilización del análisis de frecuencias en sistemas de referencia rotantes (como se utilizan para los satélites), por lo que en este trabajo rehicimos nuestras investigaciones previas utilizando exclusivamente exponentes de Liapunov. Algunas conclusiones anteriores se han confirmado, en tanto que otras deben modificarse. Además, los nuevos resultados muestran que las escalas de tiempo de los procesos caóticos en los satélites galácticos son comparables a, o más cortas que, las escalas de tiempo de otros procesos dinámicos característicos de estos objetos.

  9. Uma Comparação entre Técnicas de Propagação de Erros em Astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabot, Alexandre; Baptista, Raymundo

    2005-07-01

    Neste trabalho é feito um estudo comparativo entre dois algoritmos numéricos usados para propagação de erros em dados experimentais. Um deles é conhecido por Método de Monte carlo e o outro por Método de Bootstrap. Recentemente, Dhullon & Watson argüiram que a aplicação do método de Monte Carlo introduz ruído nos dados, e propuseram então a utilização do Bootstrap como alternativa capaz de produzir resultados superiores. O objetivo deste trabalho é testar a validade dessa afirmação. As duas técnicas foram aplicadas a três problemas diferentes: o ajsute de modelos de emissão LTE simples e atmosfera estelar a espectros estelares observados e o ajuste de curvas de luz de eclipses de Variáveis Cataclísmicas para a detemrinação da distribuição radial de brilho dos seus discos de acréscimo. Os métodos foram testados quanto à sua robusteza, ou seja, a capacidade de prover resultados coerentes enre si. Além disso, as soluções dos métodos foram comparadas. Os resultados indicam que não existe evidência de superioridade de um métodos em relação ao outro.

  10. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands). A potential commercial species?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Alejandro Escánez; Elena, Rodrigo Riera; González, Ángel Francisco González; Sierra, Ángel Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean) are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera). These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem. PMID:23129987

  11. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  12. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada para posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes para controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, para el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador para cada uno de los tres metodos de control. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto para el modo continuo como para el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo

  13. The Teaching of Astronomy in Uruguay. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en Uruguay.) O Ensino da Astronomia no Uruguai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintos Ganón, Reina; Fernández, Julio Angel

    2008-07-01

    We present in this work the development of astronomy in Uruguay since the colony times up to the present, stressing in particular those aspects related to the formal as well as informal teaching of astronomy. The first antecedents of astronomical studies in our country go back to the beginnings of the XVIIIth century related to the scientific expeditions from Europe coming to our shores. The teaching of astronomy was generalized at the high school level as soon as the end of the XIXth century, while itsintroduction at the university level happened much later, around the middle of the last century. We analyze the current situation of this subject, its problems, and some measures to strengthen its development. Se presenta en este trabajo el desarrollo de la astronomía en el Uruguay desde la época colonial hasta el presente, destacando en particular los aspectos vinculados a su enseñanza tanto formal como informal. Los primeros antecedentes de estudios astronómicos datan de la época colonial relacionados con las expediciones científicas del Viejo Mundo que llegaban a nuestras costas. La enseñanza de la Astronomía se generalizó en el ámbito de los estudios secundarios ya a fines del siglo XIX, mientras que en la Universidad su arribo fue mucho más tardío, a mediados del siglo pasado. Se analiza la situación actual de esta disciplina, sus problemas, y algunas medidas para fortalecer su desarrollo. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento da Astronomia no Uruguai desde a época colonial até o presente, destacando em particular os aspectos vinculados ao seu ensino tanto formal quanto informal. Os primeiros antecedentes de estudos astronômicos em nosso país datam da época colonial relacionados com as expedições científicas do Velho Mundo que chegavam às nossas costas. O ensino da Astronomia se generalizou no âmbito dos estudos secundários já no final do século XIX, enquanto que sua introdução na universidade foi muito mais tardia, em

  14. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  15. A atuação do Observatório Nacional registrada nos relatórios ministeriais 1889 a 1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, T.

    2003-08-01

    O período republicano até 1930 foi marcante na história do Observatório Nacional. Diversas reformas levaram a instituição a três ministérios diferentes e mudaram a ênfase do seu trabalho. A tão aguardada mudança para uma nova sede, em São Cristóvão, em 1920, não foi suficiente para que a instituição acompanhasse o ritmo tomado pela astronomia no mundo e se firmasse como ambiente de pesquisa. Uma análise simplificada poderia caracterizar um período de produção científica insignificante, dado o distanciamento da instituição dos novos rumos da astrofísica e da rápida inovação dos instrumentos, além do pequeno volume de publicações. Era uma época em que ainda não existiam os mecanismos formais de apoio e avaliação da atividade científica. Esse trabalho procura identificar a real atividade do Observatório no conteúdo dos Relatórios Ministeriais que, ao final de cada ano, apresentava as atividades, sucessos e problemas enfrentados pela instituição. Questões como instrumental e recursos humanos necessários; entraves burocráticos e financeiros; e articulações com outros observatórios se complementaram entre si ao longo desses anos para definir o perfil institucional e alguns aspectos fundamentais para a construção da astronomia no país. É possível concluir que a ênfase em serviços geográficos e de meteorologia, ao lado da inadequação dos instrumentos e do local, quase fizeram desaparecer a pesquisa em astronomia. Porém, vale destacar a sobrevivência de alguns trabalhos, como, por exemplo, variação de latitude e observação de estrelas duplas que mantiveram importante intercâmbio com outros grupos de pesquisa, demonstrando o constante esforço dos astrônomos e das diretorias em defesa da atividade científica.

  16. Analisis de Alteraciones EN la Imagen Debidas a Descolimacion de un Telescopio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    Podemos considerar, en términos generales, que los espejos de un telescopio tienen una calidad óptica intrínseca, entendiendo por ésta la que se ha obtenido como resultado, fundamentalmente, de la destreza del personal del Taller Optico, que considerará terminadas las superficies ópticas cuando éstas satisfagan los requisitos de diseño y las pruebas de evaluación pertinentes. Debemos esperar que, una vez instalados los espejos en el telescopio, no se altere esta calidad de la óptica por un funcionamiento inadecuado de partes mecánicas del mismo. En los últimos años, en la medida que los problemas de infraestructuratura de nuestros Observatorios se han ido resolviendo, se ha hecho más patente la necesidad de llevar a la instrumentación existente al máximo de su potencial y parte esencial de ésta la conforman los mismos te lescopios. Mejorar la calidad óptica de las imágenes obtenidas con ellos ha hecho que sea prioritario el realizar una investigación más sistemática de sus características. Este trabajo ha tenido como objetivo primordial el usar un programa de diseño óptico, en el caso particular del telescopio UNAM212, con el fin de calcular y obtener gráficamente los diagramas de manchas de imagenes en foco y extrafocales, tanto con la óptica perfectamente alineada como descolimándola (mediante pequenos giros y descentramientos de los espejos). De esta manera, se hizo una evaluación de los efectos que estas alteraciones simuladas producirían en las imágenes focales y extra focales para así poder compararlas con las que realmente se han observado. Asimismo, se ha buscado información bibliográfica, en particular sobre los efectos de giros y descentramientos en las imágenes extrafocales, en lo que se ref iere a la falta de concentricidad de los círculos que forman la "dona" y a la distribución de intensidad luminosa en la misma. De ésta, l futuro un proceso que, haciendo uso de los detectores bidimensionales, nos permita Ilevar a

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Bueno, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la elevada prevalencia de obesidad en niños es un problema de salud global y conlleva el desarrollo de comorbilidades asociadas, como hipertensión, dislipemia, inflamación crónica e hiperinsulinemia, que a su vez son reconocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Algunos estudios han observado que el consumo de productos lácteos podría ejercer un papel protector sobre el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares; sin embargo, la evidencia científica es bastante limitada en niños y adolescentes.Objetivos: investigar la relación entre el consumo de productos lácteos y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en poblaciones jóvenes.Material y métodos: se ha revisado la literatura reciente, incluyendo adicionalmente datos procedentes del estudio HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence). Se incluyó una muestra de adolescentes (12,5-17,5 años) provenientes de 8 ciudades europeas.Resultados: datos estadounidenses muestran una disminución en la frecuencia de consumo de leche, así como en el tamaño de la porción consumida. En el estudio HELENA los productos lácteos fueron el grupo de alimentos que mejor identificó a los adolescentes con bajo riesgo cardiovascular. Además, un consumo elevado de leche y yogur, así como de bebidas a base de leche y yogur, se asoció con niveles más bajos de grasa corporal, menor riesgo cardiovascular y mayor condición física cardiorrespiratoria.Conclusiones: son necesarios más estudios para proporcionar evidencia y comprender mejor los mecanismos subyacentes de la asociación entre la ingesta de lácteos, especialmente el yogur, y la obesidad, la diabetes, y otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular. PMID:27571861

  18. Kathy Learns How Breastfeeding Can Be Used...To Space Pregnancies. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Aprende como la Lactancia Puede Ser Usada...Para Espaciar los Embarazos. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. They explain how breastfeeding can be used to help space pregnancies, the limitations of its effectiveness as a pregnancy-avoiding method, and that the spacing of pregnancies can be…

  19. A Comparison of Chinese and Colombian University EFL Students Regarding Learner Autonomy (Comparación entre estudiantes universitarios de inglés chinos y colombianos con respecto a su autonomía como aprendices)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendía Arias, Ximena Paola

    2015-01-01

    This research seeks to gain deeper understanding of learner autonomy in English as a Foreign Language students from different cultures through the identification and analysis of similarities and differences between Chinese and Colombian students from two public universities: Tianjin Foreign Studies University in China and Universidad Surcolombiana…

  20. La lectura literaria como arte de "performance": la teoria transaccional de Louise Rosenblatt y sus implicaciones pedagogicas (The Use of Literature as Performance Art: The Transactional Theory of Louise Rosenblatt and Its Pedagogical Implications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper focuses on the work that Louise Rosenblatt and her followers in the United States have done to improve the teaching and learning of literature at all educational levels. Although these researchers have focused almost exclusively on the use of literature in the native language, the paper uses transactional theory as a basis for teaching…

  1. Estudio del proceso de ebullicion en el interior de un tubo multipuerto extruido en aluminio con mini-canales de geometria triangular usando R32 y R134a como fluidos de trabajo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Rivera, Francisco Alberto

    The use of multiport mini-channel tubes in compact exchangers has increased in the last few years. They contributing to improve thermal efficient, compactness, energy conservation and required lower refrigerants charge by which reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Those mentioned advantages are very important aspects with regard to modern refrigeration systems design. For that reason, several experimental investigation have been carried out in order to characterize the flow boiling heat transfer process and frictional pressure drop in tubes with parallel channels. Since, the ability to estimate pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient for specific conditions is a fundamental issue to optimise the design of compact heat exchanger. In this study, the characteristics of two- phase flow pressure drop and convective boiling heat transfer have been investigated experimentally inside multiport mini-channel aluminium tube with triangular geometry, hydraulic diameter 0.715 mm and heating length of 1205 mm using R32 and R134a as working fluids. A wide experimental campaign has been carried out to complete an array of measurement under different conditions for both refrigerants studied. The experimental conditions examined included: mass velocity 275-1230 kgm -2s-1, heat flux 0.75-9.30 kWm-2, saturation temperature, 5°C, 7.5°C, 12.5°C, vapour quality 0.012-0.51. The database presented consists of 312 averages values, 223 averages values were recorded for R134a and 89 for R32. The flow boiling averages values were calculated selecting a sample of 40 readings (steps 20s) in stable conditions for all measured variables at each mass velocity tested.

  2. Coping with Social Change: Programs That Work. Proceedings of a Conference (Acapulco, Mexico, June 1989) = Como enfrentarse al cambio social: programas eficaces. Actas de uno Conferencia (Acapulco, Mexico, Junio de 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Irene, Ed.

    Written in English and Spanish, this document contains the proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Gerontology on concerns about the impact of rapid social change on the well-being of older women and families in Latin American and the Caribbean and about effective programs that address the needs of the older populations. The first…

  3. When Students Say Far Too Much: Examining Gushing in the ELT Classroom (Cuando los alumnos dicen demasiado: análisis del uso excesivo de palabras en clases de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugford, Gerrard; Cuevas, Oscar Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    English foreign-language users often overuse words when faced with difficult situations. Called gushing, such excessive use of words is often legitimately employed by native speakers to express, for instance, gratitude and apologies when a simple "thank you" or "sorry" does not sufficiently convey an interlocutor's feelings.…

  4. Exploring Elementary Students' Power and Solidarity Relations in an EFL Classroom (Exploración de las relaciones de poder y solidaridad entre estudiantes de primaria en la clase de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez, Tatiana; García, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article derives from a critical discourse analysis study that reports the characteristics of elementary school students' power and solidarity relations in English as a foreign language classroom in Bogotá, Colombia, while we were doing our teaching English as a foreign language practicum. The study was based on theories of power and…

  5. A Guide for Reading: How Parents Can Help Their Children Be Ready To Read and Ready To Learn = Guia Para Leer: Como los padres pueden preparar a sus hijos a leer y aprender desde la infancia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Washington, DC.

    As part of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, this brochure (in English and Spanish) provides a guide to assist parents in helping their children become ready to read and to learn. The suggestions include: (1) talking to infants/toddlers to help them learn to speak and understand the meaning of words; (2)…

  6. “Es como uno bomba de tiempo [It’s like a time bomb]”: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions of Diabetes Among First-Degree Relatives of Latino Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; Milan, Maria; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. The South Bronx, a largely Latino community, has become an epicenter of the diabetes epidemic in New York City. In this community, nondiabetic first-degree relatives of people with diabetes are prime targets for intervention. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of diabetes and attitudes toward health behavior modification of Latino adults who are first-degree relatives of people with diabetes. Methods. Participants were recruited from three settings in the South Bronx (a community-based organization, a faith-based organization, and a taxi station). The Common Sense Model was used to develop focus-group items. This model provides a framework for exploring illness representations along five domains: identity, cause, consequences, timeline, and perceptions of curability. Responses were transcribed verbatim, and data analysis proceeded in the following order: data immersion, assignment of codes, grouping of key concepts to form categories, and construction of higher-order themes. Results. Of the 115 potential participants identified, 53 were found to be eligible, and 23 of these participated in the focus group. Of these, 20 were Dominicans, 2 were Puerto Ricans, and 1 was Salvadorian. The mean age was 46.39 years, 35% were women, 61% were married, and 26% had less than a high school education. Qualitative analyses resulted in 547 codes that were grouped into 52 concepts, from which 9 categories and 4 overarching themes emerged. The dominant themes were 1) family, genetics, and culture play a major role in the etiology of diabetes; 2) being Latino and having a first-degree relative with diabetes makes getting diabetes inevitable, and, like a time bomb exploding, it is destined to happen; 3) once one develops diabetes, the physical and emotional consequences are devastating and destructive; and 4) diabetes can be “cured” through healthy eating and with insulin. Conclusions.In this study, first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes were knowledgeable about the risks and consequences of diabetes. However, some participants felt that being Latino and having a first-degree relative with diabetes made one destined to have diabetes. Addressing this misperception through culturally tailored interventions has implications for diabetes prevention and may help to stem the diabetes epidemic in Latino communities. PMID:26246756

  7. Como ayudar a su hijo durante los primeros anos de la adolescencia: Para los padres con ninos entre las edades de 10 a 14 anos (Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence: For Parents of Children from 10 through 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    Recognizing that parents and families can greatly influence the development of their 10- through 14-year-olds, this Spanish-language booklet is part of a national effort to provide parents with the latest research and practical information to help them support their children both at home and in school. The booklet is organized in 13 sections…

  8. Moral Responsibility and Confidence as Factors That Influence Teacher Involvement in Educational Change (Responsabilidad moral y confianza como factores que influyen en la participación del profesor en el cambio educativo)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Cecilio

    2010-01-01

    Various factors that are not easily observed have a strong impact on educational change. In this paper, I examine some of the issues that emerged from the data collected while exploring my informants' perceptions and attitudes towards their changing roles when confronted with curriculum innovation. This research demonstrates that the…

  9. Estudo da utilizacao da biomassa florestal como fonte de produtos quimicos e energia atraves de processos quimicos e biotechnologicos (Utilization of forest biomass for chemicals and energy by chemical and biotechnological processes). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda, I.M.S.S.

    1989-04-01

    The chemical composition and the non-structural carbohydrate composition were determined for 1-year-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill trees, grown in an experimental plantation with different nutrient and water supplies (C-trees, where no treatment was made and IL-trees, which received a nutrient supply and irrigation). Leaf carbohydrates were determined for the same conditions. Pulping experiments were made using kraft cooks of eucalyptus wood. The results of the pretreatments are complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations. Average wood composition was: ash 1.6%, total extractives 5.2%, Klason lignin 21.0%, soluble lignin 3.1% (% of o.d. weight). The results did not show statistical significant differences between the two growth conditions. The average wood carbohydrate composition was: glucose 2.7%, frutose 4.1% sucrose 1.3% and starch 0.5%. The average carbohydrate composition of leaves was: glucose 1.0%, frutose 1.7%, sucrose 0.1% and starch 4.1%. The average yield for the kraft wood delinification was 49%. The saccharification of pretreated eucalyptus chips with a steam-explosion pretreatment was: For H2SO4 impregnation 26.6% and for H2O impregnation 44.2%.

  10. Systemic Functional Linguistics and Discourse Analysis as Alternatives When Dealing with Texts (La lingüística sistémica funcional y el análisis del discurso como alternativas para trabajar con textos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Montes, Paula Andrea; Sagre Barboza, Ana María; Lacharme Olascoaga, Alba Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study research with aims to find out which activities, methodological and textual aspects used in a reading strategies course were causing a group of students difficulties when analyzing critically written information. We conducted the study at Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia) with seventh semester students from the…

  11. What Makes a Good Teacher? Children Speak Their Minds=Qu'est-ce qu'un bon maitre? Les enfants ouvrent leur coeur=Como debe ser un buen maestro? Los ninos opinan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawajkie, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    This booklet is a product of the UNESCO Associated Schools Project, a network of some 3,800 schools in 131 countries, which conducts pilot projects to promote education for peace, international understanding, and cooperation. Schools taking part in the project participated in an international contest asking for spontaneous reactions to the…

  12. Adult EFL Reading Selection: Influence on Literacy (Procesos de selección de lecturas en estudiantes adultos de inglés como lengua extranjera y su influencia en la habilidad lectora)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basallo Gómez, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the impact of systematic reading selection used to promote English as foreign language learning in adult students. A qualitative action research methodology was used to carry out this project. Ten class sessions were designed to provide students an opportunity to select texts according to criteria based upon their language…

  13. Teachers' Beliefs about Assessment in an EFL Context in Colombia (Creencias de los profesores acerca de la evaluación en un contexto de inglés como lengua extranjera en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Ana Patricia; Palacio, Marcela; Escobar, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that teachers' beliefs on teaching and learning exert an influence on the way they teach and assess learning, and on what students learn. Therefore, it is central that overt attention is devoted to the perceptions teachers have and how they influence teaching and learning. In this article we describe a study on…

  14. Como Promover el Exito de las Ninas y las Minorias en las Ciencias y en las Matematicas. Para Padres/sobre Padres (How To Promote the Science and Mathematics Achievement of Females and Minorities. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Some minority and female students traditionally have not been given the help they need to enroll and succeed in mathematics and science classes. Now, however, various approaches are available to give these students the extra attention they need. Parents can help children develop an interest in science and mathematics by: (1) identifying role…

  15. Parents as Partners: Planning Early for Your Children's School Success and College Attendance. Revised Edition = Los Padres como Socios: Planificando para el Exito Escolar y la Asistencia al Colegio de Sus Ninos. Edicion Revisada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Maria; Rothman, Donald

    This booklet, available in English and Spanish, describes what California parents can do at home and in the school to support and encourage their children's success in school and college. Discussion emphasizes the extent to which parents influence their children's attitudes about learning and school, and points out that parent involvement is…

  16. Parents as Partners: Planning Early for Your Children's School Success and College Attendance = Los Padres como Socios: Planificando para el Exito Escolar y la Asistencia al Colegio de Sus Ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Long Beach.

    Presented in both the English and Spanish Language versions is a booklet which describes what parents can do at home and in the school to support and encourage their children's success in school and college. Discussion emphasizes the extent to which parents influence their children's attitudes about learning and school, and points out that parent…

  17. Como ayudar a su hijo a ser un buen lector: Con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 anos (Helping Your Child Become a Reader: With Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Fran; Osborn, Jean

    When parents and other family members read with their children, help them with homework, talk with their teachers, and participate in school or other learning activities, they give their children a tremendous advantage. The foundation for learning to read is in place long before children enter school and begin formal reading instruction. Families…

  18. The Role of Genre-Based Activities in the Writing of Argumentative Essays in EFL (El papel de actividades basadas en géneros en la escritura de ensayos argumentativos en inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chala Bejarano, Pedro Antonio; Chapetón, Claudia Marcela

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an action research project conducted with a group of pre-service teachers of a program in modern languages at a Colombian university. The study intended to go beyond an emphasis on linguistic and textual features in English as a foreign language argumentative essays by using a set of genre-based activities and…

  19. Como Trabajar y Vivir en la Realidad: Pasos Basicos Para Jovenes con Incapacidades, sus Padres y sus Profesores (How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia L.; And Others

    This Spanish version of "How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers" is for young people with handicaps who are getting ready to graduate from high school and begin working and living in the adult world. The booklet places a special focus on individuals with cultural differences. It…

  20. La Capacitacion de Docentes Como Prioridad de los Sistemas Educativos de America Latino y al Caribe (In-Service Teacher Training as a Priority of Latin American and Caribbean Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Whenever top-level officials in Latin American and Caribbean educational systems are approached, the topic of inservice teacher training is presented as a major priority. This paper outlines some ideas about the subject of inservice teacher training as a priority of educational systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The most frequent…

  1. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  2. Encuentros esteticos deweyanos con la cultura popular anglofona en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (EILE). Working Paper (Deweyan Aesthetic Encounters with Anglophone Popular Culture in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Working Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper discusses how the introduction of Anglophone popular culture in the English-as-a-foreign-language class can serve to foster critical aesthetic experiences. It is argued that the popular culture of the hegemonic Anglophone countries is already part of students' lives and for that reason should be included in any critical Anglophone…

  3. Ideologies Revealed during the Construction of Meaning in an EFL Class (Ideologías reveladas durante la construcción de significado en una clase de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo Mora, Néstor Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an interpretive qualitative study conducted at a public university in Bogotá with 26 pre-service social studies teachers. It is focused on unveiling which ideologies are discovered when they construct the meaning of texts through text-based tasks in an English as a foreign language class. The data were collected by using…

  4. The Impact of Different Types of Journaling Techniques on EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy (El impacto de diferentes tipos de diario en la autosuficiencia de estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Mortazavi, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the impact of different methods of journaling on self-efficacy of learners of English as a foreign language. Sixty upper-intermediate Iranian English language learners were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions, namely no-feedback, teacher-feedback, and peer-feedback, and one control…

  5. The Portrayal of EFLTeachers in Official Discourse: The Perpetuation of Disdain (La imagen de los profesores de inglés como lengua extranjera en el discurso oficial: la perpetuación del desdén)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Carmen Helena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer an interpretation of the images of Colombian English teachers constructed in official discourse, particularly (but not exclusively) in the document "Estándares básicos de competencias en lenguas extranjeras: inglés. Formar en lenguas extranjeras, el reto". This is part of a larger critical…

  6. The Preschool Classroom as a Context for Cognitive Development: Type of Teacher Feedback and Children's Metacognitive Control (El aula Preescolar como espacio de desarrollo cognitivo: tipo de feedback docente y control metacognitivo en los niños)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Liz; Cruz, Josefina Santa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this work was to determine whether the type of feedback given by the preschool teacher during class impacts the children's metacognitive control. For this purpose, the children's behavior was analyzed while teachers provided feedback during collaborative learning sessions. Method: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional…

  7. La Migracion Como Una Transicion Critica para la Persona en Su Ambiente. Una Interpretacion Organismico Evolutiva. (Migration as a Critical Person-in-Environment Transition: An Organismic-Developmental Interpretation.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Angel M.; And Others

    In order to explore some of the changes and stresses connected with migration and return migration, a study was conducted among migrants returning from the United States mainland to Puerto Rico. The sample consisted of 75 adolescents participating in a Bilingual Education program in Puerto Rico. Data were collected using Psychological Distance…

  8. Exploring Authorship Development among Mexican EFL Teacher-Researchers (Exploración sobre el desarrollo de la autoría en los profesores-investigadores de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujeque Moreno, Eva Estefania; Encinas Prudencio, Fátima; Thomas-Ruzic, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a multi-theoretical model to address processes of "authorship development" in the English as a foreign language teaching profession. Working within a sociocultural perspective of second-language teacher education, the authors examined six experienced nonnative English-speaking teacher-researchers. Perceptions of…

  9. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  10. Learning & Growing Together: Understanding and Supporting Your Child's Development = Aprender y crecer juntos: Como comprender y fomentar el desarrollo de sus hijos [with] Tip Sheets: Ideas for Professionals in Programs That Serve Young Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Dombro, Amy Laura; Powers, Stefanie

    Based on the view that the primary caregivers for infants and toddlers are their own best resource for understanding and caring for their child and that parenting is a lifelong learning process, this book provides information and tools to help caregivers build a strong foundation for their child's development. The book, both in English and…

  11. Como ayudar a su hijo a tener exito en la escuela, con actividades para ninos entre las edades de 5 a 11 anos (Helping Your Child Succeed in School, with Activities for Children Ages 5 through 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    At the heart of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is a promise to raise standards for all children and to help all children meet those standards. This Spanish-language booklet provides information that parents can use to help their child succeed in school. Following an introduction, the second section of the booklet, "The Basics," offers…

  12. EFL Teaching Methodological Practices in Cali (Prácticas metodológicas en la enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera en la ciudad de Cali)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaves, Orlando; Hernández, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    In this article we aim at showing partial results of a study about the profiles of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in both public and private primary and secondary strata 1-4 schools in Cali, Colombia. Teachers' methodological approaches and practices are described and analyzed from a sample of 220 teachers. Information was gathered…

  13. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  14. The Kindergarten Survival Handbook: The Before School Checklist & a Guide for Parents. (El Manual de Como Sobrevivir El Jardin de Ninos: La Lista Pre-escolar y Una Guia Para Los Padres).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elovson, Allana Cummings

    Written to help parents understand what their children need to know before they start kindergarten, this volume, bound separately in English and Spanish, is intended to help parents become their children's best, as well as their first and most important, teachers. The first part of the book, the before school checklist, is divided into eight…

  15. EFL Students' Perceptions about a Web-Based English Reading Comprehension Course (Percepciones de estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera acerca de un curso de comprensión lectora apoyado en la red)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Flórez, Érica; Pineda, Jorge Eduardo; Marín García, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Web-based distance education is an innovative modality of instruction in Colombia. It is characterized by the separation of the teacher and learners, the use of technological tools and the students' autonomy development. This paper reports the findings of a case study that explores students' perceptions about an English reading…

  16. Un estudio de evaluacion educativa manipulativos en el aprendizaje de las matematicas con estudiantes hispanos adquiriendo ingles academico como segunda lengua (A Study of the Use of Manipulatives in the Assessment of Mathematics Instruction with ESL Hispanic Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Parker, Richard; Aviles, Claudia; Mason, Samantha; Irby, Beverly J.

    1998-01-01

    As an alternative form of mathematics assessment for use with limited-English-proficient students, 14 mathematics tasks using manipulatives were administered to 45 Hispanic students in grades 1-3 and readministered 2-3 weeks later. Test reliability and validity, task difficulty, and the relationship among test subscales across grades were…

  17. Introversion/Extroversion & Teachers' Perception on Dominican EFL College Students' Performance = La Introversion/Extroversion vs. La Percepcion Profesoral en el Desempeno de Estudiantes Universitarios Dominicanos de Ingles como Lengua Extranjera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavarez Da Costa, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between introversion/extroversion and a student's performance (academic achievement) as perceived by Teachers of English as a Foreign Language in three regional centers of the Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo. There have been a great number of international studies already published to try to explain…

  18. The Impact of Conferencing Assessment on EFL Students' Grammar Learning (Impacto de la evaluación mediante conferencias en el aprendizaje de la gramática en estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Zarghami, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that was carried out in order to examine the impact of conferencing assessment on students' learning of English grammar. Forty-two Iranian intermediate university students were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The participants in the experimental group took part in four individual and…

  19. Classification of commercial wines from the Canary Islands (Spain) by chemometric techniques using metallic contents.

    PubMed

    Frías, Sergio; Conde, José E; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan J; García-Montelongo, Francisco; Pérez-Trujillo, Juan P

    2003-02-01

    Eleven elements, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sr, Li and Rb, were determined in dry and sweet wines bearing the denominations of origin of El Hierro, La Palma and Lanzarote islands (Canary Islands, Spain). Analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, with the exceptions of lithium and rubidium for which flame atomic emission spectrophotometry was used. Sweet wines from La Palma were elaborated as naturally sweet with over-ripe grapes and significant differences were found in all the analysed elements with the exceptions of sodium, iron and rubidium with regard to dry wines from the same island. Contrarily, sweet wines from Lanzarote elaborated with grapes in a similar ripening state to dry wines did not present significant differences between them with the exception of strontium, the content of which was greater in dry wines. Among the three islands, significant differences in mean content were found with the exceptions of iron and copper. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis show differences in wines according to the island of origin and the ripening state of the grapes. Linear discriminant analysis using rubidium, sodium, manganese and strontium, the four most discriminant elements, gave 100% recognition ability and 95.6% prediction ability. The sensitivity and specificity obtained using soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as a modelling multivariate technique were both 100% for El Hierro and Lanzarote, and 100 and 95%, respectively, for La Palma. The modelling and discriminant capacities of the different metals were also studied. PMID:18968916

  20. Los padres como maestros de los ninos. Los padres como recursos para los maestros. Serie E: El logro de la participacion de los padres, cuadernos I y II. Edicion para el estudiante. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as the Children's Teachers. Parents as Resources for the Teachers. Series E: Success with Parent Participation, Books I and II. Student Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packets.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazos, Hector

    The student versions of two learning modules for teacher training in bilingual education are part of a series focusing on promoting parent participation in the school system. An introductory section discussing the overall objectives of the materials is followed by two modules, each consisting of introductory sections and two units containing…

  1. Los padres como maestros de los ninos. Los padres como recursos para los maestros. Serie E: [E1] logro de la participacion de los padres. cuadernos 1 y 2. Edicion para el maestro. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Their Children's Teachers. Parents as Resources for Teachers. Series E: Parent Participation, Book 1 and 2. Teacher Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packets).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazos, Hector, Comp.

    This guide on training bilingual education teachers focuses on parent participation in school activities. The guide addresses three groups of people: paraprofessionals and non-graduate students, bilingual teachers, and graduate students. Two units are presented, one dealing with the important influence parents have on their child's language…

  2. On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Jesús; Sánchez-Vila, Xavier; Benet, Inmaculada; Medina, Agustín; Galarza, Germán; Guimerà, Jordi

    (traçages de longue durée) ne dépend que de φmRm, et non pas du coefficient de diffusion matricielle ou de la forme et de la taille des blocs. Ceci est toujours vrai pour le temps moyen d'arrivée. Ces propriétés permettent: (a) d'analyser le comportement de la diffusion matricielle; (b) d'expliquer un paradoxe du transport de soluté dans les roches fracturées (la dépendance apparente entre la porosité et le temps de transit); (c) de faire la distinction entre la diffusion matricielle et d'autres problèmes, tels que la sorption cinétique ou l'hétérogénéité et (d) de décrire les problèmes d'identification et les façons de les résoudre. Resumen La difusión en la matriz está reconocida en la actualidad como un importante mecanismo de transporte de solutos. Desgraciadamente, tener en cuenta este proceso complica las simulaciones de transporte. Esto ha llevado a una serie de formulaciones simplificadas, motivadas en parte por el propio método de solución. Como resultado, se ha producido cierta confusión respecto a cuál es la manera adecuada de formular el problema. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo es encontrar una cierta unidad entre las formulaciones existentes y los métodos de solución, lo que conduce a algunas propiedades asintóticas de la difusión en la matriz; específicamente, se comprueba que el comportamiento para tiempos cortos depende únicamente del parámetro φm2RmDm / Lm2, mientras que el de tiempos largos depende sólo de φmRm, y no del coeficiente de difusión en la matriz o del tamaño o forma del bloque. Esto último también es cierto, en todos los casos, respecto al tiempo medio de llegada (definido como el valor esperado de la distribución de tiempos de llegada). Estas propiedades son útiles para: (a) analizar el comportamiento cualitativo de la difusión en la matriz; (b) explicar una de las paradojas del transporte de solutos en medios fracturados, la aparente dependencia entre porosidad y tiempo de llegada; (c

  3. Espectroscopía de Microondas en Jets Supersónicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J. L.; López, J. C.; Lesarri, A.; Blanco, S.; Sanz, M. E.; Mata, S.; Cocinero, J. E.; Sánchez, R.

    Complejos con Enlace de Hidrógeno. El entorno de bajas temperaturas de una expansión supersónica es un excelente laboratorio para estudiar el comportamiento conformacional de los complejos con enlace de hidrógeno. Nuestro grupo ha observado por vez primera enlaces de hidrógeno axial y ecuatorial en los complejos de tetrahidropirano, sulfuro de pentametileno y sulfuro de trimetileno con HCl y HF [1-6] generados en las expansiones adiabáticas en He, Ne o Ar y caracterizados por espectroscopía de microondas con transformadas de Fouier. Existe controversia a la hora de considerar a las interacciones C-H\\cdotsO como enlaces de hidrógeno o como simples interacciones de van der Waals. Las interacciones C-H\\cdotsO han sido estudiadas en el dímero del dimetil eter generado en la expansión supersónica y caracterizado por espectroscopía de microondas [7]. Estas interacciones se han analizado en los complejos formados entre los alcanos sustituidos del trifluorometano y difluorometano con oxirano [8] caracterizándose la existencia de interacciones C-F\\cdotsH-C que contribuyen a la estabilización de estos complejos. Ablación Láser: Estructura de Aminoácidos. Los aminoácidos poseen puntos de fusión elevados (>200oC) y se presentan en fases condensadas como formas dipolares (+H3N-CH(R)-COO-) distintas de las neutras de las cadenas polipéptidas. Con el fin de obtener la estructura de estas formas neutras es necesario experimentar en fase gas, en un entorno libre de interacciones como el de una expansión supersónica. Para solventar el problema de su baja presión de vapor, se ha diseñado un nuevo instrumento que combina la espectroscopía de microondas en jet supersónicos con técnicas de ablación láser [9] que evita los métodos de vaporización por calentamiento que conducen a la descomposición de los aminoácidos. Diversos confórmeros de los aminoácidos naturales de la prolina [10], valina [11], cis- y trans- hidroxiprolina, serina, cisteina, ldots

  4. Alfabetización astronómica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    A fines de 1991, en una revista de educación en ciencias, José L. Sérsic reflexionaba acerca de los problemas que enfrentaría la enseñanza de los conocimientos astronómicos en nuestro país, en los umbrales del Siglo XXI. Entonces postulaba como un objetivo mínimo, que los jóvenes deberían mostrar signos claros de que se hallan astronómicamente alfabetizados. Era el año en que se realizaba por primera vez una Asamblea General de I.A.U. en Buenos Aires, una oportunidad de singulares características para la comunidad astronómica local y, simultáneamente el comienzo de un cambio radical en la estructura del sistema educativo argentino. ?`Contempla ese cambio el objetivo que postulara Sérsic? ?`Estamos en condiciones de afirmar que estamos en camino de lograrlo? ?`Con qué parámetros?. Presentamos aquí un panorama general sobre algunas de las acciones realizadas en función de alcanzar esa alfabetización científica, analizando exclusivamente la actividad de enseñanza hasta el nivel universitario, sin detenernos en el mismo, ya que lo consideramos una instancia superior e independiente de aquella alfabetización. Tampoco nos referiremos a la tarea de difusión, divulgación o popularización de la Astronomía, ya que su condición de asistemática y subjetiva no es evaluable en términos de la formación integral de un individuo.

  5. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Muros, José Joaquín; Briones, Mercedes; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Bouzas, Paula R; Giménez, Rafael; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Guatemala ha estado experimentando una transición en sus estilos de vida. Mientras que la desnutrición crónica sigue siendo prevalente, se ha experimentado un aumento sustancial de los casos de obesidad. Objetivo: proporcionar información actualizada sobre las nuevas tendencias en cuanto al estado nutricional en Guatemala. Métodos: se diseñó un estudio transversal con una muestra de 392 niños y adolescentes (5-18 años) seleccionados de manera aleatoria. El muestreo fue estratificado según su ubicación geográfica (rural y urbana), sexo y edad. Resultados: alrededor del 62% de la muestra urbana presentó problemas de sobrepeso y un 13,8 de obesidad. Entre los participantes urbanos, la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue mayor en el grupo de 11-14 años. El grupo urbano presentó una mayor prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad que el grupo rural para todos los grupos de edad (excepto en el grupo de 15-18 años que presentó unos índices de obesidad ligeramente más elevados en el grupo rural). Se observó una mayor prevalencia de retraso en el crecimiento en el grupo rural, excepto para el grupo de edad de 15-18 años. La prevalencia de bajo peso fue significativamente mayor en el grupo rural (25% vs. 1,2%) así como la prevalencia del delgadez, excepto para el grupo de edad de 5-10 años. Conclusión: la alta prevalencia de bajo peso y la de sobrepeso/obesidad coexisten en los niños y adolescentes en Guatemala. PMID:27238797

  6. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  7. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Pérez Fernández, Laura; Sanz Paris, Alejandro; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Matía Martín, Pilar; García Almeida, José M; Martín Palmero, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la malnutrición es un problema de primer orden en el paciente hospitalizado que prolonga la estancia hospitalaria y la tasa de infecciones. El paciente diabético representa un porcentaje importante de la población hospitalizada. El estudio VIDA tiene como objetivo analizar el estado nutricional de pacientes ancianos con diabetes hospitalizados en España.Objetivo: describir la población del estudio VIDA, incluyendo datos del perfil bioquímico y antropométrico en el momento del ingreso.Métodos: estudio multicéntrico, transversal, observacional llevado a cabo en 1098 pacientes mayores de 65 años. Se incluyeron 35 hospitales españoles.Resultados: la edad media de los pacientes ingresados fue 78 ± 7,1 años. El motivo de ingreso más frecuente fueron las infecciones respiratorias (32,4%). El 51,2% estaban diagnosticados de diabetes desde hacía más de 10 años. Un 33,09% recibía tratamiento con insulina. Un 39,07% presentaba riesgo de malnutrición y un 21,22% estaba mal nutrido en el momento del ingreso. Se encontró mayor prevalencia de malnutrición en el grupo de mujeres (p < 0,0002)Conclusiones: el estudio VIDA es el primero que analiza el estado nutricional de una cohorte de pacientes ancianos diabéticos en España. Enlos resultados de este proyecto se concluye que un 21,2% de la muestra presenta malnutrición. Esta condición es edad y sexo dependiente, y puede empeorar la tasa de mortalidad. PMID:27019239

  8. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Hernando-Requejo, Virgilio

    2016-01-01

    La demencia, estrechamente ligada a factores predisponentes ambientales como la dieta, supone un problema de salud pública de magnitud creciente: actualmente más de 35 millones de pacientes con demencia tipo alzhéimer, y se espera que superen los 135 millones en 2050. Si conseguimos retrasar el desarrollo de la demencia 5 años, reduciremos su prevalencia en un 50%. Los pacientes con demencia alteran su dieta y se han reportado déficits, entre otros, de ácido fólico, vitaminas B12, B6, C, E, A, D, K, betacarotenos y omega tres, que deben ser resueltos con una dieta adecuada y, en según qué casos, con aportes extra. Pero para reducir o al menos retrasar la prevalencia debemos preconizar la prevención mediante una dieta adecuada desde el inicio de la vida, idea reforzada por el hecho de que los factores de riesgo cardiovascular se relacionen de forma directa con el desarrollo de demencia. Disponemos de abundante bibliografía que, aunque con límites, nos permite hacer recomendaciones nutricionales para prevenir el deterioro cognitivo. Se han conseguido mejores resultados cuando se han estudiado dietas completas que cuando se han considerado nutrientes específicos. De especial interés es la dieta mediterránea, que garantiza un aporte elevado de vegetales, frutas, frutos secos, legumbres, cereales, pescado y aceite de oliva, y moderado de carne, productos lácteos y alcohol, y en la que nos centraremos en este artículo. PMID:27571865

  9. Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    exilio: el uso de productos vegetales, animales y minerales con fines de perfumería, cosmética y curativos de la piel entre los refugiados saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Durante la última década ha habido un creciente interés en los estudios etnobiológicos de los conocimientos y prácticas de las personas que migran. Dentro de esta tendencia, los estudiosos han prestado relativamente menor atención a las personas desplazadas y a los refugiados: a la pérdida, el mantenimiento y la adaptación de sus conocimientos etnobiológicos, y su importancia para el bienestar de los refugiados. Este estudio se centra en los cosméticos y remedios para curar problemas de la piel tradicionalmente utilizados por los refugiados saharauis en los campamentos de desplazados al sudoeste de Argelia. Métodos Los métodos de investigación que se utilizaron son: una encuesta estructurada con 37 familias de refugiados, entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 77 refugiados, 24 entrevistas retrospectivas con refugiados e informantes conocedores, y una colección de muestra de las plantas y productos citados. Resultados Se registró el uso de 55 especies vegetales, nueve especies animales, y seis productos minerales utilizados en tres principales categorías de usos: 1) Recursos contra los problemas de salud característicos del entorno desértico donde una vez vivieron los saharauis como nómadas y donde ahora viven como refugiados (por ejemplo problemas en los ojos); 2) Remedios para heridas que reflejan la historia reciente de guerra de guerrilla de los nómadas saharauis; y 3) Cosméticos y productos utilizados para el cuidado del cuerpo, decoración y perfumes (por ejemplo, atención al cabello, limpieza de dientes, uso del henna) y como aromatizantes del aire al interior de las tiendas, que son ampliamente utilizados en la vida y las prácticas sociales cotidianas de los refugiados. Conclusiones En la discusión, se analizan los cambios qu

  10. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    que le modèle conceptuel peut bien changer lorsque des nouvelles informations apparaissent. Dans l'analyse finale le hydrogéologue prend une décision subjective sur le modèle conceptuel approprié. Le problème du le modèle conceptuel ne doit pas rendre le modèle inutilisable. Ce problème introduit une incertitude qui n'est pas toujours reconnue. Les incertitudes du modèle conceptuel deviennent plus importantes dans les cases de prévisions à long terme dans l'analyse de performance. La base para hacer un análisis de un modelo es el modelo conceptual. Se define aquí la sorpresa como los datos nuevos que convierten en incoherente al modelo conceptual previamente aceptado; tal como se define aquí esto representa un cambio de paradigma. Los datos empíricos limitados indican que estas sorpresas suceden entre un 20 a un 30% de los análisis de modelos. Esto sugiere que los analistas de modelos de agua subterránea tienen dificultades al seleccionar el modelo conceptual apropiado. No hayotra solución disponible a este problema del modelo conceptual diferente de: (1) Recolectar tanta información como sea posible, mediante la utilización de todos los métodos aplicables, lo cual puede resultar en que esta nueva información ayude a cambiar el modelo conceptual vigente, y (2) Que el analista de modelos se mantenga siempre abierto al hecho de que un modelo conceptual puede cambiar de manera total, en la medida en que se colecte mas información. En el análisis final el hidrogeólogo toma una decisión subjetiva en cuanto al modelo conceptual apropiado. El problema de la conceptualización no produce modelos inútiles. El problema presenta una incertidumbre, la cual a menudo no es tenida en cuentade manera adecuada. Esta incertidumbre en los modelos conceptuales se aumenta, cuando se hacen predicciones a largo plazo del comportamiento de un sistema dado.

  11. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-León, Alejandra Soledad; Pérez-Escobar, Iván; Matías-Pérez, Diana; García-Montalvo, Iván Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los grupos de ayuda mutua se forman con la finalidad de atender a adultos mayores con problemas crónicos-degenerativos. La organización y participación activa de los integrantes favorece la intervención del nutriólogo y, por ende, cambios en el estilo de vida de los participantes, sobrellevando de mejor manera sus vidas. Objetivo: intervenir nutricionalmente en individuos del Grupo de Ayuda Mutua del Centro de Salud C-2, "El Rosario" de Oaxaca de Juárez, México. Material y métodos: se trató de un estudio observacional, descriptivo, analítico y longitudinal, llevado a cabo desde noviembre/2014 hasta julio/2015, evaluando el estado nutricional antes y después de la intervención, buscando la correlación entre índice de masa corporal (IMC), glucosa capilar, hemoglobina glicada con las consultas-talleres brindadas. Resultados: la muestra trabajada fue de 15 participantes del Grupo de Ayuda Mutua con un promedio de edad de 55,26 años, con un IMC de 28,74 kg/cm 2 , glucosa capilar de 218,66 mg/dl y una hemoglobina glicada de 10,43%. Al finalizar la intervención se correlacionaron entre sí mediante Spearman, dando como resultado el valor de 1, es decir, una correlación positiva perfecta. Conclusión: el nutriólogo juega hoy en día un papel importante en el hecho de atender enfermedades crónico-degenerativas, a través del seguimiento en consultas y talleres propuestos. Los grupos de ayuda mutua día a día se posicionan como una estrategia en la línea educativa para mejorar el control de las enfermedades. PMID:27238791

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Flores, Juan Emmanuel; Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Larios-Del-Toro, Youné Elizabeth; García-Rentería, Jesús; Rendrón-Félix, Jorge; Salazar-Parra, Marcela; Irusteta-Jiménez, Leire; Michel-Espinoza, Luis Rodrigo; Márquez-Valdez, Aída Rebeca; Cuesta-Márquez, Lisbeth; Álvarez-Villaseñor, Andrea Socorro; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; González Ojeda, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición intrahospitalaria se ha descrito hace más de 70 años como un problema frecuente. En México se reportan cifras de entre el 20% al 50%; sin embargo no se ha estudiado su prevalencia ni su asociación con la morbilidad y mortalidad hospitalaria.Objetivos: evaluar el estado nutricional y su relación con la morbimortalidad hospitalaria en pacientes mexicanos.Métodos: cohorte prospectiva de pacientes que ingresaron en un hospital de referencia para una estancia hospitalaria mayor de 5 días. Se capturó peso, talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC), estado nutricional de acuerdo con la valoración global subjetiva (VGS) a su ingreso y egreso hospitalario, así como diagnóstico médico, complicaciones y mortalidad. Los datos fueron analizados mediante la prueba T de Student, prueba Chi-cuadrado y prueba Exacta de Fisher.Resultados: se incluyeron 610 pacientes en total, con un promedio de edad de 50,8 ± 17,32 años, 267 mujeres (43,8%) y 343 hombres (56,2%). Del total, 154 fueron catalogados con sospecha de desnutrición o desnutrición (pacientes expuestos, 25,2%) y 456 bien nutridos (pacientes no expuestos, 74,8%), con una relación de 1 a 3. La morbilidad total de la cohorte tuvo un RR = 2,70, IC 95 % (2,06-3,55) y la mortalidad con un RR = 2,64, IC 95% (1,74-4,0), siendo ambas estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,001).Conclusiones: el diagnóstico de desnutrición al ingreso hospitalario constituye un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de complicaciones y mortalidad. Este padecimiento al ingreso en comparación con el paciente que no presenta desnutrición incrementó el riesgo de mortalidad hasta en 2.64 veces. PMID:27571661

  14. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  15. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Joaquín Ortiz, Clara

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad existe una alta variabilidad en la práctica clínica en nutrición que podría afectar al estado nutricional de los pacientes oncológicos. La implementación de guías de práctica clínica de adecuada calidad puede ayudarnos a disminuir esta variabilidad y minimizar los efectos deletéreos de la malnutrición en los pacientes oncológicos. Las guías suelen estar basadas en la evidencia, formulando las recomendaciones a partir de la mejor información disponible. No obstante, es importante tener en cuenta la calidad metodológica en la elaboración de las guías y valorar si existen conflictos de interés. Los principales problemas de las guías actuales suelen ser que existe limitada evidencia de alta calidad, y que las recomendaciones basadas exclusivamente en la evidencia pueden no ser útiles en la práctica clínica diaria, ya que no tienen en cuenta la aplicabilidad que es fundamental para su implementación. Por otro lado, las guías clínicas hasta la actualidad han sido inconsistentes en la forma de evaluar la calidad de la evidencia y el grado de recomendación. Como resultado, los usuarios se enfrentan al desafío de comprender los mensajes que los diferentes sistemas de grados de evidencia tratan de comunicar. En esta revisión se realiza un resumen de las recomendaciones de las principales guías clínicas sobre valoración y/o soporte nutricional en pacientes oncohematológicos desarrolladas en los últimos 10 años, incluyendo algunas guías de calidad de sociedades científicas que no son accesibles a través de las bases de datos comúnmente usadas como PubMed. PMID:27269218

  17. Use of Low-Cost Acquisition Systems with an Embedded Linux Device for Volcanic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro; Casas, Benito; Toma, Daniel; Blanco, María José; Del Río, Joaquín; Manuel, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a low-cost multiparameter acquisition system for volcanic monitoring that is applicable to gravimetry and geodesy, as well as to the visual monitoring of volcanic activity. The acquisition system was developed using a System on a Chip (SoC) Broadcom BCM2835 Linux operating system (based on DebianTM) that allows for the construction of a complete monitoring system offering multiple possibilities for storage, data-processing, configuration, and the real-time monitoring of volcanic activity. This multiparametric acquisition system was developed with a software environment, as well as with different hardware modules designed for each parameter to be monitored. The device presented here has been used and validated under different scenarios for monitoring ocean tides, ground deformation, and gravity, as well as for monitoring with images the island of Tenerife and ground deformation on the island of El Hierro. PMID:26295394

  18. Diffuse Helium Emission as a Precursory Sign of Volcanic Unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padron, E.; Perez, N.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Sumino, H.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Barrancos, J.; Nolasco, D.; Padilla, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Hernandez, I.; Calvo, D.; Peraza, M.; Nagao, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since July 16, 2011, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro island, the youngest and smallest of the Canary Islands, was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor was recorded since 05:15 of the October 10, by all of the seismic stations on the island, with highest amplitudes recorded in the southernmost station. During the afternoon of October 12 a large light-green coloured area was observed in the sea to the souht of La Restinga village (at the southernmost part of El Hierro island), suggesting the existence of a submarine eruption. Since October 12, frequent episodes of, turbulent gas emission and foaming, and the appearance of steamy lava fragments has been observed on the sea surface. As part of the volcanic surveillance of the island, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) geochemical monitoring program is carrying out diffuse helium surveys on the surface environment of El Hierro (soil atmosphere). This nobel gas has been investigated because it has been considered an almost ideal geochemical indicator because it is chemically inert, physically stable, nonbiogenic, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions and almost non-adsorbable. At each survey, 600 sampling sites covering the whole island and following an homogeneous distribution are selected for helium measurements in the soil gases, The helium concentration gradients with respect to its value on air (5.24 ppm) allow us to estimate a pure diffusive emission rate of helium throughout the island. The first survey was carried out on the summer of 2003, when the island was on a quiescence period. At this survey, the amount of helium released by the volcanic system of El Hierro was estimated in 6 kg/d. Since the beginning of the seismic unrest, 13 helium emission surveys have been carried out. The helium emission rate has shown an excellent agreement with the evolution of the volcanic crisis of the island, reaching 30 kg

  19. Mansonia dyari, Mansonia flaveola and Aedeomyia squamipennis in the Dominican Republic, three new country records.

    PubMed

    Pena, Carlos J; Chadee, Dave D

    2004-12-01

    We report the first collection of 3 mosquito species representing 2 genera in the Dominican Republic. The collections of adults and larvae of Mansonia dyari Belkin, Heinemann, and Page and Mansonia flaveola (Coquillett) from Santo Domingo City represent 2 additional mosquito species to the mosquito fauna of the Dominican Republic. Larvae were collected in the Quitasueno and Puerta de Hierro lagoons (covered with the Pistia stratiotes plants) in Santo Domingo. The associated species Aedeomyia squamipennis Lynch Arribalzaga was also collected for the first time and is the only representative of the genus Aedeomyia Theobald in the Dominican Republic. These collections increase the number of mosquito species belonging to the Genus Mansonia from 1 to 3 and total species from 45 to 48 in the Dominican Republic. PMID:15669390

  20. Use of Low-Cost Acquisition Systems with an Embedded Linux Device for Volcanic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro; Casas, Benito; Toma, Daniel; Blanco, María José; Del Río, Joaquín; Manuel, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a low-cost multiparameter acquisition system for volcanic monitoring that is applicable to gravimetry and geodesy, as well as to the visual monitoring of volcanic activity. The acquisition system was developed using a System on a Chip (SoC) Broadcom BCM2835 Linux operating system (based on DebianTM) that allows for the construction of a complete monitoring system offering multiple possibilities for storage, data-processing, configuration, and the real-time monitoring of volcanic activity. This multiparametric acquisition system was developed with a software environment, as well as with different hardware modules designed for each parameter to be monitored. The device presented here has been used and validated under different scenarios for monitoring ocean tides, ground deformation, and gravity, as well as for monitoring with images the island of Tenerife and ground deformation on the island of El Hierro. PMID:26295394

  1. Shallow seismic imaging of flank collapse structures in oceanic island volcanoes: Application to the Western Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, L.; González, P.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic flank collapse counts among the many hazards associated with volcanic activity. This type of event involves the mobilization of large volumes, producing debris avalanches. It affects mostly oceanic island volcanoes, involving the potential for tsunami occurrence. Geophysical imaging can illuminate subvolcanic features such as volcano-tectonic structures, magmatic plumbing systems or differences in rock type. The most commonly used geophysical methods are gravity, electromagnetics and seismics. In particular, seismic measurements quantify anomalies in seismic waves propagation velocities and can be used to obtain information on the subsurface arrangement of different materials. In the Western Canary Islands, the Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma (Canary Islands) has been proposed to be near the collapse stage. Previous geophysical studies that have been carried out on the flank of the volcano comprise gravity and electromagnetic methods. These types of surveys gather information on the deep structures of the volcano (1-2 km). In this project, we complement previous studies by using seismic methods to investigate the near-surface seismic structure of the Cumbre Vieja fault system (La Palma Island) and the structure of the well-developed San Andres fault system (El Hierro Island). We aim to compare the Cumbre Vieja and San Andres fault systems to infer the degree of maturity of collapse structures. We carried out reflection and refraction seismic surveys in order to image approximately the first 10 meters of the subsurface. We used 24 low frequency (4,5 Hz) geophones as receivers and a sledge hammer as the seismic source. The survey lines were located across visible parts of the fault systems at the Cumbre Vieja volcano and the San Andres fault in El Hierro. Here, we present the survey setup and results from the preliminary analysis of the data.

  2. Pronounced Fixation, Strong Population Differentiation and Complex Population History in the Canary Islands Blue Tit Subspecies Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Bengt; Ljungqvist, Marcus; Illera, Juan-Carlos; Kvist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary molecular studies of island radiations may lead to insights in the role of vicariance, founder events, population size and drift in the processes of population differentiation. We evaluate the degree of population genetic differentiation and fixation of the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex using microsatellite markers and aim to get insights in the population history using coalescence based methods. The Canary Island populations were strongly genetically differentiated and had reduced diversity with pronounced fixation including many private alleles. In population structure models, the relationship between the central island populations (La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria) and El Hierro was difficult to disentangle whereas the two European populations showed consistent clustering, the two eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) and Morocco weak clustering, and La Palma a consistent unique lineage. Coalescence based models suggested that the European mainland forms an outgroup to the Afrocanarian population, a split between the western island group (La Palma and El Hierro) and the central island group, and recent splits between the three central islands, and between the two eastern islands and Morocco, respectively. It is clear that strong genetic drift and low level of concurrent gene flow among populations have shaped complex allelic patterns of fixation and skewed frequencies over the archipelago. However, understanding the population history remains challenging; in particular, the pattern of extreme divergence with low genetic diversity and yet unique genetic material in the Canary Island system requires an explanation. A potential scenario is population contractions of a historically large and genetically variable Afrocanarian population, with vicariance and drift following in the wake. The suggestion from sequence-based analyses of a Pleistocene extinction of a substantial part of North Africa and a Pleistocene/Holocene eastward

  3. Phylogeography and seed dispersal in islands: the case of Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis (Polygonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, María; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Arista, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is an endemic taxon to Macaronesia with diaspore polymorphism. The origin and colonizing route of this taxon in Macaronesia was studied using molecular data and information on diaspore types. Methods Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used in 260 plants from 22 populations of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis, four from the Madeiran archipelago and 18 from the Canary archipelago. Diaspore production was analysed in 9–50 plants from each population used for AFLP analysis. One hundred and one plants from the Madeiran archipelago and 375 plants from the Canary Islands were studied. For each plant the type of diaspore produced was recorded. Key Results Overall populations had low genetic diversity but they showed a geographical pattern of genetic diversity that was higher in the older eastern islands than in the younger western ones. Two types of dispersible diaspores were found: in the eastern Canary islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria), plants produced exclusively long-dispersible diaspores, whereas in the western Canary islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro) and the Madeiran archipelago plants produced exclusively short-dispersible diaspores. Genetically, the studied populations fell into four main island groups: Lanzarote–Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife–El Hierro and La Gomera–Madeira archipelago. Conclusions A Moroccan origin of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is hypothesized with a colonization route from the eastern to the western islands. In addition, at least one gene flow event from La Gomera to the Madeiran archipelago has taken place. During the colonization process the type of dispersible diaspore changed so that dispersability decreased in populations of the westernmost islands. PMID:23267005

  4. Deep intrusions, lateral magma transport and related uplift at ocean island volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klügel, Andreas; Longpré, Marc-Antoine; García-Cañada, Laura; Stix, John

    2015-12-01

    Oceanic intraplate volcanoes grow by accumulation of erupted material as well as by coeval or discrete magmatic intrusions. Dykes and other intrusive bodies within volcanic edifices are comparatively well studied, but intrusive processes deep beneath the volcanoes remain elusive. Although there is geological evidence for deep magmatic intrusions contributing to volcano growth through uplift, this has rarely been demonstrated by real-time monitoring. Here we use geophysical and petrological data from El Hierro, Canary Islands, to show that intrusions from the mantle and subhorizontal transport of magma within the oceanic crust result in rapid endogenous island growth. Seismicity and ground deformation associated with a submarine eruption in 2011-2012 reveal deep subhorizontal intrusive sheets (sills), which have caused island-scale uplift of tens of centimetres. The pre-eruptive intrusions migrated 15-20 km laterally within the lower oceanic crust, opening pathways that were subsequently used by the erupted magmas to ascend from the mantle to the surface. During six post-eruptive episodes between 2012 and 2014, further sill intrusions into the lower crust and upper mantle have caused magma to migrate up to 20 km laterally, resulting in magma accumulation exceeding that of the pre-eruptive phase. A comparison of geobarometric data for the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption with data for other Atlantic intraplate volcanoes shows similar bimodal pressure distributions, suggesting that eruptive phases are commonly accompanied by deep intrusions of sills and lateral magma transport. These processes add significant material to the oceanic crust, cause uplift, and are thus fundamentally important for the growth and evolution of volcanic islands. We suggest that the development of such a magma accumulation zone in the lower oceanic crust begins early during volcano evolution, and is a consequence of increasing size and complexity of the mantle reservoir system, and potentially

  5. On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Jesús; Sánchez-Vila, Xavier; Benet, Inmaculada; Medina, Agustín; Galarza, Germán; Guimerà, Jordi

    (traçages de longue durée) ne dépend que de φmRm, et non pas du coefficient de diffusion matricielle ou de la forme et de la taille des blocs. Ceci est toujours vrai pour le temps moyen d'arrivée. Ces propriétés permettent: (a) d'analyser le comportement de la diffusion matricielle; (b) d'expliquer un paradoxe du transport de soluté dans les roches fracturées (la dépendance apparente entre la porosité et le temps de transit); (c) de faire la distinction entre la diffusion matricielle et d'autres problèmes, tels que la sorption cinétique ou l'hétérogénéité et (d) de décrire les problèmes d'identification et les façons de les résoudre. Resumen La difusión en la matriz está reconocida en la actualidad como un importante mecanismo de transporte de solutos. Desgraciadamente, tener en cuenta este proceso complica las simulaciones de transporte. Esto ha llevado a una serie de formulaciones simplificadas, motivadas en parte por el propio método de solución. Como resultado, se ha producido cierta confusión respecto a cuál es la manera adecuada de formular el problema. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo es encontrar una cierta unidad entre las formulaciones existentes y los métodos de solución, lo que conduce a algunas propiedades asintóticas de la difusión en la matriz; específicamente, se comprueba que el comportamiento para tiempos cortos depende únicamente del parámetro φm2RmDm / Lm2, mientras que el de tiempos largos depende sólo de φmRm, y no del coeficiente de difusión en la matriz o del tamaño o forma del bloque. Esto último también es cierto, en todos los casos, respecto al tiempo medio de llegada (definido como el valor esperado de la distribución de tiempos de llegada). Estas propiedades son útiles para: (a) analizar el comportamiento cualitativo de la difusión en la matriz; (b) explicar una de las paradojas del transporte de solutos en medios fracturados, la aparente dependencia entre porosidad y tiempo de llegada; (c

  6. Overactive Thyroid: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... de peso • cambios de humor • bocio, que es un agrandamiento de la tiroides que puede hacer que ... Ciertos factores pueden aumentar sus probabilidades de tener un problema de la tiroides. Usted tiene mayor riesgo ...

  7. Bladder Control: What Men Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... fuerte urgencia de orinar. • El escape puede ser un goteo constante. Los hombres con este problema por ... hombres mayores, puede oprimir la uretra y producir un chorro de orina débil, una necesidad urgente de ...

  8. Mejoras al control de cáncer en comunidades rurales

    Cancer.gov

    El doctor Robert Croyle, del NCI, habla de algunas de las cuestiones relacionadas con el control de cancer a las que se enfrentan las comunidades rurales y cómo el NCI plantea este importante problema.

  9. Psoriasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Skin Problem: Psoriasis KidsHealth > For Kids > Skin Problem: Psoriasis Print A ... Do? en español Problemas en la piel: psoriasis Psoriasis = Red, Flaky Skin If you have psoriasis, you ...

  10. Sleep Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Information Translations Portuguese (português) Common Sleep Problems Problemas de sono comuns - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Problemas del sueño Ukrainian (Українська) Sleep Study Дослідження сну - ...

  11. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  12. Condiciones Físicas en Nebulosas Gaseosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luridiana, V.

    1999-03-01

    El presente trabajo se ha enfocado a determinar y entender las condiciones físicas en una variedad de objetos nebulares, prestando particular atención al problema de la determinación de las abundancias químicas. Para este fin, hemos utilizado métodos analíticos en algunos casos, y modelos numéricos de fotoionización en otros. El objetivo general del trabajo es proveer de una visión amplia de las herramientas teórico-observacionales que se utilizan para la determinación de la estructura de temperatura y densidad de las regiones fotoionizadas, poniendo en evidencia posibles fuentes de errores sistemáticos y sus consecuencias para la determinación de las abundancias químicas, y proponiendo métodos para corregirlos. Los resultados principales de este trabajo est´n listados a continuación: a) Se discute el problema de la discrepancia entre T(C III) y T(O III) en las nebulosas planetarias, y se muestra como tal discrepancia implica probablemente la presencia de fluctuaciones de temperatura. Debido a que la temperatura de O++ es muy afectada por fluctuaciones de temperatura, se recomienda usar la temperatura de C++ para determinar la abundancia de carbono. b) Presentamos dos nuevos métodos para determinar la temperatura electrónica en nebulosas planetarias, basados en la medición de las intensidades de las líneas de He I. Las temperaturas que se obtienen a partir de estos métodos son menores que aquellas que se obtienen a partir de las líneas de [O III], implicando la presencia de fluctuaciones espaciales de temperatura. Despreciando las fluctuaciones de temperatura, se obtienen valores sesgados de las abundancias químicas. Determinamos las abundancias en las nebulosas planetarias de tipo I de algunos de los elementos más importantes, tomando en cuenta las fluctuaciones de temperatura. c) Presentamos modelos numéricos de las dos regiones H II extragalácticas gigantes NGC 2363 y NGC 5461. Con el modelaje numérico, pretendemos acotar las car

  13. Resonances and Tides in Natural Satellites Systems. (Breton Title: Ressonâncias e Marés em Sistemas de Satélites Naturais.) Resonancias y Mareas en Sistemas de Satélites Naturales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegari, Nelson, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    In this work we describe some aspects of the dynamics of the mean-motion resonances. Emphasis to the case of resonances between regular satellites of the giant planets will be given, even so some aspects of the physics of the resonances in extra-solar planetary systems are also briefly treated. The role of the resonances in satellites systems is discussed through examples, showing how certain resonances, and its relations with the tidal dissipation effects, can be the key of the explanation of some phenomena still not explained in the Solar System. Amongst some examples we highlight the problem of the resurfacing of Enceladus, the existence of active volcanoes in Io, and the possible existence of the subsurface ocean in Europe. This work has as objective the divulgation of some topics in Celestial Mechanics and Planetary Sciences for an undergraduate public in exact sciences, as Astronomy and Physics, and not their detailed description. Neste trabalho descrevemos alguns aspectos da dinâmica de ressonâncias de movimentos médios. Será dada ênfase maior ao caso de ressonâncias entre satélites regulares dos planetas gigantes, embora alguns aspectos da física das ressonâncias em sistemas planetários extra-solares também sejam discutidos brevemente. A importância do estudo de ressonâncias em sistemas de satélites é discutida mais detalhadamente através de exemplos, mostrando como certas ressonâncias e suas relações com efeitos de dissipação de maré podem ser a chave de parte da explicação de alguns fenômenos ainda não explicados no Sistema Solar. Dentre vários exemplos destacamos o problema da remodelagem da superfície do satélite Enceladus, a existência de vulcões ativos em Io, e a possível existência do oceano subterrâneo em Europa. Este trabalho tem como objetivo a divulgação de alguns tópicos de Mecânica Celeste e Planetologia para um público de nível de graduação em disciplinas na área de exatas, em especial Astronomia e F

  14. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    reconocen que una estrella es formada por una masa de gas; varios conocimientos previos parten de aspectos puramente visuales; por otro lado, los estudiantes no tienen el hábito de observar la naturaleza detalladamente, entre otros problemas. Vemos esta investigación como una probable fuente de referencia en la que los profesores de ciencias pueden reconocer la importancia del conocimiento previo, y la forma como interfieren con su práctica de enseñanza, además de la adquisición de recursos para la planificación de sus clases. Com base em leituras de artigos relacionados ao ensino de Astronomia publicados no Brasil, verificou-se a inexistência de investigações sobre o conhecimento prévio de estudantes acerca das características físicas das estrelas, fato que nos motivou a desenvolver a pesquisa apresentada. Os conhecimentos prévios de 125 estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio constituíram os dados do estudo, os quais foram inferidos através da análise das respostas cedidas em questionários impressos (Apêndice A). A partir da análise de conteúdo dessas respostas tornou-se possível realizar algumas inferências como, por exemplo: vários estudantes possuem dificuldade em elaborar um modelo explicativo sobre o funcionamento de uma estrela; são poucos os que dizem que as estrelas possuem certo tempo de existência; alguns alunos as imaginam com pontas; poucos reconhecem que uma estrela é formada por uma massa de gás; vários conhecimentos prévios partem de aspectos meramente visuais; ainda assim, os estudantes não possuem o hábito de observar a natureza mais detalhadamente, entre outras. Vemos essa pesquisa como uma provável fonte de consulta na qual os professores de ciências poderão, além de reconhecer a importância dos conhecimentos prévios para o ensino e como eles interferem em sua prática, adquirir subsídios para o planejamento de suas aulas.

  15. Teachers' Perceptions about Oral Corrective Feedback and Their Practice in EFL Classrooms (Percepciones de los docentes acerca de la retroalimentación correctiva y su práctica en las aulas de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández Méndez, Edith; Reyes Cruz, María del Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Corrective feedback has been discussed mainly in second language acquisition contexts, but less has been done concerning corrective feedback in foreign language settings. In this descriptive study, conducted at a Mexican university, our aims were to identify the perceptions of instructors of English as a foreign language about corrective feedback…

  16. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms? (¿Cómo enfrentan los docentes practicantes de inglés como lengua extranjera el reto de usar una segunda lengua en las aulas de clase de la escuela pública?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viáfara, John Jairo

    2011-01-01

    As an EFL Student teachers' advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching…

  17. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Awareness of the Sources of Pedagogical Knowledge in a Teacher Education Program (Una exploración del nivel de conciencia de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera respecto a las fuentes del conocimiento pedagógico en un programa de formación de docentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macías, Diego Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This project set out to investigate the extent to which the sources of English as a foreign language teachers' pedagogical knowledge are acknowledged and addressed in a teacher education program in a public university in Colombia. It involved the participation of teacher educators and novice teachers as well as the analysis of documents. This…

  18. Effects of Strategy Instruction in an EFL Reading Comprehension Course: A Case Study (Efectos de la instrucción de estrategias en un curso de comprensión de lectura en inglés como lengua extranjera: un estudio de caso)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopera Medina, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Strategy instruction is useful in teaching contexts. This paper examines the effects of strategy instruction in an EFL reading comprehension course carried out with 26 undergraduate students at a Colombian university. As a research method, a case study was implemented. There were three instruments with which to collect data: reading comprehension…

  19. "Don't Tell My Father": Important Lessons Learned through EFL Classroom Small Talk ("No le digan a mi padre": lecciones importantes aprendidas a través de la comunión fática en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala González, Gabriela; de Cervantes Orozco, Miguel Adrián Leonel; González Cabrera, Víctor Daniel; Romero Mayora, Faviola; Mugford Fowler, Gerrard Edwin

    2011-01-01

    All too often phatic communion is neglected in the English as a foreign language classroom or relegated to the level of formulaic language which merits little or no attention. In this article we argue that phatic communion plays an important role in establishing, developing and maintaining interpersonal relationships between teacher and learners…

  20. Motivation Conditions in a Foreign Language Reading Comprehension Course Offering Both a Web-Based Modality and a Face-to-Face Modality (Las condiciones de motivación en un curso de comprensión de lectura en lengua extranjera (LE) ofrecido tanto en la modalidad presencial como en la modalidad a distancia en la web)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopera Medina, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Motivation plays an important in role in education. Based on the ten macro-strategies proposed by Dörnyei and Csizér (1998), this article analyzes the motivation conditions in a foreign language reading comprehension course using both a web-based modality and a face-to-face modality. A case study was implemented as the primary research method, and…

  1. The Impact of a Teacher Development Program for Strategic Reading on EFL Teachers' Instructional Practice (El impacto de un programa de desarrollo profesional en lectura estratégica en la práctica instruccional de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khonamri, Fatemeh; Salimi, Mahin

    2010-01-01

    Research on teacher development has been the focus of attention in recent decades. The overall aim of this study was to explore the impact of reading strategy training on high school teachers' reading instructional practices. The study was conducted in the EFL context of Iran. To meet this aim, four EFL high school teachers voluntarily took…

  2. Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: [E1] logro de la participacion de los padres. cuaderno 3. Edicion para el maestro. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Parent Participation, Book 3. Teacher Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.

    This guide on training bilingual education teachers focuses on parents as advisors in the decision making process at bilingual schools. The two units, "An Introduction to Parent Participation" and "Parent Participation in Educational Decision Making," include objectives, definitions of terms, lists of materials and equipment, and learning…

  3. O Passado como Nacao: Imagens do Imperio nas Falas Reacionarias dos Anos 30 e 40 do Seculo XX: Uma Pequena Arqueologia do Debate Publico e Privado (The Past as Nation: Images of the Empire in the Reactionary Words of the 30s and 40s in the 20th Century: A Small Archaeology of the Public Debate versus the Private One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Marcos Cezar

    1998-01-01

    Suggests an archaeology of the public debate versus the private one in Brazil through analysis of the reactionary speech of a religious leader, Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha, which produced innumerable representations of the Brazilian Empire. (PA)

  4. EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Continuing Professional Development: A Case of Iranian High School Teachers (La percepción de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera acerca del desarrollo profesional continuado: el caso de profesores iraníes de bachillerato)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alibakhshi, Goudarz; Dehvari, Najibeh

    2015-01-01

    English, particularly regarding a foreign language teachers' professional development, has been studied in depth. However, it is not known how Iranian English as a foreign language teachers perceive continuing professional development. This study explored the perceptions of Iranian English as a foreign language teachers of continuing professional…

  5. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in an…

  6. Using the EPOSTL for Dialogic Reflection in EFL Teacher Education (El Uso de EPOSTL para la Reflexión Dialógica en la Educación de los Docentes de Inglés como Lengua Extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauber, Holli

    2015-01-01

    For many pre-service English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers and their mentors, the theory and practice driven European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages (EPOSTL) occupies a prominent and practical role in their preparation programs as a delivery system of core pedagogical skills and knowledge. Interest in the role that dialogical…

  7. How To Talk to Your Doctor (and Get Your Doctor To Talk to You!). An Educational Workshop on Doctor Patient Communication = Como Hablarle a su Doctor (iY que su doctor le hable a usted!). Un seminario educativo sobre la comunicacion entre el doctor y el paciente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX.

    This workshop, written in both English and Spanish, focuses on improving communication between physician and patient. In the workshop, the trainers will talk about "building bridges" between patient and doctor by understanding the doctor's role and his/her duty to the patient. According to the workshop, a person's doctor should communicate…

  8. Teacher Activities and Adolescent Students' Participation in a Colombian EFL Classroom (Actividades de enseñanza y participación de estudiantes adolescentes en una clase de enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caicedo, Jefferson

    2015-01-01

    The present study concerns the activities teachers develop and ninth-graders' participation in responses to those activities. The objectives of this study were to identify and describe the types of teaching activities developed and how students respond to them and to show how the target language is used in the classroom. The data collection was…

  9. Pronunciation Instruction and Students' Practice to Develop Their Confidence in EFL Oral Skills (La instrucción de la pronunciación y la práctica de los estudiantes para el desarrollo de la confianza en habilidades orales en inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlazalo Tejeda, Ana Cristina; Basurto Santos, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inform on research intended to find out how pronunciation instruction of English as a foreign language was handled in the language classroom with elementary students and also understand if pronunciation instruction had an impact on students' confidence when using it. In order to do this, a qualitative case study was…

  10. Facilitating Professional Development during International Practicum: Understanding Our Work as Teacher Educators through Critical Incidents (Facilitando el desarrollo profesional durante la práctica internacional: Comprendiendo nuestro trabajo como formadores de profesores a través de incidentes críticos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Judy; Grierson, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative self-study details the experiences of an Australian teacher educator and a Canadian teacher educator, who led teacher candidates on international practicum placements to the Cook Islands and Kenya respectively. Focusing on critical incidents, they collaboratively analyzed dilemmas that occurred when providing professional…

  11. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  12. Pedagogical Factors That Influence EFL Teaching: Some Considerations for Teachers' Professional Development (Factores pedagógicos que influyen en la enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera: algunas consideraciones para el desarrollo profesional de docentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abad, José Vicente

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present the results of a qualitative research study on the pedagogical factors that influence English teaching in four public schools of Medellín, Colombia. Twelve teachers were interviewed regarding three linguistic principles: communicative competence, native language effect, and interlanguage. The data analysis led to the…

  13. The Implications of Orthographic Intraference for the Teaching and Description of ESL: The Educated Nigerian English Examples (Implicaciones de la Intraferencia Ortográfica para la Enseñanza y Descripción del Inglés como Segunda Lengua: Ejemplos Inglés Nigeriano Formal)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines orthographic intraference and its implications for teaching and describing English as a second language (ESL). Orthographic intraference is used here to denote instances of single word spelling, acronyms, mix up of homophones, homonyms and compound word spelling arising not from interference but from orthographic rules and…

  14. Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: El logro de la participacion de los padres, cuaderno III. Edicion para el estudiante. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Success with Parent Participation, Book III. Student Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.

    The student version of a learning module for teacher training in bilingual education is one of three focusing on promoting parent participation in the school system, and concentrates specifically on the role of parents as counselors and co-participants in decisionmaking. An introductory section discussing the overall objectives of the materials is…

  15. Efectos Especiales de Anclaje (Estudio sobre Regresiones de Juicios Condicionales). Parte 2: Invariancia del Juicio No-Condicional Como Valor Estandar Para el Juicio Condicional (Special Effects of Anchoring (Study of Regression of Conditional Judgements) Part 2: Invariance of Unconditional Judgments as Standard Value for the Conditional Judgment). Publication No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Alonso, A. O.

    From the best-fit lines corresponding to sets of families of conditional judgements, the constant stimulus family and the constant condition family, both defined for a same scale object, the coordinate values of the point of intersection of both lines (indifference point) are obtained. These values are studied in relation to the mean values of the…

  16. Experiencias interculturales y la pedagogia de la anglofonia en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (EILE) desde una perspectiva deweyana. Working Paper (A Deweyan Perspective on Cross-Cultural Experiences and Anglophone Pedagogy in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Working Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper discusses a framework for teaching English as a foreign language that incorporates significant cultural content and fosters critical encounters with Anglophone culture. It reviews relevant contemporary perspectives for understanding cross-cultural processes within the foreign language teaching environment with emphasis on the issue of…

  17. Metacognitive Awareness and Comprehension Monitoring in Reading Ability of Iranian EFL Learners (Monitoreo de la conciencia metacognitiva y de la comprensión en la habilidad lectora de estudiantes iraníes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khonamri, Fatemeh; Mahmoudi Kojidi, Elahe

    2011-01-01

    We report an investigation on the relationship between metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and comprehension monitoring of language learners in English as a foreign language context. Participants were thirty first year university students majoring in electronics. They completed a questionnaire aimed at discerning the strategies that…

  18. EFL Teenagers' Social Identity Representation in a Virtual Learning Community on Facebook (Representación de la identidad social de los estudiantes adolescentes de inglés como lengua extranjera en una comunidad de aprendizaje virtual en Facebook)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez Guamán, Laura Verónica

    2012-01-01

    In this article I report the findings of a descriptive and interpretative qualitative study carried out in a public school in Bogotá, Colombia. The study aimed at analyzing, describing and exploring teenage students' social identity representation as observed in their participation in a learning community on Facebook. Data were collected from…

  19. Building Adult Relationships: Are You Treated as an Equal in Your Family? (A Pamphlet for People with Disbilities) [and] Como Establecer Relaciones Adultas: Se Lo Trata a UD. Igual que a Los Demas Adultos en Su Familia? (Un Panfleto para las Personas con Impedimentos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Carla

    Two booklets, in English and Spanish, are addressed to disabled adults and offer guidelines for building adult relationships within the family. Stressed are the importance of feeling good about oneself, learning to make decisions, and developing good communication skills so that family balance is maintained. Also included are lists of the types of…

  20. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  1. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  2. Uso de modelos mecânicos em curso informal de astronomia para deficientes visuais. Resgate de uma experiência

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, E. T., Jr.; Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    O presente trabalho propõe-se a resgatar uma experiência que teve lugar no Planetário de São Paulo nos anos 60. Em 1962, o Sr. Acácio, então com 37 anos, deficiente visual desde os 27, passou a assistir às aulas ministradas pelo Prof. Aristóteles Orsini aos integrantes do corpo de servidores do Planetário. O Sr. Acácio era o único deficiente da turma e, embora possuísse conhecimentos básicos e relativamente avançados de matemática, enfrentava dificuldades na compreensão e acompanhamento da exposição, como também em estudos posteriores. Com o intuito de auxiliá-lo na superação desses problemas, o Prof. Orsini solicitou a construção de modelos mecânicos que, através do sentido do tato, permitissem o acompanhamento das aulas e a transposição do modelo para o "constructo" mental. Essa prática mostrou-se tão eficaz que facilitou sobejamente o aprendizado da matéria pelo sujeito. O Sr. Acácio passou a integrar o corpo de professores do Planetário/Escola Municipal de Astrofísica, tendo ficado responsável pelo curso de "Introdução à Astronomia" por vários anos. Além disso, a experiência foi tão bem sucedida que alguns dos modelos tiveram seus elementos constitutivos pintados diferencialmente para serem utilizados em cursos regulares do Planetário, tornando-se parte integrante do conjunto de recursos didáticos da instituição. É pensando nessa eficácia, tanto em seu objetivo original permitir o aprendizado de um deficiente visual quanto no subsidiário recurso didático sistemático da instituição que decidimos resgatar essa experiência. Estribados nela, acreditamos ser extremamente produtivo, em termos educacionais, o aperfeiçoamento dos modelos originais, agora resgatados e restaurados, e a criação de outros que pudessem ser utilizados no ensino dessa ciência a deficientes visuais.

  3. Fotometria superficial BVRI de 18 galáxias fracas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, M. F. O.; Silva, P. R.

    2003-08-01

    Conhecer as propriedades de galáxias a diferentes redshifts é uma questão fundamental para entender o problema da formação e evolução das galáxias, e desde a década passada tem se intensificado fortemente o estudo de galáxias muito distantes. No entanto parece haver um interesse menor em galáxias a distâncias intermediárias, que aparecem como objetos de fundo em imagens de objetos próximos, e que são igualmente importantes. Examinando imagens BVRI de longa exposição, ótimo sinal/ruído, grande campo (46'x46'), das vizinhanças de NGC 7479, detectamos 18 galáxias fracas (18 < B < 21) nessas imagens. Neste trabalho, apresentamos a fotometria superficial desses objetos. Determinamos coordenadas equatoriais, magnitudes e cores integradas, perfis de brilho e de cor, e parâmetros isofotais calculados por ajuste de ellipses, dentro do limite permitido pela baixa resolução espacial dos dados (1,35 segarc/pixel). Nosso objetivo é procurar correlações entre as propriedades das galáxias e, tentativamente, comparar esses dados com aqueles de galáxias de redshift conhecido, disponíveis na literatura, para estimar suas distâncias (a partir da relação cor x redshift) e suas morfologias. Uma análise preliminar nesse sentido mostrou que as cores aparentes B-V, V-R e V-I dos objetos da nossa amostra, a menos de duas exceções, ocupam regiões bem definidas nos diagramas cor-cor, e não apresentam diferenças notáveis em relação às cores típicas de galáxias próximas.

  4. Variação temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes radiais de abundância são observados no disco de nossa Galáxia e também em outras galáxias espirais. No caso da Galáxia, o principal problema relativo aos gradientes é sua variação temporal, que constitui um dos principais vínculos aos modelos de evolução química da Galáxia. As nebulosas planetárias são particularmente interessantes no estudo dos gradientes e suas variações, tanto espaciais como temporais. São objetos brilhantes, podendo ser observadas a grandes distâncias, e têm abundâncias relativamente precisas de diversos elementos químicos. Além disso, sendo originadas de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequência principal, incluem objetos com idades e populações diferentes, o que as torna especialmente interessantes ao estudo da variação temporal dos gradientes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos resultados recentes sobre a variação temporal do gradiente de O/H a partir de uma amostra contendo cerca de 200 nebulosas, para as quais obtivemos distâncias por métodos estatísticos. As abundâncias foram parcialmente obtidas a partir de observações em Itajubá e La Silla, sendo as restantes obtidas da literatura. Os resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, evidências de um achatamento do gradiente de O/H, de -0.11 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 9 giga-anos ou de -0.08 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 5 giga-anos. Esses valores apresentam um bom acordo com alguns modelos recentes para a evolução química da Galáxia. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  5. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  6. PubMed

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2010-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade - soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  7. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una

  8. Petrological and geochemical studies of mantle xenoliths from La Palma, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janisch, Astrid; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    La Palma is the second youngest island, after El Hierro, of the Canary archipelago. The archipelago consists of seven large islands, forming an east-west-trending island chain, and several seamounts. All together they form a volcanic belt of around 800 km length and 450 km width, which presumably comprises roughly the Canary hotspot. The islands are located off the western coast of Morocco, Africa. The distance ranges from 100 km to 500 km. Concurrently with the distance, subaerial volcanism age progresses from the oldest lava in the east to the youngest in the west of the archipelago. Presently, La Palma is in the shield building stage of growth (alongside with El Hierro and Tenerife) and is furthermore the fastest growing island of the Canary archipelago. Historical volcanic eruptions are restricted on the younger islands, La Palma and El Hierro, with the last eruption at the south end of La Palma in 1971. Mantle xenoliths described in this work were collected at the slopes of San Antonio Volcano, Fuencaliente, brought to the surface during the 1677/1678 eruption. The mantle xenolith collection comprises sp-lherzolites, sp-harzburgites and pyroxenites. The texture can be distinguished between coarse-grained matrix and fine-grained veins in various thicknesses, mostly with olivine and pyroxene but also with amphibole, phlogopite as well as apatite. Mineral analyses reveal the existence of primary and secondary ol, cpx and opx. Primary ol has Fo contents of 89.2 to 91.7 and NiO ranging from 0.3 to 0.45 wt.%, whereas secondary ol show Fo values of 78.4 to 91.9 but with NiO below 0.3 wt.%. Primary cpx are predominantly Cr-Diopsides with En48.7-51.9-Wo43.5-44.3-Fs4.1-4.9 and Mg# of 91.5 to 92.4. Secondary cpx, primarily Ti-Augit, display En36.7-44.4-Wo47.7-49.6-Fs6.7-13.0 and Mg# of 75.3 to 90.8. Primary opx compositions are in range of En89.3-90.6-Wo1.3-1.5-Fs8.1-9.3 with Mg# between 90.7 and 92.0. Secondary opx exhibit En88.7-89.2-Wo1.7-1.9-Fs9.1-9.5 and Mg# of 90

  9. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.

    2005-03-01

    cas dans d'autres cas de figure. Par ailleurs, il peut être vu comme une des étapes dans le processus de détermination du comportement de l'aquifère. Il est montré que les méthodes d'évaluation des paramètres actuels ne diffèrent pas si ce n'est dans les détails des calculs informatiques. Il est montré qu'il existe une large panoplie de techniques d'inversion : codes de calcul utilisables par tout-un-chacun, accommodation de la variabilité via la géostatistique, incorporation d'informations géologiques et de différents types de données (température, occurrence, concentration en isotopes, âge, etc.), détermination de l'incertitude. Vu ces développements, la calibration automatique facilite énormément la modélisation. Par ailleurs, il est souhaitable que son utilisation devienne une pratique standardisée. Se sintetiza el estado del problema inverso en aguas subterráneas. El énfasis se ubica en la caracterización de acuíferos, donde los modeladores tienen que enfrentar la incertidumbre del modelo conceptual (principalmente variabilidad temporal y espacial), dependencia de escala, muchos tipos de parámetros desconocidos (transmisividad, recarga, condiciones limitantes, etc), no linealidad, y frecuentemente baja sensibilidad de variables de estado (típicamente presiones y concentraciones) a las propiedades del acuífero. Debido a estas dificultades, no puede separarse la calibración de los procesos de modelado, como frecuentemente se hace en otros campos. En su lugar, debe de visualizarse como un paso en el proceso de enten dimiento del comportamiento del acuífero. En realidad, se muestra que los métodos reales de estimación de parámetros no difieren uno del otro en lo esencial, aunque sí pueden diferir en los detalles computacionales. Se discute que existe amplio espacio para la mejora del problema inverso en aguas subterráneas: desarrollo de códigos amigables alusuario, acomodamiento de variabilidad a través de geoestad

  10. Astrophysics in Schools: Playing with Observational Data. (Spanish Title: Astrofísica Escolar: Jugando con Datos Observacionales.) Astrofísica Escolar: Brincando com Dados Observacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navone, Hugo D.; Scancich, Miriam; Vázquez, Rubén A.

    2011-07-01

    The use of observational records in the design of teaching sequences in Astrophysics in High Schools is quite uncommon. It is also uncommon the thematic approach within the context provided by Nature of Science. Besides these shortcomings, we should also consider the lack of proposals to use the computer as a laboratory from which nature is studied. These aspects expose the existence of a disconnection between school science and scientist's science, establishing the need for simple educational projects that promote interdisciplinary dialogue between the two fields of knowledge. Based on these assumptions, this paper presents the school reformulation of the redshift-distance problem as addressed by Hubble in his diagram, and explores the main educational dimensions emerging from it. The proposal is directed not only for senior students of high school and/or early 1st year students at University level, but also for students and teachers from teacher training colleges. Practical evidence shows that this proposal is viable, mobilizes interests about issues of Astrophysics and promotes a ludic and cooperative character among students. La utilización de registros observacionales en el diseño de secuencias didácticas en Astrofísica Escolar no es algo usual en el ámbito de la escuela media. Tampoco lo es el abordaje de temáticas desde el contexto que provee Naturaleza de la Ciencia. A estas carencias se le suma la falta de propuestas que hagan intervenir a la computadora como un laboratorio desde el cual se interpela a la naturaleza. Los aspectos mencionados exponen la existencia de un desajuste entre ciencia escolar y ciencia experta estableciendo la necesidad de elaborar proyectos educativos sencillos que promuevan el diálogo interdisciplinar entre ambos campos del conocimiento. Partiendo de estos presupuestos, en este trabajo se presenta la reformulación escolar del problema abordado por Hubble -que diera lugar al diagrama que lleva su nombre- y se exploran las

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    El embarazo representa un desafío desde el punto de vista nutricional, debido a que las necesidades de nutrientes están aumentadas y una alteración en su ingesta puede afectar la salud materno-fetal. Estados deficitarios en micronutrientes están relacionados con preeclampsia, retraso del crecimiento intrauterino, aborto y anomalías congénitas. Actualmente, la dieta de muchas madres gestantes es insuficiente en micronutrientes, siendo necesaria su suplementación. Se recomienda la suplementación con ácido fólico en dosis de 400 μg/día, y de 5 mg en embarazadas de riesgo, debiendo comenzar al menos 1 mes antes de la concepción y durante las primeras 12 semanas de gestación, y prolongarla durante todo el embarazo en madres con riesgo nutricional. Es importante vigilar la dosis adecuada de ácido fólico para prevenir los posibles efectos adversos derivados de su acumulación plasmática no metabolizada. Un elevado porcentaje de gestantes presenta anemia ferropénica, estando recomendado el uso intermitente de suplementos con hierro (menor alteración gastrointestinal y estrés oxidativo); no recomendándose en madres no anémicas (con hemoglobina > 13,5 g/L). Dado que la absorción de calcio está aumentada hasta un 40% en gestación, no se recomienda su suplementación en madres con ingestas adecuadas (3 lácteos/día), debiéndose reservar su uso a madres con ingestas insuficientes y/o que tengan alto riesgo de preeclampsia. Respecto al iodo, existen posicionamientos contradictorios por parte de distintos grupos de trabajo, estableciéndose la suplementación con yoduro potásico en mujeres que no alcanzan las ingestas recomendadas con su dieta (3 raciones de leche y derivados lácteos + 2 g de sal yodada). Dado que la vitamina A y D pueden ser tóxicas para la madre y el feto, no está recomendada su suplementación excepto en casos de deficiencia. Aunque la administración de suplementos con varios micronutrientes puede repercutir favorablemente en el

  12. Are volcanic seismic b-values high, and if so when?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter exponent b is a measure of the relative proportion of large and small earthquakes. It is commonly used to infer material properties such as heterogeneity, or mechanical properties such as the state of stress from earthquake populations. It is 'well known' that the b-value tends to be high or very high for volcanic earthquake populations relative to b = 1 for those of tectonic earthquakes, and that b varies significantly with time during periods of unrest. We first review the supporting evidence from 34 case studies, and identify weaknesses in this argument due predominantly to small sample size, the narrow bandwidth of magnitude scales available, variability in the methods used to assess the minimum or cutoff magnitude Mc, and to infer b. Informed by this, we use synthetic realisations to quantify the effect of choice of the cutoff magnitude on maximum likelihood estimates of b, and suggest a new work flow for this choice. We present the first quantitative estimate of the error in b introduced by uncertainties in estimating Mc, as a function of the number of events and the b-value itself. This error can significantly exceed the commonly-quoted statistical error in the estimated b-value, especially for the case that the underlying b-value is high. We apply the new methods to data sets from recent periods of unrest in El Hierro and Mount Etna. For El Hierro we confirm significantly high b-values of 1.5-2.5 prior to the 10 October 2011 eruption. For Mount Etna the b-values are indistinguishable from b = 1 within error, except during the flank eruptions at Mount Etna in 2001-2003, when 1.5 < b < 2.0. For the time period analysed, they are rarely lower than b = 1. Our results confirm that these volcano-tectonic earthquake populations can have systematically high b-values, especially when associated with eruptions. At other times they can be indistinguishable from those of tectonic earthquakes within the total error. The results have significant

  13. Identification of a novel assemblage G subgenotype and a zoonotic assemblage B in rodent isolates of Giardia duodenalis in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Feliu, Carlos; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

    2014-02-01

    The flagellated parasite Giardia duodenalis is known as one of the most common causes of protozoal diarrhoea in both humans and animals worldwide. The aim of the present work was to perform the first study of G. duodenalis in rodents in the Canary Islands (Spain) and analyse the level of genetic variation and the potential zoonotic role of the isolates. Stool samples were collected from 284 wild rodents and Giardia cysts were detected by light microscopy. The overall prevalence of giardiasis was 25 · 4% and ranged from 19 · 4% in El Hierro to 34% in Gran Canaria. Positive samples were further characterized by PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), β-giardin (BG) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes. Our study revealed assemblage G as the most frequent genotype and identified two rodent-infecting G. duodenalis haplotypes of this assemblage, HI and HII. Phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of haplotype HI, which we suggest to be considered as a novel G. duodenalis sub-assemblage GII, due to the high genetic distances among this sub-genotype and assemblage G. Furthermore, G. duodenalis assemblage B was detected in an inhabited area in La Palma, a fact that may pose a potential risk of G. duodenalis transmission from rodents to humans. PMID:24001274

  14. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  15. A new derived and highly polymorphic chromosomal race of Liolaemus monticola (Iguanidae) from the 'Norte Chico' of Chile.

    PubMed

    Lamborot, M

    1998-06-01

    A multiple Robertsonian fission chromosomal race of the Liolaemus monticola complex in Chile is described and is shown to be the most derived and the most complex among the Liolaemus examined thus far. The 29 karyotyped lizards analysed from the locality of Mina Hierro Viejo, Petorca, Provincia de Valparaiso, Chile, exhibited a diploid chromosomal number ranging from 42 to 44, and several polymorphisms. The polymorphisms included: a pair 1 fission; a pair 2 fission plus a pericentric inversion in one of the fission products, which moved the NOR and satellite from the tip of the long arm of the metacentric 2 to the short arm of the fission product; a fission in pair 3; a polymorphism for an enlarged chromosome pair 6; and a polymorphism for a pericentric inversion in pair 7. This population is fixed for a fission of chromosome pair 4. A total of 76% of the lizards analysed were polymorphic for one or more pairs of chromosomes. We have compared these data with other Liolaemus monticola chromosomal races and calculated the Hardy-Weinberg ratios for the polymorphic chromosome pairs in this Multiple-Fission race. Karyotypic differences between the Northern (2n = 38-40) and the Multiple-Fission (2n = 42-44) races were attributed mainly to Robertsonian fissions, an enlarged chromosome and pericentric inversions involving the macrochromosomes and one microchromosome pair. PMID:9688513

  16. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Vidal, Enrique; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier; Cabanes, Anna; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998), 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain), the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain) and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west). Eivissa (Balearic Islands) and El Hierro (Canary Islands) also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale. PMID:18789142

  17. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: Objectives, Approach, and Results of a Simulated Mission to Search for Life in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Cannon, Howard N.; Dunagan, Stephen E.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Glass, Brian J.; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  18. Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Brown Alga Padina pavonica: Decalcification Due to Acute and Chronic Events

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Díaz, Teba; Haroun, Ricardo; Tuya, Fernando; Betancor, Séfora; Viera-Rodríguez, María A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, anthropogenic CO2 emissions have caused ocean acidification, which particularly affects calcified organisms. Given the fan-like calcified fronds of the brown alga Padina pavonica, we evaluated the acute (short-term) effects of a sudden pH drop due to a submarine volcanic eruption (October 2011–early March 2012) affecting offshore waters around El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). We further studied the chronic (long-term) effects of the continuous decrease in pH in the last decades around the Canarian waters. In both the observational and retrospective studies (using herbarium collections of P. pavonica thalli from the overall Canarian Archipelago), the percent of surface calcium carbonate coverage of P. pavonica thalli were contrasted with oceanographic data collected either in situ (volcanic eruption event) or from the ESTOC marine observatory data series (herbarium study). Results showed that this calcified alga is sensitive to acute and chronic environmental pH changes. In both cases, pH changes predicted surface thallus calcification, including a progressive decalcification over the last three decades. This result concurs with previous studies where calcareous organisms decalcify under more acidic conditions. Hence, Padina pavonica can be implemented as a bio-indicator of ocean acidification (at short and long time scales) for monitoring purposes over wide geographic ranges, as this macroalga is affected and thrives (unlike strict calcifiers) under more acidic conditions. PMID:25268231

  19. Evaluating Topographic Effects on Ground Deformation: Insights from Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchin, Erika; Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Joan

    2015-07-01

    Ground deformation has been demonstrated to be one of the most common signals of volcanic unrest. Although volcanoes are commonly associated with significant topographic relief, most analytical models assume the Earth's surface as flat. However, it has been confirmed that this approximation can lead to important misinterpretations of the recorded surface deformation data. Here we perform a systematic and quantitative analysis of how topography may influence ground deformation signals generated by a spherical pressure source embedded in an elastic homogeneous media and how these variations correlate with the different topographic parameters characterizing the terrain form (e.g., slope, aspect, curvature). For this, we bring together the results presented in previous published papers and complement them with new axisymmetric and 3D finite element (FE) model results. First, we study, in a parametric way, the influence of a volcanic edifice centered above the pressure source axis. Second, we carry out new 3D FE models simulating the real topography of three different volcanic areas representative of topographic scenarios common in volcanic regions: Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea) and the volcanic islands of Tenerife and El Hierro (Canary Islands). The calculated differences are then correlated with a series of topographic parameters. The final aim is to investigate the artifacts that might arise from the use of half-space models at volcanic areas due to diverse topographic features (e.g., collapse caldera structures, prominent central edifices, large landslide scars).

  20. The Lithospheric Structure Beneath Canary Islands from Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Helffrich, G. R.; Garcia, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Canary Archipelago is located a few hundred kilometers off the western Moroccan coast, extending 450 km west-to-east. It is composed of seven main islands. All but one have been active in the last million years. The origin of the Canary Islands is not well established and local and regional geology features cannot be completely explained by the current models. The main aim of this study is to provide new data that help us to understand and constrain the archipelago's origin and tectonic evolution. The crustal structure under each station is obtained applying P-receiver function technique to the teleseismic P arrivals recorded by the broadband seismic network installed at the Canary Island by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) and two temporary stations (MIDSEA and IRIS). We computed receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multitaper Frequency Domain Cross-Correlation Receiver Function (ET-MTRF) method. The results show that the crust is thicker, around 22 km, in the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) than in the western ones (El Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife), around 17 km, with the exception of La Gomera island. This island, located in the west, exhibits similar crustal structure to Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. A discontinuity at 70-80 km, possibly the LAB (Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary) is clearly observed in all the stations. It appears that Moho depths do not track the LAB discontinuity.

  1. Erosion of the submarine flanks of the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Neil C.; Dade, W. Brian; Masson, Douglas G.

    2003-12-01

    Surveying with multibeam echo sounders around old (≫1 Ma) volcanic ocean islands reveals that their submarine flanks contain a strong downslope-oriented ridge-and-valley corrugation, which modifies the original volcanic morphology of lava terraces and cones. By analogy with canyons in other settings, this corrugation was probably caused by channel incision by erosive sedimentary mass flows such as turbidity currents and debris flows. We adapt a method first used in subaerial geomorphology to isolate the erosion depth (exhumation) and apply it to the eroded flanks of the 6-8 Ma Anaga massif of Tenerife. The channels formed around this massif divert around local topographic highs. These highs, which are probably original volcanic cones, are therefore preferentially preserved during erosion, so that their elevations can be used to construct an artificial reference surface. Terrain depth was calculated by subtracting this reference surface from measured bathymetry. Comparison of the terrain depth of the old, eroded submarine flank of Anaga with that of the young, mostly unaltered submarine flank of El Hierro allows us to infer the mean depth of Anaga's submarine erosion, which is ˜100 m. Volcanic terrains can be dated by radiometric methods, so they also provide a way of quantifying long-term denudation rates. We infer that submarine denudation of Anaga has occurred at comparable rates to that of subaerial lowlands and much slower than denudation of highlands, illustrated locally by the more extensive erosion of the subaerial Anaga edifice.

  2. An Overview of Geodetic Volcano Research in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, José; González, Pablo J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Brú, Guadalupe

    2015-11-01

    The Canary Islands are mostly characterized by diffuse and scattered volcanism affecting a large area, with only one active stratovolcano, the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife). More than 2 million people live and work in the 7,447 km2 of the archipelago, resulting in an average population density three times greater than the rest of Spain. This fact, together with the growth of exposure during the past 40 years, increases volcanic risk with respect previous eruptions, as witnessed during the recent 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption. Therefore, in addition to purely scientific reasons there are economic and population-security reasons for developing and maintaining an efficient volcano monitoring system. In this scenario geodetic monitoring represents an important part of the monitoring system. We describe volcano geodetic monitoring research carried out in the Canary Islands and the results obtained. We consider for each epoch the two main existing constraints: the level of volcanic activity in the archipelago, and the limitations of the techniques available at the time. Theoretical and observational aspects are considered, as well as the implications for operational volcano surveillance. Current challenges of and future perspectives in geodetic volcano monitoring in the Canaries are also presented.

  3. Seaweed community response to a massive CO2 input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangil, Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Brito, Alberto; Rodríguez, Adriana; Balsalobre, Marc; Mendoza, José Carlos; Martínez, David; Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structure of seaweed communities were examined following a massive CO2 input caused by a submarine eruption near the coast of El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). The event lasted almost five months (October 2011-March 2012) and created a significant pH gradient. Specifically, we compared three different zones: highly affected with extreme low pH (6.7-7.3), affected with low pH (7.6-7.8), and unaffected ambient pH zone (∼8.1) according to the pH gradient generated by the predominate currents and waves in the south of the island. Studies were carried out before, during and after the CO2 input event in each zone. We found community-wide effects on seaweed communities during the eruption; these included changes in species abundance and changes in the diversity. However, changes in all these community traits were only evident in the highly affected zone, where there were major shifts in the seaweed community, with a replacement of Lobophora variegata by ephemeral seaweeds. Lobophora variegata dropped in cover from 87-94 to 27% while ephemeral seaweeds increased 6-10 to 29%. When the impact ended Lobophora variegata began to recover reaching a cover higher than 60%. In the moderate affected area the Lobophora variegata canopies maintained their integrity avoiding phase shifts to turfs. Here the only significant changes were the reduction of the cover of the crustose and geniculate coralline algae.

  4. Metallic content of wines from the Canary Islands (Spain). Application of artificial neural networks to the data analysis.

    PubMed

    Frías, Sergio; Conde, José E; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Dohnal, Vlasta; Pérez-Trujillo, Juan P

    2002-10-01

    Eleven elements, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sr, Li and Rb, were determined in dry and sweet wines bearing the denominations of origin of El Hierro, La Palma and Lanzarote islands (Canary Islands, Spain). Analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, with the exceptions of Li and Rb for which flame atomic emission spectrophotometry was used. The content in copper and iron did not present risks of cases. All samples presented a copper and zinc content below the maximum amount recommended by the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) for these elements. Significant differences in the metallic content were found among the different islands. Thus, Lanzarote presented the highest mean content in sodium and lithium and the lowest mean content in rubidium, and La Palma presented the highest mean content in strontium and rubidium. Sweet wines from La Palma, elaborated as naturally sweet with over-ripe grapes, presented mean contents significantly higher with regard to dry wines from the same island in the majority of the analysed elements. Cluster analysis and Kohonen self-organising maps showed differences in wines according to the island of origin and the ripening state of the grapes. Back-propagation artificial neural networks showed better prediction ability than stepwise linear discriminant analysis. PMID:12428457

  5. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  6. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding. PMID:19032053

  7. Effects of ocean acidification on the brown alga Padina pavonica: decalcification due to acute and chronic events.

    PubMed

    Gil-Díaz, Teba; Haroun, Ricardo; Tuya, Fernando; Betancor, Séfora; Viera-Rodríguez, María A

    2014-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, anthropogenic CO₂ emissions have caused ocean acidification, which particularly affects calcified organisms. Given the fan-like calcified fronds of the brown alga Padina pavonica, we evaluated the acute (short-term) effects of a sudden pH drop due to a submarine volcanic eruption (October 2011-early March 2012) affecting offshore waters around El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). We further studied the chronic (long-term) effects of the continuous decrease in pH in the last decades around the Canarian waters. In both the observational and retrospective studies (using herbarium collections of P. pavonica thalli from the overall Canarian Archipelago), the percent of surface calcium carbonate coverage of P. pavonica thalli were contrasted with oceanographic data collected either in situ (volcanic eruption event) or from the ESTOC marine observatory data series (herbarium study). Results showed that this calcified alga is sensitive to acute and chronic environmental pH changes. In both cases, pH changes predicted surface thallus calcification, including a progressive decalcification over the last three decades. This result concurs with previous studies where calcareous organisms decalcify under more acidic conditions. Hence, Padina pavonica can be implemented as a bio-indicator of ocean acidification (at short and long time scales) for monitoring purposes over wide geographic ranges, as this macroalga is affected and thrives (unlike strict calcifiers) under more acidic conditions. PMID:25268231

  8. A Novel for High School Seniors: Hal Borland's "When the Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Carl A.

    1968-01-01

    Hal Borland's "When the Legends Die" is especially appropriate for high school seniors because its central problem--a Ute Indian boy's search for his identity and expected role in society--is exactly that faced by these students. The novel is divided into four sections, each concerned with a specific stage in the development of the protagonist.…

  9. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Problemas respiratorios Ukrainian (Українська) Incentive Spirometer Стимулюючий спірометр - Українська ( ...

  10. Vascular Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Problemas circulatorios Ukrainian (Українська) Angiogram Ангіограма - Українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual ...

  11. Peace Power for Adolescents: Strategies for a Culture of Nonviolence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    Recent school shootings are only one symptom of a greater problem--a toxic social environment that breeds isolation and rage among children. This book looks at the wide range of risk factors and indicators for violence and translates the findings into an effective prevention and intervention system. The Peace Power strategy is based on four core…

  12. Measuring Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Christopher; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Kleiman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Student success is at the heart of both institutional effectiveness and the community college mission, yet measuring such success at community colleges is problematic. This article highlights three efforts to grapple with this problem--a multistate work group of system- and state-level policymakers to create an improved set of student success…

  13. A Secondary School Student's Understanding of the Concept of Function--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajka, M.

    2003-01-01

    This article is concerned with an average student's understanding of the notion of function. It presents an analysis of a dialogue held with Kasia, a sixteen-years-old pupil of a general academic secondary school. The conversation concentrates on a non-standard problem--a functional equation. The theoretical framework used here is the PROCEPT…

  14. The Apophasis of Limits: Genius, Madness, and Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author sidles up to the "problema" of identifying children as having a learning disability (LD) in the USA to ascertain what an analysis of limping characters, limping readers and limping rhythms might teach individuals about justice. In much current educational literature children labelled LD circulate as "maimed individuals"…

  15. Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, Carmen Lopez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from…

  16. Hacer frente - Supervivencia

    Cancer.gov

    Muchos supervivientes de cáncer dicen que cuando terminó el tratamiento, fue difícil ajustarse a una nueva forma de vida. Entérese de cómo ajustarse a nuevos sentimientos y problemas que aparecen después del tratamiento del cáncer.

  17. Sleep Apnea - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian ( ... 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Portuguese (português) Common Sleep Problems Problemas de sono comuns - português ( ...

  18. El Lenguaje de los Chicanos (The Language of Chicanos). Regional and Social Characteristics of Language Used by Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Chavez, Eduardo, Ed.; And Others

    The following articles are included in this anthology on Chicano speech: (1) "Mexican Spanish," D.N. Cardenas; (2) "The Archaic and the Modern in the Spanish of New Mexico," J. Ornstein; (3) "Problemas Lexicograficos del Espanol del Sudoeste," A.M. Espinosa, Jr.; (4) "Associative Interference in New Mexican Spanish," J.B. Rael; (5) "Some Aspects…

  19. Aerodinámica y béisbol

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA es conocida por la astronáutica y los aviones, pero ¿también por el Active béisbol? A los investigadores de la NASA les gusta resolver problemas prácticoscomo cuán lejos llegará una bola b...

  20. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... saber Preguntas comunes: Baja Visión Cómo ayudar a un ser querido Ojos sanos Ojos sanos Problemas de ... tener ojos sanos Para Profesionales Recursos ¿Qué es un examen completo de los ojos con dilatación de ...

  1. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pueden darle a usted algunos derechos y hacer que el vendedor resuelva problemas graves que no fueron... implícitas” de acuerdo a la ley del estado pueden concederle derechos adicionales. EC29SE91.053 EC29SE91.054...

  2. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    enfocan más en los conductores del comportamiento humano y en las implicaciones de varias fuentes de incertidumbre en la toma de decisiones de manejo. La cacería de trofeos ha sido sugerida como una herramienta de conservación porque le otorga valor económico a la vida silvestre, pero ejemplos recientes muestran que la sobrecolecta es un problema sustancial y que las limitaciones de datos son abundantes. Usamos el estudio de caso de la cacería de trofeos de un antílope en peligro, el nyala de las montañas (Tragelaphus buxtoni), para explorar como las incertidumbres generadas por el monitoreo de poblaciones y el tráfico de especies interactúan con la toma de decisiones de 2 actores clave: las compañías de safari y el gobierno. Construimos un modelo de evaluación de estrategia de manejo que incluye la dinámica poblacional del nyala de las montañas, un modelo de monitoreo y un modelo de toma de decisiones de una compañía. Investigamos escenarios de inversión en el combate del tráfico de especies y el monitoreo por el gobierno y las compañías de safari. La estrategia de colecta fue robusta hacia la incertidumbre en los estimados de población obtenidos del monitoreo, pero el tráfico de especies tuvo un efecto más fuerte sobre la cuota y la sustentabilidad; por esto, reducir el tráfico de especies está dentro de los intereses de compañías que desean incrementar la rentabilidad de las empresas, por ejemplo al hacer participar a los miembros de la comunidad como guías de caza. Hay un nivel umbral de incertidumbre en los estimados de población más allá del cual la variación anual en la cuota de trofeos previene la planeación por parte de las compañías de safari. Esto sugiere un papel para el gobierno asegurando que un nivel base de monitoreo de población se lleve a cabo para que este nivel no sea excedido. Nuestros resultados ilustran la importancia de considerar los incentivos de partes interes

  3. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por

  4. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  5. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Martínez González, Olaia; Vélez de Mendizábal, Itsaso Zabaleta; Galarza Iriarte, Uxue; Vicente Martín, María Soledad; De Vega Castaño, María Del Carmen; Salmerón Egea, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la disfagia o dificultad de deglución afecta a 1 de cada 2 mayores hospitalizados y genera problemas de desnutrición o deshidratación, y aparición de neumonía por aspiración. En situaciones de disfagia orofaríngea, cuando la alimentación oral aún es posible, se deben espesar las texturas líquidas de cara a evitar dichas complicaciones. A los alimentos, tanto fríos como calientes, habitualmente se les añaden espesantes comerciales consistentes en almidones modificados siguiendo especificaciones muy generales que hacen difícil conseguir la textura adaptada a las necesidades personales. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la temperatura del alimento (10 oC y 50 oC), la dosificación (néctar, miel y pudin) y el tiempo transcurrido desde la preparación (0, 3, 5, 10, 20 min) sobre los parámetros de textura de agua espesada a base de uno de los espesantes más ampliamente comercializados. Método: las muestras se analizaron por triplicado en un texturómetro TA.XT2i (Stable Micro Systems, UK) mediante ensayo de compresión-extrusión, empleando una sonda de 2,5 cm de diámetro a una velocidad de 3 mm/s y con una célula de carga de 5 kg. A partir de las curvas fuerza vs. tiempo obtenidas se cuantificaron parámetros indicadores de la firmeza, la adhesividad y el trabajo de las muestras. Resultados y conclusión: en general, los parámetros relacionados con la consistencia fueron significativamente (α < 0,05) superiores en las muestras a mayor temperatura, lo que se puede relacionar con fenómenos incipientes de gelatinización. A su vez, se observó un incremento en los valores de todos los parámetros de textura al aumentar la concentración del espesante y a medida que transcurría el tiempo desde la mezcla de este en el agua. Estos resultados apuntan a la necesidad de realizar un trabajo exhaustivo de caracterización, ampliado también a otros productos y matrices alimentarias, de cara a modelizar la

  6. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Cuerda, Cristina; Álvarez, Julia; Ramos, Primitivo; Abánades, Juan Carlos; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Gil, Pedro; De-la-Cruz, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) es un problema sociosanitario frecuente que afecta preferentemente a los mayores de 65 años, que aumenta la morbimortalidad y disminuye la calidad de vida.  Objetivo: estudiar la prevalencia de DRE en mayores de 65 años en diferentes centros sociosanitarios del Servicio Regional de Bienestar Social de la Comunidad de Madrid. Métodos: estudio transversal en 33 centros sociosanitarios de Madrid (6 centros de atención primaria [AP], 9 centros de mayores [CM], 9 hospitales [H] y 9 residencias [R]) seleccionados mediante muestreo polietápico. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, nivel de dependencia según la escala de incapacidad de la Cruz Roja, motivo de ingreso y enfermedad de base, hábitat (urbano-periurbano-rural) y distribución geográfica (norte centro-sur). Como herramienta de cribado nutricional se utilizó el Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-cribaje) en todos los centros. En los pacientes con cribado positivo (en riesgo-desnutrición) se realizó el MNA-evaluación. El estudio estadístico se realizó con el paquete SSS 21.0 e incluyó estadística descriptiva, test de Chi-cuadrado y prueba exacta de Fisher, ANOVA de un factor, Kruskal-Wallis y análisis de regresión logística (RL) binaria univariante y multivariante. Se consideró significación estadística p < 0,05. Resultados: se reclutaron 1.103 sujetos (275 AP, 278 CM, 281 H, 269 R), edad media de 79,5 ± 8,4 años (41,2% varones, 58,8% mujeres). Los sujetos procedentes de H y R tuvieron un mayor grado de incapacidad (p < 0,001). La prevalencia global de DRE fue del 10%, encontrándose un 23,3% en riesgo de desnutrición, con diferencias entre los cuatro tipos de centros sociosanitarios (p < 0,001). El análisis univariante de RL mostró diferencia significativas en la prevalencia de desnutrición según la edad, sexo, grado de dependencia, tipo de centro sociosanitario, hábitat y zona geográfica. Sin embargo, en el

  7. Assessment of the potential for groundwater contamination using the DRASTIC/EGIS technique, Cheongju area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn Jong; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    /EGIS peut servir d'outil d'évaluation du potentiel de pollution et ainsi faciliter des plans de protection des ressources en eau souterraines. Resumen La contaminación de aguas subterráneas, debida a la expansión industrial y al fuerte crecimiento demográfico, supone un gran problema medioambiental en Corea del Sur. También en áreas rurales, el incremento en el uso de fertilizantes y pesticidas, el drenaje de minas y el aumento de los caudales de aguas residuales provocan un aumento de la contaminación. Para evaluar el riesgo de contaminación de las aguas subterráneas en el área de la ciudad de Cheongju, el primero de una serie de estudios piloto, se utilizó el modelo DRASTIC/EGIS. Este modelo permite la zonificación del área de estudio, basada en consideraciones geológicas e hidrogeológicas. En cada una de las zonas se aplica un esquema de clasificación que evalúa su vulnerabilidad relativa. El modelo DRASTIC/EGIS puede servir como una herramienta para evaluar el riesgo potencial de contaminación que facilite la creación de programas de protección de los recursos subterráneos.

  8. Quaternary Aquifer of the North China Plain-assessing and achieving groundwater resource sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Stephen; Garduno, Hector; Evans, Richard; Olson, Doug; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Weizhen; Han, Zaisheng

    beneficios socioeconómicos en términos de producción de grano, empleo en agricultura y mitigación de la pobreza rural, además de proveer agua para abastecimiento urbano e industria. Tanto la población como la actividad económica han crecido mucho en los últimos 25 años con una gran dependencia de las aguas subterráneas, que ha encontrado dificultades recientes por la explotación intensiva del acuífero y fenómenos relacionados. Este artículo se centra en la diagnosis hidrogeológica y socioeconómica de los problemas relacionados con las aguas subterráneas e identifica estrategias para mejorar la sustentabilidad de este recurco.

  9. Trends, prospects and challenges in quantifying flow and transport through fractured rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, Shlomo P.

    2005-03-01

    autre est de l'envisager comme un milieu non-uniforme (simple, double ou multiple) continu. Une troisième manière est de combiner ceci dans un modèle hybride d'un milieu non-uniforme, contenant un relativement petit nombre de fractures dominantes et discrètes. Dans d'auters cas la description peut être déterministe ou stochastique. L'article contient un brève apperçu de ces tendances à la lumière d'expériences récentes et de nouvelles théories, et se termine par une courte liste de «challenge» et de priorités pour le futur. Entre los problemas actuales que enfrentan los hidrogeólogos, quizá no hay uno tan desafiante como la caracterización de roca fracturada (Faybishenko y Benson, 2000). Este artículo discute problemas asociados con la cuantificación de flujo y transporte a través de rocas fracturadas en escalas que no exceden las típicas asociadas con presión (o flujo) en un solo pozo o varios pozos y pruebas con trazadores. Debido a que mucha de la literatura del tema se ha enfocado en rocas cristalinas fracturadas y rocas sedimentarias duras tal como areniscas, calizas (excluyendo karst) y creta, también en contumacia lo hace este artículo. La cuantificación directa del flujo y transporte en tales rocas se hace comúnmente en base a datos geométricos de fracturas acoplados con pruebas de presión (o flujo) y trazadores, los cuales por lo tanto constituyen nuestra principal orientación. Datos geológicos, geofísicos y geoquímicos (incluyendo isótopos) son críticos para la conceptualización cuantitativa de flujo y transporte en rocas fracturadas, y se han estado incorporando gradualmente en modelos cuantitativos de flujo y transporte, en formas que desafortunadamente este artículo solo puede describir de paso. La hidrogeología de rocas fracturadas y otros aspectos de ciencia de la tierra de hidrología de rocas fracturadas amerita tratamientos separados. Toda la evidencia sugiere que uno raramente puede modelizar flujo y transporte

  10. Comparing Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) and Early-Time TEM for Mapping Highly Conductive Groundwater in Mars Analog Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of (diffusive) Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) for sounding of subsurface water in conductive Mars analog environments. To provide a baseline for such studies, I show data from two field studies: 1) Diffusive sounding data (TEM) from Pima County, Arizona; and 2) Shallower sounding data using the Fast-Turnoff TEM method from Peña de Hierro in the Rio Tinto region of Spain. The latter is data from work conducted under the auspices of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). Pima County TEM Survey: A TEM survey was carried out in Pima County, Arizona, in January 2003. Data was collected using 100 m Tx loops and a ferrite-cored magnetic coil Rx antenna, and processed using commercial software. The survey used a 16 Hz sounding frequency, which is sensitive to slightly salty groundwater. Prominent features in the data from Arizona are the ~500 m depth of investigation and the ~120 m depth to the water table, confirmed by data from four USGS test wells surrounding the field area. Note also the conductive (~20-40 ω m) clay-rich soil above the water table. Rio Tinto Fast-Turnoff TEM Survey: During May and June of 2003, a Fast-Turnoff (early time) TEM survey was carried out at the Peña de Hierro field area of the MARTE project, near the town of Nerva, Spain. Data was collected using 20 m and 40 m Tx loop antennae and 10 m loop Rx antennae, with a 32 Hz sounding frequency. Data from Line 4 (of 16) from this survey, collected using 40 m Tx loops, show ~200 m depth of investigation and a conductive high at ~90 m depth below Station 20 (second station of 10 along this line). This is the water table, matching the 431 m MSL elevation of the nearby pit lake. The center of the "pileup" below Station 60 is spatially coincident with the vertical fault plane located here. Data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Rio Tinto survey, collected using 20 m Tx loops, achieve ~50 m depth of investigation and

  11. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity of the mantle beneath the Canary Islands: a discussion of the paper of Gurenko et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Macpherson, Colin G.; Lowry, David; Pearson, D. Graham

    2012-07-01

    Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) report laser-assisted fluorination (LF) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) 18O/16O datasets for olivine grains from the Canary Islands of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma and El Hierro. As with prior studies of oxygen isotopes in Canary Island lavas (e.g. Thirlwall et al. Chem Geol 135:233-262, 1997; Day et al. Geology 37:555-558, 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:6565-6589, 2010), these authors find variations in δ18Ool (~4.6-6.0 ‰) beyond that measured for mantle peridotite olivine (Mattey et al. Earth Planet Sci Lett 128:231-241, 1994) and interpret this variation to reflect contributions from pyroxenite-peridotite mantle sources. Furthermore, Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) speculate that δ18Ool values for La Palma olivine grains measured by LF (Day et al. Geology 37:555-558, 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:6565-6589, 2010) may be biased to low values due to the presence of altered silicate, possibly serpentine. The range in δ18Ool values for Canary Island lavas are of importance for constraining their origin. Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) took a subset (39 SIMS analyses from 13 grains from a single El Hierro lava; EH4) of a more extensive dataset (321 SIMS analyses from 110 grains from 16 Canary Island lavas) to suggest that δ18Ool is weakly correlated ( R 2 = 0.291) with the parameter used by Gurenko et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 277:514-524, 2009) to describe the estimated weight fraction of pyroxenite-derived melt ( Xpx). With this relationship, end-member δ18O values for HIMU-peridotite (δ18O = 5.3 ± 0.3 ‰) and depleted pyroxenite (δ18O = 5.9 ± 0.3 ‰) were defined. Although the model proposed by Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) implicates similar pyroxenite-peridotite mantle sources to those proposed by Day et al. (Geology 37:555-558, 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:6565-6589, 2010

  12. Segmentation and Tracking of Anticyclonic Eddies during a Submarine Volcanic Eruption Using Ocean Colour Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Marcello, Javier; Eugenio, Francisco; Estrada-Allis, Sheila; Sangrà, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The eruptive phase of a submarine volcano located 2 km away from the southern coast of El Hierro Island started on October 2011. This extraordinary event provoked a dramatic perturbation of the water column. In order to understand and quantify the environmental impacts caused, a regular multidisciplinary monitoring was carried out using remote sensing sensors. In this context, we performed the systematic processing of every MODIS and MERIS and selected high resolution Worldview-2 imagery to provide information on the concentration of a number of biological, physical and chemical parameters. On the other hand, the eruption provided an exceptional source of tracer that allowed the study a variety of oceanographic structures. Specifically, the Canary Islands belong to a very active zone of long-lived eddies. Such structures are usually monitored using sea level anomaly fields. However these products have coarse spatial resolution and they are not suitable to perform submesoscale studies. Thanks to the volcanic tracer, detailed studies were undertaken with ocean colour imagery allowing, using the diffuse attenuation coefficient, to monitor the process of filamentation and axisymmetrization predicted by theoretical studies and numerical modelling. In our work, a novel 2-step segmentation methodology has been developed. The approach incorporates different segmentation algorithms and region growing techniques. In particular, the first step obtains an initial eddy segmentation using thresholding or clustering methods and, next, the fine detail is achieved by the iterative identification of the points to grow and the subsequent application of watershed or thresholding strategies. The methodology has demonstrated an excellent performance and robustness and it has proven to properly capture the eddy and its filaments. PMID:25875193

  13. InSAR Tropospheric Correction Methods: A Statistical Comparison over Different Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, D. P.; Walters, R. J.; Wright, T. J.; Hooper, A. J.; Parker, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observing small magnitude surface displacements through InSAR is highly challenging, and requires advanced correction techniques to reduce noise. In fact, one of the largest obstacles facing the InSAR community is related to tropospheric noise correction. Spatial and temporal variations in temperature, pressure, and relative humidity result in a spatially-variable InSAR tropospheric signal, which masks smaller surface displacements due to tectonic or volcanic deformation. Correction methods applied today include those relying on weather model data, GNSS and/or spectrometer data. Unfortunately, these methods are often limited by the spatial and temporal resolution of the auxiliary data. Alternatively a correction can be estimated from the high-resolution interferometric phase by assuming a linear or a power-law relationship between the phase and topography. For these methods, the challenge lies in separating deformation from tropospheric signals. We will present results of a statistical comparison of the state-of-the-art tropospheric corrections estimated from spectrometer products (MERIS and MODIS), a low and high spatial-resolution weather model (ERA-I and WRF), and both the conventional linear and power-law empirical methods. We evaluate the correction capability over Southern Mexico, Italy, and El Hierro, and investigate the impact of increasing cloud cover on the accuracy of the tropospheric delay estimation. We find that each method has its strengths and weaknesses, and suggest that further developments should aim to combine different correction methods. All the presented methods are included into our new open source software package called TRAIN - Toolbox for Reducing Atmospheric InSAR Noise (Bekaert et al., in review), which is available to the community Bekaert, D., R. Walters, T. Wright, A. Hooper, and D. Parker (in review), Statistical comparison of InSAR tropospheric correction techniques, Remote Sensing of Environment

  14. The southern margin of the Caribbean Plate in Venezuela: tectono-magmatic setting of the ophiolitic units and kinematic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, Giuseppe; Beccaluva, Luigi; Coltorti, Massimo; Siena, Franca; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2002-07-01

    The southern Caribbean Plate margin in Venezuela consists of a W-E elongated deformed belt, composed of several tectonic units dismembered along the northern part of the South America continental Plate since the Late Cretaceous. The present review, based on petrology and tectono-magmatic significance of each unit, makes it possible to define the main geotectonic elements and to reconstruct the paleogeographic domains from Late Jurassic to Tertiary: (a) Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) proto-Caribbean oceanic basin (Loma de Hierro Unit); (b) oceanic plateau (Dutch and Venezuelan Islands basement); (c) rifted continental margin (Cordillera de La Costa and Caucagua-El Tinaco Units) with Within Plate Tholeiitic (WPTh) magmatism; (d) an intra-oceanic subduction zone represented by Island Arc Tholeiitic (IAT) magmatism (Villa de Cura and Dos Hermanas Units) of Early Cretaceous age; (e) an Early Cretaceous ocean-continent subduction trench filled by melange (Franja Costera); (f) a new intra-oceanic subduction zone, represented by the tonalitic arc magmatism of Late Cretaceous age (Dutch and Venezuelan Islands). Regional tectonic constraints and coherent kinematic reconstruction suggest an original "near-Mid America" location of the Jurassic-Cretaceous "proto-Caribbean" oceanic realm. From Early to Late Cretaceous one sub-continental subduction with melanges (Franja Costera Unit) and two main stages of intra-oceanic arc magmatism are recorded in the so-called "eo-Caribbean" phases. The first consists of generally metamorphosed and deformed volcano-plutonic sequences with IAT affinity (Villa de Cura and Dos Hermanas Units), probably in relation to a southeastward-dipping subduction. The second is mainly represented by generally unmetamorphosed tonalitic intrusives cutting the oceanic plateau in the Dutch and Venezuelan Islands, and related to the new intra-oceanic subduction with reverse lithospheric sinking. The latter probably marked the onset of the Aves/Lesser Antilles arc

  15. Segmentation and tracking of anticyclonic eddies during a submarine volcanic eruption using ocean colour imagery.

    PubMed

    Marcello, Javier; Eugenio, Francisco; Estrada-Allis, Sheila; Sangrà, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The eruptive phase of a submarine volcano located 2 km away from the southern coast of El Hierro Island started on October 2011. This extraordinary event provoked a dramatic perturbation of the water column. In order to understand and quantify the environmental impacts caused, a regular multidisciplinary monitoring was carried out using remote sensing sensors. In this context, we performed the systematic processing of every MODIS and MERIS and selected high resolution Worldview-2 imagery to provide information on the concentration of a number of biological, physical and chemical parameters. On the other hand, the eruption provided an exceptional source of tracer that allowed the study a variety of oceanographic structures. Specifically, the Canary Islands belong to a very active zone of long-lived eddies. Such structures are usually monitored using sea level anomaly fields. However these products have coarse spatial resolution and they are not suitable to perform submesoscale studies. Thanks to the volcanic tracer, detailed studies were undertaken with ocean colour imagery allowing, using the diffuse attenuation coefficient, to monitor the process of filamentation and axisymmetrization predicted by theoretical studies and numerical modelling. In our work, a novel 2-step segmentation methodology has been developed. The approach incorporates different segmentation algorithms and region growing techniques. In particular, the first step obtains an initial eddy segmentation using thresholding or clustering methods and, next, the fine detail is achieved by the iterative identification of the points to grow and the subsequent application of watershed or thresholding strategies. The methodology has demonstrated an excellent performance and robustness and it has proven to properly capture the eddy and its filaments. PMID:25875193

  16. Submarine landslides around the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastel, Sebastian; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Jacobs, Colin L.; Rihm, Roland; Le Bas, Timothy P.; AlibéS, BáRbara

    2001-01-01

    The morphology and structure of the submarine flanks of the Canary Islands were mapped using the GLORIA long-range side-scan sonar system, bathymetric multibeam systems, and sediment echosounders. Twelve young (<2 Ma) giant landslides have been identified on the submarine flanks of the Canary Islands up to now. Older landslide events are long buried under a thick sediment cover due to high sedimentation rates around the Canary Islands. Most slides were found on the flanks of the youngest and most active islands of La Palma, El Hierro, and Tenerife, but young giant landslides were also identified on the flanks of the older (15-20 Ma) but still active eastern islands. Large-scale mass wasting is an important process during all periods of major magmatic activity. The long-lived volcanic constructive history of the islands of the Canary Archipelago is balanced by a correspondingly long history of destruction, resulting in a higher landslide frequency for the Canary Islands compared to the Hawaiian Islands, where giant landslides only occur late in the period of active shield growth. The lower stability of the flanks of the Canaries is probably due to the much steeper slopes of the islands, a result of the abundance of highly evolved intrusive and extrusive rocks. Another reason for the enhanced slope instability is the abundance of pyroclastic deposits on Canary Islands resulting from frequent explosive eruptions due to the elevated volatile contents in the highly alkalic magmas. Dike-induced rifting is most likely the main trigger mechanism for destabilization of the flanks. Flank collapses are a major geological hazard for the Canary Islands due to the sector collapses themselves as well as triggering of tsunamis. In at least one case, a giant lateral blast occurred when an active magmatic or hydrothermal system became unroofed during flank collapse.

  17. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    PubMed

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB. PMID:25580865

  18. The impact of the climate on the epidemiology of Dirofilaria immitis in the pet population of the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Alonso, J A; Carretón, E; Morchón, R; Silveira-Viera, L; Falcón, Y; Simón, F

    2016-01-30

    Cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis (heartworm) is a zoonotic vector borne disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis which affects domestic dogs and cats. Two of the seven Canary Islands are historically hyperendemic areas of dirofilariosis, although no epidemiological study has ever been carried out which includes the other islands. The aim of the study was to complete the epidemiological status of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in the canine and feline population throughout all the Canary Islands. 1643 client-owned dogs and 707 client-owned cats were tested for D. immitis antigens (dogs), and anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibodies (cats). The prevalence of canine dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands was 15.7%, and the seroprevalence of feline dirofilariosis was 18.1%. A remarkable disparity was found when evaluating the results by island separately, which ranged from from 0% in Lanzarote and El Hierro, low prevalences and seroprevalences in Fuerteventura (1.8% and 2.5% in dogs and cats, respectively), to higher prevalences on the other 4 islands; ranging between 15.7% (dogs) and 14.3% (cats) in La Palma 22.5% (dogs) and 24.1% (cats) in Tenerife. In addition, prevalences and seroprevalences were very variable within each island, these differences being associated to local climate conditions. The distribution and prevalence of dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands is heterogeneous and related to climate, demographic factors and management of pets in the studied areas. Dirofilariosis remains hyperendemic in 4 of the 7 Islands. Since D. immitis is a zoonosis, veterinary and health authorities should be aware of the current prevalence and seroprevalence of animal dirofilariosis. The results show the need for awareness raising campaigns to promote the implementation of prophylactic measures in pets, in order to achieve a decrease in the prevalence of animal dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands. PMID:26801597

  19. SAR4Volcanoes: an international ASI funded research project on volcano deformation through new generation SAR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansosti, E.; Pepe, S.; Solaro, G.; Casu, F.; Tizzani, P.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, J.; Nobile, A.; Puglisi, G.; Guglielmino, F.; Zoffoli, S.

    2012-04-01

    Volcano deformation monitoring is crucial to understand how magma emplaces, propagates and erupts. Therefore, volcano deformation research projects are particularly important opportunities to improve our understanding of volcano dynamics. SAR4Volcanoes is a 2-year research project funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) within the framework of a cooperation agreement with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It focuses on volcano deformation analysis through Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques by means of COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS data, through the joint use of L-band and X-band SAR data. It also aims to the identification of methods and techniques to support decision making in emergency cases. Main target volcanoes in the projects are Etna, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Stromboli (Italy) and Sakurajima and Kirishima (Japan). Secondary target volcanoes include recently or currently erupting volcanoes, as El Hierro (Spain), Nabro (Ethiopia) and Galapagos volcanoes (Ecuador). Since the project kickoff (July 2011) a large number of COSMO-SkyMed data has been acquired at these volcanoes; in some cases, the acquisitions are available almost at every satellite orbit, with an average interval down to 4 days. On these premises, the project represents an important opportunity to: (1) collect a significant amount of X-band data on active and erupting volcanoes and (2) study surface deformation to understand magma dynamics in different volcanic settings. We will present preliminary results on the ground deformation analysis of the main and secondary target volcanoes. In particular, target volcanoes without a pre-project archive are analyzed using single deformation maps, while those with archives are analysed through a time series approach, based on the SBAS technique.

  20. Development of a multi-parameter system for Antarctic researching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Alicia; Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    This work describes the development of a multi-parameter system for antarctic researching. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration.The advantage of the system presented in this work is that it allows the rapid development of a monitoring network that uses the latest technologies of embedded systems. These embedded systems offer the possibility of developing the software necessary for managing the sensors and instruments available. Data can be transmitted in near real time or on demand to a Data Reception Center (DRC). The local storage allows retrieving data when the transmission fails and uses only short transmission periods rather than continuous transmission. The price of both hardware and software is very low. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular System described has been deployed at Deception Island (Antarctica), within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring and researching the geodinamical activity, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. Deception Islan is an active volcano with some geothermal areas, this fact has allowed to develop a power system using Peltier cells. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  1. Identification of the subsurface sulfide bodies responsible for acidity in Río Tinto source water, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ortiz, David; Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Granda, Ángel; Quesada, Cecilio; Granda, Teresa; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Molina, Antonio; Amils, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    The acidic waters of the Río Tinto rise from several acidic springs that emerge in the area surrounding Peña de Hierro (Fernández-Remolar et al., 2005). These springs are located above minor normal faults that act as natural conduits for the water from the underlying deep aquifer. Although it has been suggested that the acidity of the river originates from the biooxidation of massive and stockwork sulfides (Fernández-Remolar et al., 2008a), the location of the source for these acidic solutions has not previously been established. This lack of evidence has been used to suggest that the acidity of the Río Tinto may be the product of the most conspicuous of the possible source, the extensive mining of the area over approximately the last 5000 years (Davis et al., 2000). In this paper, we report resistivity and time-domain electromagnetic sounding data from the Río Tinto aquifer to a depth of ∼600 m, revealing the locations for the acidic sources. Both types of data support the presence of two distinct geological units that we interpret as thrust sheets emplaced onto each other during the Variscan orogeny of the Carboniferous. These units, both of which contain massive and stockwork sulfides, act as the aquifer for the acidic waters of the Río Tinto. Under this scenario, which is in agreement with the geological record of the Río Tinto fluvial system for the past 6 Ma (Moreno et al., 2003), our results imply that mining activity had little influence on the generation of the acidic river waters.

  2. Effects of a submarine eruption on the performance of two brown seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancor, Séfora; Tuya, Fernando; Gil-Díaz, Teba; Figueroa, Félix L.; Haroun, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    World oceans are becoming more acidic as a consequence of CO2 anthropogenic emissions, with multiple physiological and ecological implications. So far, our understanding is mainly limited to some species through in vitro experimentation. In this study, we took advantage of a recent submarine eruption (from October 2011 to March 2012) at ~ 1 nautical mile offshore El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, central east Atlantic) to determine whether altered physical-chemical conditions, mainly sudden natural ocean acidification, affected the morphology, photosynthesis (in situ Chl-a fluorescence) and physiological performance (photo-protective mechanisms and oxidative stress) of the conspicuous brown seaweeds Padina pavonica-a species with carbonate deposition - and Lobophora variegata-a species without carbonate on thallus surfaces - , both with similar morphology. Seaweeds were sampled twice: November 2011 (eruptive phase with a pH drop of ca. 1.22 units relative to standard conditions) and March 2012 (post-eruptive phase with a pH of ca. 8.23), on two intertidal locations adjacent to the eruption and at a control location. P. pavonica showed decalcification and loss of photo-protective compounds and antioxidant activity at locations affected by the eruption, behaving as a sun-adapted species during lowered pH conditions. At the same time, L. variegata suffered a decrease in photo-protective compounds and antioxidant activity during the volcanic event, but its photosynthetic performance remained unaltered. These results reinforce the idea that calcareous seaweeds, as a whole, are more sensitive than non-calcareous seaweeds to alter their performance under scenarios of reduced pH.

  3. Characterisation of the hydrogeology of the Augustus River catchment, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Shane M.; Clement, T. Prabhakar; Otto, Claus J.

    partie sud du bassin de la rivière Augustus, exemple de bassin en roches altérées. Les données concernant le site ont mis en évidence la présence simultanée d'aquifères poreux dans le profil d'altération et d'aquifères de roches fracturées dans le socle. Des campagnes de géophysique aéroportée et d'autres données de forages ont identifié de très nombreux dykes de dolérite traversant le site. Des veines de quartz fracturées ont été trouvées aux marges de ces dykes de dolérite. Des mesures détaillées de niveau des nappes et des estimations des effets barométriques indiquent que ces dykes de dolérite et les veines de quartz fracturées affectent les directions d'écoulement souterrain, favorisant une forte connexion hydraulique entre tous ces aquifères, et influençant également les mécanismes de recharge. La signification hydrogéologique des dykes de dolérite et des veines de quartz fracturées a été analysée en combinant des mesures à haute fréquence du niveau des nappes (toutes les 30 min), de la pluie (toutes les 5 min) et des variations de la pression barométrique (toutes les 30 min). Un modèle conceptuel a été établi pour décrire les différents phénomènes hydrogéologiques de la région étudiée. Ce modèle indique que les veines de quartz aux marges des dykes de dolérite sont une importante composante de l'hydrogéologie des bassins en roches altérées. Entender la hidrogeología de cuencas con rocas meteorizadas es esencial para gestionar diversos problemas relacionados con el incremento de salinidad en muchas ciudades de Australia Occidental. Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos en la caracterización de varios emplazamientos con el fin de mejorar el conocimiento general de la hidrogeología en la zona sur de la cuenca del Río Augustus, que sirve como ejemplo de cuenca en rocas meteorizadas. Los datos de campo resaltan la presencia tanto de medios acuíferos porosos dentro del perfil meteorizado como de

  4. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  5. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  6. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    hecho, la diferencia de permeabilidad entre el canal aluvial y los depósitos de relleno subyacentes puede provocar descarga subyacente. Además, incluso si el Río Colorado recargase este Campo Central, el agua subterránea se salinizaría progresivamente. Las restricciones del Acta sobre el uso del agua del CAP afectan los cuatro mecanismos legales del Código de Aguas Subterráneas de Arizona de 1980 relacionados con el Área de Gestión Activa de Tucson: (a) aumento del suministro; (b) requisitos y permisos para la extracción de aguas subterráneas (c) necesidades del Plan de Gestión, particularmente la conservación obligatoria y temas de calidad de aguas; y (d) la obligación de que todas las nuevas subdivisiones usen agua con suministro renovable en lugar de subterránea. Como problemas adicionales se incluye la perturbación de las actividades políticas normales como consecuencia de las demandas para aprobar y poner en marcha el Acta.

  7. Predicciones Sísmológicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño Guarape, Luis Alberto

    2004-05-01

    El trabajo prctende orientar las discusiones. reflexiones y posibles investigaciones sobre la predicción sismológica. inicialmente muestra una síntesis teórica del problema de la predicción científica. estableciendo diferencias entre predicción y pronóstico. Los sistemas en las geocicncias esencialmente son no lineales, lo cual requiere en el caso particular, un acercamiento al problema del caos en geofisica y aclaraciones sobre el problema inverso en sismologóa. Cuál es la opinión de los sismólogos internacionales y nacionales sobre la predicción de los terremotos? Dentro de esta discusión se muestran algunos resultados de laboratorio y campo sobre potenciales eléctricos y otros parámetros geofisicos que se vienen logrando en Colombia. Los resultados no se concluyentes aún y por lo tanto las conclusiones son abiertas.

  8. [In situ FTIR and XPS study on selective hydrodesulfurization catalyst of FCC gasoline].

    PubMed

    Qiherima; Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Yun-hong; Li, Hui-feng; Xu, Guang-tong

    2011-07-01

    Improvement of the selectivity of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) for hydrogenation (HYD) of olefins is crucial to produce sulfur-free (S < 0.001%) gasoline from fluid catalytic-cracked (FCC) gasoline. A series of sulfided CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts with different metal loading were prepared by pore-filling impregnation. MoS2 and COMoS active phases on the surface of sulfided COMo/Al2O3 catalyst were identified and analyzed quantitatively by XPS and in-situ FTIR of adsorbed CO. The results reveal that the increase in COMoS phase on the catalyst surface improves the HDS activity and selectivity. And the HDS selectivity correlates linearly with the ratio of active site number of CoMoS and MoS2, the higher the ratio of active site number of CoMoS and MoS2, the better the HDS selectivity. In situ variable temperature FTIR analysis shows that CoMoS phase has stronger electron accepting ability than MoS2. The strong electron deficient property of CoMoS active sites is the main reason for its excellent HDS activity and selectivity. PMID:21942017

  9. Helenistic Encomium: A Reflection on Comics and Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Jason

    2009-01-01

    This video reflection starts in a presentation on comics at the Thomas R. Watson Conference last October, which prompted the author to explore the etymology of cosmos and comos through an alternate reading of Gorgias' "Encomium of Helen". The author then works with comos, as revelry, to offer thoughts on comics as a form of multimodal composition…

  10. Aflatoxinas

    Cancer.gov

    Las aflatoxinas son un tipo de toxinas producidas por ciertos hongos en cultivos agrícolas como el maíz, los cacahuates o el maní, la semilla de algodón y los frutos secos (de cáscara dura como las nueces).

  11. Asociación de XMRV con enfermedades humanas se debe a contaminación

    Cancer.gov

    Nuevas investigaciones muestran que una asociación, mencionada en numerosos estudios, entre el retrovirus conocido como XMRV y el cáncer de próstata así como el síndrome de fatiga crónica, se debe a contaminación de laboratorio con un virus que se originó en ratones.

  12. 25. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: Department of Interior. Bureau ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: Department of Interior. Bureau of Reclamation. Bitter Root Project History 1931-1962. National Archives, Denver, RG 115, Accession #115-90-039, Box 243. Location of original photo unknown.) View of original construction of Como Dam during 1908 to 1910 - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  13. Resultados del Estudio Nacional de Colografía de Tomografía

    Cancer.gov

    Estudios anteriores encontraron que la colografía de tomografía computarizada, también conocida como colonoscopia virtual, era prometedora como método de examen selectivo de detección de cáncer colorrectal debido

  14. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  15. The evolution of groundwater rights and groundwater management in New Mexico and the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuMars, Charles T.; Minier, Jeffrie D.

    coherente con las necesidades de bienestar social, pero protegidos por los principios de la ley de propiedad. Hasta el momento, cinco sistemas reguladores básicos han evolucionado en los Estados Unidos de América en relación a los derechos en las aguas subterráneas. Los problemas surgidos por las diferencias hidrológicas entre las aguas subterráneas conectadas a corrientes superficiales y las aguas subterráneas en acuíferos sobreexplotados han sido resueltos hasta cierto punto por un par de casos judiciales notables. La modelación numérica y otras metodologías técnicas han evolucionado también para evaluar aspectos científicos asociados a diversas circunstancias hidrológicas, pero no son inmunes a las críticas. El papel actual de los acuíferos está evolucionando hacia el de instalaciones de almacenamiento de agua reciclada y su utilización de esta forma puede expandirse incluso más en el futuro. Las implicaciones políticas de las decisiones relativas a la gestión conjunta de las aguas superficiales y subterráneas no pueden ser exageradas. Como este artículo demuestra, una administración proactiva de las extracciones futuras de aguas subterráneas con efectos en los ecosistemas superficiales es esencial para la capacidad final de planificar la explotación, gestión y utilización de los recursos hídricos de forma racional, coordinando las demandas presentes y futuras con la realidad de la escasez de suministro. Los ejemplos empleados en este artículo demuestran la necesidad de construir capacidad y no únicamente de desarrollar buenas técnicas de medida, o la de educar reguladores y jueces de talento que redacten buenas leyes, pero también de gestores profesionales y aplicados del agua que mantengan el proceso en un compromiso entre evitar la explotación ilimitada del recurso y ejercer un proteccionismo conservador que impida su uso para siempre.

  16. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  17. Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). GROUND TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all

  18. Oxygen Fugacity Recorded by Xenoliths from Pacific Oceanic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, K.; Davis, F. A.; Cottrell, E.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) plays a vital role in determining mineral stability and depth of melting in the mantle. Several studies have used the spinel peridotite oxybarometer to estimate fO2; yet few data exist from ocean islands, despite the importance of fO2 to understanding ocean island basalt petrogenesis (Herzberg and Asimow, 2008). We report fO2 recorded by peridotite xenoliths from three ocean islands: Savai'i (average fO2 = QFM -1.4 to +0.9), Tahiti (QFM +0.6 to +0.7) and Tubuai (QFM -1.1 to +0.2). We calculate fO2 using methods and standards from Wood and Virgo (1989) and Wood (RiMG, 1990). Oxygen fugacities span a similar range to those reported for El Hierro, Oahu, and Tahiti by Ballhaus (1993): more reduced than arc peridotites, but more oxidized than abyssal peridotites. Spinels in several of the xenoliths are heterogeneous and record a range of apparent fO2 at the mm scale. We propose two distinct mechanisms for introducing fO2 heterogeneity: melt refertilization (Tubuai) and diffusive reequilibration (Savai'i and Tubuai). Spinels in one Tubuai sample record increasing fO2 from QFM-0.6 in the xenolith interior to +1.1 at the basalt interface. Apparent fO2 recorded by these spinels correlate with TiO2, an indicator of melt refertilization (Pearce et al., 2000). We suggest that spinels from the xenolith interior record the relatively low fO2 conditions of the lithospheric mantle, while host basalt has oxidized near-interface spinels. Uniformly high TiO2, fO2, and low olivine Mg# in Tahitian xenoliths from this study may indicate that refertilization has reset the fO2 recorded by these rocks. Closed-system diffusive reequilibration, caused by changes in temperature, can also change the fO2 recorded by a peridotite. In samples from Savai'i and Tubuai with multiple spinel habits, fine intergrowth spinels and the rims of large, equant spinels record higher apparent fO2 and lower Al2O3 than cores of large grains. Canil and O'Neill (1996) suggest that the MgAl2O4

  19. Testing the reliability of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value to aid volcanic eruption forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick; Bell, Andrew; Main, Ian

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of earthquake magnitudes is an important additional attribute of a volcanic earthquake catalogue and analyses of properties of the "frequency-magnitude distribution" (FMD) underpins most studies of volcanic seismicity. The event rate and inter-event intervals are of primary interest as their changes can be a primary indicator of volcanic unrest. The classic model for the earthquake FMD is the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) relation (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954): log(N) = a - bM, where N is the cumulative number of earthquakes of magnitude equal to or greater than M, a is a measure of the total seismicity rate of the region and the b-value represents the relative proportion of large and small events in the catalogue. The b-value for tectonic earthquakes has been well studied with a global average of approximately 1. However, b-values in volcanic settings are often reported to be much higher, sometimes with values as high as 3. Spatial variations in the volcanic b-value have been used to map stress conditions and magma reservoirs, and it has been argued that temporal variations have the potential to forecast eruptive activity. Here we assess different methodologies for analysing properties of the FMD, and re-evaluate what we know about the FMD of volcanic earthquakes. Using synthetic models we evaluate the reliability of methods for calculating the catalogue completeness magnitude where earthquake rates fluctuate rapidly in time to simulate pre-, syn- and post- earthquake swarm activity. We also evaluate to what extent volcanic FMDs are consistent with the GR model, using earthquake data from volcanoes including El Hierro, Canary Islands and Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii. We suggest that much of the proposed variation in b-value can be attributed to uncertainty in the completeness magnitude, and FMDs not displaying GR properties. In the case where event rate is pulsing or swarming the b-value has a tendency not to stabilise with increasing completeness

  20. Using TEM for sounding conductive and deep groundwater in Mars analog environments: Comparing two field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-11-01

    A TEM survey was carried out in Pima County, Arizona, in January 2003. Data was collected using 100 m Tx loops and a ferrite-cored magnetic coil Rx antenna, using a 16 Hz sounding frequency, which is sensitive to slightly salty groundwater. Prominent features in the data are the ~500 m depth of investigation and the ~120 m depth to the water table, confirmed by data from four USGS test wells sur-rounding the field area. Note also the conductive (~20-40 Ωm) clay-rich soil above the water table. During May and June of 2003, a Fast-Turnoff (early time) TEM survey was carried out at the Peña de Hierro field area of the MARTE project, near the town of Nerva, Spain. Data was collected using 20 m and 40 m Tx loop antennae and 10 m loop Rx antennae, with a 32 Hz sounding frequency. Data from Line 4 (of 16) from this survey, collected using 40 m Tx loops, show ~200 m depth of investigation and a conduc-tive high at ~90 m depth below Station 20 (second station of 10 along this line). This is the water table, matching the 431 m MSL elevation of the nearby pit lake. Data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Rio Tinto survey, collected using 20 m Tx loops, achieve ~50 m depth of investigation and show con-ductive highs at ~15 m depth below Station 50 (Line 15) and Station 30 (Line 14), interpreted as subsurface water flow under mine tailings matching surface flows seen coming out from under the tailings, and shown on maps. Both of the interpretations from Rio Tinto data (Line 4, and Lines 15 & 14) were confirmed by preliminary results from the MARTE ground truth drilling campaign carried out in September and October 2003. Drill Site 1 was moved ~50 m based on recommendations built on data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Fast-Turnoff TEM survey.

  1. Science Results from a Mars Drilling Simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and Ground Truth for Remote Science Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. Science results. Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (˜1:1, ˜1:2, and ˜1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (Corg <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (Corg ˜3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (Corg ˜0.23 wt %). Ground truth vs. remote science analysis. Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5‧-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated

  2. Rifting, landsliding and magmatic variability in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo, J. C.; Troll, V. R.; Guillou, H.; Badiola, E. R.; Pérez-Torrado, F. J.; Wiesmaier, S.; Delcamp, A.; Gonzalez, A. R.

    2009-04-01

    Rifts, probably the most influential structures in the geology of the Canary Islands, may also be responsible for the development of central felsic volcanoes, which are consistently nested in the collapse basins of the massive lateral collapses found in the Canaries. Three main types of post-collapse volcanism have been observed, particularly in the western Canaries: 1. Collapses followed by relatively scant, non-differentiated volcanism inside the collapse depression (El Golfo, El Hierro; La Orotava and Güímar, Tenerife), 2. those with important, although short-lasting (tens of thousands of years), post-collapse activity including felsic (phonolitic, trachytic) central volcanism (Bejenado, La Palma; Vallehermoso, La Gomera), and 3. those with very important, long-lasting (>100 kyr) post-collapse activity, evolving from primitive to felsic magmatism, eventually resulting in very high stratovolcanoes (Teide, Tenerife). Three consecutive sector collapses (Micheque, Güímar and La Orotava) mass-wasted the flanks of in the NE rift of Tenerife after intense and concentrated eruptive activity, particularly from about 1.10 Ma to 0.96 Ma, with periods of growth up to 15-25 m/kyr. Volcanic activity completely filled the Micheque collapse, evolving from basaltic to differentiated trachytic eruptions. Conversely, nested volcanism was less abundant in the Güímar and La Orotava collapses. This requires two fundamentally different scenarios which may be a function of active versus passive flank collapse trigger mechanisms: 1. The collapse occurs as a result of one of these short but intense intrusive-eruptive periods and probably triggered by concurring extensional stresses at the rifts (rift push), or 2. the giant landslide is derived only from gravitational instability. In the first scenario, the collapse of the flank of the rift may disrupt an established fissural feeding system that rapidly fills the collapse basin. Due to its disruption and the progressive new

  3. Crystal Zoning Constrains on the Processes and Time Scales Involved in Monogenetic Mafic Volcanism (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, H.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Marti, J.

    2014-12-01

    . Magma transport times vary between about one week and one month, with somewhat longer times in the last eruption. The longer magma mixing times might be related to precursory seismicity of a few months as it occurred in the recent eruption of El Hierro in 2011. The shorter transport times of a week to a month might be more relevant for emergency plans in Tenerife Island.

  4. A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds.

    PubMed

    Kucherov, Gregory; Noé, Laurent; Roytberg, Mikhail

    2006-04-01

    We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem--a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model--that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset seeds can be efficiently designed using our approach, and can then be used in similarity search producing better results than ordinary spaced seeds. PMID:16819802

  5. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  6. Short-time-interaction quantum measurement through an incoherent mediator

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, J.; Romero, G.; Lizuain, I.; Muga, J. G.; Retamal, J. C.; Roos, C. F.; Solano, E.

    2010-06-15

    We propose a method of indirect measurements where a probe is able to read, in short interaction times, the quantum state of a remote system through an incoherent third party, hereafter called a mediator. The probe and system can interact briefly with the mediator in an incoherent state but not directly among themselves and, nevertheless, the transfer of quantum information can be achieved with robustness. We exemplify our measurement scheme with a paradigmatic example of this tripartite problem--a qubit-oscillator-qubit setup--and discuss different physical scenarios, pointing out the associated advantages and limitations.

  7. Fluctuaciones cuánticas y cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.

    El objetivo de la charla es repasar 1) los motivos para creer que el Universo pasó por una etapa inflacionaria antes del período dominado por la radiación, durante la cual se habrían formado las fluctuaciones primordiales en la densidad de energía que luego colapsaron para formar estructuras cosmológicas 2) los mecanismos que crearon dichas fluctuaciones a partir de fluctuaciones cuánticas del campo del ``inflaton" durante dicho período y 3) los problemas abiertos en el estudio de modelos inflacionarios, especialmente respecto al inicio y final del mismo.

  8. Formación y evolución de planetas gigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Brunini, A.

    Presentamos el estado actual del trabajo que estamos realizando en el estudio de la formación de planetas gigantes. Detallamos los algoritmos numéricos necesarios para realizar este tipo de cálculo. Presentamos algunos resultados de la formación de objetos con masas de hasta una docena de veces la del planeta Júpiter, resaltando las principales caracteríticas. Finalmente detallamos los problemas que pensamos abordar en un futuro cercano en este tema de investigación.

  9. Código árbol paralelizado para simulaciones astrofísicas. Experimentos de encuentros de galaxias compuestas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viturro, H. R.; Carpintero, D. D.

    Se describe la implementación de un código árbol octal paralelizado desarrollado por los autores. Este código permite la integración del problema de N--cuerpos simultáneamente en varias computadoras (``cluster''), lo que permite desarrollar altas velocidades de cálculo. Se muestran los resultados de algunas integraciones de encuentros entre galaxias de disco con bulbo y halo, generadas mediante algoritmos no utilizados hasta el momento en este campo.

  10. Land subsidence caused by groundwater exploitation in Suzhou City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chongxi; Pei, Shunping; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2002-09-01

    dans l'aquifère captif profond, puisque la recharge à partir des aquifères superficiels au travers de la couche de limon est la seule alimentation de l'aquifère profond. Une analyse des distributions spatiales de l'abaissement du niveau piézométrique et des tassements du sol montre que la région soumise à l'abaissement maximal de piézométrie n'est pas nécessairement celle des tassements maximaux du sol liés à la présence de la couche de limon non consolidé. Une simple révision des débits de pompage basée sur la distribution spatiale de la couche de limon épaisse peut réduire significativement les tassements du sol. Resumen. La ciudad de Suzhou, situada en el tramo inferior del Río Yangtze, al sudeste de la provincia de Jiangsu, es una de las pocas ciudades chinas que padece problemas serios de subsidencia. Esto ha motivado la realización de un proyecto de investigación en la zona. Estudios geológicos e hidrogeológicos apuntan a un modelo de acuífero multicapa, con tres niveles distintos de lodos blandos de orígenes marino y lacustre. Examinando los registros históricos de extracciones de agua subterránea, así como de nivel piezométrico y de subsidencia, se observa que ésta se halla asociada al bombeo cada vez mayor del acuífero confinado profundo. La hipótesis es que las capas de lodos blandos se van consolidando, si bien la que más contribuye a ello es la tercera, potente y próxima al acuífero más explotado. Se ha realizado un modelo numérico tridimensional en diferencias finitas que representa el sistema acuífero multicapa, con lo que se puede estudiar el efecto de la extracción de agua subterránea en la subsidencia. Calibrando el modelo con niveles piezométricos medidos y con datos de subsidencia, se ha podido estimar los parámetros del acuífero. Los resultados del modelo ajustan de forma razonable con los datos medidos, por lo que el modelo numérico es capaz de reproducir los procesos dinámicos de flujo de aguas

  11. Simulaciones hidrodinámicas de flujos complejos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Ibáñez Cabanell, José

    Son muchos los escenarios astrofísicos en que los procesos hidrodinámicos juegan un papel clave. En la complejidad que encierra la descripción de dichos procesos destaca el de la correcta simulación de flujos complejos donde la presencia de ondas de choque fuertes que, eventualmente, interaccionan entre ellas o también la presencia de inestabilidades (Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, etc.) suponen un verdadero desafío numérico. Los códigos hidrodinámicos basados en la solución de un problema de valores iniciales discontinuo (problema de Riemann) son, en la actualidad, los más robustos en el campo de la dinámica de fluidos computacional. En esta charla se dará un resumen de los fundamentos de dichas técnicas numéricas (esquemas de alta resolución de captura de choques) y se ilustrará su potencialidad mostrando una amplia gama de resultados en diferentes aplicaciones astrofísicas.

  12. Encontrando planetas alrededor de otras estrellas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Así como la Tierra gira alrededor del Sol, la estrella más cercana, es posible que otros planetas orbiten las estrellas que se ven en el cielo nocturno. Piensa en todos los planetas del universo qu...

  13. Atom optics and space physics: A summary of an 'Enrico Fermi' summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimondo, Ennio; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the scientific content of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' on atom optics and space physics, organized by the Italian Physical Society in Varenna at Lake Como, Italy, 2-13 July 2007.

  14. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  15. Sistema Solar: de la observación de La Tierra a los planetas gigantes y sus lunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, R.

    La fotoquímica tiene un papel principal en la composición de las atmósferas planetarias. Se examinan diferentes procesos fotoquímicos tanto para atmósferas oxidadas como reductoras, poniendo un especial énfasis en los ciclos químicos más importantes. En este sentido, se presentan diferentes ciclos químicos capaces de producir hidrocarbonos y nitrilos en atmósferas reductoras, así como aquellos capaces de mantener las proporciones de mezcla de las moléculas que contienen oxígeno, tales como CO2, O2 y H2O. También se analizan otros procesos importantes tales como la condensación y procesos de sputtering y de sublimación que han de tenerse en cuenta cuando se realizan modelos sobre la composición atmosférica.

  16. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  17. Neoplasias mieloproliferativas y síndromes mielodisplásicos—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de las neoplasias mieloproliferativas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  18. Detective científica

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA posee muchos detectives que buscan pistas para resolver un misterio como la "detective científica" Monsi Roman. Se asegura de que el agua y el aire a bordo de la Estación Espacial Internaci...

  19. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    ómicos, se ha recomendado la implementación de cinco opciones complementarias de gestión: establecimiento de un Servicio Asesor de Riego; adquisición de pozos de granjas; imposición de límites estrictos en las extracciones de pozos y superficies de riego; substitución de las aguas subterráneas con aguas residuales depuradas; y medidas para incrementar la eficiencia de los usos municipales e industriales del agua. Se ha agrupado varias combinaciones y niveles de dichas opciones en escenarios, representando estrategias posibles de implementación. Los escenarios han sido diseñados para ayudar a los gestores en la toma de decisiones, a los propietarios de pozos y a otros agentes para que se vaya consiguiendo de forma gradual un régimen de extracciones sustentable. Se ha analizado los aspectos sociales y económicos de cada opción y de cada escenario, presentándolos a los diversos agentes, además de generar un resumen de ramificaciones legales, institucionales y medioambientales. Se ha concebido la combinación de un análisis científico con un enfoque participativo en la cuenca de Ammán-Zarga como un prototipo de gestión de las aguas subterráneas que puede ser aplicado a la gestión de otras cuencas en Jordania. También sería útil en otros lugares del mundo que estén experimentando problemas similares de sobreexplotación de los recursos hídricos subterráneos.

  20. Sounding of Groundwater Through Conductive Media in Mars Analog Environments Using Transient Electromagnetics and Low Frequency GPR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.; Heggy, E.

    2004-05-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study compares the use of (diffusive) Transient Electromagnetics (TEM) for sounding of subsurface water in conductive Mars analog environments to the use of (propagative) Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) for the same purpose. We show data from three field studies: 1) Radar sounding data (GPR) from the Nubian aquifer, Bahria Oasis, Egypt; 2) Diffusive sounding data (TEM) from Pima County, Arizona; and 3) Shallower sounding data using the Fast-Turnoff TEM method from Peña de Hierro in the Rio Tinto area, Spain. The latter is data from work conducted under the auspices of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). POTENTIAL OF TEM: A TEM survey was carried out in Pima County, Arizona, in January 2003. Data was collected using 100 m Tx loops, a ferrite-cored magnetic coil Rx antenna, and a sounding frequency of 16 Hz. The dataset has ~500 m depth of investigation, shows a ~120 m depth to the water table (confirmed by several USGS test wells in the area), and a conductive (~20-40 Ω m) clay-rich soil above the water table. The Rio Tinto Fast-Turnoff TEM data was collected using 40 m Tx loops, 10 m Rx loops, and a 32 Hz sounding frequency. Note ~200 m depth of investigation and a conductive high at ~80 m depth (interpreted as water table). Data was also collected using 20 m Tx loops (10 m Rx loops) in other parts of the area. Note ~50 m depth of investigation and a conductive high at ~15 m depth (interpreted as subsurface water flow under mine tailings matching surface flows seen coming out from under the tailings, and shown on maps). Both of these interpretations were roughly confirmed by preliminary results from the MARTE ground truth drilling campaign carried out in September and October 2003. POTENTIAL OF GPR: A GPR experiment was carried out in February 2003 in the Bahria Oasis in the western Egyptian desert, using a 2 MHz monostatic GPR, mapping the Nubian Aquifer at depths of 100-900 m, beneath a thick layer of homogenous marine

  1. Stability analysis of Western flank of Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma) using numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bru, Guadalupe; Gonzalez, Pablo J.; Fernandez-Merodo, Jose A.; Fernandez, Jose

    2016-04-01

    assessment. Carracedo, J.C, Badiola, E.R., Guillou, H., de La Nuez J., Pérez Torrado F.J., (2001) Geology and volcanology of La Palma and El Hierro, Western Canaries, Estud. Geol. 57 175- 273. Day S.J., J.C. Carracedo, H. Guillou, P. Gravestock, Recent structural evolution of the Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands: volcanic rift zone reconfiguration as a precursor to volcano flank instability? J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 94 (1999) 135- 167. González, P. J., Tiampo, K. F., Camacho, A. G., & Fernández, J. (2010). Shallow flank deformation at Cumbre Vieja volcano (Canary Islands): Implications on the stability of steep-sided volcano flanks at oceanic islands. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 297(3), 545-557. Moss, J.L., McGuire, W.J., Page, D. (1999). Gruound deformation monitoring of a potential landslide al La Palma, Canary Islands. Prieto, J.F., Gonzalez, P.J.,Seco, A., Rodriguez-Velasco, G., Tunini,L., Perlock, P.A., Arjona, A., Aparicio, A., Camacho, A.G., Rundle, J.B., Tiampo, K.F., Pallero, J.L.G., Pospiech, S., Fernandez, J., 2009. Geodetic and structural research in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, Spain: 1992 - 2007 results. Pure Appl. Geophys. 66, 1461 - 1484. doi:10.1007/s00024-009-0505-2 Urgeles R., D.G. Masson, M. Canals, A.B. Watts, T. Le Bas, Recurrent large-scale landsliding on the west flank of La Palma, Canary Islands, J. Geophys. Res. 104 (B11) (1999) 25331-25348.

  2. "Canary Islands, a volcanic window in the Atlantic Ocean": a 7 year effort of public awareness on volcano hazards and risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Hernández, Pedro A.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar

    2016-04-01

    "Canary Islands: A volcanic window in the Atlantic Ocean" is an educational program born from the need to inform and educate citizens residing in the Canary Islands on the various hazards associated to volcanic phenomena. The Canary Islands is the only territory of Spain that hosts active volcanism, as is shown by the 16 historical eruptions that have occurred throughout this territory, being the last one a submarine eruption taking place on October 12, 2011, offshore El Hierro Island. In the last 7 years, ITER as well as INVOLCAN have been performing an educative program focused on educating to the population about the benefits of a volcanic territory, volcanic hazards, how to reduce volcanic risk and the management of volcanic risk in the Canary Islands. "Canary Islands: A volcanic window in the Atlantic Ocean" consists of three units, the first two dedicated to the IAVCEI/UNESCO videos "Understanding Volcanic Hazards" and "Reducing Volcanic Risk" and the third one dedicated to the management of volcanic risk in the Canary Islands, as well as some other aspects of the volcanic phenomena. Generally the three units are shown consecutively on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. This educative program has been roaming all around the 88 municipalities of the archipelago since this initiative started in 2008. The total number of attendees since then amounts to 18,911 people. The increase of assistance was constant until 2011, with annual percentages of 7.8, 17.1 and 20.9 respectively, regarding to ratio assistant/municipality. Despite the heterogeneity of the audience, the main audience is related to aged people of 45 years and older. This could be related to the memories of the recent eruptions occurred at La Palma Island in 1949 and 1971. It is important to point out that many of those people attending the educative program are representatives of local government (i.e. civil protection). Regarding the interest of the audience, the educational program attendees have

  3. Geochemical evidence of multistage retrogressive failure during the 160,000ka Icod landslide from turbidite facies analysis: multidisciplinary investigative approaches using destructive and non-destructive methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, James; Wynn, Russell; Masson, Doug; Croudace, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The study of modern deep-sea systems through targeted piston coring has enabled detailed investigations into the process mechanics of turbidity currents. In complex systems such as the Moroccan Turbidite System the derivation of provenance is of vital importance, since flows from different sources in this system have been found to behave differently. Early provenance studies in the Madeira Abyssal Plain found that bulk sand-fraction geochemical analysis through ICP-AES could enable successful attribution of provenance to specific turbidites alongside electron microprobe analysis (de Lange, Jarvis & Kuijpers, 1987; Pearce & Jarvis, 1992). These sources including the Moroccan siliclastic shelf, Tenerife, Las Palma, El Hierro and Madeira. ICP-AES, MC-ICP-MS and XRF have been utilised here, however these present destructive methodologies, using 0.1-5g of material >63µm. Deep-sea piston cores are also expensive to collect, and often there is not enough material to remove for analysis without compromising the core. Furthermore, routine sampling, preparation and analysis using the destructive methods stated above are undertaken at considerable cost and analytical time. The successful use of non-destructive instruments to yield quantitative geochemical has become paramount at the NOC. This presentation serves to show the successful application of the TM-1000 tabletop SEM EDS analyser, ITRAX micro-XRF analyser and the GEOTEK XYZ logger, in coincidence with traditional destructive methods. These instruments can only supply semi-quantitative data, unless correct calibration can be achieved, and will be shown here. The 160,000ka Icod landslide from Tenerife generated a 150km3 debris avalanche with a runout of 105km and a >180km3 turbidity, which will form the case study for application of these instruments. The vertically stacked subunit facies of the Icod turbidite has been attributed to generation from a multistage retrogressive failure (Wynn & Masson, 2003). Here there

  4. Oceanography Information System of Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, Olvido; Gómez, María; González, Sonsoles

    2016-04-01

    Since 1914, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) performs multidisciplinary studies of the marine environment. In same case are systematic studies and in others are specific studies for special requirements (El Hierro submarine volcanic episode, spill Prestige, others.). Different methodologies and data acquisition techniques are used depending on studies aims. The acquired data are stored and presented in different formats. The information is organized into different databases according to the subject and the variables represented (geology, fisheries, aquaculture, pollution, habitats, etc.). Related to physical and chemical oceanography data, in 1964 was created the DATA CENTER of IEO (CEDO), in order to organize the data about physical and chemical variables, to standardize this information and to serve the international data network SeaDataNet. www.seadatanet.org. This database integrates data about temperature, salinity, nutrients, and tidal data. CEDO allows consult and download the data. http://indamar.ieo.es On the other hand, related to data about marine species in 1999 was developed SIRENO DATABASE. All data about species collected in oceanographic surveys carried out by researches of IEO, and data from observers on fishing vessels are incorporated in SIRENO database. In this database is stored catch data, biomass, abundance, etc. This system is based on architecture ORACLE. Due to the large amount of information collected over the 100 years of IEO history, there is a clear need to organize, standardize, integrate and relate the different databases and information, and to provide interoperability and access to the information. Consequently, in 2000 it emerged the first initiative to organize the IEO spatial information in an Oceanography Information System, based on a Geographical Information System (GIS). The GIS was consolidated as IEO institutional GIS and was created the Spatial Data Infrastructure of IEO (IDEO) following trend of INSPIRE. All

  5. VarPy: A python library for volcanology and rock physics data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filgueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcom; Bell, Andrew; Snelling, Brawen; Main, Ian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of digital instrumentation in volcanology and rock physics is leading to a wealth of data, which in turn is increasing the need for computational analyses and models. Today, these are largely developed by each individual or researcher. The introduction of a shared library that can be used for this purpose has several benefits: 1. when an existing function in the library meets a need recognised by a researcher it is usually much less effort than developing ones own code; 2. once functions are established and multiply used they become better tested, more reliable and eventually trusted by the community; 3. use of the same functions by different researchers makes it easier to compare results and to compare the skill of rival analysis and modelling methods; and 4. in the longer term the cost of maintaining these functions is shared over a wide community and they therefore have greater duration. Python is a high-level interpreted programming language, with capabilities for object-oriented programming. Often scientists choose this language to program their programs because of the increased productivity it provides. Although, there are many software tools available for interactive data analysis and development, there are not libraries designed specifically for volcanology and rock physics data. Therefore, we propose a new Python open-source toolbox called "VarPy" to facilitate rapid application development for rock physicists and volcanologists, which allow users to define their own workflows to develop models, analyses and visualisations. This proposal is triggered by our work on data assimilation in the NERC EFFORT (Earthquake and Failure Forecasting in Real Time) project, using data provided by the NERC CREEP 2 experimental project and volcanic experiments from INVG observatory Etna and IGN observatory Hierro as a test cases. In EFFORT project we are developing a scientist gateway which offers services for collecting and sharing volcanology

  6. La Mancha Negra: Substance Abuse, Violence, and Sexual Risks Among Hispanic Males

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Ortega, Johis; Vasquez, Elias P.; De Santis, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Although the relationship between these conditions has been documented in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these health problems and their culture-related risk factors in an integrative manner. The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences that Hispanic heterosexual males in South Florida have with substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Three focus groups with a total of 25 Hispanic adult men are completed and analyzed using grounded theory. Three core categories emerge from the data. These include la cuna de problemas sociales (the cradle of social problems), ramas de una sola mata (branches from one same tree), and la mancha negra (the black stain). This study suggests that substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors are linked conditions with common cultural and socioenvironmental risk factors and consequences. PMID:19915207

  7. Binarias en cúmulos abiertos: ?`Qué hay de nuevo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.

    Las herramientas modernas para detectar duplicidad han jugado un papel fundamental en el resurgimiento del estudio de la binaridad en cúmulos abiertos. El fracaso de las teorías de bifurcación para explicar la formación de estrellas dobles ha puesto en consideración los encuentros de estrellas en cúmulos para formar binarias. Existen muchas pruebas empíricas que pueden realizarse para verificar las creencias actuales. En esta revisión del tema se hace un breve resumen de la historia del problema y se analiza el conocimiento actual. Se proponen las investigaciones y programas que darían lugar a la comprobación de las predicciones que surgen de considerar que las binarias en cúmulos se forman por encuentros.

  8. La mancha negra: substance abuse, violence, and sexual risks among Hispanic males.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Ortega, Johis; Vasquez, Elias P; De Santis, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Although the relationship between these conditions has been documented in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these health problems and their culture-related risk factors in an integrative manner. The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences that Hispanic heterosexual males in South Florida have with substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Three focus groups with a total of 25 Hispanic adult men are completed and analyzed using grounded theory. Three core categories emerge from the data. These include la cuna de problemas sociales (the cradle of social problems), ramas de una sola mata (branches from one same tree), and la mancha negra (the black stain). This study suggests that substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors are linked conditions with common cultural and socioenvironmental risk factors and consequences. PMID:19915207

  9. The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength sensitive cones derived from thresholds and color matches.

    PubMed

    Stockman, A; Sharpe, L T; Fach, C

    1999-08-01

    We used two methods to estimate short-wave (S) cone spectral sensitivity. Firstly, we measured S-cone thresholds centrally and peripherally in five trichromats, and in three blue-cone monochromats, who lack functioning middle-wave (M) and long-wave (L) cones. Secondly, we analyzed standard color-matching data. Both methods yielded equivalent results, on the basis of which we propose new S-cone spectral sensitivity functions. At short and middle-wavelengths, our measurements are consistent with the color matching data of Stiles and Burch (1955, Optica Acta, 2, 168-181; 1959, Optica Acta, 6, 1-26), and other psychophysically measured functions, such as pi 3 (Stiles, 1953, Coloquio sobre problemas opticos de la vision, 1, 65-103). At longer wavelengths, S-cone sensitivity has previously been over-estimated. PMID:10492818

  10. Four Classical Methods for Determining Planetary Elliptic Elements: A Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celletti, Alessandra; Pinzari, Gabriella

    2005-09-01

    The discovery of the asteroid Ceres by Piazzi in 1801 motivated the development of a mathematical technique proposed by Gauss, (Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Moving about the Sun in Conic Sections, 1963) which allows to recover the orbit of a celestial body starting from a minimum of three observations. Here we compare the method proposed by Gauss (Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Moving about the Sun in Conic Sections, New York, 1963) with the techniques (based on three observations) developed by Laplace (Collected Works 10, 93 146, 1780) and by Mossotti (Memoria Postuma, 1866). We also consider another method developed by Mossotti (Nuova analisi del problema di determinare le orbite dei corpi celesti, 1816 1818), based on four observations. We provide a theoretical and numerical comparison among the different procedures. As an application, we consider the computation of the orbit of the asteroid Juno.

  11. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Burgos, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    La desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) es un problema sanitario de elevada índole que impacta fuertemente en la morbilidad, mortalidad y calidad de vida de los pacientes ancianos ingresados en el hospital. Además, incrementa enormemente el gasto sanitario, sobre todo a través del aumento de la estancia hospitalaria, incremento de las complicaciones y necesidad de centro de convalecencia u otros recursos sanitarios al alta hospitalaria. Conjuntamente con la osteoporosis y la sarcopenia, contribuye de forma directa a la discapacidad y a la pérdida de autonomía del anciano, con las repercusiones familiares y sociales que ello implica. PMID:27238773

  12. Regiones de formación de la línea de He II λ 1640 en una atmósfera en expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, R.; Cidale, L.; Ringuelet, A.

    Se calculan perfiles de la línea del He II λ1640 empleando un modelo de atmósfera en expansión con una estructura cromosférica para determinar la región de formación de la línea. El problema se trata en geometría esférica, fuera de equilibrio termodinámico. La ecuación de transporte radiativo se resuelve rigurosamente en el marco de referencia del fluído para distintas leyes de velocidad, monótonamente crecientes, y diferentes leyes de temperatura. Se buscan relaciones globales entre las características del perfil y los parámetros físicos atribuídos a la atmósfera estelar, con la finalidad de definir una herramienta de diagnóstico de las propiedades del medio.

  13. Slime mold uses an externalized spatial "memory" to navigate in complex environments.

    PubMed

    Reid, Chris R; Latty, Tanya; Dussutour, Audrey; Beekman, Madeleine

    2012-10-23

    Spatial memory enhances an organism's navigational ability. Memory typically resides within the brain, but what if an organism has no brain? We show that the brainless slime mold Physarum polycephalum constructs a form of spatial memory by avoiding areas it has previously explored. This mechanism allows the slime mold to solve the U-shaped trap problem--a classic test of autonomous navigational ability commonly used in robotics--requiring the slime mold to reach a chemoattractive goal behind a U-shaped barrier. Drawn into the trap, the organism must rely on other methods than gradient-following to escape and reach the goal. Our data show that spatial memory enhances the organism's ability to navigate in complex environments. We provide a unique demonstration of a spatial memory system in a nonneuronal organism, supporting the theory that an externalized spatial memory may be the functional precursor to the internal memory of higher organisms. PMID:23045640

  14. Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

    Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

  15. [Personal self-regulation and perceived maladjusted school behaviors].

    PubMed

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Peralta Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Roda, M Dolores

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to confirm the extent to which subjects' ability to self-regulate, during mid-adolescence, influences their perception of maladjustment problems. The sample comprised 888 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. The study followed an inferential methodology, using two instruments, a Spanish version of the Personal Self-regulation Questionnaire (2003, 2007) and the Cuestionario de Problemas de Desadaptación Escolar [Questionnaire for the Assessment of School Maladjustment Problems] (2007) to measure the variables of interest. Results from the inferential analyses (ANOVAS) suggest that the degree of personal self-regulation is interdependent with respect to perceived maladjustment and relational problems at school. Results and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:19861097

  16. Environmental restoration and waste management: An introduction. Student edition; Restauracion ambiental y administracion de residuos nucleares: Introduccion; Edicion estudiantil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    For more than 40 years, the United States has produced nuclear weapons. These production activities generated both radioactive and hazardous waste and often contaminated the environment. For many years, the public was unaware of the problem and unable to do anything about it. All of this has changed. In response to recent public outcry, the former Secretary of Energy, Retired Admiral James D. Watkins, established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The creation of EM was the first step toward correcting contamination problems from the past 40 years In this booklet, we at DOE, through the efforts of the students at Oak Hills High School of Cincinnati, Ohio, will introduce you to EM and encourage your involvement in this major program within the Department of Energy. [Espanol] Durante mas de 40 anos, los Estados Unidos fabricaron armamentos nucleares. Esta produccion genero residuos radiactivos y peligrosos y, en muchos casos, contaminaron el medio ambiente. Durante mucho tiempo, el publico norteamericano no tenia conocimiento de este problema y no pudo hacer nada para solucionarlo. Todo esto ha cambiado. Respondiendo a crecientes protestas publicas, el ex Secretario de Energia Almirante James D. Watkins, establecio en noviembre de 1989 la Subsecretaria de Administracion Ambiental. La creacion de esta Subsecretaria fue el primer paso que dio el Departamento de Energia para corregir los problemas de contaminacion ambiental de los ultimos 40 anos. En esta publicacion, los que trabajamos en el Departamento de Energia con la ayuda de los estudiantes de la Escuela Secundaria de Oak Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, te introduciermos a la administracion ambiental y alentamos tu participacion en este programa de fundamental importancia en el Departamento de Energia.

  17. PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  18. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  19. Múltiples estados de desorden en el etanol sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, R.

    El diagrama de fases del etanol por debajo de los 169 K será presentado. Se mostrará que el etanol puede solidificarse en tres fases con diversos niveles de desorden,(como un vidrio(G), como un vidrio orientacional (OG) y como un cristal de fase rotora (RP)) además de en una fase totalmente cristalina. Las estructuras de estas tres fases serán presentadas tal y como se deducen a partir de diversas medidas de difracción de neutrones al igual que las proporciones de los isómeros de dicho material en las fases desordenadas y se compararán con los resultados de la fase cristalina y del líquido superenfriado. Igualmente diversas medidas sobre su dinámica serán presentadas, tanto de dispersión de neutrones, como de capacidad calorífica y de medidas dieléctricas y comparadas con modelos teóricos y simulaciones para tratar de explicar los procesos de relajación observados y las transiciones entre las diversas fases.

  20. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a