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Origin of blood ethanol in decomposed bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems related to blood contamination by other postmortem fluids in decomposed bodies (DB) make the interpretation of medicolegal blood alcohol levels (B EtOH) a very difficult task. So the aim of this paper is to show the utilization of vitreous humor (VH) as the biological fluid for an unequivocal determination of ethanol origin in DB for forensic purposes. Alcohol was

Irene Videira de Lima; Antonio F. Midio



Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with ethanol intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique in 26 healthy volunteers before and 60 minutes after the oral administration of ethyl alcohol or placebo on a double-blind basis. The cerebral blood flow values, corrected for test-retest differences in carbon dioxide showed a significant bilateral increase after ethanol administration. Blood levels of ethanol, estimated with a breath analyser, did not correlate with the CBF changes.

Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.



Effects of ethanol on red blood cell rheological behavior.  


Consumption of red wine is associated with a decreased risk of several cardiovascular diseases (e.g., coronary artery disease, stroke), but unfortunately literature reports regarding ethanol's effects on hemorheological parameters are not concordant. In the present study, red blood cell (RBC) deformability was tested via laser ektacytometry (LORCA, 0.3-30 Pa) using two approaches: 1) addition of ethanol to whole blood at 0.25%-2% followed by incubation and testing in ethanol-free LORCA medium; 2) addition of ethanol to the LORCA medium at 0.25%-6% then testing untreated native RBC in these media. The effects of ethanol on deformability for oxidatively stressed RBC were investigated as were changes of RBC aggregation (Myrenne Aggregometer) for cells in autologous plasma or 3% 70 kDa dextran. Significant dose-related increases of RBC deformability were observed at 0.25% (p < 0.05) and higher concentrations only if ethanol was in the LORCA medium; no changes occurred for cells previously incubated with ethanol then tested in ethanol-free medium. The impaired deformability of cells pre-exposed to oxidative stress was improved only if ethanol was in the LORCA medium. RBC aggregation decreased with concentration at 0.25% and higher for cells in both autologous plasma and dextran 70. Our results indicate that ethanol reversibly improves erythrocyte deformability and irreversibly decreases erythrocyte aggregation; the relevance of these results to the health benefits of moderate wine consumption require further investigation. PMID:23089886

Rabai, M; Detterich, J A; Wenby, R B; Toth, K; Meiselman, H J



Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)  


... they think about their blood pressure. Understanding Blood Pressure Every person needs blood pressure to live. Without ... women get this condition. How Does High Blood Pressure Affect the Body? High blood pressure adds to ...


Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines  

SciTech Connect

Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

Szybist, J.; Confer, K. (Delphi Automotive Systems)



High Blood Pressure  


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High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  


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High Blood Cholesterol  


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High blood pressure - infants  


... these numbers can be too high. Several factors affect blood pressure, including: Hormones The health of the heart and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or heart disease ...


High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  


... and Diabetes Heart Health for Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Print and Share (PDF 109 KB) En ... Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...


Living with High Blood Pressure  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure (HBP), you' ... Have High Blood Pressure Web page. High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy Many pregnant women who have HBP ...


High Blood Cholesterol  


... your blood, the greater your chances of getting heart disease. What Does HDL Cholesterol Do? High-density lipoproteins (HDL) carry cholesterol away ... cholesterol level, the lower your chances of getting heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your ...


High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

M. Clark Dale



Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)  

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High blood sugar  


High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...


High Blood Cholesterol Prevention  


... About . Cholesterol Share Compartir High Blood Cholesterol Prevention What You Can Do Guidelines and Recommendations ... 800-CDC-INFO Fax: 770-488–8151 Email Cholesterol Home About Cholesterol LDL and HDL Signs and ...


Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure  


... Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood against ... doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But there ...


High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy  


What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries. A person's blood ... disease. What Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high ...


High Blood Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside: High Blood PressureThis booklet explains what health professionals know about high blood pressure or hypertension, one of the leading causes of heart disease and stroke. It shows how to prevent high blood pressure, as well as how to care for yourself if you have been diagnosed with the disease. The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... blood pressure tests and other chronic disease screening. Web Sites with More Information About High Blood Pressure ...


What Is High Blood Pressure?  


What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Sep 4,2014 High blood pressure, also known as HBP or hypertension, is a widely misunderstood medical ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...


High Blood Pressure and Women  


High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people mistakenly believe that high blood pressure, also called HBP or ... last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...


What Causes High Blood Pressure?  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure tends to rise with age, unless ... This Content: Next >> Featured Video Myth-busting blood pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World ...


High Blood Pressure  


Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart ... it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the ...


Controlling your high blood pressure  


Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure, kidney disease, and early death. You are more likely to have high ...


Crystallization and vitrification of ethanol at high pressures.  


We present the high pressure (up to 3 GPa) dielectric spectroscopy study of ethanol in supercooled liquid and solid states. It was found that ethanol can be obtained in the glassy form by relatively slow cooling in the pressure range below 1.5 GPa. Glassy dynamics of ethanol is dominated by hydrogen bonds which cause rise of fragility index with pressure rising and relatively slow increase of glassification temperature. The termination of ethanol galssification at 1.5 GPa is related to the phase transition of ethanol in this pressure range to the disordered crystal structure which allows easy crystallization of ethanol at high pressures. Dielectric spectroscopy of solid phases of ethanol reveals the presence of molecular motion in both of them in the temperature range close to the melting curve but demonstrates different molecular dynamics in the two solid phases of ethanol. PMID:25416895

Kondrin, M V; Pronin, A A; Brazhkin, V V



Gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva and blood after oral ingestion.  


The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva and blood according to gender and to evaluate the determination of ethanol in saliva for evidential sobriety testing. Twenty-four persons, 12 men and 12 women, took part in the experiments. The subjects received ethanol, as neat 40% v/v vodka, in the amount which should lead according to Widmark formula to the blood alcohol concentration equal to 1.0 g/l. Duplicate samples of an unstimulated mixed saliva secretion and venous blood were taken at 15 min intervals timing from the end of consumption, and ethanol concentrations in both specimens were determined by means of gas chromatography. The pharmacokinetic calculations were done using first-order absorption and Michaelis-Menten or zero order elimination models. In most cases ethanol reached higher maximal concentration in saliva than in venous blood, and was faster eliminated from saliva. The significant gender differences in the time-concentration profiles were observed. The maximal ethanol concentrations, both in blood and saliva, were lower in women compared to men. In females, ethanol was faster excreted from the body. Both experimental (Cmax) and extrapolated to zero time (C0) maximum ethanol concentrations were lower in females. The apparent volumes of distribution after oral dose for saliva and blood were very close and did not differ statistically. The study shows that the same factor equivalent to volume of distribution should be used in back calculation of alcohol concentration, and saliva alcohol analysis can be treated as independent method to test sobriety. PMID:14581724

Guba?a, Wojciech; Zuba, Dariusz




E-print Network

The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva and blood according to gender and to evaluate the determination of ethanol in saliva for evidential sobriety testing. Twenty-four persons, 12 men and 12 women, took part in the experiments. The subjects received ethanol, as neat 40 % v/v vodka, in the amount which should lead according to Widmark formula to the blood alcohol concentration equal to 1.0 g/l. Duplicate samples of an unstimulated mixed saliva secretion and venous blood were taken at 15 min intervals timing from the end of consumption, and ethanol concentrations in both specimens were determined by means of gas chromatography. The pharmacokinetic calculations were done using first-order absorption and Michaelis-Menten or zero order elimination models. In most cases ethanol reached higher maximal concentration in saliva than in venous blood, and was faster eliminated from saliva. The significant gender differences in the time-concentration profiles were observed. The maximal ethanol concentrations, both in blood and saliva, were lower in women compared to men. In females, ethanol was faster excreted from the body. Both experimental (C max) and extrapolated to zero time (C 0) maximum ethanol concentrations were lower in females. The apparent volumes of distribution after oral dose for saliva and blood were very close and did not differ statistically. The study shows that the same factor equivalent to volume of distribution should be used in back calculation of alcohol concentration, and saliva alcohol analysis can be treated as independent method to test sobriety.

Pol J. Pharmacol; Dariusz Zuba


Pregnancy and High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... right-hand corner of the player. Pregnancy and High Blood Pressure HealthDay January 29, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Transcript Does keeping tight control of ...


Stroke and High Blood Pressure  


Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading cause of death and severe, long-term disability. Since managing high blood pressure, also called HBP or hypertension, is the most ...


High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy  


... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...


High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  


Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.



Optimization and fundamentals of high-yield pulping with ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-yield pulping process based on ethanol pretreatment and steam cooking was studied. The effect of processing conditions (cooking temperature at six levels and ethanol concentration at five levels) was determined. Optimum results appeared at 30% ethanol concentration and with cooking at 195 °C. The cooking liquor was analyzed by GC-MS and low-molecular lignin fragments were identified. Alcohol in

Jan Bendzala; Bohuslav V. Kokta



Deconvolving an estimate of breath measured blood alcohol concentration from biosensor collected transdermal ethanol data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol concentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or

M. A. Dumett; I. G. Rosen; J. Sabat; A. Shaman; L. Tempelman; C. Wang; R. M. Swift



Microarray characterization of gene expression changes in blood during acute ethanol exposure  

PubMed Central

Background As part of the civil aviation safety program to define the adverse effects of ethanol on flying performance, we performed a DNA microarray analysis of human whole blood samples from a five-time point study of subjects administered ethanol orally, followed by breathalyzer analysis, to monitor blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to discover significant gene expression changes in response to the ethanol exposure. Methods Subjects were administered either orange juice or orange juice with ethanol. Blood samples were taken based on BAC and total RNA was isolated from PaxGene™ blood tubes. The amplified cDNA was used in microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses to evaluate differential gene expression. Microarray data was analyzed in a pipeline fashion to summarize and normalize and the results evaluated for relative expression across time points with multiple methods. Candidate genes showing distinctive expression patterns in response to ethanol were clustered by pattern and further analyzed for related function, pathway membership and common transcription factor binding within and across clusters. RT-qPCR was used with representative genes to confirm relative transcript levels across time to those detected in microarrays. Results Microarray analysis of samples representing 0%, 0.04%, 0.08%, return to 0.04%, and 0.02% wt/vol BAC showed that changes in gene expression could be detected across the time course. The expression changes were verified by qRT-PCR. The candidate genes of interest (GOI) identified from the microarray analysis and clustered by expression pattern across the five BAC points showed seven coordinately expressed groups. Analysis showed function-based networks, shared transcription factor binding sites and signaling pathways for members of the clusters. These include hematological functions, innate immunity and inflammation functions, metabolic functions expected of ethanol metabolism, and pancreatic and hepatic function. Five of the seven clusters showed links to the p38 MAPK pathway. Conclusions The results of this study provide a first look at changing gene expression patterns in human blood during an acute rise in blood ethanol concentration and its depletion because of metabolism and excretion, and demonstrate that it is possible to detect changes in gene expression using total RNA isolated from whole blood. The analysis approach for this study serves as a workflow to investigate the biology linked to expression changes across a time course and from these changes, to identify target genes that could serve as biomarkers linked to pilot performance. PMID:23883607



High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)  


... the levels of several hormones. When blood calcium levels are low, your parathyroid glands (four pea-sized glands in your neck) secrete a hormone called parathyroid hormone (Pth). Pth helps your bones ... also important in keeping calcium levels in the normal range. Vitamin D, which is ...


How Is High Blood Pressure Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... are here Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » How Is High Blood Pressure Diagnosed? Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical ...


Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure  


... Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...


How Can High Blood Pressure Be Prevented?  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can High Blood Pressure Be Prevented? If You Have Normal Blood Pressure If you don't have high blood pressure ( ... Blood Pressure Treated?" If You Have High Blood Pressure If you have HBP, you can still take ...


Comparison of ethanol concentrations in venous blood and end-expired breath during a controlled drinking study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration–time profiles of ethanol were determined for venous whole blood and end-expired breath during a controlled drinking experiment in which healthy men (n=9) and women (n=9) drank 0.40–0.65g ethanol per kg body weight in 20–30min. Specimens of blood and breath were obtained for analysis of ethanol starting at 50–60min post-dosing and then every 30–60min for 3–6h. This protocol furnished 130

A. W Jones; L Andersson



Interaction of ethanol and microwaves on the blood-brain barrier of rats  

SciTech Connect

The combined effects of ethanol and microwaves on the permeation of Evans blue dye through the mammalian blood-brain barrier was studied in male Wistar rats. Anesthetized rats were infused through a cannula in the left femoral vein with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 or 0.7 grams of absolute ethanol per kilogram of body mass. A control group was given 0.7 g/kg of isotonic saline. The left hemisphere of the brain was irradiated by 3.15-GHz microwave energy at 3.0 W/cm2 rms for 15 min. The rat's rectal temperature was maintained at 37.0 degrees C. Immediately after irradiation, 2% Evans blue dye in saline (2.0 ml/kg body mass) was injected through the cannula. The results show that as the quantity of alcohol was increased, the degree of staining was decreased or eliminated. The temperature of the irradiated area of the brain increased for the first 4 to 5 minutes of irradiation and then stabilized for the remainder of the irradiation period. The steady-state temperature was highest in animals receiving saline or the smallest dose of alcohol. As the quantity of alcohol was increased, the steady-state temperature was reduced. These results indicate that ethanol inhibits microwave-induced permeation of the blood-brain barrier through reduced heating of the brain.

Neilly, J.P.; Lin, J.C.



Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data.  


Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data. PMID:19255617

Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, Rm



National High Blood Pressure Education Program Prevention,  

E-print Network

National High Blood Pressure Education Program Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Complete Report U . S . D E Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National High Blood Pressure Education Program

Bandettini, Peter A.


Purification of ethanol for highly sensitive self-assembly experiments  

PubMed Central

Summary Ethanol is the preferred solvent for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolates on gold. By applying a thin film sensor system, we could demonstrate that even the best commercial qualities of ethanol contain surface-active contaminants, which can compete with the desired thiolates for surface sites. Here we present that gold nanoparticles deposited onto zeolite X can be used to remove these contaminants by chemisorption. This nanoparticle-impregnated zeolite does not only show high capacities for surface-active contaminants, such as thiols, but can be fully regenerated via a simple pyrolysis protocol. PMID:25161861

Barbe, Kathrin; Kind, Martin; Pfeiffer, Christian



Medications for High Blood Pressure  


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How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed?  


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High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You  


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More Americans Controlling Their High Blood Pressure  


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American Heart Month National High Blood  

E-print Network

FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National for Heart Health # P2-2 Risk Factors - High Blood Pressure # P2-3 Sodium is needed to. . . # P2-4 Sources Recommendations Handouts # Newsletter - Prevent High Blood Pressure - Vol. 1 No. 2 # Newsletter -¡Prevenga la alta


Highly selective ethanol In 2O 3-based gas sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitive composite material was prepared by loading Pt and La2O3 into ultrafine In2O3 matric material (8nm) synthesized by microemulsion method. A highly selective ethanol gas sensor was developed based on hot-wire type gas sensor, which was sintered in a bead (0.8mm in diameter) to cover a platinum wire coil (0.4mm in diameter). The gas sensor was operated by a

Zili Zhan; Jianwei Lu; Wenhui Song; Denggao Jiang; Jiaqiang Xu



Mate Tea Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Blood and Hippocampus of Rats with Acute or Chronic Ethanol Administration  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic intake of mate tea on the effects elicited by acute and chronic administration of ethanol. Methods. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus and blood of rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups, for both acute and chronic treatment: (1) control group, (2) treated group, (3) intoxicated group, (4) and intoxicated group treated with mate tea. Results. Both ethanol administrations significantly increased TBARS in plasma and hippocampus of rats and altered antioxidant enzyme activities, changes which were reverted by mate tea administration. Conclusions. Data indicate that acute and chronic ethanol administration induced oxidative stress in hippocampus and blood and that mate tea treatment was able to prevent this situation. PMID:22530075

Scolaro, Bianca; Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; da Cruz, José Geraldo Pereira; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora



DASH diet to lower high blood pressure  


... Stop Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ... The DASH diet reduces high blood pressure by lowering the amount of salt in your diet to 2,300 milligrams (mg) a day. Lowering salt to 1, ...



Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate the effect of an amino acid mixture given intravenously (i.v.) on the rate of ethanol elimination from blood compared with equicaloric glucose and Ringer's acetate as control treatments. Methods: In a randomized cross-over study, six healthy men (mean age 23 years) fasted overnight before receiving either Ringer's acetate, glucose or the amino acid mixture (Vamin 18 g




Apoptosis of blood mononuclear cells in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The influence of in vitro ethanol treatment and zinc supplementation.  


Ethanol consumption induces apoptosis in a variety of tissues, among others in liver and lymphoid tissue. Zinc has been shown to influence apoptosis of blood mononuclear cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial pathway of cell death. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of zinc on spontaneous and in vitro alcohol-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. PBMCs were isolated from the blood of 26 patients with cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls. PBMCs and among them CD4+ T helper cells of cirrhotic patients exhibited accelerated spontaneous (without treatment) apoptosis in vitro. When apoptosis was induced in vitro by treating cells with 80 mM ethanol, CD8+ T lymphocytes of a healthy control were more sensitive to ethanol treatment than those of cirrhotic patients. Thirty micromolar zinc supplementation inhibited both spontaneous and ethanol-induced apoptosis of immune cells derived from the blood of the healthy control and cirrhotic patients. In sera of patients with cirrhosis, an elevated level of IL-12, but also sFas (CD95) and sFas ligand (sFasL) was detected. Moreover, in vitro, PBMCs of cirrhotic patients spontaneously released more sFas and sFasL than control PBMCs. Ethanol treatment significantly increased sFas, but decreased sFasL release from PBMCs of cirrhotic patients, while it only slightly affected control cells. As zinc supplementation did not significantly influence sFas or sFasL release, it seems likely that it is rather the mitochondrial pathway of ethanol-related immune cell death that may be inhibited by zinc supplementation. PMID:15964121

Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Daniluk, Jadwiga; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka



Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy  


... mellitus , thrombophilia , or lupus • are obese • had in vitro fertilization What are the risks for my baby if ... red blood cells. Hypertension: High blood pressure. In Vitro Fertilization: A procedure in which an egg is removed ...


What Are the Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure?  


... Are the Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure (HBP) itself usually has no ... for related health problems. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...


Blood alcohol concentration for monitoring ethanol treatment to prevent alcohol withdrawal in the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a serious complication during postoperative treatment in chronic alcoholics. Despite prophylactic treatment, AWS occurs in at least 25% of these patients after elective surgery. An established protocol for the prevention of AWS is ethanol administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in ethanol dose and levels between successfully treated patients

Verena Eggers; Joke Tio; Tim Neumann; Fritz Pragst; Christian Müller; Lutz G. Schmidt; Wolfgang J. Kox; Claudia D. Spies



Know Your Blood Pressure Many people with diabetes also have high blood pressure.  

E-print Network

Know Your Blood Pressure Many people with diabetes also have high blood pressure. Blood pressure is to keep the second number 80 or less. If either number is too high, you have high blood pressure. The first number is the pressure when your heart pumps. #12; Most people have high blood pressure because


Experimental determination of suitable ethanol–gasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol produced from biomass has high octane number and gives lower emissions. Therefore, it is used as alternative fuel in the gasoline engines. In this study, ethanol was used as fuel at high compression ratio to improve performance and to reduce emissions in a small gasoline engine with low efficiency. Initially, the engine whose compression ratio was 6\\/1 was tested

M. Bahattin Celik



High Blood Pressure: The Science Inside  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This booklet is a resource to help individuals at risk to high blood pressure. Supported by Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) from the National Center for Research Resources Grant # 5R25RR15601

Healthy People Library Project



Effects of a single high dose of Chlorpyrifos in long-term feeding, ethanol consumption and ethanol preference in male Wistar rats with a previous history of continued ethanol drinking.  


Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate compound that is slowly delivered in the organism after subcutaneous injection, keeping acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity mildly inhibited for weeks. We have previously reported reduced voluntary ethanol drinking 8 weeks post-CPF administration in Wistar rats when AChE activity was almost completely recovered. Additionally, the OPs disrupt the functioning of certain neurochemical systems and modify the formation and/or degradation of some neuropeptides with a known role in regulating voluntary consumption of alcohol. Moreover, chronic ethanol intake significantly alters the regional expression of some of these neurochemical systems. Thus, the present study explored whether a previous history with ethanol consumption modify the disturbance in the voluntary ethanol consumption induced by CPF administration. For this aim, we measured ethanol consumption in increasing concentrations (8%, 15% and 20% w/v) from 4 days to 8 weeks following a single dose of CPF. Two experiments were carried out; experiment 1 was conducted in ethanol-naïve rats and experiment 2, in animals with a previous history of ethanol drinking before CPF administration. Additionally, food and body weight measures were collected. We report here a significant increase in ethanol consumption and preference at high ethanol concentrations (15% and 20%) in CPF-treated animals with a previous history of ethanol consumption (experiment 1) and a long-lasting increase in food intake both in ethanol-exposed (experiment 1) and ethanol-naïve CPF-treated rats (experiment 2). Present data are discussed under the interesting idea that CPF targets neurobiological pathways critically involved with ethanol consumption. Additionally, we conclude that CPF effects on voluntary ethanol consumption are ethanol-experience dependent. PMID:24849677

Carvajal, Francisca; Sanchez-Amate, Maria Del Carmen; Lerma-Cabrera, José Manuel; Cubero, Inmaculada



Over-the-Counter Medications and High Blood Pressure  


... all of our regular issues. Interactive High Blood Pressure Guide Find videos, quizzes, trackers and more with ... Also available as a downloadable PDF . High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...


Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani




EPA Science Inventory

This study was designed to assess the thermoregulatory mechanisms responsible for the elevation in body temperature following ethanol administration when exposed to a high ambient temperature (Ta). ale rats of the Fischer 344 strain were gavaged with 20% ethanol at doses of 0, 2....


Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Results Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. Conclusions In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall ethanol production yield. PMID:24401142



High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome  


... had twice the risk for high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome and diabetes than those who were highly fit. The risk ... they have to reduce their risk for the metabolic syndrome, heart disease, diabetes and stroke. This content was last reviewed on ...


“Jello® Shots” and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats  

PubMed Central

Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose); ethanol concentration (4% or 10%); and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib.) during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed. PMID:24284614

Dess, Nancy K.; Madkins, Chardonnay D.; Geary, Bree A.; Chapman, Clinton D.



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E-print Network

varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack asthma low blood pressure alzheimer's cancer diabetes kidney failure dementia smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack

Diggle, Peter J.


Who is at Risk for High Blood Pressure?  


... Twitter. Who Is at Risk for High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure (HBP) is a common condition. ... This Content: Next >> Featured Video Myth-busting blood pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World ...


Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes  


Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? ©2009 by ... having your blood pressure checked regularly. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow ...


Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure  

E-print Network

Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other at #12;Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Homes #12;Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure 1 Did you know that high blood pressure

Bandettini, Peter A.


Stress corrosion cracking of 316L austenitic stainless steel in high temperature ethanol/water environments.  

E-print Network

??There has been an increase in the production of bio-fuels. Organosolv delignification, high temperature ethanol/water environments, can be used to separate lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses… (more)

Gulbrandsen, Stephani



American Heart Month National High Blood  

E-print Network

FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National Cholesterol Education Month Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Heart Health Heart Health - Lesson 1 Contents: Lesson - Heart Health Power Point # P1-1 Eat Smart for Heart


Metabolic engineering of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius for high yield ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the metabolic engineering of two strains of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius to divert their fermentative carbon flux from a mixed acid pathway, to one in which ethanol becomes the major product. This involved elimination of the lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase pathways by disruption of the ldh and pflB genes, respectively, together with upregulation of expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase.

R. E. Cripps; K. Eley; D. J. Leak; B. Rudd; M. Taylor; M. Todd; S. Boakes; S. Martin; T. Atkinson



Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))



Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

Kumar, V.; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C. D.; Khanna, Geetika



Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats.  


Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

Kumar, V; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, Geetika



Inhibition of Rat Muscle and Liver Phosphofructokinases by High Doses of Ethanol  

PubMed Central

Activities of both rat muscle and liver phosphofructokinases are significantly inhibited after a single ethanol intake in the dose of 2.5?g per kg of body weight. This inhibitory effect is indirect, since ethanol in concentration (50?mM) close to that established after 2.5?g per kg of body weight intake cannot decrease their activities in vitro. Inhibition of liver phosphofructokinase activity after the 5.0?g per kg ethanol intake may be direct, since liver phosphofructokinase activity decreases in vitro when ethanol is added to supernatants of rat liver tissue in 100?mM concentration. According to the results of molecular docking, ethanol at high concentrations can be bound by adenine-binding pocket of the allosteric ADP-binding site of liver phosphofructokinase (Asp543, Phe308, Phe538, and Phe671) and its activation by ADP can be blocked by C2H5OH molecule. Direct inhibition of muscle phosphofructokinase activity, probably due to the binding of ethanol to the similar ADP-binding site, is possible when the concentration of ethanol (500?mM) is much higher than the level which can be established in living cells. So, inhibition of muscle phosphofructokinase activity after a single 5.0?g per kg intake is indirect and probably linked with the inhibition of the enzyme by elevated citrate and phosphoenolpyruvate levels. PMID:24324886

Lelevich, Sergey Vladimirovich; Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich; Barkovsky, Eugene Victorovich



Aeration strategy: a need for very high ethanol performance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify an optimal aeration strategy for intensifying bio-fuel ethanol production in fermentation processes where growth and production have to be managed simultaneously, we quantified the effect of aeration conditions—oxygen limited vs non limited culture (micro-aerobic vs aerobic culture)—on the dynamic behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in very high ethanol performance fed-batch cultures. Fermentation parameters and kinetics were

S. Alfenore; X. Cameleyre; L. Benbadis; C. Bideaux; J.-L. Uribelarrea; G. Goma; C. Molina-Jouve; S. E. Guillouet



Aeration strategy: a need for very high ethanol performance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch process.  


In order to identify an optimal aeration strategy for intensifying bio-fuel ethanol production in fermentation processes where growth and production have to be managed simultaneously, we quantified the effect of aeration conditions--oxygen limited vs non limited culture (micro-aerobic vs aerobic culture)--on the dynamic behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in very high ethanol performance fed-batch cultures. Fermentation parameters and kinetics were established within a range of ethanol concentrations (up to 147 g l(-1)), which very few studies have addressed. Higher ethanol titres (147 vs 131 g l(-1) in 45 h) and average productivity (3.3 vs 2.6 g l(-1) h(-1)) were obtained in cultures without oxygen limitation. Compared to micro-aerobic culture, full aeration led to a 23% increase in the viable cell mass as a result of the concomitant increase in growth rate and yield, with lower ethanol inhibition. The second beneficial effect of aeration was better management of by-product production, with production of glycerol, the main by-product, being strongly reduced from 12 to 4 g l(-1). We demonstrate that aeration strategy is as much a determining factor as vitamin feeding (Alfenore et al. 2002) in very high ethanol performance (147 g l(-1) in 45 h) in order to achieve a highly competitive dynamic process. PMID:12879304

Alfenore, S; Cameleyre, X; Benbadis, L; Bideaux, C; Uribelarrea, J-L; Goma, G; Molina-Jouve, C; Guillouet, S E



CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol  


... . Vital Signs Share Compartir High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control February 2011 39 ... High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National ...


Insulinemia: relation with obesity and high blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood insulin levels in obese subjects with high blood pressure (BP) are higher than normal and are associated with changes in fats metabolism. Subjects with high blood pressure show primary insulin resistance and their blood insulin values show variations according to the severity of hypertension.Forty subjects aged between 20 and 45 years were selected by means of inquiry to detect

Vera R. Omaira; Juan R. Carballo; Elinor Flores; Miguel Espinoza; Freddy Contreras; Julio Cabrera; Manuel Velasco



High Blood Pressure: Using an Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor  


... can be worn under your clothes without anyone seeing it. The picture to the right shows a person wearing an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. This machine records and lets your doctor find out what ...


Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow: Role of acetate and A sub 1 - and A sub 2 -adenosine receptors  

SciTech Connect

The increase in portal blood flow induced by ethanol appears to be adenosine mediated. Acetate, which is released by the liver during ethanol metabolism, is known to increase adenosine levels in tissues and in blood. The effects of acetate on portal blood flow were investigated in rats using the microsphere technique. The intravenous infusion of acetate resulted in vasodilation of the preportal vasculature and in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This acetate-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. Using the A{sub 1}-adenosine receptor agonist N-6-cyclohexyl adenosine and the A{sub 2}-agonist 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine, we demonstrate that the effect of adenosine on the preportal vasculature is mediated by the A{sub 2}-subtype of adenosine receptors. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the increase in portal blood flow after ethanol administration results from a preportal vasodilatory effect of adenosine formed from acetate metabolism in extrahepatic tissues.

Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Varghese, G.A.; Israel, Y.; Orrego, H. (Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))



High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor  


What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...


High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke  


... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ... 800,000 Americans suffer a stroke each year. High blood pressure is the chief culprit, and atrial fibrillation isn’ ...


A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

Podell, Richard N.



High Blood Pressure Treatment in Children (Beyond the Basics)  


... less than two hours per day. Participation in sports — Children who have controlled high blood pressure are generally allowed to participate in competitive sports. Children and adolescents with high blood pressure are ...


Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure  


... With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Partnership for HEALTH Here are some questions to ... you do to prevent or control high blood pressure? 1. Quit smoking and/or chewing tobacco. Ask ...


The relationship between adjunctive drinking, blood ethanol concentration and plasma corticosterone across fixed-time intervals of food delivery in two inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Summary Schedules of intermittent food delivery induce excessive fluid intake, termed schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is important for the expression and maintenance of this adjunctive behavior. Previous work has focused of examining the relationship between water intake and plasma corticosterone (CORT) in rats at a single or a limited range of fixed time (FT) intervals. However, little remains known regarding SIP and the corresponding stress response 1) across the bitonic function that epitomizes adjunctive behavior, 2) when ethanol is the available fluid, and 3) when a species other than rat or multiple strains are studied. Here we report the findings from ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) and non-preferring DBA/2J (D2) mice serially exposed to progressively larger FT intervals (0 ? 60 min) and given access to either water or a 5% v/v ethanol solution. Following 2 weeks of experience with each schedule, blood samples were collected at the conclusion of the last 60-min session to evaluate CORT and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) achieved. While both strains exhibited a bitonic function of ethanol intake and BEC that peaked at or near a 5-min interval, only D2 mice showed a similar response with water. In contrast, CORT levels rose monotonically with incremental increases in the FT interval regardless of the strain examined or fluid type offered, indicating that glucocorticoid release likely reflects the aversive aspects of increasing intervals between reinforcement rather than engagement in adjunctive behavior. These findings also caution against the use of a single intensity stressor to evaluate the relationship between stress and ethanol intake, as the magnitude of stress appears to affect ethanol consumption in a non-linear fashion. PMID:23827168

Ford, Matthew M.; Steele, Andrea M.; McCracken, Aubrey D.; Finn, Deborah A.; Grant, Kathleen A.



Paramagnetic microchip for high-gradient separation of blood cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a magnetophoretic separation method on a chip of white blood cells from blood under continuous flow. The separation of red blood cells from the whole blood is performed using a high gradient magnetic separation method under continuous flow to trap the particles inside the device. The device is fabricated by microfabrication technology and enables to capture the

Ciprian Iliescu; Guolin Xu; Elena Barbarini; Marioara Avram; Florina S. Iliescu



Circulating ethanol does not stimulate pancreatic secretion in conscious rats.  


The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that circulating ethanol at concentrations of approximately 0.1 mg% stimulates pancreatic secretion. Awake rats recovered from surgery were used in these experiments. Intravenous infusion protocols were established that produced blood ethanol concentrations 0.1 mg% for over an hour. Maintenance of 0.1 mg% blood ethanol concentration or transient concentrations as high as 0.17 mg% did not cause significant increases in pancreatic protein or fluid secretion. To test whether elevated blood ethanol would augment stimulated pancreatic secretion, the trypsin inhibitor camostat was infused intraduodenally at doses of 0.05, 0.2, and 0.5 mg/hr, each dose level infused for 2 hours. Elevated blood ethanol concentrations (0.1 mg%) did not significantly affect camostat-stimulated pancreatic protein or fluid secretion. In contrast to intravenous infusion, intraduodenal infusion of ethanol significantly stimulated pancreatic protein and fluid secretion, which was associated with blood ethanol concentrations of > or =0.19 mg%. The increases in pancreatic secretion were completely blocked by intravenous infusion of the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist CR1409. We conclude that circulating ethanol does not stimulate pancreatic secretion in awake, recovered rats and that intraduodenal ethanol-stimulated pancreatic secretion is mediated by CCK. PMID:14576503

Jin, Wei; Green, Gary M



Highly efficient bioethanol production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with multiple stress tolerance to high temperature, acid and ethanol.  


Use of super strains exhibiting tolerance to high temperature, acidity and ethanol is a promising way to make ethanol production economically feasible. We describe here the breeding and performance of such a multiple-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae generated by a spore-to-cell hybridization technique without recombinant DNA technology. A heterothallic strain showing a high-temperature (41°C) tolerant (Htg(+)) phenotype, a derivative from a strain isolated from nature, was crossed with a homothallic strain displaying high-ethanol productivity (Hep(+)), a stock culture at the Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research. The resultant hybrid TJ14 displayed ability to rapidly utilize glucose, and produced ethanol (46.6g/l) from 10% glucose fermentation medium at high temperature (41°C). Not only ethanol productivity at 41°C but also acid tolerance (Acd(+)) was improved in TJ14 as compared with its parental strains, enabling TJ14 to grow in liquid medium even at pH 3. TJ14 maintained high ethanol productivity (46.0g/l) from 10% glucose when fermentation was done under multiple-stress conditions (41°C and pH 3.5). Furthermore, when TJ14 was subjected to a repeated-batch fermentation scheme, the growth and ethanol production of TJ14 were maintained at excellent levels over ten cycles of fermentation. Thus, the multiple-stress (Htg(+) Hep(+) Acd(+)) resistant strain TJ14 should be useful for cost-effective bioethanol production under high-temperature and acidic conditions. PMID:21820088

Benjaphokee, Suthee; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Yokota, Daiki; Asvarak, Thipa; Auesukaree, Choowong; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Harashima, Satoshi



What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?  


... oil. • Trans fat comes from adding hydrogen to vegetable oils and tends to raise blood cholesterol. It’s used ... milk and beef. • Polyunsaturated fats are found in vegetable oils and fish oils. These tend to lower blood ...


Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment?  


... enable JavaScript. Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment? Controlling blood pressure doesn't seem to affect baby, but may ... January 28, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...


Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure  


Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure Updated:Sep 11,2014 There are several harmful consequences for your arteries and heart because high blood ... flow to tissue on the other side. Damaged arteries cause blood supply failures. When a blockage cuts off the ...


Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96%?v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Results Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30?days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Conclusions Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue. PMID:24761774




EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...


Porous single-crystalline palladium nanoflowers with enriched {100} facets for highly enhanced ethanol oxidation.  


Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black. PMID:25370157

Qi, Kun; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Xiaoqiang



Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production cost reductions almost independently of each other. PMID:18471311

Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido



Paramagnetic microchip for high-gradient separation of blood cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a magnetophoretic separation method on a chip of white blood cells from blood under continuous flow. The separation of red blood cells from the whole blood is performed using a high gradient magnetic separation method under continuous flow to trap the particles inside the device. The device is fabricated by microfabrication technology and enables to capture the red blood cells without the use of labelling tecniques such as magnetic beads. The method consists of flowing diluted whole blood through a microfluidic channel where a ferromagnetic layer, subjected to a permanent magnetic field, is located. The majority of red blood cells are trapped at the bottom of the device while the rest of the blood is collected at the outlet. Experimental results show that an average of 95% of red blood cells are trapped in the device.

Iliescu, Ciprian; Xu, Guolin; Barbarini, Elena; Avram, Marioara; Iliescu, Florina S.



Enhanced thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutated by high-energy pulse electron beam and protoplast fusion.  


To increase thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YZ1, the strategies of high-energy pulse electron beam (HEPE) and three rounds of protoplast fusion were explored. The YF31 strain had the characteristics of resistant to high-temperature, high-ethanol tolerance, rapid growth and high yield. The YF31 could grow on plate cultures up to 47 °C, containing 237.5 g L(-1) of ethanol. In particular, the mutant strain YF31 generated 94.2 ± 4.8 g L(-1) ethanol from 200 g glucose L(-1) at 42 °C, which was 2.48 times the production of the wild strain YZ1. Results demonstrated that the variant phenotypes from the strains screening by HEPE irradiation could be used as parent stock for yeast regeneration and the protoplast fusion technology is sufficiently powerful in combining suitable characteristics in a single strain for ethanol fermentation. PMID:22488242

Zhang, Min; Xiao, Yu; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Shi-Long



High-temperature ethanol fermentation by immobilized coculture of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  


Suspended and immobilized cocultures of the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042 and the mesophilic flocculent yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae M30 were studied for their abilities to improve production and stability of ethanol fermentation. Sugarcane juice and blackstrap molasses, at initial sugar concentrations of 220 g/L, were used as carbon sources. The results indicated that the coculture system could improve ethanol production from both sugarcane juice and blackstrap molasses when the operating temperature ranged between 33 °C and 45 °C. High temperature tolerances were achieved when the coculture was immobilized. The immobilized coculture was more effective in high-temperature ethanol fermentation than the suspended cultures. The coculture immobilized on thin-shell silk cocoon and fermented at 37 °C and 40 °C generated maximal ethanol concentrations of 81.4 and 77.3 g/L, respectively, which were 5.9-8.7% and 16.8-39.0% higher than those of the suspended cultures, respectively. PMID:22608995

Eiadpum, Akekasit; Limtong, Savitree; Phisalaphong, Muenduen



Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P) and high gravity (20°P) worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI) was higher (9.8 percentage units) and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units) compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN), pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency. PMID:25530885

Peralta-Contreras, Mayeli; Aguilar-Zamarripa, Edna; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Escamilla-García, Erandi; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio Othon



High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease  


... and other blood pressure medications. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition Following a healthy eating plan can help lower blood pressure. A health care ... which often comes from salt. The DASH eating plan is low in fat and ... recommend this type of diet for people who have already developed kidney disease. ...


?????????????????? ??????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????? Simultaneous Determination of Methanol Ethanol and Fusel oil in Alcoholic Beverage Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol ethanol and fusel oil are important substances in alcoholic beverages that indicate to quality of them. Their concentrations should be closely monitored. In this research, high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection was developed for simultaneous separation of methanol ethanol and fusel oils ( propanol, iso-butyl alcohol and iso-amyl alcohol ). The isocratic elution was optimized for a

Amorn Chaiyasat; Preeyaporn Chaiyasat


Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups  

SciTech Connect

Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet.

Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.



Impact of reformulated ethanol-gasoline blends on high-emitting vehicles.  


In-use vehicles which are high emitters (HEVs) make a large contribution to the emissions inventory. It is not known, however, whether HEVs share common emissions characteristics, and particularly the effect of ethanol blends. We study this by first examining laboratory measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions on ethanol blends containing 21%, 26% and 30% aromatics, and a reference fuel formulated with methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Switching from MTBE to ethanol fuels on HEVs shows no effect on the total emissions of regulated pollutants, but 1,3-butadiene emissions would increased substantially while the emissions of total carbonyls would not be affected except in the case of acetaldehyde, which would increase with EtOH. The ozone-forming potential of exhaust and evaporative emissions would be less using the EtOH blends and specific reactivity will not be incremented. Lowering the vapour pressure of the gasoline and increasing the proportions of alkylate and isomerate in the composition produces an ethanol-blended fuel with lower environmental impact both in normal vehicles and HEVs. PMID:23837342

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; González, Uriel



High efficiency steam reforming of ethanol by cobalt-based catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steam reforming of ethanol was studied at 400 °C on Co/Al 2O 3 and Co/SiO 2 catalysts with a cobalt content of 8 and 18% (w/w), respectively. Catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method and characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed reduction with hydrogen. The results indicated the presence of Co 3O 4 as the main phase of cobalt and CoO x species interactions with alumina. The catalysts showed average conversion higher than 70% for the steam reforming of ethanol at 400 °C. The increase of ethanol conversion and reduction of the amount of liquid products were observed for the catalysts with higher cobalt contents. The CO concentration in the gaseous mixture is reduced to 800 ppm levels for the Co/Al 2O 3 catalyst with 18% of cobalt. During ethanol reformation, the CO produced can react with water (water gas shift, WGS) or hydrogen (methanation, without water) on Co sites. Both reactions, WGS and methanation, allows high conversion on the Co/Al 2O 3 and Co/SiO 2 catalysts, but Co/Al 2O 3 shows better CO removal.

Batista, Marcelo S.; Santos, Rudye K. S.; Assaf, Elisabete M.; Assaf, José M.; Ticianelli, Edson A.


Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.  


Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact. PMID:25299491

Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have studied the effects of pregnancy on ethanol clearance rates and on blood and urine ethanol concentrations (BECs and UECs) in adult Sprague–Dawley rats infused with ethanol intragastrically. Pregnant rats had greater ethanol clearance following an intragastric or intravenous ethanol bolus (3 ...


Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update.  


There have been numerous developments in ethanol fermentation technology since the beginning of the new millennium as ethanol has become an immediate viable alternative to fast-depleting crude reserves as well as increasing concerns over environmental pollution. Nowadays, although most research efforts are focused on the conversion of cheap cellulosic substrates to ethanol, methods that are cost-competitive with gasoline production are still lacking. At the same time, the ethanol industry has engaged in implementing potential energy-saving, productivity and efficiency-maximizing technologies in existing production methods to become more viable. Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is an emerging, versatile one among such technologies offering great savings in process water and energy requirements through fermentation of higher concentrations of sugar substrate and, therefore, increased final ethanol concentration in the medium. The technology also allows increased fermentation efficiency, without major alterations to existing facilities, by efficient utilization of fermentor space and elimination of known losses. This comprehensive research update on VHG technology is presented in two main sections, namely VHG brewing, wherein the effects of nutrients supplementation, yeast pitching rate, flavour compound synthesis and foam stability under increased wort gravities are discussed; and VHG bioethanol fermentation studies. In the latter section, aspects related to the role of osmoprotectants and nutrients in yeast stress reduction, substrates utilized/tested so far, including saccharide (glucose, sucrose, molasses, etc.) and starchy materials (wheat, corn, barley, oats, etc.), and mash viscosity issues in VHG bioethanol production are detailed. Thereafter, topics common to both areas such as process optimization studies, mutants and gene level studies, immobilized yeast applications, temperature effect, reserve carbohydrates profile in yeast, and economic aspects are discussed and future prospects are summarized. PMID:21695540

Puligundla, Pradeep; Smogrovicova, Daniela; Obulam, Vijaya Sarathi Reddy; Ko, Sanghoon



Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield  

PubMed Central

We report engineering Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments xylan and biomass-derived sugars, to produce ethanol at high yield. Knockout of genes involved in organic acid formation (acetate kinase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase) resulted in a strain able to produce ethanol as the only detectable organic product and substantial changes in electron flow relative to the wild type. Ethanol formation in the engineered strain (ALK2) utilizes pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase with electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(P), a pathway different from that in previously described microbes with a homoethanol fermentation. The homoethanologenic phenotype was stable for >150 generations in continuous culture. The growth rate of strain ALK2 was similar to the wild-type strain, with a reduction in cell yield proportional to the decreased ATP availability resulting from acetate kinase inactivation. Glucose and xylose are co-utilized and utilization of mannose and arabinose commences before glucose and xylose are exhausted. Using strain ALK2 in simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation experiments at 50°C allows a 2.5-fold reduction in cellulase loading compared with using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 37°C. The maximum ethanol titer produced by strain ALK2, 37 g/liter, is the highest reported thus far for a thermophilic anaerobe, although further improvements are desired and likely possible. Our results extend the frontier of metabolic engineering in thermophilic hosts, have the potential to significantly lower the cost of cellulosic ethanol production, and support the feasibility of further cost reductions through engineering a diversity of host organisms. PMID:18779592

Shaw, A. Joe; Podkaminer, Kara K.; Desai, Sunil G.; Bardsley, John S.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Thorne, Philip G.; Hogsett, David A.; Lynd, Lee R.



Ethanol fermentation of crude acid hydrolyzate of cellulose using high-level yeast inocula  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level yeast inocula was investigated as a means of overcoming the toxicity problem in ethanol fermentation of acid hydrolyzate of wood cellulose. When the inoculum level exceeded 10⁸ initial cells\\/mL, 50% of the yeast cells survived the initial cell death period during which furfural and HMF were depleted. The fermentation thus proceeded to completion by virtue of cell regrowth. The

I. S. Chung; Y. Y. Lee



Newly Diagnosed with High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis  


... this page, please enable JavaScript. Newly Diagnosed With High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis Systolic reading of 150 ... February 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Stroke THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Prompt ...


Insomnia Linked to High Blood Pressure in Study  


... please enable JavaScript. Insomnia Linked to High Blood Pressure in Study But finding doesn't prove cause- ... January 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages High Blood Pressure Insomnia MONDAY, Jan. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People ...


Combined process for ethanol fermentation at high-solids loading and biogas digestion from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover.  


A combined process was designed for the co-production of ethanol and methane from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover. A terminal ethanol titer of 69.8 g/kg mass weight (72.5%) was achieved when the fed-batch mode was performed at a final solids loading of 35.5% (w/w) dry matter (DM) content. The whole stillage from high-solids ethanol fermentation was directly transferred in a 3-L anaerobic digester. During 52-day single-stage digester operation, the methane productivity was 320 mL CH?/g volatile solids (VS) with a maximum VS reduction efficiency of 55.3%. The calculated overall product yield was 197 g ethanol + 96 g methane/kg corn stover. This indicated that the combined process was able to improve overall content utilization and extract a greater yield of lignocellulosic biomass compared to ethanol fermentation alone. PMID:24926600

Wang, Zhen; Lv, Zhe; Du, Jiliang; Mo, Chunling; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen





... mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. What Is Blood and What Does It Do? Two types of ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also called ...




... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...


A highly sensitive ethanol sensor based on mesoporous ZnO-SnO2 nanofibers.  


A facile and versatile method for the large-scale synthesis of sensitive mesoporous ZnO-SnO(2) (m-Z-S) nanofibers through a combination of surfactant-directed assembly and an electrospinning approach is reported. The morphology and the structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis. The results showed that the diameters of fibers ranged from 100 to 150 nm with mixed structures of wurtzite (ZnO) and rutile (SnO(2)), and a mesoporous structure was observed in the m-Z-S nanofibers. The sensor performance of the prepared m-Z-S nanofibers was measured for ethanol. It is found that the mesoporous fiber film obtained exhibited excellent ethanol sensing properties, such as high sensitivity, quick response and recovery, good reproducibility, and linearity in the range 3-500 ppm. PMID:19417420

Song, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhaojie; Liu, Yongben; Wang, Ce; Li, Lijuan



Simulation of Homogeneous Condensation of Ethanol in High Pressure Supersonic Nozzle Flows using BGK Condensation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we have simulated the homogeneous condensation flow of ethanol using the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) based condensation model for the experimental conditions of Wegener et al. [1]. In an earlier work carried out by Gallagher-Rogers et al. [2], it was found not possible to simulate the experimental conditions using the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) based condensation model. In this work we use a statistical-BGK approach to model condensation and compare our simulated predictions of the point of condensation onset and the distribution of mass fraction along the nozzle centerline with experiments. The experiments provide data for different cases corresponding to varying amounts of ethanol concentration, compared to air, for total mixture pressures which remains mostly constant for all cases. Our numerical results show good agreement with the experiments, thus validating our BGK based condensation model for high pressure flow applications.

Kumar, Rakesh; Levin, D. A.



Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report updates the 1990 “National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy” and focuses on classification, pathophysiologic features, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Through a combination of evidence-based medicine and consensus this report updates contemporary approaches to hypertension control during pregnancy by expanding on recommendations made in “The Sixth



A highly efficient chemical sensor material for ethanol: Al2O3/Graphene nanocomposites fabricated from graphene oxide.  


Al(2)O(3)/Graphene nanocomposites are firstly produced from GO solution by a one-step, green, facile, low-cost SC CO(2) method. The as-prepared nanocomposite papers display high CL sensitivity and high selectivity to the ethanol gas, which provides a facile, green and low-cost route for the preparation of ethanol nanoscopic sensing devices with wide applications. PMID:21547307

Jiang, Zaixing; Wang, Jiajun; Meng, Linghui; Huang, Yudong; Liu, Li



Cellulases without carbohydrate-binding modules in high consistency ethanol production process  

PubMed Central

Background Enzymes still comprise a major part of ethanol production costs from lignocellulose raw materials. Irreversible binding of enzymes to the residual substrate prevents their reuse and no efficient methods for recycling of enzymes have so far been presented. Cellulases without a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) have been found to act efficiently at high substrate consistencies and to remain non-bound after the hydrolysis. Results High hydrolysis yields could be obtained with thermostable enzymes of Thermoascus aurantiacus containing only two main cellulases: cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), Cel7A and endoglucanase II (EG II), Cel5A. The yields were decreased by only about 10% when using these cellulases without CBM. A major part of enzymes lacking CBM was non-bound during the most active stage of hydrolysis and in spite of this, produced high sugar yields. Complementation of the two cellulases lacking CBM with CBH II (CtCel6A) improved the hydrolysis. Cellulases without CBM were more sensitive during exposure to high ethanol concentration than the enzymes containing CBM. Enzymes lacking CBM could be efficiently reused leading to a sugar yield of 90% of that with fresh enzymes. The applicability of cellulases without CBM was confirmed under industrial ethanol production conditions at high (25% dry matter (DM)) consistency. Conclusions The results clearly show that cellulases without CBM can be successfully used in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose at high consistency, and that this approach could provide new means for better recyclability of enzymes. This paper provides new insight into the efficient action of CBM-lacking cellulases. The relationship of binding and action of cellulases without CBM at high DM consistency should, however, be studied in more detail. PMID:24559384



Is exercise good for high blood pressure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten men with uncomplicated essential hypertension (mean standing blood pressure 165\\/109 mm Hg) and 10 normal controls matched for age and weight were studied for the hypotensive potential of moderate exercise. Tests were conducted on a treadmill set to induce a steady heart rate of 120 beats\\/min and performed over five 10-minute periods separated by three minutes' rest and finishing

R G Wilcox; T Bennett; A M Brown; I A Macdonald



Treatment of high ethanol concentration wastewater by biological sand filters: enhanced COD removal and bacterial community dynamics.  


Winery wastewater is characterized by its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), seasonal occurrence and variable composition, including periodic high ethanol concentrations. In addition, winery wastewater may contain insufficient inorganic nutrients for optimal biodegradation of organic constituents. Two pilot-scale biological sand filters (BSFs) were used to treat artificial wastewater: the first was amended with ethanol and the second with ethanol, inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A number of biochemical parameters involved in the removal of pollutants through BSF systems were monitored, including effluent chemistry and bacterial community structures. The nutrient supplemented BSF showed efficient COD, N and P removal. Comparison of the COD removal efficiencies of the two BSFs showed that N and P addition enhanced COD removal efficiency by up to 16%. Molecular fingerprinting of BSF sediment samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amendment with high concentrations of ethanol destabilized the microbial community structure, but that nutrient supplementation countered this effect. PMID:22683841

Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Ramond, J-B; Welz, P J; Cowan, D A; Odlare, M; Burton, S G



Is exercise good for high blood pressure?  

PubMed Central

Ten men with uncomplicated essential hypertension (mean standing blood pressure 165/109 mm Hg) and 10 normal controls matched for age and weight were studied for the hypotensive potential of moderate exercise. Tests were conducted on a treadmill set to induce a steady heart rate of 120 beats/min and performed over five 10-minute periods separated by three minutes' rest and finishing with 30 minutes' sitting quietly in a chair. During exercise the mean systolic pressures were identical in the hypertensive patients and controls (175±SEM 5 mm Hg), the controls therefore sustaining an appreciably greater increase in pressure. During the 30-minute rest period after the tests both the control and hypertensive groups showed a significant and sustained fall in absolute systolic pressures as compared with pre-exercise values (p <0·001), the mean percentage reductions being 22% and 25% respectively. If a fall in blood pressure after exercise is maintained for four to 10 hours, then a “good walk” twice a day might be reasonable treatment for mild hypertension. Studies are continuing to determine the amount of exercise needed and the duration for which the reduction in blood pressure is maintained. PMID:6810991

Wilcox, R G; Bennett, T; Brown, A M; Macdonald, I A



High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. METHODS: Elementary school children (n = 1,066) were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI), gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN) were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood

Ximena Urrutia-Rojas; Christie U Egbuchunam; Sejong Bae; John Menchaca; Manuel Bayona; Patrick A Rivers; Karan P Singh



Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?  


Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy. PMID:24022674

Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning



Porous single-crystalline palladium nanoflowers with enriched {100} facets for highly enhanced ethanol oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black.Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05761a

Qi, Kun; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Xiaoqiang



High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  


... français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Marshallese (kajin Majöl) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Marshallese (kajin Majöl) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Elañe ...


High blood pressure, oxygen radicals and antioxidants: Etiological relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This hypothesis proposes that high blood pressure is a pathological state associated with a loss of the balance between pro-oxidation and antioxidation, energy depletion, and accelerated aging in the target organs, such as heart, kidney and brain. Different nutritional, environmental, pharmacological factors and\\/or associated pathologies (diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cancer, alcoholism, etc.), and\\/or genetic components, can induce high blood pressure by breaking

D. Romero-Alvira; E. Roche



Hierarchical Pd-Sn Alloy Nanosheet Dendrites: An Economical and Highly Active Catalyst for Ethanol Electrooxidation  

PubMed Central

Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures. PMID:23383368

Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren



Familial risk of high blood pressure in the Canadian population.  


Familial risk ratios for high blood pressure were estimated in a representative sample of the Canadian population. The sample consisted of 14,069 participants 7-69 years of age from 5,753 families participating in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. Resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were adjusted for the effects of body mass index using regression procedures. Varying degrees of high blood pressure were defined as the 75(th), 85(th), and 95(th) percentiles of age- and sex-specific values. Age- and sex-standardized risk ratios (SRRs) were calculated comparing the prevalences in the general population to those in spouses and first-degree relatives of probands with high blood pressure. SRRs for the 95(th) percentile were, for SBP and DBP, respectively, 1.37 and 1.45 in spouses and 1.33 and 2.36 in first-degree relatives of probands. SRRs decrease with decreasing percentile cut-offs used to define high blood pressure (95(th) > 85(th) > 75(th)), and SRRs are generally higher in first-degree relatives than in spouses, particularly for DBP. The results indicate significant familial risk for high blood pressure in the Canadian population, and the pattern of SRRs suggests that genetic factors may be responsible for a portion of the risk. PMID:11505470

Katzmarzyk, P T; Rankinen, T; Pérusse, L; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C



Optimization of low-cost medium for very high gravity ethanol fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using statistical experimental designs.  


Statistical experimental designs were used to develop a medium based on corn steep liquor (CSL) and other low-cost nutrient sources for high-performance very high gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The critical nutrients were initially selected according to a Plackett-Burman design and the optimized medium composition (44.3 g/L CSL; 2.3 g/L urea; 3.8 g/L MgSO?·7H?O; 0.03 g/L CuSO?·5H?O) for maximum ethanol production by the laboratory strain CEN.PK 113-7D was obtained by response surface methodology, based on a three-level four-factor Box-Behnken design. The optimization process resulted in significantly enhanced final ethanol titre, productivity and yeast viability in batch VHG fermentations (up to 330 g/L glucose) with CEN.PK113-7D and with industrial strain PE-2, which is used for bio-ethanol production in Brazil. Strain PE-2 was able to produce 18.6±0.5% (v/v) ethanol with a corresponding productivity of 2.4±0.1g/L/h. This study provides valuable insights into cost-effective nutritional supplementation of industrial fuel ethanol VHG fermentations. PMID:20627715

Pereira, Francisco B; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília



Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure Past Issues / Fall ... who’s getting back in control!” For more real-life stories about high blood pressure, visit www.nhlbi. ...


High intracolonic acetaldehyde values produced by a bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation in piglets.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Human colonic contents and many colonic microbes produce considerable amounts of acetaldehyde from ethanol in vitro. AIMS: To examine in piglets if acetaldehyde is produced in the colon also in vivo, and if so, what is the fate of intracolonically formed acetaldehyde. ANIMALS: Seventeen native, non-fasted female piglets (20-25 kg) were used. METHODS: Six piglets received either 1.5 g/kg bw or 2.5 g/kg bw of ethanol intravenously. In seven piglets, 0.7 g or 1.75 g of ethanol/kg bw was administered intravenously, followed by a subsequent intragastric ethanol infusion of 1.8 g/kg bw and 4.5 g/kg bw, respectively. The samples of colonic contents for the assessment of ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations were obtained up to seven hours. In four additional piglets, the intracolonic values of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate were observed for 60 minutes after an intracolonic infusion of acetaldehyde solution. RESULTS: A raised intracolonic, endogenous acetaldehyde concentration (mean (SEM); 36 (9) microM) was found in all piglets before ethanol infusion. After the infusion of ethanol, intracolonic ethanol and acetaldehyde values increased in parallel, reaching the peak values 57 (4) mM of ethanol and 271 (20) microM of acetaldehyde in the group that received the highest dose of ethanol. A positive correlation (r = 0.45; p < 0.001) was found between intracolonic ethanol and acetaldehyde values. Acetaldehyde administered intracolonically was mainly metabolised to acetate but also to ethanol in the colon. CONCLUSIONS: Significant endogenous intracolonic acetaldehyde values can be found in the normal porcine colon. Furthermore, our results suggest the existence of a bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation. Increased amounts of acetaldehyde are formed intracolonically from ingested ethanol by this pathway. PMID:8881818

Jokelainen, K; Matysiak-Budnik, T; Mäkisalo, H; Höckerstedt, K; Salaspuro, M



Synergistic ablation of liver tissue and liver cancer cells with high-intensity focused ultrasound and ethanol.  


We investigated the combined effect of ethanol and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), first, on heating and cavitation bubble activity in tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine liver tissues and, second, on the viability of HepG2 liver cancer cells. Phantoms or porcine tissues were injected with ethanol and then subjected to HIFU at acoustic power ranging from 1.2 to 20.5 W (HIFU levels 1-7). Cavitation events and the temperature around the focal zone were measured with a passive cavitation detector and embedded type K thermocouples, respectively. HepG2 cells were subjected to 4% ethanol solution in growth medium (v/v) just before the cells were exposed to HIFU at 2.7, 8.7 or 12.0 W for 30 s. Cell viability was measured 2, 24 and 72 h post-treatment. The results indicate that ethanol and HIFU have a synergistic effect on liver cancer ablation as manifested by greater temperature rise and lesion volume in liver tissues and reduced viability of liver cancer cells. This effect is likely caused by reduction of the cavitation threshold in the presence of ethanol and the increased rate of ethanol diffusion through the cell membrane caused by HIFU-induced streaming, sonoporation and heating. PMID:24798386

Hoang, Nguyen H; Murad, Hakm Y; Ratnayaka, Sithira H; Chen, Chong; Khismatullin, Damir B



Teratological assessment of methanol and ethanol at high inhalation levels in rats  

SciTech Connect

Alcohols are widely used as industrial solvents. In spite of the fact that ethanol is a human teratogen, there has not been systematic investigation of the potential teratogenic effects of other alcohols, particularly using the inhalation route of exposure, as would be appropriate in assessing occupational and environmental types of experience. As part of a large teratological examination of industrial alcohols, methanol and ethanol were administered by inhalation to groups of approximately 15 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Methanol was administered at 20,000 ppm (20ME), 10,000 ppm (10ME), 5000 ppm (5ME), and 0 ppm (MECO) for 7 hr/day on Days 1-19 of gestation (Days 7-15 for 20ME). Ethanol was administered at 20,000 ppm (20ET), 16,000 ppm (16ET), 10,000 ppm (10ET), and 0 ppm (ETCO) for 7 hr/day on Days 1-19 of gestation. Dams were sacrificed on Day 20 (sperm = Day 0). One-half of the fetuses were examined using the Wilson technique for visceral defects, and the other half were examined for skeletal defects. The highest concentration of methanol (20ME) produced slight maternal toxicity and a high incidence of congenital malformations (p less than 0.001), predominantly extra or rudimentary cervical ribs and urinary or cardiovascular defects. Similar malformations were seen in the 10ME group, but the incidence was not significantly different from controls. No adverse effects were noted in the 5ME group. Dams in the 20ET group were narcotized by the end of exposure, and maternal weight gain and feed intake were decreased during the first week of exposure. The 16ET dams had slightly depressed weight gain (p less than 0.01) during the first week of exposure, but there were no significant effects on feed consumption. There was no definite increase in malformations at any level of ethanol, although the incidence in the 20ET group was of borderline significance.

Nelson, B.K.; Brightwell, W.S.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Khan, A.; Burg, J.R.; Weigel, W.W.; Goad, P.T.



Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 Stress Response during High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung



Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 stress response during high-temperature ethanol fermentation.  


Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung



Oxazolone and ethanol induce colitis in non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2R?null mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells  

PubMed Central

Oxazolone-induced colitis in mice has become a recognized model to study the efficacy of therapeutics targeting the immunological response underlying the development of inflammatory bowel disease. However, this model cannot be used when therapeutics designed to address human targets do not interact with the respective murine counterpart. In this study, we examined the induction of oxazolone mediated colitis in non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2R?null (NOD-SCID IL2R?null) mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) derived from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC), atopic dermatitis (AD) and healthy volunteers. NOD-SCID IL2R? null mice were engrafted with hPBMC followed by challenge with oxazolone or ethanol vehicle. Mice developed the same symptoms as observed previously in immunocompetent mice. The clinical activity score increased and the colon architecture was characterized by the development of oedema, fibrosis, crypt loss and dense infiltration of predominantly T cells into the lamina propria. Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of lymphocytes in the colon identified natural killer (NK) T cells as a major constituent. In contrast to studies with immunocompetent mice, we observed the same phenotype in the group challenged with ethanol vehicle. The phenotype was most pronounced in mice engrafted with PBMC derived from a patient suffering from UC, suggesting that the immunological history of the donors predisposes the engrafted mice to react to ethanol. The model described here has the potential to study the efficacy of therapeutics targeting human lymphocytes in a model which is more reflective of the human disease. In addition, it might be developed to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. PMID:23574330

Nolte, T; Zadeh-Khorasani, M; Safarov, O; Rueff, F; Gülberg, V; Herbach, N; Wollenberg, A; Mueller, T; Siebeck, M; Wolf, E; Gropp, R



High blood pressure, oxygen radicals and antioxidants: etiological relationships.  


This hypothesis proposes that high blood pressure is a pathological state associated with a loss of the balance between pro-oxidation and antioxidation, energy depletion, and accelerated aging in the target organs, such as heart, kidney and brain. Different nutritional, environmental, pharmacological factors and/or associated pathologies (diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cancer, alcoholism, etc.) and/or genetic components, can induce high blood pressure by breaking the redox equilibrium in the affected organs. Additional evidence, such as increase of oxidative damage, fibrogenesis, inhibition of the cardiocytic sodium-potassium pump, and heart hypertrophy, supports this hypothesis. These facts are analysed in the present paper, showing that they could contribute to the development of high blood pressure and associated pathologies by oxidative mechanisms. PMID:8733174

Romero-Alvira, D; Roche, E



Distinguishing ingested ethanol from microbial formation by analysis of urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid.  


During the metabolism of ethanol, the metabolic conversion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is altered, and, as a consequence, the ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol (5HTOL) to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5HIAA) excreted in urine increases appreciably. The ratio of metabolites remains elevated for several hours after ethanol is no longer detectable. In the present study, urine specimens were supplemented with glucose and Candida albicans, a common human pathogenic yeast, and the formation of ethanol and the changes in the 5HTOL/5HIAA ratio were examined during one week of storage. Despite the production of high concentrations of ethanol (peak level 171 mmol/L, or 788 mg/dL), the 5HTOL/5HIAA ratio remained constant. The urinary 5HTOL/5HIAA ratio was also compared with urinary and blood ethanol levels in specimens selected at random during forensic autopsies. Elevated 5HTOL/5HIAA ratios were found in all specimens with detectable urinary ethanol. Some specimens showed elevated ratios of serotonin metabolites even though no ethanol was detected, indicating that these subjects had consumed ethanol prior to death but that the concentration had already returned to zero or was below the detection limit. In one case, postmortem ethanol formation was suspected, because blood ethanol concentration was 16.8 mmol/L (77 mg/dL) whereas urinary ethanol was zero. The urinary 5HTOL/5HIAA ratio fell within normal limits, which confirmed the suspicion of postmortem ethanol synthesis in the blood specimen. The present results indicate that the 5HTOL/5HIAA ratio in urine provides a useful method to distinguish between ethanol that might have been synthesized postmortem, or generated in vitro, from ethanol excreted in urine as a result of drinking. PMID:7533206

Helander, A; Beck, O; Jones, A W



Effect of some drugs on ethanol-induced changes in blood brain barrier permeability for /sup 14/C-tyrosine  

SciTech Connect

This investigation seeks to compare the effects of membrane stabilizers chlorpromazine and alpha-tocopherol, and also the dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol, in changes in permeability of the blood-brain barrier for carbon 14-labelled tyrosine.

Borisenko, S.A.; Burov, Yu.V.



Production of fuel ethanol and methane from garbage by high-efficiency two-stage fermentation process.  


A two-stage fermentation process, consisting of a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) stage and a dry methane fermentation stage, was developed to utilize garbage for the production of fuel ethanol and methane. Garbage from families, canteens and concessionaires was used for the study. Saccharification method was studied and the results indicated that the liquefaction pretreatment and the combination of cellulase and glucoamylase was effective for polysaccharide hydrolysis of family garbage with a high content of holocellulose and that SSF was suitable for ethanol fermentation of garbage. Ethanol productivity could be markedly increased from 1.7 to 7.0 g/l/h by repeated-batch SSF of family garbage. A high ethanol productivity of 17.7 g/l/h was achieved when canteen garbage was used. The stillage after distillation was treated by dry methane fermentation and the results indicated that the stillage was almost fully digested and that about 850 ml of biogas was recovered from 1 g of volatile total solid (VTS). Approximately 85% of the energy of the garbage was converted to fuels, ethanol and methane by this process. PMID:19914584

Koike, Yoji; An, Ming-Zhe; Tang, Yue-Qin; Syo, Tomohiro; Osaka, Noriko; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji



What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar.  

E-print Network

What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar. DIABETES IS HIGH BLOOD SUGAR We all have sugar in our blood. When you have diabetes you have too much sugar in your blood muscles can then use sugar for fuel. Insulin keeps blood sugar in balance. #12; If you have diabetes


Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19.  


Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is severely limited by low solvent titer and productivities. Thus, this study aims at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced ABE production capability followed by process optimization for high ABE productivity. Random mutagenesis of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK was performed by screening cells on fluoroacetate plates to isolate a mutant strain, BKM19, which exhibited the total solvent production capability 30.5% higher than the parent strain. The BKM19 produced 32.5?g?L(-1) of ABE (17.6?g?L(-1) butanol, 10.5?g?L(-1) ethanol, and 4.4?g?L(-1) acetone) from 85.2?g?L(-1) glucose in batch fermentation. A high cell density continuous ABE fermentation of the BKM19 in membrane cell-recycle bioreactor was studied and optimized for improved solvent volumetric productivity. Different dilution rates were examined to find the optimal condition giving highest butanol and ABE productivities. The maximum butanol and ABE productivities of 9.6 and 20.0?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , respectively, could be achieved at the dilution rate of 0.85?h(-1) . Further cell recycling experiments were carried out with controlled cell-bleeding at two different bleeding rates. The maximum solvent productivities were obtained when the fermenter was operated at a dilution rate of 0.86?h(-1) with the bleeding rate of 0.04?h(-1) . Under the optimal operational condition, butanol and ABE could be produced with the volumetric productivities of 10.7 and 21.1?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , and the yields of 0.17 and 0.34?g?g(-1) , respectively. The obtained butanol and ABE volumetric productivities are the highest reported productivities obtained from all known-processes. PMID:23335317

Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Sang Yup



Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound.  


Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging, needle hydrophone measurements and passive cavitation detection. Temperature in or near the focal zone was measured by thermocouples embedded in the samples. The results of this study indicate that the treatment of tissue phantoms and bovine liver samples with ethanol reduces their threshold power for inertial cavitation. This in turn leads to a sudden rise in temperature in ethanol-treated samples at a lower acoustic power than that in untreated ones. The analysis of passive cavitation detection data shows that once the threshold acoustic power is reached, inertial cavitation becomes a major contributor to acoustic scattering in ethanol-treated phantoms and bovine liver samples as compared to control. This study opens up the possibility of improved tumor ablation therapy via a combination of percutaneous ethanol injection and high-intensity focused ultrasound. PMID:22290554

Chen, C; Liu, Y; Maruvada, S; Myers, M; Khismatullin, D



Remission of High Blood Pressure Reverses Arterial Potassium Channel Alterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rat arterial muscle cells show an elevated Ca2+- dependent K+ efflux during the established phase of hyperten- sion. This association of enhanced K+ efflux with high arterial pressure implies that changes of in vivo blood pressure can alter the level of K+ channel current in arterial membranes. We directly tested this hypothesis by comparing K + current density between patch-clamped

Nancy J. Rusch; Anne M. Runnells


A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others



National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.


Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol  


... below: If You Have Your Category Is Heart disease, diabetes, or a risk score of more than 20 percent High Risk 2 ... alcohol or take in more calories than your body needs, your liver produces ... for heart disease. To reduce blood triglyceride levels, it is important ...



Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses methods that will be used to experimentally determine the limitations of transdermal ethanol alcohol sensors when used on human subjects. Transdermal ethanol sensors are used to measure the concentration of ethanol emitted by the surface of the skin. The maximum concentration of ethanol in the skin is proportional to the concentration of ethanol in the blood stream

Gregory Webster; Hampton C. Gabler


Corrosion characteristics of aluminum alloy in bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel: Part 1. The corrosion properties of aluminum alloy in high temperature fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion properties of an aluminum alloy, A384, in bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel were examined at various ethanol contents (10%, 15% and 20%) and temperatures (60, 80 and 100°C). Localized pitting corrosion developed at a high temperature of 100°C. The corrosiveness of the fuel increased with increasing ethanol content (E10

Y. H. Yoo; I. J. Park; J. G. Kim; D. H. Kwak; W. S. Ji



Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat

Per Sassner; Guido Zacchi




EPA Science Inventory

Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...


Continuous High-solids corn liquefaction and fermentation with stripping of ethanol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Removal of ethanol from the fermentor during fermentation can increase productivity and reduce the costs for dewatering the product and coproduct. One approach is to recycle the fermentor contents through a stripping column, where a non-condensable gas removes ethanol to a condenser. Previous resear...


Chronic ethanol increases systemic TLR3 agonist-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence links systemic inflammation to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. We previously found that systemic endotoxin, a TLR4 agonist or TNF?, increased blood TNF? that entered the brain activating microglia and persistent neuroinflammation. Further, we found that models of ethanol binge drinking sensitized blood and brain proinflammatory responses. We hypothesized that blood cytokines contribute to the magnitude of neuroinflammation and that ethanol primes proinflammatory responses. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic ethanol on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration triggered by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist poly I:C. Methods Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) was used to induce inflammatory responses when sensitized with D-galactosamine (D-GalN). Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with water or ethanol (5?g/kg/day, i.g., 10?days) or poly I:C (250??g/kg, i.p.) alone or sequentially 24 hours after ethanol exposure. Cytokines, chemokines, microglial morphology, NADPH oxidase (NOX), reactive oxygen species (ROS), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), TLR3 and cell death markers were examined using real-time PCR, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and hydroethidine histochemistry. Results Poly I:C increased blood and brain TNF? that peaked at three hours. Blood levels returned within one day, whereas brain levels remained elevated for at least three days. Escalating blood and brain proinflammatory responses were found with ethanol, poly I:C, and ethanol-poly I:C treatment. Ethanol pretreatment potentiated poly I:C-induced brain TNF? (345%), IL-1? (331%), IL-6 (255%), and MCP-1(190%). Increased levels of brain cytokines coincided with increased microglial activation, NOX gp91phox, superoxide and markers of neurodegeneration (activated caspase-3 and Fluoro-Jade B). Ethanol potentiation of poly I:C was associated with ethanol-increased expression of TLR3 and endogenous agonist HMGB1 in the brain. Minocycline and naltrexone blocked microglial activation and neurodegeneration. Conclusions Chronic ethanol potentiates poly I:C blood and brain proinflammatory responses. Poly I:C neuroinflammation persists after systemic responses subside. Increases in blood TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6, and MCP-1 parallel brain responses consistent with blood cytokines contributing to the magnitude of neuroinflammation. Ethanol potentiation of TLR3 agonist responses is consistent with priming microglia-monocytes and increased NOX, ROS, HMGB1-TLR3 and markers of neurodegeneration. These studies indicate that TLR3 agonists increase blood cytokines that contribute to neurodegeneration and that ethanol binge drinking potentiates these responses. PMID:22709825



Emergy analysis of ethanol production from low-input, high-diversity (LIHD) grasslands on degraded farmland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to analyze ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass produced from low-input, high- diversity (LIHD) grasslands (often referred to as prairies) on degraded farmland by applying the principles of emergy analysis. This type of cellulosic biomass is an attractive alternative to traditional monocultural biomass sources such as corn because it requires less purchased inputs in the agricultural phase and

Robert A. Urban; Bhavik R. Bakshi



Effects of isoflavonoids on blood pressure in subjects with high-normal ambulatory blood pressure levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetarian diets lower blood pressure (BP), but attempts to identify dietary components responsible have been unsuccessful. Isoflavonoids are commonly consumed as part of vegetarian diets. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of isoflavonoid supplementation on BP. Fifty-nine subjects with high-normal range systolic BP completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of two-way parallel design and 8

Jonathan M. Hodgson; Ian B. Puddey; Lawrence J. Beilin; Trevor A. Mori; Valerie Burke; Kevin D. Croft; Penny B. Rogers



Effects of hydro-ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis on blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluated the differential effects of ethanol extraction of Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) on the blood glucose concentration and pathology of pancreas, liver, lungs, kidney and gastrointestinal tract in the alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 adult female Albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The first group was treated with the extract of C. colocynthis seed (300 mg/kg) and the rats of the second group, as an untreated diabetic group, received ordinary diet. Ten non diabetic rats remained as a normal control group. Results The results of this study indicate that C. colocynthis was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control diabetic group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, alloxan resulted in severe necrotic changes in the pancreatic islets, especially in the central area of the islets. Tissue sections of the pancreas in the treated rats demonstrated enhanced regeneration of B cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Liver of the treated diabetic rats revealed significant improvement of the hepatic tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions The present study indicated a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. colocynthis seed and supported its traditional usage in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Oryan, Ahmad; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Hamidi, Ahmad-Reza; Mohammadalipour, Adel



High abundant protein removal from rodent blood for biomarker discovery.  


In order to realize the goal of stratified and/or personalized medicine in the clinic, significant advances in the field of biomarker discovery are necessary. Adding to the abundance of nucleic acid biomarkers being characterized, additional protein biomarkers will be needed to satisfy diverse clinical needs. An appropriate source for finding these biomarkers is within blood, as it contains tissue leakage factors as well as additional proteins that reside in blood that can be linked to the presence of disease. Unfortunately, high abundant proteins and complexity of the blood proteome present significant challenges for the discovery of protein biomarkers from blood. Animal models often enable the discovery of biomarkers that can later be translated to humans. Therefore, determining appropriate sample preparation of proteomic samples in rodent models is an important research goal. Here, we examined both mouse and rat blood samples (including both serum and plasma), for appropriate high abundant protein removal techniques for subsequent gel-based proteomic experiments. We assessed four methods of albumin removal: antibody-based affinity chromatography (MARS), Cibacron® Blue-based affinity depletion (SwellGel® Blue Albumin Removal Kit), protein-based affinity depletion (ProteaPrep Albumin Depletion Kit) and TCA/acetone precipitation. Albumin removal was quantified for each method and SDS-PAGE and 2-DE gels were used to quantify the number of protein spots obtained following albumin removal. Our results suggest that while all four approaches can effectively remove high abundant proteins, antibody-based affinity chromatography is superior to the other three methods. PMID:25445603

Haudenschild, Dominik R; Eldridge, Angela; Lein, Pamela J; Chromy, Brett A



Female Syrian golden hamster: drinking of high concentrations of ethanol aversive to other mammals.  


The present experiments were designed to determine: 1) the pattern of preference for different concentrations of ethanol in the female Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and 2) the influence of drinking ethanol on their intakes of food and total calories. A standard three-bottle preference test was undertaken in six female hamsters over an 11-day period in which water was offered together with ethanol, which was increased in concentration over 11 days from 3% to 50% as follows: 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 50%. Then, each hamster was offered its individually preferred concentration for a period of 8 days until the intake of ethanol had stabilized. During the preference testing for 3-25% solutions, the proportional intakes ranged between 0.6 and 0.8 whereas the mean absolute amount consumed per day increased from 2.3 to 16.1 g/kg at the 25% concentration. However, at the 50% concentration, ethanol drinking declined substantially to 8.7 g/kg per day. The overall mean percent concentration of ethanol preferred by the hamsters was 24.2 +/- 1.5%. During the following 8-day period when the maximally preferred concentration of ethanol of each hamster was offered with water, the mean intake of ethanol was 17.9 +/- 1.1 g/kg per day. Throughout the test sequence, the caloric intake of the animals was maintained in that calories obtained from food declined at the same rate as the calories obtained from ethanol in rising concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7639952

Piercy, K T; Myers, R D



Fermentation method producing ethanol  


Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)



Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol  

PubMed Central

Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.



Structural rearrangement of ethanol-denatured soy proteins by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.  


The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (100-500 MPa) on solubility and structural properties of ethanol (EtOH)-denatured soy ?-conglycinin and glycinin were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy. HHP treatment above 200 MPa, especially at neutral and alkaline pH as well as low ionic strength, significantly improved the solubility of denatured soy proteins. Structural rearrangements of denatured ?-conglycinin subjected to high pressure were confirmed, as evidenced by the increase in enthalpy value (?H) and the formation of the ordered supramolecular structure with stronger intramolecular hydrogen bond. HHP treatment (200-400 MPa) caused an increase in surface hydrophobicity (F(max)) of ?-conglycinin, partially attributable to the exposure of the Tyr and Phe residues, whereas higher pressure (500 MPa) induced the decrease in F(max) due to hydrophobic rearrangements. The Trp residues in ?-conglycinin gradually transferred into a hydrophobic environment, which might further support the finding of structural rearrangements. In contrast, increasing pressure induced the progressive unfolding of denatured glycinin, accompanied by the movement of the Tyr and Phe residues to the molecular surface of protein. These results suggested that EtOH-denatured ?-conglycinin and glycinin were involved in different pathways of structural changes during HHP treatment. PMID:21609024

Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Yin, Shou-Wei; Zhang, Ye; Tang, Chuan-He; Li, Bian-Sheng; Yuan, De-Bao; Guo, Jian



Towards high water permeability in triazine-framework-based microporous membranes for dehydration of ethanol.  


The microstructural evolution of a series of triazine framework-based microporous (TFM) membranes under different conditions has been explored in this work. The pristine TFM membrane is in?situ fabricated in the course of polymer synthesis via a facile Brønsted-acid-catalyzed cyclotrimerizaiton reaction. The as-synthesized polymer exhibits a microporous network with high thermal stability. The free volume size of the TFM membranes gradually evolved from a unimodal distribution to a bimodal distribution under annealing, as analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The emergence of the bimodal distribution is probably ascribed to the synergetic effect of quenching and thermal cyclization reaction. In addition, the fractional free volume (FFV) of the membranes presents a concave trend with increasing annealing temperature. Vapor sorption tests reveal that the mass transport properties are closely associated with the free volume evolution, which provides an optimal condition for dehydration of biofuels. A promising separation performance with extremely high water permeability has been attained for dehydration of an 85?wt?% ethanol aqueous solution at 45?°C. The study on the free volume evolution of the TFM membranes may provide useful insights about the microstructure and mass transport behavior of the microporous polymeric materials. PMID:25394279

Tang, Yu Pan; Wang, Huan; Chung, Tai Shung



Toward highly-effective and sustainable hydrogen production: bio-ethanol oxidative steam reforming coupled with water splitting in a thin tubular membrane reactor.  


Highly-effective sustainable hydrogen production from ethanol and water was achieved in a tubular dense mixed-conducting oxygen permeable membrane reactor, in which water splitting took place at the tube side of the membrane and oxidative steam reforming of ethanol occurred at the shell side simultaneously. PMID:22428158

Zhu, Na; Dong, Xueliang; Liu, Zhengkun; Zhang, Guangru; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping



Repeated Cycles of Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure in Mice Increases Voluntary Ethanol Drinking and Ethanol Concentrations in the Nucleus Accumbens  

PubMed Central

Rationale This study examined the relationship between voluntary ethanol consumption and ethanol concentrations measured in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol dependent and non-dependent C57BL/6J mice. Method Mice were offered ethanol in a 2-bottle choice, limited access paradigm and consummatory behavior was monitored with lickometers. After baseline intake stabilized, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol (EtOH group) or air (CTL group) exposure by inhalation (16 hr/day for 4 days) and then resumed drinking. Brain ethanol levels during voluntary drinking were measured by microdialysis procedures and compared to brain ethanol concentrations produced during chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Results Voluntary ethanol consumption progressively increased over repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure but remained unchanged in CTL mice. Analysis of lick patterns indicated EtOH mice consumed ethanol at a faster rate compared to CTL mice. The greater and faster rate of ethanol intake in EtOH mice produced higher peak brain ethanol concentrations compared to CTL mice and these levels were similar to levels produced during chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. Conclusions These results show that in this model of dependence and relapse drinking, dependent mice exhibit enhanced voluntary ethanol consumption relative to non-dependent controls, which consequently produces blood and brain ethanol concentrations similar to those experienced during chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. PMID:18791704

Griffin, William C.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Yanke, Amy B.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.; Becker, Howard C.



Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook



A selective ultrahigh responding high temperature ethanol sensor using TiO2 nanoparticles.  


In this research work, the sensitivity of TiO2 nanoparticles towards C2H5OH, H2 and CH4 gases was investigated. The morphology and phase content of the particles was preserved during sensing tests by prior heat treatment of the samples at temperatures as high as 750 °C and 1000 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to characterize the size, morphology and phase content of the particles. For sensor fabrication, a film of TiO2 was printed on a Au interdigitated alumina substrate. The sensing temperature was varied from 450 °C to 650 °C with varying concentrations of target gases. Results show that the sensor has ultrahigh response towards ethanol (C2H5OH) compared to hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4). The optimum sensing temperature was found to be 600 °C. The response and recovery times of the sensor are 3 min and 15 min, respectively, for 20 ppm C2H5OH at the optimum operating temperature of 600 °C. It is proposed that the catalytic action of TiO2 with C2H5OH is the reason for the ultrahigh response of the sensor. PMID:25072346

Arafat, M M; Haseeb, A S M A; Akbar, Sheikh A



“Binge” Drinking Experience in Adolescent Mice Shows Sex Differences and Elevated Ethanol Intake In Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Binge drinking, defined as achieving blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 80 mg%, has been increasing in adolescents and was reported to predispose later physical dependence. The present experiments utilized an animal model of binge drinking to compare the effect of ethanol “binge” experience during adolescence or adulthood on subsequent ethanol intake in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Adolescent and adult mice were initially exposed to the scheduled high alcohol consumption procedure, which produces BECs that exceed the levels for binge drinking following a 30 min ethanol session every third day. Ethanol intake and BECs were significantly higher in the adolescent (?3 g/kg, 199 mg%) versus adult (?2 g/kg, 135 mg%) mice during the first three ethanol sessions, but were more equivalent during the final two ethanol sessions (1.85-2.0 g/kg, 129-143 mg%). Then, separate groups of the ethanol experienced mice were tested with ethanol naïve adolescent and adult mice for 2-hr limited access (10 and 20% solutions) or 24-hr (5, 10 and 20% solutions) ethanol preference drinking. Limited access ethanol intake was significantly higher in female versus male mice, but was not altered by age or ethanol experience. In contrast, 24-hr ethanol intake was significantly higher in the adolescent versus adult mice and in female versus male mice. Furthermore, binge drinking experience in the adolescent mice significantly increased subsequent ethanol intake, primarily due to intake in female mice. Thus, adolescent binge drinking significantly increased unlimited ethanol intake during adulthood, with female mice more susceptible to this effect. PMID:19854195

Strong, Moriah N.; Yoneyama, Naomi; Fretwell, Andrea M.; Snelling, Chris; Tanchuck, Michelle A.; Finn, Deborah A.



Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9\\/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9\\/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Women's health study, United States.Participants 39 322 initially healthy women classified into four categories according to self reported baseline blood pressure and followed for a median of 10.2

David Conen; Paul M Ridker; Julie E Buring; Robert J Glynn



High Ethanol Titers from Cellulose by Using Metabolically Engineered Thermophilic, Anaerobic Microbes ? † ‡  

PubMed Central

This work describes novel genetic tools for use in Clostridium thermocellum that allow creation of unmarked mutations while using a replicating plasmid. The strategy employed counter-selections developed from the native C. thermocellum hpt gene and the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum tdk gene and was used to delete the genes for both lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). The ?ldh ?pta mutant was evolved for 2,000 h, resulting in a stable strain with 40:1 ethanol selectivity and a 4.2-fold increase in ethanol yield over the wild-type strain. Ethanol production from cellulose was investigated with an engineered coculture of organic acid-deficient engineered strains of both C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Fermentation of 92 g/liter Avicel by this coculture resulted in 38 g/liter ethanol, with acetic and lactic acids below detection limits, in 146 h. These results demonstrate that ethanol production by thermophilic, cellulolytic microbes is amenable to substantial improvement by metabolic engineering. PMID:21965408

Argyros, D. Aaron; Tripathi, Shital A.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Feinberg, Lawrence F.; Olson, Daniel G.; Foden, Justine M.; Miller, Bethany B.; Lynd, Lee R.; Hogsett, David A.; Caiazza, Nicky C.



High-temperature fermentation: how can processes for ethanol production at high temperatures become superior to the traditional process using mesophilic yeast?  


The process of ethanol fermentation has a long history in the production of alcoholic drinks, but much larger scale production of ethanol is now required to enable its use as a substituent of gasoline fuels at 3%, 10%, or 85% (referred to as E3, E10, and E85, respectively). Compared with fossil fuels, the production costs are a major issue for the production of fuel ethanol. There are a number of possible approaches to delivering cost-effective fuel ethanol production from different biomass sources, but we focus in our current report on high-temperature fermentation using a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. We demonstrate that a 5 degrees C increase only in the fermentation temperature can greatly affect the fuel ethanol production costs. We contend that this approach may also be applicable to the other microbial fermentations systems and propose that thermotolerant mesophilic microorganisms have considerable potential for the development of future fermentation technologies. PMID:19820925

Abdel-Banat, Babiker M A; Hoshida, Hisashi; Ano, Akihiko; Nonklang, Sanom; Akada, Rinji



Numerical model investigation for potential methane explosion and benzene vapor intrusion associated with high-ethanol blend releases.  


Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could pose an explosion risk if methane accumulates in a confined space above the ground where ignitable conditions exist. Ethanol-derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel hydrocarbons by stimulating the depletion of oxygen by methanotrophs, and thus inhibiting aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbon vapors. To assess these processes, a three-dimensional numerical vapor intrusion model was used to simulate the degradation, migration, and intrusion pathway of methane and benzene under different site conditions. Simulations show that methane is unlikely to build up to pose an explosion hazard (5% v/v) if diffusion is the only mass transport mechanism through the deeper vadose zone. However, if methanogenic activity near the source zone is sufficiently high to cause advective gas transport, then the methane indoor concentration may exceed the flammable threshold under simulated conditions. During subsurface migration, methane biodegradation could consume soil oxygen that would otherwise be available to support hydrocarbon degradation, and increase the vapor intrusion potential for benzene. Vapor intrusion would also be exacerbated if methanogenic activity results in sufficiently high pressure to cause advective gas transport in the unsaturated zone. Overall, our simulations show that current approaches to manage the vapor intrusion risk for conventional fuel released might need to be modified when dealing with some high ethanol blend fuel (i.e., E20 up to E95) releases. PMID:24354291

Ma, Jie; Luo, Hong; Devaull, George E; Rixey, William G; Alvarez, Pedro J J



Many Docs Fail to Counsel Young Adults with High Blood Pressure  


... Fail to Counsel Young Adults With High Blood Pressure Too few physicians urge lifestyle changes, study finds (* ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Healthy Living High Blood Pressure Talking With Your Doctor MONDAY, Nov. 10, 2014 ( ...


Wearable, Doc-Prescribed Monitors May Help Spot High Blood Pressure  


... Doc-Prescribed Monitors May Help Spot High Blood Pressure Wearing device for a day gives more accurate ... December 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure MONDAY, Dec. 22, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People suspected ...


For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease  


... Disease For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease Make the Kidney ... checked for kidney disease? Diabetes and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys and lead to kidney ...


Use of expired breath ethanol measurements in evaluation of irrigant absorption during high-power potassium titanyl phosphate laser vaporization of prostate  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo evaluate formally the risk and levels of irrigant absorption during high-power potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser vaporization of the prostate by the Greenlight PV system using the expired breath ethanol technique.

N. J. Barber; G. Zhu; J. F. Donohue; P. M. Thompson; K. Walsh; G. H. Muir



High concentrations of cellulosic ethanol achieved by fed batch semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of waste-paper  

PubMed Central

A fundamental goal of second generation ethanol production is to increase the ethanol concentration to 10% (v/v) or more to optimise distillation costs. Semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentations (SSSF) were conducted at small pilot scale (5 L) utilising fed-batch additions of solid shredded copier paper substrate. Early addition of Accellerase® 1500 at 16 FPU/g substrate and 30 U/g ?-glucosidase followed by substrate only batch addition allowed low final equivalent enzyme concentrations to be achieved (3.7 FPU/g substrate) whilst maintaining digestion. Batch addition resulted in a cumulative substrate concentration equivalent to 65% (w/v). This in turn resulted in the production of high concentrations of ethanol (11.6% v/v). The success of this strategy relied on the capacity of the bioreactor to perform high shear mixing as required. Further research into the timing and number of substrate additions could lead to further improvement in overall yields from the 65.5% attained. PMID:23500568

Elliston, Adam; Collins, Samuel R.A.; Wilson, David R.; Roberts, Ian N.; Waldron, Keith W.



High temperature dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of corn stover for furfural and ethanol production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Furfural was produced from corn stover by one stage pretreatment process using dilute H3PO4 and solid residues following furfural production were used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL- Y2034. A series of experiments were conducted at varied temperatures (140-200 oC) and acid ...


A new subspecies of Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. with very high ethanol tolerance.  


In a search for thermophilic ethanol-tolerant bacteria, water-sediment samples collected at springs in Yunnan province of China were screened by ethanol enrichment. A novel thermophilic bacterium, strain E13(T) , was isolated. It exhibits a unique and remarkable ability to preferably grow in the presence of ethanol and is able to tolerate 13% (v/v) ethanol at 60 °C. The isolate is a facultative aerobic, Gram-positive, motile, spore-forming rod that is capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources, such as xylose, arabinose and cellobiose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene similarity showed the strain to be affiliated with the species Anoxybacillus flavithermus (99.2% sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization comparisons demonstrated a 64.8% DNA-DNA relatedness between strain E13(T) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641(T) . On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it was concluded that the isolate merited classification as a novel subspecies of A. flavithermus, for which the name Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is E13(T) (=CCTCC AB2010187(T) =KCTC 13759(T) ). PMID:21521361

Dai, Jun; Liu, Yang; Lei, Yin; Gao, Yi; Han, Fang; Xiao, Yazhong; Peng, Hui



A pre-injury high ethanol intake in rats promotes brain edema following traumatic brain injury.  


Drinking is a risk factor for traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ethanol can aggravate the outcome by promoting brain edema. The mechanism involved is not fully understood. It has been confirmed that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play pivotal roles in cytotoxic/vasogenic brain edema individually, and both of these proteins are downstream regulatory factors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). In this study, we used a fluid percussion injury (FPI) model in rats to determine the effects of acute ethanol intake on the expression levels of HIF-1?, AQP4, and VEGF prior to FPI. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, and 4 days post-injury. We found that the expression levels of HIF-1? and AQP4 were significantly upregulated in the ethanol-pretreated groups, whereas the VEGF expression level was not. In addition, there was a positive correlation between HIF-1? and AQP4. The results of this study indicate that cytotoxic brain edema may play an important role in the early stage of FPI in ethanol-pre-treated animals and that HIF-1? and AQP4 might be involved. PMID:24814385

Wu, Weichuan; Tian, Runfa; Hao, Shuyu; Xu, Feifan; Mao, Xiang; Liu, Baiyun



Long-Evans Rats Acquire Operant Self-Administration of 20% Ethanol Without Sucrose Fading  

PubMed Central

A major obstacle in the development of new medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has been the lack of preclinical, oral ethanol consumption paradigms that elicit high consumption. We have previously shown that rats exposed to 20% ethanol intermittently in a two-bottle choice paradigm will consume two times more ethanol than those given continuous access without the use of water deprivation or sucrose fading (5–6?g/kg every 24?h vs 2–3?g/kg every 24?h, respectively). In this study, we have adapted the model to an operant self-administration paradigm. Long-Evans rats were given access to 20% ethanol in overnight sessions on one of two schedules: (1) intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) or (2) daily (Monday through Friday). With the progression of the overnight sessions, both groups showed a steady escalation in drinking (3–6?g/kg every 14?h) without the use of a sucrose-fading procedure. Following the acquisition phase, the 20% ethanol groups consumed significantly more ethanol than did animals trained to consume 10% ethanol with a sucrose fade (1.5 vs 0.7?g/kg every 30?min) and reached significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations. In addition, training history (20% ethanol vs 10% ethanol with sucrose fade) had a significant effect on the subsequent self-administration of higher concentrations of ethanol. Administration of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine following extinction caused a significant reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior. Both 20% ethanol models show promise and are amenable to the study of maintenance, motivation, and reinstatement. Furthermore, training animals to lever press for ethanol without the use of sucrose fading removes a potential confound from self-administration studies. PMID:20200505

Simms, Jeffrey A; Bito-Onon, Jade J; Chatterjee, Susmita; Bartlett, Selena E



Acute Ethanol Effects on Brain Activation in Low- and High-Level Responders to Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Background A low level of response (LR) to alcohol is an important endophenotype associated with an increased risk for alcoholism. However, little is known about how neural functioning may differ between individuals with low and high LRs to alcohol. This study examined whether LR group effects on neural activity varied as a function of acute alcohol consumption. Methods 30 matched high- and low-LR pairs (N=60 healthy young adults) were recruited from the University of California, San Diego and administered a structured diagnostic interview and laboratory alcohol challenge followed by two fMRI sessions under placebo and alcohol conditions, in randomized order. Task performance and BOLD response contrast to high relative to low working memory load in an event-related visual working memory (VWM) task was examined across 120 fMRI sessions. Results Both LR groups performed similarly on the VWM task across conditions. A significant LR group by condition interaction effect was observed in inferior frontal and cingulate regions, such that alcohol attenuated the LR group differences found under placebo (p<.05). The LR group by condition effect remained even after controlling for cerebral blood flow, age, and typical drinking quantity. Conclusions Alcohol had differential effects on brain activation for low and high LR individuals within frontal and cingulate regions. These findings represent an additional step in the search for physiological correlates of a low LR, and identify brain regions that may be associated with the low LR response. PMID:20477775

Trim, Ryan S.; Simmons, Alan N.; Tolentino, Neil J.; Hall, Shana A.; Matthews, Scott C.; Robinson, Shannon K.; Smith, Tom L.; Padula, Claudia B.; Paulus, Martin P.; Tapert, Susan F.; Schuckit, Marc A.



Ethanol tolerance in bacteria.  


The adverse effects of ethanol on bacterial growth, viability, and metabolism are caused primarily by ethanol-induced leakage of the plasma membrane. This increase in membrane leakage is consistent with known biophysical properties of membranes and ethanolic solutions. The primary actions of ethanol result from colligative effects of the high molar concentrations rather than from specific interactions with receptors. The ethanol tolerance of growth in different microorganisms appears to result in large part from adaptive and evolutionary changes in cell membrane composition. Different cellular activities vary in their tolerance to ethanol. Therefore, it is essential that the aspect of cellular function under study be specifically defined and that comparisons of ethanol tolerance among systems share this common definition. Growth is typically one of the most sensitive cellular activities to inhibition by ethanol, followed by survival, or loss of reproductive ability. Glycolysis is the most resistant of these three activities. Since glycolysis is an exergonic process, a cell need not be able to grow or remain viable for glycolysis to occur. PMID:2178781

Ingram, L O



Ethanol Causes Protein Precipitation—New Safety Issues for Catheter Locking Techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective The ethanol lock technique has shown great potential to eradicate organisms in biofilms and to treat or prevent central venous catheter related infections. Following instillation of ethanol lock solution, however, the inherent density gradient between blood and ethanol causes gravity induced seepage of ethanol out of the catheter and blood influx into the catheter. Plasma proteins so are exposed to highly concentrated ethanol, which is a classic agent for protein precipitation. We aimed to investigate the precipitating effect of ethanol locks on plasma proteins as a possible cause for reported catheter occlusions. Methods Plasma samples were exposed in-vitro to ethanol (concentrations ranging from 7 to 70 v/v%) and heparin lock solutions. In catheter studies designed to mimic different in-vivo situations, the catheter tip was placed in a plasma reservoir and the material contained within the catheter was analyzed after ethanol lock instillation. The samples underwent standardized investigation for protein precipitation. Results Protein precipitation was observed in plasma samples containing ethanol solutions above a concentration of 28%, as well as in material retrieved from vertically positioned femoral catheters and jugular (subclavian) catheters simulating recumbent or head down tilt body positions. Precipitates could not be re-dissolved by dilution with plasma, urokinase or alteplase. Plasma samples containing heparin lock solutions showed no signs of precipitation. Conclusions Our in-vitro results demonstrate that ethanol locks may be associated with plasma protein precipitation in central venous catheters. This phenomenon could be related to occlusion of vascular access devices locked with ethanol, as has been reported. Concerns should be raised regarding possible complications upon injection or spontaneous gravity induced leakage of such irreversibly precipitated protein particles into the systemic circulation. We suggest limiting the maximum advisable concentration of ethanol to 28 v/v% in catheter lock solutions. PMID:24391979

Schilcher, Gernot; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Schneditz, Daniel; Scharnagl, Hubert; Ribitsch, Werner; Krause, Robert; Rosenkranz, Alexander R.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Horina, Joerg H.



Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.


Unacceptably high site variability in postmortem blood alcohol analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood alcohol concentration is a frequently requested test in forensic pathology. The variability of this value was studied by measuring the blood alcohol concentration from six sites in nine subjects at necropsy in whom alcohol was the implicated cause of death. There were small consistent differences in the blood alcohol concentrations between the sites in the nine subjects (p <

P. A. Sylvester; N. A. Wong; B. F. Warren; D. L. Ranson



What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?  


... of the blood against the walls of the arteries. Blood pressure results from two forces. One is created ... glands near the kidneys and narrowing of certain arteries. How often should I have my blood pressure checked? Your doctor may take several readings ...


Mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very\\u000a high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level.\\u000a Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol stress response in past decades, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance\\u000a are not well known.

Menggen Ma; Z. Lewis Liu



Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure  


... exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... American Heart Association Download (99.0 kB) Blood Pressure Check copyright American Heart Association Download (998.4 ...


Instability and "Sausage-String" Appearance in Blood Vessels during High Blood Pressure  

E-print Network

A new Rayleigh-type instability is proposed to explain the `sausage-string' pattern of alternating constrictions and dilatations formed in blood vessels under influence of a vasoconstricting agent. Our theory involves the nonlinear elasticity characteristics of the vessel wall, and provides predictions for the conditions under which the cylindrical form of a blood vessel becomes unstable.

Alstrøm, P; Colding-Jorgensen, M; Gustafsson, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Alstrom, Preben; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Colding-Jorgensen, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik



Acceleration of the rate of ethanol fermentation by addition of nitrogen in high tannin grain sorghum  

SciTech Connect

In this communication, the authors show that accelerated rates of ethanol production, comparable to sorghum varieties containing low levels of tannins and to corn, can occur without the removal of the tannins. The basis of the inhibition appears to be a lack of sufficient nitrogen in the mash for protein synthesis required to support an accelerated fermentative metabolism in Saccharomyces. No inhibition of the enzymes used for starch hydrolysis was found.

Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.



Utilization of dry distiller’s grain and solubles as nutrient supplement in the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high solids loading of corn stover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry distiller’s grain and solubles (DDGS) is a major by-product of corn-based ethanol production and is usually used as animal\\u000a feed. Here, it was added to the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) carried out at high solids loading\\u000a of steam explosion pretreated corn stover using a mutant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1. The performance of SSF process with DDGS was

Dexi BiDeqiang; Deqiang Chu; Pei Zhu; Chenyang Lu; Chao Fan; Jian Zhang; Jie Bao



Highly Active Iridium/Iridium Tin/Tin Oxide Heterogeneous Nanoparticles as Alternative Electrocatalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a promising fuel for low-temperature direct fuel cell reactions due to its low toxicity, ease of storage and transportation, high-energy density, and availability from biomass. However, the implementation of ethanol fuel cell technology has been hindered by the lack of low-cost, highly active anode catalysts. In this paper, we have studied Iridium (Ir)-based binary catalysts as low-cost alternative electrocatalysts replacing platinum (Pt)-based catalysts for the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) reaction. We report the synthesis of carbon supported Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29} catalysts with an average diameter of 2.7 {+-} 0.6 nm through a 'surfactant-free' wet chemistry approach. The complementary characterization techniques, including aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, are used to identify the 'real' heterogeneous structure of Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C particles as Ir/Ir-Sn/SnO{sub 2}, which consists of an Ir-rich core and an Ir-Sn alloy shell with SnO{sub 2} present on the surface. The Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C heterogeneous catalyst exhibited high electrochemical activity toward the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to the commercial Pt/C (ETEK), PtRu/C (Johnson Matthey) as well as PtSn/C catalysts. Electrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the superior electro-activity is directly related to the high degree of Ir-Sn alloy formation as well as the existence of nonalloyed SnO{sub 2} on surface. Our cross-disciplinary work, from novel 'surfactant-free' synthesis of Ir-Sn catalysts, theoretical simulations, and catalytic measurements to the characterizations of 'real' heterogeneous nanostructures, will not only highlight the intriguing structure-property correlations in nanosized catalysts but also have a transformative impact on the commercialization of DEFC technology by replacing Pt with low-cost, highly active Ir-based catalysts.

Du W.; Su D.; Wang Q.; Saxner D.; Deskins N.A.; Krzanowski J.E.; Frenkel A.I.; Teng X.



Rewarding and aversive effects of ethanol in High Drinking in the Dark selectively bred mice.  


Both rewarding and aversive effects contribute to alcohol consumption. Animals genetically predisposed to be high drinkers show reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol, and in some instances, increased sensitivity to alcohol's rewarding effects. The present studies tested the high drinking in the dark (HDID) selected lines, a genetic model of drinking to intoxication, to determine whether intake in these mice was genetically related to sensitivity to alcohol aversion or reward. Male HDID mice from the first and second replicate lines (HDID-1 and HDID-2, respectively) and mice from the heterogeneous progenitor control population (HS/Npt, or HS) were conditioned for a taste aversion to a salt solution using two doses of alcohol, and lithium chloride (LiCl) and saline controls. In separate experiments, male and female HDID-1, HDID-2 and HS mice were conditioned for place preference using alcohol. HDID mice were found to have an attenuated sensitivity to alcohol at a moderate (2?g/kg) dose compared to HS mice, but did not differ on conditioned taste aversion to a high (4?g/kg) dose or LiCl or saline injections. HDID and HS mice showed comparable development of alcohol-induced conditioned place preference. These results indicate that high blood alcohol levels after drinking in the HDID mice is genetically related to attenuated aversion to alcohol, while sensitivity to alcohol reward is not altered in these mice. Thus, HDID mice may find a moderate dose of alcohol to be less aversive than control mice and consequently may drink more because of this reduced aversive sensitivity. PMID:23910826

Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M; Cunningham, Christopher L; Smitasin, Phoebe J; Crabbe, John C



Gene specific modifications unravel ethanol and acetaldehyde actions  

PubMed Central

Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde mainly by the action of alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver, while mainly by the action of catalase in the brain. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 metabolizes acetaldehyde into acetate in both organs. Gene specific modifications reviewed here show that an increased liver generation of acetaldehyde (by transduction of a gene coding for a high-activity liver alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1*B2) leads to increased blood acetaldehyde levels and aversion to ethanol in animals. Similarly aversive is an increased acetaldehyde level resulting from the inhibition of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) synthesis (by an antisense coding gene against aldh2 mRNA). The situation is diametrically different when acetaldehyde is generated in the brain. When the brain ventral tegmental area (VTA) is endowed with an increased ability to generate acetaldehyde (by transfection of liver rADH) the reinforcing effects of ethanol are increased, while a highly specific inhibition of catalase synthesis (by transduction of a shRNA anti catalase mRNA) virtually abolishes the reinforcing effects of ethanol as seen by a complete abolition of ethanol intake in rats bred for generations as high ethanol drinkers. Data shows two divergent effects of increases in acetaldehyde generation: aversive in the periphery but reinforcing in the brain. PMID:23847486

Israel, Yedy; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, María E.; Tampier, Lutske; Morales, Paola; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario



High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by  

E-print Network

High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction of human red blood cells (RBC) parasitized by malaria-inducing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-RBCs. Three

Dao, Ming


The preparation, assay and certification of aqueous ethanol reference solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internationally, certified ethanol reference materials are required to calibrate breathalysers and blood-alcohol measurement\\u000a instruments. The CSIR National Metrology Laboratory of South Africa provides certified aqueous ethanol solutions with traceability\\u000a to the SI. Ethanol solutions in the concentration range 10 mg\\/100 g to 20 g\\/100 g are prepared gravimetrically by mixing ethanol\\u000a and reagent quality water. To verify the concentration of the ethanol it is

Marcellé Archer; Betty-Jayne de Vos; Maria S Visser



Ontogenetic Differences in Ethanol’s Motivational Properties during Infancy  

PubMed Central

Pairing a conditioned stimulus (CS) with ethanol generally produces aversion for that CS in adult rodents. However, infant rats (PD1-PD3) exposed to ethanol demonstrate appetitive reinforcement to ethanol (Petrov et al., 2003; Nizhnikov et al., 2006a). This sensitivity to the appetitive properties of ethanol during infancy may be transient, as during the second postnatal week rat pups tend to exhibit conditioned aversions to flavors paired with ethanol. The present study examined changes in the motivation properties of ethanol through ontogeny and the neurobiology underlying these changes. Rat pups were exposed to a taste conditioning procedure on PD4 or PD12. Rat pups were intraorally infused with 2.5% of their body weight of saccharin solution (0.1%) and immediately after injected intraperitoneolly (i.p.) with one of six doses of ethanol (0.0–2.0 g/kg). A day later pups were given saccharine infusions and percent body weight gain was used as an index of ethanol’s reinforcing effects. PD4 pups expressed appetitive reinforcement to ethanol, as indicated by greater saccharin intake, as compared to control counterparts and to the older PD12 pups. Subsequent experiments revealed that PD4 pups were less sensitive to the aversive properties of the drug than PD12 pups. The older pups found high doses of ethanol aversive while PD4 rat pups did not condition aversions to this dose of ethanol after a single trial. A similar pattern of results was observed between the low doses of ethanol and the highest doses of a kappa opioid agonist. The PD12 animals did not condition to the kappa opioid agonist, while the younger rats expressed an appetitive response. These results illustrate an ontogenetic change in the motivational properties of ethanol, with sensitivity to its appetitive properties declining and responsiveness to the aversive properties increasing with age during early infancy. PMID:22440692

Nizhnikov, Michael Eduard; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Valinskaya, Elena; Rahmani, Pouyan; Spear, Norman E.



Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine blood is an excellent flocculating agent, faster acting and as effective on a mass basis as polyacrylamide, the most widely utilized polymeric flocculant. To determine the molecular basis of flocculation activity, whole bovine blood (BB) and BB plasma were fractionated by size exclusion chro...


High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation and Transformation with Linear DNA in the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU3-1042?  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate herein the ability of Kluyveromyces marxianus to be an efficient ethanol producer and host for expressing heterologous proteins as an alternative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth and ethanol production by strains of K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae were compared under the same conditions. K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 was found to be the most suitable strain for high-temperature growth and ethanol production at 45°C. This strain, but not S. cerevisiae, utilized cellobiose, xylose, xylitol, arabinose, glycerol, and lactose. To develop a K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 derivative strain suitable for genetic engineering, a uracil auxotroph was isolated and transformed with a linear DNA of the S. cerevisiae ScURA3 gene. Surprisingly, Ura+ transformants were easily obtained. By Southern blot hybridization, the linear ScURA3 DNA was found to have inserted randomly into the K. marxianus genome. Sequencing of one Lys? transformant confirmed the disruption of the KmLYS1 gene by the ScURA3 insertion. A PCR-amplified linear DNA lacking K. marxianus sequences but containing an Aspergillus ?-amylase gene under the control of the ScTDH3 promoter together with an ScURA3 marker was subsequently used to transform K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 in order to obtain transformants expressing Aspergillus ?-amylase. Our results demonstrate that K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 can be an alternative cost-effective bioethanol producer and a host for transformation with linear DNA by use of S. cerevisiae-based molecular genetic tools. PMID:18931291

Nonklang, Sanom; Abdel-Banat, Babiker M. A.; Cha-aim, Kamonchai; Moonjai, Nareerat; Hoshida, Hisashi; Limtong, Savitree; Yamada, Mamoru; Akada, Rinji



Ethanol injection is highly effective for hepatocellular carcinoma smaller than 2 cm  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the long-term prognosis in a cohort of western cirrhotic patients with single hepatocellular carcinoma treated with ethanol injection. METHODS: One-hundred forty-eight patients with solitary hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled. The tumor diameter was lower than 2 cm in 47 patients but larger in the remaining 101 patients. The impact of some pre-treatment clinical and laboratory parameters and of tumor recurrence on patients’ survival was assessed. RESULTS: Among the pre-treatment parameters, only a tumor diameter of less than 2 cm was an independent prognostic factor of survival. The occurrence of new nodules in other liver segments and the neoplastic portal invasion were linked to a poorer prognosis at univariate analysis. Patients with a single hepatocellular carcinoma smaller than 2 cm showed a better 5-year cumulative survival (73.0% vs 47.9%) (P = 0.009), 3-year local recurrence rate (29.1% vs 51.5%) (P = 0.011), and 5-year distant intrahepatic recurrence rate (52.9% vs 62.8%) (P = 0.054) compared to patients with a larger tumor. CONCLUSION: The 5-year survival rate of patients with single hepatocellular carcinoma < 2 cm undergoing ethanol injection is excellent and comparable to that achieved using radiofrequency ablation. PMID:21912455

Pompili, Maurizio; Nicolardi, Erica; Abbate, Valeria; Miele, Luca; Riccardi, Laura; Covino, Marcello; Matthaeis, Nicoletta De; Grieco, Antonio; Landolfi, Raffaele; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico



Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

Derr, Dan



Process for producing ethanol  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.



Longitudinal Assessment of High Blood Pressure in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD. Methods Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks. Results Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P?=?0.003). Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively). Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P?=?0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD. PMID:25419656

Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Zepeda, Anne; Newton, Kimberly P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Behling, Cynthia; Hallinan, Erin K.; Donithan, Michele; Tonascia, James



Low blood alcohol levels in rats despite chronic alcohol consumption  

SciTech Connect

Rats fed liquid diets containing 36% or 26% of calories from ethanol consume similar amounts of alcohol each day. After 3 weeks on ethanol diet, the blood alcohol levels (BAL) are high in rats fed the 36% alcohol diet, but low or insignificant in those fed the 26% alcohol diet. Rats in either alcohol diet group consume most of their diet in the night. Hence, the low BAL in 26% ethanol diet-fed rats may not be due to a more rapid diet consumption after feeding and clearance of the bulk of ingested alcohol as compared to the rats fed the 36% alcohol diet. BAL at various times during the day (7 AM, 10 AM, 1 PM, 4 PM, 7 PM and 10 PM) are high in rats fed the 36% ethanol diet. However, BAL in those fed the 26% ethanol diet are low during the corresponding times. It appears that the low BAL produced by the enhanced hepatic metabolism of ethanol is related to the improved nutritional status in rats fed the 26% ethanol diet, compared to those fed 36% ethanol diet, because rats fed the 36% ethanol diet ingest reduced amounts of calories and other nutrients. Extrahepatic effects of chronic alcohol consumption caused by high BAL may be abated by an enhanced daily intake of nutrients by the animal.

Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W.; Lin, J.C.; Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. (VA Medical Centers, Portland, OR (USA))



Influence of fiber degradation and concentration of fermentable sugars on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of high-solids spruce slurry to ethanol  

PubMed Central

Background Saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic materials, such as spruce, should be performed at high solids contents in order to reduce the cost of the produced bioethanol. However, this has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields or a complete lack of ethanol production. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results when prehydrolysis is performed at a higher temperature prior to the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic materials. In some cases, a significant increase in overall ethanol yield was reported, while in others, a slight decrease in ethanol yield was observed. In order to investigate the influence of prehydrolysis on high-solids SSF of steam-pretreated spruce slurry, in the present study, the presence of fibers and inhibitors, degree of fiber degradation and initial fermentable sugar concentration has been studied. Results SSF of whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry at a solids content of 13.7% water-insoluble solids (WIS) resulted in a very low overall ethanol yield, mostly due to poor fermentation. The yeast was, however, able to ferment the washed slurry and the liquid fraction of the pretreated slurry. Performing prehydrolysis at 48°C for 22 hours prior to SSF of the whole pretreated slurry increased the overall ethanol yield from 3.9 to 62.1%. The initial concentration of fermentable sugars in SSF could not explain the increase in ethanol yield in SSF with prehydrolysis. Although the viscosity of the material did not appear to decrease significantly during prehydrolysis, the degradation of the fibers prior to the addition of the yeast had a positive effect on ethanol yield when using whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that the increase in ethanol yield from SSF when performing prehydrolysis is a result of fiber degradation rather than a decrease in viscosity. The increased concentration of fermentable sugars at the beginning of the fermentation phase in SSF following prehydrolysis did not affect the overall ethanol yield in the present study. PMID:24103097



Ethanol induced modification of m-xylene toxicokinetics in humans.  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to determine whether previous subacute treatment with ethanol could modify the kinetics of m-xylene in humans. A group of six volunteers was exposed twice to either 100 or 400 ppm of m-xylene during two hours (between 0800 and 1000). Ethanol was given orally in the early evening on each of two consecutive days before exposures (total ethanol intake of 137 g). Such ethanol pretreatment affected the kinetics of m-xylene but only at the high exposure (400 ppm). The modifications were: (1) decreased concentration of m-xylene in blood and alveolar air during and after exposure; (2) increased urinary excretion of m-methylhippuric acid at the end of exposure. Ethanol treatment also enhanced the elimination of antipyrine in saliva. Overall, this study showed that the effect of enzyme induction on the metabolism of m-xylene, after ethanol ingestion, depends on the exposure concentration and is not likely to occur as long as the exposure concentrations remain under the current maximum allowable concentration (100 ppm) in the workplace. PMID:8130847

Tardif, R; Sato, A; Laparé, S; Brodeur, J



Interpreting results of ethanol analysis in postmortem specimens: a review of the literature.  


We searched the scientific literature for articles dealing with postmortem aspects of ethanol and problems associated with making a correct interpretation of the results. A person's blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) and state of inebriation at the time of death is not always easy to establish owing to various postmortem artifacts. The possibility of alcohol being produced in the body after death, e.g. via microbial contamination and fermentation is a recurring issue in routine casework. If ethanol remains unabsorbed in the stomach at the time of death, this raises the possibility of continued local diffusion into surrounding tissues and central blood after death. Skull trauma often renders a person unconscious for several hours before death, during which time the BAC continues to decrease owing to metabolism in the liver. Under these circumstances blood from an intracerebral or subdural clot is a useful specimen for determination of ethanol. Bodies recovered from water are particular problematic to deal with owing to possible dilution of body fluids, decomposition, and enhanced risk of microbial synthesis of ethanol. The relationship between blood and urine-ethanol concentrations has been extensively investigated in autopsy specimens and the urine/blood concentration ratio might give a clue about the stage of alcohol absorption and distribution at the time of death. Owing to extensive abdominal trauma in aviation disasters (e.g. rupture of the viscera), interpretation of BAC in autopsy specimens from the pilot and crew is highly contentious and great care is needed to reach valid conclusions. Vitreous humor is strongly recommended as a body fluid for determination of ethanol in postmortem toxicology to help establish whether the deceased had consumed ethanol before death. Less common autopsy specimens submitted for analysis include bile, bone marrow, brain, testicle, muscle tissue, liver, synovial and cerebrospinal fluids. Some investigators recommend measuring the water content of autopsy blood and if necessary correcting the concentration of ethanol to a mean value of 80% w/w, which corresponds to fresh whole blood. Alcoholics often die at home with zero or low BAC and nothing more remarkable at autopsy than a fatty liver. Increasing evidence suggests that such deaths might be caused by a pronounced ketoacidosis. Recent research has focused on developing various biochemical tests or markers of postmortem synthesis of ethanol. These include the urinary metabolites of serotonin and non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol, such as ethyl glucuronide, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. This literature review will hopefully be a good starting point for those who are contemplating a fresh investigation into some aspect of postmortem alcohol analysis and toxicology. PMID:16782292

Kugelberg, Fredrik C; Jones, Alan Wayne



Ethanol-metabolizing pathways in deermice. Estimation of flux calculated from isotope effects  

SciTech Connect

The apparent deuterium isotope effects on Vmax/Km (D(V/K) of ethanol oxidation in two deermouse strains (one having and one lacking hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were used to calculate flux through the ADH, microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), and catalase pathways. In vitro, D(V/K) values were 3.22 for ADH, 1.13 for MEOS, and 1.83 for catalase under physiological conditions of pH, temperature, and ionic strength. In vivo, in deermice lacking ADH (ADH-), D(V/K) was 1.20 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.) at 7.0 +/- 0.5 mM blood ethanol and 1.08 +/- 0.10 at 57.8 +/- 10.2 mM blood ethanol, consistent with ethanol oxidation principally by MEOS. Pretreatment of ADH- animals with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole did not significantly change D(V/K). ADH+ deermice exhibited D(V/K) values of 1.87 +/- 0.06 (untreated), 1.71 +/- 0.13 (pretreated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), and 1.24 +/- 0.13 (after the ADH inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole) at 5-7 mM blood ethanol levels. At elevated blood ethanol concentrations (58.1 +/- 2.4 mM), a D(V/K) of 1.37 +/- 0.21 was measured in the ADH+ strain. For measured D(V/K) values to accurately reflect pathway contributions, initial reaction conditions are essential. These were shown to exist by the following criteria: negligible fractional conversion of substrate to product and no measurable back reaction in deermice having a reversible enzyme (ADH). Thus, calculations from D(V/K) indicate that, even when ADH is present, non-ADH pathways (mostly MEOS) participate significantly in ethanol metabolism at all concentrations tested and play a major role at high levels.

Alderman, J.; Takagi, T.; Lieber, C.S.



Identification of RCN1 and RSA3 as ethanol-tolerant genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a high copy barcoded library.  


Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) encounters a multitude of stresses during industrial processes such as wine fermentation including ethanol toxicity. High levels of ethanol reduce the viability of yeast and may prevent completion of fermentation. The identification of ethanol-tolerant genes is important for creating stress-resistant industrial yeast, and S. cerevisiae genomic resources have been utilized for this purpose. We have employed a molecular barcoded yeast open reading frame (MoBY-ORF) high copy plasmid library to identify ethanol-tolerant genes in both the S. cerevisiae S288C laboratory and M2 wine strains. We find that increased dosage of either RCN1 or RSA3 improves tolerance of S288C and M2 to toxic levels of ethanol. RCN1 is a regulator of calcineurin, whereas RSA3 has a role in ribosome maturation. Additional fitness advantages conferred upon overproduction of RCN1 and RSA3 include increased resistance to cell wall degradation, heat, osmotic and oxidative stress. We find that the M2 wine yeast strain is generally more tolerant of stress than S288C with the exception of translation inhibition, which affects M2 growth more severely than S288C. We conclude that regulation of ribosome biogenesis and ultimately translation is a critical factor for S. cerevisiae survival during industrial-related environmental stress. PMID:22093065

Anderson, Michael J; Barker, Sarah L; Boone, Charlie; Measday, Vivien



Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. ?AIMS—To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. ?METHODS—Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily.?RESULTS—A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. ?CONCLUSIONS—Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora. ?? Keywords: ciprofloxacin; ethanol; colonic bacteria; metabolism; alcohol dehydrogenase; acetaldehyde PMID:10026319

Tillonen, J; Homann, N; Rautio, M; Jousimies-Somer, H; Salaspuro, M



High Blood Cholesterol Q&A Dr. Michael Lauer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Q&A with Dr. Michael Lauer Past Issues / ... heavier and older, what does recent research on cholesterol and heart health tell us that Americans need ...


Construction and Analysis of High-Ethanol-Producing Fusants with Co-Fermentation Ability through Protoplast Fusion and Double Labeling Technology  

PubMed Central

Double labeling of resistance markers and report genes can be used to breed engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that can assimilate xylose and glucose as a mixed carbon source for ethanol fermentation and increased ethanol production. In this study Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and Candida shehatae 20335 were used as parent strains to conduct protoplast fusion and the resulting fusants were screened by double labeling. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to assess the ethanol yield following the fermentation of xylose and glucose, as both single and mixed carbon sources, by the fusants. Interestingly, one fusant (ZLYRHZ7) was demonstrated to have an excellent fermentation performance, with an ethanol yield using the mixed carbon source of 0.424 g g?1, which compares with 0.240 g g?1 (W5) and 0.353 g g?1 (20335) for the parent strains. This indicates an improvement in the ethanol yield of 43.4% and 16.7%, respectively. PMID:25268957

Ge, Jingping; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Luyan; Zhang, Mengyun; Ping, Wenxiang



Ethanol Withdrawal-Associated Drinking and Drinking in the Dark: Common and Discrete Genetic Contributions  

PubMed Central

Individual mice differ in the dose of ethanol they will ingest voluntarily when it is offered during limited access periods in the circadian dark, a phenotype called drinking in the dark (DID). Substantial genetic variation in DID has been reported across a few standard inbred mouse strains, and a line of High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) mice has been established through selective breeding on the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) they attain at the end of a drinking session. Here, we report ethanol DID data for 23 inbred mouse strains, including 11 not previously reported, corroborating the genetic contributions to this trait. We also report data on a different ethanol drinking trait, the increased intake seen after multiple cycles of chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor (CIE). Drinking escalated significantly during ethanol withdrawal. However, HDID mice and their HS controls showed equivalent escalation during withdrawal, demonstrating that withdrawal-associated drinking escalation is not a clear genetic correlate of selection on DID. Across inbred strains, DID is substantially genetically correlated with previously-published two-bottle ethanol preference drinking data assessed under conditions of continuous ethanol access. Although inbred strain data for withdrawal-associated drinking are not available, the current pattern of results suggests that withdrawal-associated drinking is genetically distinct from DID, while genetic contributions to DID and two-bottle preference drinking are substantially similar. PMID:24533180

Crabbe, John C.; Metten, Pamela; Huang, Lawrence C.; Schlumbohm, Jason P.; Spence, Stephanie E.; Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Finn, Deborah A.; Rhodes, Justin S.; Cameron, Andy J.



Corn steep liquor as a cost-effective nutrition adjunct in high-performance Zymomonas ethanol fermentations.  


The ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has been demonstrated to possess several fermentation performance characteristics that are superior to yeast. In a recent survey conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Zymomonas was selected as the most promising host for improvement by genetic engineering directed to pentose metabolism for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass and wastes. Minimization of costs associated with nutritional supplements and seed production is essential for economic large-scale production of fuel ethanol. Corn steep liquor (CSL) is a byproduct of corn wet-milling and has been used as a fermentation nutrient supplement in several different fermentations. This study employed pH-controlled batch fermenters to compare the growth and fermentation performance of Z. mobilis in glucose media with whole and clarified corn steep liquor as sole nutrient source, and to determine minimal amounts of CSL required to sustain high-performance fermentation. It was concluded that CSL can be used as a cost-effective single-source nutrition adjunct for Zymomonas fermentations. Supplementation with inorganic nitrogen significantly reduced the requirement for CSL. Depending on the type of process and mode of operation, there can be a significant contribution of nutrients from the seed culture, and this would also reduce the requirement for CSL. Removal of the insolubles (40% of the total solids) from CSL did not detract significantly from its nutritional effectiveness. On an equal-volume basis, clarified CSL was 1.33 times more "effective" (in terms of cell mass yield and fermentation time) than whole CSL. For fermentations at sugar loading of >5% (w/v), the recommended level of supplementation with clarified CSL is 1.0% (v/v). Based on CSL at US $50/t, the cost associated with using clarified CSL at 1.0% (v/v) is 88 cents/1000 L of medium and 5.3 cents/gal of undenatured ethanol for fermentation of 10% (w/v) glucose. This cost compares favorably to estimates for using inorganic nutrients. The cost impact is reduced to 3.1 cents/gal if there is a byproduct credit for selling the insolubles as animal feed at a price of about US $100/t. Therefore, the disposition of the CSL insolubles can significantly impact the calculations of cost associated with the use of CSL as a nutritional adjunct in large-scale fermentations. PMID:18576088

Lawford, H G; Rousseau, J D



Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Dichrostachys Cinerea W and Arn leaves by a thin layer chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background: The leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea are used as laxative, diuretic, painkiller. It is also used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, boils, oedema, gout, veneral diseases and nasopharyngeal affections, etc. Materials and Methods: The Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves were performed by standard chemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) by using various solvent systems, and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC). Two compounds were isolated by column chromatography and one of the compounds was identified by various spectral studies. Result: Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves showed the presence of Carbohydrates, proteins, Glycosides, Saponins, Tannins, Aminoacids and Terpenoids. The TLC and HPTLC fingerprint of ethanolic extract were studied and various fractions were isolated by column chromatography and one of the fraction contain ?-amyrin glucoside which was confirmed by Infra Red[IR] Spectroscopy, 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), C-13 NMR and Mass spectroscopic (MS) studies. PMID:24991072

Vijayalakshmi, M.; Periyanayagam, K.; Kavitha, K.; Akilandeshwari, K.



High Blood Pressure, Bone-Mineral Loss and Insulin Resistance in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence indicates that high blood pressure is associated with abnormalities in calcium metabolism. Sustained calcium loss may lead to increased bone-mineral loss in subjects with elevated blood pressure. Furthermore, recent findings indicate a possible linkage between abnormal calcium metabolism and insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship(s) among bone-mineral density (BMD), blood pressure, calcium-related and bone

Mitsuhiro Gotoh; Kenji Mizuno; Yoshiaki Ono; Michihiko Takahashi



Isolated systolic hypertension: data from the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly study (EWPHE) was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, inter-patient assessment of diuretic treatment in hypertensive patients aged 60 years or more. Of the 840 patients included in the study 247 had isolated systolic hypertension (systolic blood pressure 2 160 and diastolic blood pressure s95 mmHg). In those (n = 120) randomized

Kevin O'Malley; Patricia McCormack; Eoin T. O'Brien


Determination of Porphyrins in Human Blood by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of porphyrin carboxylic acids and zinc protoporphyrin with fluorescence detection is described. The method is applied to determine the porphyrins in human blood. Erythrocyte porphyrins were extracted from whole blood with 300 ?l of acidic methanol solution. Metalloporphyrin was separately extracted with an acetone-pyridine-sterox solution from another aliquot of blood.

John W. Ho



Impact of Corn Based Ethanol Production on the U.S. High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) and Sugar Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of ethanol production on the sweetener market in the U.S. It was found that ethanol production has increased corn demand and prices, and therefore, may have a negative impact on HFCS production and increase the demand for sugar.

Hassan Marzoughi; P. Lynn Kennedy; Brian M. Hilbun



Effects of enzyme feeding strategy on ethanol yield in fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of spruce at high dry matter  

PubMed Central

Background To make lignocellulosic fuel ethanol economically competitive with fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce the production cost. One way to achieve this is by increasing the substrate concentration in the production process, and thus reduce the energy demand in the final distillation of the fermentation broth. However, increased substrate concentration in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields and severe stirring problems. Because the SSF medium is being continuously hydrolyzed, running the process in fed-batch mode could potentially reduce the stirring problems and lead to increased ethanol yields in high-solids SSF. Different enzyme feeding strategies, with the enzymes either present in the reactor from start-up or fed into the reactor together with the substrate, have been studied, along with the influence of the enzyme feeding strategy on the final ethanol yield and productivity. Results In the present study, SSF was run successfully with 10% and 14% water-insoluble solids (WIS) in batch and fed-batch mode. The mixing of the material in the reactor was significantly better in fed-batch than batch mode, and similarly high or higher ethanol yields were achieved in fed-batch mode compared with batch SSF in some cases. No general trend in the dependence of ethanol yield on enzyme feeding strategy was found. Conclusions The optimum enzyme feeding strategy appears to depend on the conditions during SSF, such as the WIS concentration and the concentration of inhibitory compounds in the SSF medium. PMID:20579340



Errors in performance testing: a comparison of ethanol and temazepam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both ethanol and benzodiazepines impair psychomotor function. Previous work has suggested that ethanol may have a greater effect on errors while benzodiazepines may cause greater slowing, but this has not been tested in a direct comparison. We assessed the effects of ethanol, at blood concentrations of approximately 80–100 mg\\/100 ml, compared to two doses of temazepam (20 mg and 30

B. Tiplady; J. Hiroz; L. Holmes; G. Drummond



High blood pressure arising from a defect in vascular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension, a major cardiovascular risk factor and cause of mortality worldwide, is thought to arise from primary renal abnormalities. However, the etiology of most cases of hypertension remains unexplained. Vascular tone, an important determinant of blood pressure, is regulated by nitric oxide, which causes vascular relaxation by increasing intracellular cGMP and activating cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI). Here we show

Simon K. Michael; Howard K. Surks; Yuepeng Wang; Yan Zhu; Robert Blanton; Michelle Jamnongjit; Mark Aronovitz; Wendy Baur; Kenichi Ohtani; Michael K. Wilkerson; Adrian D. Bonev; Mark T. Nelson; Richard H. Karas; Michael E. Mendelsohn



Effects of growth, diving history, and high altitude on blood oxygen capacity in harbor seals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blood volume and body composition for diving and nondiving harbor seals were measured at six-week intervals during a 10-month period of captitivity. Whole body hematocrit, red cell volume per kg of lean body mass, and total circulating hemoglobin per kg lean body mass were significantly higher in the diving group, but relatively large blood volumes expressed in terms of body weight (11-12%) were found in both groups. A pair of harbor seals exposed to high altitude for about three months registered significant increases in red cell volume, blood hemoglobin levels, and blood volume expressed in terms of body weight; results of alveolar gas analyses indicate that hyperventilation also occurred. These typical mammalian responses to hypoxia suggest that the harbor seal's large blood volume and high hemoglobin content are an expression of phylogenetic control, and that in spite of its adaptability to apnea during its diving life, the animal cannot be considered preacclimatized to high altitude.

Kodama, A. M.; Elsner, R.; Pace, N.



Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?—An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model  

PubMed Central

An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9?mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1?mg/L; median = 0.4?mg/L; range = 0–35?mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine



High blood pressure and associated symptoms were reduced by massage therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure is associated with elevated anxiety, stress and stress hormones, hostility, depression and catecholamines. Massage therapy and progressive muscle relaxation were evaluated as treatments for reducing blood pressure and these associated symptoms. Adults who had been diagnosed as hypertensive received ten 30 min massage sessions over five weeks or they were given progressive muscle relaxation instructions (control group).

Maria Hernandez-Reif; Tiffany Field; Josh Krasnegor; Z. Hossain; Hillary Theakston; I. Burman



Low birth weight and risk of high blood pressure in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospital birth records were sought for 104 men from a pool of male army conscripts with “normal” or “high” blood pressure when measured at 28 years of age. Of 77 men whose birth weight and date of the mother's last menstrual period before the pregnancy could be found, 25 had a resting diastolic blood pressure of ?90 mm Hg. In

Gerhard Gennser; Per Rymark; Per Erik Isberg



High Blood Sugar in Heart Failure Patients May Point to Risk of Early Death  


... page, please enable JavaScript. High Blood Sugar in Heart Failure Patients May Point to Risk of Early Death ... 7, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Blood Sugar Diabetes Heart Failure WEDNESDAY, Jan. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Checking the ...


The origin of high activity but low CO(2) selectivity on binary PtSn in the direct ethanol fuel cell.  


The most active binary PtSn catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cell applications has been studied at 20 °C and 60 °C, using variable temperature electrochemical in situ FTIR. In comparison with Pt, binary PtSn inhibits ethanol dissociation to CO(a), but promotes partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Increasing the temperature from 20 °C to 60 °C facilitates both ethanol dissociation to CO(a) and then further oxidation to CO2, leading to an increased selectivity towards CO2; however, acetaldehyde and acetic acid are still the main products. Potential-dependent phase diagrams for surface oxidants of OH(a) formation on Pt(111), Pt(211) and Sn modified Pt(111) and Pt(211) surfaces have been determined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is shown that Sn promotes the formation of OH(a) with a lower onset potential on the Pt(111) surface, whereas an increase in the onset potential is found upon modification of the (211) surface. In addition, Sn inhibits the Pt(211) step edge with respect to ethanol C-C bond breaking compared with that found on the pure Pt, which reduces the formation of CO(a). Sn was also found to facilitate ethanol dehydrogenation and partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid which, combined with the more facile OH(a) formation on the Pt(111) surface, gives us a clear understanding of the experimentally determined results. This combined electrochemical in situ FTIR and DFT study provides, for the first time, an insight into the long-term puzzling features of the high activity but low CO2 production found on binary PtSn ethanol fuel cell catalysts. PMID:24722871

Jin, Jia-Mei; Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Kavanagh, Richard; Hamer, Philip; Hu, Peijun; Hardacre, Christopher; Martinez-Bonastre, Alex; Sharman, Jonathan; Thompsett, David; Lin, Wen-Feng



Ethanol, a clean burning bio-solar fuel - Its production and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of ethanol from various substances is considered, and the use of ethanol as an automotive fuel is discussed. Extensive experimental tests and theoretical investigations have shown that ethanol can be used in existing automotive engines in the form of ethanol gasoline blends. Further, future ethanol engines can be developed for total ethanol operation with consequent high specific output

H. B. Mathur



Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, ?-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.



[Unfavorable outcome of aggressive lowering of high blood pressure. Case report].  


Cerebral autoregulation is essential in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow. Due to this autoregulation, cerebral perfusion is constant in healthy subjects if blood pressure values are between 50-150 mmHg. In hypertensive patients the curve is right-shifted towards higher blood pressure values (pathological autoregulation). Aggressive blood pressure reduction can lead to severe ischaemia. The authors report the history of a 73-year-old man with the background history of widespread atherosclerotic disease. The patient complained about headache and dizziness and was found to have high blood pressure (160/100 mmHg) and increased blood glucose (14.8 mmol/l). Prior to his admission an aggressive blood pressure and blood sugar reduction was carried out and, within a short period of time he became unconscious and was transferred to the department of the authors with the possible diagnosis of brainstem stroke. On admission the patient was unresponsive, comatose with brainstem symptoms. Urgent brain computed tomography failed to show any acute alterations. However, repeat CT scan revealed extensive bilateral space occupying ischemic changes involving in territories of both internal carotid arteries with consequent brainstem compression. Computed tomography angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. The authors conclude that intensive blood pressure reduction result in ischemic lesions via hypoperfusion especially in patients with widespread atherosclerotic disease and significant carotid vessel pathology. PMID:25305726

Kuperczkó, Diána; Csécsei, Péter; Komáromy, Hedvig; Szapáry, László; Fehér, Gergely



Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration  

SciTech Connect

Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regular diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.

Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))



Internal filtration, filtration fraction, and blood flow resistance in high- and low-flux dialyzers.  


It was the aim to examine the fluid flow in blood and dialysate compartments of highly permeable hollow fiber dialyzers where internal filtration contributes to solute removal but where excessive filtration bears a risk of cell activation and damage. Flow characteristics of high- (HF) and low-flux (LF) dialyzers were studied in lab-bench experiments using whole bovine blood. Measurements obtained under different operating conditions and under zero net ultrafiltration were compared to theoretical calculations obtained from a mathematical model. Experimental resistances in the blood compartment were within ±2% of those calculated from the model when dialysate was used as a test fluid. With whole blood, the experimental resistances in the blood compartment were only 81.8 ± 2.8% and 83.7 ± 4.3% of those calculated for the LF and HF dialyzer, respectively. Surprisingly, measured blood flow resistance slightly but significantly decreased with increasing flow rate (p < 0.001). Mathematical modeling confirmed this decrease both in LF and HF dialyzers which was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in internal filtration fraction, while overall internal filtration increased. The increase in internal filtration when increasing blood flow is associated with a beneficial reduction in internal filtration fraction. Concerns of increased hemoconcentration when increasing blood flow therefore appear to be unwarranted. PMID:24254583

Schneditz, Daniel; Zierler, Edda; Vanholder, Raymond; Eloot, Sunny



High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and ethanol induced tissue ablation: Thermal lesion volume and temperature ex vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIFU is the upcoming technology for noninvasive or minimally invasive tumor ablation via the localized acoustic energy deposition at the focal region within the tumor target. The presence of cavitation bubbles had been shown to improve the therapeutic effect of HIFU. In this study, we have investigated the effect of HIFU on temperature rise and cavitation bubble activity in ethanol-treated porcine liver and kidney tissues. We have also explored changes in the viability and proliferation rate of HepG2, SW1376, and FB1 cancer cells with their exposure to ethanol and HIFU. Tissues were submerged in 95% ethanol for five hours and then exposed to HIFU generated by a 1.1 MHz transducer or injected into focal spot before HIFU exposure. Cavitation events were measured by a passive cavitation detection technique for a range of acoustic power from 1.17 W to 20.52 W. The temperature around the focal zone was measured by type K or type E thermocouples embedded in the samples. In experiments with cancer cells, 2.7 millions cells were treated with concentration of ethanol at concentration 2%, 4%, 10%, 25%, and 50% and the cell were exposed to HIFU with power of 2.73 W, 8.72 W, and 12.0 W for 30 seconds. Our data show that the treatment of tissues with ethanol reduces the threshold power for inertial cavitation and increases the temperature rise. The exposure of cancer cells to various HIFU power only showed a higher number of viable cells 24 to 72 hours after HIFU exposure. On the other hand, both the viability and proliferation rate were significantly decreased in cells treated with ethanol and then HIFU at 8.7 W and 12.0 W even at ethanol concentration of 2 and 4 percent. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and HIFU have a synergistic effect on cancer cells ablation.

Hoang, Nguyen Hai


A novel high performance ethanol gas sensor based on CdO?Fe 2O 3 semiconducting materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel ethanol sensor based on CdO?Fe2O3 system complex oxide semiconductor has been developed. The performances of the sensor, including sensitivity, selectivity, stability as well as the response and recovery times, have been examined and studied. The results demonstrate that all characteristics of the sensors are excellent. This indicates it a nice ethanol sensor of a promising practical value.

Xingqin Liu; Zhengliang Xu; Yafei Liu; Yusheng Shen



Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat  

PubMed Central

Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE) and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2) and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis. PMID:23365609

Jang, Woong Sun; Choung, Se Young



Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.  


We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice. PMID:25299819

Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl



Storage stability and antibacterial activity of eugenol nanoliposomes prepared by an ethanol injection-dynamic high-pressure microfluidization method.  


Eugenol is a major phenolic component with diverse biological activities. However, it is difficult to formulate into an aqueous solution due to poor water solubility, and this limits its application. In the present study, eugenol nanoliposomes (EN) were prepared by combining the ethanol injection method with the dynamic high-pressure microfluidization method. Good physicochemical characterizations of EN were obtained. The successful encapsulation of eugenol in nanoliposomes was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A good storage stability of EN was confirmed by its low variation of average particle diameter and encapsulation efficiency after 8 weeks of storage. No oil drops were found in EN after 8 weeks of storage at 4°C and at room temperature, which suggested that the poor water solubility of eugenol was overcome by nanoliposome encapsulation. Compared with that of eugenol solution, a relatively good sustained release property was observed in EN. The antibacterial activity of EN against four common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes) was evaluated in both Luria broth and milk medium. PMID:25581174

Peng, Shengfeng; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Wei; Gan, Lu; Liu, Weilin; Liang, Ruihong; Liu, Chengmei; Niu, Jing; Cao, Yanlin; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Xing



Viola mandshurica ethanolic extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.  


Viola mandshurica W. Becker has been used as an expectorant, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory agent. We evaluated the effects of V. mandshurica ethanol extract (VME) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. HPLC analysis showed that the VME contained 11.95 ± 0.37 mg/g esculetin and 0.13 ± 0.01 mg/g scopoletin. Orally administered VME decreased the body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, and triglyceride and leptin serum concentrations. In contrast, VME increased serum adiponectin concentrations and adiponectin expression levels in epididymal adipose tissues. VME also significantly reversed the HFD-induced elevation of the mRNA and protein levels of lipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty-acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, VME reversed the HFD-induced inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coA carboxylase phosphorylation in epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, treatment of VME and esculetin in 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation. These results suggest that VME exerts anti-obesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice by activating AMPK and suppressing PPAR? expression in adipose tissues. PMID:24879516

Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung



The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

The antiobesity effects of a P. aviculare ethanol extract (PAE) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice were investigated. The mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with PAE (400?mg/kg/day) for 6.5 weeks. The increased body weights, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte area as well as serum total triglyceride, leptin, and malondialdehyde concentrations were decreased in PAE-treated HFD-induced obese mice relative to the same measurements in untreated obese mice. Furthermore, PAE significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. In addition, PAE treatment of 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PAE exerts antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice through the suppression of lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased antioxidant activity. PMID:23431342

Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung



High Performance Nanocatalysts Supported on Micro/Nano Carbon Structures Using Ethanol Immersion Pretreatment for Micro DMFCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, highly dense platinum (Pt) nanocatalysts were successfully deposited on the hydrophilically-treated nano/micro carbon supports with an ethanol (EtOH) immersion pretreatment and an acidic treatment for the performance improvement of methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). In order to thoroughly immerse the three-dimensional, interwoven structures of the carbon cloth fibers with a 6 M sulfuric acid surface modification, which increasing more oxygen-containing functional groups on the surfaces of the carbon supports, the EtOH immersion pretreatment of the carbon supports was utilized prior to the sulfuric acid treatment. Subsequently, Pt catalysts were reduced on the modified carbon supports by a homemade open-loop reduction system (OLRS) [1] For comparisons, carbon cloth (CC) and carbon nanotube on CC (CNT/CC) supports were employed with and without EtOH immersion pretreatments before Pt catalyst reduction. In the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves, the electrosorption charges of hydrogen ion (QH) and the peak current density (IP) of the fabricated Pt/CC and Pt/CNT/CC electrodes with the EtOH immersion pretreatments can efficiently be enhanced due to more active Pt sites for electrocatalytic reactions.

Lin, Liang-You; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Chang, Chaun; Tseng, Fan-Gang



Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy



Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and the risk of high blood pressure: epidemiologic and biological evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of its high impact on cardiovascular and renal disease, knowledge on risk factors for the development of high blood pressure (HBP) is limited. Mild chronic inflammation may play a significant role in the incidence of HBP. A persistent low-grade inflammation state could be associated with high but within the ‘normal range’ cytokine plasma concentration. By impairing the capacity

L E Bautista



Embedding NiCo2O4 nanoparticles into a 3DHPC assisted by CO2-expanded ethanol: a potential lithium-ion battery anode with high performance.  


A high-performance anode material, NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite, for lithium-ion batteries was developed through direct nanoparticles nucleation on a three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon (3DHPC) matrix and cation substitution of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles. It was synthesized via a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) expanded ethanol solution-assisted deposition method combined with a subsequent heat-treatment process. The NiCo2O4 nanoparticles were uniformly embedded into the porous carbon matrix and efficiently avoided free-growth in solution or aggregation in the pores even at a high content of 55.0 wt %. In particular, the 3DHPC was directly used without pretreatment or surfactant assistance. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite showed high reversible capacity and improved rate capability that outperformed those composites formed with single metal oxides (NiO/3DHPC, Co3O4/3DHPC), their physical mixture, and the composite prepared in pure ethanol (NiCo2O4/3DHPC-E). The superior performance is mainly contributed to the unique advantages of the scCO2-expanded ethanol medium, and the combination of high utilization efficiency and improved electrical conductivity of NiCo2O4 as well as the electronic and ionic transport advantages of 3DHPC. PMID:24937364

Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu



Adaptation of Yeast Cell Membranes to Ethanol  

PubMed Central

A highly ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces wine strain is able, after growth in the presence of ethanol, to efficiently improve the ethanol tolerance of its membrane. A less-tolerant Saccharomyces laboratory strain, however, is unable to adapt its membrane to ethanol. Furthermore, after growth in the presence of ethanol, the membrane of the latter strain becomes increasingly sensitive, although this is a reversible process. Reversion to a higher tolerance occurs only after the addition of an energy source and does not take place in the presence of cycloheximide. PMID:16347349

Jiménez, J.; Benítez, T.



Effects of high-intensity blood flow restriction exercise on muscle fatigue.  


Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years) were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6) and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6) that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups. PMID:25114743

Neto, Gabriel R; Santos, Heleodório H; Sousa, Juliana B C; Júnior, Adenilson T A; Araújo, Joamira P; Aniceto, Rodrigo R; Sousa, Maria S C



Determination of acetaldehyde in fuel ethanol by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.  


The cyclic voltammetric behavior of acetaldehyde and the derivatized product with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPHi) has been studied at a glassy carbon electrode. This study was used to optimize the best experimental conditions for its determination by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation coupled with electrochemical detection. The acetaldehyde-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (ADNPH) was eluted and separated by a reversed-phase column, C18, under isocratic conditions with the mobile phase containing a binary mixture of methanol/LiCl(aq) at a concentration of 1.0 x 10(-3) M (80:20 v/v) and a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The optimum condition for the electrochemical detection of ADNPH was +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl as a reference electrode. The proposed method was simple, rapid (analysis time 7 min) and sensitive (detection limit 3.80 microg L(-1)) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. It was also highly selective and reproducible [standard deviation 8.2% +/- 0.36 (n = 5)]. The analytical curve of ADNPH was linear over the range of 3-300 mg L(-1) per injection (20 microL), and the analytical recovery was > 99%. PMID:15844343

Saczk, Adelir A; Okumura, Leonardo L; De Oliveira, Marcelo F; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; Stradiotto, Nelson R



Association between obesity and high blood pressure: Reporting bias related to gender and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity of self-reported information on obesity and high blood pressure (HBP) in relation to gender and age, and to explore the impacts of their misclassification on the association between obesity and HBP.DESIGN: Community based cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: 1791 adult subjects living in Humboldt, Saskatchewan, Canada.MEASUREMENTS: Objectively measured HBP was positive if systolic blood pressure (BP) was ?140

Y Chen; DC Rennie; LA Lockinger; JA Dosman



Intermittent Availability of Ethanol Does Not Always Lead to Elevated Drinking in Mice  

PubMed Central

Aims: Intermittent access (IA) to an alcohol (ethanol) solution can lead rats to higher ethanol intakes than continuous access, and a recent report showed increased drinking in C57BL/6J mice offered 20% ethanol vs. water 3X/week (Prior studies have offered ethanol during 24 h periods, either continuously or intermittently.). Methods: We tested the high-preference C57BL/6J inbred mice: we also studied High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) mice, a line we have selectively bred to reach intoxicating blood ethanol levels after a short period of access to a single bottle of 20% ethanol. Results: Neither HDID or C57BL/6J male mice offered ethanol every other day during only a 4-h access period showed greater daily intake than mice offered ethanol daily for 4 h. There was a small increase in drinking with 24 h IA in C57BL/6J mice. An experiment with HDID mice and their control heterogeneous stock stock modeled closely after a published study with C57BL/6J mice (Hwa, Chu, Levinson SA et al. Persistent escalation of alcohol drinking in C57BL/6J mice with intermittent access to 20% ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2011;35:1938–1947) showed no significant elevation with 24 h IA exposure in either sex of any genotype. Finally, a near replication of the Hwa et al. study showed modestly greater intake in C57BL/6J mice, confirming the efficacy of 24 h IA. Conclusion: We conclude that 4 h of IA is likely insufficient to elevate drinking in mice. The lack of effect in HDID mice and their controls further suggests that not all genotypes respond to intermittency. PMID:22717273

Crabbe, John C.; Harkness, John H.; Spence, Stephanie E.; Huang, Lawrence C.; Metten, Pamela



[High cord blood TSH in Morocco: iatrogenic hypothyroidism?].  


A short prospective study was conducted to assess thyroid status in healthy full term newborns (n=90) of a large maternity of Marrakech (Morocco), as part of the validation of a national salt iodisation program. High TSH (>5mU/l) was detected in 89% of infants tested; urinary iodine excretion was measured in 35 of the mothers, and was found to be normal (100-200microg/l) or high (>200microg/l)(n=27) in all of them. Milk iodine concentration was measured in 315 lactating women from the same area. Low values (<41microg/l) were found in 60% of them. The common use of iodinated disinfectants during delivery could be responsible for the high urine iodine values of mothers; however iodine deficiency seems to remain a widespread problem in this population and justifies a large scale survey of iodine status. PMID:16596056

Zaida, F; Sedki, A; Laroche, D; Lekouch, N; Bouglé, D



Specific alcoholic beverage and blood pressure in a middle-aged Japanese population: the High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOP-OHP) Study.  


The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of popular Japanese alcoholic beverages on blood pressure. We performed a cross-sectional study on 4335 Japanese male workers using baseline data from an intervention study. We defined six groups according to the type of alcoholic beverage that provided two-thirds of the subject's total alcohol consumption: beer, sake (rice wine), shochu (traditional Japanese spirits), whiskey, wine and others. The partial regression coefficients of daily alcohol intake (1 drink=11.5 g of ethanol) to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 0.87(P<0.001, standard error (s.e.)=0.09) and 0.77(P<0.001, s.e.=0.06), respectively. A comparison among the types of alcoholic beverages mainly consumed revealed significant differences in SBP and DBP. Both SBP and DBP were highest in the shochu group. However, an analysis of covariance adjusting for total alcohol consumption resulted in the disappearance of these differences. Although after adjustment for total alcohol consumption, the shochu group exhibited a significant positive association with 'high-normal blood pressure or greater' (odds ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.95) compared with the beer group, this significant relation disappeared after adjusting for the body mass index (BMI), urinary sodium and potassium excretion. The pressor effect, per se, of popular Japanese alcoholic beverages on blood pressure may not be different among the types of alcoholic beverages after adjusting for other lifestyle factors. PMID:14688805

Okamura, T; Tanaka, T; Yoshita, K; Chiba, N; Takebayashi, T; Kikuchi, Y; Tamaki, J; Tamura, U; Minai, J; Kadowaki, T; Miura, K; Nakagawa, H; Tanihara, S; Okayama, A; Ueshima, H



Sorghum to Ethanol Research  

SciTech Connect

The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called �dedicated bioenergy crops� including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed



Nephron number and blood pressure in rat offspring with maternal high-protein diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of a high-protein diet during pregnancy on nephron endowment and subsequent levels of blood pressure in the offspring. Female WKY rats were fed either a normal (20%, NPD) or a high (54%, HPD) protein diet during pregnancy. Male offspring were paired at birth. At 4 weeks of age, 1 of the pair was randomly chosen

Monika A. Zimanyi; John F. Bertram; Jane M. Black



High-throughput miRNA profiling of human melanoma blood samples  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNA (miRNA) signatures are not only found in cancer tissue but also in blood of cancer patients. Specifically, miRNA detection in blood offers the prospect of a non-invasive analysis tool. Methods Using a microarray based approach we screened almost 900 human miRNAs to detect miRNAs that are deregulated in their expression in blood cells of melanoma patients. We analyzed 55 blood samples, including 20 samples of healthy individuals, 24 samples of melanoma patients as test set, and 11 samples of melanoma patients as independent validation set. Results A hypothesis test based approch detected 51 differentially regulated miRNAs, including 21 miRNAs that were downregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients and 30 miRNAs that were upregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients as compared to blood cells of healthy controls. The tets set and the independent validation set of the melanoma samples showed a high correlation of fold changes (0.81). Applying hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis we found that blood samples of melanoma patients and healthy individuals can be well differentiated from each other based on miRNA expression analysis. Using a subset of 16 significant deregulated miRNAs, we were able to reach a classification accuracy of 97.4%, a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 98.9% by supervised analysis. MiRNA microarray data were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusions Our study provides strong evidence for miRNA expression signatures of blood cells as useful biomarkers for melanoma. PMID:20529253



High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale.  


A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300?L, 3?m(3), and 12?m(3) fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65?m(3) working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18%?(w/v), inoculum size of 20%?(v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 10(8)/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10?kg/65?m(3) working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4?g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

Fadel, M; Keera, Abeer A; Mouafi, Foukia E; Kahil, Tarek




EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption isotherms were measured for each compound adsorbed on commercially available ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 140) powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures of ethanol, carboxylic acids, and water at room temperature. The amounts adsorbed were measured using a recently developed t...


A high performance ethanol gas sensor based on CdO-Fe2O 3 semiconducting materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel ethanol sensor based on CdO-Fe2O3 system oxide semiconductor has been developed. The performance of the sensor, including sensitivity, selectivity, stability as well as the response and recovery times, have been examined and studied. The results demonstrate that all characteristics of the sensors are excellent and that it is promising for practical applications

Xingqin Liu; Zhengliang Xu; Yusheng Shen



Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.



Circadian activity rhythms and voluntary ethanol intake in male and female ethanol-preferring rats: Effects of long-term ethanol access.  


Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian period, and show further that the development of chronobiological tolerance to ethanol may vary by sex and genotype. PMID:25281289

Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew



Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant  

SciTech Connect

Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost savings of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided.

Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.



Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant  

SciTech Connect

Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost savings of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided. (Refs. 46).

Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.



Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant.  


Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost saving of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided. PMID:18574812

Gibbons, W R; Westby, C A



A high-carbohydrate diet lowered blood pressure in healthy Chinese male adolescents.  


Different diets consumed by individuals of different ethnicities, gender, and age may cause changes in blood pressure. The current study sought to investigate changes in blood pressures after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet by healthy Chinese adolescents. As a population, the Chinese consume a diet with a high carbohydrate content and they have a low incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Dietary data were collected using a 3-day diet diary. Subjects were 672 high school students who were divided into a high-CHO diet group (? 55% carbohydrates) and a non-high-CHO diet group (< 55% carbohydrates, < 40% fats). Plasma glucose levels, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Results indicated that males had a higher BMI, glucose level, SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP than females. When diet was taken into account, males in the non-high-CHO diet group had a higher SBP and PP than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a higher glucose level than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a lower SBP (p = 0.004) and PP (p = 0.002) than males in the non-high-CHO diet group and females in the high-CHO diet group had a lower glucose level (p = 0.003) than females in the non-high-CHO diet group. After adjusting for age, BMI, WHR, heart rate, the total daily energy intake, and the intake of vitamin C, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, significant differences in SBP and PP were noted in males. These results indicate that male adolescents consuming a high-CHO diet had a lower SBP and PP than males consuming a non-high-CHO diet. PMID:24815391

Zhu, Xingchun; Lin, Jia; Song, Yongyan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Rongrong; Fan, Mei; Li, Yuanhao; Tian, Rong; Fang, Dingzhi



High-Resolution Mapping of the Blood Pressure QTL on Chromosome 7 Using Dahl Rat Congenic Strains  

E-print Network

High-Resolution Mapping of the Blood Pressure QTL on Chromosome 7 Using Dahl Rat Congenic Strains-sensitive (S) and salt-resistant (R) rats that a blood pressure quan- titative trait locus (QTL) was present-hydroxy- 11-deoxy corticosterone, is very likely to account for the blood pressure QTL on chromosome 7

Abraham, Nader G.


Gene Expression within the Extended Amygdala of 5 Pairs of Rat Lines Selectively Bred for High or Low Ethanol Consumption  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine innate differences in gene expression in 2 regions of the extended amygdala between 5 different pairs of lines of male rats selectively bred for high or low ethanol consumption: a) alcohol-preferring (P) vs. alcohol-non-preferring (NP) rats, b) high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) vs. low-alcohol-drinking (LAD) rats (replicate line-pairs 1 and 2), c) ALKO alcohol (AA) vs. nonalcohol (ANA) rats, and d) Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) vs. Sardinian alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rats, and then to determine if these differences are common across the line-pairs. Microarray analysis revealed up to 1,772 unique named genes in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and 494 unique named genes in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) that significantly differed [False Discovery Rate (FDR) = 0.10; fold-change at least 1.2] in expression between the individual line-pairs. Analysis using Gene Ontology (GO) and Ingenuity Pathways information indicated significant categories and networks in common for up to 3 or 4 line-pairs, but not for all 5 line-pairs. However, there were almost no individual genes in common within these categories and networks. ANOVAs of the combined data for the 5 line-pairs indicated 1,014 and 731 significant (p < 0.01) differences in expression of named genes in the AcbSh and CeA, respectively. There were 4–6 individual named genes that significantly differed across up to 3 line-pairs in both regions; only 1 gene (Gsta4 in the CeA) differed in as many as 4 line-pairs. Overall, the findings suggest that a) some biological categories or networks (e.g., cell-to-cell signaling, cellular stress response, cellular organization, etc.) may be in common for subsets of line-pairs within either the AcbSh or CeA, and b) regulation of different genes and/or combinations of multiple biological systems may be contributing to the disparate alcohol drinking behaviors of these line-pairs. PMID:24157127

McBride, William J.; Kimpel, Mark W.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Hyytia, Petri; Colombo, Giancarlo; Liang, Tiebing; Edenberg, Howard J.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Bell, Richard L.



Record And Analysis Of High-Speed Photomicrography On Rheology Of Red Blood Cells In Vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microcirculation is the basic functional unit of blood circulation in human body. The oxygen needed and the carbon dioxide discharged in human body were accomplished in the case of flow and deformation of red blood cells (RBC) in capillaries. The rheology of RBC performs an important function for maintaining normal blood irrigation and nutritional metabolism. Obviously, for blood irrigation, dynamic mechanism of RBC, blood cell microrheology, law of mivrocirculation and cause of disease, it has very important significance to study quantitatively the rheology of RBC in the capillaries of live animal. In recent years, Tianjin University, cooperating with the Institute of Hematology, used the method of high speed photomicrography to record the flow states of RBC in the capillaries of the hamster cheek pouch and the frog web. Some systems were assembled through the study of luminous energy transmission, illumination system and optical match. These systems included the microhigh-speed camera system, the microhighspeed video recorder system and the microhighspeed camera system combining with an image enhancement tube. Some useful results were obtained by the photography of the flow states of RBC, film analysis and data processing. These results provided the beneficial data for the dynamic mechanism that RBC were deformed by the different blood flow field.

Jian, Zhang; Yuju, Lin; Jizong, Wu; Qiang, Wang; Guishan, Li; Ni, Liang



High-Throughput Immunoassay for the Biochemical Diagnosis of Friedreich Ataxia in Dried Blood Spots and Whole Blood  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is caused by reduced frataxin (FXN) concentrations. A clinical diagnosis is typically confirmed by DNA-based assays for GAA-repeat expansions or mutations in the FXN (frataxin) gene; however, these assays are not applicable to therapeutic monitoring and population screening. To facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of FRDA patients, we developed an immunoassay for measuring FXN. METHODS Antibody pairs were used to capture FXN and an internal control protein, ceruloplasmin (CP), in 15 ?L of whole blood (WB) or one 3-mm punch of a dried blood spot (DBS). Samples were assayed on a Luminex LX200 analyzer and validated according to standard criteria. RESULTS The mean recovery of FXN from WB and DBS samples was 99%. Intraassay and interassay imprecision (CV) values were 4.9%–13% and 9.8%–16%, respectively. The FXN limit of detection was 0.07 ng/mL, and the reportable range of concentrations was 2–200 ng/mL. Reference adult and pediatric FXN concentrations ranged from 15 to 82 ng/mL (median, 33 ng/mL) for DBS and WB. The FXN concentration range was 12–22 ng/mL (median, 15 ng/mL) for FRDA carriers and 1–26 ng/mL (median 5 ng/mL) for FRDA patients. Measurement of the FXN/CP ratio increased the ability to distinguish between patients, carriers, and the reference population. CONCLUSIONS This assay is applicable to the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of FRDA. This assay can measure FXN and the control protein CP in both WB and DBS specimens with minimal sample requirements, creating the potential for high-throughput population screening of FRDA. PMID:23838345

Oglesbee, Devin; Kroll, Charles; Gakh, Oleksandr; Deutsch, Eric C.; Lynch, David R.; Gavrilova, Ralitza; Tortorelli, Silvia; Raymond, Kimiyo; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Rinaldo, Piero; Matern, Dietrich; Isaya, Grazia



Mouse model of chronic and binge ethanol feeding (the NIAAA model)  

PubMed Central

Chronic alcohol consumption is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. currently, the most widely used model for alcoholic liver injury is ad libitum feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol for 4–6 weeks; however, this model, without the addition of a secondary insult, only induces mild steatosis, slight elevation of serum alanine transaminase (alt) and little or no inflammation. Here we describe a simple mouse model of alcoholic liver injury by chronic ethanol feeding (10-d ad libitum oral feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid diet) plus a single binge ethanol feeding. this protocol for chronic-plus-single-binge ethanol feeding synergistically induces liver injury, inflammation and fatty liver, which mimics acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver injury in patients. this feeding protocol can also be extended to chronic feeding for longer periods of time up to 8 weeks plus single or multiple binges. chronic-binge ethanol feeding leads to high blood alcohol levels; thus, this simple model will be very useful for the study of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and of other organs damaged by alcohol consumption. PMID:23449255

Bertola, Adeline; Mathews, Stephanie; Ki, Sung Hwan; Wang, Hua; Gao, Bin



Influence of ethanol on the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate's metabolites ritalinic acid and ethylphenidate.  


In view of the widespread application of methylphenidate for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapy its interaction with alcohol was investigated in an in-vitro assay and in a study involving 9 male volunteers. The study conditions were: methylphenidate (20 mg) only, methylphenidate followed by ethanol (0.8 g/kg body weight) and ethanol followed by methylphenidate. Methylphenidate (CAS 113-45-1), ritalinic acid (CAS 19395-41-6) and ethylphenidate (CAS 57413-43-1) were assayed in blood samples collected up to 7 h after ingestion using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). It was found that methylphenidate is hydrolyzed to ritalinic acid by the same esterase that degrades cocaine. In the presence of ethanol this is inhibited and the active metabolite ethylphenidate is formed. The pharmacokinetic evaluation showed that methylphenidate concentrations were not markedly affected by ethanol, but ritalinic acid concentrations were lower, especially if ethanol was ingested first. Ethylphenidate concentrations were low with only about 10% of methylphenidate concentrations suggesting that concurrent ethanol use does not impair methylphenidate's therapeutic efficacy. Unexpectedly one subject exhibited a methylphenidate hydrolysis defect yielding very high methylphenidate and low ritalinic acid concentrations in all study conditions. PMID:20533759

Koehm, Michaela; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W



Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.  


The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested in adulthood. Adult males exposed to ethanol early in adolescence also show enhanced sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol, whereas adult males exposed to ethanol during late adolescence demonstrate insensitivity to the socially suppressing effects of ethanol. To the extent that these results are applicable to humans, stressful live events may make alcohol more attractive for stressed adolescents and adults due to its socially facilitating and socially anxiolytic properties, therefore fostering high levels of drinking. Retention of adolescent-typical responsiveness to alcohol in adult males following adolescent alcohol exposure, including enhanced sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol following early exposure and insensitivity to the socially inhibiting effects following late adolescent exposure, may put these males at risk for the development of alcohol-related disorders later in life. PMID:25431835

Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P



High Blood Pressure Trends in Children and Adolescents in National Surveys, 1963 to 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Secular trend data on hypertension in children and adolescents are scarce and inconsistent. In the face of growing obesity, we sought to assess high blood pressure (HBP) secular trends in children and adolescents enrolled in national surveys and to determine whether the HBP trend reversed its course with the rise in obesity. Methods and Results—National survey data obtained from multistage

Rebecca Din-Dzietham; Yong Liu; Marie-Vero Bielo; Falah Shamsa


High blood pressure is inversely related with the presence and extent of coronary collaterals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with hypertension have an increased case fatality during acute myocardial infarction (MI). Coronary collateral (CC) circulation has been proposed to reduce the risk of death during acute ischaemia. We determined whether and to which degree high blood pressure (BP) affects the presence and extent of CC circulation. A cross-sectional study in 237 patients (84% males), admitted for elective coronary

Jeroen Koerselman; P P Th de Jaegere; M. C. Verhaar; Y. van der Graaf; D. E. Grobbee; DE Grobbee



Risk of High Blood Pressure Among Young Men Increases With the Degree of Immaturity at Birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Survivors of preterm birth constitute a new generation of young adults, but little is known about their long-term health. We investigated the association between gestational age (GA) and risk of high blood pressure (HBP) in young Swedish men and whether GA modified the risk of HBP; ie, whether HBP was related to being born small for gestational age (SGA). Methods

Stefan Johansson; Anastasia Iliadou; Niklas Bergvall; Torsten Tuvemo; Mikael Norman; Sven Cnattingius



A social-psychological perspective on successful community control of high blood pressure: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review brings together studies dealing with factors that affect participation in screening, referral, and treatment for high blood pressure (HBP). Community-based screening programs are examined first, in order to describe the changing and the current distribution of hypertensives as “unaware,” untreated, treated but uncontrolled, and controlled by treatment. Factors influencing this distribution are examined. Next, data on referral, acceptance

Stanislav V. Kasl



A clinical trial to improve high blood pressure care in young urban black men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This randomized trial recruited and followed underserved, inner-city, hypertensive (HTN), young black men and investigated whether a nurse-community health worker team in combination with usual medical care (SI) increased entry into care and reduced high blood pressure (HBP), in comparison to usual medical care (UC) alone. Emergency department records, advertising, and BP screenings identified potential participants with HBP. Telephone calls

Martha N. Hill; Lee R. Bone; Sterling C. Hilton; Mary C. Roary; Gabor D. Kelen; David M. Levine



The Use of Relaxation and Hypnosis in Lowering High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation was made to determine whether high blood pressure (hypertension) could be lowered thru (a) muscular relaxation and (b) hypnosis. Six non-medicated hypertensive patients were used as controls while another six served as treatment Ss receiving muscular relaxation and hypnosis procedures. Nine patients on stabilized anti-hypertensive medication also received the muscular relaxation and hypnosis procedures. Significant lowering of both systolic

Herdis L. Deabler; Edward Fidel; Robert L. Dillenkoffer; S. Thomas Elder



High Blood Pressure in Acute Stroke and Subsequent Outcome A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure (BP) is common in acute stroke and might be associated with a poor outcome, although observational studies have given varying results. In a systematic review, articles were sought that reported both admission BP and outcome (death, death or dependency, death or deterioration, stroke recurrence, and hematoma expansion) in acute stroke. Data were analyzed by the Cochrane Review

Mark Willmot; Jo Leonardi-Bee; Philip M. W. Bath



Family History Fails to Detect the Majority of Children with High Capillary Blood Total Cholesterol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the predictive value of family history in detecting children with high blood cholesterol, finger-stick screening was done in children (n=1,118) ages 9-10 with parental and grandparental history of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Findings showed that screening only children with positive family histories will leave most problems…

Davidson, Dennis M.; And Others



High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report offers a patient-based approach to lowering blood cholesterol levels which seeks to identify individuals at high risk who will benefit from intensive intervention efforts. The goal is to establish criteria that define the candidates for medical intervention and to provide guidelines on how to detect, set goals for, treat, and monitor…

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.


Application of hemicelluloses precipitated via ethanol treatment of pre-hydrolysis liquor in high-yield pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemicelluloses in industrially produced pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) were precipitated with ethanol. These PHL-derived hemicelluloses (PHL-EH) and a commercial, pure birch wood xylan sample (powder form) (BWX) were bleached using chlorine dioxide (D0 and D1) and hydrogen peroxide (Ep) in the D0EpD1 sequence, and the chemical compositions, molecular weights and charge densities of the treated samples were assessed. When applied to

Zehua Liu; Pedram Fatehi; Soroosh Sadeghi; Yonghao Ni



“High in omega-3 fatty acids” bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed.The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6\\/?-3 ratio from

Izaskun Berasategi; Sheila Legarra; Mikel García-Íñiguez de Ciriano; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íñigo Navarro-Blasco; Diana Ansorena; Iciar Astiasarán



Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86\\/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at

William R. Gibbons; Carl A. Westby



Development of high sensitivity ethanol gas sensors based on Pt-doped SnO 2 surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how thick-film technology was used to fabricate small, robust, sensitive, and selective semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) sensors to detect traces of ethanol vapours in air. The sensing parameters of several active layers were studied including: sensitivity, response repeatability, stability and selectivity. The response to different species of five differently doped SnO2 sensors and a commercially available one

P. Ivanov; E. Llobet; X. Vilanova; J. Brezmes; J. Hubalek; X. Correig



Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging,

C Chen; Y Liu; S Maruvada; M Myers; D Khismatullin



High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult population. PMID:21510847



1 H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Liver, Serum, and Brain Following Ethanol Administration in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is a widely used drug that is consumed in large amounts for pharmacologic effects. Elimination of ethanol alters metabolism in the liver and throughout an organism. Ethanol's effect on metabolites can influence the regulation of key pathways such as gluconeogenesis. We adopted a proton NMR-based metabolomic approach to study ethanol-induced metabolic changes in liver, blood, and brain tissue from

Peter C. Nicholas; Daniel Kim; Fulton T. Crews; Jeffrey M. Macdonald



Four Cases of Abnormal Neuropsychological Findings in Children with High Blood Methylmercury Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background Methylmercury (MeHg) easily crosses the blood–brain barrier and accumulates in the brain. Accumulated MeHg will cause neurological symptoms. We report four pediatric cases of neuropsychological findings with high blood MeHg concentrations. Case presentation Four children were admitted for follow-up study because their total mercury (THg) concentration in the blood was found to be high during a national survey. Case 1 was a 9-year-old female with a 16.6??g/? blood THg concentration in the survey. During admission, the blood THg, hair THg, and blood MeHg concentration(mercury indices) were 21.4??g/?, 7.2??g/g, and 20.1??g/?, respectively. In our neuropsychological examination, cognitive impairment and attention deficit were observed. Her diet included fish intake 2–3 times per week, and she had been diagnosed with epilepsy at 3 years of age. Case 2 was a 12-year-old male with blood THg of 15.4??g/? in the survey and the mercury indices were 12.7??g/?, 5.7??g/g, and 11.8??g/?, respectively, on admission. He was also observed to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Case 3 was a 10-year-old male child with blood THg of 17.4??g/? in the survey, and the mercury indices on admission were 21.6??g/?, 7.5??g/g and 21.5??g/?, respectively. In his case, mild attention deficit was observed. Case 4 was a 9-year-old male with blood THg of 20.6??g/? in the survey and the mercury indices were 18.9??g/?, 8.3??g/g, and 14.4??g/?, respectively, on admission. Mild attention difficulty was observed. Conclusion We suggest that fish consumption may be the main source of MeHg exposure, and that MeHg may have been the cause of the neuropsychological deficits in these cases. PMID:24472601



Blood Tests  


... Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack High Blood Cholesterol Thalassemias Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... Next >> January 6, 2012 Blood Tests Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, ...


Lack of effect of oral magnesium on high blood pressure: a double blind study.  

PubMed Central

Seventeen unselected patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and whose average supine blood pressure after two months' observation with no treatment was 154/100 mm Hg were entered into a double blind randomised crossover study of one month's treatment with magnesium aspartate (15 mmol magnesium/day) and treatment with placebo for a further month. This preparation of magnesium was well tolerated and did not cause diarrhoea. Despite a significant increase in plasma magnesium concentration and a significant increase in urinary excretion of magnesium while taking magnesium aspartate there was no fall in blood pressure compared with either treatment with placebo or values before treatment. The results provide no evidence for a role of dietary magnesium in the regulation of high blood pressure and are contrary to recent speculations. PMID:3926135

Cappuccio, F P; Markandu, N D; Beynon, G W; Shore, A C; Sampson, B; MacGregor, G A



High-Dose Therapy and Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients With Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients with refractory Hodgkin's disease (24 patients) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1 6 patients) who were considered for high-dose therapy but not for autolo- gous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) due to BM metastases. previous pelvic irradiation. a history of mar- row involvement by tumor or hypocellular marrow in conventional harvest sites received high-dose therapy and autologous peripheral blood (PB) hematopoietic

Anne Kessinger; Douglas M. Smith; James D. Landmark; Philip J. Bierman; Dennis D. Weisenburger



Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.  


The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ? 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually assaulted attending our SAC. PMID:23910880

Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit



Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.  


Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity. PMID:15696680

Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C



Detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation  

SciTech Connect

A detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation has been developed and validated against a variety of experimental data sets. Laminar flame speed data obtained from a constant volume bomb, ignition delay data behind reflected shock waves, and ethanol oxidation product profiles from a turbulent flow reactor were used in this study. Very good agreement was found in modeling the data sets obtained from the three different experimental systems. The computational modeling results show that high temperature ethanol oxidation exhibits strong sensitivity to the fall-off kinetics of ethanol decomposition, branching ratio selection for c2h5oh+oh=products, and reactions involving the hydroperoxyl (HO2) radical.

Marinov, N.



Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, high ethanol-yielding bacterium isolated from household waste.  


An extremely thermophilic, xylanolytic, spore-forming and strictly anaerobic bacterium, strain DTU01(T), was isolated from a continuously stirred tank reactor fed with xylose and household waste. Cells stained Gram-negative and were rod-shaped (0.5-2 µm in length). Spores were terminal with a diameter of approximately 0.5 µm. Optimal growth occurred at 70 °C and pH 7, with a maximum growth rate of 0.1 h(-1). DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. Strain DTU01(T) could ferment arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, melibiose, pectin, starch, sucrose, xylan, yeast extract and xylose, but not cellulose, Avicel, inositol, inulin, glycerol, rhamnose, acetate, lactate, ethanol, butanol or peptone. Ethanol was the major fermentation product and a maximum yield of 1.39 mol ethanol per mol xylose was achieved when sulfite was added to the cultivation medium. Thiosulfate, but not sulfate, nitrate or nitrite, could be used as electron acceptor. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain DTU01(T) was shown to be closely related to Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3(T), Thermoanaerobacter italicus Ab9(T) and Thermoanaerobacter thermocopriae JT3-3(T), with 98-99 % similarity. Despite this, the physiological and phylogenetic differences (DNA G+C content, substrate utilization, electron acceptors, phylogenetic distance and isolation site) allow for the proposal of strain DTU01(T) as a representative of a novel species within the genus Thermoanaerobacter, for which the name Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DTU01(T) ( = DSM 25963(T) = KCTC 4529(T) = VKM B-2752(T) = CECT 8142(T)). PMID:23178727

Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini



Production of the Anaerobic GMAX-L Yeast Using High-Throughput Mating and Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae With Identified Genes For Simultaneous Cellulosic Ethanol and Biodiesel Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tailored GMAX-L yeast engineering for strains capable of universal ethanol production industrially with coproduction of an expressed lipase catalyst for coproduction of ethyl esters from corn oil and ethanol from the modern dry grind ethanol facility: Production of the stable baseline glucose, mann...


Efficacy of a church-based lifestyle intervention programme to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose in church members: a randomized controlled trial in Pretoria, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In persons 15 years and above in South Africa the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes has been estimated at 9.1% and 9.6%, respectively, and the prevalence of systolic prehypertension and hypertension, 38.2% and 24.6%, respectively. Elevated blood glucose and elevated blood pressure are prototype of preventable chronic cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lifestyle interventions have been shown to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose. Methods/Design This study proposes to evaluate the efficacy of a community (church)-based lifestyle intervention programme to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose in church members in a randomized controlled trial in Gauteng, South Africa. The objectives are to: (1) measure non-communicable diseases profile, including hypertension and diabetes, health behaviours, weight management and psychological distress of church members; (2) measure the reduction of blood glucose and blood pressure levels after the intervention; (3) prevent the development of impaired glucose tolerance; (4) compare health behaviours, weight management and psychological distress, blood glucose and blood pressure levels between intervention and control groups, and within group during 6, 12, 24 and 36 months during and post intervention. The study will use a group-randomized design, recruiting 300 church members from 12 churches. Churches will be randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions. Discussion Lifestyle interventions may prevent from the development of high blood pressure and/or diabetes. The findings will impact public health and will enable the health ministry to formulate policy related to lifestyle interventions to control blood pressure and glucose. Trial registration number PACTR201105000297151 PMID:24906450



The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National High Blood Pressure Education Program presents the complete Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Like its predecessors, the purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of hypertension. The key messages of this report are these: in those older than age 50, systolic

Aram V. Chobanian; George L. Bakris; Henry R. Black; William C. Cushman; Lee A. Green; Joseph L. Izzo; Daniel W. Jones; Barry J. Materson; Jackson T. Wright


Effects of propolis on blood glucose, blood lipid and free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus.  


The effects of ethanol (EEP) and water (WSD) extracts of propolis collected from north China on blood glucose, blood lipid and free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus were studied. The results show that EEP and WSD led to decreased levels of blood glucose (FBG), fructosamine (FRU), malonaldehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum of fasting rats; and to increased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This suggests that propolis can control blood glucose and modulate the metabolism of glucose and blood lipid, leading to decreased outputs of lipid peroxidation and scavenge the free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus. PMID:15629260

Fuliang, H U; Hepburn, H R; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Chen, Minli; Daya, S; Radloff, S E



Elimination Kinetics of Ethanol in a 5-Week-Old Infant and a Literature Review of Infant Ethanol Pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

Primary ethanol metabolism occurs through alcohol dehydrogenase, but minor metabolic pathways such as the P450 enzymes CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 and the enzyme catalase exist. These enzymes have distinct developmental stages. Elimination kinetics of ethanol in the infant is limited. We report the elimination kinetics of ethanol in a 5-week-old African-American male who had a serum ethanol level of 270?mg/dL on admission. A previously healthy 5-week-old African-American male was brought to the ED with a decreased level of consciousness. His initial blood ethanol level was 270?mg/dL. Serial blood ethanol levels were obtained. The elimination rate of ethanol was calculated to be in a range from 17.1 to 21.2?mg/dL/hr and appeared to follow zero-order elimination kinetics with a R2 = 0.9787. Elimination kinetics for ethanol in the young infant has been reported in only four previously published reports. After reviewing these reports, there appears to be variability in the elimination rates of ethanol in infants. Very young infants may not eliminate ethanol as quickly as previously described. Given that there are different stages of enzyme development in children, caution should be used when generalizing the elimination kinetics in young infants and children. PMID:24368917

Ford, Jonathan B.; Wayment, Mac T.; Albertson, Timothy E.; Owen, Kelly P.; Radke, Joshua B.; Sutter, Mark E.



Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.  


The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. PMID:24871566

Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P



High frequency photoacoustic imaging for in vivo visualizing blood flow of zebrafish heart  

PubMed Central

A technique on high frame rate(28fps), high frequency co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for visualizing zebrafish heart blood flow was demonstrated. This approach was achieved with a 40MHz light weight(0.38g) ring-type transducer, serving as the ultrasound transmitter and receiver, to allow an optic fiber, coupled with a 532nm laser, to be inserted into the hole. From the wire target study, axial resolutions of 38µm and 42µm were obtained for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging, respectively. Carbon nanotubes were utilized as contrast agents to increase the flow signal level by 20dB in phantom studies, and zebrafish heart blood flow was successfully observed. PMID:23787651

Park, Jinhyoung; Cummins, Thomas M.; Harrison, Michael; Lee, Jungwoo; Zhou, Qifa; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk



High blood pressure and the kidney: The forgotten contribution of William Senhouse Kirkes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure and the kidney: The forgotten contribution of William Senhouse Kirkes. The realization of the key role for raised intra-arterial pressure as a pathogenetic agent in hypertension is usually credited to Ludwig Traube, but Traube in his writings gives credit for the idea to a little-known English doctor, William Senhouse Kirkes (1822–1864). Kirkes' main interest was in cardiology

J Stewart Cameron; Jackie Hicks



New Study Suggests Link Between Chronic Estrogen Exposure and High Blood Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Press release on a new study that links chronic estrogen exposure to high blood pressure. This study, "Chronic Estradiol-17B Exposure Increases Superoxide Production in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) and Causes Hypertension: Reversal by Resveratrol," was conducted by P.S. MohanKumarm, Ph.D., and team from Michigan State University. The study is published in the June 2011 issue of American Journal of Physiology Â? Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)



Impact of Hypertension Information on High Blood Pressure Control Between 1973 and 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY To determine whether the immense multifocal efforts in the United States over the past 7 years to detect and treat high blood pressure (BP), had affected the status of hypertension, data from a national household survey in 1973-74 were compared with data obtained in 1977-78 from a second non-overlapping population in the same three communities. The impact of hypertension




Neither Perceived Job Stress Nor Individual Cardiovascular Reactivity Predict High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reported that high job strain was associated with a significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 4.5 mm Hg during the working hours, irrespective of BP reactivity to a stress test. We report the final results of the first 5-year follow-up study, which aimed to assess the respective influences of perception of professional strain and cardiovascular reactivity to

Jean Pierre Fauvel; Pierre Quelin; Jean-Pierre Rigaud; Maurice Laville; Michel Ducher



High-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for patients with advanced ovarian cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We report the results of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in twenty-one patients\\u000a with primarily advanced or relapsed ovarian cancer. Methods: Twenty-five women underwent stem cell collection, and 21 were finally treated with different regimens of HDC containing cyclophosphamide,\\u000a etoposide, carboplatin, and treosulfan. The patients received cyclophosphamide ± cisplatin and cisplatin + paclitaxel, respectively,\\u000a followed

Peter Bojko; Max Ernst Scheulen; Ralf Hilger; Carsten Oberhoff; Adolf Eduard Schindler; Siegfried Seeber



Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation  

PubMed Central

We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J. M. A.



Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation.  


We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; D'Costa, Ninadh Malrina; Akhter, Farjana; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J M A



Continuous membrane fermentor separator for ethanol fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The inhibiting effect of ethanol on yeast growth and ethanol production has been studied using the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-Y-2034 under anaerobic conditions. Batch and continuous fermentation data were fitted to a kinetic model. The integration of continuous fermentation and separation of ethanol in the same unit has been proposed. Pervaporation with ethanol selective silicone rubber hollow fiber membranes was considered for separation. A laboratory scale Continuous Membrane Fermentor Separator (CMFS) unit utilizing a shell and tube configuration was designed and fabricated. Two types of continuous fermentation experiments were carried out: fermentation with dead membranes as the reference and fermentation with live membranes through which ethanol was continuously removed by pervaporation from the fermentor. Performance of the CMFS results in higher yeast cell densities, reduction of ethanol inhibition, longer residence time of substrate, more glucose consumption, and recovery of clean and concentrated ethanol. A mathematical model was developed and used to determine the effects of design and operation parameters of the CMFS, including dilution rate, dimensionless membrane volume, substrate concentration, membrane properties, etc. Computer simulation results indicated that the CMFS could provide significant improvements not only in ethanol productivity but also in glucose consumption for highly concentrated substrate when the dimensionless membrane volume and/or permeability of ethanol was increased.

Cho, C.



Hypertension`s lead connection: Does low-level exposure to lead cause high blood pressure?  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Paying for the sins of the past.{close_quotes} is how researcher Howard Hu describes a proposed disease process in which lead stored for decades in the skeleton puts people at risk of high blood pressure. Previous research has linked this silvery white, poisonous metal to a host of ill effects in children, including learning disabilities, behavior problems, and brain damage. Now, Hu`s study indicates that past exposure may be causing today`s high blood pressure. If he`s right, the public health impact would be significant. {open_quotes}Tens of millions of Americans have been exposed over the years to lead,{close_quotes} says Philip J. Landrigan of Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. {open_quotes}Adults today grew up at a time when we were still putting several hundred thousand tons of lead into gasoline each year.{close_quotes} Indeed, the men who developed high blood pressure during the recent study had in their bones lead concentrations, or lead burdens, that came from decades of everyday exposure. Such exposures resulted principally from breathing in fumes from leaded gasoline, drinking tap water from lead pipes or pipes soldered with lead, and inhaling or ingesting lead-laced paint dust or chips. This article goes on to discuss other studies and questions which still need to be answered.

Fackelmann, K.



High blood cadmium levels are not associated with consumption of traditional food among the Inuit of Nunavik  

SciTech Connect

High levels of cadmium in the liver and kidneys of caribous and sea mammals of the Canadian Arctic have led to recommendations to remove such offal from the traditional diet. Blood cadmium levels have been found to be very high in samples of Inuit volunteers, hence the hypothesis that the Inuit might be exposed to cadmium through their diet. This survey of a population-based random sample of Nunavik residents (n = 518) confirms that blood cadmium of Inuit is indeed very high by comparison to published reports. Blood cadmium levels are closely associated with the current smoking status and are independent of dietary patterns among nonsmokers. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids concentrations have been used to assess the reliability of the dietary information collected by questionnaires and to test for any association of blood cadmium with the consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are not related to the reported consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are very high among smokers and are associated with levels of exposure to tobacco. Among nonsmoking Inuit, blood cadmium levels are comparable with those reported in nonsmokers elsewhere in the world. In reference to international standards, blood cadmium concentrations are high enough among the Inuit to warrant energetic public health interventions. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

Rey, M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia)] [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia); Turcotte, F.; Lapointe, C. [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada)] [and others] [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada); and others



Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.  


Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process. PMID:25119551

Mikulski, D; K?osowski, G; Rolbiecka, A



High-fat diet-induced neuropathy of prediabetes and obesity: effect of PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.  


Artemisia species are a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on neuropathy in high-fat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and proinflammatory changes in peripheral nervous system. C57Bl6/J mice fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks developed obesity, moderate nonfasting hyperglycemia, nerve conduction deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. They displayed 12/15-lipoxygenase overexpression, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid accumulation, and nitrosative stress in peripheral nerve and spinal cord. PMI-5011 (500 mg kg(-1) d(-1), 7 weeks) normalized glycemia, alleviated nerve conduction slowing and sensory neuropathy, and reduced 12/15-lipoxygenase upregulation and nitrated protein expression in peripheral nervous system. PMI-5011, a safe and nontoxic botanical extract, may find use in treatment of neuropathic changes at the earliest stage of disease. PMID:20396384

Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Ribnicky, David M; Raskin, Ilya; Obrosova, Irina G



Ethanol fuels: Energy security, economics, and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fuel ethanol production have been the subject of numerous reports, including this analysis. The conclusions are that ethanol: does not improve U.S. energy security; is uneconomical; is not a renewable energy source; and increases environmental degradation. Ethanol production is wasteful of energy resources and does not increase energy security. Considerably more energy, much of it high- grade fossil

David Pimentel



Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil. There are mainly two processes involved in the conversion: hydrolysis of cellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass to produce reducing sugars, and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is relatively high based on current technologies,

Ye Sun; Jiayang Cheng



A cholecystokinin-releasing factor mediates ethanol-induced stimulation of rat pancreatic secretion.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which short-term ethanol administration alters pancreatic exocrine function are unknown. We have evaluated the effects of ethanol administration on pancreatic secretion of digestive enzymes. In our studies, anesthetized as well as conscious rats were given ethanol at a rate sufficient to cause the blood ethanol concentration to reach levels associated with clinical intoxication. Ethanol was administered over a 2-h period during which blood ethanol levels remained stably elevated. We report that intravenous administration of ethanol results in a transient increase in pancreatic amylase output and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) levels. The ethanol-induced increase in amylase output can be completely inhibited by the CCK-A receptor antagonist L-364,718 and partially inhibited by the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. The ethanol-induced rise in amylase output can be completely prevented by instillation of trypsin into the duodenum or by lavage of the duodenum with saline during ethanol administration. Furthermore, the intraduodenal activity of a CCK-releasing factor is increased by infusion of ethanol. These studies indicate that administration of ethanol causes rat pancreatic exocrine secretion to increase. This phenomenon is mediated by a trypsin-sensitive CCK-releasing factor which is present within the duodenal lumen. These observations lead us to speculate that repeated CCK-mediated ethanol-induced stimulation of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion may play a role in the events which link ethanol abuse to the development of pancreatic injury. PMID:9022085

Saluja, A K; Lu, L; Yamaguchi, Y; Hofbauer, B; Rünzi, M; Dawra, R; Bhatia, M; Steer, M L



[High blood pressure and obesity in indigenous Ashaninkas of Junin region, Peru].  


In order to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in indigenous Ashaninkas, with limited contact with Western culture, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 in five Ashaninka communities of the Junin region in the jungle of Peru. Individuals aged 35 or older were included. 76 subjects were evaluated (average age 47.4 years old, 52.6 % women) corresponding to 43.2% of the eligible population. The prevalence of hypertension was 14.5% (CI 95%: 6.4-22.6) and the prevalence of obesity, according to body mass index, was 4% (CI 95%: 0-8.4). No differences were observed in gender or in blood pressure levels by age group. Compared with previous studies in non-indigenous people of the Peruvian jungle, the prevalence of high blood pressure was higher while the prevalence of obesity was lower. Our findings are a call to be aware of the situation of chronic non-communicable diseases in indigenous populations in the Peruvian Amazon. PMID:24718530

Romero, Candice; Zavaleta, Carol; Cabrera, Lilia; Gilman, Robert H; Miranda, J Jaime



Structure and blood compatibility of highly oriented PLA/MWNTs composites produced by solid hot drawing.  


Highly oriented poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composites were fabricated through solid hot drawing technology in an effort to improve the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA as blood-contacting medical devices. It was found that proper MWNTs content and drawing orientation can improve the tensile strength and modulus of PLA dramatically. With the increase in draw ratio, the cold crystallization peak became smaller, and the glass transition and the melting peak of PLA moved to high temperature, while the crystallinity increased, and the grain size decreased, indicating the stress-induced crystallization of PLA during drawing. MWNTs showed a nucleation effect on PLA, leading to the rise in the melting temperature, increase in crystallinity and reduction of spherulite size for the composites. Moreover, the intensity of (002) diffraction of MWNTs increased with draw ratio, indicating that MWNTs were preferentially aligned and oriented during drawing. Microstructure observation demonstrated that PLA matrix had an ordered fibrillar bundle structure, and MWNTs in the composite tended to align parallel to the drawing direction. In addition, the dispersion of MWNTs in PLA was also improved by orientation. Introduction of MWNTs and drawing orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging kinetic clotting time, reducing hemolysis ratio and platelet activation. PMID:23733838

Li, Zhengqiu; Zhao, Xiaowen; Ye, Lin; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel



Ethanol production method and system  


Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.



Central neuropeptide Y modulates binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice via Y1 and Y2 receptors.  


Frequent binge drinking has been linked to heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and the development of ethanol dependence. Thus, identifying pharmaceutical targets to treat binge drinking is of paramount importance. Here we employed a mouse model of binge-like ethanol drinking to study the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY). To this end, the present set of studies utilized pharmacological manipulation of NPY signaling, immunoreactivity (IR) mapping of NPY and NPY receptors, and electrophysiological recordings from slice preparations of the amygdala. The results indicated that central infusion of NPY, a NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) agonist, and a Y2R antagonist significantly blunted binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice (that achieved blood ethanol levels >80?mg/dl in control conditions). Binge-like ethanol drinking reduced NPY and Y1R IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and 24?h of ethanol abstinence after a history of binge-like drinking promoted increases of Y1R and Y2R IR. Electrophysiological recordings of slice preparations from the CeA showed that binge-like ethanol drinking augmented the ability of NPY to inhibit GABAergic transmission. Thus, binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice promoted alterations of NPY signaling in the CeA, and administration of exogenous NPY compounds protected against binge-like drinking. The current data suggest that Y1R agonists and Y2R antagonists may be useful for curbing and/or preventing binge drinking, protecting vulnerable individuals from progressing to the point of ethanol dependence. PMID:22218088

Sparrow, Angela M; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Pleil, Kristen E; Li, Chia; Sprow, Gretchen M; Cox, Benjamin R; Rinker, Jennifer A; Jijon, Ana M; Pe?a, José; Navarro, Montserrat; Kash, Thomas L; Thiele, Todd E



Defective blood dendritic cells in chronic myeloid leukemia correlate with high plasmatic VEGF and are not normalized by imatinib mesylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human blood dendritic cells (DC) comprise plasmacytoid DC (PDC) and myeloid DC (MDC), which both prime antitumor T-cell responses. We prospectively monitored blood DC in 30 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients before and after imatinib mesylate therapy. We found a dramatic reduction in PDC and MDC prior treatment. This reduction was associated with high plasmatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),

N Boissel; P Rousselot; E Raffoux; J-M Cayuela; O Maarek; D Charron; L Degos; H Dombret; A Toubert; D Rea



The impact of patients' perceptions of high blood pressure on attendance at screening : An extension of the health belief model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with a neglected area: the synthesis of two approaches relevant to health-related behaviour--the Health Belief Model and Attribution Theory. A prospective design was used to test the combination of health beliefs and causal attributions that predispose patients to attend a screening for raised blood pressure. It was proposed that causal attributions concerning high blood pressure (HBP)

Jennifer B. King



Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood triglycerides reflect key metabolic processes including sensitivity to insulin. Blood lipoprotein and lipid concentrations are heritable. To date, the identification o...


Summary of the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a special report by The Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents to inform clinicians on recent scientific evidence related to blood pressure in children and to offer recommendations for evaluation and treatment of hypertension in these patients.



High and low glycemic index mixed meals and blood glucose in youth with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.  


This cross-over pilot study tested blood glucose response to low and high glycemic index meals in 12 obese youth with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Participants demonstrated significantly lower mean daytime blood glucose and a trend toward lower variability, suggesting a clinically relevant impact of reducing glycemic index. PMID:19874764

Gellar, Lauren; Nansel, Tonja R



High and Low Glycemic Index Mixed Meals and Blood Glucose in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

This cross-over pilot study tested blood glucose response to low and high glycemic index meals in 12 obese youth with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Participants demonstrated significantly lower mean daytime blood glucose and a trend toward lower variability, suggesting a clinically relevant impact of reducing glycemic index. PMID:19874764

Gellar, Lauren; Nansel, Tonja R.



High and Low Glycemic Index Mixed Meals and Blood Glucose in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-over pilot study tested blood glucose response to low and high glycemic index meals in 12 obese youth with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Participants demonstrated significantly lower mean daytime blood glucose and a trend toward lower variability, suggesting a clinically relevant impact of reducing glycemic index.

Lauren A. Gellar; Tonja R. Nansel



Lymphocyte subsets in inline filtered packed red blood cell units: comparison between low and high spin procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocyte subsets were determined in 20 packed red blood cell units (PRC) before and after filtration (FPRC) with the Pall Leukotrap RC inline filter system; 10 units were prepared by low spin and platelet rich plasma (PRP) removal (Group A) and 10 with high spin, plasma and buffy-coat (BC) removal (Group B). Flow cytometry was employed for white blood cell

Luca Mascaretti; Laura Baggi; Mariarosa Riva; Patrizia Proserpio; Maria Dassi; Filippo Varallo; Gianalfredo Sciorelli; Cinzia Quarti



Phytase supplementation improves blood zinc in rats fed with high phytate Iranian bread  

PubMed Central

Background: More than one third of energy intake in Iran is provided from bread. Therefore, improving bread mineral bioavailability through dephytinization can play an important role in decreasing the prevalence of many mineral deficiencies. In this study, effect of phytase supplementation on zinc, iron and calcium status in growing rats fed with a diet containing high phytate Iranian bread (Sangak) was assessed. Methods: Thirty weanling Wistar male rats were assigned to phytase (Aspergillus niger) or control group for 6 weeks. The diet was designed based on Iranian's food pattern and 34.2% of the energy was supplied from Sangak bread. Food intake, body and organ weight and body height were measured. Zinc was measured in blood, liver and femur. Iron was assessed in blood and liver and calcium was titrated from femur bone. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Paired sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and repeated measurement ANOVA were used for proper analysis of data. Results: Although weekly weight gain was not different between groups, final weight was in favor of control group. Food intakes, liver and femur bone weight did not differ between the two groups. However, the blood zinc was higher in the phytase group (26.2 ± 7.4 vs. 19.2 ± 5.2, P = 0.03). Thus positive effects of phytase supplementation on zinc, independent of growth was found. Other variables did not show any differences between groups. Conclusion: Addition of phytase to diet containing high phytate Iranian bread can improve blood zinc status in growing rats. PMID:23267398

Shockravi, Soodeh; Mohammad-Shirazi, Minoo; Abadi, Alireza; Seyedain, Mahdi; Kimiagar, Masoud



Simultaneous high-resolution pH and spectrophotometric recordings of oxygen binding in blood microvolumes.  


Oxygen equilibrium curves have been widely used to understand oxygen transport in numerous organisms. A major challenge has been to monitor oxygen binding characteristics and concomitant pH changes as they occur in vivo, in limited sample volumes. Here we report a technique allowing highly resolved and simultaneous monitoring of pH and blood pigment saturation in minute blood volumes. We equipped a gas diffusion chamber with a broad-range fibre-optic spectrophotometer and a micro-pH optode and recorded changes of pigment oxygenation along oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and pH gradients to test the setup. Oxygen binding parameters derived from measurements in only 15 ?l of haemolymph from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris showed low instrumental error (0.93%) and good agreement with published data. Broad-range spectra, each resolving 2048 data points, provided detailed insight into the complex absorbance characteristics of diverse blood types. After consideration of photobleaching and intrinsic fluorescence, pH optodes yielded accurate recordings and resolved a sigmoidal shift of 0.03 pH units in response to changing PO2 from 0 to 21 kPa. Highly resolved continuous recordings along pH gradients conformed to stepwise measurements at low rates of pH changes. In this study we showed that a diffusion chamber upgraded with a broad-range spectrophotometer and an optical pH sensor accurately characterizes oxygen binding with minimal sample consumption and manipulation. We conclude that the modified diffusion chamber is highly suitable for experimental biologists who demand high flexibility, detailed insight into oxygen binding as well as experimental and biological accuracy combined in a single setup. PMID:24436387

Oellermann, Michael; Pörtner, Hans-O; Mark, Felix C



High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines  

SciTech Connect

Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

Hilbert, D.



A novel anticoagulant protein with high affinity to blood coagulation factor Va from Tegillarca granosa.  


A novel inhibitory protein against blood coagulation factor Va (FVa) was purified from muscle protein of granulated ark (Tegillarca granosa, order Arcoida, marine bivalvia) by consecutive FPLC method using anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography. In the results of ESIQTOF tandem mass analysis and database research, it was revealed that the purified T. granosa anticoagulant protein (TGAP) has 7.7 kDa of molecular mass and its partial sequence, HTHLQRAPHPNALGYHGK, has a high identity (64%) with serine/threonine kinase derived from Rhodopirellula baltica (order Planctomycetales, marine bacteria). TGAP could potently prolong thrombin time (TT), corresponding to inhibition of thrombin (FIIa) formation. Specific factor inhibitory assay showed that TGAP inhibits FVa among the major components of prothrombinase complex. In vitro assay for direct-binding affinity using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometer indicated that TGAP could be directly bound with FVa. In addition, the binding affinity of FVa to FII was decreased by addition of TGAP in dose-dependant manner (IC50 value = 77.9 nM). These results illustrated that TGAP might interact with a heavy chain of FVa (FVa(H)) bound to FII in prothrombin complex. The present study elucidated that non-cytotoxic T. granosa anticoagulant protein (TGAP) bound to FVa can prolong blood coagulation time by inhibiting conversion of FII to FIIa in blood coagulation cascade. In addition, TGAP did not significantly (P < 0.05) show fibrinolytic activity and cytotoxicity on venous endothelial cell line (ECV 304). PMID:17927919

Jung, Won-Kyo; Jo, Hee-Yeon; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sae-Gwang; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Se-Kwon



High blood pressure is one of the symptoms of paraquat-induced toxicity in rats.  


This study investigated whether paraquat (Pq)-induced lipidic peroxidation (LP) is accompanied by changes in blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in rats. Groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied 2 and 12 h after Pq (35 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. The LP was evaluated by monitoring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the kidneys, liver and lungs, and validated by including a group treated with an antioxidant, superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD 50,000 IU/kg), in the study. The TBARS levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the kidneys of the rats studied 2 h after Pq than in their respective controls. Similarly, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were higher (p<0.05), while HR was lower (p<0.05) than basal levels 2 and 12 h after Pq administration. In contrast, the group treated simultaneously with Pq and CuZnSOD exhibited lower levels of TBARS (p<0.05) in all studied organs compared to the control group, while the mean arterial pressure and HR did not differ from those seen in the control group. These findings indicate that acute Pq poisoning symptoms include high blood pressure. PMID:16032370

Oliveira, M V B; Albuquerque, J A; Paixão, A D O; Guedes, L S; Cabral, A M S



Ethanol distribution in the brain of a victim autopsied after acute subdural hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined ethanol distribution in the brain of a 62-year-old male, who had died of acute subdural hemorrhage 4 days after injury. His blood ethanol concentration was 2.70 mg\\/g on admission. Blood pressure suddenly decreased and spontaneous respiration ceased 7 h after admission. He was artificially ventilated and died 4 days later. Ethanol was detected in the subdural hematoma, cerebellum,

Kou Takahashi; Noriaki Ikeda; Keiko Kudo; Yukio Ohtsuka



Ethanol increases hepatocyte water volume.  


Mouse hepatocytes respond to osmotic stress with adaptive changes in transmembrane potential, Vm, such that hypotonic stress hyperpolarizes cells and hypertonic stress depolarizes them. These changes in Vm provide electromotive force for redistribution of ions such as Cl-, and this comprises part of the mechanism of hepatocyte volume regulation. We conducted the present study to determine whether ethanol administered in vitro to mouse liver slices increases hepatocyte water volume, and whether this swelling triggers adaptive changes in the Vm. Cells in mouse liver slices were loaded with tetramethylammonium ion (TMA). Changes in hepatocyte water volume were computed from measurements with ion sensitive microelectrodes of changes in intracellular activity of TMA (a1TMA) that resulted from water fluxes. Ethanol (70 mM) increased hepatocyte water volume immediately, and this peaked at 17% by 7 to 8 min, by which time a plateau was reached. Liver slices also were obtained from mice treated 12 hr prior with 4-methylpyrazole (4 mM). The effect of ethanol on their hepatocyte water volume was identical to that from untreated mice, except that the onset and peak were delayed 2 min. Hepatocyte Vm showed no differences between control or ethanol-treated cells during the course of volume changes. In contrast, hyposmotic stress, created by dropping external osmolality 50 mosm, increased Vm from -30 mV to -46 mV. Ethanol did not inhibit this osmotic stress-induced hyperpolarization, except partially at high concentrations of 257 mM or greater. We infer that ethanol-induced swelling of hepatocytes differs from that resulting from hyposmotic stress.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7531405

Wondergem, R; Davis, J



GSK3beta in ethanol neurotoxicity.  


Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant public health problem and may result in a wide range of adverse outcomes for the child. The developing central nervous system (CNS) is particularly susceptible to ethanol toxicity. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments. FASD currently represents the leading cause of mental retardation in North America ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. Ethanol exposure during development causes multiple abnormalities in the brain such as permanent loss of neurons, ectopic neurons, and alterations in synaptogenesis and myelinogenesis. These alcohol-induced structural alterations in the developing brain underlie many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity, however, remain unclear. Ethanol elicits cellular stresses, including oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase, responds to various cellular stresses. GSK3beta is particularly abundant in the developing CNS, and regulates diverse developmental events in the immature brain, such as neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, migration, and survival. Available evidence indicates that the activity of GSK3beta in the CNS is affected by ethanol. GSK3beta inhibition provides protection against ethanol neurotoxicity, whereas high GSK3beta activity/expression sensitizes neuronal cells to ethanol-induced damages. It appears that GSK3beta is a converging signaling point that mediates some of ethanol's neurotoxic effects. PMID:19507062

Luo, Jia



An Automated High-Throughput Counting Method for Screening Circulating Tumor Cells in Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has proved valuable for early detection and prognosis in cancer treatment. This paper describes an automated high-throughput counting method for CTCs based on microfluidics and line-confocal microscopy. Peripheral blood was directly labeled with multiple antibodies, each conjugated with a different fluorophore, pneumatically pumped through a microfluidic channel and interrogated by a line-confocal microscope. Based on the fluorescence signals and labeling schemes, the count of CTCs was automatically reported. Due to the high flow rate, 1 mL of whole blood can be analyzed in less than 30 minutes. We applied this method in analyzing CTCs from 90 stage IV breast-cancer patient samples, and performed a side-by-side comparison with the results of the CellSearch assay, which is the only method approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at present for enumeration of CTCs. This method has a recovery rate for cultured breast cancer cells of 94% (n=9), with an average of 1.2 counts/mL of background level of detected CTCs from healthy donors. It detected CTCs from breast-cancer patients, ranging from 15 to 3375 counts/7.5 mL. Using this method, we also demonstrate the ability to enumerate CTCs from breast-cancer patients that were positive for Her2 or CD44+/CD24?, which is a putative cancer stem cell marker. This automated method can enumerate CTCs from peripheral blood with high throughput and sensitivity. It could potentially benefit the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. PMID:23387387

Zhao, Mengxia; Schiro, Perry G.; Kuo, Jason S.; Koehler, Karen M.; Sabath, Daniel E.; Popov, Viorica; Feng, Qinghua; Chiu, Daniel T.



Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.  


Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. PMID:24060214

Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D



"High in omega-3 fatty acids" bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis.  


A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed. The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6/?-3 ratio from 17.3 to 1.9, and also the Atherogenic Index and Thrombogenic Index (0.38-0.31 and 1.03-0.54, respectively). Modified sausages with BHA and Melissa extract showed significantly lower peroxides value (2.62 and 6.11 meq O?/kg) and thiobarbituric acid value (0.26 and 0.27 mg malondialdehyde/kg) and higher antioxidant capacity (hydrophilic fraction ABTS: 0.45 and 0.74 meq Trolox/g product; lipofilic fraction ABTS: 0.44 and 0.37 meq Trolox/g product) than those without these ingredients (16.49 meq O?/kg, 2.08 mg malondialdehyde /kg, 0.26 and 0.27 meq Trolox/g product, respectively). Sensorial tests showed that acceptability of the new formulations was similar to control products. PMID:21439735

Berasategi, Izaskun; Legarra, Sheila; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar



Platelet aggregation in young men with contrasting predisposition to high blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In essential hypertension, abnormal platelet function may induce vasospasm and predispose to thrombotic vascular occlusion. We studied in vitro aggregability in platelets from young men with contrasting predisposition to hypertension, defined by their own blood pressure and blood pressures of their parents. Among offspring of parents with low blood pressure, higher blood pressure was associated with impaired aggregation in response

Mark E. C. Dockrell; Brian R. Walker; Joseph P. Noon; Graham C. M. Watt; Brent C. Williams; David J. Webb



Vinorelbine high-affinity binding to human platelets and lymphocytes: distribution in human blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using [3H]-vinorelbine, we demonstrated the presence of saturable and time-dependent high-affinity binding sites on human platelets and lymphocytes. The dissociation constant and binding-site values observed were 200±38 nM, 20.0±2.2 amol\\/platelet, and 155±20 amol\\/lymphocyte, respectively. Among other blood components, saturable low-affinity binding of vinorelbine to alpha1-acid glycoprotein, serum albumin, and lipoproteins was observed. The binding to erythocytes was nonsaturable. Given the

S. Urien; F. Brée; F. Breillout; G. Bastian; A. Krikorian; J. P. Tillement



Measurement of penicillamine and N-acetylcysteine in human blood by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection.  


A rapid and precise high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for both N-acetylcysteine and penicillamine in blood samples is described using selective reductive electrochemical detection and a high-efficiency C18 reversed-phase column. The use of an internal standard compensated for changes in detector responses during a run and for variable sample recovery. The detection limits for N-acetylcysteine and penicillamine were 25 and 10 ng/ml, respectively, using 500-microliters blood samples. Reproducibility of measurement for both thiols was excellent. This method allows routine monitoring of blood levels and pharmacokinetic studies with N-acetylcysteine and penicillamine. PMID:3958085

Drummer, O H; Christophidis, N; Horowitz, J D; Louis, W J



Effect of high dose isoflurane on cerebral blood flow in macaque monkeys.  


The effect of high dose isoflurane on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was investigated in adult macaque monkeys receiving 1% to 2% isoflurane with the pseudo continuous arterial-spin-labeling (pCASL) MRI technique. High concentration (2%) of isoflurane resulted in significant increase in the mean CBF of the global, cortical, subcortical regions and the regional CBF in all subcortical structures and most cortical structures (such as motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, but not media prefrontal cortex). In addition, the changes of regional CBF in the affected regions correlated linearly with increasing isoflurane concentrations. The study demonstrates region-specific CBF abnormal increase in adult macaque monkeys under high dose (2%) isoflurane and suggests that the brain functionality in the corresponding structures may be affected and need to be taken consideration in either human or non-human primate neuroimaging studies. PMID:24890304

Li, Chun-Xia; Patel, Sudeep; Wang, Danny J J; Zhang, Xiaodong



Delayed ethanol elimination and enhanced susceptibility to ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis after liver resection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis after liver resection and the mechanisms behind it. METHODS: First, the preliminary examination was performed on 6 sham-operated (Sham) and 30 partial hepatectomy (PH) male Wistar rats (8-wk-old) to evaluate the recovery of the liver weight and liver function after liver resection. PH rats were sacrificed at the indicated time points (4, 8, and 12 h; 1, 3, and 7 d) after PH. Second, the time point for the beginning of the chronic ethanol exposure (1 wk after sham- or PH-operation) was determined based on the results of the preliminary examination. Finally, pair-feeding was performed with a controlled diet or with a 5-g/dL ethanol liquid diet for 28 d in another 35 age-matched male Wistar rats with a one-week recovery after undergoing a sham- (n = 15) or PH-operation (n = 20) to evaluate the ethanol-induced liver injury after liver resection. Hepatic steatosis, liver function, fatty acid synthase (Fas) gene expression level, the expression of lipid metabolism-associated enzyme regulator genes [sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar)-?], the mediators that alter lipid metabolism [plasminogen activator (Pai)-1 gene expression level and tumor necrosis factor (Tnf)-? production], and hepatic class-1 alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1)-associated ethanol elimination were investigated in the 4 groups based on histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, Western blotting, reverse transcriptase chain reaction, and blood ethanol concentration analyses. The relevant gene expression levels, liver weight, and liver function were assessed before and 1 wk after surgery to determine the subject’s recovery from the liver resection using the rats that had been subjected to the preliminary examination. RESULTS: In the PH rats, ethanol induced marked hepatic steatosis with impaired liver functioning, as evidenced by the accumulation of fatty droplets within the hepatocytes, the higher increases in their hepatic triglyceride and blood alanine aminotransferase and blood aspartate aminotransferase levels after the 28-d pair-feeding period. The Sham-ethanol rats, not the PH-ethanol rats, demonstrated the up-regulation of Srebp-1 and the down-regulation of Ppar-? mRNA expression levels after the 28-d pair-feeding period. The 28-d ethanol administration induced the up-regulation of Pai-1 gene expression level and an overproduction of TNF-? in the Sham and the PH rats; however, the effect was more significant in the PH rats. The PH-ethanol rats (n = 4) showed higher residual blood ethanol concentrations than did the Sham-ethanol rats (n = 6) after a 5-h fast (0.66 ± 0.4 mg/mL vs 0.2 ± 0.1 mg/mL, P < 0.05); these effects manifested without up-regulation of Adh1 gene expression, which was present in the Sham-ethanol group after the 28-d pair-feeding period. One week after the liver resection, the liver weight, function, the gene expression levels of Fas, Srebp-1, Ppar-?, Pai-1 and Tnf-? recovered; however, the Adh1 gene expression did not recover in rats. CONCLUSION: Desensitization to post-hepatectomy ethanol treatment and slow recovery from PH in Adh1 gene expression enhanced the susceptibility to ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis after PH in rats.

Liu, Xu; Hakucho, Ayako; Liu, Jinyao; Fujimiya, Tatsuya



Vitamin D Deficiency Induces High Blood Pressure and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Multiple epidemiological studies link vitamin D deficiency to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), but causality and possible mechanisms underlying these associations are not established. To clarify the role of vitamin D-deficiency in CVD in vivo, we generated mouse models of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency in two backgrounds (LDL receptor- and ApoE-null mice) that resemble humans with diet-induced hypertension and atherosclerosis. Mice were fed vitamin D-deficient or -sufficient chow for 6 weeks and then switched to high fat (HF) vitamin D-deficient or –sufficient diet for 8–10 weeks. Mice with diet-induced vitamin D deficiency showed increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high plasma renin, and decreased urinary sodium excretion. Hypertension was reversed and renin was suppressed by returning chow-fed vitamin D-deficient mice to vitamin D-sufficient chow diet for 6 weeks. On a HF diet, vitamin D-deficient mice had ?2-fold greater atherosclerosis in the aortic arch and ?2–8-fold greater atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aorta compared to vitamin D-sufficient mice. In the aortic root, HF-fed vitamin D-deficient mice had increased macrophage infiltration with increased fat accumulation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation, but a lower prevalence of the M1 macrophage phenotype within atherosclerotic plaques. Similarly, peritoneal macrophages from vitamin D-deficient mice displayed an M2-predominant phenotype with increased foam cell formation and ER stress. Treatment of vitamin D-deficient mice with the ER stress reliever PBA during HF feeding suppressed atherosclerosis, decreased peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation, and downregulated ER stress proteins without changing blood pressure. Thus, we suggest that vitamin D deficiency activates both the renin angiotensin system and macrophage ER stress to contribute to the development of hypertension and accelerated atherosclerosis, highlighting vitamin D replacement as a potential therapy to reduce blood pressure and atherosclerosis. PMID:23349943

Oh, Jisu; Riek, Amy E.; Chin, Kathleen; Garcia, Miguel; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos



Voluntary ethanol intake in the rat: effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blockade or subchronic nicotine treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that the mesolimbic dopamine activating and the reinforcing properties of ethanol involve activation of central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. To test this hypothesis, the effects of two nicotinic receptor antagonists and of subchronic nicotine treatment on voluntary ethanol consumption (ethanol 6% v\\/v or water) were studied in ethanol low-, medium- or high-preferring Wistar rats. After systemic mecamylamine

Ola Blomqvist; Mia Ericson; Daniel H. Johnson; Jörgen A. Engel; Bo Söderpalm



Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted

Susanne B. Jones; Yunhua Zhu



Effects of soy components on blood and liver lipids in rats fed high-cholesterol diets  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the effects of soy protein, isoflavone, and saponin on liver and blood lipid in rats that consumed high-cholesterol diets. METHODS: High-cholesterol diets (1%) with or without soy material were fed to 6-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats for 8 wk. Blood lipids, liver lipids, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were measured. The in vitro bile acid-binding ability of soy materials was analyzed. RESULTS: The results of in vitro studies showed that soy protein isolate had a significantly higher bile acid-binding ability (8.4±0.8%) than soy saponin (3.1±0.7%) and isoflavone (1.3±0.4%, P<0.05). On the other hand, at the end of the experimental period, rats that consumed soy protein diets had lower GOT and GPT levels than rats that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets. Rats that consumed soy protein also had lower total cholesterol (TC) levels in the liver than those that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets. Rats that consumed the soy protein diet containing both saponin and isoflavone had lower hepatic TC level than those that consumed the soy protein diet without isoflavone alone. The effect of different types of proteins on triglyceride was not significant. CONCLUSION: Consumption of soy provided benefits to control lipid levels under high-cholesterol dieting conditions in this rat model of hypercholesterolemia. The major component that reduced hepatic TC was not saponin, but possibly isoflavone. PMID:16222753

Lin, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang



High spatial and temporal resolution observations of pulsatile changes in blood echogenicity in the common carotid artery of rats.  


Previous studies have found that ultrasound backscatter from blood in vascular flow systems varies under pulsatile flow, with the maximum values occurring during the systolic period. This phenomenon is of particular interest in hemorheology because it is contrary to the well-known fact that red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, which determines the intensity of ultrasound backscatter from blood, decreases at a high systolic shear rate. In the present study, a rat model was used to provide basic information on the characteristics of blood echogenicity in arterial blood flow to investigate the phenomenon of RBC aggregation under pulsatile flow. Blood echogenicity in the common carotid arteries of rats was measured using a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system with a 40-MHz probe. The electrocardiography-based kilohertz visualization reconstruction technique was employed to obtain high-temporal-resolution and high-spatial-resolution time-course B-mode cross-sectional and longitudinal images of the vessel. The experimental results indicate that blood echogenicity in rat carotid arteries varies during a cardiac cycle. Blood echogenicity tends to decrease during early systole and reaches its peak during late systole, followed by a slow decline thereafter. The time delay of the echogenicity peak from peak systole in the present results is the main difference from previous in vitro and in vivo observations of backscattering peaks during early systole, which may be caused by the very rapid heart rates and low RBC aggregation tendency of rats compared with humans and other mammalian species. The present study may provide useful information elucidating the characteristics of RBC aggregation in arterial blood flow. PMID:23830099

Nam, Kweon-Ho; Bok, Tae-Hoon; Kong, Qi; Paeng, Dong-Guk



Mechanisms of blood pressure regulation that differ in men repeatedly exposed to high-G acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated exposure to high acceleration (G) would be associated with enhanced functions of specific mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. We measured heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (), mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, forearm and leg vascular resistance, catecholamines, and changes in leg volume (%DeltaLV) during various protocols of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), carotid stimulation, and infusions of adrenoreceptor agonists in 10 males after three training sessions on different days over a period of 5-7 days using a human centrifuge (G trained). These responses were compared with the same measurements in 10 males who were matched for height, weight, and fitness but did not undergo G training (controls). Compared with the control group, G-trained subjects demonstrated greater R-R interval response to equal carotid baroreceptor stimulation (7.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.4 ms/mmHg, P = 0.02), less vasoconstriction to equal low-pressure baroreceptor stimulation (-1.4 +/- 0.2 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.3 U/mmHg, P = 0.01), and higher HR (-1.2 +/- 0.2 vs. -0.5 +/- 0.1 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1), P = 0.01) and alpha-adrenoreceptor response (32.8 +/- 3.4 vs. 19.5 +/- 4.7 U/mmHg, P = 0.04) to equal dose of phenylephrine. During graded LBNP, G-trained subjects had less decline in and SV, %DeltaLV, and elevation in thoracic impedance. G-trained subjects also had greater total blood (6,497 +/- 496 vs. 5,438 +/- 228 ml, P = 0.07) and erythrocyte (3,110 +/- 364 vs. 2,310 +/- 96 ml, P = 0.06) volumes. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to repeated high G is associated with increased capacities of mechanisms that underlie blood pressure regulation.

Convertino, V. A.



Research note: methodology for high-quality RNA extraction from poultry whole blood for further gene expression analysis.  


1. There are no published methods for RNA isolation from avian whole blood where nucleated red blood cells prevent the use of established mammalian protocols. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a protocol for total RNA extraction using avian whole blood by defining the effect of anticoagulants and sample purification protocols on RNA yield and quality. 2. Blood collections from the cutaneous ulnar or medial metatarsal veins of birds yielded adequate blood volume (2-3 ml) draws. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two levels of DNase (0 and TURBO DNA-free Kit), two levels of Cleanup (0 and RNeasy MinElute Cleanup Kit), and three anticoagulants (no anticoagulant, EDTA, or sodium citrate). 3. RNA was isolated successfully by adding TRIzol LS to 0.25 ml of chicken whole blood at 3:1 ratio. From 0.125 ml of avian whole blood, 2-3 µg of RNA with RNA integrity number values of 7.75 was successfully isolated with the TRIzol LS extraction and an RNeasy MinElute Cleanup Kit. 4. This reliable protocol can be used to extract high yield and quality of total RNA from a small amount of whole blood. PMID:24844274

Mewis, J L; Sun, X; Zuidhof, M J; Guan, L L



Quantification of ethanol methyl 1H magnetic resonance signal intensity following intravenous ethanol administration in primate brain  

PubMed Central

In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to directly monitor brain ethanol. Previously, studies of human subjects have lead to the suggestion that the ethanol methyl 1H MRS signal intensity relates to tolerance to ethanol’s intoxicating effects. More recently, the ethanol 1H MRS signal intensity has been recognized to vary between brain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to differences in T2 within these environments. The methods presented here extend ethanol MRS techniques to nonhuman primate subjects. Twelve monkeys were administered ethanol while sedated and positioned within a 3T MRI system. Chemical shift imaging (CSI) measurements were performed following intravenous infusion of 1g/kg ethanol. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were also recorded for each monkey to provide volume fractions of GM, WM, and CSF for each CSI spectrum. To estimate co-variance of ethanol MRS intensity with GM, WM, and CSF volume fractions, the relative contribution of each tissue subtype was determined following corrections for radiofrequency pulse profile non-uniformity, chemical shift artifacts, and differences between the point spread function in the CSI data and the imaging data. The ethanol MRS intensity per unit blood ethanol concentration was found to differ between GM, WM, and CSF. Individual differences in MRS intensity were larger in GM than WM. This methodology demonstrates the feasibility of ethanol MRS experiments and analysis in nonhuman primate subjects, and suggests GM may be a site of significant variation in ethanol MRS intensity between individuals. PMID:20018244

Flory, Graham S.; O’Malley, Jean; Grant, Kathleen A.; Park, Byung; Kroenke, Christopher D.



Influence of high altitude on cerebral blood flow and fuel utilization during exercise and recovery.  


We examined the hypotheses that: (1) during incremental exercise and recovery following 4-6 days at high altitude (HA) global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) increases to preserve cerebral oxygen delivery (CDO2) in excess of that required by an increasing cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ( CM RO2); (2) the trans-cerebral exchange of oxygen vs. carbohydrates (OCI; carbohydrates = glucose + ½lactate) would be similar during exercise and recovery at HA and sea level (SL). Global CBF, intra-cranial arterial blood velocities, extra-cranial blood flows, and arterial-jugular venous substrate differences were measured during progressive steady-state exercise (20, 40, 60, 80, 100% maximum workload (Wmax)) and through 30 min of recovery. Measurements (n = 8) were made at SL and following partial acclimatization to 5050 m. At HA, absolute Wmax was reduced by ?50%. During submaximal exercise workloads (20-60% Wmax), despite an elevated absolute gCBF (?20%, P < 0.05) the relative increases in gCBF were not different at HA and SL. In contrast, gCBF was elevated at HA compared with SL during 80 and 100% Wmax and recovery. Notwithstanding a maintained CDO2 and elevated absolute CM RO2 at HA compared with SL, the relative increase in CM RO2 was similar during 20-80% Wmax but half that of the SL response (i.e. 17 vs. 27%; P < 0.05 vs. SL) at 100% Wmax. The OCI was reduced at HA compared with SL during 20, 40, and 60% Wmax but comparable at 80 and 100% Wmax. At HA, OCI returned almost immediately to baseline values during recovery, whereas at SL it remained below baseline. In conclusion, the elevations in gCBF during exercise and recovery at HA serve to maintain CDO2. Despite adequate CDO2 at HA the brain appears to increase non-oxidative metabolism during exercise and recovery. PMID:25362150

Smith, K J; MacLeod, D; Willie, C K; Lewis, N C S; Hoiland, R L; Ikeda, K; Tymko, M M; Donnelly, J; Day, T A; MacLeod, N; Lucas, S J E; Ainslie, P N



High fluorescent and stable semiconductor quantum dots for red blood cells labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple and efficient method for marking living human red blood cells using CdS (Cadmium Sulfide) quantum dots (QDs). The nanocrystals were obtained via colloidal synthesis in aqueous medium with final pH=7 using sodium polyphosphate as the stabilizing agent. The methodology implementation is simple, do not requires additional capping layers nor narrow size QDs distribution. The synthesized nanoparticles were conjugated to monoclonal A anti-body. The resulting conjugates QDs/anti-A were incubated with human erythrocytes of blood groups A and O for 30 min at 37°C. The living cells in contact with the quantum dots maintained their properties for several days showing the low level of citotoxicity of the quantum dots. The conjugation of CdS QDs/anti-A show simultaneous red and green fluorescence when excited with 543 and 488 nm respectively. The efficiency of the conjugation QDs/anti-body to the erythrocytes, for each system, was monitored by confocal microscopy. The comparative analysis of the micrographs was done with the luminescence intensity maps of the samples obtained under constant capture conditions, such as, pinhole, filters, beam splitters and photomultiplier gain. The conjugates QDs/anti-A intensely marked group A erythrocytes and did not show any luminescence for group O erythrocytes, showing the sensitivity of the labeling procedure. In conclusion, we show the viability of the use of high luminescent and stable quantum dots as fluorescent labels for human erythrocytes with a methodology of simple implementation and the possibility to use them to distinguish different blood groups.

de Farias, Patricia M. A.; Santos, Beate S.; de Menezes, Frederico D.; Ferreira, Ricardo; Fontes, Adriana; Cesar, Carlos L.; Barjas Castro, Maria L.; Castro, Vagner; Lima, Paulo R. M.



Treatment of high-risk, refractory acquired methemoglobinemia with automated red blood cell exchange.  


Ingestion of strong oxidant substances may result in acquired methemoglobinemia, a clinical condition in which the oxidized blood hemoglobin is incapable of delivering oxygen to the tissues, and the patient becomes cyanotic. Traditional first-line therapy consists of infusion of methylene blue, whose action depends on the availability of reduced nicotinamide adenine nucleotide phosphate (NADPH) within the red blood cell (RBC). Some patients, particularly those who are deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), will not benefit from methylene blue. In these patients, and in some patients who have ingested very strong oxidants, methylene blue may also precipitate Heinz body hemolytic anemia. We present a case of severe, acquired methemoglobinemia in a 26-month-old, 9.8-kg boy with G6PD deficiency. He was cyanotic, in respiratory failure, intubated in a pediatric intensive care unit. In typical fashion, he did not respond to methylene blue. Manual exchange of two whole blood volumes, performed over 4 1/2 hr, also failed to resolve his severe methemoglobinemia. An automated RBC exchange (1.3 RBC volume), lowered his methemoglobin content from 31.8% to 7% in a single 40-min procedure. Thereafter his methemoglobin level continued to decrease rapidly and spontaneously. He was discharged home 2 days later, with 0.4% methemoglobin. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the (potentially superior) effectiveness of automated RBC exchange for treatment of patients with high-risk acquired methemoglobinemia, that is, those with G6PD deficiency or who have ingested strong oxidants. PMID:9590495

Golden, P J; Weinstein, R



Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate  


Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Sep 4,2014 Blood pressure and heart rate are not the same. Learn ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...


Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance  

PubMed Central

Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP) by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic’s BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic.

Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter



Automated neural network classifiers for identifying micrometastases in peripheral blood via high-throughput microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue-specific biomarkers have been studied to identify micrometastases in bone marrow and/or peripheral blood. Many studies, however, have shown conflicting results for sensitivity and specificity of detection, forestalling translation of these findings into routine clinical use for prognosis or diagnosis. Genetic instability and heterogeneity of cancers may make using an absolute set of differential expression markers difficult, if not impossible, for accurate detection of rare cancer cells via a simple blood test. The literature is rich with examples of pathologists using morphology to identify cancer in tissue sections. We hypothesize that morphological features based on fluorescent staining of common subcellular compartments, in particular, the nucleus, may be useful for detection and classification. Highthroughput/ high-content image cytometry and computer-automated classification can aid pathologists to find suspicious cells, independent of biomarkers. Feature data are collected from an in vitro spiked model of breast cancer in the circulation; prestaining with CellTracker Orange creates a gold standard for assessing cancer origin. A neural network classifier is designed using seven nuclear morphology features thought a priori to be important for classification. With adequate training data, sensitive and specific detection may be achieved. Neural networks may be robustly trained to assist pathologists in detecting a wide variety of cancers.

Agustin, Ramses M.; Azimi, Behrad; Price, Jeffrey H.



Mild Adrenal Steroidogenic Defects and ACTH-Dependent Aldosterone Secretion in High Blood Pressure: Preliminary Evidence  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Adrenal glands play a major role in the control of blood pressure and mild defects of steroidogenesis and/or inappropriate control of mineralocorticoid production have been reported in high blood pressure (HBP). Patients and Methods. We used a specific protocol for the evaluation of 100 consecutive patients with inappropriate or recent onset HBP. Specific methods were used to confirm HBP and to diagnose secondary forms of HBP. In addition we tested adrenal steroidogenesis with the common cosyntropin test, modified to include the simultaneous measurement of renin and aldosterone besides 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) and 11-deoxycortisol (S). Results. Secondary forms of HBP were diagnosed in 32 patients, including 14 patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) (14%) and 10 patients with pheochromocytoma (10%). Mild defects of the 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) and 11-hydroxylase (11OHD) enzymes were common (42%). ACTH-dependent aldosterone secretion was found in most patients (54%) and characteristically in those with mild defects of adrenal steroidogenesis (>60%), PA (>75%), and otherwise in patients with apparent essential HBP (EHBP) (32%). Discussion. Mild defects of adrenal steroidogenesis are common in patients with HBP, occurring in almost half of the patients. In those patients as well as in patients with apparent EHBP, aldosterone secretion is commonly dependent on ACTH. PMID:25580122

Martin Martins, João; do Vale, Sónia; Martins, Ana Filipa



Is high blood pressure a late manifestation of the hypertension syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because hypertension has generally been defined as a disease of elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the goals of treating hypertension have been simply to normalize the blood pressure. It was believed that if normal blood pressure were achieved, patients with hypertension would experience significant reductions in the incidence of associated cardiovascular events. However, studies to assess cardiovascular events in

Joel M. Neutel; David H. G. Smith; Michael A. Weber



The first Iranian recommendations on prevention, evaluation and management of high blood pressure  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the complete report of the first Iranian Recommendations on Prevention, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure. The purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention, management and control of hypertension (HTN) by adapting the most internationally known and used guidelines to the local health care status with consideration of the currently available data and based on the locally conducted researches on HTN as well as social and health care requirements. A working group of national and international experts participated in discussions and collaborated in decision-making, writing and reviewing the whole report. Multiple subcommittees worked together to review the recent national and international literature on HTN in different areas. We used the evaluation tool that is called "AGREE" and considered a score of > 60% as a high score. We adapted the Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP), the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the US-based joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7). The key topics that are highlighted in this report include: The importance of ambulatory and self-measurement of blood pressure, evaluation of cardiovascular risk in HTN patients, the role of lifestyle modification in the prevention of HTN and its control with more emphasis on salt intake reduction and weight control, introducing pharmacotherapy suitable for uncomplicated HTN or specific situations and the available drugs in Iran, highlighting the importance of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers as the first line therapy in many situations, the non-use of beta blockers as the first time treatment except in specific conditions, treating HTN in women, children, obese and elderly patients, the patient compliance to improve HTN control, practical guidelines to improve the patient's information on knowing their risk and self-care as well as a quick reference guide that can serve as simplified guidelines for physicians. The working team decided to update these recommendations every two years. PMID:23362408

Noohi, Feridoun; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Khosravi, Alireza; Andalib, Elham



Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  


Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C



Acute Alcohol Effects on Neuronal and Attentional Processing: Striatal Reward System and Inhibitory Sensory Interactions under Acute Ethanol Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute influence of ethanol on cerebral activity induces complex psycho-physiological effects that are considerably more pronounced during acute ethanol influx than during maximal blood alcohol concentration (elimination phase). Despite the psychiatric and forensic relevance of these different ethanol effects, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. In total, 20 male healthy volunteers were investigated each with three different experimental

Mathias Schreckenberger; Rainer Amberg; Armin Scheurich; Matthias Lochmann; Wolfgang Tichy; André Klega; Thomas Siessmeier; Gerhard Gründer; Hans-Georg Buchholz; Christian Landvogt; Jan Stauss; Klaus Mann; Peter Bartenstein; Reinhard Urban



Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: effects on social behavior and ethanol sensitivity in adulthood.  


This study assessed long-lasting consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during two different periods of adolescence on 1) baseline levels of social investigation, play fighting, and social preference and 2) sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (3.5 g/kg intragastrically [i.g.], every other day for a total of 11 exposures) in a modified social interaction test. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (e-AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25 and 45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (l-AIE) was conducted between P45 and P65. Significant decreases in social investigation and social preference were evident in adult male rats, but not their female counterparts following e-AIE, whereas neither males nor females demonstrated these alterations following l-AIE. In contrast, both e-AIE and l-AIE produced alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge in males tested 25 days after adolescent exposure. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social investigation and play fighting, reminiscent of that normally seen during adolescence, was evident in adult males after e-AIE, whereas control males showed an age-typical inhibition of social behavior. Males after l-AIE were found to be insensitive to the socially suppressing effects of acute ethanol challenge, suggesting the development of chronic tolerance in these animals. In contrast, females showed little evidence for alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge following either early or late AIE. The results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol. Retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol could potentially make ethanol especially appealing to these males, therefore promoting relatively high levels of ethanol intake later in life. PMID:24928792

Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Linda P



Sanguis draconis, a dragon's blood resin, attenuates high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.  


Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus, induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications by limiting the proliferative potential of these cells. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Sanguis draconis (SD), a kind of dragon's blood resin that is obtained from Daemonorops draco (Palmae), on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under high-glucose (HG) stimulation and its underlying mechanism. Concentration-dependent (0-50 ?g/mL) assessment of cell viability showed that SD does not affect cell viability with a similar trend up to 48 h. Remarkably, SD (10-50 ?g/mL) significantly attenuated the high-glucose (25 and 50 mM) induced cell toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. SD inhibited high glucose-induced nitrite (NO) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that SD treatments abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), nuclear transcription factor, ?B (NF-?B), VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and it also blocked the breakdown of PARP-116 kDa protein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that SD increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased Bax protein expression in HG-stimulated HUVEC. Thus, these results of this study demonstrate for the first time that SD inhibits glucose induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in HUVEC by inhibiting the ERK/NF-?B/PARP-1/Bax signaling cascade followed by suppressing the activation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. These data suggest that SD may have a therapeutic potential in vascular inflammation due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activation. PMID:24987732

Chang, Yi; Chang, Ting-Chen; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Nen-Chung; Huang, Yung-Kai; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran



Sanguis draconis, a Dragon's Blood Resin, Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus, induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications by limiting the proliferative potential of these cells. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Sanguis draconis (SD), a kind of dragon's blood resin that is obtained from Daemonorops draco (Palmae), on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under high-glucose (HG) stimulation and its underlying mechanism. Concentration-dependent (0–50??g/mL) assessment of cell viability showed that SD does not affect cell viability with a similar trend up to 48?h. Remarkably, SD (10–50??g/mL) significantly attenuated the high-glucose (25 and 50?mM) induced cell toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. SD inhibited high glucose-induced nitrite (NO) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that SD treatments abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), nuclear transcription factor, ?B (NF-?B), VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and it also blocked the breakdown of PARP-116 kDa protein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that SD increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased Bax protein expression in HG-stimulated HUVEC. Thus, these results of this study demonstrate for the first time that SD inhibits glucose induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in HUVEC by inhibiting the ERK/NF-?B/PARP-1/Bax signaling cascade followed by suppressing the activation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. These data suggest that SD may have a therapeutic potential in vascular inflammation due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activation. PMID:24987732

Chang, Yi; Chang, Ting-Chen; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Nen-Chung; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran



[High performance liquid chromatographic determination of astromicin and piperacillin used in combination in blood samples].  


Aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antibiotics are often used in combination, and many synergistic effects have been reported. We describe here a high performance liquid chromatographic determination method for each of astromicin (ASTM) and piperacillin (PIPC) in blood samples of several species. The procedure for ASTM included purification with CM-Sephadex, separation on a reversed phase column (C-18) and derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The procedure for PIPC included deproteinization with acetonitrile, centrifugation and separation on a reversed phase column (C-18). Either of the drugs did not affect the determination of the other. The detection limits were 0.1 microgram/ml for ASTM and 0.5 microgram/ml for PIPC. These sensitivities seem good enough for a clinical application of the method considering usual dosage levels of these drugs. PMID:3560434

Kobayashi, S; Takai, K; Masuda, S; Inoue, A



[High performance liquid chromatographic determination of astromicin and cefsulodin used in combination in blood samples].  


Aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antibiotics are often used in combination. This paper reports a high performance liquid chromatographic determination method for each of astromicin (ASTM) and cefsulodin (CFS) in blood samples of several species. The procedure for ASTM included purification with CM-Sephadex, separation on a reversed phase column (C-18) and derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The procedure for CFS included deproteinization with methanol, centrifugation, filtration and separation on a reversed phase column (C-18). Either of the drugs did not affect the determination of the other. The detection limits were 0.1 microgram/ml for ASTM and 0.5 microgram/ml for CFS. These sensitivities seem good enough for a clinical application of the method considering usual dosage levels of the drugs. PMID:3560432

Kobayashi, S; Takai, K; Inoue, A



[High performance liquid chromatographic determination of astromicin and cefoperazone used in combination in blood samples].  


Combination therapy of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antibiotics is often used clinically because of its effectiveness. This paper reports a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) determination method for each of astromicin (ASTM) and cefoperazone (CPZ) in blood samples of several species. The procedure for ASTM included purification with CM-Sephadex, separation on a reversed phase column (C-18) and derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The procedure for CPZ included deproteinization with methanol, centrifugation and separation on a reversed phase column (C-18). Either of the drugs did not affect the determination of the other. The detection limits were 0.1 microgram/ml for ASTM and 0.5 microgram/ml for CPZ. These sensitivities seem good enough for a clinical application of the method considering usual dosage levels of the drugs. PMID:3560433

Kobayashi, S; Takai, K; Masuda, S; Inoue, A



Faecal occult blood screening for colorectal neoplasia in a targeted high-risk population.  


A general practice-based programme was initiated in 1987 to identify individuals at high risk of developing large bowel cancer and offer them screening of faecal occult blood. In all, 5298 people from 21 general practices in the Guildford area were offered 7510 screening tests. In total, 5934 tests were completed (compliance rate 79.0 per cent) with 287 positive results (4.8 per cent). Of the patients with positive results, 44 had cancer and 38 polyps. The sensitivity of the test for cancer was 63 per cent, the specificity 96 per cent and the positive predictive value for all neoplasia 29 per cent. The detection rate of 44 cancers per 5934 people screened compares favourably with data from the Nottingham-based screening of an unselected population (0.74 versus 0.23 per cent). PMID:8252347

Caffarey, S M; Broughton, C I; Marks, C G



Ethanol extract of Liuwei Dihuang reduces weight gain and visceral fat in obese-prone CD rats fed a high-fat diet.  


The current study investigated the effect and mechanisms of action of Liuwei Dihuang ethanol extract (LWDH-EE) on obesity and related metabolic phenotypes in male obese-prone CD rats. The rats were fed a high-fat diet and treated with 0 (obese control), 350 (EE350), or 700 (EE700) mg/kg/d of LWDH-EE in water once a day by gavage feeding for 10 weeks. The EE700 decreased body weight after 3 weeks of the treatment and the effect was maintained throughout the remaining study period. The EE700 also significantly reduced visceral fat and improved metabolic phenotypes by lowering the serum total cholesterol (T-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), and leptin levels. The EE350 reduced epididymal fat, serum T-C, and FFA but did not significantly affect other parameters. LWDH-EE dose-dependently increased fat and carbohydrate oxidations, energy expenditure, and the relative efficiency of fat oxidation for energy expenditure. EE350 and EE700 reduced food intake only in week 5 and did not affect the accumulative food intake in every week and the entire treatment period. Taken together, the results suggest that LWDH-EE is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity possibly through a primary action of increasing energy metabolism and expenditure, along with a possible effect of decreasing energy intake. PMID:24603076

Nair, Sandhya Vg; Zhang, Junzeng; Wang, Yanwen



Ex Vivo Generation of Highly Purified and Activated Natural Killer Cells from Human Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adoptive immunotherapy using natural killer (NK) cells has been a promising treatment for intractable malignancies; however, there remain a number of difficulties with respect to the shortage and limited anticancer potency of the effector cells. We here established a simple feeder-free method to generate purified (>90%) and highly activated NK cells from human peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Among the several parameters, we found that CD3 depletion, high-dose interleukin (IL)-2, and use of a specific culture medium were sufficient to obtain highly purified, expanded (?200-fold) and activated CD3?/CD56+ NK cells from PBMCs, which we designated zenithal-NK (Z-NK) cells. Almost all Z-NK cells expressed the lymphocyte-activated marker CD69 and showed dramatically high expression of activation receptors (i.e., NKG2D), interferon-?, perforin, and granzyme B. Importantly, only 2 hours of reaction at an effector/target ratio of 1:1 was sufficient to kill almost all K562 cells, and the antitumor activity was also replicated in tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Cytolysis was specific for various tumor cells, but not for normal cells, irrespective of MHC class I expression. These findings strongly indicate that Z-NK cells are purified, expanded, and near-fully activated human NK cells and warrant further investigation in a clinical setting. PMID:23885718

Saito, Satoru; Harada, Yui; Morodomi, Yosuke; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Yoshida, Kumi; Kyuragi, Ryoichi; Matsubara, Hisahiro



Full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system for blood-flow measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and performance of a new full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system developed for mapping and monitoring of blood flow in biological tissue. The total imaging time for 256x256 pixels region of interest is 1.2 seconds. An integrating CMOS image sensor is utilized to detect Doppler signal in a plurality of points simultaneously on the sample illuminated by a divergent laser beam of a uniform intensity profile. The integrating property of the detector improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, which results in high-quality flow-images provided by the system. The new technique is real-time, non-invasive and the instrument is easy to use. The wide range of applications is one of the major challenges for a future application of the imager. High-resolution high-speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a promising optical technique for diagnostic and assessing the treatment effect of the diseases such as e.g. atherosclerosis, psoriasis, diabetes, skin cancer, allergies, peripheral vascular diseases, skin irritancy and wound healing. We present some biological applications of the new imager and discuss the perspectives for the future implementations of the imager for clinical and physiological applications.

Serov, Alexandre; Lasser, Theo



Phenomenon of declining blood pressure in elderly - high systolic levels are undervalued with Korotkoff method  

PubMed Central

Background Systolic blood pressure (SBP) decline has been reported in octogenarians. The aim was to study if it could be observed while measuring SBP with two methods: Korotkoff (K-BP) and Strain-Gauge-Finger-Pletysmography (SG-BP), and which of them were more reliable in expressing vascular burden. Methods A cohort of 703 men from a population of Malmö, Sweden, were included in "Men born in 1914-study" and followed-up at ages: 68 and 81 years. 176 survivors were examined with K-BP and SG-BP at both ages, and 104 of them with Ambulatory Blood Pressure at age 81/82. Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) was measured on both occasions, and Carotid Ultrasound at age 81. Results From age 68 to 81, mean K-BP decreased in the cohort with mean 8.3 mmHg, while SG-BP increased with 13.4 mmHg. K-BP decreased in 55% and SG-BP in 31% of the subjects. At age 81, K-BP was lower than SG-BP in 72% of subjects, and correlated to high K-BP at age 68 (r = --.22; p < .05). SG-BP at age 81 was correlated with mean ambulatory 24-h SBP (r = .480; p < .0001), daytime SBP (r = .416; p < .0001), nighttime SBP (r = .395; p < .0001), and daytime and nighttime Pulse Pressure (r = .452; p < .0001 and r = .386; p < .0001). KB-BP correlated moderately only with nighttime SBP (r = .198; p = .044), and daytime and nightime pulse pressure (r = .225; p = .021 and r = .264; p = .007). Increasing SG-BP from age 68 to 81, but not K-BP, correlated with: 24-h, daytime and nighttime SBP, and mean daytime and nighttime Pulse Pressure. Increasing SG-BP was also predicted by high B-glucose and low ABI at age 68, and correlated with carotid stenosis and low ABI age 81, and the grade of ABI decrease over 13 years. Conclusion In contrast to K-BP, values of SG-BP in octogenarians strongly correlated with Ambulatory Blood Pressure. The SG-BP decline in the last decade was rare, and increasing SG-BP better than K-BP reflected advanced atherosclerosis. It should be aware, that K-BP underdetected 46% of subjects with SG-BP equal/higher than 140 mmHg at age 81, which may lead to biased associations with risk factors due to differential misclassification by age. PMID:21967408



Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup -}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH{sup -} and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was {approx} 1.5-fold greater in ADH{sup -} vs. ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH{sup -} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.ed [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)



Fluorometric determination of total vitamin C in whole blood by high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization.  


A reliable and semi-automated high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for the determination of total vitamin C in whole blood. After deproteinization of whole blood and enzymatic oxidation of l-ascorbic acid to dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, the latter is condensed with o-phenylenediamine to its quinoxaline derivative. This derivative is separated on a reversed-phase HPLC column and detected fluorometrically. Total vitamin C in whole blood can be determined in concentrations as low as 0.2 mumol/l. Special attention was paid to the stability of vitamin C in whole blood and of its quinoxaline derivative in the extract. Results of our investigations showed that total vitamin C in whole blood is stable for eight days at -20 degrees C, provided ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-amino-ethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid and glutathione are immediately added to the blood sample. The quinoxaline derivative of vitamin C in the blood extract is stable for at least 24 h if stored in the dark at 4 degrees C. Routine vitamin C determinations can be carried out in a series of 100 samples within 48 h. The within-assay and between-assay coefficients of variation were 3.7% and 4.6%, respectively. The between-assay analytical recovery of l-ascorbic acid added to whole blood samples was 97.0 +/- 7.0% (mean +/- S.D.). Reference values of vitamin C in whole blood of normal healthy Dutch adults were found in the range 20-80 mumol/l. PMID:6707154

Speek, A J; Schrijver, J; Schreurs, W H



High-sensitivity array analysis of gene expression for the early detection of disseminated breast tumor cells in peripheral blood  

PubMed Central

Early detection is an effective means of reducing cancer mortality. Here, we describe a highly sensitive high-throughput screen that can identify panels of markers for the early detection of solid tumor cells disseminated in peripheral blood. The method is a two-step combination of differential display and high-sensitivity cDNA arrays. In a primary screen, differential display identified 170 candidate marker genes differentially expressed between breast tumor cells and normal breast epithelial cells. In a secondary screen, high-sensitivity arrays assessed expression levels of these genes in 48 blood samples, 22 from healthy volunteers and 26 from breast cancer patients. Cluster analysis identified a group of 12 genes that were elevated in the blood of cancer patients. Permutation analysis of individual genes defined five core genes (P ? 0.05, permax test). As a group, the 12 genes generally distinguished accurately between healthy volunteers and patients with breast cancer. Mean expression levels of the 12 genes were elevated in 77% (10 of 13) untreated invasive cancer patients, whereas cluster analysis correctly classified volunteers and patients (P = 0.0022, Fisher's exact test). Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed array results and indicated that the sensitivity of the assay (1:2 × 108 transcripts) was sufficient to detect disseminated solid tumor cells in blood. Expression-based blood assays developed with the screening approach described here have the potential to detect and classify solid tumor cells originating from virtually any primary site in the body. PMID:11226293

Martin, Katherine J.; Graner, Edgard; Li, Yi; Price, Laura M.; Kritzman, Brian M.; Fournier, Marcia V.; Rhei, Esther; Pardee, Arthur B.



Effects of single and combined cell treatments based on low pH and high concentrations of ethanol on the growth and fermentation of Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  


The alcoholic fermentation in Brazil displays some peculiarities because the yeast used is recycled in a non-aseptic process. After centrifugation, the cells are treated with acid to control the bacterial growth. However, it is difficult to manage the indigenous yeasts without affecting the main culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work evaluated how the cell treatment could be modified to combat contaminant yeasts based on the differential sensitivities to low pH and high concentrations of ethanol displayed by an industrial strain of S. cerevisiae and three strains of Dekkera bruxellensis, which are common contaminant yeasts in Brazilian fermentation processes. The tests were initially performed in rich medium with a low pH or a high concentration of ethanol to analyse the yeast growth profile. Then, the single and combined effects of low pH and ethanol concentration on the yeast cell viability were evaluated under non-proliferative conditions. The effects on the fermentation parameters were also verified. S. cerevisiae grew best when not subjected to the stresses, but this yeast and D. bruxellensis had similar growth kinetics when exposed to a low pH or increased ethanol concentrations. However, the combined treatments of low pH (2.0) and ethanol (11 or 13 %) resulted in a decrease of D. bruxellensis cell viability almost three times higher than of S. cerevisiae, which was only slightly affected by all cell treatments. The initial viability of the treated cells was restored within 8 h of growth in sugar cane juice, with the exception of the combined treatment for D. bruxellensis. The ethanol-based cell treatment, in despite of slowing the fermentation, could decrease and maintain D. bruxellensis population under control while S. cerevisiae was taking over the fermentation along six fermentative cycles. These results indicate that it may be possible to control the growth of D. bruxellensis without major effects on S. cerevisiae. The cells could be treated between the fermentation cycles by the parcelled addition of 13 % ethanol to the tanks in which the yeast cream is treated with sulphuric acid at pH 2.0. PMID:23536198

Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; da Silva, Jéssica Carolina Gomes; Reis, Vanda Renata; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina



Biological production of ethanol from coal  

SciTech Connect

Previously studies have shown the importance of both medium composition and concentration and medium pH on ethanol production of Clostridium ljungdahlii in fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas. Four additional batch experiments involving medium composition and concentration were carried out in modified basal medium without yeast extract at pH 4.0. These experiments indicate that basal medium with only small amounts of B-vitamins can yield significant cell growth while yielding ethanol as the major product. Product ratios as high as 11.0 g ethanol per g acetate were obtained with half strength B-vitamins. Further experiments indicates that Ca-pantothenate may be necessary for the growth of C. ljungdahlii and that growth and ethanol production can occur simultaneously.

Not Available



Effects of blood flow to the prefrontal cortex on high-intensity exercise combined with high-decibel music  

PubMed Central

We studied the effects of high-intensity exercise (70-75% of VO2 max) combined with high-decibel music (100 dB) on cognitive function (measured by the Stroop test) and related blood flow changes to the prefrontal cortex (measured by Oxy-hemoglobin (Hb), Deoxy-Hb, tissue oxygen index (TOI), and normalized tissue hemoglobin index (nTHI)). The subjects of the study were 28 healthy female university students in their early 20s. Subjects were categorized into control group (CG), music group (MG), exercise group (Ex), and music and exercise group (MnEx). A crossover design was implemented so that all subjects participated in all test groups. We found no significant difference in reaction time between CG and MG for the neutral and incongruent tasks of Stroop test. However, there were significant improvements in the neutral and incongruent tasks for both the Ex (p < 0.01) and MnEx (p < 0.01) groups. Oxy-Hb measurements in the prefrontal cortex of the brain supported the Stroop test data. We found no difference between Ex and MnEx in the TOI; however, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in MnEx compared to Ex. In addition, Ex resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in nTHI as compared to CG. These results indicate that high decibel music could negatively affect prefrontal cortex activation of the brain during exercise.

Chang, Hyukki; Kim, Kyungae; Jung, Yu-Jin; Ahn, Na-Ri; So, Wi-Young; KATO, Morimasa



Blood Components  


Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...


Near infrared excited micro-Raman spectra of 4:1 methanol-ethanol mixture and ruby fluorescence at high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near infrared (NIR) lasers, as a new excitation source for Raman spectroscopy, has shown its unique advantages and is being increasingly used for some special samples, such as those emitting strong fluorescence in the visible region. This article focuses on some issues related to high-pressure micro-Raman spectroscopy using NIR excitation source. The Raman spectra of 4:1 methanol-ethanol mixture (4:1 M-E) show a linear variation in both Raman shifts and linewidths under pressure up to 18 GPa. This result is useful in distinguishing Raman scattering of samples from that of the alcohol mixture, an extensively used pressure-transmitting medium. The R1 fluorescence in the red region induced by two-photon absorption of the NIR laser is strong enough to be used as pressure scale. The frequency and line width of the R1 lines are very sensitive to pressure change and the glass transition of the pressure medium. Our results manifest that it is reliable and convenient to use NIR induced two-photon excited fluorescence of ruby for both pressure calibration and distribution of pressure in the 4:1 M-E pressure transmitting medium.

Wang, X. B.; Shen, Z. X.; Tang, S. H.; Kuok, M. H.



Ethanol's Molecular Targets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For much of the 20th century, it was widely believed that ethanol exerts its effects on neuronal function in a nonspecific manner—perhaps through the disordering of membrane lipids. However, over the past two decades, evidence has mounted that ethanol instead produces its effects by altering the functioning of specific proteins through its interaction with a select few amino acids in those proteins. In this Review with 2 figures and 60 citations, we focus on proteins for which evidence for specific alcohol binding sites has been obtained, and we briefly describe and compare these ethanol receptors.

R. Adron Harris (University of Texas;Institutes for Neuroscience and Cell & Molecular Biology REV); James R. Trudell (Stanford University School of Medicine;Department of Anesthesia REV); S. John Mihic (University of Texas;Institutes for Neuroscience and Cell & Molecular Biology REV)



Effects of high- and low-isoflavone soyfoods on blood lipids, oxidized LDL, homocysteine, and blood pressure in hyperlipidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many of the benefits of soy have been attributed to soy isoflavones. Objective: The objective was to determine the effects of high- and low-isoflavone soy-protein foods on both lipid and nonlipid risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Forty-one hyperlipidemic men and postmenopausal women participated in a study with three 1-mo diets: a low-fat dairy food control diet

Chung-Ja C Jackson; Philip W Connelly; Tina Parker; Dorothea Faulkner; Edward Vidgen; Stephen C Cunnane; Robert G Josse


High-normal blood pressure is associated with new-onset electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy.  


Whether high-normal blood pressure (BP) is a predictor of new-onset electrocardiographic (ECG)-left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is not known. A total of 4112 subjects who underwent physical examinations were enrolled in this study. BP was measured on entry. Standard 12-lead ECG was recorded at initial evaluation and 3 years later. BP categories were defined on the basis of the 2013 European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Of the 4112 subjects, 133 developed ECG-LVH 3 years later. Crude cumulative prevalence rates of new-onset ECG-LVH were 2.0% for the optimal BP group, 3.2% for the normal BP group, 5.1% for the high-normal BP group and 5.0% for the hypertension group. After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, log-transformed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, log-transformed triglycerides, estimated glomerular filtration rate, haemoglobin A1c, haemoglobin, uric acid and antihypertensive medication use, compared with the optimal BP group, the odds ratios of new-onset ECG-LVH for the normal BP, high-normal BP and hypertension groups were 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-2.49, P=0.094), 2.38 (95% CI: 1.40-4.03, P=0.001) and 2.44 (95% CI: 1.43-4.18, P=0.001), respectively. Even high-normal BP was significantly associated with the presence of new-onset ECG-LVH. PMID:24694799

Ueda, H; Miyawaki, M; Hiraoka, H



Enantioselective and highly sensitive determination of carvedilol in human plasma and whole blood after administration of the racemate using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly sensitive HPLC method for enantioselective determination of carvedilol in human whole blood and plasma was developed. Carvedilol and S-carazolol as an internal standard extracted from whole blood or plasma were separated using an enantioselective separation column (Chiralpak AD column; 2.0Ø×250mm) without any chiral derivatizations. The mobile phase was hexane:isopropanol:diethylamine (78:22:1, v\\/v). The excitation and emission wavelengths were set

Masako Saito; Junichi Kawana; Tetsuro Ohno; Masahiro Kaneko; Kiyoshi Mihara; Kazuhiko Hanada; Risa Sugita; Natsuki Okada; Sachiko Oosato; Masatoshi Nagayama; Tetsuya Sumiyoshi; Hiroyasu Ogata



Method of high-precision microsampled blood and plasma mass densitometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reliability of the mechanical oscillator technique for blood and plasma density measurements on samples of volumes less than 0.1 ml is examined, and a precision of 0.001 g/l is found if plasma-isodensic heparin solution and siliconized densitometers are employed. Sources of measurement errors in the density determinations include storage of plasma samples, inhomogeneity of blood samples, and density reading before adequate temperature equilibration. In tests of plasma sample storage, the best reproducibility was obtained with samples kept at 4 C. Linear correlations were found between plasma density and plasma protein concentration, blood density and blood hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte density and MCHC.

Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.



Awareness, use, and impact of the 1984 Joint National Committee consensus report on high blood pressure.  

PubMed Central

A random sample of Maryland physicians stratified by practice specialty (family, general, internal medicine, cardiology, and nephrology) was surveyed before and one year after dissemination of the 1984 Report of the Third Joint National Committee on the Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (The JNC III Report). Fourty-four per cent of the total eligible sample responded to both questionnaires. One year after publication, 62 per cent of physicians participating in both parts of the study were aware of the report. Although availability of a copy (58 per cent), familiarity with the recommendations (81 per cent), and the extent to which care was based on the guidelines (65 per cent) were high, use of the report in practice (17 per cent) and the amount of change in practice behavior required to adhere to the guidelines (18 per cent) were low. Prior to publication of the report, more than two-thirds of responding physicians were found to be practicing in a manner congruent with nine of ten treatment recommendations studied. One year after JNC III's release, they reported practice behavior which was not significantly different. It seems that this consensus report codified, rather than changed, practice behavior in this sample. PMID:3407818

Hill, M N; Levine, D M; Whelton, P K




PubMed Central

The binding of drugs with proteins in blood, serum or plasma is an important process in determining the activity, distribution, rate of excretion, and toxicity of drugs in the body. High-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) has received a great deal of interest as a means for studying these interactions. This review examines the various techniques that have been used in HPAC to examine drug-protein binding and discusses the types of information that can be obtained through this approach. A comparison of these techniques with traditional methods for binding studies (e.g., equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration) will also be presented. The use of HPAC with specific serum proteins and binding agents will then be discussed, including human serum albumin and ?1-acid glycoprotein. Several examples from the literature are provided to illustrate the applications of such research. Recent developments in this field are also described, such as the use of improved immobilization techniques, new data analysis methods, techniques for working for directly with complex biological samples, and work with immobilized lipoproteins. The relative advantages and limitations of the methods that are described will be considered and the possible use of these techniques in the high-throughput screening or characterization of drug-protein binding will be discussed. PMID:19278006

Hage, David S.; Jackson, Abby; Sobansky, Matt; Schiel, John E.; Yoo, Michelle J.; Joseph, K. S.



Biofuel Ethanol Transport Risk  

EPA Science Inventory

Ethanol production has increased rapidly over the last 10 years and many communities lack awareness of the increased and growing extent of biofuel transportation through their jurisdictions. These communities and their emergency responders may not have the information and resour...


Accelerated Stability and Chemical Kinetics of Ethanol Extracts of Fruit of Piper sarmentosum Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

PubMed Central

The extracts of Piper sarmentosum, a medicinal plant, are being used to prepare phytopharmaceuticals while the information about chemical kinetics of constituents of the extract is unavailable to assign precise shelf life (t90) and find optimum storage conditions of the product for patient safety, and to avoid economic repercussions of launching an unstable product. The extract was exposed to three different conditions of high temperature and relative humidity (RH) for six months. The samples were then analyzed at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 months by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine as markers. Different chemical kinetic parameters of the markers were evaluated by Arrhenius equation to predict shelf life (t90) at different storage conditions and at room temperature. The markers in the extract followed the zero order degradation, and the activation energy, pre exponential factor and rate constant of the reaction of the markers were found to be varying in samples stored at different conditions. The contents of the markers were found to be decreasing at high temperature and humidity with the passage of time. The predicted shelf life (t90) of the markers at room temperature was found to be 16 months approximately. Results of this study indicate that extracts of the plant are stable at room temperature for 16 months. Moreover, the chemical kinetic data of the markers and the analytical method used to quantify the markers may be useful for phytopharmaceutical industry to produce efficacious and stable products from extracts of the plant. PMID:24250372

Khalid, Hussain; Zhari, Ismail; Amirin, Sadikun; Pazilah, Ibrahim



NCI Researchers Discover Genes That Are Turned On at High Levels in Tumor-Associated Blood Vessels of Mice and Humans

A team of researchers at NCI has uncovered a set of genes that are turned on, or expressed, at high levels only in the blood vessels that feed tumors in mice and humans. These genes, and the proteins they encode, are important new potential targets for novel drugs that could selectively cut off a tumor's blood supply without affecting the blood vessels of healthy tissues, overcoming one of the major concerns of current anticancer therapies targeted at blood vessel growth.


High red blood cell nitric oxide synthase activation is not associated with improved vascular function and red blood cell deformability in sickle cell anaemia.  


Human red blood cells (RBC) express an active and functional endothelial-like nitric oxide (NO) synthase (RBC-NOS). We report studies on RBC-NOS activity in sickle cell anaemia (SCA), a genetic disease characterized by decreased RBC deformability and vascular dysfunction. Total RBC-NOS content was not significantly different in SCA patients compared to healthy controls; however, using phosphorylated RBC-NOS-Ser(1177) as a marker, RBC-NOS activation was higher in SCA patients as a consequence of the greater activation of Akt (phosphorylated Akt-Ser(473) ). The higher RBC-NOS activation in SCA led to higher levels of S-nitrosylated ?- and ?-spectrins, and greater RBC nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels compared to healthy controls. Plasma nitrite content was not different between the two groups. Laser Doppler flowmetric experiments demonstrated blunted microcirculatory NO-dependent response under hyperthermia in SCA patients. RBC deformability, measured by ektacytometry, was reduced in SCA in contrast to healthy individuals, and pre-shearing RBC in vitro did not improve deformability despite an increase of RBC-NOS activation. RBC-NOS activation is high in freshly drawn blood from SCA patients, resulting in high amounts of NO produced by RBC. However, this does not result in improved RBC deformability and vascular function: higher RBC-NO is not sufficient to counterbalance the enhanced oxidative stress in SCA. PMID:25316332

Grau, Marijke; Mozar, Anaïs; Charlot, Keyne; Lamarre, Yann; Weyel, Linda; Suhr, Frank; Collins, Bianca; Jumet, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Bloch, Wilhelm; Connes, Philippe



Cellulosic fuel ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iogen (Canada) is a major manufacturer of industrial cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes for the textile, pulp and paper,\\u000a and poultry feed industries. Iogen has recently constructed a 40 t\\/d biomass-to-ethanol demonstration plant adjacent to its\\u000a enzyme production facility. The integration of enzyme and ethanol plants results in significant reduction in production costs\\u000a and offers an alternative use for the sugars

Hugh G. Lawford; Joyce D. Rousseau



Association of the Human Y Chromosome With High Blood Pressure in the General Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation in the Y chromosome has significant effects on male blood pressure in experimental animals, but the effects in humans are unknown. We examined the relationship between blood pressure and a polymorphic HindIII restriction site in the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome in 409 randomly selected men from the general population. Carefully standardized measures of systolic and diastolic

Justine A. Ellis; Margaret Stebbing; Stephen B. Harrap



Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide  


... dl is best for very ill patients in intensive care units (ICU). Less clear is what the best target blood sugar should be for inpatients who are admitted for general surgery or non-critical medical conditions. In some patients, insulin treatment can cause low blood sugar, called hypoglycemia . Just ...


The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels  

PubMed Central

Background Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG), but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE) protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up) of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed. Methods HIE (?80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max) studies with ?15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed. Results Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females) requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week) improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects) were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%. Conclusion Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and non-diabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long-term efficacy, and optimal exercise intensity and duration. PMID:23467903

Adams, O Peter



Whole blood thallium determination by GFAAS with high-frequency modulation polarization Zeeman effect background correction.  


A new technique of blood thallium direct determination based on graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background absorption correction system was designed. The developed technique does not require sample digestion. Sample treatment includes only a fivefold per volume dilution of blood sample with 0.1% (m/v) Triton X-100. L'vov integrated platform was modified with 400 ?g of Rh. Matrix modifier (200 ?g NH(4)NO(3) and 160 ?g Pd(NO(3))(2)) was suggested for coping chloride and blood organic matter interferences. Standard reference material (Clincheck® Plasma Control for trace elements) analysis was used for validation. Additional validation was performed by analyzing spiked blood samples in the whole dynamic range. The dynamic range was 2-50 ?g/L. Precision (RSD) was found <12%. Blood thallium limit of detection was 0.2 ?g/L. PMID:20922499

Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Natalya B; Ivanenko, Anatoly A



Molecular Structure of Ethanol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ethanol is a clear, colorless liquid that has a very distinct alcohol smell. It was discovered/made as far back as 6000 B.C. in the production of beer and wine. The Chinese were the first to distill it from fermented rice liquor. It is fermented from glucose sugars of plant cell walls. Ethanol is the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages and is a central nervous system depressant in humans. It is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and reacts violently with oxidants. Henry Ford used ethanol to run the first engine for the Model T. Currently, there is a lot of research related to increasing use of ethanol as a fuel to help the environment and offset the demand of oil since it burns much cleaner than oil and is a renewable resource. Ethanol is commonly used as a disinfectant; it kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids: it is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses, but is ineffective against bacterial spores. This disinfectant property of ethanol is the reason that alcoholic beverages can be stored for a long time.



Evaluation of the ethanol antagonist' Ro15-4513 on cardiovascular and metabolic responses induced by ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The putative ethanol antagonist Ro15-4513 has been reported to attenuate many behavioral responses induced by ethanol, including motor coordination, narcosis, ethanol self administration and intake, and anticonvulsant actions. This study was designed to study the effect of Ro15-4513 on cardiovascular and metabolic responses elicited by intragastric ethanol in conscious rats. Four groups of rats were catheterized under enflurane anesthesia and allowed to regain consciousness. Each group was given either 3.2, 10.0, or 32.0 mg/kg Ro15-4513 or equivalent Tween (i.p.) following ethanol. Ro15-4513 had no effect at any concentration on the decreases in mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, central venous pressure, respiration rate, and cardiac stroke volume and the increases in systemic vascular resistance, heart rate, and glucose evoked by the ethanol challenge. Blood alcohol concentrations measured throughout the study were not affected by any concentration of Ro15-4513. These data suggest that even though Ro15-4513 has significant effects on behavioral responses induced by ethanol it has no effect on the cardiovascular and metabolic responses elicited during ethanol intoxication.

Lerner, M.R.; Gauvin, D.V.; Holloway, F.A.; Wilson, M.F.; Brackett, D.J. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (United States) Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States))



Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies

James P Szybist; Adam D Youngquist; Robert M Wagner; Wayne Moore; Matthew Foster; Keith Confer



Ethanol Production from Ulva fasciata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical potential yield of Ulva fasciata as a biomass feedstock for fermentative ethanol was found to be about 310 L per tonne, dry weight. U. fasciata has numerous characteristics that render it a suitable mariculture energy crop. Specifically, it forms large complex structures that grow quickly, with high (14%) dry to wet weight percentages, holocellulose content for the dry mass of 51%, carbohydrate content of 5%, and relatively low (5%) lignin content. Enzymatic saccharification with a commercial cellulase (Accelerase) from Genencor was investigated: After a 12 hr digestion, 25% of the potential glucose was recovered from the cellulose fraction. The hydrolysate was supplemented with a modified YM medium and used directly for batch fermentation. A 12 hr incubation resulted in complete utilization of the glucose and production of ethanol. In this preliminary investigation, the ethanol yield corresponded to approximately 126 L per tonne (dry weight) of macroalga, or 43% of the theoretical alcohol yield with respect to only the cellulose and carbohydrate contents. Theoretical yields are higher when the hemicellulose fraction is considered. While sugar recovery needs further optimization, the data suggest that additional work is warranted.

Masutani, Evan M.; Yoza, Brandon A.


Insulin attenuates the acquisition and expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization in DBA/2J mice  

PubMed Central

Aims Ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization is a behavioral manifestation of physiological responses to repeated ethanol exposures. While ethanol exerts direct effects on multiple neurotransmitter systems in the brain, ethanol-induced changes in metabolic state, including acute hyperglycemia and inhibition of insulin signaling, also have plausible roles in the expression of ethanol-related behaviors through direct and indirect effects on brain function. The current experiments examined whether insulin administration or the resultant hypoglycemia might attenuate the development of sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of ethanol. Main methods Male and female DBA/2J mice received daily injections of 5 or 10 IU/kg insulin before or after a stimulating dose of ethanol and subsequent testing in an automated activity monitor. Blood glucose levels were determined upon the completion of the experiments. Key findings Insulin injected prior to ethanol blunted the acute stimulant response as well as the acquisition and expression of locomotor sensitization, while insulin given after ethanol did not affect the development of the sensitized response. In a separate experiment, mice given glucose concurrently with insulin developed ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization normally. Significance These experiments suggest that insulin attenuates the development of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization, and that blood glucose levels can largely account for this effect. Further studies of the role of ethanol-induced metabolic states should provide novel information on the expression of ethanol-related behaviors. PMID:22056372

Kliethermes, Christopher L; Heberlein, Ulrike



Key role of the NO-pathway and MMP-9 in high blood flow-induced remodeling of rat resistance arteries.  

E-print Network

ester): LN; matrix metalloproteinases: MMPs; Nitric oxide: NO; high flow: HF, low flow: LF; normal flow: Microcirculation (resistance arteries), remodeling, blood flow, shear stress, endothelium, nitric oxide, matrix

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Detection and Control of High Blood Pressure in the Community Do We Need a Wake-Up Call?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the community level, the effect of national programs in increasing hypertension awareness, prevention, treatment, and control is unclear. This study evaluated the degree of detection and control of high blood pressure in a random population-based sample of Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents $45 years old, of whom 636 subjects among 1245 eligible residents agreed to participate. Home interview and home

Irene Meissner; Jack P. Whisnant; Sheldon G. Sheps; Gary L. Schwartz; W. Michael O'Fallon; Jody L. Covalt; JoRean D. Sicks; Kent R. Bailey; David O. Wiebers


Final Report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the final report of National Black Health Providers Task Force (NBHPTF) on High Blood Pressure Education and Control. The first chapter of the report recounts the history of the NBHPTF and its objectives. In the second chapter epidemiological evidence is presented to demonstrate the need for a suggested 20 year plan aimed at controlling…

Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.


Recommendations for a National High Blood Pressure Community Education Plan. Report of Task Force III--Community Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypertensive disease being one of the most important medical problems now facing American medicine brought about the formation of the Federally sponsored National High Blood Pressure Education Program, which included four Task Forces. Task Force 3 reviews in this study information and experience useful for the development of guidelines for…

National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.


Evaluation of Family Health Education to Build Social Support for Long-Term Control of High Blood Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational program was implemented to improve family member support for medical compliance among hypertensive patients. Family members were interviewed, counseled, and provided with a booklet for the purpose of educating and involving them in the home management of high blood pressure. Results of this program are presented and analyzed.…

Morisky, Donald E.; And Others



Sodium and potassium in blood and milk and plasma aldosterone levels in high-yield dairy cows  

E-print Network

Sodium and potassium in blood and milk and plasma aldosterone levels in high-yield dairy cows A milk production and milk sodium and potassium were measured in 10 Holstein x Friesian cows during a whole lactation period beginning in November and ending in November the following year. The milk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


High-dose mitoxantrone with peripheral blood progenitor cell rescue: toxicity, pharmacokinetics and implications for dosage and schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal use of mitoxantrone (NOV) in the high-dose range requires elucidation of its maximum tolerated dose with peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) support and the time interval needed between drug administration and PBPC reinfusion in order to avoid graft toxicity. The aims of this study were: (1) to verify the feasibility and haematological toxicity of escalating NOV up to

A Ballestrero; F Ferrando; A Garuti; P Basta; R Gonella; M Esposito; MO Vannozzi; G Sorice; D Friedman; M Puglisi; F Brema; GS Mela; M Sessarego; F Patrone



The Effects of Blood Alcohol Levels on Driving Variables in a High-Risk Population: Objective and Subjective Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed high-risk individuals' subjective awareness of legal intoxication and ability to drive, and objectively quantified their blood alcohol levels and driving performance. While subjects were able to recognize legal intoxication, one-third of the subjects were still willing to drive after becoming intoxicated beyond the legal limit to drive.…

Cox, Daniel J.; And Others



Indirect Determination of Potassium Calcium and Magnesium in Blood Plasma by High Perf ormance Capillary Electrophoresis with UV2Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium sodium calcium and magnesium in blood plasma were separated by high performance capillary elect rop ho resis ( HPCE) in a buffer medium of p H 5. 5 , using tartaric acid as complexing agent . Imidazole was used as backgro und reagent in t he UV2detectio n. Various conditio ns fo r t he CE separation and UV2detection



Rapid analysis of benzodiazepines in whole blood by high-performance liquid chromatography: use of a monolithic column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous work [J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 23 (2000) 447] a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, using a monolithic column in HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector, was developed for the quantitative determination of benzodiazepines in whole blood. The present method has been applied to the assay of eight benzodiazepines amongst the most frequently encountered in forensic toxicology:

Aurélie Bugey; Christian Staub



Improving low-dose blood-brain barrier permeability quantification using sparse high-dose induced prior for Patlak model  

E-print Network

Improving low-dose blood-brain barrier permeability quantification using sparse high-dose induced Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA 3Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College requires excessive radiation exposure, which raised attention on radiation safety. Minimizing radiation

Chen, Tsuhan


Determination of sisomicin in eluate from dried blood spot on filter paper disc for monitoring of blood level in rat, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography after pre-column fluorimetric derivatization.  


About 20 microliters of whole blood obtained by venipuncture from rat tail vein was spotted onto a filter paper and the blood spot was punched out (5 mm diameter). Sisomicin (SISO) in the dried blood spot (DBS) was extracted effectively into 0.5 M Na2HPO4 solution by ultrasonication and determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization using o-phthalaldehyde and beta-mercaptopropionic acid. This method could be used for the pre-clinical study of SISO blood levels of a number of mice or rats without killing. The results were identical with those for SISO in serum, if corrected for hematocrit values, and were used for the calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters for individual rats. The detection limit of SISO in DBS (10.1 microliters of whole blood) was 1.0 microgram per ml of whole blood. PMID:2720847

Fujimoto, T; Tawa, R; Hirose, S



Varenicline ameliorates ethanol-induced deficits in learning in C57BL\\/6 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is a frequently abused drug that impairs cognitive processes such as learning. Varenicline, an ?4?2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist and ?7 nicotinic receptor full agonist prescribed for smoking cessation, has been shown to decrease ethanol consumption. The current study investigated whether varenicline could ameliorate ethanol-induced deficits in learning and whether varenicline alters blood alcohol concentration in C57BL\\/6 mice. Conditioning

Danielle Gulick; Thomas J. Gould



Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience is about Ethanol. The major contributor to global warming is considered to be the high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide (CO2), caused by the burning of fossil fuel. Thus, to mitigate CO2 emissions, renewable energy sources such as ethanol have been seen as a promising alternative to fossil fuel consumption. Brazil was the world's first nation to run a large-scale program for using ethanol as fuel. Eventually, the United States also developed large-scale production of ethanol. In this study, we compare the benefits and environmental impacts of ethanol fuel, in Brazil and in the United States, using the ecological footprint tool developed by Wackernagel and Rees. We applied the STELLA model to gauge possible outcomes as a function of variations in the ethanol production scenario.




Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

Lynd, L.R.



Effects of ethanol ingestion on maternal and fetal glucose homeostasis  

SciTech Connect

Carbohydrate metabolism has been studied in the offspring of rats fed liqiud diet containing ethanol during gestation (EF group). Weight-matched control dams were given liquid diet either by the pair-fed technique (PF group) or ad libitum (AF group). EF and PF dams showed reduced food consumption and attenuated gain in body weight during the gestation period compared with the AF group. Blood glucose, liver glycogen, and plasma insulin levels were significantly reduced in EF and PF dams. Ethanol ingestion resulted in a significant decrease in litter survival and fetal body weight. At term, EF pups on average showed a 30% decrease in blood glucose levels and 40% decrease in plasma insulin levels compared with AF pups. One hour after birth, EF pups exhibited a marked increase in blood sugar level compared with either control group. Fetal hyperinsulinemia disappeared shortly after delivery in control pups, as expected; however, in EF pups, the fall in plasma insulin level was gradual. Fetal and neonatal plasma glucagon levels were not altered by ethanol exposure in utero. Blood glucose levels remained significantly low at 2 days of age in EF pups, but reached near control values at 4 days of age. Plasma insulin and glucagon were nearly equal in EF and control pups at 2 and 4 days of age. These results show aberrations in blood glucose, plasma insulin, and liver glycogen levels in offspring exposed to ethanol in utero.

Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Singh, S.K.



High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It  


... illness, infection, injury or surgery A blood glucose meter that is not reading accurately What should you ... Are you using the correct technique? Could your meter be dirty? Have your strips expired? Have your ...


A microfluidics approach towards high-throughput pathogen removal from blood using margination  

E-print Network

Sepsis is an adverse systemic inflammatory response caused by microbial infection in blood. This paper reports a simple microfluidic approach for intrinsic, non-specific removal of both microbes and inflammatory cellular ...

Hou, Han Wei


High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: A Guide for Parents  


... to charts listing normal blood pressure ranges for boys and girls based on their age and height. A diagnosis ... Register Now KEEP Healthy Event at Terre Haute Boys and Girls Club Mar 01, 2015 KEEP Healthy Event at ...


A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of tocopherol in plasma and cellular elements of the blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, sensitive, and reproducible procedure is described for the analysis of a-tocopherol in blood cells and plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorometric detection. The cardinal feature for the increased sensitivity of this high-performance liquid chro- matographic procedure is that the fluorometric analysis was carried out at a short excitation wavelength (205 nm) which increased the sensitivity 20-fold over

Lynda J. Hatam; Herbert J. Kayden


Interferon signaling patterns in peripheral blood lymphocytes may predict clinical outcome after high-dose interferon therapy in melanoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  High-dose Interferon (HDI) therapy produces a clinical response and achieves relapse-free survival in 20-33% of patients with\\u000a operable high risk or metastatic melanoma. However, patients may develop significant side effects frequently necessitating\\u000a dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy. We recently showed that peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from some melanoma\\u000a patients have impaired interferon (IFN) signaling which could be restored with

Diana L Simons; Gerald Lee; John M Kirkwood; Peter P Lee



Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,

P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes



Cadmium-induced nephropathy in the development of high blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recognition of a central role of the kidney in long-term blood pressure control, we undertook an in-depth analysis of the relationship between blood pressure and kidney damage caused by environmental exposure to the common pollutants cadmium and lead. The subjects were 200 healthy Thais, 16 and 60 years of age (100 female non-smokers, 53 male non-smokers, and 47 male

Soisungwan Satarug; Muneko Nishijo; Pailin Ujjin; Yuvaree Vanavanitkun; Michael R. Moore



Effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on whole blood with and without microbubble contrast agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using human whole blood samples with and without contrast agent (CA), we evaluated the effect of exposures to focused, continuous wave (CW) 1.1-MHz ultrasound for durations of 10 ms to 1 s at spatial average intensities of 560 to 2360 W\\/cm2. Cavitation was monitored with a passive cavitation detector and hemolysis was determined with spectroscopy. In whole blood alone, no

Sandra L. b Poliachik; Wayne L Chandler; Pierre D Mourad; Michael R Bailey; Susannah Bloch; Robin O Cleveland; Peter Kaczkowski; George Keilman; Tyrone Porter; Lawrence A Crum




Microsoft Academic Search

Using human whole blood samples with and without contrast agent (CA), we evaluated the effect of exposures to focused, continuous wave (CW) 1.1-MHz ultrasound for durations of 10 ms t o1sa tspatial average intensities of 560 to 2360 W\\/cm2. Cavitation was monitored with a passive cavitation detector and hemolysis was determined with spectroscopy. In whole blood alone, no significant cavitation,



High speed detection of retinal blood vessels in fundus image using phase congruency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of blood vessels in retinal fundus image is the preliminary step to diagnose several retinal diseases. There exist\\u000a several methods to automatically detect blood vessels from retinal image with the aid of different computational methods.\\u000a However, all these methods require lengthy processing time. The method proposed here acquires binary vessels from a RGB retinal\\u000a fundus image in almost real

M. Ashraful Amin; Hong Yan



High-throughput screening of large volumes of whole blood using structured illumination and fluorescent on-chip imaging  

PubMed Central

Undiluted blood samples are difficult to image in large volumes since blood constitutes a highly absorbing and scattering medium. As a result of this limitation, optical imaging of rare cells (e.g., circulating tumour cells) within unprocessed whole blood remains a challenge, demanding the use of special micro-fluidic technologies. Here we demonstrate a new fluorescent on-chip imaging modality that can rapidly screen large volumes of absorbing and scattering media such as undiluted whole blood samples for detection of fluorescent micro-objects at low concentrations (for example ? 50–100 particles/mL). In this high-throughput imaging modality, a large area micro-fluidic device (e.g., 7–18 cm2), which contains for example ~0.3–0.7 mL of undiluted whole blood sample, is directly positioned onto a wide-field opto-electronic sensor-array such that the fluorescent emission within the micro-channel can be detected without the use of any imaging lenses. This micro-fluidic device is then illuminated and laterally scanned with an array of Gaussian excitation spots, which is generated through a spatial light modulator. For each scanning position of this excitation array, a lensfree fluorescent image of the blood sample is captured using the opto-electronic sensor-array, resulting in a sequence of images (e.g., 144 lensfree frames captured in ~36 seconds) for the same sample chip. Digitally merging these lensfree fluorescent images based on a Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) algorithm enabled us to significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast of the fluorescent micro-objects within whole blood, which normally remain undetected (i.e., hidden) using conventional uniform excitation schemes, involving plane wave illumination. This high-throughput on-chip imaging platform based on structured excitation could be useful for rare cell research by enabling rapid screening of large volume micro-fluidic devices that process whole blood and other optically dense media. PMID:23047492

Arpali, Serap Altay; Arpali, Caglar; Coskun, Ahmet F.; Chiang, Hsin-Hao; Ozcan, Aydogan



Utilization of high specific surface area CuO-CeO2 catalysts for high temperature processes of hydrogen production: steam re-forming of ethanol and methane dry re-forming.  


CuO-CeO(2) mixed oxide catalysts with 10, 15, and 20 mol % CuO content were prepared by the hard template method using KIT-6 silica as a template. The applied synthesis method yields solids with BET surface area in excess of 147 m(2)/g, highly porous nanocrystalline CeO(2) morphology and dispersion of CuO phase between 28 and 40%, corresponding to CuO particle size between 1.3 and 1.9 nm. Increasing the CuO content caused a decrease in dispersion of this phase and a further decrease of surface acid site abundance, determined by NH(3) chemisorption/TPD method, but improved the reducibility extent of CeO(2) (14.5, 16.1 and 24.5% for CuCe10, CuCe15, and CuCe20 catalyst, respectively) and oxygen mobility of prepared powders. It was discovered during ethanol steam re-forming experiments that increasing CuO content is favorable in terms of ethanol conversion but also causes quicker catalyst deactivation, primarily as a result of sintering and loss of CuO dispersion. Reaction temperatures in excess of 550 degrees C strongly promoted ethanol dehydratation reaction, leading to a rise in methane production and extensive coking of the catalyst surface. Coking was slower in the case of CuO-CeO(2) catalysts with a higher CuO content as a result of lower acid site abundance and more pronounced oxygen mobility. Temperatures in excess of 450 degrees C are required for any noticeable CO(2) and CH(4) conversion in methane dry re-forming reaction over CuO-CeO(2) materials. The examined materials displayed steady performance during stability tests at a reaction temperature of 650 degrees C, with catalysts containing 15 and 20 mol % CuO exhibiting the highest activity. Additionally, very low amounts of carbon were deposited on spent catalyst samples. PMID:19883056

Djinovi?, Petar; Batista, Jurka; Cehi?, Benis; Pintar, Albin



Test Your Blood Pressure IQ  


... IQ Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What is HBP? Understanding Blood Pressure ... BP vs. Heart Rate BP Quizzes Myths About High Blood Pressure Your Path to Healthy Blood Pressure • Why HBP ...


Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that perinatal inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH), which metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade, with an orally active SEH inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), would persistently reduce blood pressure (BP) in adult SHR despite discontinuation of AUDA at 4 wk of age. Renal cytoplasmic epoxide hydrolase-2 (Ephx2) gene expression was enhanced in SHR vs. WKY from 2 days to 24 wk. Effects of perinatal treatment with AUDA, supplied to SHR dams until 4 wk after birth, on BP in female and male offspring and renal oxylipin metabolome in female offspring were observed and contrasted to female SHR for direct effects of AUDA (8–12 wk). Briefly, inhibition of SEH was effective in persistently reducing BP in female SHR when applied during the perinatal phase. This was accompanied by marked increases in major renal AA epoxides and decreases in renal lipoxygenase products of AA. Early inhibition of SEH induced a delayed increase in renal 5-HETE at 24 wk, in contrast to a decrease at 2 wk. Inhibition of SEH in female SHR from 8 to 12 wk did not reduce BP but caused profound decreases in renal 15(S)-HETrE, LTB4, TBX2, 5-HETE, and 20-HETE and increases in TriHOMEs. In male SHR, BP reduction after perinatal AUDA was transient. Thus, Ephx2 transcription and SEH activity in early life may initiate mechanisms that eventually contribute to high BP in adult female SHR. However, programmed BP-lowering effects of perinatal SEH inhibition in female SHR cannot be simply explained by persistent reduction in renal SEH activity but rather by more complex and temporally dynamic interactions between the renal SEH, lipoxygenase, and cyclooxygenase pathways. PMID:21266668

Koeners, Maarten P.; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Ulu, Arzu; Sepúlveda, Rocío López; Morisseau, Christophe; Braam, Branko; Hammock, Bruce D.



Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: implications for diagnostics.  


Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We have also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum, and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of 'monomeric' LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. This phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host-pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics. PMID:23507184

Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E; Via, Laura E; Swanson, Basil I; Mukundan, Harshini



Blood Pressure Medicines  


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