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Sample records for high blood ethanol

  1. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2015-07-01

    The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:26061228

  2. Ethanol and blood pressure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, D.C.; Edgar, S.; McCarron, D.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Epidemiologists have identified alcohol as a risk factor in hypertension. Attempts to increase blood pressure in rats with chronic alcohol ingestion have met with mixed results. Some investigators have reported increases in blood pressure while others have reported decreases. Most investigators have given alcohol in the drinking water which produced differences in food intake across groups. To control for food intake, Wister rats were simultaneously pair fed a liquid diet with either ethanol as 35% of calories or a control diet using ARF/Israel pair-feeding devices. At 5 weeks of age, animals on ethanol diets had lower systolic blood pressure than control animals (145 (n-19) vs. 121 (n-19) mmHg). There was no difference in weight between ethanol and control animals. The same pattern of results was apparent at 7 weeks (143 (n-13) vs. 119 (n-13) mmHg) and 9 weeks (147 (n-7) vs. 124 (n-7)). The data indicate that ethanol produces hypotension in rats when food intake is controlled.

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique in 26 healthy volunteers before and 60 minutes after the oral administration of ethyl alcohol or placebo on a double-blind basis. The cerebral blood flow values, corrected for test-retest differences in carbon dioxide showed a significant bilateral increase after ethanol administration. Blood levels of ethanol, estimated with a breath analyser, did not correlate with the CBF changes.

  4. Effects of ethanol on red blood cell rheological behavior.

    PubMed

    Rabai, M; Detterich, J A; Wenby, R B; Toth, K; Meiselman, H J

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of red wine is associated with a decreased risk of several cardiovascular diseases (e.g., coronary artery disease, stroke), but unfortunately literature reports regarding ethanol's effects on hemorheological parameters are not concordant. In the present study, red blood cell (RBC) deformability was tested via laser ektacytometry (LORCA, 0.3-30 Pa) using two approaches: 1) addition of ethanol to whole blood at 0.25%-2% followed by incubation and testing in ethanol-free LORCA medium; 2) addition of ethanol to the LORCA medium at 0.25%-6% then testing untreated native RBC in these media. The effects of ethanol on deformability for oxidatively stressed RBC were investigated as were changes of RBC aggregation (Myrenne Aggregometer) for cells in autologous plasma or 3% 70 kDa dextran. Significant dose-related increases of RBC deformability were observed at 0.25% (p < 0.05) and higher concentrations only if ethanol was in the LORCA medium; no changes occurred for cells previously incubated with ethanol then tested in ethanol-free medium. The impaired deformability of cells pre-exposed to oxidative stress was improved only if ethanol was in the LORCA medium. RBC aggregation decreased with concentration at 0.25% and higher for cells in both autologous plasma and dextran 70. Our results indicate that ethanol reversibly improves erythrocyte deformability and irreversibly decreases erythrocyte aggregation; the relevance of these results to the health benefits of moderate wine consumption require further investigation. PMID:23089886

  5. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

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  6. Blood and liver acetaldehyde concentration in rats following acetaldehyde inhalation and intravenous and intragastric ethanol administration

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, A.; Hobara, N.; Nagashima, H.

    1986-10-01

    Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a highly reactive product of ethanol oxidation. Ethanol might be blended with gasoline and used as a fuel in the future; biohazard of acetaldehyde inhalation must be discussed. Recent improvements in our ability to measure acetaldehyde levels in blood and various tissues have made the assessment of acetaldehyde's role in alcoholic organ intoxication possible. Blood and liver acetaldehyde concentrations in rats were reported as being linearly correlated following intragastric ethanol administration. Acetaldehyde was administered by inhalation to study its toxicity. However, liver concentrations following the inhalation was not investigated. The present communication describes the relationship between blood and liver acetaldehyde concentrations in rats following acetaldehyde inhalation and different routes of ethanol administration.

  7. Gastric mucosal morphology and faecal blood loss during ethanol ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Dinoso, V. P.; Meshkinpour, H.; Lorber, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    The faecal blood loss of six alcoholic subjects with normal gastric mucosa, six with superficial gastritis, and six with atrophic gastritis was studied before and during ingestion of 40% v/v ethanol using 51Cr-tagged red blood cells. No significant change in faecal blood loss was observed in the normal mucosa and superficial gastritis groups but all subjects with atrophic gastritis had significant increases of faecal blood loss during ethanol ingestion. These observations suggest that gastric mucosal morphology may be an important determinant of gastric mucosal bleeding during the ingestion of alcohol. PMID:4706910

  8. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, J.; Confer, K.

    2011-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

  9. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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  10. Comparison of blood ethanol stabilities in different storage periods

    PubMed Central

    Isiklar, Ozben Ozden; Kocak, Havva; Meral, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Measurements of blood ethanol concentrations must be accurate and reliable. The most important factors affecting blood ethanol stability are temperature and storage time. In this study, we aimed to compare ethanol stability in plasma samples at -20 C for the different storage periods. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected from intoxicated drivers (N = 80) and initial plasma ethanol concentrations were measured immediately. Plasma samples were then stored at -20 C and re-assessed after 2, 3, 4, or 5 months of storage. Differences between the initial and stored ethanol concentrations in each group (N = 20) were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. The deviation from the initial concentration was calculated and compared with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA88) Proficiency Testing Limits. Relationships between the initial concentrations and deviations from initial concentrations were analyzed by Spearmans correlation analysis. For all statistical tests, differences with P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Statistically significant differences were observed between the initial and poststorage ethanol concentrations in the overall sample group (P < 0.001). However, for the individual storage duration groups, analytically significant decreases were observed only for samples stored for 5 months, deviations from the initial concentrations exceeded the allowable total error (TEa). Ethanol decreases in the other groups did not exceed the TEa. Conclusion According to our results, plasma ethanol samples can be kept at -20 C for up to 3-4 months until re-analysis. However, each laboratory should also establish its own work-flow rules and criterion for reliable ethanol measurement in forensic cases. PMID:25672467

  11. Intravenous saline has no effect on blood ethanol clearance.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Mills, T; Erato, R

    1999-01-01

    For patients presenting to emergency departments with ethanol intoxication, intravenous (i.v.) fluids are initiated for varied reasons. This investigation determined the effect of i.v. fluid therapy on the rate of blood ethanol clearance in such patients. Volunteers received a predetermined dose of ethanol on two separate occasions. On the second occasion, volunteers rapidly received a liter of i.v. saline directly following ethanol ingestion. At intervals on both occasions, blood ethanol levels were estimated using a breath analyzer. Using linear regression analysis, no difference was found in rates of alcohol clearance with or without i.v. fluid intervention. The common rate of clearance between both groups was 15 mg/dL/h (95% CI 12 to 18). We conclude that i.v. fluid therapy does not accelerate ethanol clearance in intoxicated patients. While such therapy may be justified for other reasons, practitioners are cautioned against initiating fluids in such patients solely to expedite ethanol elimination. PMID:9950378

  12. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePLUS

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  13. High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

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  14. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

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  17. High Blood Pressure

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  18. What Is High Blood Pressure?

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  19. High ethanol tolerance yeast for production of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Tsao, G.T.; Kasthurikrishnan, N.

    1995-12-01

    The subject of ethanol tolerance in yeasts has been receiving considerable attention as result of renewed interest in ethanol as a fuel source. Fermentation of sugars to ethanol is being studied in our laboratory using a genetically engineered yeast strain 1400. Results are described.

  20. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  1. The determination of ethanol in blood and urine by mass fragmentography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Rindfleisch, T. C.; Duffield, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic technique for a rapid, specific and sensitive determination of ethanol in blood and urine is described. A Varian gas chromatograph coupled through an all-glass membrane separator to a Finnigan quadripole mass spectrometer and interfaced to a computer system is used for ethanol determination in blood and urine samples. A procedure for plotting calibration curves for ethanol quantitation is also described. Quantitation is achieved by plotting the peak area ratios of undeuterated-to-deuterated ethanol fragment ions against the amount of ethanol added. Representative results obtained by this technique are included.

  2. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

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  3. A new method for the determination of blood ethanol levels in rodents.

    PubMed

    Pohorecky, L A; Brick, J

    1982-05-01

    A procedure is described for the estimation of ethanol in blood of rodents. The procedure is based on the same principle as the breath analyzer method used with human subjects. Using a specifically designed mask, samples of rebreathed air are collected under equilibrium conditions. These are injected directly into gas chromatograph for the quantitation of ethanol. We determined the conversion factor for calculating blood ethanol levels from those determined in breath to be 1:2857. The method was validated by comparing blood (from the jugular vein) and breath values obtained on the same animal after the administration of various doses of ethanol either intraperitoneally or intragastrically. PMID:7089027

  4. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  5. Effect of ethanol of heart rate and blood pressure in nonstressed and stressed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, M.G.; Roggendorf, H.; Vogel, W.H.

    1987-06-29

    The effect of ethanol on the cardiovascular system (ECG, heart rate, blood pressure) was studied in anesthetized, nonstressed or stressed rats. In anesthetized rats, ethanol showed no effect on heart rate or ECG. In nonstressed rats, ethanol sedated the animals but increased heart rate significantly. This ethanol induced tachycardia seemed the result of a direct stimulation of the sympathetic nerves to the heart. Blood pressure was not significantly affected by ethanol in these nonstressed rats. In stressed rats, marked behavioral excitation and significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure were noted. Ethanol pretreatment calmed the animals considerably during restraint. Ethanol did reduce slightly the stress-induced tachycardia but markedly reduced or antagonized stress-induced blood pressure increases. No major changes in the ECG were noted during these studies with the exception of a few individual animals which showed pathologic ECG responses to ethanol. These data show that ethanol affects cardiovascular functions differently in anesthetized, non stressed or stressed rats, and that ethanol can significantly reduce or antagonize stress-induced behavioral excitation, tachycardia and hypertension. 32 references, 4 tables.

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

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  7. High Blood Pressure

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  8. Controlling High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

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  9. High Blood Pressure

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  10. High blood pressure - infants

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  11. High-yield ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers.

    PubMed

    Barthomeuf, C; Regerat, F; Pourrat, H

    1991-07-01

    Fermentation conditions were optimized for the production of ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae able to use high-concentration juice and undiluted pulp. Yields (95 to 125 g ethanol/l=85 to 98% of the theoretical value) exceeded those obtained with strain of Kluyveromyces used classically. PMID:24425135

  12. Process engineering of high-ethanol-tolerance yeast for the manufacture of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Xia, Y.; Tsao, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    Inhibitory effects of ethanol and glucose on a high-ethanol-tolerance yeast strain (fusion product of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces uvarum) having high osmotic and ethanol tolerance were studied in batch cultures. A model incorporating both substrate and product inhibition was developed that represented the experimental data quite well. By performing fed-batch fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 13.3% (w/v) was obtained. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration for cell growth was predicted to be 129.9 g/L and ethanol-producing capability of cells was found to be completely inhibited at 136.4 g/L. On-line monitoring of the fermentation was performed using an ion trap mass spectrometer and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Preliminary results are reported.

  13. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

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  14. Medications for High Blood Pressure

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  15. Myths about High Blood Pressure

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  16. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

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  17. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    MedlinePLUS

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  18. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

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  19. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood glow: Role of adenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Orrego, H.; Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Giles, H.G.; Sandrin, S.; Israel, Y. )

    1988-04-01

    The mechanism by which ethanol induces an increase in portal vein blood flow was studied in rats using radiolabeled microspheres. Ethanol by gavage resulted in an increase of 50-70% in portal vein blood flow. The ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker 8-phenyltheophylline. By itself, 8-phenyltheophylline was without effect on cardiac output or portal blood flow. Adenosine infusion resulted in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This adenosine-induced increase in portal blood flow was inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline in a dose-dependent manner. Both alcohol and adenosine significantly reduced preportal vascular resistance by 40% and 60%, respectively. These effects were fully suppressed by 8-phenyltheophylline. It is concluded that adenosine is a likely candidate to mediate the ethanol-induced increase in portal vein blood flow. It is suggested that an increase in circulating acetate and liver hypoxia may mediate the effects of alcohol by increasing tissue and interstitial adenosine levels.

  20. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  1. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  2. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePLUS

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  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

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  4. Studies of the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde by oxyhemoglobin using fluorigenic high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, H M; Lin, W W; Ferguson, K H; Scott, B K; Peterson, C M

    1994-10-01

    We noted a rise in acetaldehyde levels in clinical samples of venous whole blood containing ethanol that did not occur in samples from teetotalers. Experiments were performed to define the mechanism involved in acetaldehyde production. The addition of 0.10% ethanol to whole blood produced an immediate increase in acetaldehyde due to acetaldehyde in the stock solution followed by a subsequent increase that became statistically significant by 48 hr. Separation of blood into components documented that the increase in acetaldehyde was associated with the red cell but not plasma fraction. Incubation of isolated hemoglobin with ethanol produced a rise in acetaldehyde levels. Incubation of oxygenated whole blood with ethanol produced a linear increase in acetaldehyde, whereas nitrogen-exposed blood produced no increase. The rise of acetaldehyde in the presence of ethanol was dependent on the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin A0. Addition of inhibitors of catalase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and glycolytic enzymes (aminotriazole, azide, pyrazole, sodium fluoride, sodium citrate, and iodoacetate) did not inhibit the rise of acetaldehyde, but addition of the hemoglobin ligand cyanide abolished the rise in acetaldehyde. Kinetic analysis with oxygenated whole blood plus inhibitors revealed a Km of 2.5 mM and Vmax of 1.42 microM/min. We conclude that oxyhemoglobin contributes to the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde. These findings may explain in part the high levels of acetaldehyde found in red cells compared with plasma. The results also have implications for the optimum storage of blood samples for acetaldehyde analysis. PMID:7847607

  5. Controlling your high blood pressure

    MedlinePLUS

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  6. Microarray characterization of gene expression changes in blood during acute ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of the civil aviation safety program to define the adverse effects of ethanol on flying performance, we performed a DNA microarray analysis of human whole blood samples from a five-time point study of subjects administered ethanol orally, followed by breathalyzer analysis, to monitor blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to discover significant gene expression changes in response to the ethanol exposure. Methods Subjects were administered either orange juice or orange juice with ethanol. Blood samples were taken based on BAC and total RNA was isolated from PaxGene blood tubes. The amplified cDNA was used in microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses to evaluate differential gene expression. Microarray data was analyzed in a pipeline fashion to summarize and normalize and the results evaluated for relative expression across time points with multiple methods. Candidate genes showing distinctive expression patterns in response to ethanol were clustered by pattern and further analyzed for related function, pathway membership and common transcription factor binding within and across clusters. RT-qPCR was used with representative genes to confirm relative transcript levels across time to those detected in microarrays. Results Microarray analysis of samples representing 0%, 0.04%, 0.08%, return to 0.04%, and 0.02% wt/vol BAC showed that changes in gene expression could be detected across the time course. The expression changes were verified by qRT-PCR. The candidate genes of interest (GOI) identified from the microarray analysis and clustered by expression pattern across the five BAC points showed seven coordinately expressed groups. Analysis showed function-based networks, shared transcription factor binding sites and signaling pathways for members of the clusters. These include hematological functions, innate immunity and inflammation functions, metabolic functions expected of ethanol metabolism, and pancreatic and hepatic function. Five of the seven clusters showed links to the p38 MAPK pathway. Conclusions The results of this study provide a first look at changing gene expression patterns in human blood during an acute rise in blood ethanol concentration and its depletion because of metabolism and excretion, and demonstrate that it is possible to detect changes in gene expression using total RNA isolated from whole blood. The analysis approach for this study serves as a workflow to investigate the biology linked to expression changes across a time course and from these changes, to identify target genes that could serve as biomarkers linked to pilot performance. PMID:23883607

  7. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

    PubMed

    Voordeckers, Karin; Kominek, Jacek; Das, Anupam; Espinosa-Cant, Adriana; De Maeyer, Dries; Arslan, Ahmed; Van Pee, Michiel; van der Zande, Elisa; Meert, Wim; Yang, Yudi; Zhu, Bo; Marchal, Kathleen; DeLuna, Alexander; Van Noort, Vera; Jelier, Rob; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-11-01

    Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts. PMID:26545090

  8. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Espinosa-Cantú, Adriana; De Maeyer, Dries; Arslan, Ahmed; Van Pee, Michiel; van der Zande, Elisa; Meert, Wim; Yang, Yudi; Zhu, Bo; Marchal, Kathleen; DeLuna, Alexander; Van Noort, Vera; Jelier, Rob; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts. PMID:26545090

  9. Comparison of spectroscopically measured finger and forearm tissue ethanol concentration to blood and breath ethanol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Hull, Edward L.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2011-02-01

    Previous works investigated a spectroscopic technique that offered a promising alternative to blood and breath assays for determining in vivo alcohol concentration. Although these prior works measured the dorsal forearm, we report the results of a 26-subject clinical study designed to evaluate the spectroscopic technique at a finger measurement site through comparison to contemporaneous forearm spectroscopic, venous blood, and breath measurements. Through both Monte Carlo simulation and experimental data, it is shown that tissue optical probe design has a substantial impact on the effective path-length of photons through the skin and the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectroscopic measurements. Comparison of the breath, blood, and tissue assays demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration that are attributable to both assay accuracy and alcohol pharmacokinetics. Similar to past works, a first order kinetic model is used to estimate the fraction of concentration variance explained by alcohol pharmacokinetics (72.6-86.7%). A significant outcome of this work was significantly improved pharmacokinetic agreement with breath (arterial) alcohol of the finger measurement (mean kArt-Fin = 0.111 min-1) relative to the forearm measurement (mean kArt-For = 0.019 min-1) that is likely due to the increased blood perfusion of the finger.

  10. Ethanol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Cluette, J.E.; Mulligan, J.J.; Noring, R.; Doyle, K.; Hojnacki, J.

    1984-05-01

    Male squirrel monkeys fed ethanol at variable doses were used to assess whether alcohol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in vivo. Monkeys were divided into three groups: 1) controls fed isocaloric liquid diet; 2) low ethanol monkeys fed liquid diet with vodka substituted isocalorically for carbohydrate at 12% of calories; and 3) High Ethanol animals fed diet plus vodka at 24% of calories. High Ethanol primates had significantly higher levels of HDL nonesterified cholesterol than Control and Low Ethanol animals while serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase was similar for the three treatments. There were no significant differences between the groups in HDL cholesteryl ester mass or specific activity following intravenous injection of labeled mevalonolactone. By contrast, High Ethanol monkeys had significantly greater HDL nonesterified cholesterol specific activity with approximately 60% of the radioactivity distributed in the HDL/sub 3/ subfraction. This report provides the first experimental evidence that ethanol at 24% of calories induces elevations in HDL cholesterol in primates through enhanced de novo synthesis without adverse effects on liver function.

  11. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of alcohol Lack of physical activity Overweight and Obesity Research studies show that being overweight or obese ... balances, cause your blood vessels to constrict, or impact the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to high ...

  12. Comparison of ethanol concentrations in venous blood and end-expired breath during a controlled drinking study.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Andersson, L

    2003-03-12

    Concentration-time profiles of ethanol were determined for venous whole blood and end-expired breath during a controlled drinking experiment in which healthy men (n=9) and women (n=9) drank 0.40-0.65 g ethanol per kg body weight in 20-30 min. Specimens of blood and breath were obtained for analysis of ethanol starting at 50-60 min post-dosing and then every 30-60 min for 3-6 h. This protocol furnished 130 blood-breath pairs for statistical evaluation. Blood-ethanol concentration (BAC, mg/g) was determined by headspace gas chromatography and breath-ethanol concentration (BrAC, mg/2l) was determined with a quantitative infrared analyzer (Intoxilyzer 5000S), which is the instrument currently used in Sweden for legal purposes. In 18 instances the Intoxilyzer 5000S gave readings of 0.00 mg/2l whereas the actual BAC was 0.08 mg/g on average (range 0.04-0.15 mg/g). The remaining 112 blood- and breath-alcohol measurements were highly correlated (r=0.97) and the regression relationship was BAC=0.10+0.91BrAC and the residual standard deviation (S.D.) was 0.042 mg/g (8.4%). The slope (0.91+/-0.0217) differed significantly from unity being 9% low and the intercept (0.10+/-0.0101) deviated from zero (t=10.2, P<0.001), indicating the presence of both proportional and constant bias, respectively. The mean bias (BAC - BrAC) was 0.068 mg/g and the 95% limits of agreement were -0.021 and 0.156 mg/g. The average BAC/BrAC ratio was 2448+/-540 (+/-S.D.) with a median of 2351 and 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of 1836 and 4082. We found no significant gender-related differences in BAC/BrAC ratios, being 2553+/-576 for men and 2417+/-494 for women (t=1.34, P>0.05). The mean rate of ethanol disappearance from blood was 0.157+/-0.021 mg/(g per hour), which was very close to the elimination rate from breath of 0.161+/-0.021 mg/(2l per hour) (P>0.05). Breath-test results obtained with Intoxilyzer 5000S (mg/2l) were generally less than the coexisting concentrations of ethanol in venous blood (mg/g), which gives an advantage to the suspect who provides breath compared with blood in cases close to a threshold alcohol limit. PMID:12689747

  13. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mineral found mostly in your bones, where it builds and maintains bone strength. A small amount of calcium is also ... Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone mineral density, ultrasound, or other types of scans. How is high ...

  14. The Effects of Ethanol on the Morphological and Biochemical Properties of Individual Human Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Yun; Park, Hyun Joo; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Yong Keun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a study on the effects of ethanol exposure on human red blood cells (RBCs) using quantitative phase imaging techniques at the level of individual cells. Three-dimensional refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of RBCs were measured using common-path diffraction optical tomography, from which morphological (volume, surface area, and sphericity); biochemical (hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and Hb content); and biomechanical (membrane fluctuation) parameters were retrieved at various concentrations of ethanol. RBCs exposed to the ethanol concentration of 0.1 and 0.3% v/v exhibited cell sphericities higher than those of normal cells. However, mean surface area and sphericity of RBCs in a lethal alcoholic condition (0.5% v/v) are not statistically different with those of healthy RBCs. Meanwhile, significant decreases of Hb content and concentration in RBC cytoplasm at the lethal condition were observed. Furthermore, dynamic fluctuation of RBC membranes increased significantly upon ethanol treatments, indicating ethanol-induced membrane fluidization. PMID:26690915

  15. Operant self-administration of sweetened ethanol and time course of blood ethanol levels in adolescent and adult male Long-Evans rats

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, James M.; Gonzales, Rueben A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding mechanisms regulating ethanol self-administration during adolescence or if the mechanisms differ from adults. One of the best models of abuse liability is operant self-administration. Therefore, we characterized operant sweetened ethanol self-administration behavior in adolescent and adult rats. Methods Adolescent (36 days old at first ethanol exposure) and adult male Long-Evans rats were first trained to self-administer 10% sucrose (10S) in an appetitive/consummatory operant model for 1 week, and then the drinking solution was switched to 10% sucrose plus 10% ethanol (10S10E) for 2 weeks. Next, rats were switched to a fixed ratio 2 schedule, and this was followed by one session using a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Lastly, rats were tested for cue-induced reinstatement of lever pressing behavior under extinction conditions after 13 days of abstinence. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of sweetened ethanol (self-administered or intragastric (IG) administration of 1 g/kg) was determined via gas chromatography. Control rats drank only 10S. Results Consumption of sweetened ethanol was not different between adolescents and adults under any schedule tested, reaching 1 g/kg in 20 min in the appetitive/consummatory model. Appetitive behavior directed at sweetened ethanol was less focused in adolescents vs. adults. No age differences were found in motivation for sweetened ethanol. Cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior after abstinence also did not differ by age. In control groups, no age difference was found in appetitive behavior or the amount of sucrose consumed, although adults exhibited greater cue-induced reinstatement. BEC after self-administration or IG administration of sweetened ethanol was higher in adults than adolescents. Conclusions Consumption and motivation for sweetened ethanol is similar in adolescents and adults, although adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of ethanol consumption on appetitive behavior. The IG results suggest larger volume of distribution and higher first pass metabolism of sweetened ethanol in adolescents vs. adults, which may limit the reinforcing effects of ethanol in some adolescents. Overall, we have begun to establish an operant sweetened ethanol self-administration model in adolescent rats. PMID:25702920

  16. Ethanol.

    PubMed Central

    McIntire, Steven L

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug whose mechanism of action, despite intensive study, remains uncertain. Biochemical and electrophysiological experiments have identified receptors and ion channels whose functions are altered at physiological concentrations of ethanol. Yet, the contribution of these potential targets to its intoxicating or behavioral effects is unclear. Unbiased forward genetic screens for resistant or hypersensitive mutants represent an attractive means of identifying the relevant molecular targets or biochemical pathways mediating the behavioral effects of neuroactive compounds. C. elegans has proven to be a particularly useful system for such studies. The behavioral effects of ethanol occur at equivalent tissue concentrations in mammals and in C. elegans, suggesting the existence of conserved drug targets in the nervous system. This chapter reviews the results of studies directed toward determining the mechanisms of action of ethanol. Studies of the neural adaptations that occur with prolonged drug exposure are also discussed. The methods used to characterize the actions of ethanol should be applicable to the characterizations of other compounds that affect the behavior of C. elegans. PMID:20432508

  17. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  18. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual field alterations after acute ethanol ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Anke; Remky, Andreas; Bienert, Marion; der Velden, Klaudia Huber-van; Kirschkamp, Thomas; Rennings, Corinna; Roessler, Gernot; Plange, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ethyl alcohol on the koniocellular and magnocellular pathway of visual function and to investigate the relationship between such visual field changes and retrobulbar blood flow in healthy subjects. Methods In 12 healthy subjects (mean age 32 ± 4 years), color Doppler imaging, short-wavelength automated perimetry, and frequency doubling perimetry was performed before and 60 minutes after oral intake of 80 mL of 40 vol% ethanol. Mean and pattern standard deviations for short-wavelength automated and frequency doubling perimetry were assessed. End diastolic velocity (EDV) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using color Doppler imaging. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, intraocular pressure, and blood alcohol concentration were determined. Results Mean PSV and EDV in the central retinal artery showed a significant increase after alcohol intake (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). Similarly, we found a significant acceleration of blood flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery (P = 0.02 for PSV; P = 0.04 for EDV). Mean intraocular pressure decreased by 1.0 mmHg after alcohol ingestion (P = 0.01). Retinal sensitivity in short-wavelength automated perimetry did not alter, whereas in frequency doubling perimetry, the mean deviation decreased significantly. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly. Mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.38 ± 0.16 g/L. Conclusion Although ethanol is known to cause peripheral vasodilation, our subjects had no significant drop in systemic blood pressure. However, a significant increase of blood flow velocity was seen in the retrobulbar vessels. Regarding visual function, moderate alcohol consumption led to reduced performance in the magnocellular visual system tested by frequency doubling perimetry, but had no effect on short-wavelength automated perimetry. PMID:23990703

  19. Interaction of ethanol and microwaves on the blood-brain barrier of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Neilly, J.P.; Lin, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The combined effects of ethanol and microwaves on the permeation of Evans blue dye through the mammalian blood-brain barrier was studied in male Wistar rats. Anesthetized rats were infused through a cannula in the left femoral vein with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 or 0.7 grams of absolute ethanol per kilogram of body mass. A control group was given 0.7 g/kg of isotonic saline. The left hemisphere of the brain was irradiated by 3.15-GHz microwave energy at 3.0 W/cm2 rms for 15 min. The rat's rectal temperature was maintained at 37.0 degrees C. Immediately after irradiation, 2% Evans blue dye in saline (2.0 ml/kg body mass) was injected through the cannula. The results show that as the quantity of alcohol was increased, the degree of staining was decreased or eliminated. The temperature of the irradiated area of the brain increased for the first 4 to 5 minutes of irradiation and then stabilized for the remainder of the irradiation period. The steady-state temperature was highest in animals receiving saline or the smallest dose of alcohol. As the quantity of alcohol was increased, the steady-state temperature was reduced. These results indicate that ethanol inhibits microwave-induced permeation of the blood-brain barrier through reduced heating of the brain.

  20. Effects of concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations and repeated deprivations on alcohol intake of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Zachary A.; Bell, Richard L.; Kuc, Kelly A.; Murphy, James M.; Lumeng, Lawrence; McBride, William J.

    2010-01-01

    High-alcohol-drinking rats, given access to 10% ethanol, expressed an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) only after multiple deprivations. In alcohol-preferring (P) rats, concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations combined with repeated cycles of EtOH access and deprivation produced excessive ethanol drinking. The current study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated alcohol deprivations with concurrent access to multiple concentrations of ethanol on ethanol intake of HAD replicate lines of rats. HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats received access to 10, 20 and 30% (v/v) ethanol for 6 weeks. Rats from each replicate line were assigned to: (1) a non-deprived group; (2) a group initially deprived of ethanol for 2 weeks; or (3) a group initially deprived for 8 weeks. Following the restoration of the ethanol solutions, cycle of 2 weeks of ethanol exposure and 2 weeks of alcohol deprivation was repeated three times for a total of four deprivations. Following the initial ethanol deprivation period, deprived groups significantly increased ethanol intakes during the initial 24-hour re-exposure period. Multiple deprivations increased ethanol intakes, shifted preference to higher ethanol concentrations and prolonged the duration of the elevated ethanol intakes for up to 5 days. In addition, repeated deprivations increased ethanol intake in the first 2-hour re-exposure period as high as 57 g/kg (which are equivalent to amounts consumed in 24 hours by HAD rats), and produced blood ethanol levels in excess of 150 mg%. The results indicate that HAD rats exhibit loss-of-control of alcohol drinking with repeated deprivations when multiple ethanol concentrations are available. PMID:19076927

  1. 40 CFR 1065.725 - High-level ethanol-gasoline blends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ethanol used for blending must be either denatured ethanol meeting the specifications in 40 CFR 80.1610... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level ethanol-gasoline blends... Calibration Standards § 1065.725 High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. For testing vehicles capable of...

  2. High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Aug 12,2014 Metabolic ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  3. Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data

    PubMed Central

    Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, RM

    2008-01-01

    Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data. PMID:19255617

  4. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Kids > When Blood Sugar ... glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. What Is Hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia (say: hi-per-gly-SEE-me- ...

  5. Genetics of alcoholism: rapid development of a new high-ethanol-preferring (HEP) strain of female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Myers, R D; Robinson, D E; West, M W; Biggs, T A; McMillen, B A

    1998-11-01

    A genetically based animal model of alcoholism has been developed in a relatively short period of 3 years. The new strain is characterized by an intense preference for ethanol over water as well as unique behavioral, neurochemical and other attributes. This new strain, termed high-ethanol-preferring (HEP) rats, was derived initially from selective cross-breeding of a variant strain of female Harlan Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with the outbred Wistar line of male ethanol-preferring (P) rats. In this study, drinking patterns of both genders were obtained over 10 days by presenting water and ethanol in concentrations ranging from 3% to 30%. To expedite the development of the new strain, only three to five female and male rats served as breeders, which were chosen from all litters on the basis of their maximum g/kg intake integrated with proportion of ethanol to total fluid values. Profiles of intake of preferred concentrations of ethanol were obtained over 24 h of unlimited access as well as during 2-h intervals of limited access to ethanol. Levels of blood ethanol were measured in both female and male HEP animals during bouts of ethanol drinking in the limited access paradigm. By the sixth generation of HEP rats, ethanol consumption of the females often exceeded that of any other rat genetically bred to drink ethanol (e.g., at a concentration of 15.7%, 10.3 g/kg per day). Seven additional characteristics are notable: 1) the HEP rats prefer ethanol in the presence of a nutritious chocolate drink or nonnutrient sweetened solution (aspartame); 2) high levels of blood ethanol are associated with their drinking; 3) females drink significantly greater g/kg amounts of ethanol than HEP males and prefer a higher percent concentration of ethanol; 4) the drinking of ethanol by the female HEP animals does not fluctuate during the estrous cycle; 5) neurochemical assays show differential profiles of 5-HT, dopamine, and their metabolites in different regions of the brain; 6) measures of activity using the elevated plus maze, open field, and cork gnawing reveal differences between genders of HEP rats and SD rats; and 7) the HEP animals are without phenotypically expressed abnormalities. Finally, one cardinal principle derived from this study revealed that the breeding strategy to develop high-ethanol-drinking rats centers on the use of multiple solutions of ethanol whereby the intakes of ethanol in concentration of 9% through 20% dictate the ultimate selection of breeding pairs over successive F generations. Further, it is concluded that because of an intense rise in ethanol drinking of the F1 generation of female HEP rats well above that of the parental SD female breeders, the complex genotypic characteristic of the male P rat is predominantly responsible for evoking ethanol drinking in female offspring. PMID:9818988

  6. Comparative Polygenic Analysis of Maximal Ethanol Accumulation Capacity and Tolerance to High Ethanol Levels of Cell Proliferation in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Thiago M.; Foulqui-Moreno, Mara R.; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Franoise; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ?17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ?17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance. PMID:23754966

  7. Purification of ethanol for highly sensitive self-assembly experiments

    PubMed Central

    Barbe, Kathrin; Kind, Martin; Pfeiffer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ethanol is the preferred solvent for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolates on gold. By applying a thin film sensor system, we could demonstrate that even the best commercial qualities of ethanol contain surface-active contaminants, which can compete with the desired thiolates for surface sites. Here we present that gold nanoparticles deposited onto zeolite X can be used to remove these contaminants by chemisorption. This nanoparticle-impregnated zeolite does not only show high capacities for surface-active contaminants, such as thiols, but can be fully regenerated via a simple pyrolysis protocol. PMID:25161861

  8. Alanine with the Precipitate of Tomato Juice Administered to Rats Enhances the Reduction in Blood Ethanol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Shunji; Shiiya, Sachie; Tokumaru, Yoshimi; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    Delay in gastric emptying (GE) lowers the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) after alcohol administration. We previously demonstrated that water-insoluble fractions, mainly comprising dietary fiber derived from many types of botanical foods, possessed the ability to absorb ethanol-containing aqueous solutions. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the absorption of ethanol and lowering of BEC because of delay in GE. Here we identified dietary nutrients that synergize with the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes to lower BEC in rats. Consequently, unlike tomato juice without alanine, tomato juice with 5.0% alanine decreased BEC depending on the delay in GE and mediated the ethanol-induced decrease in the spontaneous motor activity (an indicator of drunkenness). Our findings indicate that the synergism between tomato juice and alanine to reduce the absorption of ethanol was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates such as the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes. PMID:26713162

  9. Performance of dairy cows fed high levels of acetic acid or ethanol.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; S Neto, A; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Bispo, A W; Zopollatto, M; Cardoso, T L; Spoto, M H F; Santos, F A P; Nussio, L G

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol and acetic acid are common end products from silages. The main objective of this study was to determine whether high concentrations of ethanol or acetic acid in total mixed ration would affect performance in dairy cows. Thirty mid-lactation Holstein cows were grouped in 10 blocks and fed one of the following diets for 7 wk: (1) control (33% Bermuda hay + 67% concentrates), (2) ethanol [control diet + 5% ethanol, dry matter (DM) basis], or (3) acetic acid (control diet + 5% acetic acid, DM basis). Ethanol and acetic acid were diluted in water (1:2) and sprayed onto total mixed rations twice daily before feeding. An equal amount of water was mixed with the control ration. To adapt animals to these treatments, cows were fed only half of the treatment dose during the first week of study. Cows fed ethanol yielded more milk (37.9 kg/d) than those fed the control (35.8 kg/d) or acetic acid (35.3 kg/d) diets, mainly due to the higher DM intake (DMI; 23.7, 22.2, and 21.6 kg/d, respectively). The significant diet week interaction for DMI, mainly during wk 2 and 3 (when acetic acid reached the full dose), was related to the decrease in DMI observed for the acetic acid treatment. There was a diet week interaction in excretion of milk energy per DMI during wk 2 and 3, due to cows fed acetic acid sustained milk yield despite lower DMI. Energy efficiency was similar across diets. Blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, ethanol, and ?-glutamyl transferase activity) and sensory characteristics of milk were not affected by these treatments. Animal performance suggested similar energy value for the diet containing ethanol compared with other diets. Rumen conversion of ethanol to acetate and a concomitant increase in methane production might be a plausible explanation for the deviation of the predicted energy value based on the heat of combustion. Therefore, the loss of volatile compounds during the drying process in the laboratory should be considered when calculating energy content of fermented feedstuffs. PMID:23141834

  10. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated? High blood cholesterol is treated with lifestyle ... need to follow a heart healthy diet . Lowering Cholesterol Using Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes TLC is a set ...

  11. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the number of overweight children and teens. Race/Ethnicity High blood pressure is more common in ... high blood pressure and may run in families. Genetic causes of this condition are why family history ...

  12. The highly selective orexin/hypocretin 1 receptor antagonist GSK1059865 potently reduces ethanol drinking in ethanol dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Moorman, David E; Aston-Jones, Gary; Becker, Howard C

    2016-04-01

    The orexin/hypocretin (ORX) system plays a major role in motivation for natural and drug rewards. In particular, a number of studies have shown that ORX signaling through the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) regulates alcohol seeking and consumption. Despite the association between ORX signaling and motivation for alcohol, no study to date has investigated what role the ORX system plays in alcohol dependence, an understanding of which would have significant clinical relevance. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the highly selective OX1R antagonist GSK1059865 on voluntary ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent and control non-dependent mice. Mice were subjected to a protocol in which they were evaluated for baseline ethanol intake and then exposed to intermittent ethanol or air exposure in inhalation chambers. Each cycle of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE), or air, exposure was followed by a test of ethanol intake. Once the expected effect of increased voluntary ethanol intake was obtained in ethanol dependent mice, mice were tested for the effect of GSK1059865 on ethanol and sucrose intake. Treatment with GSK1059865 significantly decreased ethanol drinking in a dose-dependent manner in CIE-exposed mice. In contrast GSK1059865 decreased drinking in air-exposed mice only at the highest dose used. There was no effect of GSK1059865 on sucrose intake. Thus, ORX signaling through the OX1R, using a highly-selective antagonist, has a profound influence on high levels of alcohol drinking induced in a dependence paradigm, but limited or no influence on moderate alcohol drinking or sucrose drinking. These results indicate that the ORX system may be an important target system for treating disorders of compulsive reward seeking such as alcoholism and other addictions in which motivation is strongly elevated. PMID:26851547

  13. High blood pressure tests (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lab tests include urinalysis, blood cell count, blood chemistry (potassium, sodium, creatinine, fasting glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol), and an ECG (electrocardiogram). Additional tests may be recommended based on your condition.

  14. Immobilization-induced increases of systolic blood pressure and dysregulation of electrolyte balance in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Farzana; Haque, Zeba; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2015-07-01

    Clinical and experimental studies revealed that alcohol drinking and life event stresses are predisposing factors to hypertension. Intra and extra cellular levels of electrolytes may play important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of hypertension. Dietary intake of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium is suggested to have a role in the regulation of blood pressure. The present study was designed to monitor the effects of acute exposure to 2h immobilization stress and ethanol administration at a dose of 2.5 g/kg body weight (i.p.) and combined effect of acute administration of ethanol and immobilization stress on systolic blood pressure (SBP), intraerythrocyte, serum and tissue electrolytes in rats. Results showed that acute exposure to 2h immobilization increased SBP, intraerythrocyte sodium and decreased intraerythrocyte potassium in water as well as in ethanol injected rats. The concentration of Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ increased while that of K⁺ and Mg²⁺ decreased in the heart and kidney tissue. Ethanol administration also increased Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ levels and decreased K⁺ and Mg²⁺ levels in the heart and kidney tissue. Restraint stress decreased serum levels of Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, P, and Cl⁻ and increased serum Mg²⁺, glucose and haematocrit. Ethanol administration also decreased serum levels of Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, P, and Cl⁻ and increased serum Mg²⁺, glucose and haematocrit. The effects of ethanol and stress on the changes of blood and tissues electrolytes were additive and may be involved in the greater occurrence of hypertension in alcoholics. Our results suggested an important role of intra and extra cellular electrolytes in both stress and ethanol-induced hypertension. The findings may help to develop strategies for the treatment of hypertension in alcoholics. PMID:26142527

  15. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... thrombophilia , or lupus • are obese •had in vitro fertilization What are the risks for my baby if ... blood cells. Hypertension: High blood pressure. In Vitro Fertilization: A procedure in which an egg is removed ...

  16. Apoptosis of blood mononuclear cells in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The influence of in vitro ethanol treatment and zinc supplementation.

    PubMed

    Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Daniluk, Jadwiga; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol consumption induces apoptosis in a variety of tissues, among others in liver and lymphoid tissue. Zinc has been shown to influence apoptosis of blood mononuclear cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial pathway of cell death. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of zinc on spontaneous and in vitro alcohol-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. PBMCs were isolated from the blood of 26 patients with cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls. PBMCs and among them CD4+ T helper cells of cirrhotic patients exhibited accelerated spontaneous (without treatment) apoptosis in vitro. When apoptosis was induced in vitro by treating cells with 80 mM ethanol, CD8+ T lymphocytes of a healthy control were more sensitive to ethanol treatment than those of cirrhotic patients. Thirty micromolar zinc supplementation inhibited both spontaneous and ethanol-induced apoptosis of immune cells derived from the blood of the healthy control and cirrhotic patients. In sera of patients with cirrhosis, an elevated level of IL-12, but also sFas (CD95) and sFas ligand (sFasL) was detected. Moreover, in vitro, PBMCs of cirrhotic patients spontaneously released more sFas and sFasL than control PBMCs. Ethanol treatment significantly increased sFas, but decreased sFasL release from PBMCs of cirrhotic patients, while it only slightly affected control cells. As zinc supplementation did not significantly influence sFas or sFasL release, it seems likely that it is rather the mitochondrial pathway of ethanol-related immune cell death that may be inhibited by zinc supplementation. PMID:15964121

  17. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... properly. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. What Is Hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia (say: hi-per-gly-SEE-me-uh) is the medical word for high blood sugar levels. The hormone insulin is supposed to control the level of glucose in the blood. But ...

  18. THE CYCLIC PATTERN OF BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVELS DURING CONTINUOUS ETHANOL FEEDING IN RATS. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE

    PubMed Central

    Bardag-Gorce, F; Li, J; Oliva, J; Lu, SC; French, BA; French, SW

    2010-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the major methyl donor for DNA and histone methylation was fed with ethanol for one month in order to modify the effects of ethanol on rat liver. The following parameters were studied to determine the effects of SAMe; liver histology, the blood alcohol cycle (BAL), changes in gene expression mined from microarray analysis, changes in histone methylation, changes in liver SAMe levels and its metabolites and ADH. SAMe changed the type of fatty liver, reduced liver ALT levels and prevented the BAL cycle caused by intragastric ethanol feeding. Microarray analysis showed that SAMe feeding prevented most of the changes in gene expression induced by ethanol feeding, presumably by inducing H3K27me3 and gene silencing. H3K27me3 was significantly increased by SAMe with or without ethanol feeding. It is concluded that SAMe feeding stabilized global gene expression so that the changes in gene expression involved in the blood alcohol cycle were prevented. PMID:20303346

  19. High Blood Pressure and Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... so important to control my blood pressure during pregnancy? Failing to do so could result in: Harm ... I be sure that I won't get pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia? There is no proven ...

  20. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants. PMID:26353649

  1. ATP metabolism in rat liver chronically treated with ethanol and high fat

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; French, S.W.

    1986-03-01

    Five pairs of Wistar male rats weighing about 350 g were continuously infused with a liquid diet in which 25-35% of total calories was derived from fat, plus ethanol or isocaloric dextrose through gastrostomy cannulas for 3 wks to 3.5 mos. Mean ethanol intake was 12.9 +/- 0.7 g/kg B.W. (55% of total calories). High blood alcohol levels (BAL, 342 +/- 151 mg/dl) were maintained. The liver showed severe steatosis (4+) in all the ethanol-fed rats (ER). Two had mild focal mononuclear cell infiltration, one had mild fibrosis and one had spotty necrosis. Mild steatosis (1+) was seen in 4 out of 5 pair-fed control rats (CR). Serum ALT was significantly higher in ER (129 +/- 44 U) compared with Cr (59 +/- 30 U) or rats fed chow ad lib (NR) (48 +/- 26 U). Biopsied liver tissue was used to measure the concentration of adenine nucleotides by HPLC (6 pairs). There was a significant decrease of ATP in ER (1.7 +/- 0.3 ..mu..mol/g liver) as compared to CR (2.5 +/- 0.5 ..mu..mol/g) or NR (2.8 +/- 0.2 ..mu..mol/g, n = 6). There was no significant change in the ADP or AMP content, however. The total adenylate pool of the liver was also significantly reduced in ER when compared to that of CR or NR (3.2 +/- 0.4, 4.0 +/- 0.5 and 4.3 +/- 0.2 ..mu..mol/g liver, respectively). Adeynlate energy charge (E.C.) of the ER livers (0.71 +/- 0.05) was significantly reduced compared to NR (0.77 +/- 0.02) but not with CR (0.75 +/- 0.06). The results indicate that ethanol decreases the level of ATP as well as the biological mechanism to compensate for the lowered level.

  2. Effect of ethanol on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism (CMRO2) in conscious sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Krasney, J.A.; Zubkov, B.; Iwamoto, J. )

    1991-03-11

    A moderate dose of ethanol severely depresses CBF and CMRO2 in the awake sheep fetus. However, the effects of ethanol on CBF and CMRO2 in the adult are unclear. The same dose of ethanol was infused for 2 hr in 5 ewes instrumented with aortic, left ventricular and sagittal sinus catheters. Ethanol caused ataxia accompanied by early modest and variable increases of total and regional CBF and CMRO2, followed by later modest and variable decreases of total and regional CBF (cerebellum) and CMRO2. Ethanol caused a cerebral transcapillary fluid shift as indicated by significant increases of the arterial-cerebral venous differences for hematocrit and hemoglobin. Brain wet-dry ratios increased by 10% above control levels. However, cerebral venous pressures were unchanged. The authors conclude that the adult cerebral response to ethanol differs quantitatively from that of the fetus. The functional significance of the cerebral fluid shift is unclear.

  3. Isothermal vapor--liquid equilibrium data for binary systems at high pressures; Carbon dioxide-methanol, carbon dioxide-ethanol, carbon dioxide--1-propanol, methane--ethanol, methane--1-propanol, ethane--ethanol, and ethane--1-propanol systems

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.; Sue, H. ); Itou, M.; Smith, R.L.; Inomata, H.; Aria, K.; Saito, S. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment conducted on isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium data for binary systems at high pressure. Carbon dioxide-methanol, carbon dioxide-ethanol, carbon dioxide-1-propanol, methane-ethanol, methane-1-propanol, ethane-ethanol, and ethane-1-propanol were measured by a new static phase equilibrium apparatus at 313.4 and 333,4 K.

  4. Lithium carbonate and ethanol induced "highs" in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Judd, L L; Hubbard, R B; Huey, L Y; Attewell, P A; Janowsky, D S; Takahashi, K I

    1977-04-01

    The responses of twenty-three normal male subjects to a standardized dose of 95% ethanol (1.32 ml/kg of body weight) were compared after two weeks of placebo and two weeks of therapeutic serum lithium ion levels (mean 0.91 mEq/liter). The study was a placebo controlled, split-half crossover, double-blind design. Prealcohol and postalcohol responses were assessed by self-rating scales of affect and mood, independent rater observation, perceptual-motor, and cognitive performance tasks. Pretreatment by lithium carbonate neither blocked nor dampened an alcohol-induced subjective "high" in normal subjects. A complex reciprocal interaction may exist between the effects of lithium and alcohol upon other behavioral attributes. Alcohol was seen to reverse aspects of lithium-induced dysphoria and there is a suggestion that lithium may attenuate alcohol-induced cognitive inefficiency. PMID:322635

  5. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of High Blood Pressure Medicines ACE Inhibitors Beta Blockers Calcium Channel Blockers Peripherally Acting Alpha-Adrenergic Blockers ... side effects for each drug, check Drugs@FDA . Beta Blockers Brand Name Generic Name Bystolic Nebivolol Timolol Coreg ...

  6. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Center National Kidney Foundation Smokefree.gov MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  7. Combination of high solids loading pretreatment and ethanol fermentation of whole slurry of pretreated rice straw to obtain high ethanol titers and yields.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-12-01

    In cellulosic ethanol production using lignocellulose, an increase in biomass solids loading during the pretreatment process significantly affects the final ethanol titer and the production cost. In this study, pretreatment using rice straw at high solids loading (20% (w/v)) was evaluated, using maleic acid as a catalyst. After pretreatment at optimal conditions of 190C, 20min, and 0.2% or 5% (w/v) maleic acid, the highest enzymatic digestibility obtained was over 80%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the whole slurry of pretreated rice straw in the presence of activated carbon to separate inhibitory compounds generated a high ethanol yield of 62.8%, based on the initial glucan in unpretreated rice straw. These findings suggest that high solids loading pretreatment using maleic acid and SSF of the whole slurry of pretreated rice straw can be combined to improve the process economics of ethanol production. PMID:26461793

  8. And so can plants with high starch contents. [Cereal grains conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-08

    Researchers at Miles Laboratories are looking into the hydrolysis of starch using two enzymes - alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, as high concentrations of starch like those found in cereal grains can be converted into ethanol by way of sugars. It is estimated that to produce 1 gallon of ethanol requires about 56 lb of corn and with 85% fermentation efficiency, the enzyme cost per gallon of ethanol would be 6-7 cents.

  9. Rise of inhaled toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene, or mesitylene in rat blood after treatment with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Roemer, K.G.; Federsel, R.J.; Freundt, K.J.

    1986-12-01

    Toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene, and mesitylene (1,3,5-methyl benzene) are widespread as solvents in industries and laboratories or in the manufacture and application of glues, paints, printing inks etc. These aromatics may be absorbed by employees during exposure at the workplace. Alcoholic beverages may be consumed during occupational inhalation or after shift's end at times. Toxicokinetic interactions between the aromatics and ethanol must be assumed because of the common pathway of biotransformation. The blood levels of toluene and m-xylene after inhalation increased significantly in volunteers dosed simultaneously with ethanol. In this view the present experiments in rats should elucidate whether the blood concentrations of inhaled ethyl benzene and mesitylene (both structurally related to toluene and m-xylene) can rise under the influence of ethanol, and whether quantitative differences of this effect due to the structure of these aromatics can occur. From the results informations important for the assessment of occupational health risk are to be expected.

  10. Identification of multiple interacting alleles conferring low glycerol and high ethanol yield in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering of industrial microorganisms often suffers from undesirable side effects on essential functions. Reverse engineering is an alternative strategy to improve multifactorial traits like low glycerol/high ethanol yield in yeast fermentation. Previous rational engineering of this trait always affected essential functions like growth and stress tolerance. We have screened Saccharomyces cerevisiae biodiversity for specific alleles causing lower glycerol/higher ethanol yield, assuming higher compatibility with normal cellular functionality. Previous work identified ssk1E330NK356N as causative allele in strain CBS6412, which displayed the lowest glycerol/ethanol ratio. Results We have now identified a unique segregant, 26B, that shows similar low glycerol/high ethanol production as the superior parent, but lacks the ssk1E330NK356N allele. Using segregants from the backcross of 26B with the inferior parent strain, we applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis and identified three minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to low glycerol/high ethanol production. Within these QTLs, we identified three novel alleles of known regulatory and structural genes of glycerol metabolism, smp1R110Q,P269Q, hot1P107S,H274Y and gpd1L164P as causative genes. All three genes separately caused a significant drop in the glycerol/ethanol production ratio, while gpd1L164P appeared to be epistatically suppressed by other alleles in the superior parent. The order of potency in reducing the glycerol/ethanol ratio of the three alleles was: gpd1L164P?>?hot1P107S,H274Y???smp1R110Q,P269Q. Conclusions Our results show that natural yeast strains harbor multiple specific alleles of genes controlling essential functions, that are apparently compatible with survival in the natural environment. These newly identified alleles can be used as gene tools for engineering industrial yeast strains with multiple subtle changes, minimizing the risk of negatively affecting other essential functions. The gene tools act at the transcriptional, regulatory or structural gene level, distributing the impact over multiple targets and thus further minimizing possible side-effects. In addition, the results suggest polygenic analysis of complex traits as a promising new avenue to identify novel components involved in cellular functions, including those important in industrial applications. PMID:23759206

  11. [Forensic medical expertise of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy in the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, O V; Petrova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cases of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy of the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine; the second objective was the statistical analysis of the data thus obtained. It was shown that sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy occurs in the men more frequently than in the women despite rather low ethanol levels in the blood and urine of both genders or even in the cases of complete absence of ethanol in these fluids. It is concluded that ethanol concentration in the blood and urine of the subjects who died from the alcohol-induced heart injury depends on their age and sex. PMID:26521311

  12. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure (Arabic) ?????? ??? ???? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure Visoki krvni tlak - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) High ...

  13. Ethanol induced adaptive changes in blood for the pathological and toxicological effects of chronic ethanol consumption in humans.

    PubMed

    Maturu, Paramahamsa; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a number of toxicological changes in blood and the oxidant-antioxidant system. The present study was performed to investigate the alcohol induced toxicological, pathological changes in blood and an adaptive role of erythrocyte antioxidant system in chronic alcoholics. Human male volunteers aged 446 years with similar dietary habits were divided into two groups, namely non-alcoholic controls and chronic alcoholics. We measured hematological parameters, erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, NO production, erythrocyte antioxidant and liver function test enzyme activities. Alcoholics had increased erythrocyte nitric oxide levels and also elevated erythrocyte lipid malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Strikingly, increments in reduced glutathione and markedly increased activities of certain antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and another related enzyme G-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PDH) with no alterations in the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) in chronic alcoholics were observed compared to controls. Furthermore, erythrocyte NO levels were positively correlated with lipid peroxidation, SOD, GSH, GR and G6PDH in chronic alcoholics. In addition, increased AST/ALT ratio and a significant increase in WBC and platelets were also noticed. Together, these results indicate that, antioxidants and defense enzymes appear to be rendering protection as a consequence of chronic adaptation in alcoholics. PMID:21282047

  14. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in the world. It ...

  15. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  16. THERMOREGULATION AT A HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE FOLLOWING THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to assess the thermoregulatory mechanisms responsible for the elevation in body temperature following ethanol administration when exposed to a high ambient temperature (Ta). ale rats of the Fischer 344 strain were gavaged with 20% ethanol at doses of 0, 2....

  17. A novel non-invasive electrochemical biosensing device for in situ determination of the alcohol content in blood by monitoring ethanol in sweat.

    PubMed

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Manso, J; Gonzlez de Rivera, G; Lpez-Colino, F; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrn, J M

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive, passive and simple to use skin surface based sensing device for determining the blood's ethanol content (BAC) by monitoring transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) is designed and developed. The proposed prototype is based on bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors that are sensitive to the variation of ethanol concentration. The prototype correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from ethanol in sweat with its content in blood in a short period of time. The characteristics of this sensor device permit determination of the ethanol concentration in isolated and in continuous form, giving information of the BAC of a subject either in a given moment or its evolution during long periods of time (8h). Moreover, as the measurements are performed in a biological fluid, the evaluated individual is not able to alter the result of the analysis. The maximum limit of ethanol in blood allowed by legislation is included within the linear range of the device (0.0005-0.6 g L(-1)). Moreover, the device shows higher sensitivity than the breathalyzers marketed at the moment, allowing the monitoring of the ethanol content in blood to be obtained just 5 min after ingestion of the alcoholic drink. The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed device in the analysis of 40 volunteers with those provided by the gas chromatographic reference method for determination of BAC pointed out that there were no significant differences between both methods. PMID:24331037

  18. Very high gravity ethanol fermentation by flocculating yeast under redox potential-controlled conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation using medium in excess of 250 g/L sugars for more than 15% (v) ethanol can save energy consumption, not only for ethanol distillation, but also for distillage treatment; however, stuck fermentation with prolonged fermentation time and more sugars unfermented is the biggest challenge. Controlling redox potential (ORP) during VHG fermentation benefits biomass accumulation and improvement of yeast cell viability that is affected by osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition, enhancing ethanol productivity and yield, the most important techno-economic aspect of fuel ethanol production. Results Batch fermentation was performed under different ORP conditions using the flocculating yeast and media containing glucose of 201??3.1, 252??2.9 and 298??3.8 g/L. Compared with ethanol fermentation by non-flocculating yeast, different ORP profiles were observed with the flocculating yeast due to the morphological change associated with the flocculation of yeast cells. When ORP was controlled at ?100 mV, ethanol fermentation with the high gravity (HG) media containing glucose of 201??3.1 and 252??2.9 g/L was completed at 32 and 56 h, respectively, producing 93.0??1.3 and 120.0??1.8 g/L ethanol, correspondingly. In contrast, there were 24.0??0.4 and 17.0??0.3 g/L glucose remained unfermented without ORP control. As high as 131.0??1.8 g/L ethanol was produced at 72 h when ORP was controlled at ?150 mV for the VHG fermentation with medium containing 298??3.8 g/L glucose, since yeast cell viability was improved more significantly. Conclusions No lag phase was observed during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast, and the implementation of ORP control improved ethanol productivity and yield. When ORP was controlled at ?150 mV, more reducing power was available for yeast cells to survive, which in turn improved their viability and VHG ethanol fermentation performance. On the other hand, controlling ORP at ?100 mV stimulated yeast growth and enhanced ethanol production under the HG conditions. Moreover, the ORP profile detected during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast was less fluctuated, indicating that yeast flocculation could attenuate the ORP fluctuation observed during ethanol fermentation with non-flocculating yeast. PMID:22917193

  19. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Results Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. Conclusions In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall ethanol production yield. PMID:24401142

  20. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis). PMID:25706565

  1. “Jello® Shots” and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dess, Nancy K.; Madkins, Chardonnay D.; Geary, Bree A.; Chapman, Clinton D.

    2013-01-01

    Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose); ethanol concentration (4% or 10%); and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib.) during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed. PMID:24284614

  2. Concentration-time profiles of ethanol in arterial and venous blood and end-expired breath during and after intravenous infusion.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Norberg, A; Hahn, R G

    1997-11-01

    Ethanol (0.40 g/kg) was administered to 13 healthy men by intravenous (i.v.) infusion at a constant rate for 30 min. The concentrations of ethanol in arterial blood (ABAC), venous blood (VBAC), and end-expired breath (BrAC) were measured at 17 exactly timed intervals. Blood-ethanol was determined by headspace gas chromatography and breath-ethanol was measured with a quantitative infrared analyzer (DataMaster). BrAC was multiplied by 2300 to estimate the concentrations of alcohol in blood. During the infusion of ethanol, ABAC exceeded VBAC by about 10 mg/dL on the average and ABAC was also higher than BrAC x 2300 by about 4 mg/dL on average. When infusion of alcohol ended, ABAC, VBAC, and BrAC were 94.8 +/- 2.06 (+/- SE), 84.7 +/- 1.54, and 89.3 +/- 2.10 mg/dL, respectively. The concentrations of alcohol in blood (ABAC and VBAC) and breath decreased abruptly after the administration of alcohol stopped and by 5 min postinfusion, the A-V differences in concentration of ethanol were small or negligible. The mean apparent half-life of the distribution plunge was 7 to 8 min, being about the same for ABAC, VBAC, and BrAC. The disappearance rate of ethanol was 15.5 +/- 0.55 mg/ dL/h (mean +/- SE) for arterial blood, 15.2 +/- 0.49 mg/dL/h for venous blood, and 16.3 +/- 0.73 mg/230 L/h for breath; no significant differences were noted (p > 0.05). We conclude that A-V differences in the concentration of ethanol exist during the loading phase but are rapidly abolished when the administration of ethanol terminates. In the post-absorptive phase of ethanol kinetics, when alcohol has mixed with the total body water, VBAC exceeds ABAC by about 1-2 mg/100 mL on average. PMID:9397551

  3. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  4. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diuretics (water pills), vasodilators (drugs that relax your blood vessels), and lifestyle changes. Limit your intake of salt and eat foods high in fiber and potassium. Get regular exercise and lose weight if you need to. Avoid alcohol, or use it in moderation, (maximum of one ...

  5. High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform

    PubMed Central

    Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G.; Abell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production. PMID:25878135

  6. High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform.

    PubMed

    Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G; Abell, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production. PMID:25878135

  7. Auxotrophic Mutations Reduce Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Very High Levels of Ethanol Stress

    PubMed Central

    Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Dumortier, Franoise; Verdyck, Pieter; Souvereyns, Kris; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Foulqui-Moreno, Mara R.

    2015-01-01

    Very high ethanol tolerance is a distinctive trait of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with notable ecological and industrial importance. Although many genes have been shown to be required for moderate ethanol tolerance (i.e., 6 to 12%) in laboratory strains, little is known of the much higher ethanol tolerance (i.e., 16 to 20%) in natural and industrial strains. We have analyzed the genetic basis of very high ethanol tolerance in a Brazilian bioethanol production strain by genetic mapping with laboratory strains containing artificially inserted oligonucleotide markers. The first locus contained the ura3?0 mutation of the laboratory strain as the causative mutation. Analysis of other auxotrophies also revealed significant linkage for LYS2, LEU2, HIS3, and MET15. Tolerance to only very high ethanol concentrations was reduced by auxotrophies, while the effect was reversed at lower concentrations. Evaluation of other stress conditions showed that the link with auxotrophy is dependent on the type of stress and the type of auxotrophy. When the concentration of the auxotrophic nutrient is close to that limiting growth, more stress factors can inhibit growth of an auxotrophic strain. We show that very high ethanol concentrations inhibit the uptake of leucine more than that of uracil, but the 500-fold-lower uracil uptake activity may explain the strong linkage between uracil auxotrophy and ethanol sensitivity compared to leucine auxotrophy. Since very high concentrations of ethanol inhibit the uptake of auxotrophic nutrients, the active uptake of scarce nutrients may be a major limiting factor for growth under conditions of ethanol stress. PMID:26116212

  8. Auxotrophic Mutations Reduce Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Very High Levels of Ethanol Stress.

    PubMed

    Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Dumortier, Franoise; Verdyck, Pieter; Souvereyns, Kris; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Foulqui-Moreno, Mara R; Thevelein, Johan M

    2015-09-01

    Very high ethanol tolerance is a distinctive trait of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with notable ecological and industrial importance. Although many genes have been shown to be required for moderate ethanol tolerance (i.e., 6 to 12%) in laboratory strains, little is known of the much higher ethanol tolerance (i.e., 16 to 20%) in natural and industrial strains. We have analyzed the genetic basis of very high ethanol tolerance in a Brazilian bioethanol production strain by genetic mapping with laboratory strains containing artificially inserted oligonucleotide markers. The first locus contained the ura3?0 mutation of the laboratory strain as the causative mutation. Analysis of other auxotrophies also revealed significant linkage for LYS2, LEU2, HIS3, and MET15. Tolerance to only very high ethanol concentrations was reduced by auxotrophies, while the effect was reversed at lower concentrations. Evaluation of other stress conditions showed that the link with auxotrophy is dependent on the type of stress and the type of auxotrophy. When the concentration of the auxotrophic nutrient is close to that limiting growth, more stress factors can inhibit growth of an auxotrophic strain. We show that very high ethanol concentrations inhibit the uptake of leucine more than that of uracil, but the 500-fold-lower uracil uptake activity may explain the strong linkage between uracil auxotrophy and ethanol sensitivity compared to leucine auxotrophy. Since very high concentrations of ethanol inhibit the uptake of auxotrophic nutrients, the active uptake of scarce nutrients may be a major limiting factor for growth under conditions of ethanol stress. PMID:26116212

  9. [Correction of the alkylnitrite method for the detection of ethanol in blood taking into account toxico-kinetic and anthropometric data].

    PubMed

    Barinskaia, T O; Salomatin, E M; Smirnov, A V

    2011-01-01

    The correction coefficient for the systemic inaccuracy arising during determination of blood ethanol by alkylnitrite gas chromatography and concomitant calibration of aqueous solutions was estimated to equal 0.82; this finding was confirmed by the results of the toxico-kinetic assay for the measurement of total body water (TBW) from the kinetic curve characterizing the time dependence of ethanol concentration in the exhaled air, saliva, capillary and venous blood in combination with 4 anthropometric methods and (in several cases) direct physical detection of TBW. When detecting the blood ethanol level with a correction coefficient of 0.82, the mutual position of the kinetic curves for ethanol concentrations in the blood and the exhaled air (recalculated for the blood level with a coefficient of 2100) as well as in the blood and saliva agreed with that reported in the available literature; it significantly differed from the position of the curves obtained with a correction coefficient of 0.95. The causes accounting for the systematic inaccuracy and erroneous values of the correction coefficients in earlier studies are discussed. PMID:21866849

  10. Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, Geetika

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

  11. Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V.; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C. D.; Khanna, Geetika

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

  12. Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. )

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

  13. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol. PMID:25877397

  14. Role of an Ethanolic Extract of Crotalaria juncea L. on High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinakaran Sathis; David, Banji; Harani, Avasarala; Vijay, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic effects of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) by performing in vivo studies. Methods The effects of oral administration of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) in rats fed with a high-fat diet were investigated by evaluating parameters like food consumption, weight gain, fecal fat excretion, serum and liver lipids, and biochemical profiles as well as by histopathological studies. The results were compared to animals fed with the standard diet and animals fed with a high-fat diet and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg BW). Results The animal group administered with the ethanolic extract for 35 days showed decreased levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, TG, HDL+VLDL, VLDL+LDL, LDL/TC, AI, SGOT, SGPT, and elevated levels of HDL, HDL/TC, significantly (p<0.01 & p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of liver tissues of the animal groups treated with the herbal extract and standard had shown increased levels of SOD, GSH, and catalase, whereas levels of SGOT, SGPT, total glucose, HMG-CoA, lipase, amylase, and the percentage of malon-dialdehyde were decreased when compared with the high-fat diet-fed rats. Body weight and food intake in the treated groups were significantly lower than that in the model control. Conclusion The present study showed that an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea L. influences several blood lipid and metabolic parameters in rats, suggesting a potential benefit as an antihypercholesterolemic agent. PMID:24959408

  15. Aeration strategy: a need for very high ethanol performance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch process.

    PubMed

    Alfenore, S; Cameleyre, X; Benbadis, L; Bideaux, C; Uribelarrea, J-L; Goma, G; Molina-Jouve, C; Guillouet, S E

    2004-02-01

    In order to identify an optimal aeration strategy for intensifying bio-fuel ethanol production in fermentation processes where growth and production have to be managed simultaneously, we quantified the effect of aeration conditions--oxygen limited vs non limited culture (micro-aerobic vs aerobic culture)--on the dynamic behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in very high ethanol performance fed-batch cultures. Fermentation parameters and kinetics were established within a range of ethanol concentrations (up to 147 g l(-1)), which very few studies have addressed. Higher ethanol titres (147 vs 131 g l(-1) in 45 h) and average productivity (3.3 vs 2.6 g l(-1) h(-1)) were obtained in cultures without oxygen limitation. Compared to micro-aerobic culture, full aeration led to a 23% increase in the viable cell mass as a result of the concomitant increase in growth rate and yield, with lower ethanol inhibition. The second beneficial effect of aeration was better management of by-product production, with production of glycerol, the main by-product, being strongly reduced from 12 to 4 g l(-1). We demonstrate that aeration strategy is as much a determining factor as vitamin feeding (Alfenore et al. 2002) in very high ethanol performance (147 g l(-1) in 45 h) in order to achieve a highly competitive dynamic process. PMID:12879304

  16. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  17. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow: Role of acetate and A sub 1 - and A sub 2 -adenosine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Varghese, G.A.; Israel, Y.; Orrego, H. Univ. of Toronto, Ontario )

    1988-10-01

    The increase in portal blood flow induced by ethanol appears to be adenosine mediated. Acetate, which is released by the liver during ethanol metabolism, is known to increase adenosine levels in tissues and in blood. The effects of acetate on portal blood flow were investigated in rats using the microsphere technique. The intravenous infusion of acetate resulted in vasodilation of the preportal vasculature and in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This acetate-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. Using the A{sub 1}-adenosine receptor agonist N-6-cyclohexyl adenosine and the A{sub 2}-agonist 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine, we demonstrate that the effect of adenosine on the preportal vasculature is mediated by the A{sub 2}-subtype of adenosine receptors. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the increase in portal blood flow after ethanol administration results from a preportal vasodilatory effect of adenosine formed from acetate metabolism in extrahepatic tissues.

  18. Breath acetaldehyde following ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Wong, M K; Scott, B K; Peterson, C M

    1992-01-01

    Five pairs of volunteers were studied to determine the effect of drinking ethanol on breath acetaldehyde levels. On a given study day, samples of breath were obtained for measurement of acetaldehyde and ethanol from both participants at t = -1 h, t = -0.5 h, and at t = 0 to obtain baseline values. The drinkers were then given ethanol (0.3 g/kg body weight), and the controls given an equal volume of tap water. Breath samples were then taken at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 h, and hourly until t = 6 h. The last sample taken was at t = 23.5 h. Acetaldehyde levels in breath were quantified with a fluorigenic high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. Blood ethanol was approximated using a breath analyzer. Acetaldehyde in breath rose 50-fold at the 0.5-h, time point and returned to levels not significantly different from baseline values by 3-4 h. The mean peak blood ethanol values reached 0.055%. The t 1/2 elimination for ethanol was 1.6 h, and that for acetaldehyde was 2.25 h. Elimination of both acetaldehyde and ethanol in breath were initially 0 order. A significant correlation (r = 0.74) was found between baseline breath acetaldehyde levels and peak acetaldehyde levels. We conclude that acetaldehyde resulting from ethanol intake rapidly partitions into breath. The correlation of baseline breath acetaldehyde values with peak values found after an ethanol challenge indicate that measurement of breath acetaldehyde may be useful in the identification of individual differences in ethanol metabolism. PMID:1605884

  19. All High-Risk Patients Should Get Blood Pressure Meds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156395.html All High-Risk Patients Should Get Blood Pressure Meds: ... blood pressure-lowering drugs should be offered to all patients at high risk of having a heart ...

  20. Untreated High Blood Pressure Greatly Raises Risk of 'Bleeding' Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157337.html Untreated High Blood Pressure Greatly Raises Risk of 'Bleeding' Stroke Threat is ... 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with untreated high blood pressure face a much greater risk of a bleeding ...

  1. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  2. Interaction between ethanol and dextroamphetamine: effects on psychomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Perez-Reyes, M; White, W R; McDonald, S A; Hicks, R E

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between ethanol and dextroamphetamine with regard to psychomotor performance. Twelve healthy, male, paid volunteers, moderate users of ethanol and amphetamines, participated in this study. Ethanol (0.85 g/kg or placebo) was administered over a 30-min interval. Five minutes before the termination of ethanol or placebo ingestion, dextroamphetamine elixir (0.09 mg/kg, 0.18 mg/kg or placebo) diluted in 50 ml of orange juice was administered. Subjects were tested in a single-blind, latin-square, crossover design with each of the following six conditions: placebo ethanol/placebo dextroamphetamine; placebo ethanol/low-dose dextroamphetamine; placebo ethanol/high-dose dextroamphetamine; ethanol/placebo dextroamphetamine; ethanol/low-dose dextroamphetamine; and ethanol/high-dose dextroamphetamine. The variables measured in this study were: subjective rating of ethanol and dextroamphetamine intoxication, accuracy and latency of response in the Simulator Evaluation of Drug Impairment (SEDI task), blood ethanol concentration by breath analyzer, and plasma concentrations of dextroamphetamine by gas chromatography. Results indicate ethanol induced decrements in performance of the skills necessary to drive an automobile were significantly decreased by dextroamphetamine in a dose-response fashion. The administration of dextroamphetamine did not decrease the subjective ratings of ethanol intoxication. PMID:1558306

  3. Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    Farahnak, F; Seki, T; Ryu, D D; Ogrydziak, D

    1986-02-01

    The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, we have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10 to 16 x 10 mug of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10 mug of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place. PMID:16346992

  4. Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Farahnak, F.; Seki, T.; Ryu, D.D.Y.; Ogrydziak, D.

    1986-02-01

    The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, the authors have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10/sup -9/ to 16 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place.

  5. Repeated Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking Alters Ethanol Drinking Patterns and Depresses Striatal GABAergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Mark V; Carlson, Verginia C Cuzon; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2014-01-01

    Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15?min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum. PMID:23995582

  6. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... D IURETICS rid the body of excess sodium (salt) and water and help control blood pressure. B ETA BLOCKERS reduce the heart rate and the hearts output of blood, which lowers blood pressure. V ASODILATORS, ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE) INHIBITORS, ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKERS (ARBS) and ...

  7. Nitrogen Requirements for Ethanol Production from Sweet and Photoperiod Sensitive Sorghums in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorhum bicolor L.) has high water use efficiency, and is therefore widely cultivated in the Southern High Plains (SHP). Interest in sorghums for biofuel feedstock has increased recently as ethanol demand expands. Unlike grain sorghum, little data are available on N fertilizer requirements f...

  8. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1) and very high (100–200 g·L−1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials. PMID:25028956

  9. Fermentation of liquefacted hydrothermally pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse to ethanol at high-solids content.

    PubMed

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The ability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be utilized as feedstock for ethanol production at high initial dry matter concentration was investigated. In order to achieve high enzymatic hydrolysis yield, a hydrothermal pretreatment prior to liquefaction and saccharification was applied. Response surface methodology had been employed in order to optimize the pretreatment step, taking into account the yield of cellulose hydrolysis. Liquefaction of the pretreated bagasse was performed at a specially designed liquefaction chamber at 50 C for either 12 or 24h using an enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g DM and 18% DM. Fermentation of liquefacted bagasse was not affected by liquefaction duration and leaded to an ethanol production of 41.43 g/L and a volumetric productivity of 1.88 g/Lh. The addition of extra enzymes at the start up of SSF enhanced both ethanol concentration and volumetric productivity by 16% and 17% after 12 and 24h saccharification, respectively. PMID:23131642

  10. Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96%?v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Results Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30?days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Conclusions Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue. PMID:24761774

  11. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Audiences Contact The Health Information Center High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...

  12. High postnatal susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in response to ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Karina Pires; Heimfarth, Luana; Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Fernandes, Carolina Gonalves; Carvalho, Rnan Vivian; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-11-01

    Ethanol exposure to offspring during pregnancy and lactation leads to developmental disorders, including central nervous system dysfunction. In the present work, we have studied the effect of chronic ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on the phosphorylating system associated with the astrocytic and neuronal intermediate filament (IF) proteins: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) subunits of low, medium, and high molecular weight (NFL, NFM, and NFH, respectively) in 9- and 21-day-old pups. Female rats were fed with 20% ethanol in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The homeostasis of the IF phosphorylation was not altered in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, or hippocampus of 9-day-old pups. However, GFAP, NFL, and NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. PKA had been activated in the hippocampus, and Ser55 in the N-terminal region of NFL was hyperphosphorylated. In addition, JNK/MAPK was activated and KSP repeats in the C-terminal region of NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. Decreased NFH immunocontent but an unaltered total NFH/phosphoNFH ratio suggested altered stoichiometry of NFs in the hippocampus of ethanol-exposed 21-day-old pups. In contrast to the high susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in developing rats, the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of ethanol-fed adult females was not altered. Disruption of the cytoskeletal homeostasis in neural cells supports the view that regions of the brain are differentially vulnerable to alcohol insult during pregnancy and lactation, suggesting that modulation of JNK/MAPK and PKA signaling cascades target the hippocampal cytoskeleton in a window of vulnerability in 21-day-old pups. Our findings are relevant, since disruption of the cytoskeleton in immature hippocampus could contribute to later hippocampal damage associated with ethanol toxicity. PMID:26314629

  13. ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER ADSORPTION FROM BINARY AND TERNARY LIQUID MIXTURES ON HIGH-SILICA ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

  14. Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.410.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production cost reductions almost independently of each other. PMID:18471311

  15. Porous single-crystalline palladium nanoflowers with enriched {100} facets for highly enhanced ethanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Kun; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2014-12-21

    Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black. PMID:25370157

  16. High-temperature ethanol fermentation by immobilized coculture of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eiadpum, Akekasit; Limtong, Savitree; Phisalaphong, Muenduen

    2012-09-01

    Suspended and immobilized cocultures of the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042 and the mesophilic flocculent yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae M30 were studied for their abilities to improve production and stability of ethanol fermentation. Sugarcane juice and blackstrap molasses, at initial sugar concentrations of 220 g/L, were used as carbon sources. The results indicated that the coculture system could improve ethanol production from both sugarcane juice and blackstrap molasses when the operating temperature ranged between 33 C and 45 C. High temperature tolerances were achieved when the coculture was immobilized. The immobilized coculture was more effective in high-temperature ethanol fermentation than the suspended cultures. The coculture immobilized on thin-shell silk cocoon and fermented at 37 C and 40 C generated maximal ethanol concentrations of 81.4 and 77.3 g/L, respectively, which were 5.9-8.7% and 16.8-39.0% higher than those of the suspended cultures, respectively. PMID:22608995

  17. Robust industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for very high gravity bio-ethanol fermentations.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco B; Guimares, Pedro M R; Teixeira, Jos A; Domingues, Luclia

    2011-08-01

    The application and physiological background of two industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from harsh industrial environments, were studied in Very High Gravity (VHG) bio-ethanol fermentations. VHG laboratory fermentations, mimicking industrially relevant conditions, were performed with PE-2 and CA1185 industrial strains and the CEN.PK113-7D laboratory strain. The industrial isolates produced remarkable high ethanol titres (>19%, v/v) and accumulated an increased content of sterols (2 to 5-fold), glycogen (2 to 4-fold) and trehalose (1.1-fold), relatively to laboratory strain. For laboratory and industrial strains, a sharp decrease in the viability and trehalose concentration was observed above 90 g l? and 140 g l? ethanol, respectively. PE-2 and CA1185 industrial strains presented important physiological differences relatively to CEN.PK113-7D strain and showed to be more prepared to cope with VHG stresses. The identification of a critical ethanol concentration above which viability and trehalose concentration decrease significantly is of great importance to guide VHG process engineering strategies. This study contributes to the improvement of VHG processes by identifying yeast isolates and gathering yeast physiological information during the intensified fermentation process, which, besides elucidating important differences between these industrial and laboratory strains, can drive further process optimization. PMID:21543257

  18. Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Contreras, Mayeli; Aguilar-Zamarripa, Edna; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Escamilla-García, Erandi; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio Othon

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P) and high gravity (20°P) worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI) was higher (9.8 percentage units) and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units) compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN), pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency. PMID:25530885

  19. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells of the body where it can ... nausea and/or vomiting fruity breath odor rapid, deep breathing confusion unconsciousness ("diabetic coma") Checking for DKA ...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pumps blood into the arteries and through the circulatory system, and the other is from the arteries as ... with the kidneys (most commonly), lungs, heart, or circulatory system. These problems can include bronchopulmonary dysplasia , an immaturity ...

  1. Interaction between ethanol and calcium channel blockers in humans.

    PubMed

    Perez-Reyes, M; White, W R; Hicks, R E

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that pretreatment with Ca2+ channel blockers would antagonize the effects of ethanol intoxication in humans. The Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine were chosen because preclinical research has shown them to decrease certain behavioral effects of ethanol in animals. Sixteen healthy, male, paid volunteers, moderate users of ethanol, participated in the study (six in the verapamil and 10 in the nifedipine paradigms). Gelatin capsules containing verapamil (80 mg, 160 mg, or placebo) were administered orally 90 min before ethanol ingestion; whereas, gelatin capsules containing nifedipine (10 mg, 20 mg, or placebo) were administered 30 min before ethanol ingestion. Ethanol (0.85 g/kg or placebo) was administered over a 30-min interval. Subjects were tested in a single-blind, latin-square, cross-over design with each of the following six conditions: placebo ethanol-placebo blocker, placebo ethanol-low dose blocker, placebo ethanol-high dose blocker, ethanol-placebo blocker, ethanol-low dose blocker, and ethanol-high dose blocker. The variables measured in this study were subjective rating of ethanol intoxication, Addiction Research Center Inventory alcohol scale, heart rate, blood pressure, short-term memory, accuracy and latency of response in the Simulator Evaluation of Drug Impairment task, and blood ethanol concentrations by breath analyzer. Results indicate that pretreatment with either verapamil or nifedipine failed to antagonize the inebriating effects of ethanol including its decremental effects on short-term memory and psychomotor performance. PMID:1530141

  2. Impact of reformulated ethanol-gasoline blends on high-emitting vehicles.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Daz, L; Gonzlez, Uriel

    2013-01-01

    In-use vehicles which are high emitters (HEVs) make a large contribution to the emissions inventory. It is not known, however, whether HEVs share common emissions characteristics, and particularly the effect of ethanol blends. We study this by first examining laboratory measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions on ethanol blends containing 21%, 26% and 30% aromatics, and a reference fuel formulated with methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Switching from MTBE to ethanol fuels on HEVs shows no effect on the total emissions of regulated pollutants, but 1,3-butadiene emissions would increased substantially while the emissions of total carbonyls would not be affected except in the case of acetaldehyde, which would increase with EtOH. The ozone-forming potential of exhaust and evaporative emissions would be less using the EtOH blends and specific reactivity will not be incremented. Lowering the vapour pressure of the gasoline and increasing the proportions of alkylate and isomerate in the composition produces an ethanol-blended fuel with lower environmental impact both in normal vehicles and HEVs. PMID:23837342

  3. Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups

    SciTech Connect

    Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet.

  4. High temperature stimulates acetic acid accumulation and enhances the growth inhibition and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermenting conditions.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ji-Min; Yang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Sae-Um; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    2014-07-01

    Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high temperatures of up to 42C during ethanol fermentation at a high glucose concentration (i.e., 100g/L) were investigated. Increased temperature correlated with stimulated glucose uptake to produce not only the thermal protectant glycerol but also ethanol and acetic acid. Carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle correlated positively with cultivation temperature. These results indicate that the increased demand for energy (in the form of ATP), most likely caused by multiple stressors, including heat, acetic acid, and ethanol, was matched by both the fermentation and respiration pathways. Notably, acetic acid production was substantially stimulated compared to that of other metabolites during growth at increased temperature. The acetic acid produced in addition to ethanol seemed to subsequently result in adverse effects, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, appeared to cause the specific growth rate, and glucose uptake rate reduced leading to a decrease of the specific ethanol production rate far before glucose depletion. These results suggest that adverse effects from heat, acetic acid, ethanol, and oxidative stressors are synergistic, resulting in a decrease of the specific growth rate and ethanol production rate and, hence, are major determinants of cell stability and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. The results are discussed in the context of possible applications. PMID:24706214

  5. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jrgensen, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact. PMID:25299491

  6. Alcoholic fatty liver in rats: Role of fat and ethanol intake

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W. ); Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. )

    1991-03-11

    The claim that high intake of both ethanol and fat is essential to induce fatty liver and high blood alcohol levels (BAL) was tested. Two groups of rats were fed liquid diets containing 26% and 36% of calories as ethanol respectively. After 4 weeks, all rats were bled for BAL and some were sacrificed to obtain liver morphology. Remaining rats in Group 1 (26% ethanol) were switched to 36% ethanol diet and Group 2 (36% ethanol) to 26% ethanol diet. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks to obtain blood for BAL and liver morphology. The results indicate that high ethanol intake and high fat ingestion is not the criterion for induction of fatty liver. Inadequate ingestion of macronutrients plays a major role in alcoholic fatty liver and BAL.

  7. Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, A. Joe; Podkaminer, Kara K.; Desai, Sunil G.; Bardsley, John S.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Thorne, Philip G.; Hogsett, David A.; Lynd, Lee R.

    2008-01-01

    We report engineering Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments xylan and biomass-derived sugars, to produce ethanol at high yield. Knockout of genes involved in organic acid formation (acetate kinase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase) resulted in a strain able to produce ethanol as the only detectable organic product and substantial changes in electron flow relative to the wild type. Ethanol formation in the engineered strain (ALK2) utilizes pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase with electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(P), a pathway different from that in previously described microbes with a homoethanol fermentation. The homoethanologenic phenotype was stable for >150 generations in continuous culture. The growth rate of strain ALK2 was similar to the wild-type strain, with a reduction in cell yield proportional to the decreased ATP availability resulting from acetate kinase inactivation. Glucose and xylose are co-utilized and utilization of mannose and arabinose commences before glucose and xylose are exhausted. Using strain ALK2 in simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation experiments at 50°C allows a 2.5-fold reduction in cellulase loading compared with using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 37°C. The maximum ethanol titer produced by strain ALK2, 37 g/liter, is the highest reported thus far for a thermophilic anaerobe, although further improvements are desired and likely possible. Our results extend the frontier of metabolic engineering in thermophilic hosts, have the potential to significantly lower the cost of cellulosic ethanol production, and support the feasibility of further cost reductions through engineering a diversity of host organisms. PMID:18779592

  8. Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update.

    PubMed

    Puligundla, Pradeep; Smogrovicova, Daniela; Obulam, Vijaya Sarathi Reddy; Ko, Sanghoon

    2011-09-01

    There have been numerous developments in ethanol fermentation technology since the beginning of the new millennium as ethanol has become an immediate viable alternative to fast-depleting crude reserves as well as increasing concerns over environmental pollution. Nowadays, although most research efforts are focused on the conversion of cheap cellulosic substrates to ethanol, methods that are cost-competitive with gasoline production are still lacking. At the same time, the ethanol industry has engaged in implementing potential energy-saving, productivity and efficiency-maximizing technologies in existing production methods to become more viable. Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is an emerging, versatile one among such technologies offering great savings in process water and energy requirements through fermentation of higher concentrations of sugar substrate and, therefore, increased final ethanol concentration in the medium. The technology also allows increased fermentation efficiency, without major alterations to existing facilities, by efficient utilization of fermentor space and elimination of known losses. This comprehensive research update on VHG technology is presented in two main sections, namely VHG brewing, wherein the effects of nutrients supplementation, yeast pitching rate, flavour compound synthesis and foam stability under increased wort gravities are discussed; and VHG bioethanol fermentation studies. In the latter section, aspects related to the role of osmoprotectants and nutrients in yeast stress reduction, substrates utilized/tested so far, including saccharide (glucose, sucrose, molasses, etc.) and starchy materials (wheat, corn, barley, oats, etc.), and mash viscosity issues in VHG bioethanol production are detailed. Thereafter, topics common to both areas such as process optimization studies, mutants and gene level studies, immobilized yeast applications, temperature effect, reserve carbohydrates profile in yeast, and economic aspects are discussed and future prospects are summarized. PMID:21695540

  9. Ru-assisted synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites with high activity for ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Bin, Duan; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Caiqin; Ren, Fangfang; Du, Yukou

    2015-07-01

    Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium, which are mainly ascribed to the synergetic effect between Pd and Ru. This indicates that the Pd7/Ru1 catalysts should have great potential applications in direct ethanol fuel cells.Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium, which are mainly ascribed to the synergetic effect between Pd and Ru. This indicates that the Pd7/Ru1 catalysts should have great potential applications in direct ethanol fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02713f

  10. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stored fat instead in an attempt to provide fuel to hungry cells. Feeling tired: Because the body can't use ... blood and can't get into the body's cells to be used for energy. This can ... body can't use glucose for fuel, it starts to use fat. When this happens, ...

  11. Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF PREGNANCY ON ETHANOL CLEARANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the effects of pregnancy on ethanol clearance rates and on blood and urine ethanol concentrations (BECs and UECs) in adult Sprague–Dawley rats infused with ethanol intragastrically. Pregnant rats had greater ethanol clearance following an intragastric or intravenous ethanol bolus (3 ...

  13. Combined process for ethanol fermentation at high-solids loading and biogas digestion from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Lv, Zhe; Du, Jiliang; Mo, Chunling; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen

    2014-08-01

    A combined process was designed for the co-production of ethanol and methane from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover. A terminal ethanol titer of 69.8 g/kg mass weight (72.5%) was achieved when the fed-batch mode was performed at a final solids loading of 35.5% (w/w) dry matter (DM) content. The whole stillage from high-solids ethanol fermentation was directly transferred in a 3-L anaerobic digester. During 52-day single-stage digester operation, the methane productivity was 320 mL CH₄/g volatile solids (VS) with a maximum VS reduction efficiency of 55.3%. The calculated overall product yield was 197 g ethanol + 96 g methane/kg corn stover. This indicated that the combined process was able to improve overall content utilization and extract a greater yield of lignocellulosic biomass compared to ethanol fermentation alone. PMID:24926600

  14. Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688g/g/h with 92% theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same. PMID:24682264

  15. Ethanol-Induced ADH Activity in Zebrafish: Differential Concentration-Dependent Effects on High- Versus Low-Affinity ADH Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Facciol, Amanda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish express enzymes that metabolize ethanol in a manner comparable to that of mammals, including humans. We previously demonstrated that acute ethanol exposure increases alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent manner. It was hypothesized that the biphasic dose-response was due to the increased activity of a high-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to low concentrations of ethanol and increased activity of a low-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol. To test this hypothesis, we exposed zebrafish to different concentrations of ethanol (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0% v/v) for 30 min and measured the total ADH activity in the zebrafish liver. However, we also repeated this enzyme activity assay using a low concentration of the substrate (ethanol) to determine the activity of high-affinity ADH isoforms. We found that total ADH activity in response to ethanol induces an inverted U-shaped dose-response similar to our previous study. Using a lower substrate level in our enzyme assay targeting high-affinity isozymes, we found a similar dose-response. However, the difference in activity between the high and low substrate assays (high substrate activity - low substrate activity), which provide an index of activity for low-affinity ADH isoforms, revealed no significant effect of ethanol exposure. Our results suggest that the inverted U-shaped dose-response for total ADH activity in response to ethanol is driven primarily by high-affinity isoforms of ADH. PMID:26741829

  16. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  17. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and arteries is called whole blood . Whole blood contains three types of blood cells: red blood cells ... fluid called plasma . Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood ...

  18. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnancy (Arabic) ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood ... Pregnancy Visok krvni pritisak u trudno?i - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) High ...

  19. A highly sensitive ethanol sensor based on mesoporous ZnOSnO2 nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhaojie; Liu, Yongben; Wang, Ce; Li, Lijuan

    2009-01-01

    A facile and versatile method for the large-scale synthesis of sensitive mesoporous ZnOSnO2 (m-ZS) nanofibers through a combination of surfactant-directed assembly and an electrospinning approach is reported. The morphology and the structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorptiondesorption isotherm analysis. The results showed that the diameters of fibers ranged from 100 to 150 nm with mixed structures of wurtzite (ZnO) and rutile (SnO2), and a mesoporous structure was observed in the m-ZS nanofibers. The sensor performance of the prepared m-ZS nanofibers was measured for ethanol. It is found that the mesoporous fiber film obtained exhibited excellent ethanol sensing properties, such as high sensitivity, quick response and recovery, good reproducibility, and linearity in the range 3500 ppm. PMID:19417420

  20. Ru-assisted synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites with high activity for ethanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Bin, Duan; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Caiqin; Ren, Fangfang; Du, Yukou

    2015-08-01

    Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium, which are mainly ascribed to the synergetic effect between Pd and Ru. This indicates that the Pd7/Ru1 catalysts should have great potential applications in direct ethanol fuel cells. PMID:26135381

  1. Highly Sensitive and Selective Ethanol Sensor Fabricated with In-Doped 3DOM ZnO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihua; Tian, Ziwei; Han, Dongmei; Gu, Fubo

    2016-03-01

    ZnO is an important n-type semiconductor sensing material. Currently, much attention has been attracted to finding an effective method to prepare ZnO nanomaterials with high sensing sensitivity and excellent selectivity. A three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) ZnO nanostructure with a large surface area is beneficial to gas and electron transfer, which can enhance the gas sensitivity of ZnO. Indium (In) doping is an effective way to improve the sensing properties of ZnO. In this paper, In-doped 3DOM ZnO with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity has been synthesized by using a colloidal crystal templating method. The 3DOM ZnO with 5 at. % of In-doping exhibits the highest sensitivity (∼88) to 100 ppm ethanol at 250 °C, which is approximately 3 times higher than that of pure 3DOM ZnO. The huge improvement to the sensitivity to ethanol was attributed to the increase in the surface area and the electron carrier concentration. The doping by In introduces more electrons into the matrix, which is helpful for increasing the amount of adsorbed oxygen, leading to high sensitivity. The In-doped 3DOM ZnO is a promising material for a new type of ethanol sensor. PMID:26844815

  2. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials at high temperature using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displaying cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yanase, Shuhei; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Yamada, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2010-09-01

    To exploit cellulosic materials for fuel ethanol production, a microorganism capable of high temperature and simultaneous saccharification-fermentation has been required. However, a major drawback is the optimum temperature for the saccharification and fermentation. Most ethanol-fermenting microbes have an optimum temperature for ethanol fermentation ranging between 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C, while the activity of cellulolytic enzymes is highest at around 50 degrees C and significantly decreases with a decrease in temperature. Therefore, in the present study, a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, which has high growth and fermentation at elevated temperatures, was used as a producer of ethanol from cellulose. The strain was genetically engineered to display Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase and Aspergillus aculeatus beta-glucosidase on the cell surface, which successfully converts a cellulosic beta-glucan to ethanol directly at 48 degrees C with a yield of 4.24 g/l from 10 g/l within 12 h. The yield (in grams of ethanol produced per gram of beta-glucan consumed) was 0.47 g/g, which corresponds to 92.2% of the theoretical yield. This indicates that high-temperature cellulose fermentation to ethanol can be efficiently accomplished using a recombinant K. marxianus strain displaying thermostable cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface. PMID:20676628

  3. High ethanol productivity from lactose by immobilized cells of Kluyveromyces fragilis and Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, P; Kamini, N R

    1991-09-01

    Ethanol production from 200 g lactose/l by Kluyveromyces fragilis immobilized in calcium alginate was 63 g/l whereas with co-immobilized K. fragilis and Zymomonas mobilis 72 g ethanol/l was attained. With free cells of K. fragilis, only 52 g ethanol/l was obtained. The beads were relatively stable without significant reduction in activity for about six batches of fermentation. PMID:24425196

  4. Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing. PMID:23382943

  5. Cellulases without carbohydrate-binding modules in high consistency ethanol production process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enzymes still comprise a major part of ethanol production costs from lignocellulose raw materials. Irreversible binding of enzymes to the residual substrate prevents their reuse and no efficient methods for recycling of enzymes have so far been presented. Cellulases without a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) have been found to act efficiently at high substrate consistencies and to remain non-bound after the hydrolysis. Results High hydrolysis yields could be obtained with thermostable enzymes of Thermoascus aurantiacus containing only two main cellulases: cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), Cel7A and endoglucanase II (EG II), Cel5A. The yields were decreased by only about 10% when using these cellulases without CBM. A major part of enzymes lacking CBM was non-bound during the most active stage of hydrolysis and in spite of this, produced high sugar yields. Complementation of the two cellulases lacking CBM with CBH II (CtCel6A) improved the hydrolysis. Cellulases without CBM were more sensitive during exposure to high ethanol concentration than the enzymes containing CBM. Enzymes lacking CBM could be efficiently reused leading to a sugar yield of 90% of that with fresh enzymes. The applicability of cellulases without CBM was confirmed under industrial ethanol production conditions at high (25% dry matter (DM)) consistency. Conclusions The results clearly show that cellulases without CBM can be successfully used in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose at high consistency, and that this approach could provide new means for better recyclability of enzymes. This paper provides new insight into the efficient action of CBM-lacking cellulases. The relationship of binding and action of cellulases without CBM at high DM consistency should, however, be studied in more detail. PMID:24559384

  6. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stroke More High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug 13,2015 What do blood pressure and the rhythm of your heart have to do with stroke risk? Plenty. Consider this: About three out of four ...

  7. Prenatal ethanol increases sucrose reinforcement, an effect strengthened by postnatal association of ethanol and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Culler, Marcela Elena; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Late prenatal exposure to ethanol recruits sensory processing of the drug and of its motivational properties, an experience that leads to heightened ethanol affinity. Recent studies indicate common sensory and neurobiological substrates between this drug and sweet tastants. Using a recently developed operant conditioning technique for infant rats, we examined the effects of prenatal ethanol history upon sucrose self-administration (postnatal days, PDs 14-17). Prior to the last conditioning session, a low (0.5g/kg) or a high (2.5g/kg) ethanol dose were paired with sucrose. The intention was to determine if ethanol would inflate or devalue the reinforcing capability of the tastant and if these effects are dependent upon prenatal ethanol history. Male and female pups prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0g/kg) responded more when reinforced with sucrose than pups lacking this antenatal experience. Independently of prenatal status, a low ethanol dose (0.5g/kg) enhanced the reinforcing capability of sucrose while the highest dose (2.5g/kg) seemed to ameliorate the motivational properties of the tastant. During extinction (PD 18), two factors were critical in determining persistence of responding despite reinforcement omission. Pups prenatally exposed to ethanol that subsequently experienced the low ethanol dose paired with sucrose, showed higher resistance to extinction. The effects here reported were not associated with differential blood alcohol levels across prenatal treatments. These results indicate that fetal ethanol experience promotes affinity for a natural sweet reinforcer and that low doses of ethanol are also capable of enhancing the positive motivational consequences of sucrose when ethanol and sucrose are paired during infancy. PMID:24398347

  8. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    PubMed

    Cannella, David; Jrgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy. PMID:24022674

  9. Gene expression cross-profiling in genetically modified industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during high-temperature ethanol production from xylose.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-01-10

    Production of ethanol from xylose at high temperature would be an economical approach since it reduces risk of contamination and allows both the saccharification and fermentation steps in SSF to be running at elevated temperature. Eight recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains developed from industrial strains were constructed and subjected to high-temperature fermentation at 38 C. The best performing strain was sun049T, which produced up to 15.2 g/L ethanol (63% of the theoretical production), followed by sun048T and sun588T, both with 14.1 g/L ethanol produced. Via transcriptomic analysis, expression profiling of the top three best ethanol producing strains compared to a negative control strain, sun473T, led to the discovery of genes in common that were regulated in the same direction. Identification of the 20 most highly up-regulated and the 20 most highly down-regulated genes indicated that the cells regulate their central metabolism and maintain the integrity of the cell walls in response to high temperature. We also speculate that cross-protection in the cells occurs, allowing them to maintain ethanol production at higher concentration under heat stress than the negative controls. This report provides further transcriptomics information in the interest of producing a robust microorganism for high-temperature ethanol production utilizing xylose. PMID:23131464

  10. Highly Selective Formation of n-Butanol from Ethanol through the Guerbet Process: A Tandem Catalytic Approach.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sumit; Piszel, Paige E; Hayes, Cassandra E; Baker, R Tom; Jones, William D

    2015-11-18

    A highly selective (>99%) tandem catalytic system for the conversion of ethanol (up to 37%) to n-butanol, through the Guerbet process, has been developed using a bifunctional iridium catalyst coupled with bulky nickel or copper hydroxides. These sterically crowded nickel and copper hydroxides catalyze the key aldol coupling reaction of acetaldehyde to exclusively yield the C4 coupling product, crotonaldehyde. Iridium-mediated dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde has led to the development of an ethanol-to-butanol process operated at a lower temperature. PMID:26526779

  11. Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

    2015-03-18

    Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPAR? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1?, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3? in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. PMID:25549548

  12. Porous single-crystalline palladium nanoflowers with enriched {100} facets for highly enhanced ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Kun; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2014-11-01

    Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black.Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05761a

  13. Contribution of the stomach to ethanol oxidation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Caballeria, J.; Baraona, E.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-08-24

    To estimate the amount of ethanol that can be oxidized in the stomach, steady-state conditions were created in a group of fed rats by giving a loading dose of ethanol (2 g/kg body wt I.V.) followed by continuous infusion either intravenously or intragastrically. The rate of ethanol oxidation was calculated from the rate of infusion required to maintain steady blood levels of approximately 30 mM for at least 3 hours. Gastrointestinal ethanol concentrations and total contents also remained steady. The rate of ethanol oxidation was 19.3% faster during intragastric than during intravenous infusion (p<0.01). When measured at the prevailing luminal ethanol concentration (145 mM) and expressed per body weight, the gastric ADH activity represented 14% of the hepatic activity at 30 mM ethanol, suggesting that gastric ADH activity could account for most of the increased rate of oxidation when ethanol is given intragastrically. Thus, gastric ethanol oxidation by a high Km ADH in the rat represents a significant fraction of the total rate of ethanol oxidation and it is therefore one of the factors which determines the bioavailability of orally administered ethanol. 22 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  14. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... ED, Gaziano JM, Greenland P. Recommendations for treating hypertension: what are the right goals and purposes? JAMA . ...

  15. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead to heart failure? HBP damages the entire circulatory system. "Heart failure" is the term used for a ... body. High blood pressure damages the entire complex circulatory system. As mentioned above, HBP creates conditions for blocked ...

  16. Changes in lymphocyte subsets and macrophage functions from high, short-term dietary ethanol in C57/BL6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Abril, E.; Smith, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic administration of a diet containing 7% ethanol (36% of total calories) for 8 days to male C57/BL6 mice resulted in significant changes in functioning of macrophages. Peritoneal exudate macrophages from the ethanol-fed mice released more tumor cell cytotoxic materials upon culturing in vitro than cells from controls. However, peritoneal exudate cells continued to respond to exogenous beta carotene in vitro to produce additional cytotoxic materials. Phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells in vitro was suppressed in cells from ethanol treated mice. The number of splenic lymphocytes of various subsets was significantly changed by the ethanol exposure. Total T cells and T suppressor cells were lower, with a significant decrease in B cells containing IgM on their surface. The percentage of spleen cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced. It is concluded that short-term chronic consumption of dietary ethanol, which was sufficient to produce physical dependence, results in significant alterations in lymphocyte subtypes and suppression of some macrophage functions.

  17. Rat muscle blood flows during high-speed locomotion

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, R.B.; Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-10-01

    We previously studied blood flow distribution within and among rat muscles as a function of speed from walking (15 m/min) through galloping (75 m/min) on a motor-driven treadmill. The results showed that muscle blood flows continued to increase as a function of speed through 75 m/min. The purpose of the present study was to have rats run up to maximal treadmill speeds to determine if blood flows in the muscles reach a plateau as a function of running speed over the animals normal range of locomotory speeds. Muscle blood flows were measured with radiolabeled microspheres at 1 min of running at 75, 90, and 105 m/min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The data indicate that even at these relatively high treadmill speeds there was still no clear evidence of a plateau in blood flow in most of the hindlimb muscles. Flows in most muscles continued to increase as a function of speed. These observed patterns of blood flow vs. running speed may have resulted from the rigorous selection of rats that were capable of performing the high-intensity exercise and thus only be representative of a highly specific population of animals. On the other hand, the data could be interpreted to indicate that the cardiovascular potential during exercise is considerably higher in laboratory rats than has normally been assumed and that inadequate blood flow delivery to the muscles does not serve as a major limitation to their locomotory performance.

  18. Hierarchical Pd-Sn Alloy Nanosheet Dendrites: An Economical and Highly Active Catalyst for Ethanol Electrooxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures. PMID:23383368

  19. Ethanol-induced c-Fos expression in rat lines selected for low and high alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Thiele, T E; van Dijk, G; Bernstein, I L

    1997-05-01

    Selectively bred rat lines, developed to model genetic contributions to alcohol abuse, include the Indiana alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) lines, and the Alko-Alcohol (AA) and Alko-Nonalcohol (ANA) lines. Preferring and nonpreferring lines were compared in their response to intraperitoneal injection of either ethanol or isotonic saline using c-Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activity. Although line differences were noted in several brain regions, the principal finding was that alcohol-nonpreferring lines (NP and ANA) displayed greater c-Fos expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) relative to the alcohol-preferring lines (P and AA) following injection of 3.0 g ethanol/kg. These data point to the LC as an area which may play a role in the differences in voluntary ethanol consumption between rat lines genetically bred for low and high ethanol preference. PMID:9187343

  20. Optimization of low-cost medium for very high gravity ethanol fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using statistical experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco B; Guimares, Pedro M R; Teixeira, Jos A; Domingues, Luclia

    2010-10-01

    Statistical experimental designs were used to develop a medium based on corn steep liquor (CSL) and other low-cost nutrient sources for high-performance very high gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The critical nutrients were initially selected according to a Plackett-Burman design and the optimized medium composition (44.3 g/L CSL; 2.3 g/L urea; 3.8 g/L MgSO?7H?O; 0.03 g/L CuSO?5H?O) for maximum ethanol production by the laboratory strain CEN.PK 113-7D was obtained by response surface methodology, based on a three-level four-factor Box-Behnken design. The optimization process resulted in significantly enhanced final ethanol titre, productivity and yeast viability in batch VHG fermentations (up to 330 g/L glucose) with CEN.PK113-7D and with industrial strain PE-2, which is used for bio-ethanol production in Brazil. Strain PE-2 was able to produce 18.60.5% (v/v) ethanol with a corresponding productivity of 2.40.1g/L/h. This study provides valuable insights into cost-effective nutritional supplementation of industrial fuel ethanol VHG fermentations. PMID:20627715

  1. High stable suspension of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol by using sono-synthesized nanomagnetite in polyol medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Entezari, Mohammad H.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out in EG without any surfactant. • The nanoparticles with sizes ∼24 nm were composed of small building blocks with sizes ∼2 nm. • The hydrophilic magnetite nanoparticles were stable in ethanol even after 8 months. • Ultrasonic intensity showed a crucial role on the obtained high stable magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol. - Abstract: The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out at relatively low temperature (80 °C) in ethylene glycol (EG) as a polyol solvent. The particle size was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 24 nm were composed of small building blocks with an average size of 2–3 nm and the particles exhibited nearly spherical shape. The surface characterization was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The stability of magnetite nanoparticles was studied in ethanol as a polar solvent. The nanoparticles showed an enhanced stability in ethanol which is due to the hydrophilic surface of the particles. The colloidal stability of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol was monitored by UV–visible spectrophotometer. According to the results, the nanoparticles synthesized in 30 min of sonication with intensity of 35 W/cm{sup 2} (50%) led to a maximum stability in ethanol as a polar solvent with respect to the other applied intensities. The obtained magnetite nanoparticles were stable for more than12 months.

  2. Synergistic ablation of liver tissue and liver cancer cells with high-intensity focused ultrasound and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nguyen H; Murad, Hakm Y; Ratnayaka, Sithira H; Chen, Chong; Khismatullin, Damir B

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the combined effect of ethanol and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), first, on heating and cavitation bubble activity in tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine liver tissues and, second, on the viability of HepG2 liver cancer cells. Phantoms or porcine tissues were injected with ethanol and then subjected to HIFU at acoustic power ranging from 1.2 to 20.5 W (HIFU levels 1-7). Cavitation events and the temperature around the focal zone were measured with a passive cavitation detector and embedded type K thermocouples, respectively. HepG2 cells were subjected to 4% ethanol solution in growth medium (v/v) just before the cells were exposed to HIFU at 2.7, 8.7 or 12.0 W for 30 s. Cell viability was measured 2, 24 and 72 h post-treatment. The results indicate that ethanol and HIFU have a synergistic effect on liver cancer ablation as manifested by greater temperature rise and lesion volume in liver tissues and reduced viability of liver cancer cells. This effect is likely caused by reduction of the cavitation threshold in the presence of ethanol and the increased rate of ethanol diffusion through the cell membrane caused by HIFU-induced streaming, sonoporation and heating. PMID:24798386

  3. Cell recycling during repeated very high gravity bio-ethanol fermentations using the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco B; Gomes, Daniel G; Guimares, Pedro M R; Teixeira, Jos A; Domingues, Luclia

    2012-01-01

    A very high gravity (VHG) repeated-batch fermentation system using an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 (isolated from sugarcane-to-ethanol distillery in Brazil) and mimicking industrially relevant conditions (high inoculation rates and low O(2) availability) was successfully operated during fifteen consecutive fermentation cycles, attaining ethanol at 17.1 0.2% (v/v) with a batch productivity of 3.5 0.04 g l(-1) h(-1). Moreover, this innovative operational strategy (biomass refreshing step) prevented critical decreases on yeast viability levels and promoted high accumulation of intracellular glycerol and trehalose, which can provide an adaptive advantage to yeast cells under harsh industrial environments. This study contributes to the improvement of VHG fermentation processes by exploring an innovative operational strategy that allows attaining very high ethanol titres without a critical decrease of the viability level thus minimizing the production costs due to energy savings during the distillation process. PMID:21898130

  4. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance improvement was measured for this vehicle, which achieved near volumetric fuel economy parity on the aggressive US06 drive cycle, demonstrating the potential for improved fuel economy in forthcoming downsized, downsped engines with high-octane fuels.

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 stress response during high-temperature ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-03-01

    Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 Stress Response during High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

  7. Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2000-07-01

    This report updates the 1990 "National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy" and focuses on classification, pathophysiologic features, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Through a combination of evidence-based medicine and consensus this report updates contemporary approaches to hypertension control during pregnancy by expanding on recommendations made in "The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure." The recommendations to use Korotkoff phase V for determination of diastolic pressure and to eliminate edema as a criterion for diagnosing preeclampsia are discussed. In addition, the use as a diagnostic criterion of blood pressure increases of 30 mm Hg systolic or 15 mm Hg diastolic with blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg has not been recommended, because available evidence shows that women with blood pressures fitting this description are not more likely to have adverse outcomes. Management distinctions are made between chronic hypertension that is present before pregnancy and hypertension that occurs as part of the pregnancy-specific condition of preeclampsia, as well as management considerations for women with comorbid conditions. A discussion of the pharmacologic treatment of hypertension during pregnancy includes recommendations for specific agents. The use of low-dose aspirin, calcium, or other dietary supplements in the prevention of preeclampsia is described, and expanded sections on counseling women for future pregnancies and recommendations for future research are included. PMID:10920346

  8. Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

    1995-01-01

    Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

  9. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  10. High Pressure Equation of State Studies Using Ethanol-Methanol And Argon As Pressure Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwal, B. K.; Speziale, S.; Clark, S.; Yan, J.; Jeanloz, R.

    2008-12-01

    Experimental high pressure studies are extremely important to planetary science, material science and to the development of condensed matter theory. With experimental difficulties in creating the extreme pressure temperature conditions appropriate to planetary interiors, the approach used is to obtain the thermodynamic data on materials of interest by extrapolating the condensed matter theory which has been benchmarked with the outcome of high pressure experiments to the available high pressures. However the high pressure data used to match the theory heavily depends on the use of pressure media; like ethanol-methanol, silicon oil, argon and helium. Unfortunately still there exist controversy in the literature even with the use of helium as pressure medium as illustrated by the unsettled debate on Zn and Os among different groups. We have measured the equation of state of intermetallic compound AuIn2 and Cd0.8Hg0.2 alloy using ethanol-methanol and argon to the pressure of 20 GPa to confirm the appearance of anomalies in the data due to occurrence of subtle electronic phase transitions. However these anomalies can also be attributed to oriented lattice strains and local non-hydrostatic conditions. We have tried to remove these at room temperature by stabilizing the sample in argon medium in the diamond anvil cell with proper annealing as indicated by the uniformity of the pressure across the sample by ruby fluorescence measurements. We will present the data revealing the electronic transition in AuIn2 at 2.7 GPa and in Cd0.8Hg0.2 near 9 and 18 GPa.

  11. Production of fuel ethanol and methane from garbage by high-efficiency two-stage fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Koike, Yoji; An, Ming-Zhe; Tang, Yue-Qin; Syo, Tomohiro; Osaka, Noriko; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2009-12-01

    A two-stage fermentation process, consisting of a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) stage and a dry methane fermentation stage, was developed to utilize garbage for the production of fuel ethanol and methane. Garbage from families, canteens and concessionaires was used for the study. Saccharification method was studied and the results indicated that the liquefaction pretreatment and the combination of cellulase and glucoamylase was effective for polysaccharide hydrolysis of family garbage with a high content of holocellulose and that SSF was suitable for ethanol fermentation of garbage. Ethanol productivity could be markedly increased from 1.7 to 7.0 g/l/h by repeated-batch SSF of family garbage. A high ethanol productivity of 17.7 g/l/h was achieved when canteen garbage was used. The stillage after distillation was treated by dry methane fermentation and the results indicated that the stillage was almost fully digested and that about 850 ml of biogas was recovered from 1 g of volatile total solid (VTS). Approximately 85% of the energy of the garbage was converted to fuels, ethanol and methane by this process. PMID:19914584

  12. Effects of the pretreatment method on high solids enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of the cellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luiza Helena da Silva; Rabelo, Sarita Cândida; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse at high solids loadings in the pretreatment (20-40% w/v) and hydrolysis (10-20% w/v) stages. The best conditions for diluted sulfuric acid, AHP and Ox-B pretreatments were determined and mass balances including pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation were calculated. From a technical point of view, the best pretreatment was AHP, which enabled the production of glucose concentrations near 8% with high productivity (3.27 g/Lh), as well as ethanol production from 100.9 to 135.4 kg ethanol/ton raw bagasse. However, reagent consumption for acid pretreatment was much lower. Furthermore, for processes that use pentoses and hexoses separately, this pretreatment produces the most desirable pentoses liquor, with higher xylose concentration in the monomeric form. PMID:26004382

  13. A high performance membrane for sorption and pervaporation separation of ethyl tert-butyl ether and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, G.S.; Niang, M.; Schaetzel, P.

    1999-02-01

    A new kind of membrane was prepared by blending 5 wt% poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-acrylic acid) with cellulose acetate propionate for the separation of ethyl tert-butyl ether and ethanol mixtures. The membrane properties were evaluated by pervaporation and sorption of mixtures of ethyl tert-butyl ether/ethanol. The experimental results show that the selectivity and the fluxes of this membrane depend upon the feed composition and upon the temperature. The minimum values of ethanol concentration in the permeate and in the sorption solution were obtained in the vicinity of the azeotropic point. Compared with the pure CAP membrane, the new membrane shows high performance for the separation of ETBE and EtOH mixtures, especially under high temperature conditions.

  14. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for

  15. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  16. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a family history of high blood pressure African-Americans People age 35 or older People who are overweight or obese People who eat too much salt People who drink too much alcohol Women who use birth control pills People who aren ...

  17. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  18. Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Liu, Y.; Maruvada, S.; Myers, M.; Khismatullin, D.

    2012-02-01

    Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging, needle hydrophone measurements and passive cavitation detection. Temperature in or near the focal zone was measured by thermocouples embedded in the samples. The results of this study indicate that the treatment of tissue phantoms and bovine liver samples with ethanol reduces their threshold power for inertial cavitation. This in turn leads to a sudden rise in temperature in ethanol-treated samples at a lower acoustic power than that in untreated ones. The analysis of passive cavitation detection data shows that once the threshold acoustic power is reached, inertial cavitation becomes a major contributor to acoustic scattering in ethanol-treated phantoms and bovine liver samples as compared to control. This study opens up the possibility of improved tumor ablation therapy via a combination of percutaneous ethanol injection and high-intensity focused ultrasound.

  19. Novel technologies for enhanced production of ethanol: impact of high productivity on process economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-566 was used to produce ethanol from a concentrated glucose (250-300 gL-1) solution. When fermentation media were supplemented with CaCO3 and CaCl2, ethanol concentrations, yield, and productivities were improved significantly. In control batch fermen...

  20. Continuous High-solids corn liquefaction and fermentation with stripping of ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of ethanol from the fermentor during fermentation can increase productivity and reduce the costs for dewatering the product and coproduct. One approach is to recycle the fermentor contents through a stripping column, where a non-condensable gas removes ethanol to a condenser. Previous resear...

  1. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  2. Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jaime L; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2015-12-01

    Plant compounds such as flavonoids have been reported to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Information on the effects of isolated individual flavonoids for management of high blood pressure, however, is more limited. This review is focused on the flavonoids, as isolated outside of the food matrix, from the 5 main subgroups consumed in the Western diet (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), along with their effects on hypertension, including the potential mechanisms for regulating blood pressure. Flavonoids from all 5 subgroups have been shown to attenuate a rise in or to reduce blood pressure during several pathological conditions (hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus). Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanols were able to modulate blood pressure by restoring endothelial function, either directly, by affecting nitric oxide levels, or indirectly, through other pathways. Quercetin had the most consistent blood pressure-lowering effect in animal and human studies, irrespective of dose, duration, or disease status. However, further research on the safety and efficacy of the flavonoids is required before any of them can be used by humans, presumably in supplement form, at the doses required for therapeutic benefit. PMID:26491142

  3. High-efficiency ethanol production from lignocellulosic residues pretreated with alkaline H/sub 2/O/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, J.M.; Freer, S.N.

    1984-06-01

    Pretreatment should be economic and should not utilize toxic reagents. In this study locally obtained residues were used - wheat straw, cornstalks, corn husks and kenaf -as substrates. The high efficiency of glucose production from alkaline H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ pretreated lignocellulosic residues made these materials excellent substrates for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in combined saccharification/fermentation experiments. Results showed that overall efficiency of ethanol formation was 90% for pretreated corn cobs, stalks and husks compared to 50% for untreated materials. Yields from kenaf and oak were also enhanced although below the theoretical maximum. The lignin containing supernatant does not appear to be inhibitory to Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth or ethanol production. The improvement in conversion efficiency is apparently the result of the removal of about one half of the lignin along with an apparent reduction in the degree of crystallinity within the cellulose structure itself. 16 references.

  4. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J.; Levine, G.F.

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  5. Thermal conductivity of methanol-ethanol mixture and silicone oil at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin

    2015-06-01

    4:1 methanol-ethanol (ME) mixture and silicone oil are common, important pressure transmitting media used in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments. Their thermal conductivities and elastic properties are critical for modeling heat conduction in the DAC experiments and for determining thermal conductivity of measurement samples under extreme conditions. We used time-domain thermoreflectance and picosecond interferometry combined with the DAC to study the thermal conductivities and elastic constants C11 of the ME mixture and silicone oil at room temperature and to pressures as high as ?23 GPa. We found that pressure dependence of the thermal conductivity of ME and silicone oil are both well described by the prediction of the minimum thermal conductivity model, confirming the diffusion of thermal energy between nonpropagating molecular vibrational modes is the dominant heat transport mechanism in a liquid and amorphous polymer. Our results not only provide new insights into the physics of thermal transport in these common pressure media for high pressure thermal measurements, but will also significantly extend the feasibility of using silicone fluid medium to much higher pressure and moderately high temperature conditions with higher measurement accuracy than other pressure media.

  6. High abundant protein removal from rodent blood for biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Haudenschild, Dominik R.; Eldridge, Angela; Lein, Pamela J.; Chromy, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the goal of stratified and/or personalized medicine in the clinic, significant advances in the field of biomarker discovery are necessary. Adding to the abundance of nucleic acid biomarkers being characterized, additional protein biomarkers will be needed to satisfy diverse clinical needs. An appropriate source for finding these biomarkers is within blood, as it contains tissue leakage factors as well as additional proteins that reside in blood that can be linked to the presence of disease. Unfortunately, high abundant proteins and complexity of the blood proteome present significant challenges for the discovery of protein biomarkers from blood. Animal models often enable the discovery of biomarkers that can later be translated to humans. Therefore, determining appropriate sample preparation of proteomic samples in rodent models is an important research goal. Here, we examined both mouse and rat blood samples (including both serum and plasma), for appropriate high abundant protein removal techniques for subsequent gel-based proteomic experiments. We assessed four methods of albumin removal: antibody-based affinity chromatography (MARS), Cibacron® Blue-based affinity depletion (SwellGel® Blue Albumin Removal Kit), protein-based affinity depletion (ProteaPrep Albumin Depletion Kit) and TCA/acetone precipitation. Albumin removal was quantified for each method and SDS-PAGE and 2-DE gels were used to quantify the number of protein spots obtained following albumin removal. Our results suggest that while all four approaches can effectively remove high abundant proteins, antibody-based affinity chromatography is superior to the other three methods. PMID:25445603

  7. Effect of high altitude on blood glucose meter performance.

    PubMed

    Fink, Kenneth S; Christensen, Dale B; Ellsworth, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Participation in high-altitude wilderness activities may expose persons to extreme environmental conditions, and for those with diabetes mellitus, euglycemia is important to ensure safe travel. We conducted a field assessment of the precision and accuracy of seven commonly used blood glucose meters while mountaineering on Mount Rainier, located in Washington State (elevation 14,410 ft). At various elevations each climber-subject used the randomly assigned device to measure the glucose level of capillary blood and three different concentrations of standardized control solutions, and a venous sample was also collected for later glucose analysis. Ordinary least squares regression was used to assess the effect of elevation and of other environmental potential covariates on the precision and accuracy of blood glucose meters. Elevation affects glucometer precision (p = 0.08), but becomes less significant (p = 0.21) when adjusted for temperature and relative humidity. The overall effect of elevation was to underestimate glucose levels by approximately 1-2% (unadjusted) for each 1,000 ft gain in elevation. Blood glucose meter accuracy was affected by elevation (p = 0.03), temperature (p < 0.01), and relative humidity (p = 0.04) after adjustment for the other variables. The interaction between elevation and relative humidity had a meaningful but not statistically significant effect on accuracy (p = 0.07). Thus, elevation, temperature, and relative humidity affect blood glucose meter performance, and elevated glucose levels are more greatly underestimated at higher elevations. Further research will help to identify which blood glucose meters are best suited for specific environments. PMID:12450444

  8. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Slininger, Patricia J.; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A.; Thompson, Stephanie R.; Dien, Bruce S.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-04-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment. Repetitive culturing in two types of concentrated hydrolyzates was applied along with ethanol challenged xylose-fed continuous culture to force targeted evolution of the native pentose fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis strain NRRL Y-7124 maintained in the ARSmore » Culture Collection, Peoria, IL. Isolates collected from various enriched populations were screened and ranked based on relative xylose uptake rate and ethanol yield. Ranking on hydrolyzates with and without nutritional supplementation was used to identify those isolates with best performance across diverse conditions. Robust S. stipitis strains adapted to perform very well in enzyme hydrolyzates of high solids loading ammonia fiber expansion-pretreated corn stover (18% weight per volume solids) and dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated switchgrass (20% w/v solids) were obtained. Improved features include reduced initial lag phase preceding growth, significantly enhanced fermentation rates, improved ethanol tolerance and yield, reduced diauxic lag during glucose-xylose transition, and ability to accumulate >40 g/L ethanol in <167 h when fermenting hydrolyzate at low initial cell density of 0.5 absorbance units and pH 5 to 6.« less

  9. Concentration-Dependent Protection by Ethanol Extract of Propolis against ?-Ray-Induced Chromosome Damage in Human Blood Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Montoro, A.; Barquinero, J. F.; Almonacid, M.; Montoro, A.; Sebasti, N.; Verd, G.; Sahuquillo, V.; Serrano, J.; Saiz, M.; Villaescusa, J. I.; Soriano, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Radioprotection with natural products may be relevant to the mitigation of ionizing radiation-induced damage in mammalian systems; in this sense, propolis extracts have shown effects such as antioxidant, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulant. We report for the first time a cytogenetic study to evaluate the radioprotective effect, in vitro, of propolis against radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Lymphocytes were cultured with increasing concentrations of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP), including 20, 40, 120, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 2000??g?mL?1 and then exposed to 2 Gy ?-rays. A significant and concentration-dependent decrease is observed in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in samples treated with EEP. The protection against the formation of dicentrics was concentration-dependent, with a maximum protection at 120??g?mL?1 of EEP. The observed frequency of dicentrics is described as negative exponential function, indicating that the maximum protectible fraction of dicentrics is approximately 44%. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities are the mechanisms that these substances use to protect cells from ionizing radiation. PMID:20981159

  10. Step by Step: Eating To Lower Your High Blood Cholesterol. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet offers advice for adults who want to lower their blood cholesterol level. The first section, "What You Need To Know about High Blood Cholesterol," discusses blood cholesterol and why it matters, what cholesterol numbers mean, and what affects blood cholesterol levels. Section 2, "What You Need To Do To Lower Blood Cholesterol,"…

  11. Step by Step: Eating To Lower Your High Blood Cholesterol. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet offers advice for adults who want to lower their blood cholesterol level. The first section, "What You Need To Know about High Blood Cholesterol," discusses blood cholesterol and why it matters, what cholesterol numbers mean, and what affects blood cholesterol levels. Section 2, "What You Need To Do To Lower Blood Cholesterol,"

  12. Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-03-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

  13. Sex-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome in adult offspring after prenatal ethanol exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    He, Zheng; Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Zhang, Li; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) is an established risk factor for intrauterine growth retardation. The present study was designed to determine whether PEE can increase the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult offspring in a sex-specific manner, based on a generalized linear model analysis. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered ethanol (4 g/kg.d) from gestational day 11 until term delivery. All offspring were fed either a normal diet or a HFD after weaning and were sacrificed at postnatal week 20, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PEE reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels but enhanced serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistant index (IRI), triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations. Moreover, the analysis showed interactions among PEE, HFD and sex. In the PEE offspring, HFD aggravated the decrease in ACTH and corticosterone levels and further increased serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride and TC levels. The changes of serum ACTH, glucose and IRI levels in the female HFD rats were greater than those in the male HFD rats. Our findings suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to MS induced by HFD in a sex-specific manner, which might be primarily associated with the neuroendocrine metabolic programming by PEE. PMID:26631430

  14. Sex-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome in adult offspring after prenatal ethanol exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    He, Zheng; Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Zhang, Li; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) is an established risk factor for intrauterine growth retardation. The present study was designed to determine whether PEE can increase the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult offspring in a sex-specific manner, based on a generalized linear model analysis. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered ethanol (4 g/kg.d) from gestational day 11 until term delivery. All offspring were fed either a normal diet or a HFD after weaning and were sacrificed at postnatal week 20, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PEE reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels but enhanced serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistant index (IRI), triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations. Moreover, the analysis showed interactions among PEE, HFD and sex. In the PEE offspring, HFD aggravated the decrease in ACTH and corticosterone levels and further increased serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride and TC levels. The changes of serum ACTH, glucose and IRI levels in the female HFD rats were greater than those in the male HFD rats. Our findings suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to MS induced by HFD in a sex-specific manner, which might be primarily associated with the neuroendocrine metabolic programming by PEE. PMID:26631430

  15. Towards high water permeability in triazine-framework-based microporous membranes for dehydration of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu Pan; Wang, Huan; Chung, Tai Shung

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of a series of triazine framework-based microporous (TFM) membranes under different conditions has been explored in this work. The pristine TFM membrane is in?situ fabricated in the course of polymer synthesis via a facile Brnsted-acid-catalyzed cyclotrimerizaiton reaction. The as-synthesized polymer exhibits a microporous network with high thermal stability. The free volume size of the TFM membranes gradually evolved from a unimodal distribution to a bimodal distribution under annealing, as analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The emergence of the bimodal distribution is probably ascribed to the synergetic effect of quenching and thermal cyclization reaction. In addition, the fractional free volume (FFV) of the membranes presents a concave trend with increasing annealing temperature. Vapor sorption tests reveal that the mass transport properties are closely associated with the free volume evolution, which provides an optimal condition for dehydration of biofuels. A promising separation performance with extremely high water permeability has been attained for dehydration of an 85?wt?% ethanol aqueous solution at 45?C. The study on the free volume evolution of the TFM membranes may provide useful insights about the microstructure and mass transport behavior of the microporous polymeric materials. PMID:25394279

  16. Identification of novel causative genes determining the complex trait of high ethanol tolerance in yeast using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Swinnen, Steve; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Pais, Thiago; Claesen, Jrgen; Hubmann, Georg; Yang, Yudi; Demeke, Mekonnen; Foulqui-Moreno, Mara R.; Goovaerts, Annelies; Souvereyns, Kris; Clement, Lieven; Dumortier, Franoise; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2012-01-01

    High ethanol tolerance is an exquisite characteristic of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which enables this microorganism to dominate in natural and industrial fermentations. Up to now, ethanol tolerance has only been analyzed in laboratory yeast strains with moderate ethanol tolerance. The genetic basis of the much higher ethanol tolerance in natural and industrial yeast strains is unknown. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to map all quantitative trait loci (QTL) determining high ethanol tolerance. We crossed a highly ethanol-tolerant segregant of a Brazilian bioethanol production strain with a laboratory strain with moderate ethanol tolerance. Out of 5974 segregants, we pooled 136 segregants tolerant to at least 16% ethanol and 31 segregants tolerant to at least 17%. Scoring of SNPs using whole-genome sequence analysis of DNA from the two pools and parents revealed three major loci and additional minor loci. The latter were more pronounced or only present in the 17% pool compared to the 16% pool. In the locus with the strongest linkage, we identified three closely located genes affecting ethanol tolerance: MKT1, SWS2, and APJ1, with SWS2 being a negative allele located in between two positive alleles. SWS2 and APJ1 probably contained significant polymorphisms only outside the ORF, and lower expression of APJ1 may be linked to higher ethanol tolerance. This work has identified the first causative genes involved in high ethanol tolerance of yeast. It also reveals the strong potential of pooled-segregant sequence analysis using relatively small numbers of selected segregants for identifying QTL on a genome-wide scale. PMID:22399573

  17. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  18. Ethanol Inhibits High-Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor (FcεRI) Signaling in Mast Cells by Suppressing the Function of FcεRI-Cholesterol Signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Draberova, Lubica; Paulenda, Tomas; Halova, Ivana; Potuckova, Lucie; Bugajev, Viktor; Bambouskova, Monika; Tumova, Magda; Draber, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has multiple effects on biochemical events in a variety of cell types, including the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI) signaling in antigen-activated mast cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. To get better understanding of the effect of ethanol on FcεRI-mediated signaling we examined the effect of short-term treatment with non-toxic concentrations of ethanol on FcεRI signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. We found that 15 min exposure to ethanol inhibited antigen-induced degranulation, calcium mobilization, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-13), and formation of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Removal of cellular cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin had a similar effect and potentiated some of the inhibitory effects of ethanol. In contrast, exposure of the cells to cholesterol-saturated methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished in part the inhibitory effect of ethanol on calcium response and production of reactive oxygen species, supporting lipid-centric theories of ethanol action on the earliest stages of mast cell signaling. Further studies showed that exposure to ethanol and/or removal of cholesterol inhibited early FcεRI activation events, including tyrosine phosphorylation of the FcεRI β and γ subunits, SYK kinases, LAT adaptor protein, phospholipase Cγ, STAT5, and AKT and internalization of aggregated FcεRI. Interestingly, ethanol alone, and particularly in combination with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, enhanced phosphorylation of negative regulatory tyrosine 507 of LYN kinase. Finally, we found that ethanol reduced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice, suggesting that ethanol also inhibits FcεRI signaling under in vivo conditions. The combined data indicate that ethanol interferes with early antigen-induced signaling events in mast cells by suppressing the function of FcεRI-cholesterol signalosomes at the plasma membrane. PMID:26658290

  19. Toward highly-effective and sustainable hydrogen production: bio-ethanol oxidative steam reforming coupled with water splitting in a thin tubular membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Na; Dong, Xueliang; Liu, Zhengkun; Zhang, Guangru; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping

    2012-07-21

    Highly-effective sustainable hydrogen production from ethanol and water was achieved in a tubular dense mixed-conducting oxygen permeable membrane reactor, in which water splitting took place at the tube side of the membrane and oxidative steam reforming of ethanol occurred at the shell side simultaneously. PMID:22428158

  20. Highly efficient hydrogen production through ethanol photoreforming by a carbon nanocone/Pd@TiO2 hybrid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Melchionna, M; Beltram, A; Montini, T; Monai, M; Nasi, L; Fornasiero, P; Prato, M

    2015-12-24

    Production of molecular hydrogen (H2) is becoming an increasingly prominent process, due to high expectations as a new green energy carrier and key reagent for many industrial processes. Herein we report the high efficiency of H2 production via photoreforming of ethanol using a catalyst based on hierarchical carbon nanocones hybridised with an inorganic layer of nanocrystalline TiO2 containing Pd nanoparticles. PMID:26568371

  1. A Selective Ultrahigh Responding High Temperature Ethanol Sensor Using TiO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Arafat, M. M.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Akbar, Sheikh A.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, the sensitivity of TiO2 nanoparticles towards C2H5OH, H2 and CH4 gases was investigated. The morphology and phase content of the particles was preserved during sensing tests by prior heat treatment of the samples at temperatures as high as 750 C and 1000 C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to characterize the size, morphology and phase content of the particles. For sensor fabrication, a film of TiO2 was printed on a Au interdigitated alumina substrate. The sensing temperature was varied from 450 C to 650 C with varying concentrations of target gases. Results show that the sensor has ultrahigh response towards ethanol (C2H5OH) compared to hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4). The optimum sensing temperature was found to be 600 C. The response and recovery times of the sensor are 3 min and 15 min, respectively, for 20 ppm C2H5OH at the optimum operating temperature of 600 C. It is proposed that the catalytic action of TiO2 with C2H5OH is the reason for the ultrahigh response of the sensor. PMID:25072346

  2. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have a bleeding disorder. Common bleeding disorders include: Hemophilia (pronounced: hee-muh-FIL-ee-uh), an inherited ... clotting factors in the blood. People with severe hemophilia are at risk for excessive bleeding and bruising ...

  3. Blood alcohol stability in postmortem blood samples.

    PubMed

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Versic-Bratincevic, Maja; Definis-Gojanovic, Marija

    2014-03-01

    The effect of long-term storage on alcohol stability in postmortem blood samples was investigated. Seventy-nine blood samples were used in this study. For the first time, blood alcohol concentrations were measured within 1 to 4 days after being taken at the Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology. After storage (ranging from 191 to 468 days), each sample was reanalyzed for blood alcohol concentration, and results were compared with the original analysis. Results showed good agreement between the experimental measurements. About 90% of the results lie within 95% limits, and 10% were outside. Despite these positive correlations, the results of some blood samples showed a high variation in ethanol concentration. Deviation in alcohol concentration between replicates of up to 10% (observed in 39% samples) is not acceptable as precise forensic evidence. PMID:24457583

  4. Accuracy of blood pressure monitors available in high street pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Ware, Adam; Stevens, Richard; Selwood, Mary; Fleming, Susannah

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of automated blood pressure monitors on sale to the UK general public. We conducted static pressure accuracy testing on all compatible (19 out of 22 available) blood pressure monitors available for sale in pharmacies within the city of Oxford, UK, and tested two devices for accuracy in measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 21 adults. The devices showed good accuracy when measuring static pressure in laboratory bench testing, with the median error per device ranging from -2.2 to +1.2?mmHg; however, the two devices tested performed worse in vivo than in laboratory tests, with median errors as high as 6?mmHg. The monitors showed good accuracy in static pressure testing, with a lack of correlation between monitor price and accuracy. However, higher error rates seen during in-vivo testing of a subset of monitors may indicate that static testing may not be appropriate for routine accuracy assessment of these monitors. PMID:26427055

  5. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood. PMID:25080183

  6. A nutrition curriculum for families with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Farris, R P; Frank, G C; Webber, L S; Berenson, G S

    1985-03-01

    A nutrition curriculum for 48 students age eight-18 years with high blood pressure was implemented in Franklinton, La., as part of A Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program Trial (ADAPT), a model promoting reduced sodium (Na+) and energy intake and increased potassium (K+) intake. A teacher guide listed basic concepts, teacher and student activities, materials, behavioral outcomes, and evaluation for 12 lessons at three age levels. Games were used to present new information and increase student involvement. Taste-tests promoted attitude change regarding acceptable snacks. Decision-making and assertiveness topics facilitated independent food choices and coping with peers. Self-monitoring of intakes encouraged personal responsibility for eating behavior. Results of paired t-tests showed knowledge increased 8.7% in the spring (p less than 0.01), 4.9% in the summer (N.S.), and 7.3% in the fall (p less than 0.0001). No significant differences in increase in posttest scores by age were found. Comparisons of curriculum compliance with medication use and blood pressure change showed no relationship. A multiple regression analysis of sodium-creatinine (Na+/Cr) ratios on class attendance and posttest scores showed that children with the highest test scores had lower Na+/Cr ratios. This program increased information and skills for those motivated to change lifestyle to control obesity and blood pressure. PMID:3845257

  7. High-temperature fermentation: how can processes for ethanol production at high temperatures become superior to the traditional process using mesophilic yeast?

    PubMed

    Abdel-Banat, Babiker M A; Hoshida, Hisashi; Ano, Akihiko; Nonklang, Sanom; Akada, Rinji

    2010-01-01

    The process of ethanol fermentation has a long history in the production of alcoholic drinks, but much larger scale production of ethanol is now required to enable its use as a substituent of gasoline fuels at 3%, 10%, or 85% (referred to as E3, E10, and E85, respectively). Compared with fossil fuels, the production costs are a major issue for the production of fuel ethanol. There are a number of possible approaches to delivering cost-effective fuel ethanol production from different biomass sources, but we focus in our current report on high-temperature fermentation using a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. We demonstrate that a 5 degrees C increase only in the fermentation temperature can greatly affect the fuel ethanol production costs. We contend that this approach may also be applicable to the other microbial fermentations systems and propose that thermotolerant mesophilic microorganisms have considerable potential for the development of future fermentation technologies. PMID:19820925

  8. Prevalence of self-reported high blood pressure awareness, advice received from health professionals, and actions taken to reduce high blood pressure among US adults--Healthstyles 2002.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Carma; Neff, Linda J; Croft, Janet B; Keenan, Nora L; Malarcher, Ann M; Hyduk, Alexandra; Bansil, Pooja; Mensah, George A

    2005-09-01

    High blood pressure awareness, advice received from health care providers, and adoption of heart-healthy behaviors were assessed using the Healthstyles 2002 survey. About 20% of respondents reported that they had high blood pressure, and 53% of these were currently taking medications to lower blood pressure. Black men had the highest adjusted prevalence of high blood pressure (32%). Medication use among persons with high blood pressure was lower among Hispanics (45%) than among blacks (54%) and whites (54%). Persons reporting having high blood pressure were five times more likely to report having received advice from a health care professional to go on a diet or change eating habits (p<0.05) and reduce salt or sodium in their diet (p<0.05), but five times less likely to have received advice to exercise (p<0.05) than those reporting not having high blood pressure, after adjustment for differences in sex, race/ethnicity, and age. Persons with self-reported high blood pressure were also more likely to be making these modifications (p<0.05). Among people with high blood pressure, current medication use was associated with both receiving and following advice for diet change and salt reduction (p<0.05). Future initiatives are needed to improve the proportion of Hispanics and blacks taking prescribed medications to improve high blood pressure control and reduce risk for serious sequelae such as heart disease and stroke. PMID:16227770

  9. Heavy in utero ethanol exposure is associated with the use of other drugs of abuse in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Shor, Sarit; Nulman, Irena; Kulaga, Vivian; Koren, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Many ethanol dependent women also use other drugs of abuse that may affect pregnancy outcome and long-term child neurodevelopment. This study investigated the association between drugs of abuse and concurrent use of ethanol in pregnancy. A study cohort of neonates with FAEE levels above 2 nmol per gram meconium, indicative of heavy in utero ethanol exposure, was identified (n=114). Meconium and hair analyses for the presence of other drugs of abuse were obtained for some of these neonates and the rates of drug exposure were compared with the rates in a cohort of neonates who were tested negative (FAEE below 2 nmol per gram meconium) for ethanol exposure (n=622). Odds ratios (ORs) for various drugs were calculated with ethanol exposure. A 15.5% positive rate for intrauterine ethanol exposure was detected. A high rate of in utero drug exposure was detected in neonates with and without in utero ethanol exposure, 60.5% versus 62.7% respectively. Neonates with heavy in utero ethanol exposure were almost twice as likely to be exposed to narcotic opiates (OR=1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-3.20) and 3.3 times as likely to be exposed to amphetamine (OR=3.30; 95% CI 1.06-10.27) when compared to neonates with no ethanol exposure. Exposure to cannabinoids predicted less likely exposure to ethanol (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.98) and no significant difference was noted in the exposure to cocaine (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.81-1.91). Neonates suspected of heavy in utero ethanol exposure should be tested for other drugs of abuse and vice versa. Early detection of drug exposures can facilitate early intervention to both the neonate and the mother, thus decreasing the risk of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes for the child, including secondary disabilities associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. PMID:20031369

  10. Binge Drinking Experience in Adolescent Mice Shows Sex Differences and Elevated Ethanol Intake In Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Moriah N.; Yoneyama, Naomi; Fretwell, Andrea M.; Snelling, Chris; Tanchuck, Michelle A.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Binge drinking, defined as achieving blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 80 mg%, has been increasing in adolescents and was reported to predispose later physical dependence. The present experiments utilized an animal model of binge drinking to compare the effect of ethanol binge experience during adolescence or adulthood on subsequent ethanol intake in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Adolescent and adult mice were initially exposed to the scheduled high alcohol consumption procedure, which produces BECs that exceed the levels for binge drinking following a 30 min ethanol session every third day. Ethanol intake and BECs were significantly higher in the adolescent (?3 g/kg, 199 mg%) versus adult (?2 g/kg, 135 mg%) mice during the first three ethanol sessions, but were more equivalent during the final two ethanol sessions (1.85-2.0 g/kg, 129-143 mg%). Then, separate groups of the ethanol experienced mice were tested with ethanol nave adolescent and adult mice for 2-hr limited access (10 and 20% solutions) or 24-hr (5, 10 and 20% solutions) ethanol preference drinking. Limited access ethanol intake was significantly higher in female versus male mice, but was not altered by age or ethanol experience. In contrast, 24-hr ethanol intake was significantly higher in the adolescent versus adult mice and in female versus male mice. Furthermore, binge drinking experience in the adolescent mice significantly increased subsequent ethanol intake, primarily due to intake in female mice. Thus, adolescent binge drinking significantly increased unlimited ethanol intake during adulthood, with female mice more susceptible to this effect. PMID:19854195

  11. Facile synthesis of a platinum-lead oxide nanocomposite catalyst with high activity and durability for ethanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hong-Hui; Chen, De-Hao; Zhou, Zhi-You; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2012-12-21

    Aimed at searching for highly active and stable nano-scale Pt-based catalysts that can improve significantly the energy conversion efficiency of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), a novel Pt-PbO(x) nanocomposite (Pt-PbO(x) NC) catalyst with a mean size of 3.23 nm was synthesized through a simple wet chemistry method without using a surfactant, organometallic precursors and high temperature. Electrocatalytic tests demonstrated that the as-prepared Pt-PbO(x) NC catalyst possesses a much higher catalytic activity and a longer durability than Pt nanoparticles (nm-Pt) and commercial Pt black catalysts for ethanol electrooxidation. For instance, Pt-PbO(x) NC showed an onset potential that was 30 mV and 44 mV less positive, together with a peak current density 1.7 and 2.6 times higher than those observed for nm-Pt and Pt black catalysts in the cyclic voltammogram tests. The ratio of current densities per unit Pt mass on Pt-PbO(x) NC, nm-Pt and Pt black catalysts is 27.3 : 3.4 : 1 for the long-term (2 hours) chronoamperometric experiments measured at -0.4 V (vs. SCE). In situ FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed that the activity of breaking C-C bonds of ethanol of the Pt-PbO(x) NC is as high as 5.17 times that of the nm-Pt, which illustrates a high efficiency of ethanol oxidation to CO(2) on the as-prepared Pt-PbO(x) NC catalyst. PMID:23133838

  12. Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the current process technologies for fuel ethanol production. In the US, almost all commercial fuel ethanol is produced from corn whereas cane sugar is used almost exclusively in Brazil. In Europe, two major types of feedstock considered for fuel ethanol production are be...

  13. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of yeast's requirement for glycerol formation in very high ethanol performance fed-batch process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycerol is the major by-product accounting for up to 5% of the carbon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation. Decreasing glycerol formation may redirect part of the carbon toward ethanol production. However, abolishment of glycerol formation strongly affects yeast's robustness towards different types of stress occurring in an industrial process. In order to assess whether glycerol production can be reduced to a certain extent without jeopardising growth and stress tolerance, the yeast's capacity to synthesize glycerol was adjusted by fine-tuning the activity of the rate-controlling enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). Two engineered strains whose specific GPDH activity was significantly reduced by two different degrees were comprehensively characterized in a previously developed Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP) fed-batch process. Results The prototrophic strain CEN.PK113-7D was chosen for decreasing glycerol formation capacity. The fine-tuned reduction of specific GPDH activity was achieved by replacing the native GPD1 promoter in the yeast genome by previously generated well-characterized TEF promoter mutant versions in a gpd2? background. Two TEF promoter mutant versions were selected for this study, resulting in a residual GPDH activity of 55 and 6%, respectively. The corresponding strains were referred to here as TEFmut7 and TEFmut2. The genetic modifications were accompanied to a strong reduction in glycerol yield on glucose; the level of reduction compared to the wild-type was 61% in TEFmut7 and 88% in TEFmut2. The overall ethanol production yield on glucose was improved from 0.43 g g-1 in the wild type to 0.44 g g-1 measured in TEFmut7 and 0.45 g g-1 in TEFmut2. Although maximal growth rate in the engineered strains was reduced by 20 and 30%, for TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 respectively, strains' ethanol stress robustness was hardly affected; i.e. values for final ethanol concentration (117 4 g L-1), growth-inhibiting ethanol concentration (87 3 g L-1) and volumetric ethanol productivity (2.1 0.15 g l-1 h-1) measured in wild-type remained virtually unchanged in the engineered strains. Conclusions This work demonstrates the power of fine-tuned pathway engineering, particularly when a compromise has to be found between high product yield on one hand and acceptable growth, productivity and stress resistance on the other hand. Under the conditions used in this study (VHEP fed-batch), the two strains with "fine-tuned" GPD1 expression in a gpd2? background showed slightly better ethanol yield improvement than previously achieved with the single deletion strains gpd1? or gpd2?. Although glycerol reduction is known to be even higher in a gpd1? gpd2? double deletion strain, our strains could much better cope with process stress as reflected by better growth and viability. PMID:20492645

  15. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hub On Heart.org Learn More Leisure-time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure ... high blood pressure than people who didn’t exercise much. Physical activity at work was not linked ...

  16. Major Study Calls for Even Tighter Control of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Major Study Calls for Even Tighter Control of High Blood Pressure Aggressive treatment cut rates of heart attack, heart ... Sept. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors should control high blood pressure much more aggressively than current guidelines suggest, to ...

  17. Hi-Tech Scans Spot Brain Damage in High Blood Pressure Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Hi-Tech Scans Spot Brain Damage in High Blood Pressure Patients Researchers suggest doctors could use technology to ... signs of brain damage in patients who have high blood pressure, researchers say. This type of brain damage may ...

  18. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease and stroke are the ... Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q-uyye Download these ...

  19. Localized brain differences in Arc expression between mice showing low vs. high propensity to ethanol sensitization.

    PubMed

    Nona, Christina N; Lam, Marcus; Nobrega, José N

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral sensitization to ethanol (EtOH) manifests as a progressive and enduring increase in locomotor activity with repeated drug exposure. However, not all mice sensitize to EtOH and the neuronal mechanisms mediating vulnerability and resistance to EtOH sensitization remain unclear. We examined regional brain expression of the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in order to identify brain areas in which neuroplastic changes may contribute to the development and expression of EtOH sensitization. Male DBA/2J mice received 5 biweekly injections of EtOH (2.2g/kg, i.p.) or saline (SAL). They were categorized as high- (HS) or low-sensitized (LS) on the basis of final locomotor activity scores. In both LS and HS mice sacrificed after the last sensitization injection, Arc expression was decreased throughout the brain in comparison to SAL animals. A similar pattern was seen in mice sacrificed after an EtOH challenge two weeks after the last sensitization injection. However in this cohort, Arc expression was significantly increased in the central amygdala (CeA) in LS mice and in SAL mice receiving EtOH for the first time. No significant increases in Arc expression were seen in brains of sensitized (HS) animals. These results indicate an acute EtOH challenge results in different patterns of Arc expression in brains of LS, HS, and SAL mice. The dramatic increases in Arc expression in the CeA in LS and SAL mice showing little or no behavioral activation suggests that neural activity in this region may serve to inhibit the stimulant effects of EtOH. The observation that HS mice do not show increases in Arc expression with an EtOH challenge suggests the possibility that increased tolerance to the Arc-inducing effects of EtOH may be a factor in behavioral sensitization. PMID:26708208

  20. Amyloid Spells and High Blood Pressure: Imminent Danger?

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Andre; Pinto, Miguel; Calado, Sofia; Viana-Baptista, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 71-year-old male, admitted after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, with a history of recurrent left arm and face paresthesias, associated with sulcal cortical subarachnoid hemorrhages. During the next 48 h, he remained agitated with a high blood pressure profile; he also suffered a cardiac arrest in relation to a severe left fronto-parietal and a smaller right parietal parenchymal hemorrhage that developed over the subarachnoid hemorrhage locations. There were no intracranial vascular abnormalities. Three months later, an MRI revealed disseminated superficial siderosis. He was discharged with a modified Rankin scale of 4. He died 1 month later of unknown cause. A diagnosis of probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy was assumed. Patients with pathologically proven cerebral amyloid angiopathy that present with transient focal neurological symptoms in relation to cortical bleeds, the so-called ‘myloid spells’ seem to be at an increased risk of future parenchymal hemorrhages. Avoiding antiplatelet agents in these cases has been proposed. Our case suggests that these patients should be monitored closely in the hyperacute phase, and tight blood pressure control should be considered as the immediate risk of bleeding may be high, even without a definitive diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. PMID:25892987

  1. Telemonitoring in the management of high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Mc Kinstry, Brian; Hanley, Janet; Lewis, Steff

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is an important risk factor for stroke and ischaemic heart disease. Yet, despite the availability of effective drugs, it is generally poorly controlled. Partly this is because some patients do not adhere to treatment regimens and partly because clinicians either measure BP insufficiently frequently or are not rigorous in applying treatment guidelines. Additionally individual surgery measurements of BP provide a poor prediction of cardiovascular risk. Methods using multiple BP measures provide more accurate estimates of risk and response to treatment. Self-monitoring of blood pressure at home overcomes this problem, but alone has not been conclusively shown to lower BP. There is now strong evidence from several randomised controlled trials that using telemetry to communicate home BP measures to healthcare providers (telemonitoring) is associated with highly statistically and clinically significant reductions in BP. However the studies have been of relatively short duration and it is not known if these reductions would be sustained in the long term, nor have any of the studies been at large scale. While there are challenges to implementing telemonitoring at scale there is a need for large implementation trials over relatively prolonged periods to establish the efficacy of such an approach in routine care. PMID:25341853

  2. Corn steep liquor as a cost-effective nutrition adjunct in high-performance Zymomonas ethanol fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    The ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has been demonstrated to possess several fermentation performance characteristics that are superior to yeast. In a recent survey conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Zymomonas was selected as the most promising host for improvement by genetic engineering directed to pentose metabolism for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass and wastes. Minimization of costs associated with nutritional supplements and seed production is essential for economic large-scale production of fuel ethanol. Corn steep liquor (CSL) is a byproduct of corn wet-milling and has been used as a fermentation nutrient supplement in several different fermentations. This study employed pH-controlled batch fermenters to compare the growth and fermentation performance of Z. mobilis in glucose media with whole and clarified corn steep liquor as sole nutrient source, and to determine minimal amounts of CSL required to sustain high-performance fermentation. 44 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Using a combined hydrolysis factor to optimize high titer ethanol production from sulfite-pretreated poplar without detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingzhi; Gu, Feng; Zhu, J Y; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2015-06-01

    Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to poplar NE222 chips in a range of chemical loadings, temperatures, and times. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) as a pretreatment severity accurately predicted xylan dissolution by SPORL. Good correlations between CHF and pretreated solids enzymatic digestibility, sugar yield, and the formations of furfural and acetic acid were obtained. Therefore, CHF was used to balance sugar yield with the formation of fermentation inhibitors for high titer ethanol production without detoxification. The results indicated that optimal sugar yield can be achieved at CHF=3.1, however, fermentation using un-detoxified whole slurries of NE222 pretreated at different severities by SPORL indicated CHF≈2 produced best results. An ethanol titer of 41 g/L was achieved at total solids of approximately 20 wt% without detoxification with a low cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g glucan (27 mL/kg untreated wood). PMID:25817033

  4. Facile synthesis of highly active PdAu nanowire networks as self-supported electrocatalyst for ethanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2014-06-25

    In recent years, direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attracting increasing attention owing to their wide applications. However, a significant challenge in the development of DEFC technology is the urgent need for highly active anode catalysts for the ethanol oxidation reaction. In this work, a facile and reproducible method for the high-yield synthesis of PdAu nanowire networks is demonstrated. The whole synthetic process is very simple, just mixing Na2PdCl4, HAuCl4, and KBr in an aqueous solution and using polyvinylpyrrolidone as a protective reagent while sodium borohydride as a reductant. The whole synthetic process can be simply performed at room temperature and completed in 30 min, which can greatly simplify the synthetic process and lower the preparation cost. Electrochemical catalytic measurement results prove that the as-prepared catalysts exhibit dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution. The facile synthetic process and excellent catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalysts demonstrate that they can be used as a promising catalyst for DEFCs. PMID:24773338

  5. High concentrations of cellulosic ethanol achieved by fed batch semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of waste-paper

    PubMed Central

    Elliston, Adam; Collins, Samuel R.A.; Wilson, David R.; Roberts, Ian N.; Waldron, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental goal of second generation ethanol production is to increase the ethanol concentration to 10% (v/v) or more to optimise distillation costs. Semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentations (SSSF) were conducted at small pilot scale (5 L) utilising fed-batch additions of solid shredded copier paper substrate. Early addition of Accellerase® 1500 at 16 FPU/g substrate and 30 U/g β-glucosidase followed by substrate only batch addition allowed low final equivalent enzyme concentrations to be achieved (3.7 FPU/g substrate) whilst maintaining digestion. Batch addition resulted in a cumulative substrate concentration equivalent to 65% (w/v). This in turn resulted in the production of high concentrations of ethanol (11.6% v/v). The success of this strategy relied on the capacity of the bioreactor to perform high shear mixing as required. Further research into the timing and number of substrate additions could lead to further improvement in overall yields from the 65.5% attained. PMID:23500568

  6. Production of an acetone-butanol-ethanol mixture from Clostridium acetobutylicum and its conversion to high-value biofuels.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, Sanil; Baer, Zachary C; Pazhamalai, Anbarasan; Gunbas, Gorkem; Grippo, Adam; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S; Toste, F Dean

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is a bacterial species that ferments sugar to a mixture of organic solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol). This protocol delineates a methodology to combine solventogenic clostridial fermentation and chemical catalysis via extractive fermentation for the production of biofuel blendstocks. Extractive fermentation of C. acetobutylicum is operated in fed-batch mode with a concentrated feed solution (500 grams per liter glucose and 50 grams per liter yeast extract) for 60 h, producing in excess of 40 g of solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) between the completely immiscible extractant and aqueous phases of the bioreactor. After distillation of the extractant phase, the acetone, butanol and ethanol mixture is upgraded to long-chain ketones over a palladium-hydrotalcite (Pd-HT) catalyst. This reaction is generally carried out in batch with a high-pressure Q-tube for 20 h at 250 °C. Following this protocol enables the production of ∼0.5 g of high-value biofuel precursors from a 1.7-g portion of fermentation solvents. PMID:25719271

  7. High temperature dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of corn stover for furfural and ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furfural was produced from corn stover by one stage pretreatment process using dilute H3PO4 and solid residues following furfural production were used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL- Y2034. A series of experiments were conducted at varied temperatures (140-200 oC) and acid ...

  8. High-response of amorphous ZnSnO sensors for ultraviolet and ethanol detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qingjun; Wu, Chuanjia; Feng, Lisha; Gong, Li; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous zinc-tin oxide (a-ZTO) films are fabricated using a combustion solution process. Utilization of a-ZTO films as the novel active layers, ultraviolet (UV) and ethanol sensors are prepared for the first time. The sensor performances are strongly related to the film resistance, which is determinated by the surface O2- formed by O2 + e = O2- during UV and ethanol detections. During UV exposure, the resistivity of a-ZTO films decreases from 6.50 105 ? cm to 56.85 ? cm, which are very sensitive towards UV (365 nm) light and the photodetectors own a sensitivity value of 650 from 0 to 30 V. While for ethanol gas, the detection regions can be in a wide range from 20 ppm to 500 ppm. The gas response can achieve a value of 31.18 at 500 ppm ethanol and good response/recovery speed (6 s and 3 s), which can be comparable with that of the common used nanomaterials. The novel a-ZTO film based UV and gas sensors are very promising researches for future UV and gas sensor applications.

  9. High Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Protects against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Injury and Metabolic Dysfunction: Study Using High Capacity Runner Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Szary, Nicholas; Rector, R. Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M.; Ridenhour, Suzanne E.; Shukla, Shivendra D.; Thyfault, John P.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2015-01-01

    Rats artificially selected over several generations for high intrinsic endurance/aerobic capacity resulting in high capacity runners (HCR) has been developed to study the links between high aerobic fitness and protection from metabolic diseases (Wisloff et al., Science, 2005). We have previously shown that the HCR strain have elevated hepatic mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. In this study, we tested if the elevated hepatic mitochondrial content in the HCR rat would provide “metabolic protection” from chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. The Leiber-Decarli liquid diet with ethanol (7% v/v; HCR-E) and without (HCR-C) was given to HCR rats (n = 8 per group) from 14 to 20 weeks of age that were weight matched and pair-fed to assure isocaloric intake. Hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and macro- and microvesicular steatosis were significantly greater in HCR-E compared with HCR-C (p < 0.05). In addition, hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the HCR-E rats. This hepatic phenotype also was associated with reduced total hepatic fatty acid oxidation (p = 0.03) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.01), and reductions in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apoB-100 protein content (p = 0.01) in HCR-E animals. However, despite these documented hepatic alterations, ethanol ingestion failed to induce significant hepatic liver injury, including no changes in hepatic inflammation, or serum alanine amino transferase (ALTs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TGs), insulin, or glucose. High intrinsic aerobic fitness did not reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but protected against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and systemic metabolic dysfunction in a high aerobic capacity rat model. PMID:26610588

  10. High Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Protects against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Injury and Metabolic Dysfunction: Study Using High Capacity Runner Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Szary, Nicholas; Rector, R Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M; Ridenhour, Suzanne E; Shukla, Shivendra D; Thyfault, John P; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-01-01

    Rats artificially selected over several generations for high intrinsic endurance/aerobic capacity resulting in high capacity runners (HCR) has been developed to study the links between high aerobic fitness and protection from metabolic diseases (Wisloff et al., Science, 2005). We have previously shown that the HCR strain have elevated hepatic mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. In this study, we tested if the elevated hepatic mitochondrial content in the HCR rat would provide "metabolic protection" from chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. The Leiber-Decarli liquid diet with ethanol (7% v/v; HCR-E) and without (HCR-C) was given to HCR rats (n = 8 per group) from 14 to 20 weeks of age that were weight matched and pair-fed to assure isocaloric intake. Hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and macro- and microvesicular steatosis were significantly greater in HCR-E compared with HCR-C (p < 0.05). In addition, hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the HCR-E rats. This hepatic phenotype also was associated with reduced total hepatic fatty acid oxidation (p = 0.03) and ?-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.01), and reductions in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apoB-100 protein content (p = 0.01) in HCR-E animals. However, despite these documented hepatic alterations, ethanol ingestion failed to induce significant hepatic liver injury, including no changes in hepatic inflammation, or serum alanine amino transferase (ALTs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TGs), insulin, or glucose. High intrinsic aerobic fitness did not reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but protected against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and systemic metabolic dysfunction in a high aerobic capacity rat model. PMID:26610588

  11. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    SciTech Connect

    Slininger, Patricia J.; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A.; Thompson, Stephanie R.; Dien, Bruce S.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-04-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment. Repetitive culturing in two types of concentrated hydrolyzates was applied along with ethanol challenged xylose-fed continuous culture to force targeted evolution of the native pentose fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis strain NRRL Y-7124 maintained in the ARS Culture Collection, Peoria, IL. Isolates collected from various enriched populations were screened and ranked based on relative xylose uptake rate and ethanol yield. Ranking on hydrolyzates with and without nutritional supplementation was used to identify those isolates with best performance across diverse conditions. Robust S. stipitis strains adapted to perform very well in enzyme hydrolyzates of high solids loading ammonia fiber expansion-pretreated corn stover (18% weight per volume solids) and dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated switchgrass (20% w/v solids) were obtained. Improved features include reduced initial lag phase preceding growth, significantly enhanced fermentation rates, improved ethanol tolerance and yield, reduced diauxic lag during glucose-xylose transition, and ability to accumulate >40 g/L ethanol in <167 h when fermenting hydrolyzate at low initial cell density of 0.5 absorbance units and pH 5 to 6.

  12. Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you do? Always ask your provider what your blood pressure is and write it down. Discuss these numbers ... provider may prescribe medicine to help lower your blood pressure. y y Take your medicine every day, or ...

  13. Selection and characterization of a newly isolated thermotolerant Pichia kudriavzevii strain for ethanol production at high temperature from cassava starch hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Yuangsaard, Napatchanok; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Yamada, Mumoru; Limtong, Savitree

    2013-03-01

    Pichia kudriavzevii DMKU 3-ET15 was isolated from traditional fermented pork sausage by an enrichment technique in a yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) broth, supplemented with 4 % (v/v) ethanol at 40 C and selected based on its ethanol fermentation ability at 40 C in YPD broth composed of 16 % glucose, and in a cassava starch hydrolysate medium composed of cassava starch hydrolysate adjusted to 16 % glucose. The strain produced ethanol from cassava starch hydrolysate at a high temperature up to 45 C, but the optimal temperature for ethanol production was at 40 C. Ethanol production by this strain using shaking flask cultivation was the highest in a medium containing cassava starch hydrolysate adjusted to 18 % glucose, 0.05 % (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 0.09 % yeast extract, 0.05 % KH(2)PO(4), and 0.05 % MgSO(4)7H(2)O, with a pH of 5.0 at 40 C. The highest ethanol concentration reached 7.86 % (w/v) after 24 h, with productivity of 3.28 g/l/h and yield of 85.4 % of the theoretical yield. At 42 C, ethanol production by this strain became slightly lower, while at 45 C only 3.82 % (w/v) of ethanol, 1.27 g/l/h productivity and 41.5 % of the theoretical yield were attained. In a study on ethanol production in a 2.5-l jar fermenter with an agitation speed of 300 rpm and an aeration rate of 0.1 vvm throughout the fermentation, P. kudriavzevii DMKU 3-ET15 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 7.35 % (w/v) after 33 h, a productivity of 2.23 g/l/h and a yield of 79.9 % of the theoretical yield. PMID:23132277

  14. Functional and quality characteristics of the red blood cell fraction from biopreserved porcine blood as influenced by high pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Toldr, M; Dvila, E; Saguer, E; Fort, N; Salvador, P; Pars, D; Carretero, C

    2008-10-01

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing, at 400MPa for 15min at 20C, on the microbiological and functional characteristics of the red blood cell (RBC) fraction obtained from porcine blood, previously preserved by means of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was studied. Biopreservation was achieved by incubation of inulin-enriched blood inoculated with a LAB strain (Enterococcus raffinosus PS99) for 72h at 5C. Results showed that incubation of blood with added E. raffinosus followed by HHP treatment reduced the levels of contaminant coliforms, proteolytic, hemolytic bacteria, and Pseudomonas spp. on RCB. Color parameters, protein solubility, foaming and emulsifying properties, as well as texture and water holding capacity of heat-induced gels from RBC were not seriously damaged by the combined treatments. This is a new approach to process and preserve animal blood fractions for the development of functional and/or nutritional food ingredients with added value. PMID:22063343

  15. Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-08-31

    Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance. PMID:22387426

  16. Northern contaminant mixtures induced morphological and functional changes in human coronary artery endothelial cells under culture conditions typifying high fat/sugar diet and ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Florian, Maria; Yan, Jin; Ulhaq, Saad; Coughlan, Melanie; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Willmore, William; Jin, Xiaolei

    2013-11-16

    It has been reported that Northern populations are exposed to mixtures of various environmental contaminants unique to the Arctic (Northern contaminant mixtures - NCM) at a large range of concentrations, depending on their geological location, age, lifestyle and dietary habits. To determine if these contaminants may contribute to a cardiovascular health risk, especially when combined with a high fat and sugar diet and ethanol exposure, we treated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with two mixtures of 4 organic (NCM1) or 22 organic and inorganic (NCM2) chemicals detected in Northerners' blood during 2004-2005 in the presence or absence of low-density lipoprotein (1.5mg/ml), very-low-density lipoprotein (1.0mg/ml) and glucose (10mmol/L) (LVG), and in the absence or presence of 0.1% ethanol. After 24h of exposure, cell morphology and markers of cytotoxicity and endothelial function were examined. NCM1 treatment did not affect cell viability, but increased cell size, disrupted cell membrane integrity, and decreased cell density, uptake of small peptides, release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), while causing no changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) release. In contrast, NCM2 decreased cell viability, total protein yield, uptake of small peptides, eNOS protein expression, and NO release and caused membrane damage, but caused no changes in the secretion of ET-1, prostacyclin and PAI. The presence of LVG and/or alcohol did or did not influence the effects of NCM1 or NCM2 depending on the endpoint and the mixture examined. These results suggested that the effects of one or one group of contaminants may be altered by the presence of other contaminants, and that with or without the interaction of high fat and sugar diet and/or ethanol exposure, NCMs at the concentrations used caused endothelial dysfunction in vitro. It remains to be investigated if these effects of NCMs also occur in vivo. PMID:23384447

  17. Early maternal separation affects ethanol-induced conditioning in a nor-BNI insensitive manner, but does not alter ethanol-induced locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Fabio, Ma Carolina; Spear, Norman E

    2012-01-01

    Early environmental stress significantly affects the development of offspring. This stress has been modeled in rats through the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which alters the functioning of the HPA axis and can enhance ethanol intake at adulthood. Infant rats are sensitive to ethanol's reinforcing effects, which modulate ethanol seeking and intake. Little is known about the impact of MS on sensitivity to ethanol's appetitive and aversive effects during infancy. The present study assessed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference established through second-order conditioning (SOC), spontaneous or ethanol-induced locomotor activity and ethanol intake in preweanling rats that experienced normal animal facility rearing (AFR) or daily episodes of maternal separation (MS) during postnatal days 1-13 (PDs 1-13). Low-ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) induced appetitive conditioned place preference (via SOC) in control rats given conventional rearing but not in rats given maternal separation in early infancy, whereas 2.0 g/kg ethanol induced aversive conditioned place preference in the former but not the latter. The administration of a kappa antagonist at PD 1 or immediately before testing did not alter ethanol-induced reinforcement. High (i.e., 2.5 and 2.0 g/kg) but not low (i.e., 0.5 g/kg) ethanol dose induced reliable motor stimulation, which was independent of early maternal separation. Ethanol intake and blood alcohol levels during conditioning were unaffected by rearing conditions. Pups given early maternal separation had lower body weights than controls and showed an altered pattern of exploration when placed in an open field. These results indicate that, when assessed in infant rats, earlier maternal separation alters the balance between the appetitive and aversive motivational effects of ethanol but has no effect on the motor activating effects of the drug. PMID:22108648

  18. Ethanol tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ingram, L O

    1990-01-01

    The adverse effects of ethanol on bacterial growth, viability, and metabolism are caused primarily by ethanol-induced leakage of the plasma membrane. This increase in membrane leakage is consistent with known biophysical properties of membranes and ethanolic solutions. The primary actions of ethanol result from colligative effects of the high molar concentrations rather than from specific interactions with receptors. The ethanol tolerance of growth in different microorganisms appears to result in large part from adaptive and evolutionary changes in cell membrane composition. Different cellular activities vary in their tolerance to ethanol. Therefore, it is essential that the aspect of cellular function under study be specifically defined and that comparisons of ethanol tolerance among systems share this common definition. Growth is typically one of the most sensitive cellular activities to inhibition by ethanol, followed by survival, or loss of reproductive ability. Glycolysis is the most resistant of these three activities. Since glycolysis is an exergonic process, a cell need not be able to grow or remain viable for glycolysis to occur. PMID:2178781

  19. Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals

  20. Acceleration of the rate of ethanol fermentation by addition of nitrogen in high tannin grain sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this communication, the authors show that accelerated rates of ethanol production, comparable to sorghum varieties containing low levels of tannins and to corn, can occur without the removal of the tannins. The basis of the inhibition appears to be a lack of sufficient nitrogen in the mash for protein synthesis required to support an accelerated fermentative metabolism in Saccharomyces. No inhibition of the enzymes used for starch hydrolysis was found.

  1. Respiratory Chain Analysis of Zymomonas mobilis Mutants Producing High Levels of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2012-01-01

    We previously isolated respiratory-deficient mutant (RDM) strains of Zymomonas mobilis, which exhibited greater growth and enhanced ethanol production under aerobic conditions. These RDM strains also acquired thermotolerance. Morphologically, the cells of all RDM strains were shorter compared to the wild-type strain. We investigated the respiratory chains of these RDM strains and found that some RDM strains lost NADH dehydrogenase activity, whereas others exhibited reduced cytochrome bd-type ubiquinol oxidase or ubiquinol peroxidase activities. Complementation experiments restored the wild-type phenotype. Some RDM strains seem to have certain mutations other than the corresponding respiratory chain components. RDM strains with deficient NADH dehydrogenase activity displayed the greatest amount of aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that all NADH dehydrogenase-deficient strains were mutated within the ndh gene, which includes insertion, deletion, or frameshift. These results suggested that the loss of NADH dehydrogenase activity permits the acquisition of higher aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance in this industrially important strain. PMID:22660712

  2. Respiratory chain analysis of Zymomonas mobilis mutants producing high levels of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2012-08-01

    We previously isolated respiratory-deficient mutant (RDM) strains of Zymomonas mobilis, which exhibited greater growth and enhanced ethanol production under aerobic conditions. These RDM strains also acquired thermotolerance. Morphologically, the cells of all RDM strains were shorter compared to the wild-type strain. We investigated the respiratory chains of these RDM strains and found that some RDM strains lost NADH dehydrogenase activity, whereas others exhibited reduced cytochrome bd-type ubiquinol oxidase or ubiquinol peroxidase activities. Complementation experiments restored the wild-type phenotype. Some RDM strains seem to have certain mutations other than the corresponding respiratory chain components. RDM strains with deficient NADH dehydrogenase activity displayed the greatest amount of aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that all NADH dehydrogenase-deficient strains were mutated within the ndh gene, which includes insertion, deletion, or frameshift. These results suggested that the loss of NADH dehydrogenase activity permits the acquisition of higher aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance in this industrially important strain. PMID:22660712

  3. Impact of high temperature on ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus immobilized on banana leaf sheath pieces.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Du; Thanonkeo, Pornthap; Le, Van Viet Man

    2013-10-01

    Ethanol fermentation was carried out with Kluyveromyces marxianus cells at various temperatures (30, 35, 40, and 45 C). Fermentation performance of the immobilized yeast on banana leaf sheath pieces and the free yeast were evaluated and compared. Generally, ethanol production of the immobilized and free yeast was stable in a temperature range of 30-40 C. Temperature of 45 C restricted yeast growth and lengthened the fermentation. The immobilized yeast demonstrated faster sugar assimilation and higher ethanol level in the fermentation broth in comparison with the free yeast at all fermentation temperatures. Change in fatty acid level in cellular membrane was determined to clarify the response of the free and immobilized yeast to thermal stress. The free cells of K. marxianus responded to temperature increase by increasing saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0) level and by decreasing unsaturated fatty acid (C18:1 and C18:2) level in cellular membrane. For fermentation at 40 C with immobilized cells of K. marxianus, however, the changes were not observed in both saturated fatty acid (C16:0) and unsaturated fatty acid (C18:1 and C18:2) level. PMID:23900619

  4. Ethanol Causes Protein PrecipitationNew Safety Issues for Catheter Locking Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Schilcher, Gernot; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Schneditz, Daniel; Scharnagl, Hubert; Ribitsch, Werner; Krause, Robert; Rosenkranz, Alexander R.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Horina, Joerg H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The ethanol lock technique has shown great potential to eradicate organisms in biofilms and to treat or prevent central venous catheter related infections. Following instillation of ethanol lock solution, however, the inherent density gradient between blood and ethanol causes gravity induced seepage of ethanol out of the catheter and blood influx into the catheter. Plasma proteins so are exposed to highly concentrated ethanol, which is a classic agent for protein precipitation. We aimed to investigate the precipitating effect of ethanol locks on plasma proteins as a possible cause for reported catheter occlusions. Methods Plasma samples were exposed in-vitro to ethanol (concentrations ranging from 7 to 70 v/v%) and heparin lock solutions. In catheter studies designed to mimic different in-vivo situations, the catheter tip was placed in a plasma reservoir and the material contained within the catheter was analyzed after ethanol lock instillation. The samples underwent standardized investigation for protein precipitation. Results Protein precipitation was observed in plasma samples containing ethanol solutions above a concentration of 28%, as well as in material retrieved from vertically positioned femoral catheters and jugular (subclavian) catheters simulating recumbent or head down tilt body positions. Precipitates could not be re-dissolved by dilution with plasma, urokinase or alteplase. Plasma samples containing heparin lock solutions showed no signs of precipitation. Conclusions Our in-vitro results demonstrate that ethanol locks may be associated with plasma protein precipitation in central venous catheters. This phenomenon could be related to occlusion of vascular access devices locked with ethanol, as has been reported. Concerns should be raised regarding possible complications upon injection or spontaneous gravity induced leakage of such irreversibly precipitated protein particles into the systemic circulation. We suggest limiting the maximum advisable concentration of ethanol to 28 v/v% in catheter lock solutions. PMID:24391979

  5. Confirm High Blood Pressure Outside Doctor's Office, U.S. Task Force Says

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Outside Doctor's Office, U.S. Task Force Says Expert group advises ambulatory or home monitoring ... for hypertension, a new U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation says. Many factors can affect blood ...

  6. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  7. Enhanced bio-ethanol production from cellulosic materials by semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using high temperature resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ14.

    PubMed

    Shahsavarani, Hosein; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Yokota, Daiki; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Harashima, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The capability of multi-stress-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strain TJ14 for the production of cellulosic bio-ethanol by semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) technology was evaluated under high-temperature conditions. At 39C, the TJ14 produced 45 g/l ethanol by SSSF of 100 g (w/v)/l cellulose - a significantly higher concentration than reported in prevailing literature. PMID:22925900

  8. Highly active iridium/iridium-tin/tin oxide heterogeneous nanoparticles as alternative electrocatalysts for the ethanol oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenxin; Wang, Qi; Saxner, David; Deskins, N Aaron; Su, Dong; Krzanowski, James E; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Teng, Xiaowei

    2011-09-28

    Ethanol is a promising fuel for low-temperature direct fuel cell reactions due to its low toxicity, ease of storage and transportation, high-energy density, and availability from biomass. However, the implementation of ethanol fuel cell technology has been hindered by the lack of low-cost, highly active anode catalysts. In this paper, we have studied Iridium (Ir)-based binary catalysts as low-cost alternative electrocatalysts replacing platinum (Pt)-based catalysts for the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) reaction. We report the synthesis of carbon supported Ir(71)Sn(29) catalysts with an average diameter of 2.7 0.6 nm through a "surfactant-free" wet chemistry approach. The complementary characterization techniques, including aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, are used to identify the "real" heterogeneous structure of Ir(71)Sn(29)/C particles as Ir/Ir-Sn/SnO(2), which consists of an Ir-rich core and an Ir-Sn alloy shell with SnO(2) present on the surface. The Ir(71)Sn(29)/C heterogeneous catalyst exhibited high electrochemical activity toward the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to the commercial Pt/C (ETEK), PtRu/C (Johnson Matthey) as well as PtSn/C catalysts. Electrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the superior electro-activity is directly related to the high degree of Ir-Sn alloy formation as well as the existence of nonalloyed SnO(2) on surface. Our cross-disciplinary work, from novel "surfactant-free" synthesis of Ir-Sn catalysts, theoretical simulations, and catalytic measurements to the characterizations of "real" heterogeneous nanostructures, will not only highlight the intriguing structure-property correlations in nanosized catalysts but also have a transformative impact on the commercialization of DEFC technology by replacing Pt with low-cost, highly active Ir-based catalysts. PMID:21812458

  9. Highly Active Iridium/Iridium Tin/Tin Oxide Heterogeneous Nanoparticles as Alternative Electrocatalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Du W.; Su D.; Wang Q.; Saxner D.; Deskins N.A.; Krzanowski J.E.; Frenkel A.I.; Teng X.

    2011-08-03

    Ethanol is a promising fuel for low-temperature direct fuel cell reactions due to its low toxicity, ease of storage and transportation, high-energy density, and availability from biomass. However, the implementation of ethanol fuel cell technology has been hindered by the lack of low-cost, highly active anode catalysts. In this paper, we have studied Iridium (Ir)-based binary catalysts as low-cost alternative electrocatalysts replacing platinum (Pt)-based catalysts for the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) reaction. We report the synthesis of carbon supported Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29} catalysts with an average diameter of 2.7 {+-} 0.6 nm through a 'surfactant-free' wet chemistry approach. The complementary characterization techniques, including aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, are used to identify the 'real' heterogeneous structure of Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C particles as Ir/Ir-Sn/SnO{sub 2}, which consists of an Ir-rich core and an Ir-Sn alloy shell with SnO{sub 2} present on the surface. The Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C heterogeneous catalyst exhibited high electrochemical activity toward the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to the commercial Pt/C (ETEK), PtRu/C (Johnson Matthey) as well as PtSn/C catalysts. Electrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the superior electro-activity is directly related to the high degree of Ir-Sn alloy formation as well as the existence of nonalloyed SnO{sub 2} on surface. Our cross-disciplinary work, from novel 'surfactant-free' synthesis of Ir-Sn catalysts, theoretical simulations, and catalytic measurements to the characterizations of 'real' heterogeneous nanostructures, will not only highlight the intriguing structure-property correlations in nanosized catalysts but also have a transformative impact on the commercialization of DEFC technology by replacing Pt with low-cost, highly active Ir-based catalysts.

  10. Rewarding and aversive effects of ethanol in High Drinking in the Dark selectively bred mice

    PubMed Central

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Smitasin, Phoebe J.; Crabbe, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Both rewarding and aversive effects contribute to alcohol consumption. Animals genetically predisposed to be high drinkers show reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol, and in some instances, increased sensitivity to alcohols rewarding effects. The present studies tested the High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) selected lines, a genetic model of drinking to intoxication, to determine whether intake in these mice was genetically related to sensitivity to alcohol aversion or reward. Male HDID mice from the first and second replicate lines (HDID-1 and HDID-2, respectively) and mice from the heterogeneous progenitor control population (HS/Npt, or HS) were conditioned for a taste aversion to a salt solution using 2 doses of alcohol, and lithium chloride (LiCl) and saline controls. In separate experiments, male and female HDID-1, HDID-2, and HS mice were conditioned for place preference using alcohol. HDID mice were found to have an attenuated sensitivity to alcohol at a moderate (2 g/kg) dose compared to HS mice, but did not differ on conditioned taste aversion to a high (4 g/kg) dose or LiCl or saline injections. HDID and HS mice showed comparable development of alcohol-induced conditioned place preference. These results indicate that high blood alcohol levels after drinking in the HDID mice is genetically related to attenuated aversion to alcohol, while sensitivity to alcohol reward is not altered in these mice. Thus, HDID mice may find a moderate dose of alcohol to be less aversive than control mice and consequently may drink more because of this reduced aversive sensitivity. PMID:23910826

  11. Rewarding and aversive effects of ethanol in High Drinking in the Dark selectively bred mice.

    PubMed

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M; Cunningham, Christopher L; Smitasin, Phoebe J; Crabbe, John C

    2015-01-01

    Both rewarding and aversive effects contribute to alcohol consumption. Animals genetically predisposed to be high drinkers show reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol, and in some instances, increased sensitivity to alcohol's rewarding effects. The present studies tested the high drinking in the dark (HDID) selected lines, a genetic model of drinking to intoxication, to determine whether intake in these mice was genetically related to sensitivity to alcohol aversion or reward. Male HDID mice from the first and second replicate lines (HDID-1 and HDID-2, respectively) and mice from the heterogeneous progenitor control population (HS/Npt, or HS) were conditioned for a taste aversion to a salt solution using two doses of alcohol, and lithium chloride (LiCl) and saline controls. In separate experiments, male and female HDID-1, HDID-2 and HS mice were conditioned for place preference using alcohol. HDID mice were found to have an attenuated sensitivity to alcohol at a moderate (2?g/kg) dose compared to HS mice, but did not differ on conditioned taste aversion to a high (4?g/kg) dose or LiCl or saline injections. HDID and HS mice showed comparable development of alcohol-induced conditioned place preference. These results indicate that high blood alcohol levels after drinking in the HDID mice is genetically related to attenuated aversion to alcohol, while sensitivity to alcohol reward is not altered in these mice. Thus, HDID mice may find a moderate dose of alcohol to be less aversive than control mice and consequently may drink more because of this reduced aversive sensitivity. PMID:23910826

  12. Ionic liquid ethanol sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuan Gee; Chou, Tse-Chuan

    2004-07-30

    Ionic liquids containing lithium methylsulfonyl group were prepared from the precursors poly(propylene glycol)-block-(ethylene glycol)-block-(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) with different molecular weight. These liquids revealed excellent electrical conductivity in the temperature range -25 to 85 degrees C. Also, they exhibited a high boiling temperature and hence a low vapor pressure in ambient condition. Additionally, they showed a high fluidity with their viscosities being comparative with that of water. To determine the sensitivity of an ethanol sensor by using these ionic liquids, these liquids were subjected into a sequential electrochemical tests with nickel electrodes which performed a high sensitivity for the ethanol sensor. It was found that only the derivative with low molecular weight could detect ethanol. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the response current and the concentration of ethanol was constructed. The detection limit was found to be 0.13% (v/v) and its response time was 336 s. PMID:15142574

  13. Identification of crucial yeast inhibitors in bio-ethanol and improvement of fermentation at high pH and high total solids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongzhi; Guo, Xinyan; Li, Dongmin; Liu, Mengmeng; Wu, Jiafang; Ren, Haiyu

    2011-08-01

    Compounds inhibitory to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation are generated from neutral steam exploded corn stover in the process of producing bio-ethanol. In this study, weak acids were identified as main yeast inhibitors, while phenols and aldehyde contribute to the inhibition to a lower degree. Main weak acids in hydrolysates are acetic acid and formic acid, for which critical levels for yeast inhibition are 6 and 4g/L, respectively. The inhibitory effect of these compounds can be greatly overcome by increasing pH of hydrolysates to 6.0-9.0, but there is a risk of bacterial contamination when fermenting at high pH. The relationship of pH, total solids of hydrolysates, fermentation and contamination was studied in detail. Results indicate that the contamination by bacteria when fermenting at high pH can be prevented effectively using hydrolysates with total solids of more than 20%. Meanwhile, ethanol yield is improved significantly. PMID:21624827

  14. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood is an excellent flocculating agent, faster acting and as effective on a mass basis as polyacrylamide, the most widely utilized polymeric flocculant. To determine the molecular basis of flocculation activity, whole bovine blood (BB) and BB plasma were fractionated by size exclusion chro...

  15. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ridker, Paul M; Buring, Julie E; Glynn, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Women's health study, United States. Participants 39?322 initially healthy women classified into four categories according to self reported baseline blood pressure and followed for a median of 10.2 years. Main outcome measures Time to cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (major cardiovascular eventprimary end point); progression to hypertension. Results 982 (2.5%) women developed a major cardiovascular event, and 8686 (30.1%) women without baseline hypertension progressed to hypertension. The age adjusted event rate for the primary end point was 1.6/1000 person years among women with normal blood pressure, 2.9/1000 person years among those with high normal blood pressure, and 4.3/1000 person years among those with baseline hypertension. Compared with women with high normal blood pressure (reference group), those with normal blood pressure had a lower risk of a major cardiovascular event (adjusted hazard ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.76) and of incident hypertension (0.42, 0.40 to 0.44). The hazard ratio for a major cardiovascular event in women with baseline hypertension was 1.30 (1.08 to 1.57). Women who progressed to hypertension (reference group) during the first 48 months of the study had a higher cardiovascular risk than those who remained normotensive (adjusted hazard ratio 0.64, 0.50 to 0.81). Women with high normal blood pressure at baseline who progressed to hypertension (reference group) had similar outcome rates to women with baseline hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio 1.17, 0.88 to 1.55). Conclusion The cardiovascular risk of women with high normal blood pressure is higher than that of women with normal blood pressure. The cardiovascular risk of women who progress to hypertension is increased shortly after a diagnosis of hypertension has been made. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00000479. PMID:17704543

  16. Ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-17

    It is reported that Alcogas' 400,000 gal/year ethanol plant at Ordway, Colorado has been put onstream. The plant can produce 190 proof ethanol from corn, milo, and watermelon which will then be refined to 200 proof and sold to petroleum distributors for use in gasohol.

  17. Was a child poisoned by ethanol? Discrimination between ante-mortem consumption and post-mortem formation.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schuman, Marc; Wennig, Robert

    2008-09-01

    The presence of ethanol in human specimens collected during autopsies is generally considered as an indication of recent ante-mortem alcohol consumption. The interpretation of the results may however be impaired by post-mortem formation of ethanol when microorganisms capable of fermentation of glucose to ethanol are present. Since the distribution in the different fluids and tissues remains contentious to conclude on the origin of the detected ethanol, the determination of specific metabolites of ethanol such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) may be performed to discriminate between exogenous (ante-mortem) and endogenous (post-mortem). Toxicological analysis of specimens from the autopsy of a child aged 14 months displayed a high concentration of ethanol in blood and tissues. In order to discriminate between ante-mortem alcohol administration and post-mortem formation, the presence of microorganisms capable of ethanol production was checked by fermentation tests and the liver was tested for the presence of EtG and compared with a positive control. Fermentation tests displayed in the blood of the deceased the presence of the bacterial strain Lactococcus garvieae capable of producing ethanol from glucose. The absence of EtG in the liver of the deceased compared to the high level (19.56 mug/g) detected in the positive control's liver is a further indication that the ethanol detected in the body of the deceased is of post-mortem origin. PMID:18594851

  18. Dehydrate ethanol without distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Usina da Pedra (Serrana, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil) produces 60 million gal/yr of ethanol in 180 operating days. Until this year, the plant made 96 vol.% ethanol that is used as automotive fuel, and absolute ethanol (99.5 vol. %), which is blended with gasoline. Water is the remainder in both products. The ethanol is produced from the fermentation of sugar cane, and distilled with benzene. Benzene lowers the boiling point of the ethanol-water mixture and ties up the water. In May, Usina da Pedra installed a process that dehydrates ethanol by adsorption, not distillation. A vapor-phase process containing molecular sieves, handles throughputs as high as 160,000 acfh and has a maximum capacity of 70 million gal/yr. In addition to generating safer products, the energy savings gained by switching from distillation to adsorption are significant. The adsorptive system requires input of only 2,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol; one-third the energy consumed by distillation systems that employ benzene or cyclohexane.

  19. Red Blood Cell Dysfunction Induced by High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Unruh, Dusten; Srinivasan, Ramprasad; Benson, Tyler; Haigh, Stephen; Coyle, Danielle; Batra, Neil; Keil, Ryan; Sturm, Robert; Blanco, Victor; Palascak, Mary; Franco, Robert S.; Tong, Wilson; Chatterjee, Tapan; Hui, David Y.; Davidson, W. Sean; Aronow, Bruce J.; Kalfa, Theodosia; Manka, David; Peairs, Abigail; Blomkalns, Andra; Fulton, David J.; Brittain, Julia E.; Weintraub, Neal L.; Bogdanov, Vladimir Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background High-fat diet (HFD) promotes endothelial dysfunction and proinflammatory monocyte activation, which contribute to atherosclerosis in obesity. We investigated whether HFD also induces the dysfunction of red blood cells (RBCs), which serve as a reservoir for chemokines via binding to Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC). Methods and Results A 60% HFD for 12 weeks, which produced only minor changes in lipid profile in C57/BL6 mice, markedly augmented the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 bound to RBCs, which in turn stimulated macrophage migration through an endothelial monolayer. Levels of RBC-bound KC were also increased by HFD. These effects of HFD were abolished in DARC−/− mice. In RBCs from HFD-fed wild-type and DARC−/− mice, levels of membrane cholesterol and phosphatidylserine externalization were increased, fostering RBC-macrophage inflammatory interactions and promoting macrophage phagocytosis in vitro. When labeled ex vivo and injected into wild-type mice, RBCs from HFD-fed mice exhibited ≈3-fold increase in splenic uptake. Finally, RBCs from HFD-fed mice induced increased macrophage adhesion to the endothelium when they were incubated with isolated aortic segments, indicating endothelial activation. Conclusions RBC dysfunction, analogous to endothelial dysfunction, occurs early during diet-induced obesity and may serve as a mediator of atherosclerosis. These findings may have implications for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in obesity, a worldwide epidemic. PMID:26467254

  20. Bioinformatics Analyses Reveals Age-Specific Neuroimmune Modulation as a Target for Treatment of High Ethanol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rajiv G.; Owen, Julie A.; Levin, Patricia S.; Hewetson, Aveline; Berman, Ari. E.; Franklin, Scott R.; Hogue, Ryan J.; Chen, Yukun; Walz, Chris; Colvard, Benjamin D.; Nguyen, Jonathan; Velasquez, Oscar; Al-Hasan, Yazan; Blednov, Yuri A.; Fowler, Anna-Kate; Syapin, Peter J.; Bergeson, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of in silico bioinformatics analyses has led to important leads in the complex nature of alcoholism at the genomic, epigenomic, and proteomic level, but has not previously been successfully translated to the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In this study, a bioinformatics approach led to the discovery of neuroimmune pathways as an age-specific druggable target. Minocycline, a neuroimmune modulator, reduced high ethanol drinking in adult, but not adolescent, mice as predicted a priori. Methods Age and sex-divergent effects in alcohol consumption were quantified in FVB/NJ × C57BL/6J F1 mice given access to 20% alcohol using a 4 hr/day, 4-day Drinking-In-Dark (DID) paradigm. In silico bioinformatics pathway over-representation analysis for age-specific effects of alcohol in brain was performed using gene expression data collected in control and DID-treated, adolescent and adult, male mice. Minocycline (50 mg/kg i.p., once daily) or saline alone was tested for an effect on ethanol intake in the F1 and C57BL/6J (B6) mice across both age and gender groups. Effects of minocycline on the pharmacokinetic properties of alcohol were evaluated by comparing the rates of ethanol elimination between the saline and minocycline treated F1 and B6 mice. Results Age and gender differences in DID consumption were identified. Only males showed a clear developmental increase difference in drinking over time. In silico analyses revealed neuroimmune-related pathways as significantly over-represented in adult, but not adolescent, male mice. As predicted, minocycline treatment reduced drinking in adult, but not adolescent, mice. The age effect was present for both genders, and in both the F1 and B6 mice. Minocycline had no effect on the pharmacokinetic elimination of ethanol. Conclusions Our results are a proof of concept that bioinformatics analysis of brain gene expression can lead to the generation of new hypotheses and a positive translational outcome for individualized pharmacotherapeutic treatment of high alcohol consumption. PMID:24125126

  1. Ethanol injection is highly effective for hepatocellular carcinoma smaller than 2 cm

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Nicolardi, Erica; Abbate, Valeria; Miele, Luca; Riccardi, Laura; Covino, Marcello; Matthaeis, Nicoletta De; Grieco, Antonio; Landolfi, Raffaele; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the long-term prognosis in a cohort of western cirrhotic patients with single hepatocellular carcinoma treated with ethanol injection. METHODS: One-hundred forty-eight patients with solitary hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled. The tumor diameter was lower than 2 cm in 47 patients but larger in the remaining 101 patients. The impact of some pre-treatment clinical and laboratory parameters and of tumor recurrence on patients’ survival was assessed. RESULTS: Among the pre-treatment parameters, only a tumor diameter of less than 2 cm was an independent prognostic factor of survival. The occurrence of new nodules in other liver segments and the neoplastic portal invasion were linked to a poorer prognosis at univariate analysis. Patients with a single hepatocellular carcinoma smaller than 2 cm showed a better 5-year cumulative survival (73.0% vs 47.9%) (P = 0.009), 3-year local recurrence rate (29.1% vs 51.5%) (P = 0.011), and 5-year distant intrahepatic recurrence rate (52.9% vs 62.8%) (P = 0.054) compared to patients with a larger tumor. CONCLUSION: The 5-year survival rate of patients with single hepatocellular carcinoma < 2 cm undergoing ethanol injection is excellent and comparable to that achieved using radiofrequency ablation. PMID:21912455

  2. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  3. [How urgent is it to decrease high blood pressure?].

    PubMed

    Ardigo, S; Rutschmann, O; Waeber, B; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2008-04-16

    Severe hypertension represents a frequent problem for the general practitioner. One has to decide if the blood pressure needs to be decreased immediately (hypertensive emergency), or if the blood pressure maybe progressively decreased in a few hours and normalized in a few days (hypertensive crisis). Thus it is crucial to identify on the basis of the clinical history and a careful physical examination, the patients for whom the arterial blood pressure elevation represents an acute danger for organ damage or a vital threat in the absence of immediate blood pressure control. In the case of hypertensive crisis, oral medication is usually sufficient (slow release or GITS nifedipine, nitroglycerin, labetalol, captopril). The hypertensive emergency sometimes requires an oral medication before the admission to the emergency room, then followed by intravenous drug administration (sodium nitroprussiate, nitroglycerin, labetalol). PMID:18551913

  4. Longitudinal Assessment of High Blood Pressure in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Zepeda, Anne; Newton, Kimberly P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Behling, Cynthia; Hallinan, Erin K.; Donithan, Michele; Tonascia, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD. Methods Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks. Results Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P?=?0.003). Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively). Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P?=?0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD. PMID:25419656

  5. Ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers at high temperature by newly isolated thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus using consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Charoensopharat, Kanlayani; Thanonkeo, Pornthap; Thanonkeo, Sudarat; Yamada, Mamoru

    2015-07-01

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains were successfully isolated in this study. Among the isolated strains, Kluyveromyces marxianus DBKKU Y-102 was found to be the most effective strain for direct ethanol fermentation at high temperature from fresh Jerusalem artichoke (JA) tubers without inulin hydrolysis under consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). The maximum ethanol concentrations produced by this strain under the optimum culture conditions were 104.83 and 97.46 g L(-1) at 37 and 40 °C, respectively. Data from this study clearly demonstrated that the use of thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast K. marxianus for ethanol production from fresh JA tubers in the CBP process not only provided high levels of ethanol, but also could eliminate the addition of external enzyme for inulin hydrolysis, which might lead to the reduction of operating costs. The expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in K. marxianus DBKKU Y-102 during ethanol fermentation was investigated by real-time RT-PCR, and the results revealed that expression levels were distinctive depending on the growth phase and growth conditions. However, among the genes tested, adh4 and tdh2 were highly expressed under high temperature conditions in both exponential- and stationary-growth phases, suggesting that these genes might play a crucial role in acquiring thermotolerance ability in this organism under stress conditions. PMID:25980834

  6. Amorphous CoSn alloys decorated by Pt as high efficiency electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiangtai; Wang, Rongfang; Ji, Shan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qizhao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the electro-catalytic behaviour of Pt decorating amorphous alloys in the electro-oxidation of ethanol. Pt decorated CoSn nanoparticles on carbon (denoted as Pt-CoSn/C) are prepared using a two-stage chemical synthesis (sol-gel preparation and Steady-state replacement method). The structure of Pt-CoSn/C nanoparticles is confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Under the same quantity of platinum, the Pt-CoSn/C nanoparticles have higher activity in alcohol oxidation than the Pt/C, PtRu/C and PtSn/C nanoparticles in cyclic voltammetry tests. The structure of Pt decorating amorphous CoSn alloys notably decreases the usage of Pt and enhances its catalytic activity at the same time.

  7. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  8. Influence of fiber degradation and concentration of fermentable sugars on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of high-solids spruce slurry to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic materials, such as spruce, should be performed at high solids contents in order to reduce the cost of the produced bioethanol. However, this has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields or a complete lack of ethanol production. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results when prehydrolysis is performed at a higher temperature prior to the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic materials. In some cases, a significant increase in overall ethanol yield was reported, while in others, a slight decrease in ethanol yield was observed. In order to investigate the influence of prehydrolysis on high-solids SSF of steam-pretreated spruce slurry, in the present study, the presence of fibers and inhibitors, degree of fiber degradation and initial fermentable sugar concentration has been studied. Results SSF of whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry at a solids content of 13.7% water-insoluble solids (WIS) resulted in a very low overall ethanol yield, mostly due to poor fermentation. The yeast was, however, able to ferment the washed slurry and the liquid fraction of the pretreated slurry. Performing prehydrolysis at 48°C for 22 hours prior to SSF of the whole pretreated slurry increased the overall ethanol yield from 3.9 to 62.1%. The initial concentration of fermentable sugars in SSF could not explain the increase in ethanol yield in SSF with prehydrolysis. Although the viscosity of the material did not appear to decrease significantly during prehydrolysis, the degradation of the fibers prior to the addition of the yeast had a positive effect on ethanol yield when using whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that the increase in ethanol yield from SSF when performing prehydrolysis is a result of fiber degradation rather than a decrease in viscosity. The increased concentration of fermentable sugars at the beginning of the fermentation phase in SSF following prehydrolysis did not affect the overall ethanol yield in the present study. PMID:24103097

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation with unprocessed and ethanol-extracted apple pomaces on caecal fermentation, antioxidant and blood biomarkers in rats.

    PubMed

    Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zary-Sikorska, Ewa; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Król, Bogusław; Jarosławska, Julia; Jurgoński, Adam

    2012-04-01

    The present 4-week study on growing Wistar rats was aimed at assessing the potential advantages of dietary supplementation with apple pomace containing both fibre and polyphenols, which enables nutritional exploitation of the physiological traits of both compounds. A total of twenty-four rats, assigned to the control (C), group fed with a diet supplemented with 14% of processed apple pomace (A) and group fed with a diet supplemented with 15% unprocessed apple pomace (AP) groups, were fed the following iso-fibrous diets: control, ethanol-extracted and unprocessed apple pomaces (low and high level of dietary polyphenols, i.e. 0·002 and 0·018%, respectively). To measure the animal response, parameters describing the caecal fermentation, antioxidative status and lipoprotein profile of rats were assessed. Both dietary apple pomaces were found to significantly (P≤0·05) decrease caecal pH and ammonia concentration, microbial β-glucuronidase activity as well as to increase caecal SCFA concentration in comparison to the control diet. The unprocessed pomace did not suppress caecal fermentation. Unlike the extracted one, the dietary apple pomace rich in polyphenols significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and serum antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances and significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) decreased amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver tissue. Moreover, the 4-week administration of the AP diet to rats evoked a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (P≤0·05 v. C and A groups). In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the polyphenol-rich fibre complexes from apple pomace exerted positive effects on gastrointestinal physiology and antioxidant status of rats. PMID:21867578

  10. Blood pressure response in 24 hours in patients with high blood pressure treated with two nifedipine formulations once a day.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Roa, E; Octavio, A; Mayorca, E; Castro, P; Miranda, R; Valecillo, E; Gonzlez, M

    2002-03-01

    A double-blind, comparative and prospective study with nifedipine once a day was undertaken, in patients with mild and moderate high blood pressure. Blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer in two positions: resting and sitting at 3, 6 and 12 weeks of treatment and by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) over 24 h; both were carried out before and after the treatment and the uniformity in the pressure levels were obtained by means of the Smoothness Index. Fifty-four patients were included in the trial, 28 in the microgranules group and 26 in the osmotic pump group. These groups were similar at the baseline in age, gender, weight, height, diastolic and systolic blood pressure. The nifedipine microgranules group had a heart rate higher than the nifedipine osmotic pump group at baseline (X(M) = 75.58 vs. X(B) = 70.75). Blood pressure decreased significantly during the first 3 weeks; 85% in the microgranules group and 75% in the osmotic pump group reached a blood pressure < or =140/90 mm Hg at the end of the study. Three patients in the microgranules group and two in the osmotic pump group required an additional antihypertensive drug. In both groups, the average blood pressure over 24 h was lowered without differences between groups. A decrease was induced in the heart rate in both groups which reached a marginal statistical significance in the microgranules nifedipine group. No changes were induced in the laboratory tests; two patients in the microgranules (8%) nifedipine group and five in the nifedipine osmotic pump group, adverse effects were observed, of which only one in each group required stopping the treatment. PMID:11986915

  11. Study on absorption spectrum of human high blood fat serum based on wavelet denoise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weihua; Zhao, Zhimin; Guo, Xin; Wang, Lexin; Chen, Hui

    2007-11-01

    Blood spectrum examination has many superiorities, however , its spectrum signals often include the noise. The wavelet transformation method has good partial analysis ability on the signal. In this paper, the author chooses the normal person's blood serum and the high blood fat serum, carries them on the absorption spectrum examination. The author takes the wavelet theory as the foundation, uses it in human body blood serum absorption spectrum signal processing .Finally , it can smooth the noise well and make more useful information stand out . The normal person blood serum renewedly structural spectrum signal appears 8 absorptions peaks at 207nm, 215nm,223nm, 230.5nm, 240nm, 267.5nm, 277nm and 284.5nm place, the high blood fat blood serum renewedly structural spectrum signal appears 9 absorption speaks at 203.5nm, 211.5nm, 219.5nm, 236nm,243.5nm, 267.5nm, 275nm, 282nm and 289nm place. From above, the information of renewedly structural blood serum spectrum signal using the wavelet transformation method in the wave length 200nm~300nm section increases obviously. The high blood fat blood serum sample spectrum's two peaks positions gap between 219.5nm and the 236nm is obviously wider than the two peaks positions' gap of normal person blood serum sample in this spectrum section. Not only so, the former owns a peak at 289nm place but the latter not.

  12. High resolution of honey bee (Apis mellifera) venom peptides by propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after ethanol precipitation.

    PubMed

    Chettibi, S; Lawrence, A

    1989-01-01

    A new and simple gel electrophoretic method is described which enables the protein and polypeptide components of bee venom to be resolved on a single gel. The electrophoretic method allows octapeptides to be resolved and species as small as decapeptides can be detected at high sensitivity using the Coomassie blue staining method without prior fixation. This has been achieved by replacing acetic acid by propionic acid in acid/urea polyacrylamide gels and by controlling the amount of TEMED catalyst for the polymerisation of high concentration gels in order to obtain a low effective pore size. We demonstrated the value of ethanol precipitation as a rapid and efficient desalting the fractionation technique and propose that it could be used in combination with gel filtration to purify many of the peptides to homogeneity. PMID:2781578

  13. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195

  14. Upregulation of cardiac NOS due to endotoxemia and vagal overactivity contributes to the hypotensive effect of chronic ethanol in female rats.

    PubMed

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M; Fan, Ming; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2011-01-10

    We previously reported that chronic ethanol lowers blood pressure in female rats. In this study, hemodynamic, biochemical, and immunoblot analyses were performed to investigate: (i) the roles of cardiac contractility and autonomic activity in the hypotensive action of ethanol, and (ii) whether endotoxemia-induced upregulation of cardiac and/or vascular nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms underlies the hypotensive and cardiac effects of ethanol. Telemetric monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, and myocardial contractility (dP/dt(max)) was performed in female rats receiving liquid diet with or without ethanol (5% w/v, 13weeks). Autonomic control was assessed by frequency domain analysis of interbeat intervals (IBI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Compared with pair-fed controls, ethanol caused sustained reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and+dP/dt(max). Ethanol feeding increased the spectral power of high-frequency band (IBI(HF), 0.75-3Hz) and decreased the low-frequency band (IBI(LF), 0.25-0.75Hz) and IBI(LF/HF) ratio, suggesting increased cardiac parasympathetic dominance. In contrast, vascular tone was not affected by ethanol because SBP spectral bands and plasma norepinephrine remained unchanged. Myocardial expressions of eNOS and its upstream regulators, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, and plasma endotoxin and nitrite/nitrate were increased by ethanol. Myocardial iNOS was also increased by ethanol whereas nNOS remained unchanged and aortic levels of all NOS isoforms were not altered by ethanol. These findings suggest that facilitation of myocardial PI3K/Akt/eNOS and iNOS pathways, due possibly to ethanol-induced endotoxemia and/or increased cardiac parasympathetic dominance, might constitute a cellular mechanism for the reduced myocardial contractility and hypotension caused by ethanol in female rats. PMID:20970417

  15. Ethanol labeling: detection of early fluid absorption in endometrial resection.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S; Cruise, M; Reilly, C; Reid, P C; Sharp, F

    1992-02-01

    A study is presented of ethanol labeling of irrigation fluid in endometrial resection. The introduction of ethanol labeling and intraoperative breath ethanol analysis provided an inexpensive and potentially useful means of detecting early fluid absorption during uterine surgery. The breath ethanol analyzer used was a hand-held meter; the irrigant solution was 5% dextrose with 1% ethanol. Simultaneous breath and venous samples were taken from women undergoing endometrial resection. An increase in breath ethanol was positively correlated with fluid absorption, blood ethanol, and serum glucose. This technique may prove valuable in preventing fluid overload during endometrial resection. PMID:1731301

  16. Low blood alcohol levels in rats despite chronic alcohol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W.; Lin, J.C.; Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Rats fed liquid diets containing 36% or 26% of calories from ethanol consume similar amounts of alcohol each day. After 3 weeks on ethanol diet, the blood alcohol levels (BAL) are high in rats fed the 36% alcohol diet, but low or insignificant in those fed the 26% alcohol diet. Rats in either alcohol diet group consume most of their diet in the night. Hence, the low BAL in 26% ethanol diet-fed rats may not be due to a more rapid diet consumption after feeding and clearance of the bulk of ingested alcohol as compared to the rats fed the 36% alcohol diet. BAL at various times during the day (7 AM, 10 AM, 1 PM, 4 PM, 7 PM and 10 PM) are high in rats fed the 36% ethanol diet. However, BAL in those fed the 26% ethanol diet are low during the corresponding times. It appears that the low BAL produced by the enhanced hepatic metabolism of ethanol is related to the improved nutritional status in rats fed the 26% ethanol diet, compared to those fed 36% ethanol diet, because rats fed the 36% ethanol diet ingest reduced amounts of calories and other nutrients. Extrahepatic effects of chronic alcohol consumption caused by high BAL may be abated by an enhanced daily intake of nutrients by the animal.

  17. A Mixture of Ethanol Extracts of Persimmon Leaf and Citrus junos Sieb Improves Blood Coagulation Parameters and Ameliorates Lipid Metabolism Disturbances Caused by Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ae Hyang; Kim, Hye Jin; Ryu, Ri; Han, Hye Jin; Han, Young Ji; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Yong Bok

    2016-02-28

    This study investigated the effects of a flavonoid-rich ethanol extract of persimmon leaf (PL), an ethanol extract of Citrus junos Sieb (CJS), and a PL-CJS mixture (MPC) on mice fed a highfat diet (HFD). We sought to elucidate the mechanisms of biological activity of these substances using measurements of blood coagulation indices and lipid metabolism parameters. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD with PL (0.5% (w/w)), CJS (0.1% (w/w)), or MPC (PL 0.5%, CJS 0.1% (w/w)) for 10 weeks. In comparison with data obtained for mice in the untreated HFD group, consumption of MPC remarkably prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT), whereas exposure to PL prolonged aPTT only. Lower levels of plasma total cholesterol, hepatic cholesterol, and erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, and decreased SREBP-1c gene expression were observed in mice that received PL and MPC supplements compared with the respective values detected in the untreated HFD animals. Our results indicate that PL and MPC may have beneficial effects on blood circulation and lipid metabolism in obese mice. PMID:26699754

  18. Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the systolic pressure. The second number is the pressure when the vessels relax between heartbeats. Its called the diastolic pressure. ... angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. These medicines lower blood pressure by ... vessels relaxed. ACE inhibitors prevent a hormone called angiotensin ...

  19. High Blood Pressure Treatment in Children (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of hypertension in childhood, such as seizures or heart failure. ● Hypertension that begins in childhood and adolescence may ... decreasing the rate and force with which the heart pumps blood. Commonly used beta blockers include metoprolol , atenolol , and bisoprolol . Side effects of ...

  20. Identification of RCN1 and RSA3 as ethanol-tolerant genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a high copy barcoded library.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael J; Barker, Sarah L; Boone, Charlie; Measday, Vivien

    2012-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S.cerevisiae) encounters a multitude of stresses during industrial processes such as wine fermentation including ethanol toxicity. High levels of ethanol reduce the viability of yeast and may prevent completion of fermentation. The identification of ethanol-tolerant genes is important for creating stress-resistant industrial yeast, and S.cerevisiae genomic resources have been utilized for this purpose. We have employed a molecular barcoded yeast open reading frame (MoBY-ORF) high copy plasmid library to identify ethanol-tolerant genes in both the S.cerevisiae S288C laboratory and M2 wine strains. We find that increased dosage of either RCN1 or RSA3 improves tolerance of S288C and M2 to toxic levels of ethanol. RCN1 is a regulator of calcineurin, whereas RSA3 has a role in ribosome maturation. Additional fitness advantages conferred upon overproduction of RCN1 and RSA3 include increased resistance to cell wall degradation, heat, osmotic and oxidative stress. We find that the M2 wine yeast strain is generally more tolerant of stress than S288C with the exception of translation inhibition, which affects M2 growth more severely than S288C. We conclude that regulation of ribosome biogenesis and ultimately translation is a critical factor for S.cerevisiae survival during industrial-related environmental stress. PMID:22093065

  1. Selection of stress-tolerant yeasts for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of very high gravity (VHG) potato mash to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Tamiya, Seiji; Yoshinaga, Masaru; Watanabe, Itsuki; Yamamoto, Mami; Ando, Akira; Tokuyasu, Ken; Nakamura, Toshihide

    2010-12-01

    Highly concentrated bioethanol production requires less volume in fermentation tanks and conserves distillery energy. We screened osmotolerant yeasts from a collection of 1699 yeast strains at our institute and found that three strains, NFRI3062, NFRI3213, and NFRI3225, were candidates for use in bioethanol production. All of these strains belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NFRI3062 produced 15.0% (w/v) of ethanol from YPD medium containing 35% glucose cultivated at 30 degrees C for 60 h, while S. cerevisiae NBRC0224, which has previously been reported suitable for ethanol production, only produced 13.0% (w/v). The thermotolerances of NFRI3213 and NFRI3225 were also superior to those of NBRC0224 and NFRI3062. We also demonstrated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of very high gravity (VHG) potato mash and sweet-potato mash. NFRI3225 produced ethanol from potato mash at the fastest rate and in the highest volume (13.7% (w/v)) among the tested strains. The maximum productivity and ethanol yields were 9.1g/L/h and 92.3%, respectively. Although the potato mash was not sterilized, bacterial contamination was not observed. This may have been due to the growth inhibition of bacteria by the rapid glucose consumption and ethanol production of NFRI3225 during the VHG-SSF process. PMID:20705456

  2. Characterization and bioavailability of tea polyphenol nanoliposome prepared by combining an ethanol injection method with dynamic high-pressure microfluidization.

    PubMed

    Zou, Li-qiang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Wei-lin; Liang, Rui-hong; Li, Ti; Liu, Cheng-mei; Cao, Yan-lin; Niu, Jing; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-29

    Tea polyphenols are major polyphenolic substances found in green tea with various biological activities. To overcome their instability toward oxygen and alkaline environments, tea polyphenol nanoliposome (TPN) was prepared by combining an ethanol injection method with dynamic high-pressure microfluidization. Good physicochemical characterizations (entrapment efficiency = 78.5%, particle size = 66.8 nm, polydispersity index = 0.213, and zeta potential = -6.16 mv) of TPN were observed. Compared with tea polyphenol solution, TPN showed equivalent antioxidant activities, indicated by equal DPPH free radical scavenging and slightly lower ferric reducing activities and lower inhibitions against Staphylococcus aureus , Escerhichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium , and Listeria monocytogenes . In addition, a relatively good sustained release property was observed in TPN, with only 29.8% tea polyphenols released from nanoliposome after 24 h of incubation. Moreover, TPN improved the stability of tea polyphenol in alkaline solution. This study expects to provide theories and practice guides for further applications of TPN. PMID:24428744

  3. Relation between ethanol induced changes in plasma catecholines during stress and voluntary ethanol preference

    SciTech Connect

    Pashko, S.

    1986-03-01

    N/NIH rats (N = 10) were implanted with venous catheters to permit stressless chronic, repeated blood withdrawal. Following surgical recovery, the rats were restrained to a lab counter top for 30 min after injection with saline or low dose (0.5 g/kg) ethanol. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn to determine AUC production of NE and E to assess the effect that low dose ethanol has on stress responsiveness. Between saline injection restraint and ethanol injection restraint conditions no differences in NE or E AUC were apparent. A 2- bottle preference test for ethanol was then performed over 21 days. Multiple regression analyses of NE saline restraint and ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .02 level with R/sup 2/ = .681. Multiple regressions of E saline restraint and E ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .01 level with R/sup 2/ = .746. These data suggest that ethanol induced increases in plasma NE and E during stress can predict later voluntary ethanol consumption between the ranges of .13 and 1.05 g ethanol/kg/day. This data seems to be more in line with an arousal or withdrawal relationship between ethanol consumption and stress than by a simple tension reduction formulation based on plasma NE or E.

  4. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Kim, In H

    2014-06-01

    A total of 105 growing pigs (24.91 ± 1.06 kg) were used in a 6-week trial to investigate the effects of including Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract (SPE) in the diet on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions. Pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (seven pens/treatment, five pigs/pen) according to initial body weight and sex (two gilts and three barrows). Treatments consisted of a corn soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SPE. There was a significant linear improvement (P < 0.05) in average daily gain, gain/feed, the apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and gross energy, blood lymphocyte percentage, immunoglobulin G concentration, fecal Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus counts as well as fecal NH3 and H2 S emissions associated with the inclusion of SPE in the diet. Average daily feed intake, red blood cells and white blood cells concentration were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by SPE supplementation in the diets. In conclusion, results indicate that dietary SPE supplementation can improve growth performance, digestibility and fecal microbiota, and decrease fecal gas emissions in growing pigs. PMID:24725201

  5. Ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Scott, C.D.; Donaldson, T.L.; Worden, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Research progress is described on the development of laboratory-scale columnar bioreactors utilizing the flocculent bacterium, X. mobilis, for ethanol production. X. mobilis forms stable, ball-like aggregates which maintain structural integrity even when subjected to the high shear forces generated in the active 3-phase fluidized-bed reactors. Cell retention and ethanol production were studied using 3 bioreactor configurations. Ethanol productivity appeared to be primarily affected by glucose feed concentration. In addition, it was found that in the absence of nutrients, the level of ethanol productivity can be maintained for at least 1 h before a severe drop occurred. Ethanol inhibition is considered to be a limiting factor in ethanol production. (DMC)

  6. Ethanol-metabolizing pathways in deermice. Estimation of flux calculated from isotope effects

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, J.; Takagi, T.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-06-05

    The apparent deuterium isotope effects on Vmax/Km (D(V/K) of ethanol oxidation in two deermouse strains (one having and one lacking hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were used to calculate flux through the ADH, microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), and catalase pathways. In vitro, D(V/K) values were 3.22 for ADH, 1.13 for MEOS, and 1.83 for catalase under physiological conditions of pH, temperature, and ionic strength. In vivo, in deermice lacking ADH (ADH-), D(V/K) was 1.20 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.) at 7.0 +/- 0.5 mM blood ethanol and 1.08 +/- 0.10 at 57.8 +/- 10.2 mM blood ethanol, consistent with ethanol oxidation principally by MEOS. Pretreatment of ADH- animals with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole did not significantly change D(V/K). ADH+ deermice exhibited D(V/K) values of 1.87 +/- 0.06 (untreated), 1.71 +/- 0.13 (pretreated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), and 1.24 +/- 0.13 (after the ADH inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole) at 5-7 mM blood ethanol levels. At elevated blood ethanol concentrations (58.1 +/- 2.4 mM), a D(V/K) of 1.37 +/- 0.21 was measured in the ADH+ strain. For measured D(V/K) values to accurately reflect pathway contributions, initial reaction conditions are essential. These were shown to exist by the following criteria: negligible fractional conversion of substrate to product and no measurable back reaction in deermice having a reversible enzyme (ADH). Thus, calculations from D(V/K) indicate that, even when ADH is present, non-ADH pathways (mostly MEOS) participate significantly in ethanol metabolism at all concentrations tested and play a major role at high levels.

  7. Construction and Analysis of High-Ethanol-Producing Fusants with Co-Fermentation Ability through Protoplast Fusion and Double Labeling Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jingping; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Luyan; Zhang, Mengyun; Ping, Wenxiang

    2014-01-01

    Double labeling of resistance markers and report genes can be used to breed engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that can assimilate xylose and glucose as a mixed carbon source for ethanol fermentation and increased ethanol production. In this study Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and Candida shehatae 20335 were used as parent strains to conduct protoplast fusion and the resulting fusants were screened by double labeling. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to assess the ethanol yield following the fermentation of xylose and glucose, as both single and mixed carbon sources, by the fusants. Interestingly, one fusant (ZLYRHZ7) was demonstrated to have an excellent fermentation performance, with an ethanol yield using the mixed carbon source of 0.424 g g?1, which compares with 0.240 g g?1 (W5) and 0.353 g g?1 (20335) for the parent strains. This indicates an improvement in the ethanol yield of 43.4% and 16.7%, respectively. PMID:25268957

  8. High Blood Cholesterol Q&A Dr. Michael Lauer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Q&A with Dr. Michael Lauer Past Issues / ... heavier and older, what does recent research on cholesterol and heart health tell us that Americans need ...

  9. Automated High Throughput GMAX-L Strains of Saccharomyces Cereviciae for Profitable Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Industrial Hydrosylates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current ethanol dry grind and wet mill processes for fuel ethanol production from starch, yield substantial amounts of corn oil as one of the byproducts. This crude corn oil is a suitable feedstock for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters for use as biodiesel, which could be produced on-site. ...

  10. Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant eff...

  11. Comparation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in High-Fat Emulsion-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Recently, studies indicated free radical scavenging was one of the major pathways to alleviate hyperlipidemia. Moreover, hawthorn fruit is a rich source of phenols, which quench free radical and attenuate hyperlipidemia. However, the phenols vary with processing methods, especially solvent type. Objective: Our aim was to compare hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of hawthorn fruit in hyperlipidemia rats. Materials and Methods: After a 4-week treatment of high-fat emulsion, lipid profile levels and antioxidant levels of two extracts were determined using commercial analysis. Total phenols content in the extract of hawthorn fruit was determined colorimetrically by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results: Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn fruit possessed hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Simultaneously, stronger activities were observed in ethanol extract. Besides, total phenols content in ethanol extract from the same quality of hawthorn fruit was 3.9 times more than that in aqueous extract. Conclusion: The obvious difference of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects between ethanol extract and aqueous extract of hawthorn fruit was probably due to the presence of total phenols content, under the influence of extraction solvent. SUMMARY Ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit exhibited more favorable hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects than aqueous extract. The higher effects could be due to the higher content of total phenols that varies with extraction solvent. Abbreviations used: TC: Total cholesterol, TG: Triglyceride, LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, CAT: Catalase, NO: Nitric oxide, NOS: Nitric oxide synthase, SR-BI: Scavenger receptor Class B Type I

  12. Effects of enzyme feeding strategy on ethanol yield in fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of spruce at high dry matter

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To make lignocellulosic fuel ethanol economically competitive with fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce the production cost. One way to achieve this is by increasing the substrate concentration in the production process, and thus reduce the energy demand in the final distillation of the fermentation broth. However, increased substrate concentration in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields and severe stirring problems. Because the SSF medium is being continuously hydrolyzed, running the process in fed-batch mode could potentially reduce the stirring problems and lead to increased ethanol yields in high-solids SSF. Different enzyme feeding strategies, with the enzymes either present in the reactor from start-up or fed into the reactor together with the substrate, have been studied, along with the influence of the enzyme feeding strategy on the final ethanol yield and productivity. Results In the present study, SSF was run successfully with 10% and 14% water-insoluble solids (WIS) in batch and fed-batch mode. The mixing of the material in the reactor was significantly better in fed-batch than batch mode, and similarly high or higher ethanol yields were achieved in fed-batch mode compared with batch SSF in some cases. No general trend in the dependence of ethanol yield on enzyme feeding strategy was found. Conclusions The optimum enzyme feeding strategy appears to depend on the conditions during SSF, such as the WIS concentration and the concentration of inhibitory compounds in the SSF medium. PMID:20579340

  13. Effects of growth, diving history, and high altitude on blood oxygen capacity in harbor seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodama, A. M.; Elsner, R.; Pace, N.

    1977-01-01

    Blood volume and body composition for diving and nondiving harbor seals were measured at six-week intervals during a 10-month period of captitivity. Whole body hematocrit, red cell volume per kg of lean body mass, and total circulating hemoglobin per kg lean body mass were significantly higher in the diving group, but relatively large blood volumes expressed in terms of body weight (11-12%) were found in both groups. A pair of harbor seals exposed to high altitude for about three months registered significant increases in red cell volume, blood hemoglobin levels, and blood volume expressed in terms of body weight; results of alveolar gas analyses indicate that hyperventilation also occurred. These typical mammalian responses to hypoxia suggest that the harbor seal's large blood volume and high hemoglobin content are an expression of phylogenetic control, and that in spite of its adaptability to apnea during its diving life, the animal cannot be considered preacclimatized to high altitude.

  14. Highly Ordered Periodic Au/TiO2 Hetero-Nanostructures for Plasmon-Induced Enhancement of the Activity and Stability for Ethanol Electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhao; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2016-03-01

    The catalytic electro-oxidation of ethanol is the essential technique for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) in the area of alternative energy for the ability of converting the chemical energy of alcohol into the electric energy directly. Developing highly efficient and stable electrode materials with antipoisoning ability for ethanol electro-oxidation remains a challenge. A highly ordered periodic Au-nanoparticle (NP)-decorated bilayer TiO2 nanotube (BTNT) heteronanostructure was fabricated by a two-step anodic oxidation of Ti foil and the subsequent photoreduction of HAuCl4. The plasmon-induced charge separation on the heterointerface of Au/TiO2 electrode enhances the electrocatalytic activity and stability for the ethanol oxidation under visible light irradiation. The highly ordered periodic heterostructure on the electrode surface enhanced the light harvesting and led to the greater performance of ethanol electro-oxidation under irradiation compared with the ordinary Au NPs-decorated monolayer TiO2 nanotube (MTNT). This novel Au/TiO2 electrode also performed a self-cleaning property under visible light attributed to the enhanced electro-oxidation of the adsorbed intermediates. This light-driven enhancement of the electrochemical performances provides a development strategy for the design and construction of DAFCs. PMID:26863505

  15. The origin of high activity but low CO(2) selectivity on binary PtSn in the direct ethanol fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia-Mei; Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Kavanagh, Richard; Hamer, Philip; Hu, Peijun; Hardacre, Christopher; Martinez-Bonastre, Alex; Sharman, Jonathan; Thompsett, David; Lin, Wen-Feng

    2014-05-28

    The most active binary PtSn catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cell applications has been studied at 20 C and 60 C, using variable temperature electrochemical in situ FTIR. In comparison with Pt, binary PtSn inhibits ethanol dissociation to CO(a), but promotes partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Increasing the temperature from 20 C to 60 C facilitates both ethanol dissociation to CO(a) and then further oxidation to CO2, leading to an increased selectivity towards CO2; however, acetaldehyde and acetic acid are still the main products. Potential-dependent phase diagrams for surface oxidants of OH(a) formation on Pt(111), Pt(211) and Sn modified Pt(111) and Pt(211) surfaces have been determined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is shown that Sn promotes the formation of OH(a) with a lower onset potential on the Pt(111) surface, whereas an increase in the onset potential is found upon modification of the (211) surface. In addition, Sn inhibits the Pt(211) step edge with respect to ethanol C-C bond breaking compared with that found on the pure Pt, which reduces the formation of CO(a). Sn was also found to facilitate ethanol dehydrogenation and partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid which, combined with the more facile OH(a) formation on the Pt(111) surface, gives us a clear understanding of the experimentally determined results. This combined electrochemical in situ FTIR and DFT study provides, for the first time, an insight into the long-term puzzling features of the high activity but low CO2 production found on binary PtSn ethanol fuel cell catalysts. PMID:24722871

  16. Co-solvent pretreatment reduces costly enzyme requirements for high sugar and ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Yen; Cai, Charles M; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2015-05-22

    We introduce a new pretreatment called co-solvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF) to reduce enzyme costs dramatically for high sugar yields from hemicellulose and cellulose, which is essential for the low-cost conversion of biomass to fuels. CELF employs THF miscible with aqueous dilute acid to obtain up to 95 % theoretical yield of glucose, xylose, and arabinose from corn stover even if coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis at only 2 mgenzyme  gglucan (-1) . The unusually high saccharification with such low enzyme loadings can be attributed to a very high lignin removal, which is supported by compositional analysis, fractal kinetic modeling, and SEM imaging. Subsequently, nearly pure lignin product can be precipitated by the evaporation of volatile THF for recovery and recycling. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of CELF-pretreated solids with low enzyme loadings and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced twice as much ethanol as that from dilute-acid-pretreated solids if both were optimized for corn stover. PMID:25677100

  17. Locally-brewed Nigerian lager beers and high blood pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Adeniyi, F.A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Volunteers who consumed 88g alcohol/day (= 2.48L of lager beer) had elevated levels of systolic and mean arterial Blood Pressure. The association between consumption of locally brewed Nigerian lager beer with arterial hypertension was independent of age and weight. The true mechanism for the development of hypertension in these alcohol-users is at present not clear. All brands of lager beer investigated contain as much as five times the sodium content of potable water. It is desirable to evaluate the consequences of ingesting such quantities of sodium in lager beers. The effect of alcohol on other monovalent and divalent cations may shed some light onto the true mechanism for the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced hypertension. 15 references, 3 tables.

  18. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  19. High-gradient magnetic separation in blood and bone marrow processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roath, S.; Smith, A. Richards; Watson, J. H. P.

    1990-04-01

    High-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) has been succesful in capturing red blood cells from whole blood. This is due to the paramagnetic property of the haemoglobin contained in red blood cells when it is in the deoxygenated state. The captured red blood cells and the processed white blood cells and platelets appear to be functionally undamaged by separation. The capture depends on field gradient, flow rate, dilution of the blood, size of filter and a number of other factors. Malarial parasite-containing red cells have been captured using this technique and elsewhere lymphocyte/red cell rosettes have been retained in the filter of a system using a field gradient produced by a superconducting magnet. The ex vivo processing of human bone marrow is currently under study. Removal of targetted cells from bone marrow, such as tumour cells or T-lymphocytes prior to reinfusion is currently practiced. Positive cell rescue, however, is not practicable as the present techniques mostly damage the targetted cells. We are applying high-gradient magnetic separation, using an antibody complex linked to the surface of red blood cells, which should recognise target cells within bone marrow. The whole complex is then liable to retention in a sufficiently high-gradient magnetic field and the target cell made available by red-blood-cell lysis.

  20. Stabilization of Homeostasis in Rats during Cold Exposure with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kolosova, O N; Kershengolts, B M

    2016-01-01

    The role of ethanol metabolism system in adaptation of laboratory animals to cold temperatures was shown. Cold stress (1-2C) modeled in male Wistar rats over 7 weeks significantly modulated endogenous ethanol metabolism and led to reorganization of many physiological systems, which resulted in activation of metabolic processes. Under these conditions, endogenous ethanol was utilized as the most easily and fast metabolized energy substrate, due to which its blood concentration decreased and was replenished at the expense of exogenous ethanol. Normalization of blood ethanol concentration led to better adaptation to cold. PMID:26750926

  1. Minimization of Glycerol Production during the High-Performance Fed-Batch Ethanolic Fermentation Process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Using a Metabolic Model as a Prediction Tool

    PubMed Central

    Bideaux, Carine; Alfenore, Sandrine; Cameleyre, Xavier; Molina-Jouve, Carole; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Guillouet, Stphane E.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of knowledge of the biological role of glycerol in the redox balance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation strategy was defined to reduce the surplus formation of NADH, responsible for glycerol synthesis. A metabolic model was used to predict the operating conditions that would reduce glycerol production during ethanol fermentation. Experimental validation of the simulation results was done by monitoring the inlet substrate feeding during fed-batch S. cerevisiae cultivation in order to maintain the respiratory quotient (RQ) (defined as the CO2 production to O2 consumption ratio) value between 4 and 5. Compared to previous fermentations without glucose monitoring, the final glycerol concentration was successfully decreased. Although RQ-controlled fermentation led to a lower maximum specific ethanol production rate, it was possible to reach a high level of ethanol production: 85 g liter?1 with 1.7 g liter?1 glycerol in 30 h. We showed here that by using a metabolic model as a tool in prediction, it was possible to reduce glycerol production in a very high-performance ethanolic fermentation process. PMID:16517663

  2. High-efficiency carbohydrate fermentation to ethanol at temperatures above 40/sup 0/C by Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus isolated from sugar mills

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.J.; NcNeil, K.; Watson, K.

    1986-06-01

    A number of yeast strains, isolated from sugar can mills and identified as strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus, were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and cane syrup to ethanol at high temperatures. Several strains were capable of rapid fermentation at temperatures up to 47/sup 0/C. At 43/sup 0/C, >6% (wt/vol) ethanol was produced after 12 to 14 h of fermentation, concurrent with retention of high cell viability (>80%). Although the type strain (CBS 712) of K. marxianus var. marxianus produced up to 6% (wt/vol) ethanol at 43/sup 0/C, cell viability was low, 30 to 50%, and the fermentation time was 24 to 30 h. On the basis of currently available strains, the authors suggest that it may be possible by genetic engineering to construct yeasts capable of fermenting carbohydrates at temperatures close to 50/sup 0/C to produce 10 to 15% (wt/vol) ethanol in 12 to 18 h with retention of cell viability.

  3. Thermophilic microbes in ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Slapack, G.E.; Russell, I.; Stewart, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    General and specific properties of thermophilic ethanol-producing bacteria are reviewed and their relative merits in ethanol production assessed. The studies examine the use of bacteria in mono- and co-culture fermentations for ethanol production from cellulosics; in particular, the cellulase system of Clostridium thermocellum is considered. Thermotolerant yeasts and physiological factors influencing their growth and fermentation at high temperatures are discussed. Emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary approaches to develop economical processes for ethanol production at high temperatures. Relevant topics considered include: adaptation, nutrition, heat shock, ethanol tolerance, metabolic control, genetic improvement, and fermentation/process design. General aspects of thermophily for both bacteria and yeasts (definitions, ecological aspects, merits and limitations, other industrial uses, thermostability of cellular components, and consequences of thermophilic fermentation) are discussed and the volume references over 1100 relevant articles.

  4. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?-An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9 mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1 mg/L; median = 0.4 mg/L; range = 0-35 mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

  5. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?—An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9 mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1 mg/L; median = 0.4 mg/L; range = 0–35 mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

  6. The contribution of arterial blood gases in cerebral blood flow regulation and fuel utilization in man at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Willie, Christopher K; MacLeod, David B; Smith, Kurt J; Lewis, Nia C; Foster, Glen E; Ikeda, Keita; Hoiland, Ryan L; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of partial acclimatization to high altitude (HA; 5,050 m) on cerebral metabolism and cerebrovascular function have not been characterized. We hypothesized (1) increased cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) at HA; and (2) that CO2 would affect cerebral metabolism more than hypoxia. PaO2 and PaCO2 were manipulated at sea level (SL) to simulate HA exposure, and at HA, SL blood gases were simulated; CVR was assessed at both altitudes. Arterial-jugular venous differences were measured to calculate cerebral metabolic rates and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We observed that (1) partial acclimatization yields a steeper CO2-H(+) relation in both arterial and jugular venous blood; yet (2) CVR did not change, despite (3) mean arterial pressure (MAP)-CO2 reactivity being doubled at HA, thus indicating effective cerebral autoregulation. (4) At SL hypoxia increased CBF, and restoration of oxygen at HA reduced CBF, but neither had any effect on cerebral metabolism. Acclimatization resets the cerebrovasculature to chronic hypocapnia. PMID:25690474

  7. Ethanol-Induced TLR4/NLRP3 Neuroinflammatory Response in Microglial Cells Promotes Leukocyte Infiltration Across the BBB.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Ureña-Peralta, Juan; Morillo-Bargues, M José; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Guerri, Consuelo

    2016-02-01

    We reported that the ethanol-induced innate immune response by activating TLR4 signaling triggers gliosis and neuroinflammation. Ethanol also activates other immune receptors, such as NOD-like-receptors, and specifically NLRP3-inflammasome in astroglial cells, to stimulate caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β and IL-18 cytokines production. Yet, whether microglia NLRs are also sensitive to the ethanol effects that contribute to neuroinflammation is uncertain. Using cerebral cortexes of the chronic alcohol-fed WT and TLR4(-/-) mice, we demonstrated that chronic ethanol treatment enhanced TLR4 mediated-NLRP3/Caspase-1 complex activation, and up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines levels. Ethanol-induced NLRP3-inflammasome activation and mitochondria-ROS generation were also observed in cultured microglial cells. The up-regulation of CD45(high)/CD11b(+) cell populations and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels was also noted in the cortexes of the ethanol-treated WT mice. Notably, elimination of the TLR4 function abolished most ethanol-induced neuroinflammatory effects. Thus, our results demonstrate that ethanol triggers TLR4-mediated NLRP3-inflammasome activation in glial cells, and suggest that microglia stimulation may compromise the permeability of blood-brain barrier events to contribute to ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and brain damage. PMID:26555554

  8. Fermentation of an aqueous sugar solution to produce ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.D.; Muller, W.C.

    1980-12-30

    An apparatus for the continuous production of ethanol from fermentable sugar solutions is described. A series of stirred fermentation vessels is used, each successive vessel containing more ethanol and less sugar. At least 2 strains of yeast are used, one producing ethanol at a high rate in a high sugar concentration, and the other strain producing ethanol at high rate in a relatively high ethanol concentration and a relatively low sugar concentration. A diagram of the apparatus is given.

  9. Effect on blood volume of maintaining a high central venous pressure after major aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fluck, David C.; Bescos, L. Lopez; Gilkes, R.

    1973-01-01

    Fluck, D. C., Lopez Bescos, L., and Gilkes, R. (1973).Thorax,28, 762-767. Effect on blood volume of maintaining a high central venous pressure after major aortic valve surgery. Serial blood volume measurements were made in 15 patients undergoing major aortic valve surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. In all patients the plasma volume was measured by iodine-125 (125I) labelled albumin and in 10 the red cell mass was measured by chromium-51 (51Cr) labelled red cells. Close correlation was found between the blood volume derived from the plasma volume and central venous haematocrits and the blood volume derived by addition of the plasma volume and red cell mass. Postoperatively blood was given to maintain the right atrial pressure at between 10 and 15 cm H2O. Before operation the red cell mass, and plasma and blood volumes related to body weight were within the normal range. In the postoperative phase the first measurement two hours after the end of the operation showed a significant decrease in mean blood volume, red cell mass, and plasma volume as compared with the preoperative level. By the second postoperative measurement six hours after the end of operation the mean blood volume had risen to the preoperative level. Subsequently, over postoperative days 1 to 6 the mean blood volume remained steady, although the red cell mass tended to fall. After blood transfusion had ceased the red cell mass usually showed a progressive fall. It was considered that although there was little relationship between the right atrial pressure and the blood volume there was little or no clinical value in performing serial postoperative measurements of blood volume in addition to venous pressure monitoring in these patients. Images PMID:4787988

  10. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, ?-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

  11. A microfluidics approach towards high-throughput pathogen removal from blood using margination

    PubMed Central

    Wei Hou, Han; Gan, Hiong Yap; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Li, Leon D.; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis is an adverse systemic inflammatory response caused by microbial infection in blood. This paper reports a simple microfluidic approach for intrinsic, non-specific removal of both microbes and inflammatory cellular components (platelets and leukocytes) from whole blood, inspired by the invivo phenomenon of leukocyte margination. As blood flows through a narrow microchannel (20 × 20 µm), deformable red blood cells (RBCs) migrate axially to the channel centre, resulting in margination of other cell types (bacteria, platelets, and leukocytes) towards the channel sides. By using a simple cascaded channel design, the blood samples undergo a 2-stage bacteria removal in a single pass through the device, thereby allowing higher bacterial removal efficiency. As an application for sepsis treatment, we demonstrated separation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae spiked into whole blood, achieving high removal efficiencies of ∼80% and ∼90%, respectively. Inflammatory cellular components were also depleted by >80% in the filtered blood samples which could help to modulate the host inflammatory response and potentially serve as a blood cleansing method for sepsis treatment. The developed technique offers significant advantages including high throughput (∼1 ml/h per channel) and label-free separation which allows non-specific removal of any blood-borne pathogens (bacteria and fungi). The continuous processing and collection mode could potentially enable the return of filtered blood back to the patient directly, similar to a simple and complete dialysis circuit setup. Lastly, we designed and tested a larger filtration device consisting of 6 channels in parallel (∼6 ml/h) and obtained similar filtration performances. Further multiplexing is possible by increasing channel parallelization or device stacking to achieve higher throughput comparable to convectional blood dialysis systems used in clinical settings. PMID:22655023

  12. A microfluidics approach towards high-throughput pathogen removal from blood using margination.

    PubMed

    Wei Hou, Han; Gan, Hiong Yap; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S; Li, Leon D; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-06-01

    Sepsis is an adverse systemic inflammatory response caused by microbial infection in blood. This paper reports a simple microfluidic approach for intrinsic, non-specific removal of both microbes and inflammatory cellular components (platelets and leukocytes) from whole blood, inspired by the invivo phenomenon of leukocyte margination. As blood flows through a narrow microchannel (20 × 20 µm), deformable red blood cells (RBCs) migrate axially to the channel centre, resulting in margination of other cell types (bacteria, platelets, and leukocytes) towards the channel sides. By using a simple cascaded channel design, the blood samples undergo a 2-stage bacteria removal in a single pass through the device, thereby allowing higher bacterial removal efficiency. As an application for sepsis treatment, we demonstrated separation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae spiked into whole blood, achieving high removal efficiencies of ∼80% and ∼90%, respectively. Inflammatory cellular components were also depleted by >80% in the filtered blood samples which could help to modulate the host inflammatory response and potentially serve as a blood cleansing method for sepsis treatment. The developed technique offers significant advantages including high throughput (∼1 ml/h per channel) and label-free separation which allows non-specific removal of any blood-borne pathogens (bacteria and fungi). The continuous processing and collection mode could potentially enable the return of filtered blood back to the patient directly, similar to a simple and complete dialysis circuit setup. Lastly, we designed and tested a larger filtration device consisting of 6 channels in parallel (∼6 ml/h) and obtained similar filtration performances. Further multiplexing is possible by increasing channel parallelization or device stacking to achieve higher throughput comparable to convectional blood dialysis systems used in clinical settings. PMID:22655023

  13. Nearly Half of Americans with High Blood Pressure Not Controlling It

    MedlinePLUS

    ... close to 56 percent, the CDC report showed. Blacks (48 percent under control), Asians (43 percent) and Hispanics (47 percent) are all more likely to be living with uncontrolled high blood pressure. A large part of the problem is getting ...

  14. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... young adults have high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously ... 12 ounces of beer or five ounces of wine.) Finally, quit smoking. Among other things, smoking damages ...

  15. Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the Research on ACEs, ARBs, and DRIs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... DRIs" /> Consumer Summary – Oct. 24, 2011 Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the ... ARBs. What are the side effects of these medicines? The most common side effects from these medicines ...

  16. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript is required to view charts and maps. Education Level Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Education Level ed2n-2538 Download these data Explore these ...

  17. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and ethanol induced tissue ablation: Thermal lesion volume and temperature ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen Hai

    HIFU is the upcoming technology for noninvasive or minimally invasive tumor ablation via the localized acoustic energy deposition at the focal region within the tumor target. The presence of cavitation bubbles had been shown to improve the therapeutic effect of HIFU. In this study, we have investigated the effect of HIFU on temperature rise and cavitation bubble activity in ethanol-treated porcine liver and kidney tissues. We have also explored changes in the viability and proliferation rate of HepG2, SW1376, and FB1 cancer cells with their exposure to ethanol and HIFU. Tissues were submerged in 95% ethanol for five hours and then exposed to HIFU generated by a 1.1 MHz transducer or injected into focal spot before HIFU exposure. Cavitation events were measured by a passive cavitation detection technique for a range of acoustic power from 1.17 W to 20.52 W. The temperature around the focal zone was measured by type K or type E thermocouples embedded in the samples. In experiments with cancer cells, 2.7 millions cells were treated with concentration of ethanol at concentration 2%, 4%, 10%, 25%, and 50% and the cell were exposed to HIFU with power of 2.73 W, 8.72 W, and 12.0 W for 30 seconds. Our data show that the treatment of tissues with ethanol reduces the threshold power for inertial cavitation and increases the temperature rise. The exposure of cancer cells to various HIFU power only showed a higher number of viable cells 24 to 72 hours after HIFU exposure. On the other hand, both the viability and proliferation rate were significantly decreased in cells treated with ethanol and then HIFU at 8.7 W and 12.0 W even at ethanol concentration of 2 and 4 percent. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and HIFU have a synergistic effect on cancer cells ablation.

  18. Evaluation Of Hemolysis Models Using A High Fidelity Blood Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzeldin, Hussein; de Tullio, Marco; Solares, Santiago; Balaras, Elias

    2012-11-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis is a critical concern in the design of heart assisted devices, such as prosthetic heart valves (PHVs). To date a few analytical and numerical models have been proposed to relate either hydrodynamic stresses or RBC strains, resulting from the external hydrodynamic loading, to the expected degree of hemolysis as a function of time. Such models are based on either ``lumped'' descriptions of fluid stresses or an abstract analytical-numerical representation of the RBC relying on simple geometrical assumptions. We introduce two new approaches based on an existing coarse grained (CG) RBC structural model, which is utilized to explore the physics underlying each hemolysis model whereby applying a set of devised computational experiments. Then, all the models are subjected to pathlines calculated for a realistic PHVs to predict the level of RBC trauma. Our results highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and identify the key gaps that should be addressed in the development of new models. Finally, a two-layer CG model, coupling the spectrin network and the lipid bilayer, which provides invaluable information pertaining to RBC local strains and hence hemolysis. We acknowledge the support of NSF OCI-0904920 and CMMI-0841840 grants. Computing time was provided by XSEDE.

  19. Inflammation in high blood pressure: a clinician perspective.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Firas A; Movahed, Assad

    2007-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important contributors to atherosclerosis. A possible link between inflammation and elevated blood pressure has been suggested by several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Possible mechanisms include an imbalance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, amplified thrombogenesis and platelet activation, and perhaps a direct effect of inflammatory mediators. C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory cytokine, may play an essential role in vascular inflammation and can directly decrease the production of nitric oxide, a vasocodilator. Angiotensin II (Ang II) up-regulates several inflammatory cytokines, leukocyte adhesion molecules, and chemokines through the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B leading to a decrease in the bioavailability of vasodilators. The increase in oxidative stress and endothelin-1 production through Ang II may further contribute to vasoconstriction. Adipose tissue can add to the production of CRP and creates a prothrombotic state. The presence of low-grade inflammation, especially elevations of CRP, can help predict the risk of future cardiovascular events and is associated with target organ damage in hypertensive individuals. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, and, to a lesser degree calcium channel antagonists, have shown efficacy in reducing CRP. Lifestyle changes such as exercise, weight loss, and tobacco cessation have also shown a similar efficacy. Whether targeting inflammation in the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension can alter the natural history of the disease or lead to improved outcome has yet to be determined. PMID:20409841

  20. Production of high concentrations of ethanol from inulin by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, K; Hamada, S; Nakamura, T

    1993-01-01

    Pure nonhydrolyzed inulin was directly converted to ethanol in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. An inulinase-hyperproducing mutant, Aspergillus niger 817, was grown in a submerged culture at 30 degrees C for 5 days. The inulin-digestive liquid culture (150 ml) was supplemented with 45 g of inulin, 0.45 g of (NH4)2SO4, and 0.15 g of KH2PO4. The medium (pH 5.0) was inoculated with an ethanol-tolerant strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1200, and fermentation was conducted at 30 degrees C. An additional 20 g of inulin was added to the culture after 15 h of fermentation. S. cerevisiae 1200 utilized 99% of the 65 g of inulin during the fermentation, and produced 20.4 and 21.0% (vol/vol) ethanol from chicory and dahlia inulins, respectively, within 3 days of fermentation. The maximum volumetric productivities of ethanol were 6.2 and 6.0 g/liter/h for chicory and dahlia inulins, respectively. The conversion efficiency of inulin to ethanol was 83 to 84% of the theoretical ethanol yield. PMID:8481000

  1. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    PubMed

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators. PMID:21490011

  2. Combining the effects of process design and pH for improved xylose conversion in high solid ethanol production from Arundo donax

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The impact of pH coupled to process design for the conversion of the energy crop Arundo donax to ethanol was assessed in the present study under industrially relevant solids loadings. Two main process strategies were investigated, i.e. the traditional simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) and a HYBRID design, where a long high temperature enzymatic hydrolysis step was carried out prior to continued low temperature SSCF, keeping the same total reaction time. Since acetic acid was identified as the major inhibitor in the slurry, the scenarios were investigated under different fermentation pH in order to alleviate the inhibitory effect on, in particular, xylose conversion. The results show that, regardless of fermentation pH, a higher glucan conversion could be achieved with the HYBRID approach compared to SSCF. Furthermore, it was found that increasing the pH from 5.0 to 5.5 for the fermentation phase had a large positive effect on xylose consumption for both process designs, although the SSCF design was more favored. With the high sugar concentrations available at the start of fermentation during the HYBRID design, the ethanol yield was reduced in favor of cell growth and glycerol production. This finding was confirmed in shake flask fermentations where an increase in pH enhanced both glucose and xylose consumption, but also cell growth and cell yield with the overall effect being a reduced ethanol yield. In conclusion this resulted in similar overall ethanol yields at the different pH values for the HYBRID design, despite the improved xylose uptake, whereas a significant increase in overall ethanol yield was found with the SSCF design. PMID:24949274

  3. Overweight, physical activity and high blood pressure in children: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Brian; McGuire, K Ashlee; Lewanczuk, Richard; McGavock, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in developed countries and is likely a major cause of the increased prevalence of high blood pressure in children. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians and clinical scientists with an overview of the current state of the literature describing the negative influence of obesity on blood pressure and it's determinants in children. In short, we discuss the array of vascular abnormalities seen in overweight children and adolescents, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and insulin resistance. We also discuss the potential role of an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the development of high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. As there is little consensus regarding the methods to prevent or treat high blood pressure in children, we also provide a summary of the evidence supporting relationship between physical activity and blood pressure in children and adolescents. After reviewing a number of physical activity intervention studies performed in children, it appears as though 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic-based physical activity 3-5 days/week is required to improve vascular function and reduce blood pressure in obese children. Future studies should focus on describing the influence of physical activity on blood pressure control in overweight children. PMID:17583184

  4. High-resolution melting analysis for genotyping Duffy, Kidd and Diego blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mitsunobu; Takahahi, Junko; Hirayama, Fumiya; Tani, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a simpler genotyping method than allele-specific PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and multiplex PCR. Duffy, Kidd and Diego are clinically important blood group antigens. We used a novel method to genotype these three blood group antigens. Purified genomic DNA extracts of blood samples (354 Duffy, 347 Kidd and 457 Diego) were amplified using specific amplification primers. HRM curves were obtained by HRM analysis. Results were in complete concordance with those obtained for previous phenotypes and genotypes. Nucleotide substitutions for these blood group antigens were differentiated by the HRM curves. HRM analysis is a simple genotyping method and is an alternative to serological typing. Our results suggest that HRM analysis can also be used for genotyping blood group antigens whose allotype specificity is determined by single nucleotide substitutions. PMID:20864378

  5. Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Woong Sun; Choung, Se Young

    2013-01-01

    Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE) and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2) and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis. PMID:23365609

  6. Ethanol tolerance in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Casey, G P; Ingledew, W M

    1986-01-01

    It is now certain that the inherent ethanol tolerance of the Saccharomyces strain used is not the prime factor regulating the level of ethanol that can be produced in a high sugar brewing, wine, sake, or distillery fermentation. In fact, in terms of the maximum concentration that these yeasts can produce under batch (16 to 17% [v/v]) or fed-batch conditions, there is clearly no difference in ethanol tolerance. This is not to say, however, that under defined conditions there is no difference in ethanol tolerance among different Saccharomyces yeasts. This property, although a genetic determinant, is clearly influenced by many factors (carbohydrate level, wort nutrition, temperature, osmotic pressure/water activity, and substrate concentration), and each yeast strain reacts to each factor differently. This will indeed lead to differences in measured tolerance. Thus, it is extremely important that each of these be taken into consideration when determining "tolerance" for a particular set of fermentation conditions. The manner in which each alcohol-related industry has evolved is now known to have played a major role in determining traditional thinking on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces yeasts. It is interesting to speculate on how different our thinking on ethanol tolerance would be today if sake fermentations had not evolved with successive mashing and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice carbohydrate, if distillers' worts were clarified prior to fermentation but brewers' wort were not, and if grape skins with their associated unsaturated lipids had not been an integral part of red wine musts. The time is now ripe for ethanol-related industries to take advantage of these findings to improve the economies of production. In the authors' opinion, breweries could produce higher alcohol beers if oxygenation (leading to unsaturated lipids) and "usable" nitrogen source levels were increased in high gravity worts. White wine fermentations could also, if desired, match the higher ethanol levels in red wines if oxygenation (to provide the unsaturated lipids deleted in part by the removal of the grape skins) were practiced and if care were given to assimilable nitrogen concentrations. This would hold true even at 10 to 14 degrees C, and the more rapid fermentations would maximize utilization of winery tankage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3533426

  7. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  8. The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    The antiobesity effects of a P. aviculare ethanol extract (PAE) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice were investigated. The mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with PAE (400 mg/kg/day) for 6.5 weeks. The increased body weights, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte area as well as serum total triglyceride, leptin, and malondialdehyde concentrations were decreased in PAE-treated HFD-induced obese mice relative to the same measurements in untreated obese mice. Furthermore, PAE significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. In addition, PAE treatment of 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PAE exerts antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice through the suppression of lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased antioxidant activity. PMID:23431342

  9. High hydrostatic pressure activates gene expression that leads to ethanol production enhancement in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae distillery strain

    PubMed Central

    Bravim, Fernanda; Lippman, Soyeon I.; da Silva, Lucas F.; Souza, Diego T.; Fernandes, A. Alberto R.; Masuda, Claudio A.; Broach, James R.

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a stress that exerts broad effects on microorganisms with characteristics similar to those of common environmental stresses. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic mechanisms that can enhance alcoholic fermentation of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Brazilian spirit fermentation vats. Accordingly, we performed a time course microarray analysis on a S. cerevisiae strain submitted to mild sublethal pressure treatment of 50 MPa for 30 min at room temperature, followed by incubation for 5, 10 and 15 min without pressure treatment. The obtained transcriptional profiles demonstrate the importance of post-pressurisation period on the activation of several genes related to cell recovery and stress tolerance. Based on these results, we over-expressed genes strongly induced by HHP in the same wild yeast strain and identified genes, particularly SYM1, whose over-expression results in enhanced ethanol production and stress tolerance upon fermentation. The present study validates the use of HHP as a biotechnological tool for the fermentative industries. PMID:22915193

  10. High Performance Nanocatalysts Supported on Micro/Nano Carbon Structures Using Ethanol Immersion Pretreatment for Micro DMFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liang-You; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Chang, Chaun; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, highly dense platinum (Pt) nanocatalysts were successfully deposited on the hydrophilically-treated nano/micro carbon supports with an ethanol (EtOH) immersion pretreatment and an acidic treatment for the performance improvement of methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). In order to thoroughly immerse the three-dimensional, interwoven structures of the carbon cloth fibers with a 6 M sulfuric acid surface modification, which increasing more oxygen-containing functional groups on the surfaces of the carbon supports, the EtOH immersion pretreatment of the carbon supports was utilized prior to the sulfuric acid treatment. Subsequently, Pt catalysts were reduced on the modified carbon supports by a homemade open-loop reduction system (OLRS) [1] For comparisons, carbon cloth (CC) and carbon nanotube on CC (CNT/CC) supports were employed with and without EtOH immersion pretreatments before Pt catalyst reduction. In the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves, the electrosorption charges of hydrogen ion (QH) and the peak current density (IP) of the fabricated Pt/CC and Pt/CNT/CC electrodes with the EtOH immersion pretreatments can efficiently be enhanced due to more active Pt sites for electrocatalytic reactions.

  11. Storage stability and antibacterial activity of eugenol nanoliposomes prepared by an ethanol injection-dynamic high-pressure microfluidization method.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengfeng; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Wei; Gan, Lu; Liu, Weilin; Liang, Ruihong; Liu, Chengmei; Niu, Jing; Cao, Yanlin; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a major phenolic component with diverse biological activities. However, it is difficult to formulate into an aqueous solution due to poor water solubility, and this limits its application. In the present study, eugenol nanoliposomes (EN) were prepared by combining the ethanol injection method with the dynamic high-pressure microfluidization method. Good physicochemical characterizations of EN were obtained. The successful encapsulation of eugenol in nanoliposomes was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A good storage stability of EN was confirmed by its low variation of average particle diameter and encapsulation efficiency after 8 weeks of storage. No oil drops were found in EN after 8 weeks of storage at 4C and at room temperature, which suggested that the poor water solubility of eugenol was overcome by nanoliposome encapsulation. Compared with that of eugenol solution, a relatively good sustained release property was observed in EN. The antibacterial activity of EN against four common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes) was evaluated in both Luria broth and milk medium. PMID:25581174

  12. Regulation of lipid disorders by ethanol extracts from Zingiber zerumbet in high-fat diet-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antihyperlipidaemic effects of the ethanol extract of Zingiber zerumbet (L) Smith (EEZZ). After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2weeks, rats were dosed orally with EEZZ (100, 200 or 300mg/kg) or fenofibrate (100mg/kg) once daily for 8weeks. EEZZ (300mg/kg/day) produced effects similar to fenofibrate in reducing body weight gain, visceral fat-pad weights and plasma lipid levels. EEZZ caused reductions in hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol content, and lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic proteins of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1) were reversed by EEZZ. These results suggest that EEZZ reduced the accumulation of visceral fat and improved hyperlipidaemia in HFD-fed rats by increasing fatty acid oxidation, an effect which is likely to be mediated via up-regulation of hepatic PPARα. PMID:26434316

  13. Evolution of structure and magnetic properties in PrCo5 magnet for high energy ball milling in ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhu-Bai; Lan, Jian-Ting; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Liu, Yan-Li; Li, Yong-Feng

    2015-08-01

    High energy ball milling (HEBM) is employed to produce nano-sized grains and particles. In this paper, the structure and magnetic properties are investigated in PrCo5 alloy for HEBM in an ethanol milling medium. With the increase of milling time, the grain size reduces and the coercivity increases. For a milling time of less than 30 min, the hysteresis loop of the aligned sample is very different from that of the un-aligned sample and it does not show a large decrease in magnetization slope, indicating a relatively good alignment of easy axes in particles due to the fact that the texture is nearly well preserved. However, when the milling time is further prolonged, the textured structure deteriorates in the powders. Even though exchange coupling exists between grains within the particle, the magnetic properties are exchange-decoupled between particles and the dipolar interaction results in a negative value of ? m in the whole range of the magnetic field. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51461033).

  14. Development of xylose-fermenting yeasts for ethanol production at high acetic acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, D.V.; Whelan, D.R.; Panchal, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Mutants resistant to comparatively high levels of acetic acid were isolated from the xylose-fermenting yeasts Candida shehatae and Pichia Stipitis by adapting these cultures to increasing concentrations of acetic acid grown in shake-flask cultures. These mutants were tested for their ability to ferment xylose in presence of high acetic acid concentrations, in acid hydrolysates of wood, and in hardwood spent sulfite liquor, and compared with their wild-type counterparts and between themselves. The P. stipitis mutant exhibited faster fermentation times, better tolerance to acid hydrolysates, and tolerance to lower pH.

  15. Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration

    SciTech Connect

    Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H. )

    1989-02-09

    Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regular diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.

  16. High Fibrinogen in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Sho; Sakagami, Masafumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Shingo; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. Study Design A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. Methods Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients’ initial visit to our clinic. Results In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. Conclusions High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset. PMID:25166620

  17. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  18. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C. Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels. PMID:26437026

  19. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Blake L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G J; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels. PMID:26437026

  20. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Gabriel R.; Santos, Heleodório H.; Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Júnior, Adenilson T. A.; Araújo, Joamira P.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Sousa, Maria S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years) were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6) and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6) that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups. PMID:25114743

  1. Relationship of low lysine and high arginine concentrations to efficient ethanolic fermentation of wheat mash.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K C; Ingledew, W M

    1992-07-01

    Very high gravity wheat mashes containing 20 or more grams of carbohydrates per 100 mL were fermented completely by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even though these mashes contained low amounts of assimilable nitrogen. Supplementation of wheat mashes with various amino acids or with yeast extract, urea, or ammonium sulfate reduced the fermentation time. However, lysine or glycine added as single supplements, inhibited yeast growth and fermentation. With lysine, yeast growth was severely inhibited, and a loss of cell viability as high as 80% was seen. Partial or complete reversal of lysine-induced inhibition was achieved by the addition of a number of nitrogen sources. All nitrogen sources that relieved lysine-induced inhibition of yeast growth also promoted uptake of lysine and restored cell viability to the level observed in the control. They also increased the rate of fermentation. Experiments with minimal media showed that for lysine to be inhibitory to yeast growth, assimilable nitrogen in the medium must be in growth-limiting concentrations or totally absent. In the presence of excess nitrogen, lysine stimulated yeast growth and fermentation. Results indicate that supplementing wheat mash with other nitrogen sources increases the rate of fermentation not only by providing extra nitrogen but also by reducing or eliminating the inhibitory effect of lysine on yeast growth. PMID:1393832

  2. Modified salting-out method: high-yield, high-quality genomic DNA extraction from whole blood using laundry detergent.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, H; Forouzandeh, M; Rasaee, M J; Rahbarizadeh, F

    2005-01-01

    Different approaches have been used to extract DNA from whole blood. In most of these methods enzymes (such as proteinase K and RNAse A) or toxic organic solvents (such as phenol or guanidine isothiocyanate) are used. Since these enzymes are expensive, and most of the materials that are used routinely are toxic, it is desirable to apply an efficient DNA extraction procedure that does not require the use of such materials. In this study, genomic DNA was extracted by the salting-out method, but instead of using an analytical-grade enzyme and chemical detergents, as normally used for DNA isolation, a common laundry powder was used. Different concentrations of the powder were tested, and proteins were precipitated by NaCl-saturated distilled water. Finally, DNA precipitation was performed with the use of 96% ethanol. From the results, we conclude that the optimum concentration of laundry powder for the highest yield and purity of isolated DNA is 30 mg/mL. The procedure was optimized, and a final protocol is suggested. Following the same protocol, DNA was extracted from 100 blood samples, and their amounts were found to be >50 microg/mL of whole blood. The integrity of the DNA fragments was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the extracted DNA was used as a template for PCR reaction. The results obtained from PCR showed that the final solutions of extracted DNA did not contain any inhibitory material for the enzyme used in the PCR reaction, and indicated that the isolated DNA was of good quality. These results show that this method is simple, fast, safe, and cost-effective, and can be used in medical laboratories and research centers. PMID:16302208

  3. Improved linkage analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci using bulk segregants unveils a novel determinant of high ethanol tolerance in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) coupled to high throughput sequencing is a powerful method to map genomic regions related with phenotypes of interest. It relies on crossing two parents, one inferior and one superior for a trait of interest. Segregants displaying the trait of the superior parent are pooled, the DNA extracted and sequenced. Genomic regions linked to the trait of interest are identified by searching the pool for overrepresented alleles that normally originate from the superior parent. BSA data analysis is non-trivial due to sequencing, alignment and screening errors. Results To increase the power of the BSA technology and obtain a better distinction between spuriously and truly linked regions, we developed EXPLoRA (EXtraction of over-rePresented aLleles in BSA), an algorithm for BSA data analysis that explicitly models the dependency between neighboring marker sites by exploiting the properties of linkage disequilibrium through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Reanalyzing a BSA dataset for high ethanol tolerance in yeast allowed reliably identifying QTLs linked to this phenotype that could not be identified with statistical significance in the original study. Experimental validation of one of the least pronounced linked regions, by identifying its causative gene VPS70, confirmed the potential of our method. Conclusions EXPLoRA has a performance at least as good as the state-of-the-art and it is robust even at low signal to noise ratio’s i.e. when the true linkage signal is diluted by sampling, screening errors or when few segregants are available. PMID:24640961

  4. Blood Group A Antigen Expression on Cardiac Endothelium is Highly Individualized: Possible Implications for Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gehrie, Eric A.; Cates, Justin M.; Nian, Hui; Olson, Sandy J.; Young, Pampee P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Outcomes in cases of adult accidental ABO incompatible cardiac transplantation are highly variable, with some patients suffering nearly immediate catastrophic antibody-mediated rejection while others (~37% – 45%) survive. We hypothesize that these disparate outcomes could be influenced by variations in blood group antigen expression on allograft endothelium. Methodology Immunohistochemical stains for blood group A antigen were performed on cardiac tissue from 18 blood type A cadavers. Staining was evaluated by two distinct modalities: semi-quantitative light microscopy, which measured the intensity of antigen expression on endothelium, and quantitative digital analysis, which determined the percent of the total tissue section area staining positive for blood group A antigen. These data were used to compute a Comprehensive Expression Index (CEI) of blood group A antigen expression for each specimen. Results Semi-quantitative light microscopic examination determined that endothelium stained with low intensity in 4 (22%) myocardial samples, intermediate intensity in 5 (28%) samples, and high intensity in 9 (50%) samples. Quantitative digital analysis revealed a range in the percent of total cross sectional area composed of blood group A-positive signal (median 2.69%; interquartile range 1.68% – 2.94%). Increased percent of total cross sectional area composed of blood group A-positive signal was positively associated with patient age (p=.0037). The CEI showed a broad range, with a median of 5.27 and an interquartile range of 2.92 – 8.22. Conclusions There are little data available regarding inter-individual differences in blood group A antigen expression in cardiac endothelium. Here, we report inter-individual variation in endothelial expression of blood group A antigen in 18 specimens. These variations may help to explain disparate outcomes in cases of accidental ABO incompatible cardiac transplantation in adults. PMID:23290353

  5. Pretreatment with isradipine, a calcium-channel blocker, does not attenuate the acute behavioral effects of ethanol in humans.

    PubMed

    Rush, C R; Pazzaglia, P J

    1998-04-01

    The acute subject-rated, performance-impairing, and physiological effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 1 g/kg) were examined after pretreatment with isradipine (0, 5, and 10 mg) in nine healthy volunteers. Volunteers received 1 of the 9 ethanol-isradipine combinations during each of nine experimental sessions. Ethanol alone produced prototypical subject-rated drug effects (e.g., increased ratings of "Drunk," "Good effects," and "Like drug") and impaired performance. Isradipine alone also produced significant subject-rated drug effects (e.g., increased ratings of "Drug effect," "Bad effects," "High," and "Stimulated"), but did not impair performance. Isradipine pretreatment generally did not significantly alter the subject-rated or performance-impairing effects of ethanol. Isradipine alone, but not ethanol alone, significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The ethanol-isradipine combinations generally produced significantly greater decreases in blood pressure than were observed with isradipine alone. Breath-alcohol levels were significantly lower after isradipine pretreatment, which suggests isradipine altered the bioavailability of ethanol. The present findings extend previous studies with humans that examined the behavioral effects of ethanol after pretreatment with other calcium-channel blockers, including nifedipine, nimodipine, and verapamil. Whereas the available studies suggest that calcium-channel blockers would not be useful pharmacological adjuncts in the management of ethanol abuse, more research is needed. Future studies should use self-administration and drug discrimination procedures adapted for use with humans to determine if calcium-channel blockers can attenuate any of the behavioral effects of ethanol. PMID:9581666

  6. True color blood flow imaging using a high-speed laser photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Sun, Yung-Nien; Ho, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Physiological changes in the retinal vasculature are commonly indicative of such disorders as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Thus, various methods have been developed for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics. However, to the best of our knowledge, current ophthalmic instruments do not provide a true color blood flow imaging capability. Accordingly, we propose a new method for the true color imaging of blood flow using a high-speed pulsed laser photography system. In the proposed approach, monochromatic images of the blood flow are acquired using a system of three cameras and three color lasers (red, green, and blue). A high-quality true color image of the blood flow is obtained by assembling the monochromatic images by means of image realignment and color calibration processes. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by imaging the flow of mouse blood within a microfluidic channel device. The experimental results confirm the proposed system provides a high-quality true color blood flow imaging capability, and therefore has potential for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics.

  7. Very unusual ethanol distribution in a fatality.

    PubMed

    Singer, P P; Jones, G R

    1997-10-01

    A 48-year-old man with an extensive history of alcoholism was found dead at home. He was lying face down on a carpet. There was evidence of gastric aspiration at autopsy and histologic examination. The distribution of ethanol was very unusual (concentrations in mg/100 mL or mg/100 g): femoral blood, 257 and 273 (two samples); heart blood, 643; vitreous humor, 763; urine, 84; bile, 616; liver, 250; and gastric, 4660 (2470 mg/53 g). In addition, this man ingested isopropanol, and, according to the history, may also have ingested acetone in the form of nail polish remover. The distribution of both isopropanol and acetone was as expected, which was approximately in proportion to the aqueous content of the respective tissues. It is proposed that agonal or postmortem aspiration of the ethanol-rich vomitus and postmortem fermentation could account for the apparently elevated concentrations of ethanol in heart blood and bile. The elevated vitreous ethanol could be explained if ethanol diffused across the eye in the agonal phase or postmortem from gastric aspirate in the carpet. The relatively low urinary ethanol concentration would be consistent with a recent binge-drinking episode, which allowed only a limited time period for excretion into an already partially full, but relatively ethanol-free, bladder. PMID:9323534

  8. Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-03-01

    A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. PMID:24463536

  9. Adaptation of yeast cell membranes to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1987-05-01

    A highly ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces wine strain is able, after growth in the presence of ethanol, to efficiently improve the ethanol tolerance of its membrane. A less-tolerant Saccharomyces laboratory strain, however, is unable to adapt its membrane to ethanol. Furthermore, after growth in the presence of ethanol, the membrane of the latter strain becomes increasingly sensitive, although this is a reversible process. Reversion to a higher tolerance occurs only after the addition of an energy source and does not take place in the presence of cycloheximide.

  10. The effect of high-frequency electric pulses on tumor blood flow in vivo.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, E; Firoozabadi, S M P; Hajizadeh, S; Rajabi, H; Hassan, Z M

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 5-kHz repetition frequency of electroporating electric pulses in comparison to the standard 1-Hz frequency on blood flow of invasive ductal carcinoma tumors in Balb/C mice. Electroporation was performed by the delivery of eight electric pulses of 1,000 V cm(-1) and 100 mus duration at a repetition frequency of 1 Hz or 5 kHz. Blood flow changes in tumors were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Monitoring was performed continuously for 10 min before application of the electric pulses as well as immediately after application of the electric pulses for 40 min. The delivery of electric pulses to tumors induced changes in tumor blood flow. The reduction in blood flow started after the stimulation and continued for the 40-min period of observation. There was a significant difference in blood flow changes 3 min after application of the electric pulses at 1-Hz or 5-kHz repetition frequency. However, after 3 min the difference became nonsignificant. The findings showed that the high pulse frequency (5 kHz) had an effect comparable to the 1-Hz frequency on tumor blood flow except at very short times after pulse delivery, when pulses at 5 kHz produced a more intense reduction of blood flow. PMID:20665210

  11. Blood lead levels among children in high-risk areas--California, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In the United States, elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) are a major health risk for children; this risk is totally preventable (1). To better characterize lead poisoning among children at high risk for lead exposure in California, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) conducted lead-screening surveys that measured lead levels in children's blood, household paint, and soil in three selected high-risk areas in northern, southern, and central California. This report summarizes the survey findings and describes CDHS's efforts to reduce lead exposure among children in California, especially among those in high-risk areas.

  12. Specific alcoholic beverage and blood pressure in a middle-aged Japanese population: the High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOP-OHP) Study.

    PubMed

    Okamura, T; Tanaka, T; Yoshita, K; Chiba, N; Takebayashi, T; Kikuchi, Y; Tamaki, J; Tamura, U; Minai, J; Kadowaki, T; Miura, K; Nakagawa, H; Tanihara, S; Okayama, A; Ueshima, H

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of popular Japanese alcoholic beverages on blood pressure. We performed a cross-sectional study on 4335 Japanese male workers using baseline data from an intervention study. We defined six groups according to the type of alcoholic beverage that provided two-thirds of the subject's total alcohol consumption: beer, sake (rice wine), shochu (traditional Japanese spirits), whiskey, wine and others. The partial regression coefficients of daily alcohol intake (1 drink=11.5 g of ethanol) to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 0.87(P<0.001, standard error (s.e.)=0.09) and 0.77(P<0.001, s.e.=0.06), respectively. A comparison among the types of alcoholic beverages mainly consumed revealed significant differences in SBP and DBP. Both SBP and DBP were highest in the shochu group. However, an analysis of covariance adjusting for total alcohol consumption resulted in the disappearance of these differences. Although after adjustment for total alcohol consumption, the shochu group exhibited a significant positive association with 'high-normal blood pressure or greater' (odds ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.95) compared with the beer group, this significant relation disappeared after adjusting for the body mass index (BMI), urinary sodium and potassium excretion. The pressor effect, per se, of popular Japanese alcoholic beverages on blood pressure may not be different among the types of alcoholic beverages after adjusting for other lifestyle factors. PMID:14688805

  13. Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. Methods This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. Results A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P < 0.01). The rate of successful glucose control (blood glucose level < 150 mg/dl maintained for 6 days or longer) decreased with increase in blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P < 0.01). The blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions High blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control. PMID:22494810

  14. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay of metabolites of thioguanine and mercaptopurine in capillary blood.

    PubMed

    Erb, Norbert; Haverland, Ulf; Harms, Drthe O; Escherich, Gabi; Janka-Schaub, Gritta

    2003-10-25

    The main metabolites of the cytotoxic drugs thioguanine (6TG) and mercaptopurine (6MP) can be measured conveniently in red blood cells (RBC). Isolation of RBC, however, is laborious and requires some milliliters of blood. This HPLC assay allows measurements of thiopurine metabolites in very small blood samples obtained from the finger-tip. The metabolites, derivatives of 6TG and methylmercaptopurine (6MeMP), were extracted and hydrolized with perchloric acid to liberate the corresponding base. 6MeMP is completely transformed under these conditions to 4-amino-5-(methylthio)carbonyl imidazole. The chromatographic separation of 6TG and this imidazole was performed in a single run under isocratic conditions within 10 min using a 70 mm column. The quantification limit was 0.5 nmol/ml for 6TG and 3 nmol/ml blood for 6MeMP. The accuracy was 83% for 6TG (CV=3%) over the concentration range of 0.5-20 nmol/ml blood and 102% (CV=4%) for 6MeMP over the range of 3-150 nmol/ml blood. The intra-assay CV ranged from 5.4 to 7.4% for 6TG and from 6.2 to 10.6% for 6MeMP. The inter-assay CV was 7.5 and 9.5% in a pooled blood sample. The levels in RBC in whole blood were nearly coincident with those obtained in separated RBC, isolation of RBC therefore is not necessary for these measurements, if the drugs are given per os in the day before blood sampling. The concentration of 6MeMP nucleotides is more dependent on the given 6MP dose than the concentration of 6TG nucleotides. Intraindividual variations were small at unchanged drug doses, interindividual metabolite concentrations were highly variable. PMID:14552819

  15. Stress-Prone Teen Males May Be At Risk of High Blood Pressure Later

    MedlinePLUS

    ... men were diagnosed with high blood pressure. The average age at diagnosis was 49, the researchers said. Weight ... high stress-resilience scores and normal BMI at age 18, the findings ... in New York City, and colleagues said in a journal news release. ...

  16. Safe practice: using high-fidelity simulation to teach blood transfusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Dawn; Oʼrourke, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation can play an important role in educating novice nurses for a challenging health care environment by fostering their confidence levels in recognizing high-risk, low-incident events. This paper reports on a quality improvement project to increase student nurses' knowledge and skills in caring for clients receiving blood transfusions. PMID:23558920

  17. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The person may receive: Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation),and ventilator (breathing machine) ...

  18. Developing high-sensitivity ethanol liquid sensors based on ZnO/porous Si nanostructure surfaces using an electrochemical impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husairi, Mohd; Rouhi, Jalal; Alvin, Kevin; Atikah, Zainurul; Rusop, Muhammad; Abdullah, Saifollah

    2014-07-01

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized on porous Si (PSi) substrates using the thermal catalytic-free immersion method. Crack-like ZnO nanostructures were formed on the bare, sponge-like PSi structures. An approach to fabricate chemical sensors based on the ZnO/PSi nanostructure arrays that uses an electrochemical impedance technique is reported. Sensor performance was evaluated for ethanol solutions by the morphology and defect structures of the ZnO nanostructure layer. Results indicate that the ZnO/PSi nanostructure chemical sensor exhibits rapid and high response to ethanol compared with a PSi nanostructure sensor because of its small particle size and an oxide layer acting as a capacitive layer on the PSi nanostructure surface.

  19. A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of cyanide in equine blood.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Charlie; Lehner, Fritz; Dirikolu, Levent; Harkins, Dan; Boyles, Jeff; McDowell, Karen; Tobin, Thomas; Crutchfield, James; Sebastian, Manu; Harrison, Lenn; Baskin, Stephen I

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological association among black cherry trees (Prunus serotina), eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americana), and the spring 2001 episode of mare reproductive loss syndrome in central Kentucky focused attention on the potential role of environmental cyanogens in the causes of this syndrome. To evaluate the role of cyanide (CN (-)) in this syndrome, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive method for determination of low parts per billion concentrations of CN (-) in equine blood and other biological fluids was developed. The analytical method is an adaptation of methods commonly in use and involves the evolution and trapping of gaseous hydrogen cyanide followed by spectrophotometric determination by autoanalyzer. The limit of quantitation of this method is 2 ng/mL in equine blood, and the standard curve shows a linear relationship between CN (-) concentration and absorbance (r >. 99). The method throughput is high, up to 100 samples per day. Normal blood CN (-) concentrations in horses at pasture in Kentucky in October 2001 ranged from 3-18 ng/mL, whereas hay-fed horses showed blood CN (-) levels of 2-7 ng/mL in January 2002. Blood samples from a small number of cattle at pasture showed broadly similar blood CN (-) concentrations. Intravenous administration of sodium cyanide and oral administration of mandelonitrile and amygdalin yielded readily detectable increases in blood CN (-) concentrations. This method is sufficiently sensitive and specific to allow the determination of normal blood CN (-) levels in horses, as well as the seasonal and pasture-dependent variations. The method should also be suitable for investigation of the toxicokinetics and disposition of subacutely toxic doses of CN (-) and its precursor cyanogens in the horse as well as in other species. PMID:20021191

  20. High-affinity hemoglobin and blood oxygen saturation in diving emperor penguins.

    PubMed

    Meir, Jessica U; Ponganis, Paul J

    2009-10-01

    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) thrives in the Antarctic underwater environment, diving to depths greater than 500 m and for durations longer than 23 min. To examine mechanisms underlying the exceptional diving ability of this species and further describe blood oxygen (O2) transport and depletion while diving, we characterized the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of the emperor penguin in whole blood. This allowed us to (1) investigate the biochemical adaptation of Hb in this species, and (2) address blood O2 depletion during diving, by applying the dissociation curve to previously collected partial pressure of O2 (PO2) profiles to estimate in vivo Hb saturation (SO2) changes during dives. This investigation revealed enhanced Hb-O2 affinity (P50=28 mmHg, pH 7.5) in the emperor penguin, similar to high-altitude birds and other penguin species. This allows for increased O2 at low blood PO2 levels during diving and more complete depletion of the respiratory O2 store. SO2 profiles during diving demonstrated that arterial SO2 levels are maintained near 100% throughout much of the dive, not decreasing significantly until the final ascent phase. End-of-dive venous SO2 values were widely distributed and optimization of the venous blood O2 store resulted from arterialization and near complete depletion of venous blood O2 during longer dives. The estimated contribution of the blood O2 store to diving metabolic rate was low and highly variable. This pattern is due, in part, to the influx of O2 from the lungs into the blood during diving, and variable rates of tissue O2 uptake. PMID:19801437

  1. Enhanced ethanol production by fermentation of Gelidium amansii hydrolysate using a detoxification process and yeasts acclimated to high-salt concentration.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jung, Jang Hyun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    A total monosaccharide concentration of 59.0 g/L, representing 80.1 % conversion of 73.6 g/L total fermentable sugars from 160 g dw/L G. amansii slurry was obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Subsequent adsorption treatment using 5 % activated carbon with an adsorption time of 2 min was used to prevent the inhibitory effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) >5 g/L in the medium. Ethanol production decreased with increasing salt concentration using C. tropicalis KCTC 7212 non-acclimated or acclimated to a high concentration of salt. Salt concentration of 90 psu was the maximum concentration for cell growth and ethanol production. The levels of ethanol production by C. tropicalis non-acclimated or acclimated to 90 psu high-salt concentration were 13.8 g/L with a yield (YEtOH) of 0.23, and 26.7 g/L with YEtOH of 0.45, respectively. PMID:25627467

  2. Genetically engineered Escherichia coli FBR5: Part I. Comparison of high cell density bioreactors for enhanced ethanol production from xylose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five reactor systems (free cell batch, free cell continuous, entrapped cell immobilized, adsorbed cell packed bed, and cell recycle membrane reactors) were compared for ethanol production from xylose employing Escherichia coli FBR5. In the free cell batch and free cell continuous reactors (continuo...

  3. EFFECTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS ON LIQUID-PHASE ADSORPTION OF ETHANOL AND WATER BY HIGH-SILICA ZSM-5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption isotherms were measured for each compound adsorbed on commercially available ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 140) powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures of ethanol, carboxylic acids, and water at room temperature. The amounts adsorbed were measured using a recently developed t...

  4. Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HuThese Authors Contributed Equally To This Work., Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-02-01

    A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells.A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05722d

  5. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanolmore » (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.« less

  6. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale.

    PubMed

    Fadel, M; Keera, Abeer A; Mouafi, Foukia E; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300?L, 3?m(3), and 12?m(3) fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65?m(3) working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18%?(w/v), inoculum size of 20%?(v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 10(8)/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10?kg/65?m(3) working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4?g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  7. High solid loading hydrolyzate-tolerant strains of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis exhibiting reduced diauxic lag and higher ethanol productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol by native pentose-fermenting yeasts such as Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124, the switch from glucose to xylose uptake results in a diauxic lag unless process strategies to prevent this are applied. Further investigation...

  8. Ethanol production in the Southern High Plains of Texas: Impacts on the economy and scarce water resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of new biorefineries in an effort to increase energy security in the United States has generated positive impacts by creating jobs and generating economic output. However, communities and local and state leaders are concerned about whether ethanol production is an effective use o...

  9. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300?L, 3?m3, and 12?m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65?m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18%?(w/v), inoculum size of 20%?(v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10?kg/65?m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4?g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  10. High catalytic performance of Pt nanoparticles on plasma treated carbon nanotubes for electrooxidation of ethanol in a basic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhongqing; Jiang, Zhong-jie; Meng, Yuedong

    2011-01-01

    Nanosized Pt particles deposited on plasma treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been used in electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol in a basic solution. These Pt nanoparticles have very narrow size distribution and exhibit significant higher catalytic activities, higher Pt utilization efficiency (93.77%) and improved durability in comparison to the commercial available Johnson Matthey Pt/C catalyst.

  11. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  12. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called “dedicated bioenergy crops” including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  13. Direct injection high-performance liquid chromatographic method with electrochemical detection for the determination of ethanol and methanol in plasma using an alcohol oxidase reactor.

    PubMed

    Tagliaro, F; Dorizzi, R; Ghielmi, S; Marigo, M

    1991-05-31

    A highly sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for ethanol and methanol in plasma, using a post-column enzymic reactor with electrochemical detection, has been developed. The alcohols, separated on the column, were converted by immobilized alcohol oxidase into their respective aldehydes with formation of stoichiometric amounts of hydrogen peroxide, detected via oxidation at a platinum electrode. As the chromatographic column, two glass cartridges (150 mm x 3 mm I.D.) in series, packed with 10 microns HEMA-S 1000 packing, were used. Alcohol oxidase from Candida boidinii was immobilized onto HEMA-BIO 1000 VS-L (10 microns), packed in a 30 mm x 3 mm I.D. glass cartridge. The reaction product, hydrogen peroxide, was detected with an amperometric detector with a platinum electrode, operated at +500 mV vs. an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A 20-microliters volume of ten-fold diluted plasma was injected without any pre-treatment. Under the described conditions, methanol and ethanol were well resolved from each other and from the "front" of the chromatogram. The limit of detection was ca. 2.5 nmol for ethanol and 0.6 nmol for methanol in plasma, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Excellent linearity was observed for ethanol, in the range 0.125-4 micrograms injected (r = 0.9999). In contrast, the response for methanol was markedly non-linear above 500 micrograms injected, presumably owing to progressive saturation of the reactor. The precision and accuracy of the assay were satisfactory, as was the reactor life (one month). PMID:1939446

  14. Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost savings of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided.

  15. Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost savings of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided. (Refs. 46).

  16. High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O₂ transport system to secure adequate O₂ delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O₂ binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O₂ equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O₂ binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O₂ carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O₂ with an unusually high affinity (P₅₀=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O₂ affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ∙ g wet tissue⁻¹, respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O₂ affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O₂ flux from the blood to the muscles. PMID:25139401

  17. HSP-4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is not activated in a C. elegans model of ethanol intoxication and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Ient, Ben; Edwards, Richard; Mould, Richard; Hannah, Matthew; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent

    2012-12-01

    Acute and chronic exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to concentrations of ethanol in the range 250-350 mM elicits distinct behaviours. Previous genetic analysis highlights specific neurobiological substrates for these effects. However, ethanol may also elicit cellular stress responses which may contribute to the repertoire of ethanol-induced behaviours. Here, we have studied the effect of ethanol on an important arm of the cellular stress pathways, which emanates from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to several conditions including heat shock and chemical or genetic perturbations that lead to protein misfolding. HSP-4 is a heat shock protein and homologue of mammalian BiP. It is a pivotal upstream component of the ER stress response. Therefore, we used a C. elegans heat shock protein mutant, hsp-4, and a strain carrying a transcriptional reporter, Phsp-4::gfp, to test the role of the ER following chronic ethanol conditioning. We found no evidence for an overt ER response during acute or prolonged exposure to concentrations of ethanol that lead to defined ethanol-induced behaviours. Furthermore, whilst hsp-4 was strongly induced by tunicamycin, pre-exposure of C. elegans to low doses of tunicamycin followed by ethanol was not sufficient to induce an additive ER stress response. Behavioural analysis of an hsp-4 mutant indicated no difference compared to wild type in susceptibility to ethanol intoxication and withdrawal. There is a clear precedent for a significance of ER stress pathways particularly in clinical conditions associated with toxic or pathological effects of high doses of alcohol consumption. The concentrations of ethanol used in this C. elegans study equate to the highest blood alcohol levels measured in patients with chronic alcohol dependency. Taken together, these observations imply that the classic ER stress pathway in C. elegans is relatively refractory to induction by ethanol. PMID:22661239

  18. Velocity measurement of both red blood cells and plasma of in vitro blood flow using high-speed micro PIV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugii, Yasuhiko; Okuda, Remi; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a new high-speed micro PIV technique for measuring both red blood cell velocity and plasma velocity to investigate rheology of blood flow in microcirculation. The measurement system consists of an epi-fluorescent microscope equipped with a high-speed camera with an image intensifier and two sets of colour filters. The technique was applied to in vitro blood flow through a micro round tube of 100 m diameter. Velocity distributions of dyed red blood cells and plasma seeded with fluorescent particles were obtained separately. The obtained velocity distributions have a high spatial resolution of 9.0 m 2.2 m and high temporal resolution of 6000 Hz.

  19. Psychopharmacological interactions between nicotine and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jed E; Brauer, Lisa H; Behm, Frederique M; Cramblett, Matthew; Calkins, Kevin; Lawhon, Dawn

    2004-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory evidence has shown a positive correlation between cigarette smoking and ethanol use, and previous studies suggest some commonality in the neural pathways mediating effects of nicotine and ethanol. In this study, the subjective and behavioral interactions among nicotine, ethanol, and the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine were investigated. The main objectives were to determine how the rewarding effects of nicotine might be modified by ethanol, and to compare the effects of ethanol with those of a nicotinic antagonist (mecamylamine). A total of 48 smokers who regularly consumed alcoholic beverages participated in four laboratory sessions presenting a 2 (nicotine vs. denicotinized cigarette smoke)x2 (10 mg oral mecamylamine hydrochloride vs. placebo)x2 (ethanol.5 g/kg vs. placebo) design, with ethanol as a between-subjects factor. Dependent measures included blood alcohol concentration (BAC), as assessed by breath alcohol detector; subjective drug effects; and rate of ad lib smoking during a 2-hr period. Results showed that peak BAC averaged.03 g/dl in the ethanol condition. Ethanol potentiated some of the subjective rewarding effects of nicotine, including smoking satisfaction, stimulant as well as calming effects, and relief of craving for cigarettes. During the ad lib smoking period, mecamylamine decreased satisfaction associated with the nicotine-containing cigarettes; mecamylamine also induced smoking but only in the placebo ethanol condition. These results highlight the potent interaction between ethanol and nicotinic systems, and suggest that ethanol can potentiate the rewarding effects of nicotine as well as offset some of the effects of a nicotinic antagonist. PMID:14982697

  20. Sweat lead levels in persons with high blood lead levels: experimental elevation of blood lead by ingestion of lead chloride.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O; Crockford, G W

    1991-10-15

    Blood lead levels were experimentally elevated in two subjects by ingestion of single oral doses of lead as lead chloride. Serial samples of blood, urine and sweat were collected subsequently. Sweat samples were collected in polythene armbags while subjects cycled on a bicycle ergometer in a hot chamber. In spite of increases in blood and urinary lead levels, no increases in sweat lead levels were recorded. Possible reasons for this observation are discussed. PMID:1754878

  1. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  2. High-Throughput Lens-Free Blood Analysis on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sungkyu; Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Mudanyali, Onur; Su, Ting-Wei; Bishara, Waheb; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the performance of lens-free holographic microscopy toward high-throughput on-chip blood analysis. Using a spatially incoherent source that is emanating from a large aperture, automated counting of red blood cells with minimal sample preparation steps at densities reaching up to ~0.4 106 cells/?L is presented. Using the same lens-free holographic microscopy platform, we also characterize the volume of the red blood cells at the single-cell level through recovery of the optical phase information of each cell. We further demonstrate the measurement of the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood samples as well as automated counting of white blood cells, also yielding spatial resolution at the subcellular level sufficient to differentiate granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes from each other. These results uncover the prospects of lens-free holographic on-chip imaging to provide a useful tool for global health problems, especially by facilitating whole blood analysis in resource-poor environments. PMID:20450181

  3. Record And Analysis Of High-Speed Photomicrography On Rheology Of Red Blood Cells In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Zhang; Yuju, Lin; Jizong, Wu; Qiang, Wang; Guishan, Li; Ni, Liang

    1989-06-01

    Microcirculation is the basic functional unit of blood circulation in human body. The oxygen needed and the carbon dioxide discharged in human body were accomplished in the case of flow and deformation of red blood cells (RBC) in capillaries. The rheology of RBC performs an important function for maintaining normal blood irrigation and nutritional metabolism. Obviously, for blood irrigation, dynamic mechanism of RBC, blood cell microrheology, law of mivrocirculation and cause of disease, it has very important significance to study quantitatively the rheology of RBC in the capillaries of live animal. In recent years, Tianjin University, cooperating with the Institute of Hematology, used the method of high speed photomicrography to record the flow states of RBC in the capillaries of the hamster cheek pouch and the frog web. Some systems were assembled through the study of luminous energy transmission, illumination system and optical match. These systems included the microhigh-speed camera system, the microhighspeed video recorder system and the microhighspeed camera system combining with an image enhancement tube. Some useful results were obtained by the photography of the flow states of RBC, film analysis and data processing. These results provided the beneficial data for the dynamic mechanism that RBC were deformed by the different blood flow field.

  4. Influence of high glycemic index and glycemic load diets on blood pressure during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; Baur, Louise A; Smith, Wayne; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to prospectively examine the association between the glycemic index and glycemic load of foods consumed and the dietary intakes of carbohydrates, sugars, fiber, and principal carbohydrate-containing food groups (eg, breads, cereals, and sugary drinks) with changes in blood pressure during adolescence. A total of 858 students aged 12 years at baseline (422 girls and 436 boys) were examined from 2004-2005 to 2009-2011. Dietary data were assessed from validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Blood pressure was measured using a standard protocol. In girls, after adjusting for age, ethnicity, parental education, parental history of hypertension, baseline height, baseline blood pressure, change in body mass index, and time spent in physical and sedentary activities, each 1-SD (1-SD = 7.10 g/d) increase in baseline dietary intake of total fiber was associated with a 0.96-, 0.62-, and 0.75-mmHg decrease in mean systolic (P = 0.02), diastolic (P = 0.01), and arterial blood pressures (P = 0.002), respectively, 5 years later. In girls, each 1-SD increase in dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrate, and fructose was concurrently related to increases of 1.81 (P = 0.001), 4.02 (P = 0.01), 4.74 (P = 0.01), and 1.80 mm Hg (P = 0.03) in systolic blood pressure, respectively, >5 years. Significant associations between carbohydrate nutrition variables and blood pressure were not observed among boys. Excessive dietary intake of carbohydrates, specifically from high glycemic index/glycemic load foods, could adversely influence blood pressure, particularly in girls, whereas fiber-rich diets may be protective against elevated blood pressure during adolescence. PMID:22493075

  5. Relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure in high-altitude Peru.

    PubMed

    Burroughs Pea, Melissa; Romero, Karina M; Velazquez, Eric J; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-05-01

    Household air pollution from biomass fuel use affects 3 billion people worldwide; however, few studies have examined the relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We sought to determine if daily biomass fuel use was associated with elevated blood pressure in high altitude Peru and if this relationship was affected by lung function. We analyzed baseline information from a population-based cohort study of adults aged ? 35 years in Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. We used multivariable regression models to examine the relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure outcomes. Interactions with sex and quartiles of forced vital capacity were conducted to evaluate for effect modification. Data from 1004 individuals (mean age, 55.3 years; 51.7% women) were included. We found an association between biomass fuel use with both prehypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-9.9) and hypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0). Biomass fuel users had a higher systolic blood pressure (7.0 mm?Hg; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-9.6) and a higher diastolic blood pressure (5.9 mm?Hg; 95% confidence interval, 4.2-7.6) when compared with nonusers. We did not find interaction effects between daily biomass fuel use and sex or percent predicted forced vital capacity for either systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure. Biomass fuel use was associated with a higher likelihood of having hypertension and higher blood pressure in Peru. Reducing exposure to household air pollution from biomass fuel use represents an opportunity for cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25753976

  6. Gene Expression within the Extended Amygdala of 5 Pairs of Rat Lines Selectively Bred for High or Low Ethanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    McBride, William J.; Kimpel, Mark W.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Hyytia, Petri; Colombo, Giancarlo; Liang, Tiebing; Edenberg, Howard J.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Bell, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine innate differences in gene expression in 2 regions of the extended amygdala between 5 different pairs of lines of male rats selectively bred for high or low ethanol consumption: a) alcohol-preferring (P) vs. alcohol-non-preferring (NP) rats, b) high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) vs. low-alcohol-drinking (LAD) rats (replicate line-pairs 1 and 2), c) ALKO alcohol (AA) vs. nonalcohol (ANA) rats, and d) Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) vs. Sardinian alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rats, and then to determine if these differences are common across the line-pairs. Microarray analysis revealed up to 1,772 unique named genes in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and 494 unique named genes in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) that significantly differed [False Discovery Rate (FDR) = 0.10; fold-change at least 1.2] in expression between the individual line-pairs. Analysis using Gene Ontology (GO) and Ingenuity Pathways information indicated significant categories and networks in common for up to 3 or 4 line-pairs, but not for all 5 line-pairs. However, there were almost no individual genes in common within these categories and networks. ANOVAs of the combined data for the 5 line-pairs indicated 1,014 and 731 significant (p < 0.01) differences in expression of named genes in the AcbSh and CeA, respectively. There were 46 individual named genes that significantly differed across up to 3 line-pairs in both regions; only 1 gene (Gsta4 in the CeA) differed in as many as 4 line-pairs. Overall, the findings suggest that a) some biological categories or networks (e.g., cell-to-cell signaling, cellular stress response, cellular organization, etc.) may be in common for subsets of line-pairs within either the AcbSh or CeA, and b) regulation of different genes and/or combinations of multiple biological systems may be contributing to the disparate alcohol drinking behaviors of these line-pairs. PMID:24157127

  7. Circadian activity rhythms and voluntary ethanol intake in male and female ethanol-preferring rats: effects of long-term ethanol access.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian period, and show further that the development of chronobiological tolerance to ethanol may vary by sex and genotype. PMID:25281289

  8. Highly active carbon supported ternary PdSnPtx (x=0.1-0.7) catalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline and acid media.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Fuchun; He, Yongwei; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Zhonghua; Ma, Zizai; Li, Ruixue

    2016-04-15

    A series of trimetallic PdSnPtx (x=0.1-0.7)/C catalysts with varied Pt content have been synthesized by co-reduction method using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. These catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The electrochemical results show that, after adding a minor amount of Pt dopant, the resultant PdSnPtx/C demonstrated more superior catalytic performance toward ethanol oxidation as compared with that of mono-/bi-metallic Pd/C or PdSn/C in alkaline solution and the PdSnPt0.2/C with optimal molar ratio reached the best. In acid solution, the PdSnPt0.2/C also depicted a superior catalytic activity relative to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The possible enhanced synergistic effect between Pd, Sn/Sn(O) and Pt in an alloyed state should be responsible for the as-revealed superior ethanol electro-oxidation performance based upon the beneficial electronic effect and bi-functional mechanism. It implies the trimetallic PdSnPt0.2/C with a low Pt content has a promising prospect as anodic electrocatalyst in fields of alkali- and acid-type direct ethanol fuel cells. PMID:26851453

  9. Distinct molecular targets including SLO-1 and gap junctions are engaged across a continuum of ethanol concentrations in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, James; Andrianakis, Ioannis; Mould, Richard; Ient, Ben; Liu, Wei; James, Christopher; O'Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) interacts with diverse molecular effectors across a range of concentrations in the brain, eliciting intoxication through to sedation. Invertebrate models including the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans have been deployed for molecular genetic studies to inform on key components of these alcohol signaling pathways. C. elegans studies have typically employed external dosing with high (>250 mM) ethanol concentrations: A careful analysis of responses to low concentrations is lacking. Using the C. elegans pharyngeal system as a paradigm, we report a previously uncharacterized continuum of cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol from low (10 mM) to high (300 mM) concentrations. The complexity of these responses indicates that the pleiotropic action of ethanol observed in mammalian brain is conserved in this invertebrate model. We investigated two candidate ethanol effectors, the calcium-activated K+ channel SLO-1 and gap junctions, and show that they contribute to, but are not sole determinants of, the low- and high-concentration effects, respectively. Notably, this study shows cellular and whole organismal behavioral responses to ethanol in C. elegans that directly equate to intoxicating through to supralethal blood alcohol concentrations in humans and provides an important benchmark for interpretation of paradigms that seek to inform on human alcohol use disorders.Dillon, J., Andrianakis, I., Mould, R., Ient, B., Liu, W., James, C., O'Connor, V., Holden-Dye, L. Distinct molecular targets including SLO-1 and gap junctions are engaged across a continuum of ethanol concentrations in Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:23882127

  10. The use of high-hydrostatic pressure treatment to decellularize blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Funamoto, Seiichi; Nam, Kwangwoo; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Murakoshi, Ayako; Hashimoto, Yoshihide; Niwaya, Kazuo; Kitamura, Soichiro; Fujisato, Toshiya; Kishida, Akio

    2010-05-01

    A decellularization method using high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology (>600MPa) is described. The HHP disrupts the cells inside the tissue. The cell debris can be eliminated with a simple washing process, producing clean, decellularized tissue. In this study, porcine aortic blood vessel was decellularized by HHP. The mechanical properties and in vivo performance of the decellularized tissue were evaluated. Mechanical properties of the decellularized tissue were not altered by the HHP treatment. Reduced inflammation of the decellularized tissue was confirmed by xenogenic transplant experimentation. An allogenic transplantation study showed that decellularized blood vessel endured the arterial blood pressure, and there was no clot formation on the luminal surface. In addition, cellular infiltration into the vessel wall was observed 4 weeks after implantation, suggesting that HHP treatments could be applied widely as a high-quality decellularization method. PMID:20149445

  11. Optimal Blood Pressure Goals in Patients With Hypertension at High Risk for Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2016-01-01

    Existing epidemiologic and clinical trial data suggest that the blood pressure in patients with hypertension at high risk for cardiovascular events because of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, or heart failure should be reduced to <140/90 mm Hg in patients younger than 80 years and the systolic blood pressure be reduced to 140-145 mm Hg if tolerated in patients aged 80 years and older. Studies from patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and heart failure will be discussed that support a blood pressure goal of <140/90 mm Hg in patients younger than 80 years at high risk for cardiovascular events. PMID:23591024

  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation and nanogram quantitation of bupivacaine enantiomers in blood.

    PubMed

    Gu, X Q; Fryirs, B; Mather, L E

    1998-11-20

    Chiral separation of rac-bupivacaine extracted from blood was achieved with similar limits of detection but using a much simpler sample preparation than reported previously. The simple one-step sample preparation devised was highly robust and efficient and allowed a very high throughput of samples. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions used gave baseline separation of the enantiomers with high sensitivity. R-(+)-bupivacaine and S-(-)-bupivacaine blood concentrations were determined using a chiral stationary phase (AGP, ChromTech) with diode array detection at 220 nm; this wavelength produced a stable baseline allowing semi-automated analysis. Sample preparation involved addition of internal standard (diphenhydramine), basification of blood, extraction with n-hexane, concentration of the extract to dryness and reconstitution in 0.002 M phosphoric acid. At rac-bupivacaine concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50 microg/ml in blood, assay accuracy as estimated by coefficients of variation (C.V.s), were 3.3, 1.4, and 1.6%, respectively, for R-(+)-bupivacaine and 3.7, 2.0 and 1.5%, respectively, for S-(-)-bupivacaine. Using 0.6-ml samples, the estimated limits of detection for R-(+)-bupivacaine and S-(-)-bupivacaine were both 15 ng/ml of blood. Calibration curves (n=188) were linear from 0.1 to 50 microg/ml with all correlation coefficients being greater than 0.99. This semi-automated method was applied to studies involving whole body pharmacokinetics with intravenous doses ranging from 12.5 to 350 mg and regional myocardial pharmacokinetics with coronary arterial doses ranging from 2.5 to 12.5 mg. These studies generated approximately 12000 blood samples. PMID:9869373

  13. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  14. High thermal sensitivity of blood enhances oxygen delivery in the high-flying bar-headed goose.

    PubMed

    Meir, Jessica U; Milsom, William K

    2013-06-15

    The bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) crosses the Himalaya twice a year at altitudes where oxygen (O2) levels are less than half those at sea level and temperatures are below -20°C. Although it has been known for over three decades that the major hemoglobin (Hb) component of bar-headed geese has an increased affinity for O2, enhancing O2 uptake, the effects of temperature and interactions between temperature and pH on bar-headed goose Hb-O2 affinity have not previously been determined. An increase in breathing of the hypoxic and extremely cold air experienced by a bar-headed goose at altitude (due to the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response in this species) could result in both reduced temperature and reduced levels of CO2 at the blood-gas interface in the lungs, enhancing O2 loading. In addition, given the strenuous nature of flapping flight, particularly in thin air, blood leaving the exercising muscle should be warm and acidotic, facilitating O2 unloading. To explore the possibility that features of blood biochemistry in this species could further enhance O2 delivery, we determined the P50 (the partial pressure of O2 at which Hb is 50% saturated) of whole blood from bar-headed geese under conditions of varying temperature and [CO2]. We found that blood-O2 affinity was highly temperature sensitive in bar-headed geese compared with other birds and mammals. Based on our analysis, temperature and pH effects acting on blood-O2 affinity (cold alkalotic lungs and warm acidotic muscle) could increase O2 delivery by twofold during sustained flapping flight at high altitudes compared with what would be delivered by blood at constant temperature and pH. PMID:23470665

  15. Using a Low-Sodium, High-Potassium Salt Substitute to Reduce Blood Pressure among Tibetans with High Blood Pressure: A Patient-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xingshan; Yin, Xuejun; Li, Xian; Yan, Lijing L.; Lam, Christopher T.; Li, Shenshen; He, Feng; Xie, Wuxiang; Sang, Ba; Luobu, Gesang; Ke, Liang; Wu, Yangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt-substitute on lowering blood pressure (BP) among Tibetans living at high altitude (4300 meters). Method The study was a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted between February and May 2009 in Dangxiong County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China. A total of 282 Tibetans aged 40 or older with known hypertension (systolic BP?140 mmHg) were recruited and randomized to intervention (salt-substitute, 65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride and 10% magnesium sulfate) or control (100% sodium chloride) in a 1: 1 allocation ratio with three months supply. Primary outcome was defined as the change in BP levels measured from baseline to followed-up with an automated sphygmomanometer. Per protocol (PP) and intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Results After the three months intervention period, the net reduction in SBP/DBP in the intervention group in comparison to the control group was ?8.2/?3.4 mmHg (all p<0.05) in PP analysis, after adjusting for baseline BP and other variables. ITT analysis showed the net reduction in SBP/DBP at ?7.6/?3.5 mmHg with multiple imputations (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the whole distribution of blood pressure showed an overall decline in SBP/DBP and the proportion of patients with BP under control (SBP/DBP<140 mmHg) was significantly higher in salt-substitute group in comparison to the regular salt group (19.2% vs. 8.8%, p?=?0.027). Conclusion Low sodium high potassium salt-substitute is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and offers a simple, low-cost approach for hypertension control among Tibetans in China. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429246 PMID:25338053

  16. Hollow raspberry-like PdAg alloy nanospheres: High electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Hu, Yongli; Liu, Mingrui; Zheng, Yixiong

    2015-03-01

    Palladium-silver (PdAg) alloy nanospheres with unique structure were prepared using a one-pot procedure based on the galvanic replacement reaction. Their electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media was evaluated. The morphology and crystal structure of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical characterization techniques, including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements were used to analyze the electrochemical performance of the PdAg alloy nanospheres. The SEM and TEM images showed that the PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit a hierarchical nanostructure with hollow interiors and porous walls. Compared to the commercial Pd/C catalyst, the as-prepared PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media, showing its potential as a new non-Pt electro-catalyst for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs).

  17. Alcohol-induced insulin resistance in liver: Potential roles in regulation of ADH expression; ethanol clearance and alcohol liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using total enteral nutrition (TEN), we demonstrated that low carbohydrate, high alcohol-containing diets (10-12 g/kg/dO produced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g). Intragastric infusion of this diet generates regular pulses of blood ethanol concentrations (BEC...

  18. Family History Fails to Detect the Majority of Children with High Capillary Blood Total Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Dennis M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To examine the predictive value of family history in detecting children with high blood cholesterol, finger-stick screening was done in children (n=1,118) ages 9-10 with parental and grandparental history of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Findings showed that screening only children with positive family histories will leave most problems

  19. High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This report offers a patient-based approach to lowering blood cholesterol levels which seeks to identify individuals at high risk who will benefit from intensive intervention efforts. The goal is to establish criteria that define the candidates for medical intervention and to provide guidelines on how to detect, set goals for, treat, and monitor…

  20. High tolerance and physiological mechanism of Zymomonas mobilis to phenolic inhibitors in ethanol fermentation of corncob residue.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hanqi; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Corncob residue as the lignocellulosic biomass accumulated phenolic compounds generated from xylitol production industry. For utilization of this biomass, Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 was tested as the ethanol fermenting strain and presented a better performance of cell growth (2.8??10(8) ?CFU/mL) and ethanol fermentability (54.42?g/L) in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) than the typical robust strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 (cell growth of 2.9??10(7) ?CFU/mL, ethanol titer of 48.6?g/L). The physiological response of Z. mobilis ZM4 to the twelve typical phenolic compounds derived from lignocellulose was assayed and compared with that of S. cerevisiae DQ1. Z. mobilis ZM4 showed nearly the same tolerance to the phenolic aldehydes with S. cerevisiae DQ1, but the stronger tolerance to the phenolic acids existing in corncob residue (2-furoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and syringic acid). The tolerance mechanism of Z. mobilis was investigated in terms of inhibitor degradation, cell morphology and membrane permeability under the stress of phenolics using GC-MS, scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), as well as fluorescent probes. The results reveal that Z. mobilis ZM4 has the capability for in situ detoxification of phenolic aldehydes, and the lipopolysaccharide aggregation on the cell outer membrane of Z. mobilis ZM4 provided the permeable barrier to the attack of phenolic acids. PMID:25851269

  1. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  2. High Rates of Hepatitis B and C and HIV Infections among Blood Donors in Cameroon: A Proposed Blood Screening Algorithm for Blood Donors in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack Ymele, Florent; Keugoung, Basile; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortense; Kouam, Nadege; Mendibi, Sandrine; Dongtsa Mabou, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Background. Infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are currently major public health problems. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted from January to June 2008 at the Blood Bank of the Central Hospital, Yaoundé (Cameroon). The objective was to study the prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV and their coinfections among blood donors. Results. A total of 4650 donors were identified, and the sex ratio (male/female) was 14/1. The median age of donors was 28 years (range: 16 to 69 years). Among blood donors, HBV, HIV, and HCV infection prevalences were 12.14%  (n = 565) , 4.44%  (n = 206), and 1.44%  (n = 67), respectively. Coinfection with HIV and HBV was observed among 0.77% donors, followed by hepatitis B and C co-infection (0.21%) and HIV and HCV coinfection (0.06%). Co-infection with HIV-HBV-HCV was encountered in 2 donors. The HIV, HBV, and HCV infections lead to a destruction of one out of six sets of blood collected. Conclusion. There is a need to review policies for blood collection from donors, by modifying the algorithm of blood donors testing. Pretesting potential donors using rapid tests could help to avoid collection and destruction of (infected) blood. PMID:24066258

  3. Evaluation of a simple model of ethanol drinking to intoxication in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Justin S; Best, Karyn; Belknap, John K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C

    2005-01-31

    Because of intrinsic differences between humans and mice, no single mouse model can represent all features of a complex human trait such as alcoholism. It is therefore necessary to develop partial models. One important feature is drinking to the point where blood ethanol concentration (BEC) reaches levels that have measurable affects on physiology and/or behavior (>1.0 mg ethanol/ml blood). Most models currently in use examine relative oral self-administration from a bottle containing alcohol versus one containing water (two-bottle preference drinking), or oral operant self-administration. In these procedures, it is not clear when or if the animals drink to pharmacologically significant levels because the drinking is episodic and often occurs over a 24-h period. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal parameters and evaluate the reliability of a very simple procedure, taking advantage of a mouse genotype (C57BL/6J) that is known to drink large quantities of ethanol. We exchanged for the water bottle a solution containing ethanol in tap water for a limited period, early in the dark cycle, in the home cage. Mice regularly drank sufficient ethanol to achieve BEC>1.0 mg ethanol/ml blood. The concentration of ethanol offered (10%, 20% or 30%) did not affect consumption in g ethanol/kg body weight. The highest average BEC ( approximately 1.6 mg/ml) occurred when the water-to-ethanol switch occurred 3 h into the dark cycle, and when the ethanol was offered for 4 rather than 2 h. Ethanol consumption was consistent within individual mice, and reliably predicted BEC after the period of ethanol access. C57BL/6J mice from three sources provided equivalent data, while DBA/2J mice drank much less than C57BL/6J in this test. We discuss advantages of the model for high-throughput screening assays where the goal is to find other genotypes of mice that drink excessively, or to screen drugs for their efficacy in blocking excessive drinking. PMID:15642607

  4. Blood donors at high risk of transmitting the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Contreras, M; Hewitt, P E; Barbara, J A; Mochnaty, P Z

    1985-03-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs most commonly in homosexual men. This group carries the greatest risk of transmitting AIDS by blood transfusion. Both promiscuous and nonpromiscuous male homosexuals should refrain from giving blood. A leaflet stating this advice was prepared by the Department of Health and Social Security, United Kingdom. In July 1984 a questionnaire was given to all donors attending a blood donor clinic in the west end of London, England. 53% were male. Donors were given a leaflet on AIDS and a questionnaire to complete in private. Those who considered themselves to be in a high risk group were asked to designate their blood for research purposes only. Serum samples from donors who confirmed that they were in the high risk category were tested for antihepatitis B core antigen and anti-human T lymphotropic virus type III (anti-HTLV-III) in addition to the routine screening of donors for hepatitis B surface antigen and syphilis. All high risk donors were men. Homosexuality was the only high risk factor. Of 5000 questionnaires administered between July and October, 614 were not completed or had ambiguous answers. 38 donors who completed the questionnaire beonged to a high risk group. Of these, 7 were positive for antihepatitis B core antigen; none were positive for anti-HTLV-III, T pallidum hemagglatination, or hepatits B surface antigen. Although the homosexual donors had a much lower incidence of sexually transmitted disease than those attending special clinics, this should not encourage complacency. All possible measures must be taken to prevent homosexuals from donating blood. PMID:3918739

  5. Distinct ethanol drinking microstructures in two replicate lines of mice selected for drinking to intoxication.

    PubMed

    Barkley-Levenson, A M; Crabbe, J C

    2015-06-01

    The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) mice have been selectively bred for reaching high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) following the limited access Drinking in the Dark (DID) test. We have shown previously that mice from the first HDID replicate line (HDID-1) drink in larger, but not longer, ethanol drinking bouts than the low-drinking HS/Npt control mice when consuming modest amounts in the DID test. Here, we assessed drinking microstructure in HDID-1 mice during binge-like levels of ethanol intake using a lickometer system. Mice from both HDID replicates (HDID-1 and -2) and HS mice were also given three DID tests (single-bottle ethanol, two-bottle choice and single-bottle saccharin) using a continuously recording BioDAQ system to determine whether there are selection-dependent changes in drinking microstructure. Larger ethanol bout size in the HDID-1 mice than the HS mice was found to be due to a larger lick volume in these mice. HDID-1 and HDID-2 mice were also seen to have different drinking microstructures that both resulted in high intake and high BECs. The HDID-1 mice drank in larger ethanol bouts than HS, whereas HDID-2 mice drank in more frequent bouts. This pattern was also seen in two-bottle choice DID. The HDID-2 mice had a high bout frequency for all fluid types tested, whereas the large bout size phenotype of the HDID-1 mice was specific to alcohol. These findings suggest that selection for drinking to intoxication has resulted in two distinct drinking microstructures, both of which lead to high BECs and high ethanol intake. PMID:25981501

  6. High temperature induces apoptosis and oxidative stress in pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) blood cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chang-Hong; Yang, Fang-Fang; Liao, Shao-An; Miao, Yu-Tao; Ye, Chao-Xia; Wang, An-Li; Tan, Jia-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2015-10-01

    Water temperature is an important environmental factor in aquaculture farming that affects the survival and growth of organisms. The change in culture water temperature may not only modify various chemical and biological processes but also affect the status of fish populations. In previous studies, high temperature induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. However, the precise mechanism and the pathways that are activated in fish are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high temperature (34°C) on the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) blood cells. The data showed that high temperature exposure increased oxygen species (ROS), cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) concentration and cell apoptosis. To test the apoptotic pathway, the expression pattern of some key apoptotic related genes including P53, Bax, caspase 9 and caspase 3 were examined. The results showed that acute high temperature stress induced up-regulation of these genes, suggesting that the p53-Bax pathway and the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway could be involved in apoptosis induced by high temperature stress. Furthermore, the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR) and heat shock proteins (HSP90 and HSP70) in the blood cells were induced by high temperature stress. Taken together, our results showed that high temperature-induced oxidative stress may cause pufferfish blood cells apoptosis, and cooperatively activated p53-Bax and caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:26590470

  7. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies among blood donors in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; de Sena, Anne; Geraldo, Alexandre; Spada, Celso; Granato, Celso F H

    2016-02-01

    Brazil has been classified as moderately endemic for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. However, data on the seroprevalence of HEV in this region are limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection among blood donors in the metropolitan area of Itajai Valley, Southern Brazil, a region of predominant German heritage, where cultural habits result in a high consumption of pork. Serum samples from 300 blood donors were tested in December 2014 using serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 30 (10%) subjects, and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Only one subject had anti-HEV IgM, whereas none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in blood donors than previously reported in Brazil. J. Med. Virol. 88:361-364, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26211918

  8. Effects of high-intensity sprint training on skeletal muscle blood flow in rats.

    PubMed

    Musch, T I; Terrell, J A; Hilty, M R

    1991-10-01

    The regional blood flow response (via radioactive microspheres) was determined for female rats after 6 wk of high-intensity sprint training (HIST) or limited cage activity as the animals exercised at work loads that would elicit maximal O2 uptake. Blood flow to the different organs of the abdominal region was greatly reduced during maximal exercise conditions, and the magnitude of the reduction appeared to be similar for both the HIST group of rats and their sedentary (SED) control counterparts. Of the 20 different hindlimb muscles examined in the present study, blood flow to the soleus, plantaris, gastrocnemius, flexor hallicus longus, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and adductor magnus and brevis muscles was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) in the HIST rats during maximal exercise conditions than in the SED control rats. Correspondingly, blood flow to the total hindlimb during maximal exercise was also significantly greater in the HIST rats than in the SED control rats [240 +/- 18 vs. 192 +/- 15 (SE) ml.min-1.100 g-1]. These results support the contention that the increase in maximal cardiac output that is produced by HIST in the rat is primarily directed toward the working skeletal muscle and not toward the organs found in the abdominal region. We conclude from these experiments that HIST will produce significant adaptations in central cardiac function and skeletal muscle blood flow in the rat. PMID:1757362

  9. Segmentation of stained blood cell images measured at high scanning density with high magnification and high numerical aperture optics.

    PubMed

    Harms, H; Aus, H M; Haucke, M; Gunzer, U

    1986-11-01

    In hematological morphology, it is necessary to resolve and analyze the smallest possible cellular details appearing in the light microscope. A prerequisite for computer-aided analysis of subtle morphological features is measuring the cells at a high scanning density with high magnification and high numerical aperture optics. Contrary to visual observations, the information content in a measured picture can be increased by setting the condensor's numerical aperture (NA) greater than the objective's NA. The complexity and heterogeneity of such cell images necessitate a new segmentation method that conserves the morphological information required in the subsequent image analysis, feature extraction, and cell classification. In our segmentation strategy, characteristic color difference thresholds for each nucleus and cytoplasm are combined with geometric operations, probability functions, and a cell model. All thresholds are repeatedly recalculated during the successive improvements of the image masks. None of the thresholds are fixed. This strategy segments blood cell images containing touching cells and large variations in staining, texture, size, and shape. Biological inconsistencies in the calculated cell masks are eliminated by comparing each mask with the cell model criteria integrated into the entire segmentation process. All 20,000 leukocyte images from 120 smears in our leukemia project were segmented with this method. PMID:2430764

  10. High barium levels in public drinking water and its association with elevated blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Brenniman, G R; Kojola, W H; Levy, P S; Carnow, B W; Namekata, T

    1981-01-01

    A maximum contaminant level for barium in drinking water has been set at 1. mg/L. This study examines for the first time, whether there are significant differences in mean blood pressure levels between a high and a low barium community. A total of approximately 2,400 Illinois residents in West Dundee, with a mean barium drinking water level of 7.3 mmg/L, and in McHenry, with a mean barium level of 0.1 mg/L, were studied. All other drinking water constituents were nearly identical between the two communities, with the major difference being the level of barium ingested. No significant differences (P greater than .05) were found in blood pressures between the high and low barium communities. Adjustment for duration of exposure, home water softeners, and high blood pressure medication did not alter the findings. The data from this study suggest that elevated levels of barium in drinking water do not significantly elevate blood pressure levels in adult males or females. It is recommended that the drinking water standard of 1. mg/L be re-examined for other possible health effects. PMID:7469488

  11. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat.

    PubMed

    Beausjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michle

    2003-07-01

    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia. PMID:12793982

  12. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested in adulthood. Adult males exposed to ethanol early in adolescence also show enhanced sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol, whereas adult males exposed to ethanol during late adolescence demonstrate insensitivity to the socially suppressing effects of ethanol. To the extent that these results are applicable to humans, stressful live events may make alcohol more attractive for stressed adolescents and adults due to its socially facilitating and socially anxiolytic properties, therefore fostering high levels of drinking. Retention of adolescent-typical responsiveness to alcohol in adult males following adolescent alcohol exposure, including enhanced sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol following early exposure and insensitivity to the socially inhibiting effects following late adolescent exposure, may put these males at risk for the development of alcohol-related disorders later in life. PMID:25431835

  13. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer etal., 2008; Covault etal., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive downshift provides initial evidence that this type of emotional reactivity may be a predisposing factor in alcoholism. PMID:26404495

  14. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Samadi Shams, Sara; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Soltanzad, Farzaneh; Kafil, Vala; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Atashpaz, Sina; Barar, Jaleh

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA) from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8) with high intactness of DNA. Results PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs. PMID:23678425

  15. Role of Novelty and Ethanol History in Locomotor Stimulation Induced by Binge-like Ethanol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The acute locomotor effects of voluntary ethanol intake in mice (stimulation/sedation) might be important behavioral indicators of an animals propensity to engage in ethanol consumption and/or ethanol seeking behaviors. Using a binge-like ethanol intake model dubbed Drinking-in-the-Dark, we recently observed home cage locomotor stimulation in C57BL/6J mice during an acute ethanol intake session but acute home cage locomotor sedation following repeated ethanol exposures. To determine the role of novelty and/or ethanol history on these previously described locomotor effects, and to determine the relationship between these variables on locomotor activity immediately following DID intake, we conducted two separate experiments. Methods In experiment 1, mice were given access to either ethanol or water and locomotor activity was monitored immediately afterwards. In experiment 2, mice were given 13 days access to ethanol or water solution while home cage locomotor activity was monitored. On the 14th day, half of the water consuming animals received ethanol access for the first time. On the 15th day, all animals received ethanol access and locomotion was assessed afterwards in locomotor activity testing chambers. Results In experiment 1, locomotor activity following DID was positively associated with ethanol intake and BECs. In experiment 2, the group that received ethanol for the first time on the 14th day did not display locomotor stimulation. Locomotor activity following DID ethanol intake was positively associated with BECs in all groups regardless of ethanol history. Conclusions These results suggest that 1) DID-induced locomotor stimulation in the home cage may involve relative familiarity with the DID procedures and 2) locomotor stimulation immediately following DID is directly related to the relative concentration of ethanol in blood; an effect that is not altered by prior ethanol history. These data add new evidence of the pharmacological actions of binge-like ethanol intake, and provide a basis by which we may explore the motivation and consequences of such binge consumption. PMID:22150802

  16. Mouse model of chronic and binge ethanol feeding (the NIAAA model)

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Adeline; Mathews, Stephanie; Ki, Sung Hwan; Wang, Hua; Gao, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. currently, the most widely used model for alcoholic liver injury is ad libitum feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol for 46 weeks; however, this model, without the addition of a secondary insult, only induces mild steatosis, slight elevation of serum alanine transaminase (alt) and little or no inflammation. Here we describe a simple mouse model of alcoholic liver injury by chronic ethanol feeding (10-d ad libitum oral feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid diet) plus a single binge ethanol feeding. this protocol for chronic-plus-single-binge ethanol feeding synergistically induces liver injury, inflammation and fatty liver, which mimics acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver injury in patients. this feeding protocol can also be extended to chronic feeding for longer periods of time up to 8 weeks plus single or multiple binges. chronic-binge ethanol feeding leads to high blood alcohol levels; thus, this simple model will be very useful for the study of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and of other organs damaged by alcohol consumption. PMID:23449255

  17. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Stabilized and Manganese-Modified Rhodium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Highly Selective Synthesis of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde from Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulin; Deng, Weihua; Guo, Enruo; Chung, Po-Wen; Chen, Senniang; Trewyn, Brian; Brown, Robert; Lin, Victor

    2012-03-30

    Well-defined and monodispersed rhodium nanoparticles as small as approximately 2?nm were encapsulated in?situ and stabilized in a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) framework during the synthesis of the mesoporous material. Although both the activity and selectivity of MSN-encapsulated rhodium nanoparticles in CO hydrogenation could be improved by the addition of manganese oxide as expected, the carbon selectivity for C2 oxygenates (including ethanol and acetaldehyde) was unprecedentedly high at 74.5?% with a very small amount of methanol produced if rhodium nanoparticles were modified by manganese oxide with very close interaction.

  18. High-performance liquid chromatographic drug analysis by direct injection of whole blood samples. I. Determination of moderately hydrophobic drugs incorporated into blood corpuscles.

    PubMed

    Tamai, G; Yoshida, H; Imai, H

    1987-12-25

    Amounts of a moderately hydrophobic drug incorporated into blood corpuscles were determined by column switching high-performance liquid chromatography with direct injection of whole blood samples. Some modifications were required in order to apply the conventional direct injection method to whole blood samples, as follows. Clogging of the pre-column by blood corpuscles or cytomembranes was avoided by using an end-fitting filter with pore size larger than 40 micron, and accordingly a packing with particle size larger than 40 micron was used. Haemoglobin was decomposed in contact with ODS silica gel and reduced the column efficiency. The protein-coated ODS pre-column (pore size less than 7 nm) was restored by washing with 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) containing 50% acetonitrile. Sodium dodecyl sulphate solution (0.5%, w/v) was preferable for rinsing and removes material remaining in the pre-column. A whole blood sample containing carbamazepine was directly injected into the pre-column, then blood cells were haemolysed promptly in contact with a mobile phase of low salt concentration. The total amount of carbamazepine could be determined with a coefficient of variation of 1.9% (within-run). Carbamazepine incorporated into rabbit blood cells (haematocrit value 33.6%) was determined to be 1.1-1.3 times higher than the concentration in plasma. Adsorption on the cytomembranes was not observed. PMID:3443644

  19. The role of blood vessels in high-resolution volume conductor head modeling of EEG.

    PubMed

    Fiederer, L D J; Vorwerk, J; Lucka, F; Dannhauer, M; Yang, S; Dümpelmann, M; Schulze-Bonhage, A; Aertsen, A; Speck, O; Wolters, C H; Ball, T

    2016-03-01

    Reconstruction of the electrical sources of human EEG activity at high spatio-temporal accuracy is an important aim in neuroscience and neurological diagnostics. Over the last decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that realistic modeling of head anatomy improves the accuracy of source reconstruction of EEG signals. For example, including a cerebro-spinal fluid compartment and the anisotropy of white matter electrical conductivity were both shown to significantly reduce modeling errors. Here, we for the first time quantify the role of detailed reconstructions of the cerebral blood vessels in volume conductor head modeling for EEG. To study the role of the highly arborized cerebral blood vessels, we created a submillimeter head model based on ultra-high-field-strength (7T) structural MRI datasets. Blood vessels (arteries and emissary/intraosseous veins) were segmented using Frangi multi-scale vesselness filtering. The final head model consisted of a geometry-adapted cubic mesh with over 17×10(6) nodes. We solved the forward model using a finite-element-method (FEM) transfer matrix approach, which allowed reducing computation times substantially and quantified the importance of the blood vessel compartment by computing forward and inverse errors resulting from ignoring the blood vessels. Our results show that ignoring emissary veins piercing the skull leads to focal localization errors of approx. 5 to 15mm. Large errors (>2cm) were observed due to the carotid arteries and the dense arterial vasculature in areas such as in the insula or in the medial temporal lobe. Thus, in such predisposed areas, errors caused by neglecting blood vessels can reach similar magnitudes as those previously reported for neglecting white matter anisotropy, the CSF or the dura - structures which are generally considered important components of realistic EEG head models. Our findings thus imply that including a realistic blood vessel compartment in EEG head models will be helpful to improve the accuracy of EEG source analyses particularly when high accuracies in brain areas with dense vasculature are required. PMID:26747748

  20. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity. PMID:15696680

  1. Nephron number and blood pressure in rat offspring with maternal high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Zimanyi, Monika A; Bertram, John F; Black, M Jane

    2002-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of a high-protein diet during pregnancy on nephron endowment and subsequent levels of blood pressure in the offspring. Female WKY rats were fed either a normal (20%, NPD) or a high (54%, HPD) protein diet during pregnancy. Male offspring were paired at birth. At 4 weeks of age, 1 of the pair was randomly chosen for perfusion fixation, and total glomerular number, and thereby nephron number, was estimated using an unbiased stereological technique. The other rat of the pair was allowed to grow to 30 weeks of age, during which time tail cuff systolic blood pressure was monitored twice weekly. There was no effect of the HPD on birth weight (NPD 4.23+/-0.53 g, HPD 4.26+/-0.45 g, mean+/-SD), kidney weight (NPD 0.372+/-0.049 g, HPD 0.337+/-0.090 g), or total nephron number (NPD 27,191+/-3,512, HPD 26,738+/-4,735). Systolic blood pressure at 30 weeks was 170+/-14 mmHg in NPD and 169+/-14 in HPD offspring. These findings show that a HPD during pregnancy did not lead to an increase in birth weight, kidney weight, or nephron endowment, nor did the HPD affect adult blood pressure. PMID:12478348

  2. Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, high ethanol-yielding bacterium isolated from household waste.

    PubMed

    Toms, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-07-01

    An extremely thermophilic, xylanolytic, spore-forming and strictly anaerobic bacterium, strain DTU01(T), was isolated from a continuously stirred tank reactor fed with xylose and household waste. Cells stained Gram-negative and were rod-shaped (0.5-2 m in length). Spores were terminal with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m. Optimal growth occurred at 70 C and pH 7, with a maximum growth rate of 0.1 h(-1). DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. Strain DTU01(T) could ferment arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, melibiose, pectin, starch, sucrose, xylan, yeast extract and xylose, but not cellulose, Avicel, inositol, inulin, glycerol, rhamnose, acetate, lactate, ethanol, butanol or peptone. Ethanol was the major fermentation product and a maximum yield of 1.39 mol ethanol per mol xylose was achieved when sulfite was added to the cultivation medium. Thiosulfate, but not sulfate, nitrate or nitrite, could be used as electron acceptor. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain DTU01(T) was shown to be closely related to Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3(T), Thermoanaerobacter italicus Ab9(T) and Thermoanaerobacter thermocopriae JT3-3(T), with 98-99 % similarity. Despite this, the physiological and phylogenetic differences (DNA G+C content, substrate utilization, electron acceptors, phylogenetic distance and isolation site) allow for the proposal of strain DTU01(T) as a representative of a novel species within the genus Thermoanaerobacter, for which the name Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DTU01(T) ( = DSM 25963(T) = KCTC 4529(T) = VKM B-2752(T) = CECT 8142(T)). PMID:23178727

  3. Unbiased Characterization of Anopheles Mosquito Blood Meals by Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Logue, Kyle; Keven, John Bosco; Cannon, Matthew V; Reimer, Lisa; Siba, Peter; Walker, Edward D; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2016-03-01

    Understanding mosquito host choice is important for assessing vector competence or identifying disease reservoirs. Unfortunately, the availability of an unbiased method for comprehensively evaluating the composition of insect blood meals is very limited, as most current molecular assays only test for the presence of a few pre-selected species. These approaches also have limited ability to identify the presence of multiple mammalian hosts in a single blood meal. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput sequencing method that enables analysis of 96 mosquitoes simultaneously and provides a comprehensive and quantitative perspective on the composition of each blood meal. We validated in silico that universal primers targeting the mammalian mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA) should amplify more than 95% of the mammalian 16S rRNA sequences present in the NCBI nucleotide database. We applied this method to 442 female Anopheles punctulatus s. l. mosquitoes collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While human (52.9%), dog (15.8%) and pig (29.2%) were the most common hosts identified in our study, we also detected DNA from mice, one marsupial species and two bat species. Our analyses also revealed that 16.3% of the mosquitoes fed on more than one host. Analysis of the human mitochondrial hypervariable region I in 102 human blood meals showed that 5 (4.9%) of the mosquitoes unambiguously fed on more than one person. Overall, analysis of PNG mosquitoes illustrates the potential of this approach to identify unsuspected hosts and characterize mixed blood meals, and shows how this approach can be adapted to evaluate inter-individual variations among human blood meals. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any disease-transmitting arthropod and can be easily customized to investigate non-mammalian host sources. PMID:26963245

  4. High Mortality among Patients with Positive Blood Cultures at a Children's Hospital in Tbilisi, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, Jami; Chochua, Sopio; Kourbatova, Ekaterina V.; Barragan, Maribel; Wang, Yun F; Blumberg, Henry M; Rio, Carlos del; Walker, H. Kenneth; Leonard, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Background The etiology and outcomes of blood stream infections (BSI) among pediatric patients is not well described in resource-limited countries including Georgia. Methods Patients with positive blood cultures at the largest pediatric hospital in the country of Georgia were identified by review of medical and laboratory records for patients who had blood cultures obtained between 01/2004-06/2006. Results Of 1,693 blood cultures obtained during the study period, 338 (20%) were positive; 299 were included in our analysis. The median age was 14 days (range 2 days -14 years) and 178 (60%) were male; 53% of patients with a positive culture were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) were representing 165 (55%) of 299 cultures. Further speciation of 135 (82%) of 165 GNR was not possible because of lack of laboratory capacity. Overall mortality was 30% (90 of 299). Among the 90 children who died, 80 (89%) were neonates and 68 (76%) had BSI caused by Gram-negative organism. In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality included age <30 days (OR=4.00, 95% CI 1.89-8.46) and having a positive blood culture for a Gram-negative BSI (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.32-4.29). Conclusions A high mortality was seen among children, particularly neonates, with positive blood cultures at the largest pediatric hospital in Georgia. Because of limited laboratory capacity microbiological identification of common organisms known to cause BSI in children was not possible and susceptibility testing was not performed. Improving the infrastructure of diagnostic microbiology laboratories in resource limited countries is critical in order to improve patient care and clinical outcomes and from a public health standpoint to improve surveillance activities. PMID:19759489

  5. Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Beaufrre, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mlanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2013-09-01

    The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

  6. Unbiased Characterization of Anopheles Mosquito Blood Meals by Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Kyle; Keven, John Bosco; Cannon, Matthew V.; Reimer, Lisa; Siba, Peter; Walker, Edward D.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Serre, David

    2016-01-01

    Understanding mosquito host choice is important for assessing vector competence or identifying disease reservoirs. Unfortunately, the availability of an unbiased method for comprehensively evaluating the composition of insect blood meals is very limited, as most current molecular assays only test for the presence of a few pre-selected species. These approaches also have limited ability to identify the presence of multiple mammalian hosts in a single blood meal. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput sequencing method that enables analysis of 96 mosquitoes simultaneously and provides a comprehensive and quantitative perspective on the composition of each blood meal. We validated in silico that universal primers targeting the mammalian mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA) should amplify more than 95% of the mammalian 16S rRNA sequences present in the NCBI nucleotide database. We applied this method to 442 female Anopheles punctulatus s. l. mosquitoes collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While human (52.9%), dog (15.8%) and pig (29.2%) were the most common hosts identified in our study, we also detected DNA from mice, one marsupial species and two bat species. Our analyses also revealed that 16.3% of the mosquitoes fed on more than one host. Analysis of the human mitochondrial hypervariable region I in 102 human blood meals showed that 5 (4.9%) of the mosquitoes unambiguously fed on more than one person. Overall, analysis of PNG mosquitoes illustrates the potential of this approach to identify unsuspected hosts and characterize mixed blood meals, and shows how this approach can be adapted to evaluate inter-individual variations among human blood meals. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any disease-transmitting arthropod and can be easily customized to investigate non-mammalian host sources. PMID:26963245

  7. Production of the Anaerobic GMAX-L Yeast Using High-Throughput Mating and Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae With Identified Genes For Simultaneous Cellulosic Ethanol and Biodiesel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tailored GMAX-L yeast engineering for strains capable of universal ethanol production industrially with coproduction of an expressed lipase catalyst for coproduction of ethyl esters from corn oil and ethanol from the modern dry grind ethanol facility: Production of the stable baseline glucose, mann...

  8. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  9. Protective effect of zinc against ethanol toxicity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, M.S.; Townsend, Wooles, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Protection against the lethal effects of ethanol at 4.5 g/kg administered acutely was maximal when zinc was administered 60 min prior to ethanol. The timing of ethanol administration corresponded with elevated plasma levels of absorbed zinc. Protection was inversely related to the dose of zinc employed, as 0.5 ..mu..mol provided greater protection than 1.0 ..mu..mol, which provided greater protection than 2.0 ..mu..mol. Protection against ethanol lethality was greater if zinc was administered 60 min prior to each injection of ethanol. Acute zinc pretreatment did not alter the activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), nor did it alter the blood clearance of ethanol. Chronic zinc administration as ZnCl/sub 2/, 100 ..mu..g/ml in the drinking water for 30 d, produced a 25% decrease in hepatic ADH activity, which was accompanied by a similar decrease in the intravascular clearance of ethanol.

  10. In vivo roles of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), catalase and the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) in deermice

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, T.; Alderman, J.; Lieber, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The relative importance of ADH and MEOS for ethanol oxidation in the liver has yet to be elucidated. The discovery of a strain of deermice genetically lacking ADH (ADH-) which can consume ethanol at greater than 50% of the rates seen in deermice having ADH (ADH+) suggested a significant role for non-ADH pathways in vivo. To quantitate contributions of the various pathways, the authors examined first the ethanol oxidation rates with or without 4-methylpyrazole in isolated deermice hepatocytes. 4-Methylpyrazole significantly reduced the ethanol oxidation in both ADH+ and ADH- hepatocytes. The reduction seen in ADH- cells can be applied to correct for the effect of 4-methylpyrazole on non-ADH pathways of ADH+ deermouse hepatocytes. After correction, non-ADH pathways were found to contribute 28% of ethanol metabolism at 10 mM and 52% at 50 mM. When using a different approach namely measurement of the isotope effect, MEOS was calculated to account for 35% at low and about 70% at high blood ethanol concentrations. Thus, they found that two different complementary approaches yielded similar results, namely that non-ADH pathways play a significant role in ethanol oxidation even in the presence of ADH.

  11. Efficacy of a church-based lifestyle intervention programme to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose in church members: a randomized controlled trial in Pretoria, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In persons 15years and above in South Africa the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes has been estimated at 9.1% and 9.6%, respectively, and the prevalence of systolic prehypertension and hypertension, 38.2% and 24.6%, respectively. Elevated blood glucose and elevated blood pressure are prototype of preventable chronic cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lifestyle interventions have been shown to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose. Methods/Design This study proposes to evaluate the efficacy of a community (church)-based lifestyle intervention programme to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose in church members in a randomized controlled trial in Gauteng, South Africa. The objectives are to: (1) measure non-communicable diseases profile, including hypertension and diabetes, health behaviours, weight management and psychological distress of church members; (2) measure the reduction of blood glucose and blood pressure levels after the intervention; (3) prevent the development of impaired glucose tolerance; (4) compare health behaviours, weight management and psychological distress, blood glucose and blood pressure levels between intervention and control groups, and within group during 6, 12, 24 and 36months during and post intervention. The study will use a group-randomized design, recruiting 300 church members from 12 churches. Churches will be randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions. Discussion Lifestyle interventions may prevent from the development of high blood pressure and/or diabetes. The findings will impact public health and will enable the health ministry to formulate policy related to lifestyle interventions to control blood pressure and glucose. Trial registration number PACTR201105000297151 PMID:24906450

  12. [Pharmacodynamic equivalence and clinical trial of a new fluorocarbon-free glycerol trinitrate pump spray with low ethanol content in comparison to a fluorocarbon-containing reference spray and a fluorocarbon-free pump spray with high ethanol content].

    PubMed

    Erb, K; de Mey, C; Zimmermann, T; Mutschler, H; Roll, S; Belz, G G

    1994-04-01

    The pharmacodynamic equivalence of a fluorohydrocarbons-(FCH)-free glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, CAS 55-63-0)-containing pump spray with low ethanol content (Nitrolingual-Spray N; TL) versus a conventional FCH-containing GTN spray (Nitrolingual-Spray, R) as reference and a FCH-free GTN pump spray with high ethanol content (TH) was investigated by digital plethysmography (DPG) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled (TL-matched placebo spray), randomized, period-balanced, 4-way cross-over design. Additionally the clinical tolerability (as perceived by the subjects and reported to the treatments-administrating investigator) was determined. The DPG-changes (cla; ratio of c-incisure and systolic a-wave) after the sublingual (s.l.) administration of 0.8 mg GTN of TL were biostatistically equivalent with R: the confidence intervals (CI) of the point estimates of the maximal decrease in cla (TL/R: 0.98, 90%-CI: 0.84 to 1.14) and the area-weighted average decrease in cla (TL/R: 0.97, 90%-CI: 0.80-1.16) were well in a 80-125% tolerance range. The time of occurrence of the maximal DPG-effect of TL was not different from R (distribution-free estimate of the difference TL-R: -2.25 min, 95%-CI: -9.5 min to 2 min). In contrast the maximal DPG-effect of TH after the s.l. administration of 0.8 mg GTN had a statistically significant earlier onset (TH-R: -6 min, 95%-CI: -9.5 min to -2 min) and a higher area-weighted average response (TH/R: 1.12, 90%-CI: 0.95 to 1.34). TH consistently caused an utterly unpleasant burning sensation in the mouth, thus this perceived local discomfort was distinctly different compared to all other treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8011000

  13. Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ? 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually assaulted attending our SAC. PMID:23910880

  14. High blood pressure, bone-mineral loss and insulin resistance in women.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Mitsuhiro; Mizuno, Kenji; Ono, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Michihiko

    2005-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that high blood pressure is associated with abnormalities in calcium metabolism. Sustained calcium loss may lead to increased bone-mineral loss in subjects with elevated blood pressure. Furthermore, recent findings indicate a possible linkage between abnormal calcium metabolism and insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship(s) among bone-mineral density (BMD), blood pressure, calcium-related and bone metabolic parameters (plasma intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], osteocalcin, and urinary deoxypyridinoline), and insulin resistance, as assessed by a conventional homeostasis model (HOMA-R). We compared non-diabetic women with essential hypertension (WHT, n=34) with age-, body mass index- and menopause (yes or no)-matched normotensive, non-diabetic women (WNT, n=34). The BMD for WHT was significantly lower than that for WNT (0.596+/-0.019 vs. 0.666+/-0.024 g/cm2, p<0.05). The BMD was correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure in all subjects examined (r=-0.385, p<0.05). The 24-h urinary calcium/sodium excretion ratio (Ux-Ca/Na) was significantly greater in WHT compared with WNT (p<0.01). In addition, a negative relationship was apparent between Ux-Ca/Na and BMD (r=-0.58, p<0.05). The plasma levels of PTH and 1,25(OH)2D, and HOMA-R were significantly higher in WHT compared with WNT (p<0.01, p<0.05, and p<0.05, respectively), whereas the serum ionized calcium was lower in WHT compared with WNT (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in serum total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, osteocalcin, or urinary deoxypyridinoline between the two groups. These results indicate that high blood pressure is associated with abnormalities in calcium metabolism and insulin resistance in WHT. PMID:16335884

  15. Management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents: recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lurbe, Empar; Cifkova, Renata; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Dillon, Michael J; Ferreira, Isabel; Invitti, Cecilia; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Laurent, Stephane; Mancia, Giuseppe; Morales-Olivas, Francisco; Rascher, Wolfgang; Redon, Josep; Schaefer, Franz; Seeman, Tomas; Stergiou, George; Whl, Elke; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Hypertension in children and adolescents has gained ground in cardiovascular medicine, thanks to the progress made in several areas of pathophysiological and clinical research. These guidelines represent a consensus among specialists involved in the detection and control of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. The guidelines synthesize a considerable amount of scientific data and clinical experience and represent best clinical wisdom upon which physicians, nurses and families should base their decisions. They call attention to the burden of hypertension in children and adolescents, and its contribution to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease, these guidelines should encourage public policy makers, to develop a global effort to improve identification and treatment of high blood pressure among children and adolescents. PMID:19625970

  16. High frequency photoacoustic imaging for in vivo visualizing blood flow of zebrafish heart.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhyoung; Cummins, Thomas M; Harrison, Michael; Lee, Jungwoo; Zhou, Qifa; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K Kirk

    2013-06-17

    A technique on high frame rate(28fps), high frequency co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for visualizing zebrafish heart blood flow was demonstrated. This approach was achieved with a 40MHz light weight(0.38g) ring-type transducer, serving as the ultrasound transmitter and receiver, to allow an optic fiber, coupled with a 532nm laser, to be inserted into the hole. From the wire target study, axial resolutions of 38m and 42m were obtained for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging, respectively. Carbon nanotubes were utilized as contrast agents to increase the flow signal level by 20dB in phantom studies, and zebrafish heart blood flow was successfully observed. PMID:23787651

  17. High levels of blood lead in griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from Cazorla Natural Park (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fernandez, A J; Martinez-Lopez, E; Romero, D; Maria-Mojica, P; Godino, A; Jimenez, P

    2005-08-01

    The blood lead of 23 griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) trapped in 2003 was analyzed in order to evaluate exposure to lead in the vulture population of Cazorla Natural Park (in southern Spain). In 2001 the use of leaded gasoline in vehicles was banned in the European Union; however, lead ammunition is still used in Spain in big-game hunting for red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, and wild boar, which are ingested by vultures from September to March. The mean concentration of lead in blood was 43.07 +/- 31.96 microg/dL with a range of 17.39-144.80 microg/dL. Only two vultures had lead levels below 20 microg/dL, and two others had blood lead concentrations close to 150 microg/dL. In view of the results, we think the population of vultures from Cazorla Natural Park is suffering subclinical exposure to lead, with some individuals exposed to high toxicity risk. We concluded that ingestion of lead in the metallic form alone is sufficient to produce these blood lead concentrations, and we recommend the prohibition of lead ammunition for big-game hunting in order to preserve the vulture population. PMID:16007647

  18. High frequencies of HGV and TTV infections in blood donors in Hangzhou

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Chen, Li-Li; Luo, Yi-Hui; Mao, Ya-Fei; He, Meng

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequencies of HGV and TTV infections in blood donors in Hangzhou. METHODS: RT-nested PCR for HGV RNA detection and semi-nested PCR for TTV DNA detection in the sera from 203 blood donors, and nucleotide sequence analysis were performed. RESULTS: Thirty-two (15.8%) and 30 (14.8%) of the 203 serum samples were positive for HGV RNA and TTV DNA, respectively. And 5 (2.5%) of the 203 serum samples were detectable for both HGV RNA and TTV DNA. Homology of the nucleotide sequences of HGV RT-nested PCR products and TTV semi-nested PCR products from 3 serum samples compared with the reported HGV and TTV sequences was 89.36%, 87.94%, 88.65% and 63.51%, 65.77% and 67.12%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The infection rates of HGV and/or TTV in blood donors are relatively high, and to establish HGV and TTV examinations to screen blood donors is needed for transfusion security. The genomic heterogeneity of TTV or HGV is present in the isolates from different areas. PMID:11819845

  19. Metabolic Profiling of Human Blood by High Resolution Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry (IM-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Prabha; Schultz, Albert J.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization source (ESI-IM-MS) was evaluated as an analytical method for rapid analysis of complex biological samples such as human blood metabolome was investigated. The hybrid instrument (IM-MS) provided an average ion mobility resolving power of ~90 and a mass resolution of ~1500 (at m/z 100). A few µL of whole blood was extracted with methanol, centrifuged and infused into the IM-MS via an electrospray ionization source. Upon IM-MS profiling of the human blood metabolome approximately 1,100 metabolite ions were detected and 300 isomeric metabolites separated in short analyses time (30 minutes). Estimated concentration of the metabolites ranged from the low micromolar to the low nanomolar level. Various classes of metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, purines and pyrimidines etc) were found to form characteristic mobility-mass correlation curves (MMCC) that aided in metabolite identification. Peaks corresponding to various sterol derivatives, estrogen derivatives, phosphocholines, prostaglandins, and cholesterol derivatives detected in the blood extract were found to occupy characteristic two dimensional IM-MS space. Low abundance metabolite peaks that can be lost in MS random noise were resolved from noise peaks by differentiation in mobility space. In addition, the peak capacity of MS increased six fold by coupling IMS prior to MS analysis. PMID:21113320

  20. Unilateral bicep curl hemodynamics: Low-pressure continuous vs high-pressure intermittent blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Brandner, C R; Kidgell, D J; Warmington, S A

    2015-12-01

    Light-load exercise training with blood flow restriction (BFR) increases muscle strength and size. However, the hemodynamics of BFR exercise appear elevated compared with non-BFR exercise. This questions the suitability of BFR in special/clinical populations. Nevertheless, hemodynamics of standard prescription protocols for BFR and traditional heavy-load exercise have not been compared. We investigated the hemodynamics of two common BFR exercise methods and two traditional resistance exercises. Twelve young males completed four unilateral elbow flexion exercise trials in a balanced, randomized crossover design: (a) heavy load [HL; 80% one-repetition maximum (1-RM)]; (b) light load (LL; 20% 1-RM); and two other light-load trials with BFR applied (c) continuously at 80% resting systolic blood pressure (BFR-C) or (d) intermittently at 130% resting systolic blood pressure (BFR-I). Hemodynamics were measured at baseline, during exercise, and for 60-min post-exercise. Exercising heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and rate-pressure product were significantly greater for HL and BFR-I compared with LL. The magnitude of hemodynamic stress for BFR-C was between that of HL and LL. These data show reduced hemodynamics for continuous low-pressure BFR exercise compared with intermittent high-pressure BFR in young healthy populations. BFR remains a potentially viable method to improve muscle mass and strength in special/clinical populations. PMID:25055880

  1. Alterations of motor performance and brain cortex mitochondrial function during ethanol hangover.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juanita; Karadayian, Analia G; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2012-08-01

    Ethanol has been known to affect various behavioral parameters in experimental animals, even several hours after ethanol (EtOH) is absent from blood circulation, in the period known as hangover. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acute ethanol hangover on motor performance in association with the brain cortex energetic metabolism. Evaluation of motor performance and brain cortex mitochondrial function during alcohol hangover was performed in mice 6 hours after a high ethanol dose (hangover onset). Animals were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8 g/kg BW) (hangover group). Ethanol hangover group showed a bad motor performance compared with control animals (p < .05). Oxygen uptake in brain cortex mitochondria from hangover animals showed a 34% decrease in the respiratory control rate as compared with the control group. Mitochondrial complex activities were decreased being the complex I-III the less affected by the hangover condition; complex II-III was markedly decreased by ethanol hangover showing 50% less activity than controls. Complex IV was 42% decreased as compared with control animals. Hydrogen peroxide production was 51% increased in brain cortex mitochondria from the hangover group, as compared with the control animals. Quantification of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential indicated that ethanol injected animals presented 17% less ability to maintain the polarized condition as compared with controls. These results indicate that a clear decrease in proton motive force occurs in brain cortex mitochondria during hangover conditions. We can conclude that a decreased motor performance observed in the hangover group of animals could be associated with brain cortex mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting impairment of its energetic metabolism. PMID:22608205

  2. Decreased brain reward produced by ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed Central

    Schulteis, G; Markou, A; Cole, M; Koob, G F

    1995-01-01

    Abstinence from chronic administration of various drugs of abuse such as ethanol, opiates, and psychostimulants results in withdrawal syndromes largely unique to each drug class. However, one symptom that appears common to these withdrawal syndromes in humans is a negative affective/motivational state. Prior work in rodents has shown that elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) reward thresholds provide a quantitative index that serves as a model for the negative affective state during withdrawal from psychostimulants and opiates. The current study sought to determine whether ICSS threshold elevations also accompany abstinence from chronic ethanol exposure sufficient to induce physical dependence. Rats prepared with stimulating electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus were trained in a discrete-trial current-intensity ICSS threshold procedure; subsequently they were subjected to chronic ethanol administration in ethanol vapor chambers (average blood alcohol level of 197 mg/dl). A time-dependent elevation in ICSS thresholds was observed following removal from the ethanol, but not the control, chambers. Thresholds were significantly elevated for 48 hr after cessation of ethanol exposure, with peak elevations observed at 6-8 hr. Blood alcohol levels were directly correlated with the magnitude of peak threshold elevation. Ratings of traditional overt signs of withdrawal showed a similar time course of expression and resolution. The results suggest that decreased function of reward systems (elevations in reward thresholds) is a common element of withdrawal from chronic administration of several diverse classes of abused drugs. PMID:7597046

  3. [Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and analytical methods of ethanol].

    PubMed

    Goull, J-P; Guerbet, M

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is a licit substance whose significant consumption is responsible for a major public health problem. Every year, a large number of deaths are related to its consumption. It is also involved in various accidents, on the road, at work, as well as during acts of violence. Ethanol absorption and its fate are detailed. It is mainly absorbed in the small intestine. It accompanies the movements of the water, so it diffuses in all the tissues uniformly with the exception of bones and fat. The major route of ethanol detoxification is located into the liver. Detoxification is a saturable two-step oxidation. During the first stage ethanol is oxidized into acetaldehyde, under the action of alcohol dehydrogenase. During the second stage acetaldehyde is oxidized into acetate. Genetic factors or some drugs are able to disturb the absorption and the metabolism of ethanol. The analytical methods for the quantification of alcohol in man include analysis in exhaled air and in blood. The screening and quantification of ethanol for road safety are performed in exhaled air. In hospitals, blood ethanol determination is routinely performed by enzymatic method, but the rule for forensic samples is gas chromatography. PMID:25857743

  4. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

  5. The post-mortem relationship between beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), acetone and ethanol in ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Simon; Smith, Christopher; Cassidy, Diane

    2010-05-20

    A reduced blood pH (ketoacidosis) from the production of beta-oxidative ketone bodies as a result of alcoholism (alcoholic ketoacidosis, AKA) or diabetes (diabetic ketoacidosis, DKA) can feature in many fatalities and analytical evidence can be used to support a pathological diagnosis, or provide a possible cause of death in the absence of other pathologically significant findings. Existing beliefs concerning the relationship of BHB concentrations, acetone and ethanol have been re-examined by analysis of BHB, acetone and ethanol in over 350 fatalities grouped into alcoholics, diabetics, alcoholic diabetics, coupled with speculative cases and those with an alternative cause of death. Uniquely, the concentrations of BHB were measured in post-mortem blood, urine and vitreous humour using selective GC-MS. The results showed that existing beliefs need to be re-evaluated. Ethanol is not always low (<10mg/dL) or absent in cases of AKA. Also, the absence of acetone precludes [corrected] a high BHB (>250mg/L), therefore acetone can be used as an initial marker pathologically significant ketoacidosis. For blood and urine BHB concentrations the following interpretative ranges can be used (in mg/L); normal (<50mg/L), raised (51-249mg/L), high and pathologically significant (>250mg/L). Initial data suggest vitreous humour BHB could be a useful alternative in the absence of blood (same interpretative ranges may also apply). Analytical recommendation for investigation of post-mortem ketoacidosis is also presented. PMID:19954904

  6. High-throughput automated molecular biology platform for production of fuel ethanol yeast capable of expressing high-value heterologous proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of fuel ethanol currently produced in the United States is made from corn starch. Projections indicate that corn supplies will not be able to meet the increasing demand for biofuels. Lignocellulosic biomass, an abundant and renewable carbon source, has the potential to supplement star...

  7. High orientation of long chain branched poly (lactic acid) with enhanced blood compatibility and bionic structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqiu; Ye, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2016-05-01

    Highly oriented poly (lactic acid) (PLA) with bionic microgrooves was fabricated through solid hot drawing technology for further improving the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA. In order to enhance the melt strength and thus obtain high orientation degree, long chain branched PLA was prepared at first through a two-step ring-opening reaction during processing. Linear viscoelasticity combined with branch-on-branch model was used to predict probable compositions and chain topologies of the products, and it was found that the molecular weight of PLA increased and topological structures with star like chain with three arms and tree-like chain with two generations formed during reactive processing, and consequently draw ratio as high as1200% can be achieved during the subsequent hot stretching. With the increase of draw ratio, the tensile strength and orientation degree of PLA increased dramatically. Long chain branching and orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging clotting time and decreasing platelet activation. Microgrooves can be observed on the surface of the oriented PLA which were similar to the intimal layer of blood vessel, and such bionic structure resulted from the formation of the oriented shish kebab-like crystals along the draw direction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1082-1089, 2016. PMID:26743130

  8. Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation

    PubMed Central

    Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

  9. Applications of schedule-induced polydipsia in rodents for the study of an excessive ethanol intake phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is generated by subjecting a highly motivated animal to a sub-optimal rate of food reinforcement while also providing access to a fluid. SIP is one of several adjunctive (or displacement) behaviors that are expressed in an exaggerated form that is deemed ‘excessive’. This feature makes SIP an attractive model for studying an excessive ethanol drinking phenotype in rodents. Multiple experimental variables are crucial for the full manifestation of adjunctive drinking, including the degree of food deprivation, the inter-pellet interval selected, and the size of the food reward offered. Although these variables were extensively studied and optimized for water polydipsia in rats, a similarly customized approach to ethanol SIP and application of the procedure in mice have largely been curtailed in favor of the default variable values historically used for water SIP in rats. Further, ethanol SIP also requires careful consideration of variables such as taste and ethanol concentration. Investigation of the stress axis and neurochemical systems such as dopamine and serotonin in mediating adjunctive drinking stemmed from two leading hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of SIP generation: 1) SIP as a coping strategy to mitigate stress associated with the aversive environmental condition, and 2) SIP as a displacement of reward in a highly motivated animal. Ethanol SIP is a powerful model of excessive intake because it can generate an ethanol-dependent state and sustain frequent and intoxicating levels of blood ethanol with voluntary oral consumption. The required food deprivation and the loss of the excessive drinking phenotype following removal of the generator schedule are the two main limitations of the model. Future utility of ethanol SIP will be enhanced by more fully dissecting the underlying hormonal and neurochemical mechanisms and optimizing experimental variables for ethanol SIP on a per species and strain basis. PMID:24680665

  10. A high-throughput assay of NK cell activity in whole blood and its clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Saet-byul; Cha, Junhoe; Kim, Im-kyung; Yoon, Joo Chun; Lee, Hyo Joon; Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Sunjung; Youn, Dong-Ye; Lee, Heyja; Lee, Choong Hwan; Lee, Jae Myun; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Jongsun

    2014-03-14

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We demonstrated a simple assay of NK cell activity from whole blood. • The measurement of secreted IFN-γ from NK cell enables high-throughput screening. • The NKA assay was validated by clinical results of colorectal cancer patients. - Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system and have the ability to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. Malignant tumors and viruses have developed, however, strategies to suppress NK cells to escape from their responses. Thus, the evaluation of NK cell activity (NKA) could be invaluable to estimate the status and the outcome of cancers, viral infections, and immune-mediated diseases. Established methods that measure NKA, such as {sup 51}Cr release assay and CD107a degranulation assay, may be used to determine NK cell function, but they are complicated and time-consuming because they require isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or NK cells. In some cases these assays require hazardous material such as radioactive isotopes. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a simple assay that uses whole blood instead of PBMC or isolated NK cells. This novel assay is suitable for high-throughput screening and the monitoring of diseases, because it employs serum of ex vivo stimulated whole blood to detect interferon (IFN)-γ secreted from NK cells as an indicator of NKA. After the stimulation of NK cells, the determination of IFNγ concentration in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provided a swift, uncomplicated, and high-throughput assay of NKA ex vivo. The NKA results microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer patients was showed significantly lower NKA, 263.6 ± 54.5 pg/mL compared with healthy subjects, 867.5 ± 50.2 pg/mL (p value <0.0001). Therefore, the NKA could be utilized as a supportive diagnostic marker for microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer.

  11. High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Design Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Setting Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. Participants A total of 84?619 women were eligible for this study, of which 71?819 were included. These women had given birth between the ages of 18 and 45?years, had an intact uterus and ovaries, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to their first pregnancy. Results HDP was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure (<58?years: adjusted OR 3.79, 99% CI 3.38 to 4.24; p<0.001 and ?58?years: 2.83, 2.58 to 3.12; p<0.001) and stroke (<58?years: 1.69, 1.02 to 2.82; p=0.008 and ?58?years: 1.46, 1.13 to 1.88; p<0.001) in later life. Women with HDP had a younger age of onset of high blood pressure (45.6 vs 54.8?years, p<0.001) and stroke (58 vs 62.5?years, p<0.001). Women who had HDP and whose present day BMI was <25 had significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, compared with women who were normotensive during pregnancy (<58?years: 4.55, 3.63 to 5.71; p<0.001 and ?58?years, 2.94, 2.49 to 3.47; p<0.001). Women who had HDP and a present day BMI?25 had significantly increased odds of high blood pressure (<58?years: 12.48, 10.63 to 14.66; p<0.001 and ?58?years, 5.16, 4.54 to 5.86; p<0.001), compared with healthy weight women with a normotensive pregnancy. Conclusions HDP is an independent risk factor for future CVD, and this risk is further exacerbated by the presence of overweight or obesity in later life. PMID:23883883

  12. Distinct molecular targets including SLO-1 and gap junctions are engaged across a continuum of ethanol concentrations in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dillon, James; Andrianakis, Ioannis; Mould, Richard; Ient, Ben; Liu, Wei; James, Christopher; O'Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy

    2013-10-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) interacts with diverse molecular effectors across a range of concentrations in the brain, eliciting intoxication through to sedation. Invertebrate models including the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans have been deployed for molecular genetic studies to inform on key components of these alcohol signaling pathways. C. elegans studies have typically employed external dosing with high (>250 mM) ethanol concentrations: A careful analysis of responses to low concentrations is lacking. Using the C. elegans pharyngeal system as a paradigm, we report a previously uncharacterized continuum of cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol from low (10 mM) to high (300 mM) concentrations. The complexity of these responses indicates that the pleiotropic action of ethanol observed in mammalian brain is conserved in this invertebrate model. We investigated two candidate ethanol effectors, the calcium-activated K(+) channel SLO-1 and gap junctions, and show that they contribute to, but are not sole determinants of, the low- and high-concentration effects, respectively. Notably, this study shows cellular and whole organismal behavioral responses to ethanol in C. elegans that directly equate to intoxicating through to supralethal blood alcohol concentrations in humans and provides an important benchmark for interpretation of paradigms that seek to inform on human alcohol use disorders. PMID:23882127

  13. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Etellahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median ( median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. PMID:24871566

  14. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  15. Continuous membrane fermentor separator for ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of ethanol on yeast growth and ethanol production has been studied using the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-Y-2034 under anaerobic conditions. Batch and continuous fermentation data were fitted to a kinetic model. The integration of continuous fermentation and separation of ethanol in the same unit has been proposed. Pervaporation with ethanol selective silicone rubber hollow fiber membranes was considered for separation. A laboratory scale Continuous Membrane Fermentor Separator (CMFS) unit utilizing a shell and tube configuration was designed and fabricated. Two types of continuous fermentation experiments were carried out: fermentation with dead membranes as the reference and fermentation with live membranes through which ethanol was continuously removed by pervaporation from the fermentor. Performance of the CMFS results in higher yeast cell densities, reduction of ethanol inhibition, longer residence time of substrate, more glucose consumption, and recovery of clean and concentrated ethanol. A mathematical model was developed and used to determine the effects of design and operation parameters of the CMFS, including dilution rate, dimensionless membrane volume, substrate concentration, membrane properties, etc. Computer simulation results indicated that the CMFS could provide significant improvements not only in ethanol productivity but also in glucose consumption for highly concentrated substrate when the dimensionless membrane volume and/or permeability of ethanol was increased.

  16. Ethacrynic Acid EFFECTS ON THE COCHLEAR POTENTIALS IN NORMAL AND HIGH BLOOD OXYGEN

    PubMed Central

    Prazma, Jiri; Pecorak, John B.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of ethacrynic acid (EA) at different blood O2 saturations on cochlear potentials of guinea pigs was investigated. All 18 young healthy guinea pigs received 50 mg/kg/h of EA intravenously and were divided into three groups: first group, normal (90.006.30-86.174.83 mm Hg); second group, lower Po2 (78.004.74-70.004.42 mm Hg); and third group, high Po2 (174.4013.41-179.0026.15 mm Hg). The partial pressure of oxygen (Po2), the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and the pH of the blood were measured before EA administration and at the end of the experiment (3 h later) by drawing blood samples from the contralateral carotid artery. Cochlear potentialsendocochlear potential (EP), cochlear microphonics (CM), and action potentials (AP)were recorded by standard methods from the first turn of the cochlea. Experimental data seem to indicate that elevation of the Po2 to 174-179 mm Hg during relatively high doses of EA treatment prevents the declines in cochlear potentials which were observed in the first and second groups (normal and lower Po2), and preserves active ion transport which is responsible for the generation of cochlear potentials. These data suggest a means by which to reduce the ototoxic effect of EA and possibly indicates a method of treatment for hearing loss which developed after the administration of EA. PMID:235563

  17. Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; K?osowski, G; Rolbiecka, A

    2014-10-01

    Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6% v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0L EtOH/100kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process. PMID:25119551

  18. High-Energy Faceted SnO?-Coated TiO? Nanobelt Heterostructure for Near-Ambient Temperature-Responsive Ethanol Sensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guohui; Ji, Shaozheng; Li, Haidong; Kang, Xueliang; Chang, Sujie; Wang, Yana; Yu, Guangwei; Lu, Jianren; Claverie, Jerome; Sang, Yuanhua; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-11

    A SnO2 gas sensor was prepared by a two-step oxidation process whereby a Sn(II) precursor was partially oxidized by a hydrothermal process and the resulting Sn3O4 nanoplates were thermally oxidized to yield SnO2 nanoplates. The SnO2 sensor was selective and responsive toward ethanol at a temperature as low as 43 C. This low sensing temperature stems from the rapid charge transport within SnO2 and from the presence of high-energy (001) facets available for oxygen chemisorption. SnO2/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures were fabricated by a similar two-step process in which TiO2 nanobelts acted as support for the epitaxial growth of intermediate Sn3O4. At temperatures ranging from 43 to 276 C, the response of these branched nanobelts is more than double the response of SnO2 for ethanol detection. Our observations demonstrate the potential of low-cost SnO2-based sensors with controlled morphology and reactive facets for detecting gases around room temperature. PMID:26484799

  19. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  20. Relationship of high blood lactate levels with latency of visual-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Coco, Marinella; Alagona, Giovanna; De Maria, Giulia; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Costanzo, Erminio; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Perciavalle, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    We studied, in healthy adult subjects, the association of high blood lactate levels, induced with an exhaustive exercise (12 subjects) or an intravenous infusion (four subjects) of a lactate solution (3 mg/kg in 1 min), with amplitude and latency of visual-evoked potentials. Amplitude of N75, P100, and N145 components did not show significant changes, whereas latency of P100 was reduced at exercise's end and that of N145 increased 10 min after the conclusion. Therefore, an increase of blood lactate induced by an exhaustive exercise or an intravenous infusion appears to induce an improvement in the conduction time between eye and striate cortex, while it seems to evoke a worsening of intracortical communication between striate and extrastriate areas. PMID:25423913

  1. Effects of vitamin C on high blood pressure induced by salt in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Kaori; Matsuura, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Ayako; Nadamoto, Tomonori; Urabe, Kimiko

    2003-10-01

    By breeding and feeding salt to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) continuously over a long period (until 60 wk old), rats with systolic blood pressures (SBP) of over 270 mmHg were prepared. It was studied whether or not supplying large amounts of vitamin C (200 mg/rat/d) over this period might bring any beneficial effect to blood pressure. Moreover, physico-chemical studies were performed to measure the components and enzymes in the blood and urine at 53 and 60 wk-old, and biochemical studies on vitamin C were also carried out in this experiment. Male (14 rats: 7 wk-old, 100-105 g) and female (15 rats: 7 wk-old, 95-100 g) SHR were divided into three groups and bred continuously for 53 wk. The A group rats were given salt (2.5 g/100 g of diet), the B group rats were given salt and vitamin C (500 mg/100 mL of drinking water), and the C group rats were controls. The results showed almost the same tendencies between male and female rats. The body weights of the SHR in groups A and B were slightly lower than group C. The amount of food intake in groups A and B was almost the same as group C. The amount of water intake was, in the order from highest to lowest, group A, B and C. The SBP of group A rats exhibited the highest value among the three groups. The SBP of group B rats given vitamin C simultaneously with the salt resulted in a low blood pressure level close to that of the controls (group C). Furthermore, the DBP (diastolic blood pressure) also reflected the antihypertensive effect of vitamin C as well. The heartbeat of the rats was highest in group A, and was comparable to the value in the rats receiving vitamin C simultaneously with salt. For the tests on occult blood and protein in the urine, group A rats showed strong positive reactions, whereas the group B and C rats had decreased results for both tests. The organ weights of the liver, stomach, spleen, adrenal gland and kidneys per 100 g rat body weight were not different among the three groups. The values for the bilirubin content, and the enzyme activities of ALT and AST in the blood showed to be the highest in the male rats of group A. The values from the group B rats decreased near to the normal value like the control group. Vitamin C was found to decrease the blood pressure in SHR, and also to work effectively to protect liver and kidney functions even under the condition of very high blood pressure, as high as 250 mmHg. PMID:14703303

  2. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. METHODS Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. RESULTS In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (−5.93 ± 6.25 vs. −1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (−6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (−7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. CONCLUSION High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control. PMID:26089927

  3. Phytase supplementation improves blood zinc in rats fed with high phytate Iranian bread

    PubMed Central

    Shockravi, Soodeh; Mohammad-Shirazi, Minoo; Abadi, Alireza; Seyedain, Mahdi; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Background: More than one third of energy intake in Iran is provided from bread. Therefore, improving bread mineral bioavailability through dephytinization can play an important role in decreasing the prevalence of many mineral deficiencies. In this study, effect of phytase supplementation on zinc, iron and calcium status in growing rats fed with a diet containing high phytate Iranian bread (Sangak) was assessed. Methods: Thirty weanling Wistar male rats were assigned to phytase (Aspergillus niger) or control group for 6 weeks. The diet was designed based on Iranian's food pattern and 34.2% of the energy was supplied from Sangak bread. Food intake, body and organ weight and body height were measured. Zinc was measured in blood, liver and femur. Iron was assessed in blood and liver and calcium was titrated from femur bone. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Paired sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and repeated measurement ANOVA were used for proper analysis of data. Results: Although weekly weight gain was not different between groups, final weight was in favor of control group. Food intakes, liver and femur bone weight did not differ between the two groups. However, the blood zinc was higher in the phytase group (26.2 7.4 vs. 19.2 5.2, P = 0.03). Thus positive effects of phytase supplementation on zinc, independent of growth was found. Other variables did not show any differences between groups. Conclusion: Addition of phytase to diet containing high phytate Iranian bread can improve blood zinc status in growing rats. PMID:23267398

  4. Influence of Cerebral Blood Flow on Central Sleep Apnea at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Keith R.; Lucas, Samuel J.E.; Shepherd, Kelly; Dawson, Andrew; Swart, Marianne; Thomas, Kate N.; Lucas, Rebekah A.I.; Donnelly, Joseph; Peebles, Karen C.; Basnyat, Rishi; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To further our understanding of central sleep apnea (CSA) at high altitude during acclimatization, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically altering cerebral blood flow (CBF) would alter the severity of CSA at high altitude. Design: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled single-blind study. Setting: A field study at 5,050 m in Nepal. Patients or Participants: We studied 12 normal volunteers. Interventions: Between days 5 to10 at high altitude, CBF velocity (CBFv) was increased by intravenous (IV) acetazolamide (10 mg/kg) and reduced by oral indomethacin (100 mg). Measurements and Results: Arterial blood gases, hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and CBFv and its reactivity to carbon dioxide were measured awake. Overnight polysomnography was performed. The central apnea-hypopnea index was elevated following administration of indomethacin (89.2 43.7 to 112.5 32.9 events/h; mean standard deviation; P < 0.05) and was reduced following IV acetazolamide (89.2 43.7 to 47.1 48.1 events/h; P < 0.001). Intravenous acetazolamide elevated CBFv at high altitude by 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22-34%) but did not affect ventilatory responses. The elevation in CBFv was partly mediated via a selective rise in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (28 4 to 31 3 mm Hg) and an associated fall in pH (P < 0.01). Oral indomethacin reduced CBFv by 23% (95% CI: 16-30%), blunted CBFv reactivity, and increased the hypercapnic ventilatory response by 66% (95% CI: 30-102%) but had no effect on PaCO2 or pH. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an important role for cerebral blood flow regulation in the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea at high altitude. Citation: Burgess KR, Lucas SJE, Shepherd K, Dawson A, Swart M, Thomas KN, Lucas RAI, Donnelly J, Peebles KC, Basnyat R, Ainslie PN. Influence of cerebral blood flow on central sleep apnea at high altitude. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1679-1687. PMID:25197804

  5. Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood triglycerides reflect key metabolic processes including sensitivity to insulin. Blood lipoprotein and lipid concentrations are heritable. To date, the identification o...

  6. High and Low Glycemic Index Mixed Meals and Blood Glucose in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gellar, Lauren; Nansel, Tonja R.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-over pilot study tested blood glucose response to low and high glycemic index meals in 12 obese youth with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Participants demonstrated significantly lower mean daytime blood glucose and a trend toward lower variability, suggesting a clinically relevant impact of reducing glycemic index. PMID:19874764

  7. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Morais-Silva, G.; Fernandes-Santos, J.; Moreira-Silva, D.; Marin, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30–35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a “three-bottle choice” paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors. PMID:26628398

  8. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morais-Silva, G; Fernandes-Santos, J; Moreira-Silva, D; Marin, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a "three-bottle choice" paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors. PMID:26628398

  9. Simultaneous high-resolution pH and spectrophotometric recordings of oxygen binding in blood microvolumes.

    PubMed

    Oellermann, Michael; Pörtner, Hans-O; Mark, Felix C

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen equilibrium curves have been widely used to understand oxygen transport in numerous organisms. A major challenge has been to monitor oxygen binding characteristics and concomitant pH changes as they occur in vivo, in limited sample volumes. Here we report a technique allowing highly resolved and simultaneous monitoring of pH and blood pigment saturation in minute blood volumes. We equipped a gas diffusion chamber with a broad-range fibre-optic spectrophotometer and a micro-pH optode and recorded changes of pigment oxygenation along oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and pH gradients to test the setup. Oxygen binding parameters derived from measurements in only 15 μl of haemolymph from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris showed low instrumental error (0.93%) and good agreement with published data. Broad-range spectra, each resolving 2048 data points, provided detailed insight into the complex absorbance characteristics of diverse blood types. After consideration of photobleaching and intrinsic fluorescence, pH optodes yielded accurate recordings and resolved a sigmoidal shift of 0.03 pH units in response to changing PO2 from 0 to 21 kPa. Highly resolved continuous recordings along pH gradients conformed to stepwise measurements at low rates of pH changes. In this study we showed that a diffusion chamber upgraded with a broad-range spectrophotometer and an optical pH sensor accurately characterizes oxygen binding with minimal sample consumption and manipulation. We conclude that the modified diffusion chamber is highly suitable for experimental biologists who demand high flexibility, detailed insight into oxygen binding as well as experimental and biological accuracy combined in a single setup. PMID:24436387

  10. Low and moderate prenatal ethanol exposures of mice during gastrulation or neurulation delays neurobehavioral development.

    PubMed

    Schambra, Uta B; Goldsmith, Jeff; Nunley, Kevin; Liu, Yali; Harirforoosh, Sam; Schambra, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal studies show significant delays in neurobehavioral development in offspring after prolonged prenatal exposure to moderate and high ethanol doses resulting in high blood alcohol concentration (BECs). However, none have investigated the effects of lower ethanol doses given acutely during specific developmental time periods. Here, we sought to create a mouse model for modest and circumscribed human drinking during the 3rd and 4th weeks of pregnancy. We acutely treated mice during embryo gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 or neurulation on GD8 with a low or moderate ethanol dose given via gavage that resulted in BECs of 107 and 177 mg/dl, respectively. We assessed neonatal physical development (pinnae unfolding, and eye opening); weight gain from postnatal day (PD) 3-65; and neurobehavioral maturation (pivoting, walking, cliff aversion, surface righting, vertical screen grasp, and rope balance) from PD3 to 17. We used a multiple linear regression model to determine the effects of dose, sex, day of treatment and birth in animals dosed during gastrulation or neurulation, relative to their vehicle controls. We found that ethanol exposure during both time points (GD7 and GD8) resulted in some delays of physical development and significant sensorimotor delays of pivoting, walking, and thick rope balance, as well as additional significant delays in cliff aversion and surface righting after GD8 treatment. We also found that treatment with the low ethanol dose more frequently affected neurobehavioral development of the surviving pups than treatment with the moderate ethanol dose, possibly due to a loss of severely affected offspring. Finally, mice born prematurely were delayed in their physical and sensorimotor development. Importantly, we showed that brief exposure to low dose ethanol, if administered during vulnerable periods of neuroanatomical development, results in significant neurobehavioral delays in neonatal mice. We thus expand concerns about alcohol consumption during the 3rd and 4th weeks of human pregnancy to include occasional light to moderate drinking. PMID:26171567

  11. Ethanol from biomass - The quest for efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyoung, H. G.

    1982-02-01

    Methods for the production of ethanol to be used as an energy source from readily renewable biomass, natural materials based largely on cellulose, are reviewed. Current procedures for ethanol production utilize energy-inefficient processes and costly materials, such as corn, and thus are highly impractical for the large-scale ethanol production which is envisioned as a partial solution for US energy needs. The use of cellulosic raw materials is at the center of present research efforts, but no reliable and high-yielding conversion technique has yet been demonstrated. Methods of ethanol production are discussed and attention is focused on new fermentation technologies which potentially could overcome the problems associated with the use of cellulosic raw materials. For example, a strain of yeast is being developed which has the capability to convert up to twice as much of our agricultural wastes to ethanol than was thought possible just a year ago

  12. Ethanol production method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  13. High-throughput mass finger printing and Lewis blood group assignment of human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Blank, Dennis; Gebhardt, Sabine; Maass, Kai; Lochnit, Gnter; Dotz, Viktoria; Blank, Jennifer; Geyer, Rudolf; Kunz, Clemens

    2011-11-01

    The structural diversity of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) strongly depends on the Lewis (Le) blood group status of the donor which allows a classification of these glycans into three different groups. Starting from 50 ?L of human milk, a new high-throughput, standardized, and widely automated mass spectrometric approach has been established which can be used for correlation of HMO structures with the respective Lewis blood groups on the basis of mass profiles of the entire mixture of glycans together with selected fragment ion spectra. For this purpose, the relative abundance of diagnostically relevant compositional species, such as Hex(2)Fuc(2) and Hex(3)HexNAc(1)Fuc(2), as well as the relative intensities of characteristic fragment ions obtained thereof are of key importance. For each Lewis blood group, i.e., Le(a-b+), Le(a+b-), and Le(a-b-), specific mass profile and fragment ion patterns could be thus verified. The described statistically proven classification of the derived glycan patterns may be a valuable tool for analysis and comparison of large sets of milk samples in metabolic studies. Furthermore, the outlined protocol may be used for rapid screening in clinical studies and quality control of milk samples donated to milk banks. PMID:21898157

  14. PARENTAL AND SIBLING MIGRATION AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AMONG RURAL CHILDREN IN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Li, Kelin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the associations between parental and sibling rural-to-urban migration and blood pressure (BP) of rural left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Analysis was based on the 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2009 waves of longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, which is an ongoing prospective survey covering nine provinces with an individual-level response rate of 88%. Blood pressure levels were measured by trained examiners at three consecutive times on the same visit and the means of three measurements were used as the final BP values. An ordinal BP measure was then created using a recently validated age-sex-specified distribution for Chinese children and adolescents, distinguishing normal BP, pre-hypertension and hypertension. Random effect modelling was performed. Different migration circumstances play different roles in LBC's BP with mother-only and both-parent migration being particularly detrimental and father-only and sibling-only migration either having no association or a negative association with LBC's BP levels or odds of high BP. In conclusion, the link between family migration and left-behind children's blood pressure is complex, and depends on who is the person out-migrating. PMID:25850441

  15. Development and characterization of a blood mimicking fluid for high intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbo; Maruvada, Subha; King, Randy L; Herman, Bruce A; Wear, Keith A

    2008-09-01

    A blood mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for the acoustic and thermal characterizations of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation devices. The BMF is based on a degassed and de-ionized water solution dispersed with low density polyethylene microspheres, nylon particles, gellan gum, and glycerol. A broad range of physical parameters, including attenuation coefficient, speed of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity, were characterized as a function of temperature (20-70 degrees C). The nonlinear parameter B/A and backscatter coefficient were also measured at room temperature. Importantly, the attenuation coefficient is linearly proportional to the frequency (2-8 MHz) with a slope of about 0.2 dB cm(-1) MHz(-1) in the 20-70 degrees C range as in the case of human blood. Furthermore, sound speed and bloodlike backscattering indicate the usefulness of the BMF for ultrasound flow imaging and ultrasound-guided HIFU applications. Most of the other temperature-dependent physical parameters are also close to the reported values in human blood. These properties make it a unique HIFU research tool for developing standardized exposimetry techniques, validating numerical models, and determining the safety and efficacy of HIFU ablation devices. PMID:19045670

  16. Interleukin 3 activates human blood basophils via high-affinity binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Valent, P.; Besemer, J.; Muhm, M.; Majdic, O.; Lechner, K.; Bettelheim, P. )

    1989-07-01

    Pure populations of human basophilic granulocytes were obtained from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) blood by negative selection using a mixture of monoclonal antibodies and complement. {sup 125}I-radiolabeled recombinant human interleukin 3 (rhIL-3) bound to purified basophils in a specific manner. Quantitative binding studies and Scatchard plot analyses performed on samples from two donors revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity IL-3 binding sites. Purified CML basophils maintained in suspension in the presence of rhIL-3 incorporated up to 12 times more ({sup 3}H)thymidine than basophils in control cultures. Furthermore, after preincubation in vitro with rhIL-3 for 30 min, normal blood basophils released 2- to 3-fold more histamine than basophils pretreated with control medium when exposed to various concentrations of an anti-IgE antibody. Together, these results show that rhIL-3 binds to a specific receptor on blood basophils and is a regulator of basophil function.

  17. Study of Umbilical Cord Blood Culture in Diagnosis of Early-onset Sepsis Among Newborns with High-risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kalathia, Mitul Babubhai; Shingala, Prakash Ashokbhai; Parmar, Parin Niranjanbhai; Parikh, Yogesh Narenedrabhai; Kalathia, Ila Mitulkumar

    2013-01-01

    Context: Blood culture is gold standard for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Low sensitivity of blood culture is usually due to small volume of blood sample, intrapartum antibiotics, and antibiotics given to newborn before sampling. Aim: We evaluated use of Umbilical cord blood culture (UCBC) in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis as compared to peripheral venous blood culture. Settings and Design: This study was done in tertiary care teaching hospital during May-June 2012. A total of 45 newborns with presence of two or more risk factors of sepsis were included. Subjects and Methods: Blood sample from placental end of umbilical cord was collected and cultured. Primary outcome was diagnosis of neonatal sepsis by use of umbilical cord blood sample as compared with venous blood sample. Secondary outcome was to compare organisms identified by UCBC and venous blood culture. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of UCBC were calculated. Results: A total of 24.44% (11 out of 45) high-risk newborns had positive UCBC. A total of 17.8% (8 out of 45) newborns had positive blood culture report. Organisms grown in UCBC were Pseudomonas (45%, 5 out of 11), Acinetobacter (27.27%, 3 out of 11), Escherichia coli (18.18%, 2 out of 11), and Klebsiella (9%, 1 out of 11). Conclusion: UCBC is a good method for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis among high-risk newborns as compared to venous blood culture with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 91.43%. Organisms grown are comparable to blood culture samples. PMID:24404528

  18. Autophagy and ethanol neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol exposure is detrimental to the brain. The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol such that prenatal ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Neuronal loss in the brain is the most devastating consequence and is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Since alcohol consumption during pregnancy has not declined, it is imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic strategies. One cellular mechanism that acts as a protective response for the central nervous system (CNS) is autophagy. Autophagy regulates lysosomal turnover of organelles and proteins within cells, and is involved in cell differentiation, survival, metabolism, and immunity. We have recently shown that ethanol activates autophagy in the developing brain. The autophagic preconditioning alleviates ethanol-induced neuron apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiates ethanol-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbates ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. The expression of genes encoding proteins required for autophagy in the CNS is developmentally regulated; their levels are much lower during an ethanol-sensitive period than during an ethanol-resistant period. Ethanol may stimulate autophagy through multiple mechanisms; these include induction of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulation of MTOR and AMPK signaling, alterations in BCL2 family proteins, and disruption of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. This review discusses the most recent evidence regarding the involvement of autophagy in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity as well as the potential therapeutic approach of targeting autophagic pathways. PMID:25484085

  19. Autophagy and ethanol neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Excessive ethanol exposure is detrimental to the brain. The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol such that prenatal ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Neuronal loss in the brain is the most devastating consequence and is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Since alcohol consumption during pregnancy has not declined, it is imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic strategies. One cellular mechanism that acts as a protective response for the central nervous system (CNS) is autophagy. Autophagy regulates lysosomal turnover of organelles and proteins within cells, and is involved in cell differentiation, survival, metabolism, and immunity. We have recently shown that ethanol activates autophagy in the developing brain. The autophagic preconditioning alleviates ethanol-induced neuron apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiates ethanol-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbates ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. The expression of genes encoding proteins required for autophagy in the CNS is developmentally regulated; their levels are much lower during an ethanol-sensitive period than during an ethanol-resistant period. Ethanol may stimulate autophagy through multiple mechanisms; these include induction of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulation of MTOR and AMPK signaling, alterations in BCL2 family proteins, and disruption of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. This review discusses the most recent evidence regarding the involvement of autophagy in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity as well as the potential therapeutic approach of targeting autophagic pathways. PMID:25484085

  20. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. Material/Methods We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. Results There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. Conclusions Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185