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1

Intravenous saline has no effect on blood ethanol clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

For patients presenting to emergency departments with ethanol intoxication, intravenous (i.v.) fluids are initiated for varied reasons. This investigation determined the effect of i.v. fluid therapy on the rate of blood ethanol clearance in such patients. Volunteers received a predetermined dose of ethanol on two separate occasions. On the second occasion, volunteers rapidly received a liter of i.v. saline directly

James Li; Trevor Mills; Ray Erato

1999-01-01

2

Leucine accelerates blood ethanol oxidation by enhancing the activity of ethanol metabolic enzymes in the livers of SHRSP rats.  

PubMed

Chronic ethanol consumption induces liver diseases, such as alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. The enhancement of alcohol oxidation is important in the prevention of these liver diseases. Chronic supplementation with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) prevents liver cirrhosis. Therefore, BCAAs may be associated with enhanced ethanol oxidation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of the administration of individual BCAAs on ethanol oxidation and changes in alcohol-metabolizing enzyme activities following acute alcohol intake in rats. Blood ethanol concentrations and the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and low and high Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), were measured in the liver following acute ethanol administration in rats; the ethanol was administered 30 min after the treatment with amino acids [such as leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) or alanine (Ala)]. Leu significantly decreased the blood ethanol concentration 1 h after ethanol administration compared to the water-treated control (C) [C 0.46 ± 0.09, Leu 0.18 ± 0.04, Ile 0.27 ± 0.09, Val 0.46 ± 0.1, Ala 0.43 ± 0.06, mean ± SEM (g/l), P < 0.05]. In addition, leucine significantly stimulated ADH activity 30 min after ethanol intake [C 0.042 ± 0.014, Leu 0.090 ± 0.016, Ile 0.042 ± 0.008, Val 0.022 ± 0.010, Ala 0.070 ± 0.016, mean ± SEM (unit/mg protein), P < 0.05] and low Km ALDH activity 15 min after ethanol intake [C 0.51 ± 0.63, Leu 3.72 ± 0.66, Ile 1.26 ± 0.89, Val: ND, Ala 1.86 ± 1.57, mean ± SEM (unit/mg protein), P < 0.05]. However, leucine and its metabolite ?-keto-isocaproic acid did not enhance ethanol clearance in isolated rat hepatocytes. These results indicate that leucine accelerates ethanol oxidation by indirectly enhancing ADH and low Km ALDH activities in the liver. PMID:23053019

Murakami, Hitoshi; Ito, Michiko; Furukawa, Yuji; Komai, Michio

2012-12-01

3

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  

MedlinePLUS

... Women and Diabetes Heart Health for Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Print and Share (PDF 109 KB) ... very sick or even die. What does high blood pressure do to your body? High blood pressure ...

4

High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

5

High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... to high blood pressure: A diet high in salt, fat, and/or cholesterol Chronic conditions such as kidney and hormone problems, diabetes, and high cholesterol Family history: You are more likely to have high blood ...

6

High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

M. Clark Dale

2006-10-30

7

Living with High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure ( ... If You Have High Blood Pressure Web page. High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy Many pregnant women who ...

8

The determination of ethanol in blood and urine by mass fragmentography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass fragmentographic technique for a rapid, specific and sensitive determination of ethanol in blood and urine is described. A Varian gas chromatograph coupled through an all-glass membrane separator to a Finnigan quadripole mass spectrometer and interfaced to a computer system is used for ethanol determination in blood and urine samples. A procedure for plotting calibration curves for ethanol quantitation is also described. Quantitation is achieved by plotting the peak area ratios of undeuterated-to-deuterated ethanol fragment ions against the amount of ethanol added. Representative results obtained by this technique are included.

Pereira, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Rindfleisch, T. C.; Duffield, A. M.

1974-01-01

9

Ethanol metabolism in ALDH2 knockout mice--blood acetate levels.  

PubMed

We described here blood acetate levels in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 knockout (ALDH2 KO) male mice based on C57BL/6J strain after ethanol (EtOH) dosing (2 g/kg). Blood samples were collected at 30, 60, 90, 120 180, and 240 min after decapitation, and then EtOH, acetaldehyde (AcH) and acetate were determined by head-space gas chromatography. We found that blood acetate levels in ALDH2 KO mice were slightly lower than those in wild type (WT), whereas EtOH and AcH levels in ALDH2 KO were significantly higher than those in WT. These observations indicate that high EtOH, AcH and low acetate in the blood of ALDH2 KO are due to the deficient effect of ALDH2 enzyme activity. PMID:19356968

Kiyoshi, Ameno; Weihuan, Wang; Mostofa, Jamal; Mitsuru, Kumihashi; Toyoshi, Isse; Toshihiro, Kawamoto; Kyoko, Kitagawa; Keiichi, Nakayama; Iwao, Ijiri; Hiroshi, Kinoshita

2009-04-01

10

High blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

11

High Blood Cholesterol Prevention  

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... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks High Blood Cholesterol Prevention What You Can Do Guidelines and Recommendations ... 800-CDC-INFO Fax: 770-488–8151 Email Cholesterol Home About Cholesterol LDL and HDL Signs and ...

12

A modified method for calculating practical ethanol yield at high lignocellulosic solids content and high ethanol titer.  

PubMed

A modified method for calculating practical ethanol yield in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at high lignocellulosic solids content and high ethanol titer is proposed considering the liquid volume change caused by high titer ethanol generation and the water consumed during cellulose degradation. This modified method was applied to determine the practical ethanol yields of several practical SSF operations and the results compared to those using the conventional method. The results show that the liquid volume increase with ethanol formation during SSF was approximately five times greater than the volume decrease duo to water consumption during cellulose degradation. Furthermore, the practical ethanol yields calculating using traditional method were underestimated and the underestimated errors increased with the increasing ethanol titer. The present work may provide a convenient and accurate method for calculating practical ethanol yield in a high solids and high ethanol titer SSF systems. PMID:22609658

Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

2012-07-01

13

What Causes High Blood Pressure?  

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14

High Blood Pressure and Women  

MedlinePLUS

High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Feb 5,2014 Many people mistakenly believe that high blood pressure, also called ... content was last reviewed on 02/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

15

Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

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16

High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy  

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... blood pressure affect pregnancy? When a woman has high blood pressure in pregnancy, it may cause less blood to flow to the placenta . The fetus receives less of the oxygen and nutrients it needs. This can cause the ...

17

Isopropyl alcohol pad use for blood ethanol sampling does not cause false-positive results.  

PubMed

This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data collected from a study of blood ethanol levels after the use of the alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS). A total of 5 male volunteers were enrolled. Eight of the 10 total blood ethanol level measurements were drawn after skin preparation with Kendall WEBCOL Alcohol Preps (APP) containing 70% isopropyl alcohol. All had an initial and post-ABHS application blood alcohol level (BAL) drawn, for a total of 10 BAL measurements. Measurements upon completion of the study were <5 mg/dL in all 5 study participants and in each of the 10 blood draws regardless of skin preparation technique. This study demonstrates that the use of isopropyl skin prep pads is unlikely to cause significant false-positive blood ethanol levels. PMID:17630067

Miller, Michael A; Rosin, Alex; Levsky, Marc E; Gregory, Timothy J D; Crystal, Chad S

2007-07-01

18

Stroke and High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:May 30,2014 Stroke is America's no. 4 killer and a leading cause of severe, long-term disability. Since managing high blood pressure, also called hypertension, is the most important thing ...

19

Medications for High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... and Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), reduce blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels Beta blockers, which also cause the heart to ... nerve impulses from the brain to relax blood vessels Many people with high blood pressure may need more than one medication to reach ...

20

High blood pressure medications  

MedlinePLUS

... slower rate and with less force. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (also called ACE inhibitors ) relax your blood vessels, ... in about the same way as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Calcium channel blockers relax blood vessels by stopping ...

21

High Blood Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... by plaque. The buildup of plaque limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood through the artery. The inset image ... and narrows your coronary arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Eventually, an area ...

22

Comparison of blood ethanol concentrations in samples simultaneously collected into expired and unexpired venipuncture tubes.  

PubMed

Blood sample collection kits manufactured for the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension contain venipuncture tubes with an expiration date that the tube manufacturer utilizes to ensure sufficient vacuum to fill the tubes. Legal challenges to blood ethanol analyses that involved the use of expired venipuncture tubes prompted a study comparing ethanol analysis results in expired venipuncture tubes (up to 74 months beyond the expiration date) and in unexpired venipuncture tubes. Blood samples were collected during controlled drinking sessions using 10-mL venipuncture tubes containing 100 mg of sodium fluoride and 20 mg of potassium oxalate and were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography. The data obtained indicate that the ethanol concentrations in the expired and unexpired venipuncture tubes were statistically identical. PMID:16839468

Zittel, Donna B; Hardin, Glenn G

2006-06-01

23

Comparison among plasma, serum, and whole blood ethanol concentrations: impact of storage conditions and collection tubes.  

PubMed

How blood samples are processed and stored before being analyzed for alcohol levels is of concern in the forensic and toxicological fields, and is important in the standardization of research methods. This experiment explored for systematic differences in ethanol levels among several methods of processing and storing blood samples. Five adults consumed a standard alcoholic drink (0.7 g/kg) over a 15-min period, and blood samples were taken 5 times during a 3-h period following drinking onset. Samples for plasma and whole blood were drawn into Vacutainers containing either an anticoagulant or an anticoagulant plus preservative. Samples for serum were drawn into Vacutainers containing no additives or a preservative only. Separate sets of samples were analyzed on the day of the study, after storage at room temperature (25 degrees C) for 24 h, after storage at room temperature for 10 days, or after 10 days of refrigerated storage. Neither processing condition (i.e., type of additive) nor storage condition significantly affected ethanol levels. Consistent with the literature, plasma and serum samples had significantly higher concentrations of ethanol than whole blood. This study shows that blood samples containing ethanol at levels ranging from 60 to 90 mg/dL (0.06 to 0.09 mg%) are not significantly altered by the type of collection tube used or storage condition during a 10-day period. PMID:18713519

Penetar, David M; McNeil, Jane F; Ryan, Elizabeth T; Lukas, Scott E

2008-09-01

24

High Blood Pressure and Stroke  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site ... March 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Blood Pressure Medicines High Blood Pressure Stroke Transcript A broad review ...

25

High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

26

An uncertainty budget for the measurement of ethanol in blood by headspace gas chromatography.  

PubMed

An uncertainty budget was constructed for the measurement of ethanol in blood by headspace gas chromatography. The uncertainty budget, covering the analytical range of ethanol concentrations up to 3.00 g/kg, included analytical uncertainty components, traceability uncertainty components, and effects caused by interindividual variation in blood water content. The analytical combined standard uncertainty was estimated from duplicate measurements of real samples and included contributions from headspace recovery, variation between columns, injection, repeatability of analytical signals, and statistical uncertainty of the calibration function. The traceability uncertainty was estimated in a sub-budget based on information about the calibrator and about the preparation of the aqueous standards. Two uncertainty components depended on the interindividual variation in blood water content. First, it caused uncertainty on the density of the blood, and second, it had an effect on the gas phase concentration of ethanol when doing the headspace sampling. These effects as well as their covariance were included in the uncertainty budget. For fresh blood samples, the analytical uncertainty was the dominating uncertainty component, accounting for approximately 90% of the variance. For blood samples collected 100 h postmortem, the interindividual variation in blood water content was the largest uncertainty component. It was demonstrated that subtracting a "safety margin" of 0.1 g/kg from the results was sufficient to keep the risk of committing a type 1 error below 0.1% in ethanol concentrations ranging up to 2 g/kg for fresh blood samples. This risk was higher for postmortem blood samples because of the higher uncertainty of measurement, but still less than approximately 1.4%. PMID:15516296

Kristiansen, Jesper; Petersen, Henning W

2004-09-01

27

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium for R-22 + ethanol and R-22 + ethanol + water  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the systems CO{sub 2} + methanol at 313.05 K, CO{sub 2} + ethanol at 323.55, 325.15, and 333.35 K, R-22 (chlorodifluoromethane) + ethanol at 343.25, 361.45, and 382.45 K, and R-22 + ethanol + water at 351.55, 362.65, and 371.85 K are obtained using a circulation-type VLE apparatus. The apparatus is tested with measurements of the CO{sub 2} + methanol and CO{sub 2} + ethanol systems. The experimental data are correlated using the Peng-Robinson and Elliott-Suresh-Donohue equations of state.

Elbaccouch, M.M.; Raymond, M.B.; Elliott, J.R.

2000-04-01

28

Microarray characterization of gene expression changes in blood during acute ethanol exposure  

PubMed Central

Background As part of the civil aviation safety program to define the adverse effects of ethanol on flying performance, we performed a DNA microarray analysis of human whole blood samples from a five-time point study of subjects administered ethanol orally, followed by breathalyzer analysis, to monitor blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to discover significant gene expression changes in response to the ethanol exposure. Methods Subjects were administered either orange juice or orange juice with ethanol. Blood samples were taken based on BAC and total RNA was isolated from PaxGene™ blood tubes. The amplified cDNA was used in microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses to evaluate differential gene expression. Microarray data was analyzed in a pipeline fashion to summarize and normalize and the results evaluated for relative expression across time points with multiple methods. Candidate genes showing distinctive expression patterns in response to ethanol were clustered by pattern and further analyzed for related function, pathway membership and common transcription factor binding within and across clusters. RT-qPCR was used with representative genes to confirm relative transcript levels across time to those detected in microarrays. Results Microarray analysis of samples representing 0%, 0.04%, 0.08%, return to 0.04%, and 0.02% wt/vol BAC showed that changes in gene expression could be detected across the time course. The expression changes were verified by qRT-PCR. The candidate genes of interest (GOI) identified from the microarray analysis and clustered by expression pattern across the five BAC points showed seven coordinately expressed groups. Analysis showed function-based networks, shared transcription factor binding sites and signaling pathways for members of the clusters. These include hematological functions, innate immunity and inflammation functions, metabolic functions expected of ethanol metabolism, and pancreatic and hepatic function. Five of the seven clusters showed links to the p38 MAPK pathway. Conclusions The results of this study provide a first look at changing gene expression patterns in human blood during an acute rise in blood ethanol concentration and its depletion because of metabolism and excretion, and demonstrate that it is possible to detect changes in gene expression using total RNA isolated from whole blood. The analysis approach for this study serves as a workflow to investigate the biology linked to expression changes across a time course and from these changes, to identify target genes that could serve as biomarkers linked to pilot performance.

2013-01-01

29

High Blood Sugar (in Type 1 Diabetes)  

MedlinePLUS

... Control and Management / High Blood Sugar High Blood Sugar Definition and Symptoms High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, ... PDF version > What to Do About High Blood Sugar Levels The following recommendations are general treatments for ...

30

Comparison of spectroscopically measured finger and forearm tissue ethanol concentration to blood and breath ethanol measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous works investigated a spectroscopic technique that offered a promising alternative to blood and breath assays for determining in vivo alcohol concentration. Although these prior works measured the dorsal forearm, we report the results of a 26-subject clinical study designed to evaluate the spectroscopic technique at a finger measurement site through comparison to contemporaneous forearm spectroscopic, venous blood, and breath measurements. Through both Monte Carlo simulation and experimental data, it is shown that tissue optical probe design has a substantial impact on the effective path-length of photons through the skin and the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectroscopic measurements. Comparison of the breath, blood, and tissue assays demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration that are attributable to both assay accuracy and alcohol pharmacokinetics. Similar to past works, a first order kinetic model is used to estimate the fraction of concentration variance explained by alcohol pharmacokinetics (72.6-86.7%). A significant outcome of this work was significantly improved pharmacokinetic agreement with breath (arterial) alcohol of the finger measurement (mean kArt-Fin = 0.111 min-1) relative to the forearm measurement (mean kArt-For = 0.019 min-1) that is likely due to the increased blood perfusion of the finger.

Ridder, Trent D.; Hull, Edward L.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

2011-02-01

31

Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models  

PubMed Central

To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX) receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573) on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P) rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark) model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting non-specific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting non-specific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol consumption.

Anderson, Rachel I.; Becker, Howard C.; Adams, Benjamin L.; Jesudason, Cynthia D.; Rorick-Kehn, Linda M.

2014-01-01

32

HIGH PRESSURE VAPOR LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR CARBON DIOXIDE + ETHANOL + 2BUTANONE SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor-liquid equilibrium was measured for three binary systems, carbon dioxide + ethanol, carbon dioxide + 2-butanone, and ethanol + 2-butanone, and a ternary system, carbon dioxide + ethanol + 2-butanone, at 313.2K. A circulation type apparatus was used in case of the high pressure systems, carbon dioxide + ethanol, carbon dioxide + 2-butanone, and carbon dioxide + ethanol + 2-butanone,

Tomoya TSUJI; Masatoshi SAKAI; Toshihiko HIAKI

33

Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha activity by acute ethanol treatment in human peripheral blood monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the most commonly used drug that can modulate both metabolic and immune pathways, ethanol is evaluated in this report as a regulator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) production in human peripheral blood monocytes (M phi) in combination with a variety of stimuli. While acute ethanol treatment did not induce TNF alpha in M phi, it was a

Bikash K. Verma; Miklos C. Fogarasi; Gyongyi Szabo

1993-01-01

34

Orexin-1 receptor antagonism decreases ethanol consumption and preference selectively in high-ethanol-preferring Sprague Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Work from our laboratory has shown that orexin (ORX; or hypocretin) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus are involved in preference for morphine, cocaine, and food. Other groups have demonstrated a connection between the ORX system and ethanol-related behaviors. Here we extended those results to investigate, in outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, the relationship between ethanol preference and the ORX system. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to drink 10% ethanol using the intermittent access (IA) technique. In Experiment 2, different groups of rats were trained to drink 10% ethanol using either IA or the sucrose fade (SF) technique. Following ethanol drinking acquisition, ethanol preference was assessed using 2-bottle-choice tests. Rats were then tested for changes in preference with additional 2-bottle-choice tests following administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB; 30 mg/kg, ip). Differences in ethanol preference were observed across individuals, with a significantly higher ethanol preference observed in rats trained to drink using IA compared to SF. In both Experiments 1 and 2, SB reduced ethanol preference selectively in rats with high ethanol preference. These results demonstrate a strong, causal relationship between the ORX system and ethanol preference in outbred rats. These findings provide additional evidence that the orexin system provides opportunities to develop novel treatments for alcohol abuse.

Moorman, David E.; Aston-Jones, Gary

2009-01-01

35

THE CYCLIC PATTERN OF BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVELS DURING CONTINUOUS ETHANOL FEEDING IN RATS. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE  

PubMed Central

S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the major methyl donor for DNA and histone methylation was fed with ethanol for one month in order to modify the effects of ethanol on rat liver. The following parameters were studied to determine the effects of SAMe; liver histology, the blood alcohol cycle (BAL), changes in gene expression mined from microarray analysis, changes in histone methylation, changes in liver SAMe levels and its metabolites and ADH. SAMe changed the type of fatty liver, reduced liver ALT levels and prevented the BAL cycle caused by intragastric ethanol feeding. Microarray analysis showed that SAMe feeding prevented most of the changes in gene expression induced by ethanol feeding, presumably by inducing H3K27me3 and gene silencing. H3K27me3 was significantly increased by SAMe with or without ethanol feeding. It is concluded that SAMe feeding stabilized global gene expression so that the changes in gene expression involved in the blood alcohol cycle were prevented.

Bardag-Gorce, F; Li, J; Oliva, J; Lu, SC; French, BA; French, SW

2010-01-01

36

What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?  

MedlinePLUS

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37

Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools & Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

38

Interaction of ethanol and microwaves on the blood-brain barrier of rats  

SciTech Connect

The combined effects of ethanol and microwaves on the permeation of Evans blue dye through the mammalian blood-brain barrier was studied in male Wistar rats. Anesthetized rats were infused through a cannula in the left femoral vein with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 or 0.7 grams of absolute ethanol per kilogram of body mass. A control group was given 0.7 g/kg of isotonic saline. The left hemisphere of the brain was irradiated by 3.15-GHz microwave energy at 3.0 W/cm2 rms for 15 min. The rat's rectal temperature was maintained at 37.0 degrees C. Immediately after irradiation, 2% Evans blue dye in saline (2.0 ml/kg body mass) was injected through the cannula. The results show that as the quantity of alcohol was increased, the degree of staining was decreased or eliminated. The temperature of the irradiated area of the brain increased for the first 4 to 5 minutes of irradiation and then stabilized for the remainder of the irradiation period. The steady-state temperature was highest in animals receiving saline or the smallest dose of alcohol. As the quantity of alcohol was increased, the steady-state temperature was reduced. These results indicate that ethanol inhibits microwave-induced permeation of the blood-brain barrier through reduced heating of the brain.

Neilly, J.P.; Lin, J.C.

1986-01-01

39

Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data£  

PubMed Central

Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data.

Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, RM

2008-01-01

40

Genetics of alcoholism: rapid development of a new high-ethanol-preferring (HEP) strain of female and male rats.  

PubMed

A genetically based animal model of alcoholism has been developed in a relatively short period of 3 years. The new strain is characterized by an intense preference for ethanol over water as well as unique behavioral, neurochemical and other attributes. This new strain, termed high-ethanol-preferring (HEP) rats, was derived initially from selective cross-breeding of a variant strain of female Harlan Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with the outbred Wistar line of male ethanol-preferring (P) rats. In this study, drinking patterns of both genders were obtained over 10 days by presenting water and ethanol in concentrations ranging from 3% to 30%. To expedite the development of the new strain, only three to five female and male rats served as breeders, which were chosen from all litters on the basis of their maximum g/kg intake integrated with proportion of ethanol to total fluid values. Profiles of intake of preferred concentrations of ethanol were obtained over 24 h of unlimited access as well as during 2-h intervals of limited access to ethanol. Levels of blood ethanol were measured in both female and male HEP animals during bouts of ethanol drinking in the limited access paradigm. By the sixth generation of HEP rats, ethanol consumption of the females often exceeded that of any other rat genetically bred to drink ethanol (e.g., at a concentration of 15.7%, 10.3 g/kg per day). Seven additional characteristics are notable: 1) the HEP rats prefer ethanol in the presence of a nutritious chocolate drink or nonnutrient sweetened solution (aspartame); 2) high levels of blood ethanol are associated with their drinking; 3) females drink significantly greater g/kg amounts of ethanol than HEP males and prefer a higher percent concentration of ethanol; 4) the drinking of ethanol by the female HEP animals does not fluctuate during the estrous cycle; 5) neurochemical assays show differential profiles of 5-HT, dopamine, and their metabolites in different regions of the brain; 6) measures of activity using the elevated plus maze, open field, and cork gnawing reveal differences between genders of HEP rats and SD rats; and 7) the HEP animals are without phenotypically expressed abnormalities. Finally, one cardinal principle derived from this study revealed that the breeding strategy to develop high-ethanol-drinking rats centers on the use of multiple solutions of ethanol whereby the intakes of ethanol in concentration of 9% through 20% dictate the ultimate selection of breeding pairs over successive F generations. Further, it is concluded that because of an intense rise in ethanol drinking of the F1 generation of female HEP rats well above that of the parental SD female breeders, the complex genotypic characteristic of the male P rat is predominantly responsible for evoking ethanol drinking in female offspring. PMID:9818988

Myers, R D; Robinson, D E; West, M W; Biggs, T A; McMillen, B A

1998-11-01

41

The effect of "superactive" charcoal and magnesium citrate solution on blood ethanol concentrations and area under the curve in humans.  

PubMed

Eleven healthy males between 21 and 37 years of age were enrolled into a non-randomized crossover study comparing superactive charcoal (SAC) given after ethanol administration. After receiving 0.6 gm/kg ethanol orally (95% V/V diluted in orange juice), blood was sampled at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 hours. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated and the highest ethanol level was recorded. After a minimum of 1 week washout, the volunteers ingested an identical ethanol dose but in addition received 60 grams of SAC and 300 ml of 5.8% magnesium citrate solution 1 and 3 hours post ingestion. The data was compared using the paired t-test with p less than 0.05 considered significant. Nine volunteers completed the study. Volunteers had difficulty ingesting the full second 60 gram SAC dose. The AUC (mean 1184 mcg x hr/ml) and highest ethanol concentrations (mean 46.3 mg/dl) for the control group were not significantly greater than in the SAC group (mean AUC 1167 mcg x hr/ml and highest ethanol concentration of 49.0 mg/dl). The ethanol concentration in the SAC group was significantly less than control only at 2.0 hours (31.6 mg/dl vs 36.6 mg/dl, p less than 0.01). The peak ethanol concentration in the SAC group occurred at 1.0 hours in 7 of 9 volunteers, while in the control group, peak concentration occurred randomly between 0.5 and 2.0 hours. We conclude SAC in the dose used is not effective in decreasing AUC, highest ethanol concentration, and blood ethanol levels when given 1 and 3 hours after ethanol ingestion. PMID:2769820

Katona, B G; Siegel, E G; Roberts, J R; Fant, W K; Hassen, M

1989-01-01

42

High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Aug 27,2012 Metabolic ... content was last reviewed on 04/04/2012. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

43

Performance of dairy cows fed high levels of acetic acid or ethanol.  

PubMed

Ethanol and acetic acid are common end products from silages. The main objective of this study was to determine whether high concentrations of ethanol or acetic acid in total mixed ration would affect performance in dairy cows. Thirty mid-lactation Holstein cows were grouped in 10 blocks and fed one of the following diets for 7 wk: (1) control (33% Bermuda hay + 67% concentrates), (2) ethanol [control diet + 5% ethanol, dry matter (DM) basis], or (3) acetic acid (control diet + 5% acetic acid, DM basis). Ethanol and acetic acid were diluted in water (1:2) and sprayed onto total mixed rations twice daily before feeding. An equal amount of water was mixed with the control ration. To adapt animals to these treatments, cows were fed only half of the treatment dose during the first week of study. Cows fed ethanol yielded more milk (37.9 kg/d) than those fed the control (35.8 kg/d) or acetic acid (35.3 kg/d) diets, mainly due to the higher DM intake (DMI; 23.7, 22.2, and 21.6 kg/d, respectively). The significant diet × week interaction for DMI, mainly during wk 2 and 3 (when acetic acid reached the full dose), was related to the decrease in DMI observed for the acetic acid treatment. There was a diet × week interaction in excretion of milk energy per DMI during wk 2 and 3, due to cows fed acetic acid sustained milk yield despite lower DMI. Energy efficiency was similar across diets. Blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, ethanol, and ?-glutamyl transferase activity) and sensory characteristics of milk were not affected by these treatments. Animal performance suggested similar energy value for the diet containing ethanol compared with other diets. Rumen conversion of ethanol to acetate and a concomitant increase in methane production might be a plausible explanation for the deviation of the predicted energy value based on the heat of combustion. Therefore, the loss of volatile compounds during the drying process in the laboratory should be considered when calculating energy content of fermented feedstuffs. PMID:23141834

Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Sá Neto, A; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Bispo, A W; Zopollatto, M; Cardoso, T L; Spoto, M H F; Santos, F A P; Nussio, L G

2013-01-01

44

Evidence-based survey of the elimination rates of ethanol from blood with applications in forensic casework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable information about the elimination rate of alcohol (ethanol) from blood is often needed in forensic science and legal medicine when alcohol-related crimes, such as drunken driving or drug-related sexual assault are investigated. A blood sample for forensic analysis might not be taken until several hours after an offence was committed. The courts usually want to know the suspect's blood-alcohol

Alan Wayne Jones

2010-01-01

45

Use of high-ethanol-resistant yeast isolates from Nigerian palm wine in lager beer brewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-ethanol-resistant yeasts, characterized as Saccharomyces sp., were isolated from Nigerian palm wine with added sucrose for high gravity brewing. The yeast isolates that survived the highest ethanol production were used to ferment brewery wort and produced 8.2 to 8.5% (v\\/v) ethanol; values almost double that of the control yeast from a local brewery.

R. C. Agu; T. U. Anyanwu; A. H. Onwumelu

1993-01-01

46

Reduced blood clearance and increased urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine in patas monkeys exposed to ethanol or isopropyl alcohol.  

PubMed

Low concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine are metabolized in rodent and human liver by cytochrome P450IIE1, an activity competitively inhibitable by ethanol. In rodents coadministration of ethanol with N-nitrosodimethylamine results in increased tumorigenicity in extrahepatic organs, probably as a result of reduced hepatic clearance. To test this concept in a primate, the effects of ethanol cotreatment on the pharmacokinetics of N-nitrosodimethylamine were measured in male patas monkeys. Ethanol, 1.2 g/kg given p.o. before i.v. N-nitrosodimethylamine (1 mg/kg) or concurrently with an intragastric dose resulted in a 10-50-fold increase in the area under the blood concentration versus time curves and a 4-13-fold increase in mean residence times for N-nitrosodimethylamine. Isopropyl alcohol, 3.2 g/kg 24 h before N-nitrosodimethylamine, also increased these parameters 7-10-fold; this effect was associated with persistence of isopropyl alcohol and its metabolic product acetone, both IIE1 inhibitors, in the blood. While no N-nitrosodimethylamine was detected in expired air, trace amounts were found in urine. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pretreatment increased the maximum urinary N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration 15-50-fold and the percentage of the dose excreted in the urine by 100-800-fold. Thus ethanol and isopropyl alcohol greatly increase systemic exposure of extrahepatic organs to N-nitrosodimethylamine in a primate. PMID:1540953

Anderson, L M; Koseniauskas, R; Burak, E S; Moskal, T J; Gombar, C T; Phillips, J M; Sansone, E B; Keimig, S; Magee, P N; Rice, J M

1992-03-15

47

High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You  

MedlinePLUS

High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High ... your heart relaxes ( diastolic pressure ). High Blood Pressure Medicines Use this guide to help you talk to ...

48

How Is High Blood Pressure Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Intramural Research 4 Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » Diagnosis High Blood Pressure ... The Heart Truth campaign offers a variety of public health resources to help educate women and health professionals ...

49

High Blood Pressure: Treat it for Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High blood pressure will not simply go away. This comprehensive booklet describes how to take action against high blood pressure, including losing weight if overweight, increasing physical activity, choosing foods low in salt and sodium, and limiting alco...

1994-01-01

50

Apoptosis of blood mononuclear cells in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The influence of in vitro ethanol treatment and zinc supplementation.  

PubMed

Ethanol consumption induces apoptosis in a variety of tissues, among others in liver and lymphoid tissue. Zinc has been shown to influence apoptosis of blood mononuclear cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial pathway of cell death. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of zinc on spontaneous and in vitro alcohol-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. PBMCs were isolated from the blood of 26 patients with cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls. PBMCs and among them CD4+ T helper cells of cirrhotic patients exhibited accelerated spontaneous (without treatment) apoptosis in vitro. When apoptosis was induced in vitro by treating cells with 80 mM ethanol, CD8+ T lymphocytes of a healthy control were more sensitive to ethanol treatment than those of cirrhotic patients. Thirty micromolar zinc supplementation inhibited both spontaneous and ethanol-induced apoptosis of immune cells derived from the blood of the healthy control and cirrhotic patients. In sera of patients with cirrhosis, an elevated level of IL-12, but also sFas (CD95) and sFas ligand (sFasL) was detected. Moreover, in vitro, PBMCs of cirrhotic patients spontaneously released more sFas and sFasL than control PBMCs. Ethanol treatment significantly increased sFas, but decreased sFasL release from PBMCs of cirrhotic patients, while it only slightly affected control cells. As zinc supplementation did not significantly influence sFas or sFasL release, it seems likely that it is rather the mitochondrial pathway of ethanol-related immune cell death that may be inhibited by zinc supplementation. PMID:15964121

Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Daniluk, Jadwiga; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka

2005-09-01

51

Within- and between-subject variations in pharmacokinetic parameters of ethanol by analysis of breath, venous blood and urine  

PubMed Central

Aims To evaluate the prerequisites for using ethanol dilution to estimate total body water, we studied the within- and between-subject variation in the parameter estimates of a two-compartment model for ethanol pharmacokinetics with parallel Michaelis-Menten and first-order renal elimination. Because sampling of breath might be preferable in some clinical situations the parameter estimates derived from breath and venous blood were compared. Methods On two occasions, ethanol 0.4 g kg?1 was given by intravenous infusion to 16 volunteers after they had fasted overnight. The proposed model was fitted by means of nonlinear regression to concentration-time data measured in the breath, venous blood and urine during 360 min. The model contained six parameters: Vmax and Km (Michaelis-Menten elimination constants), CLd (intercompartmental distribution parameter), VC and VT (volumes of the central and tissue compartment, respectively) and CLR (renal clearance). The volume of distribution, Vss, was calculated as the sum of VC and VT. Results The mean ± total s.d. of the parameter estimates derived from blood data were Vmax 95 ± 25 mg min?1, Km 27 ± 19 mg l?1, CLd 809 ± 232 ml min?1, VC 14.5 ± 4.3 l, VT 21.2 ± 4.4 l, CLR 3.6 ± 2.0 ml min?1 and Vss 35.8 ± 4.3 l. The variation within subjects amounted to 3%, 9%, 21%, 21%, 17%, 26% and 2%, respectively, of the total variation. Breath samples were associated with a similar or lower variation than blood, both within and between subjects. About 1.5% of the infused ethanol was recovered in the urine. Conclusions The low within-subject variation of the key parameter Vss (only 2%) suggests that ethanol dilution analysed by the pharmacokinetic model applied here may be used as an index of the total body water. Breath samples yielded at least as good reproducibility in the model parameters as venous blood.

Norberg, A; Gabrielsson, J; Jones, A W; Hahn, R G

2000-01-01

52

Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar Hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia Sick Days Most of the time, good diabetes ... the timing of insulin shots. Back to top Hypoglycemia When blood sugar levels are too low, this ...

53

GC-MS analysis of ethanol and other volatile compounds in micro-volume blood samples--quantifying neonatal exposure.  

PubMed

A static headspace gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and fully validated for the quantitative measurement of acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid in the headspace of micro-volumes of blood using n-propanol as an internal standard. The linearity of the method was established over the range 0.2-100 mg/L (R(2) > 0.99) and the limits of detection were 0.1-0.2 mg/L and lower limits quantification 0.5-1 mg/L. Precision and accuracies fell within acceptable limits (20 % for LLOQ and 15 %) for both intra- and inter-day analyses for all compounds except acetaldehyde which had inter-day variability of ?25 %. The method was applied to analyse blood samples from neonatal patients receiving courses of ethanol excipient containing medications. Baseline levels of acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol and ethanol could be measured in patients before dosing commenced and an increase in levels of some volatiles were observed in several neonates after receiving ethanol-containing medications. PMID:23420137

Cordell, Rebecca L; Pandya, Hitesh; Hubbard, Marie; Turner, Mark A; Monks, Paul S

2013-05-01

54

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure?  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure (HBP) itself usually ... your risk for related health problems. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over ...

55

Potassium and High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... foods, fish, poultry, beans, seeds and unsalted nuts reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.5/3.0 mm Hg compared to the control diet (what the average American eats). The D.A.S.H. eating plan also contained less salt and sodium; sweets, added sugars and sugar-containing beverages; fats; ...

56

Acrylonitrile has Distinct Hormetic Effects on Acetyl-Cholinesterase Activity in Mouse Brain and Blood that are Modulated by Ethanol.  

PubMed

Acrylonitrile(AN) is a neurotoxin both in animals and humans, but its effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity remain controversial. This study aimed to determine the dose-response effects of AN on AChE activity and the modulatory role of ethanol pre-treatment. A total of 144 Kunming mice were randomly divided into 18 groups: nine groups received 5% ethanol in their drinking water, and the remaining nine groups received regular tap water. One week later, both the ethanol and tap water only groups were given an intraperitoneal injection of AN at the following doses: 0 (control), 0.156, 0.3125, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg AN/kg body weight. AChE activity was determined on whole blood and brain 24 h later. Blood AChE activity was higher in AN-injected mice than in controls at all doses. AChE activity in blood increased in a dose-dependent manner, peaking at 0.156 mg/kg, after which a gradual decrease ensued, displaying a ?-typed dose-response relationship. In contrast, brain AChE activity, following a single AN injection, was consistently lower than in control mice, and continued to fall up to a dose of 0.313 mg/kg, and thereafter increased gradually with higher doses. Mice receiving a 20 mg/kg dose of AN exhibited AChE brain activity indistinguishable from that of control mice, demonstrating a typical U-typed dose-response relationship. The activity of AChE in the blood and brain of the AN + ethanol-treated groups displayed a shift to the right, and the magnitude of the decrease in AChE activity induced by AN was attenuated relative to the AN-only group. These results suggest that AN affects AChE activity in both mouse blood and brain in a hormetic manner. Pretreatment with ethanol modifies the effect of AN on AChE, indicating that parent AN has a more prominent role than its metabolites in modulating enzyme activity. PMID:23550232

Yuanqing, He; Suhua, Wang; Guangwei, Xing; Chunlan, Ren; Hai, Qian; Wenrong, Xu; Rongzhu, Lu; Aschner, Michael; Milatovic, Dejan

2013-01-01

57

Acrylonitrile has Distinct Hormetic Effects on Acetyl-Cholinesterase Activity in Mouse Brain and Blood that are Modulated by Ethanol  

PubMed Central

Acrylonitrile(AN) is a neurotoxin both in animals and humans, but its effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity remain controversial. This study aimed to determine the dose-response effects of AN on AChE activity and the modulatory role of ethanol pre-treatment. A total of 144 Kunming mice were randomly divided into 18 groups: nine groups received 5% ethanol in their drinking water, and the remaining nine groups received regular tap water. One week later, both the ethanol and tap water only groups were given an intraperitoneal injection of AN at the following doses: 0 (control), 0.156, 0.3125, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg AN/kg body weight. AChE activity was determined on whole blood and brain 24 h later. Blood AChE activity was higher in AN-injected mice than in controls at all doses. AChE activity in blood increased in a dose-dependent manner, peaking at 0.156 mg/kg, after which a gradual decrease ensued, displaying a ?-typed dose-response relationship. In contrast, brain AChE activity, following a single AN injection, was consistently lower than in control mice, and continued to fall up to a dose of 0.313 mg/kg, and thereafter increased gradually with higher doses. Mice receiving a 20 mg/kg dose of AN exhibited AChE brain activity indistinguishable from that of control mice, demonstrating a typical U-typed dose-response relationship. The activity of AChE in the blood and brain of the AN + ethanol-treated groups displayed a shift to the right, and the magnitude of the decrease in AChE activity induced by AN was attenuated relative to the AN-only group. These results suggest that AN affects AChE activity in both mouse blood and brain in a hormetic manner. Pretreatment with ethanol modifies the effect of AN on AChE, indicating that parent AN has a more prominent role than its metabolites in modulating enzyme activity.

Yuanqing, He; Suhua, Wang; Guangwei, Xing; Chunlan, Ren; Hai, Qian; Wenrong, Xu; Rongzhu, Lu; Aschner, Michael; Milatovic, Dejan

2013-01-01

58

Comparative evaluation of ethanol production by xylose-fermenting yeasts presented high xylose concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three strains ofPichiastipitis and three ofCandidashehatae were compared withPachysolentannophilus in their abilities to ferment xylose at concentrations as high as 200 g\\/L when subjected to both aerobic and microaerophilic conditions. Evaluations based on accumulated ethanol concentrations, ethanol productivities, xylose consumption, and ethanol and xylitol yields were determined from batch culture time courses. Of the strains considered,P.stipitis NRRL Y-7124 seemed

P. J. Slininger; R. J. Bothast; M. R. Okos; M. R. Ladisch

1985-01-01

59

Direct conversion of ethane to ethanol by the homogeneous partial oxidation at high pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the homogeneous high-pressure (10-100 atm) oxidation of ethane to ethanol are reported. The products identified and analyzed were ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water. The highest value of the ratio ethanol\\/methanol in the products was 6, obtained at the highest pressure studied (100 atm). A mechanism is proposed to account for the products.

H. D. Gesser; N. R. Hunter; L. A. Morton; P. S. Yarlagadda

2009-01-01

60

Blood, urine, and breath levels after rapid intravenous infusion of ethanol.  

PubMed

A re-evaluation of alcohol as an intravenous anaesthetic provided an opportunity of studying the changes in venous blood, urine, and breath levels under controlled conditions. Twelve volunteer patients were given 0.8 g./kg. in 8% w/v solution over four to six minutes. Despite standardization of technique there was a great variation in the peak urinary concentration and also some variation in the time at which urinary level exceeded that of blood, but this latter always occurred within 30 minutes of infusion. From one hour after infusion there was a constant mean rate of decline of both venous and urinary concentrations. While urinary/venous blood ratios varied greatly they remained fairly constant in each individual patient. The average ratio (1.35) was similar to that of other published papers. With a modification of gearing (58:1 to 67:1) the standard Ethanographe gave good correlation of breath with venous blood concentrations at low levels when patients were able to operate the machine themselves. At high levels, however, with a two-minute period of rebreathing in the unconscious patient, the correlation was poor. PMID:5454356

Dundee, J W; Knox, J W; Isaac, M

1970-09-01

61

Effects of chronic ethanol consumption in blood: A time dependent study on rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption and health outcomes are complex and multidimensional. Ethanol (1.6g \\/ kg body weight\\/ day) exposure initially\\u000a affects liver function followed by renal function of 16–18 week-old male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 200–220 g.\\u000a Chronic ethanol ingestion increased in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level and glutathione s-transferase activity;\\u000a while decreased reduced gluatathione content and activities of catalase,

Subir Kumar Das; L. Dhanya; Sowmya Varadhan; Sukhes Mukherjee; D. M. Vasudevan

2009-01-01

62

Ethanol preference, metabolism, blood pressure, and conditioned taste aversion in experimental cholestasis.  

PubMed

The effect of a ligation of the common bile duct (BDL) on the chronic free-selection intake of ethanol was investigated. Rats were given a choice between water and a solution of either 6% (v/v) ethanol, 0.06% (w/v) sodium saccharin, or a mixture of both ethanol and saccharin. In different experiments, solutions were first presented either 3 weeks before surgery, about the time of surgery, or 2 weeks after surgery. Reductions in ethanol or saccharin intake were observed in BDL rats whenever the solutions were first presented either 3 weeks before or shortly after the surgery. No differences attributable to BDL were seen when ethanol solutions were first presented 2 weeks after surgery. The contingent nature of the effect suggests that the reduction results from a conditioned taste aversion rather than from differences in ethanol metabolism, sensitivity, or neurohormones such as angiotensin. The findings urge caution in the monitoring of the dietary habits of patients with a rapidly developing biliary obstruction. PMID:9259003

Lane, J R; Starbuck, E M; Fitts, D A

1997-08-01

63

Selective oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid in highly efficient polymer electrolyte membrane-direct ethanol fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective conversion of ethanol into potassium acetate with concomitant production of electrical energy has been achieved in both passive and active direct fuel cells containing platinum-free electrodes and an anion-exchange polymer membrane. The power densities supplied by the passive systems at r.t. can be as high as 55mWcm?2, while the active systems can deliver up to 170mWcm?2 at 80°C.

Claudio Bianchini; Valentina Bambagioni; Jonathan Filippi; Andrea Marchionni; Francesco Vizza; Paolo Bert; Alessandro Tampucci

2009-01-01

64

Methodological modifications on quantification of phosphatidylethanol in blood from humans abusing alcohol, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an abnormal phospholipid formed slowly in cell membranes by a transphosphatidylation reaction from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol and catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D. PEth in blood is a promising new marker of ethanol abuse depending on the high specificity and sensitivity of this marker. None of the biological markers used in clinical routine

Steina Aradottir; Bo L Olsson

2005-01-01

65

High Blood Pressure and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... corner of the player. High Blood Pressure and Heart Disease HealthDay February 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... middle age may mean a higher risk for heart disease. Now new research published in the Journal ...

66

High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... of your life any risk factors in your life style, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, excess alcohol consumption, lack of exercise and smoking. ... out normal functions of daily life. There are many reasons why this can happen, ...

67

Could Probiotics Help Tame High Blood Pressure?  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Could Probiotics Help Tame High Blood Pressure? Study suggests effect ... refrigerator. The study found that regular intake of probiotics, such as those found in certain yogurts or ...

68

How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... disorders Rate This Content: Featured Video The NHLBI "Grand Opportunity" Exome Sequencing Project High Blood Cholesterol Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for ...

69

What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?  

MedlinePLUS

(continued) Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What’s blood pressure? Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the walls of the ... African Americans and High Blood Pressure? Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure ANSWERS by heart Take a ...

70

Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Results Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. Conclusions In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall ethanol production yield.

2014-01-01

71

What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?  

MedlinePLUS

... chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Trans fatty acids ( trans fats) raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Trans fats are made when ...

72

Behavioral interactions between ethanol and imidazodiazepines with high affinities for benzodiazepine receptors  

SciTech Connect

The intrinsic effect of two imidazodiazepines RO 15-3505 and RO 17-1812 on the behavior of mice in a holeboard test were investigated. The interactions of these two drugs with ethanol were also studied. RO 15-3505 failed to significantly alter either exploratory head-dipping or locomotor activity when administered alone but doses of 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg reversed the reduction in the number of head-dips caused by ethanol and partially reversed ethanol's locomotor stimulant action. In contrast, RO 17-1812 increased locomotor activity when administered alone, and enhanced the reduction in exploration caused by ethanol. Neither RO 15-3505 nor RO 17-1812 altered blood alcohol concentrations suggesting a pharmacodynamic basis for these interactions. The results suggest that in the holeboard test the interactions of imidazodiazepines with ethanol are related to the nature of their interaction with benzodiazepine receptors, inverse agonists antagonising and agonists enhancing ethanol's effects on exploration.

Lister, R.G.

1988-01-01

73

Concentration-time profiles of ethanol in arterial and venous blood and end-expired breath during and after intravenous infusion.  

PubMed

Ethanol (0.40 g/kg) was administered to 13 healthy men by intravenous (i.v.) infusion at a constant rate for 30 min. The concentrations of ethanol in arterial blood (ABAC), venous blood (VBAC), and end-expired breath (BrAC) were measured at 17 exactly timed intervals. Blood-ethanol was determined by headspace gas chromatography and breath-ethanol was measured with a quantitative infrared analyzer (DataMaster). BrAC was multiplied by 2300 to estimate the concentrations of alcohol in blood. During the infusion of ethanol, ABAC exceeded VBAC by about 10 mg/dL on the average and ABAC was also higher than BrAC x 2300 by about 4 mg/dL on average. When infusion of alcohol ended, ABAC, VBAC, and BrAC were 94.8 +/- 2.06 (+/- SE), 84.7 +/- 1.54, and 89.3 +/- 2.10 mg/dL, respectively. The concentrations of alcohol in blood (ABAC and VBAC) and breath decreased abruptly after the administration of alcohol stopped and by 5 min postinfusion, the A-V differences in concentration of ethanol were small or negligible. The mean apparent half-life of the distribution plunge was 7 to 8 min, being about the same for ABAC, VBAC, and BrAC. The disappearance rate of ethanol was 15.5 +/- 0.55 mg/ dL/h (mean +/- SE) for arterial blood, 15.2 +/- 0.49 mg/dL/h for venous blood, and 16.3 +/- 0.73 mg/230 L/h for breath; no significant differences were noted (p > 0.05). We conclude that A-V differences in the concentration of ethanol exist during the loading phase but are rapidly abolished when the administration of ethanol terminates. In the post-absorptive phase of ethanol kinetics, when alcohol has mixed with the total body water, VBAC exceeds ABAC by about 1-2 mg/100 mL on average. PMID:9397551

Jones, A W; Norberg, A; Hahn, R G

1997-11-01

74

Your Guide to Lowering High Blood Pressure: Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

High Blood Pressure Topics: Pregnancy Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure have healthy babies without serious problems, high blood pressure can be dangerous for both the mother and ...

75

Modeling microbial ethanol production by E. coli under aerobic/anaerobic conditions: applicability to real postmortem cases and to postmortem blood derived microbial cultures.  

PubMed

The mathematical modeling of the microbial ethanol production under strict anaerobic experimental conditions for some bacterial species has been proposed by our research group as the first approximation to the quantification of the microbial ethanol production in cases where other alcohols were produced simultaneously with ethanol. The present study aims to: (i) study the microbial ethanol production by Escherichia coli under controlled aerobic/anaerobic conditions; (ii) model the correlation between the microbial produced ethanol and the other higher alcohols; and (iii) test their applicability in: (a) real postmortem cases that had positive BACs (>0.10 g/L) and co-detection of higher alcohols and 1-butanol during the original ethanol analysis and (b) postmortem blood derived microbial cultures under aerobic/anaerobic controlled experimental conditions. The statistical evaluation of the results revealed that the formulated models were presumably correlated to 1-propanol and 1-butanol which were recognized as the most significant descriptors of the modeling process. The significance of 1-propanol and 1-butanol as descriptors was so powerful that they could be used as the only independent variables to create a simple and satisfactory model. The current models showed a potential for application to estimate microbial ethanol - within an acceptable standard error - in various tested cases where ethanol and other alcohols have been produced from different microbes. PMID:24053880

Boumba, Vassiliki A; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

2013-10-10

76

Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

77

Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

1989-01-01

78

Gastric evacuation for acute ethanol intoxication in a three year old.  

PubMed

A three year old girl presented in a deeply comatose state. She had drunk ethanol four hours previously and her blood ethanol concentration on arrival was 79.8 mmol/litre (3.69 g/litre). Because of her young age, high blood ethanol concentration, time since ingestion, and severe neurological depression on presentation, nasogastric aspiration of the stomach contents was performed and 4.2 g of ethanol were removed. She made an uneventful recovery. PMID:9475225

Hussain, S Z; Rawal, J; Henry, J A

1998-01-01

79

Experimental Study on Thermal Interaction of Ethanol Jets in High Temperature Fluorinert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a fundamental study for the direct contact heat exchange which was employed for in-vessel heat exchange in the Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water small fast reactor (PBWFR) and for the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident in lead alloy-cooled fast reactor (LFR), ethanol jet was injected into high temperature fluorinert (FC-3283) as a simulation experiment in order to investigate the jet boiling phenomena just after volatile water contacting with the high temperature continuous lead alloy liquid. Two series of tests (no-boiling and boiling) were initiated to evaluate the ethanol vapor volume which generated around the ethanol jet. From synchronized temperature measurement around ethanol jet, the overview of the boiling behavior showed that jet boiling occurred at bottom part of jet first and developed to the upper part within very narrow area around jet.

Sa, Rongyuan; Takahashi, Minoru

80

Ceria-doped SnO 2 sensor highly selective to ethanol in humid air  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our earlier study, we reported that at 300°C, a 2.0wt.% CeO2-doped SnO2 sensor is highly selective to ethanol in the presence of CO and CH4 gases [F. Pourfayaz, A. Khodadadi, Y. Mortazavi, S.S. Mohajerzadeh, CeO2 doped SnO2 sensor selective to ethanol in presence of CO, LPG and CH4, Sens. Actuators B 108 (2005) 172–176]. In the present investigation, we

F. Pourfayaz; Y. Mortazavi; A. Khodadadi; S. Ajami

2008-01-01

81

Warm blood cardioplegia in high risk patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Despite overall good clinical results, cardiac surgery in high risk patients, such as those with poor left ventricular function or heavily hypertrophied myocardium, is still challenging. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of warm blood cardioplegia (WBC) in these two subgroups of patients. Methods: Fifty-two patients, with an ejection fraction less than 50%, who underwent surgical revascularization,

Alain Bel; Hakim Aznag; Bouchaib Faris

82

Warm blood cardioplegia in high risk patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Despite overall good clinical results, cardiac surgery in high risk patients, such as those with poor left ventricular function or heavily hypertrophied myocardium, is still challenging. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of warm blood cardioplegia (WBC) in these two subgroups of patients. Methods: Fifty-two patients, with an ejection fraction less than 50%, who underwent surgical revascularization,

Alain Bel; Hakim Aznag; Bouchaib Faris; Philippe Menasché

1997-01-01

83

Role of an Ethanolic Extract of Crotalaria juncea L. on High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic effects of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) by performing in vivo studies. Methods The effects of oral administration of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) in rats fed with a high-fat diet were investigated by evaluating parameters like food consumption, weight gain, fecal fat excretion, serum and liver lipids, and biochemical profiles as well as by histopathological studies. The results were compared to animals fed with the standard diet and animals fed with a high-fat diet and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg BW). Results The animal group administered with the ethanolic extract for 35 days showed decreased levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, TG, HDL+VLDL, VLDL+LDL, LDL/TC, AI, SGOT, SGPT, and elevated levels of HDL, HDL/TC, significantly (p<0.01 & p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of liver tissues of the animal groups treated with the herbal extract and standard had shown increased levels of SOD, GSH, and catalase, whereas levels of SGOT, SGPT, total glucose, HMG-CoA, lipase, amylase, and the percentage of malon-dialdehyde were decreased when compared with the high-fat diet-fed rats. Body weight and food intake in the treated groups were significantly lower than that in the model control. Conclusion The present study showed that an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea L. influences several blood lipid and metabolic parameters in rats, suggesting a potential benefit as an antihypercholesterolemic agent.

Kumar, Dinakaran Sathis; David, Banji; Harani, Avasarala; Vijay, Bhaskar

2014-01-01

84

High concentration ethanol production from corncob residues by fed-batch strategy.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from corncob residues (CCR) pretreated by different methods was studied. The structure features of these CCR were analyzed by Fourier transform-infrared spectrum (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed by adding crude cellulase preparations from Penicillium decumbens JUA10-1 at 30 degrees C. The results suggested that different pretreatments resulted in different composition and structure of residues; these changes had a significant influence on ethanol productivity and concentration. The fed-batch method was combined with SSF to enhance ethanol concentration further and reduce enzyme dosage. Moreover, the absorption and desorption phenomena of cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) (70 kDa) were observed to be related to lignin contents in residues. These results demonstrated that despite the application of low enzyme dosage, high concentration ethanol could be produced from pretreated corncobs by combining fed-batch method with SSF. PMID:20004568

Liu, Kai; Lin, Xiaohui; Yue, Jun; Li, Xuezhi; Fang, Xu; Zhu, Mingtian; Lin, Jianqiang; Qu, Yinbo; Xiao, Lin

2010-07-01

85

High-level production of ethanol during fed-batch ethanol fermentation with a controlled aeration rate and non-sterile glucose powder feeding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we utilized a unique strategy for fed-batch fermentation using ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve a high-level of ethanol production that could be practically applied on an industrial scale. During this study,\\u000a the aeration rate was controlled at 0.0, 0.13, 0.33, and 0.8 vvm to determine the optimal aeration conditions for the production\\u000a of ethanol. Additionally, non-sterile glucose

Hyeon-Beom Seo; Seung Seop Kim; Hyeon-Yong Lee; Kyung-Hwan Jung

2009-01-01

86

CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control February 2011 39 Every 39 ... cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

87

High ethanol productivities using small Ca-alginate beads of immobilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymomonas mobilis cells were immobilized into small 1 mm diameter beads of Ca-alginate in order to minimize mass transfer limitations and maximize immobilized cell activity. A combination of small bead size with a high cell concentration of 58 g dry wt. cell per lit. bead volume resulted in high ethanol productivities using a newly designed packed bed bioreactor system. Steady-state

Argyrios Margaritis; Pramod K. Bajpai; J. Blair Wallace

1981-01-01

88

Highly permeable porous YSZ hollow fiber membrane prepared using ethanol as external coagulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly permeable porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) hollow fiber membranes have been developed by a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. Ethanol substituting for usual water was used as the external coagulant in order to prepare YSZ hollow fiber membranes with low trans-membrane resistance. The prepared YSZ hollow fiber membranes show a special asymmetric structure with an outer skin layer, highly

Xiaozhen Zhang; Bin Lin; Yihan Ling; Yingchao Dong; Daru Fang; Guangyao Meng; Xingqin Liu

2010-01-01

89

High blood pressure and visual sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

2003-09-01

90

DNA-Based Detecton of Ethanol-Producing Microorganisms in Postmortem Blood and Tissues by Polymerase Chain Reaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forensic investigation of fatal aircraft accidents usually includes the analysis of biological samples for ethanol to establish if alcohol intoxication is a factor in the accidents. The quantitative aspects of ethanol are often complicated by postmortem p...

N. T. Vu A. K. Chaturvedi D. V. Canfield J. W. Soper D. M. Kupfer

2000-01-01

91

Cerebral blood flow at high altitude.  

PubMed

Abstract Ainslie, Philip N., and Andrew W. Subudhi. Invited Review: Cerebral blood flow at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 15:133-140, 2014.-This brief review traces the last 50 years of research related to cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans exposed to high altitude. The increase in CBF within the first 12 hours at high altitude and its return to near sea level values after 3-5 days of acclimatization was first documented with use of the Kety-Schmidt technique in 1964. The degree of change in CBF at high altitude is influenced by many variables, including arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, oxygen content, cerebral spinal fluid pH, and hematocrit, but can be collectively summarized in terms of the relative strengths of four key integrated reflexes: 1) hypoxic cerebral vasodilatation; 2) hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction; 3) hypoxic ventilatory response; and 4) hypercapnic ventilatory response. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these reflexes and their interactions with one another is critical to advance our understanding of global and regional CBF regulation. Whether high altitude populations exhibit cerebrovascular adaptations to chronic levels of hypoxia or if changes in CBF are related to the development of acute mountain sickness are currently unknown; yet overall, the integrated CBF response to high altitude appears to be sufficient to meet the brain's large and consistent demand for oxygen. This short review is organized as follows: An historical overview of the earliest CBF measurements collected at high altitude introduces a summary of reported CBF changes at altitude over the last 50 years in both lowlanders and high-altitude natives. The most tenable candidate mechanism(s) regulating CBF at altitude are summarized with a focus on available data in humans, and a role for these mechanisms in the pathophysiology of AMS is considered. Finally, suggestions for future directions are provided. PMID:24971767

Ainslie, Philip N; Subudhi, Andrew W

2014-06-01

92

High activity of cubic PtRh alloys supported on graphene towards ethanol electrooxidation.  

PubMed

Cubic PtRh alloys supported on graphene (PtxRhy/GN) with different atomic ratio of Pt and Rh were directly synthesized for the first time using the modified polyol method with Br(-) for the shape-directing agents. The process didn't use surface-capping agents such as PVP that easily occupy the active sites of electrocatalysts and are difficult to remove. Graphene is the key factor for cubic shape besides Br(-) and keeping catalysts high-dispersed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of these electrocatalysts. The results showed that they were composed of homogeneous cubic PtRh alloys. Traditional electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, were used to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of PtxRhy/GN towards ethanol electrooxidation. It can be seen that PtxRhy/GN with all atomic ratios exhibited high catalytic activity, and the most active one has a composition with Pt?:?Rh = 9?:?1 atomic ratio. Electrochemical in situ FTIR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the cleavage of C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acidic solutions, the results illustrated that Rh in an alloy can promote the split of C-C bond in ethanol, and the alloy catalyst with atomic ratio Pt?:?Rh = 1?:?1 showed obviously better performance for the C-C bond breaking in ethanol and higher selectivity for the enhanced activity of ethanol complete oxidation to CO2 than alloys with other ratios of Pt and Rh. The investigation indicates that high activity of PtxRhy/GN electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation is due to the specific shape of alloys and the synergistic effect of two metal elements as well as graphene support. PMID:24668231

Rao, Lu; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Bin-Wei; Cai, Yuan-Rong; Sun, Shi-Gang

2014-07-21

93

Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96%?v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Results Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30?days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Conclusions Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue.

2014-01-01

94

ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER ADSORPTION FROM BINARY AND TERNARY LIQUID MIXTURES ON HIGH-SILICA ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

95

Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production cost reductions almost independently of each other.

Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

2008-01-01

96

Chronic vascular risk factors (cholesterol, homocysteine, ethanol) impair spatial memory, decline cholinergic neurons and induce blood-brain barrier leakage in rats in vivo.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies show that vascular risk factors (e.g. atherosclerosis, diabetes, homocysteine, hypertension or cholesterol) may play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Animal models may help to discover the role of vascular risk factors on cognition. In the present project we treated male Sprague Dawley rats with a diet containing homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) or cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) for 5 months or exposed the rats to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or a combination of cholesterol+ethanol (mix) for 12 months. Our experiments show that all 3 treatments (homocysteine, cholesterol, ethanol) declined spatial memory in the 8-arm radial maze, reduced the number of cholinergic neurons and induced blood-brain barrier leakage in the cortex. Rats treated with cholesterol also displayed markedly enhanced inflammation in the cortex. Levels of amyloid precursor protein, beta-amyloid((1-42)), as well as tau and phospho-tau 181 were significantly enhanced in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rats. A combination of ethanol and cholesterol did not further potentiate the effects on spatial memory, cholinergic neurons and blood-brain barrier leakage. The data suggest that chronic mild vascular risk factors over months induce small lesions of the brain capillaries in the cortex, which may contribute to the development of vascular dementia or also Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22819352

Ehrlich, Daniela; Humpel, Christian

2012-11-15

97

Chronic vascular risk factors (cholesterol, homocysteine, ethanol) impair spatial memory, decline cholinergic neurons and induce blood-brain barrier leakage in rats in vivo  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies show that vascular risk factors (e.g. atherosclerosis, diabetes, homocysteine, hypertension or cholesterol) may play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Animal models may help to discover the role of vascular risk factors on cognition. In the present project we treated male Sprague Dawley rats with a diet containing homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) or cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) for 5 months or exposed the rats to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or a combination of cholesterol + ethanol (mix) for 12 months. Our experiments show that all 3 treatments (homocysteine, cholesterol, ethanol) declined spatial memory in the 8-arm radial maze, reduced the number of cholinergic neurons and induced blood–brain barrier leakage in the cortex. Rats treated with cholesterol also displayed markedly enhanced inflammation in the cortex. Levels of amyloid precursor protein, beta-amyloid(1–42), as well as tau and phospho-tau 181 were significantly enhanced in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rats. A combination of ethanol and cholesterol did not further potentiate the effects on spatial memory, cholinergic neurons and blood–brain barrier leakage. The data suggest that chronic mild vascular risk factors over months induce small lesions of the brain capillaries in the cortex, which may contribute to the development of vascular dementia or also Alzheimer's disease.

Ehrlich, Daniela; Humpel, Christian

2012-01-01

98

[High blood pressure and physical exercise].  

PubMed

High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. PMID:24928464

Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

2014-06-01

99

Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones

2003-01-01

100

Aqueous-ethanol nitro blue tetrazolium solutions for high dose dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ions of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT 2+) in aqueous ethanol solution are readily reduced radiolytically first to monoformazan (MF +) and then to diformazan (DF) having high linear molar extinction coefficients at the absorption maxima of ˜522 and ˜570-610 nm. Spectrophotometric analysis then provides potential use in high-dose dosimetry over the dose ranges of 0.1-1 and 1-30 kGy. The solution is stable for the first 24 h after the irradiation.

Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.; Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; McLaughlin, W. L.

1999-08-01

101

Impact of reformulated ethanol-gasoline blends on high-emitting vehicles.  

PubMed

In-use vehicles which are high emitters (HEVs) make a large contribution to the emissions inventory. It is not known, however, whether HEVs share common emissions characteristics, and particularly the effect of ethanol blends. We study this by first examining laboratory measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions on ethanol blends containing 21%, 26% and 30% aromatics, and a reference fuel formulated with methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Switching from MTBE to ethanol fuels on HEVs shows no effect on the total emissions of regulated pollutants, but 1,3-butadiene emissions would increased substantially while the emissions of total carbonyls would not be affected except in the case of acetaldehyde, which would increase with EtOH. The ozone-forming potential of exhaust and evaporative emissions would be less using the EtOH blends and specific reactivity will not be incremented. Lowering the vapour pressure of the gasoline and increasing the proportions of alkylate and isomerate in the composition produces an ethanol-blended fuel with lower environmental impact both in normal vehicles and HEVs. PMID:23837342

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; González, Uriel

2013-01-01

102

Consolidated bioprocessing of highly concentrated Jerusalem artichoke tubers for simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation.  

PubMed

Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of Jerusalem artichoke tuber (Jat) for ethanol production is one of the most promising options for an alternate biofuel technology development. The technical barriers include the weak saccharolytic enzyme (inulinase) activity of the fermentation strain, and the well mixing of the high viscous fermentation slurry at the highly concentrated Jat loading. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 was found to produce relatively large amount of inulinase for hydrolysis of inulin in Jat, and the helical ribbon stirring bioreactor used provided well mixing performance under the high Jat loading. Even a highly concentrated Jat loading up to 35% (w/w) in the helical ribbon bioreactor for CBP was allowed. The results obtained from this study have demonstrated a feasibility of developing a CBP process technology in the helical ribbon bioreactor for ethanol production at a high yield 128.7?g/L and the theoretical yield 73.5%, respectively. This level of ethanol yield from Jat is relatively higher than others reported so far. The results of this study could provide a practical CBP process technology in the helical ribbon bioreactor for economically sustainable alternate biofuel production using highly concentrated inulin containing biomass feedstock such as Jat, at least 35%. PMID:23568827

Guo, Lihao; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Fengxian; Dy Ryu, Dewey; Bao, Jie

2013-10-01

103

High temperature stimulates acetic acid accumulation and enhances the growth inhibition and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermenting conditions.  

PubMed

Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high temperatures of up to 42 °C during ethanol fermentation at a high glucose concentration (i.e., 100 g/L) were investigated. Increased temperature correlated with stimulated glucose uptake to produce not only the thermal protectant glycerol but also ethanol and acetic acid. Carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle correlated positively with cultivation temperature. These results indicate that the increased demand for energy (in the form of ATP), most likely caused by multiple stressors, including heat, acetic acid, and ethanol, was matched by both the fermentation and respiration pathways. Notably, acetic acid production was substantially stimulated compared to that of other metabolites during growth at increased temperature. The acetic acid produced in addition to ethanol seemed to subsequently result in adverse effects, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, appeared to cause the specific growth rate, and glucose uptake rate reduced leading to a decrease of the specific ethanol production rate far before glucose depletion. These results suggest that adverse effects from heat, acetic acid, ethanol, and oxidative stressors are synergistic, resulting in a decrease of the specific growth rate and ethanol production rate and, hence, are major determinants of cell stability and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. The results are discussed in the context of possible applications. PMID:24706214

Woo, Ji-Min; Yang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Sae-Um; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

2014-07-01

104

High altitude and blood pressure in children.  

PubMed Central

We aimed to evaluate the blood pressure of children who had similar demographic characteristics but lived at different altitudes. Blood pressure of the children attending primary schools in Izmir (sea level: n = 425) and Van (altitude: 1725 m, n = 291) were measured by mercurial sphygmomanometer for this study. They were similar with respect to age, sex, weight, height, and BMI. Mean age of the children was 10.51 +/- 0.87 years (range: 9 to 12 years), and 358 (50 percent) of them were female. Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the children living in Van than in the children living in Izmir (104.72 +/- 11.2 vs. 97.96 +/- 25.5 mmHg, respectively, p < .001). Similarly mean diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the children living in Van than in the children living in Izmir (63.98 +/- 9.3 vs. 59.91 +/- 10.0 mmHg, respectively, p < .001). When blood pressure was evaluated with regard to height percentile, the number of children with a blood pressure over 90 percentile were 19 (4.5 percent) and 48 (16.5 percent) for systolic blood pressure, and 25 (5.9 percent) and 37 (12.7 percent) for diastolic blood pressure among the children living in Izmir and Van, respectively (p < .001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were found to increase in parallel to the increase in body mass index in children living in Van (r = 0.358, p < .001 and r = 0.235, p < .001, respectively). However, blood pressures were not correlated to body mass index in children living in Izmir. A difference of 1700 m in altitude was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in children with similar demographic characteristics, and at this altitude, body mass index and blood pressure showed a positive correlation.

Arslan, Sukru; Arslan, Nur; Soylu, Alper; Akgun, Cihangir; Tepebasili, Ibrahim; Turkmen, Mehmet; Kavukcu, Salih

2003-01-01

105

Dose-dependent biphasic effect of ethanol on 24-h blood pressure in normotensive subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vasodilation that follows acute alcohol intake is hard to conciliate with the high prevalence of hypertension detected in those persons who consume regular amounts of alcohol. In this experiment we examined early and late hemodynamic effects of acute administration of water and of 15 g, 30 g, and 60 g of alcohol in 40 normal men, aged 19 to

Guido Aranha Rosito; Flávio Danni Fuchs; Bruce B. Duncan

1999-01-01

106

Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update.  

PubMed

There have been numerous developments in ethanol fermentation technology since the beginning of the new millennium as ethanol has become an immediate viable alternative to fast-depleting crude reserves as well as increasing concerns over environmental pollution. Nowadays, although most research efforts are focused on the conversion of cheap cellulosic substrates to ethanol, methods that are cost-competitive with gasoline production are still lacking. At the same time, the ethanol industry has engaged in implementing potential energy-saving, productivity and efficiency-maximizing technologies in existing production methods to become more viable. Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is an emerging, versatile one among such technologies offering great savings in process water and energy requirements through fermentation of higher concentrations of sugar substrate and, therefore, increased final ethanol concentration in the medium. The technology also allows increased fermentation efficiency, without major alterations to existing facilities, by efficient utilization of fermentor space and elimination of known losses. This comprehensive research update on VHG technology is presented in two main sections, namely VHG brewing, wherein the effects of nutrients supplementation, yeast pitching rate, flavour compound synthesis and foam stability under increased wort gravities are discussed; and VHG bioethanol fermentation studies. In the latter section, aspects related to the role of osmoprotectants and nutrients in yeast stress reduction, substrates utilized/tested so far, including saccharide (glucose, sucrose, molasses, etc.) and starchy materials (wheat, corn, barley, oats, etc.), and mash viscosity issues in VHG bioethanol production are detailed. Thereafter, topics common to both areas such as process optimization studies, mutants and gene level studies, immobilized yeast applications, temperature effect, reserve carbohydrates profile in yeast, and economic aspects are discussed and future prospects are summarized. PMID:21695540

Puligundla, Pradeep; Smogrovicova, Daniela; Obulam, Vijaya Sarathi Reddy; Ko, Sanghoon

2011-09-01

107

Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield.  

PubMed

We report engineering Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments xylan and biomass-derived sugars, to produce ethanol at high yield. Knockout of genes involved in organic acid formation (acetate kinase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase) resulted in a strain able to produce ethanol as the only detectable organic product and substantial changes in electron flow relative to the wild type. Ethanol formation in the engineered strain (ALK2) utilizes pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase with electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(P), a pathway different from that in previously described microbes with a homoethanol fermentation. The homoethanologenic phenotype was stable for >150 generations in continuous culture. The growth rate of strain ALK2 was similar to the wild-type strain, with a reduction in cell yield proportional to the decreased ATP availability resulting from acetate kinase inactivation. Glucose and xylose are co-utilized and utilization of mannose and arabinose commences before glucose and xylose are exhausted. Using strain ALK2 in simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation experiments at 50 degrees C allows a 2.5-fold reduction in cellulase loading compared with using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 37 degrees C. The maximum ethanol titer produced by strain ALK2, 37 g/liter, is the highest reported thus far for a thermophilic anaerobe, although further improvements are desired and likely possible. Our results extend the frontier of metabolic engineering in thermophilic hosts, have the potential to significantly lower the cost of cellulosic ethanol production, and support the feasibility of further cost reductions through engineering a diversity of host organisms. PMID:18779592

Shaw, A Joe; Podkaminer, Kara K; Desai, Sunil G; Bardsley, John S; Rogers, Stephen R; Thorne, Philip G; Hogsett, David A; Lynd, Lee R

2008-09-16

108

Paramagnetic microchip for high-gradient separation of blood cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a magnetophoretic separation method on a chip of white blood cells from blood under continuous flow. The separation of red blood cells from the whole blood is performed using a high gradient magnetic separation method under continuous flow to trap the particles inside the device. The device is fabricated by microfabrication technology and enables to capture the red blood cells without the use of labelling tecniques such as magnetic beads. The method consists of flowing diluted whole blood through a microfluidic channel where a ferromagnetic layer, subjected to a permanent magnetic field, is located. The majority of red blood cells are trapped at the bottom of the device while the rest of the blood is collected at the outlet. Experimental results show that an average of 95% of red blood cells are trapped in the device.

Iliescu, Ciprian; Xu, Guolin; Barbarini, Elena; Avram, Marioara; Iliescu, Florina S.

2008-12-01

109

Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.

1994-01-01

110

Diamagnetic orientation of blood cells in high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamagnetic orientation of blood cells has been investigated in static high magnetic fields. The anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility Deltachi of erythrocytes and blood platelets are determined. Deltachi of blood platelets is 1.5 times larger than that of erythrocytes. The contribution of microtubules to the Deltachi of platelets is also discussed.

A. Yamagashi; T. Takeuchi; T. Hagashi; M. Date

1992-01-01

111

Combined process for ethanol fermentation at high-solids loading and biogas digestion from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover.  

PubMed

A combined process was designed for the co-production of ethanol and methane from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover. A terminal ethanol titer of 69.8g/kg mass weight (72.5%) was achieved when the fed-batch mode was performed at a final solids loading of 35.5% (w/w) dry matter (DM) content. The whole stillage from high-solids ethanol fermentation was directly transferred in a 3-L anaerobic digester. During 52-day single-stage digester operation, the methane productivity was 320mLCH4/g volatile solids (VS) with a maximum VS reduction efficiency of 55.3%. The calculated overall product yield was 197g ethanol+96gmethane/kg corn stover. This indicated that the combined process was able to improve overall content utilization and extract a greater yield of lignocellulosic biomass compared to ethanol fermentation alone. PMID:24926600

Wang, Zhen; Lv, Zhe; Du, Jiliang; Mo, Chunling; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen

2014-08-01

112

Chain elongation of acetate and ethanol in an upflow anaerobic filter for high rate MCFA production.  

PubMed

Recently, interest has regained for medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) as a low cost feedstock for bio-based chemical and fuel production processes. To become cost-effective, the volumetric MCFA production rate by chain elongation should increase to comparable rates of other fermentation processes. We investigate the MCFA production process at a hydraulic retention time of 17 h in an upflow anaerobic filter to improve the volumetric MCFA production rate. This approach resulted in a MCFA production with a volumetric production rate of 16.6 g l(-1) d(-1), which is more than seven times higher than the current production rate. Moreover the rate is now in the range of other fermentation processes like methane, butanol and ethanol production. Increasing the ethanol load lead to higher volumetric production rates and a high MCFA selectivity of 91%. During operation, methane percentages lower than 0.1% were detected in the headspace of reactor. PMID:23228455

Grootscholten, T I M; Steinbusch, K J J; Hamelers, H V M; Buisman, C J N

2013-05-01

113

A highly sensitive ethanol sensor based on mesoporous ZnO-SnO2 nanofibers  

PubMed Central

A facile and versatile method for the large-scale synthesis of sensitive mesoporous ZnO–SnO2 (m-Z–S) nanofibers through a combination of surfactant-directed assembly and an electrospinning approach is reported. The morphology and the structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm analysis. The results showed that the diameters of fibers ranged from 100 to 150 nm with mixed structures of wurtzite (ZnO) and rutile (SnO2), and a mesoporous structure was observed in the m-Z–S nanofibers. The sensor performance of the prepared m-Z–S nanofibers was measured for ethanol. It is found that the mesoporous fiber film obtained exhibited excellent ethanol sensing properties, such as high sensitivity, quick response and recovery, good reproducibility, and linearity in the range 3–500 ppm.

Song, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhaojie; Liu, Yongben; Wang, Ce; Li, Lijuan

2009-01-01

114

Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing.

Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

2013-01-01

115

Cellulases without carbohydrate-binding modules in high consistency ethanol production process  

PubMed Central

Background Enzymes still comprise a major part of ethanol production costs from lignocellulose raw materials. Irreversible binding of enzymes to the residual substrate prevents their reuse and no efficient methods for recycling of enzymes have so far been presented. Cellulases without a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) have been found to act efficiently at high substrate consistencies and to remain non-bound after the hydrolysis. Results High hydrolysis yields could be obtained with thermostable enzymes of Thermoascus aurantiacus containing only two main cellulases: cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), Cel7A and endoglucanase II (EG II), Cel5A. The yields were decreased by only about 10% when using these cellulases without CBM. A major part of enzymes lacking CBM was non-bound during the most active stage of hydrolysis and in spite of this, produced high sugar yields. Complementation of the two cellulases lacking CBM with CBH II (CtCel6A) improved the hydrolysis. Cellulases without CBM were more sensitive during exposure to high ethanol concentration than the enzymes containing CBM. Enzymes lacking CBM could be efficiently reused leading to a sugar yield of 90% of that with fresh enzymes. The applicability of cellulases without CBM was confirmed under industrial ethanol production conditions at high (25% dry matter (DM)) consistency. Conclusions The results clearly show that cellulases without CBM can be successfully used in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose at high consistency, and that this approach could provide new means for better recyclability of enzymes. This paper provides new insight into the efficient action of CBM-lacking cellulases. The relationship of binding and action of cellulases without CBM at high DM consistency should, however, be studied in more detail.

2014-01-01

116

Gene expression cross-profiling in genetically modified industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during high-temperature ethanol production from xylose.  

PubMed

Production of ethanol from xylose at high temperature would be an economical approach since it reduces risk of contamination and allows both the saccharification and fermentation steps in SSF to be running at elevated temperature. Eight recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains developed from industrial strains were constructed and subjected to high-temperature fermentation at 38 °C. The best performing strain was sun049T, which produced up to 15.2 g/L ethanol (63% of the theoretical production), followed by sun048T and sun588T, both with 14.1 g/L ethanol produced. Via transcriptomic analysis, expression profiling of the top three best ethanol producing strains compared to a negative control strain, sun473T, led to the discovery of genes in common that were regulated in the same direction. Identification of the 20 most highly up-regulated and the 20 most highly down-regulated genes indicated that the cells regulate their central metabolism and maintain the integrity of the cell walls in response to high temperature. We also speculate that cross-protection in the cells occurs, allowing them to maintain ethanol production at higher concentration under heat stress than the negative controls. This report provides further transcriptomics information in the interest of producing a robust microorganism for high-temperature ethanol production utilizing xylose. PMID:23131464

Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

2013-01-10

117

Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?  

PubMed

Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy. PMID:24022674

Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

2014-01-01

118

Childhood Malnutrition Linked to High Blood Pressure Later in Life  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Childhood Malnutrition Linked to High Blood Pressure Later in Life: Study Preventing childhood hunger might ... June 30, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Nutrition High Blood Pressure Malnutrition MONDAY, June 30, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Young ...

119

Comparison of the high-pressure and low-temperature structures of ethanol and acetic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined the high-pressure crystal structures of ethanol and acetic acid, including the positions of the hydrogen atoms, using a combination of single-crystal x-ray-diffraction techniques and ab initio pseudopotential calculations. We find that in the high-pressure structure of ethanol the molecules are arranged in infinite hydrogen-bonded chains that adopt a structural conformation that is distinctly different from that of the low-temperature form. The hydrogen-bond lengths and bond angles within the chains are equal by symmetry and, as the molecules also have an alternating alignment to the chains, the molecular chains are relatively unstrained. It is proposed that this uniformity and lack of strain within the chains enables ethanol to crystallize much more readily than methanol at high pressure. For acetic acid we find that the molecules are also arranged in infinite hydrogen-bonded chains that are essentially identical to those in the low-temperature structure. However, they adopt markedly different relative orientations, which leads to a more efficient molecular packing and a radically different methyl-methyl contact motif between adjacent molecular chains. The calculated enthalpies of the high-pressure and low-temperature structures show that the high-pressure phase is the most energetically favorable. We find a relatively small 0.056 eV/molecule enthalpy difference between the two structures and this is reflected in the very low freezing pressure of approximately 0.2 GPa at room temperature compared to the freezing temperature of 16 °C at ambient pressure.

Allan, David R.; Clark, Stewart J.

1999-09-01

120

Heart Risks Depend on Which Blood Pressure Number Is High  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure Number Is High: Study Researchers also discovered lifetime heart risks were greater even with medications to ... high blood pressure, or "hypertension," still face greater lifetime health risks. For example, a 30-year-old ...

121

Changes in lymphocyte subsets and macrophage functions from high, short-term dietary ethanol in C57/BL6 mice  

SciTech Connect

Chronic administration of a diet containing 7% ethanol (36% of total calories) for 8 days to male C57/BL6 mice resulted in significant changes in functioning of macrophages. Peritoneal exudate macrophages from the ethanol-fed mice released more tumor cell cytotoxic materials upon culturing in vitro than cells from controls. However, peritoneal exudate cells continued to respond to exogenous beta carotene in vitro to produce additional cytotoxic materials. Phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells in vitro was suppressed in cells from ethanol treated mice. The number of splenic lymphocytes of various subsets was significantly changed by the ethanol exposure. Total T cells and T suppressor cells were lower, with a significant decrease in B cells containing IgM on their surface. The percentage of spleen cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced. It is concluded that short-term chronic consumption of dietary ethanol, which was sufficient to produce physical dependence, results in significant alterations in lymphocyte subtypes and suppression of some macrophage functions.

Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Abril, E.; Smith, T.L.

1988-01-01

122

Blood lactate changes during exercise at high altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood lactate concentrations were measured in 18 normal subjects at the end of an exercise test designed to maintain heart rate at 85% of maximum for 15 minutes. Blood lactate concentrations were reduced at high altitude (4846 m) and correlated positively with basal pH and negatively with basal Pa,O2 levels. Blood lactate concentrations tended to be lower in those subjects

N. Binns; A. D. Wright; B. M. Singh; J. H. Coote; A. R. Bradwell

1987-01-01

123

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

124

Hierarchical Pd-Sn Alloy Nanosheet Dendrites: An Economical and Highly Active Catalyst for Ethanol Electrooxidation  

PubMed Central

Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures.

Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

2013-01-01

125

Trait anxiety and ethanol: anxiolysis in high-anxiety mice and no relation to intake behavior in an addiction model.  

PubMed

Anxiety has been proposed to play a role in the development of alcohol addiction, but the exact mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. The present study aimed to verify the relationship between basal anxiety levels, the anxiolytic-like effect of ethanol, and ethanol intake in mice exposed to an addiction model. In one experiment Swiss mice were characterized as high-anxiety (HA), medium-anxiety (MA), or non-anxiety (NA) in the elevated plus maze and then received saline or ethanol 2 g/kg acutely and chronically and were again exposed to the same test. NA mice decreased while MA mice maintained anxiety indices over the test days, regardless of treatment. HA ethanol-treated mice showed an anxiolytic-like effect, both acutely and chronically, while the saline-treated ones maintained their basal anxiety levels. In another experiment HA and MA mice were exposed to an addiction model based on a 3-bottle free-choice paradigm (ethanol 5% and 10%, and water) consisting of four phases: acquisition (10 weeks), withdrawal (W, 2 weeks), reexposure (2 weeks), and quinine-adulteration (2 weeks). HA and MA control mice had access only to water. Mice were characterized as addicted, heavy-drinker and light-drinker [Fachin-Scheit DJ, Ribeiro AF, Pigatto G, Goeldner FO, Boerngen-Lacerda R. Development of a mouse model of ethanol addiction: naltrexone efficacy in reducing consumption but not craving. J Neural Transm 2006;113:1305-21.]. No difference was observed between HA and MA mice in their preference for and intake of ethanol. No correlation was observed between ethanol intake, during any phase, and anxiety indices measured in the basal tests and during the W phase. The differences in anxiety indices between HA and MA groups persisted in the test performed during ethanol withdrawal, suggesting a "trait" anxiety profile. The data suggest that despite the fact that high anxiety trait levels are important for the anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol, they are not a determining factor for high ethanol intake, at least not under these experimental conditions. PMID:19394387

Correia, Diego; Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Brunialti Godard, Ana Lúcia; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli

2009-08-01

126

High Blood Pressure May Up Psoriasis Risk for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. High Blood Pressure May Up Psoriasis Risk for Women Long-term use of certain ... 2, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Blood Pressure Medicines Psoriasis Women's Health WEDNESDAY, July 2, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

127

Disturbances in behavior and cortical enkephalin gene expression during the anticipation of ethanol in rats characterized as high drinkers  

PubMed Central

The process of ethanol anticipation is a particularly important phenomenon that can determine subsequent drug-taking behavior. Recent studies suggest that systems within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), during anticipation, may contribute to the goal-directed seeking of ethanol. The current investigation examined the possibility that the opioid peptide enkephalin (ENK), known to mediate some of the reinforcing properties of ethanol, may function in the mPFC during the anticipation of ethanol access. Using a limited access (3 h/d) paradigm for 10 days with 20% ethanol, Sprague-Dawley rats were first identified either as low drinkers (LD, <1.0 g/kg/3 h) or as high drinkers (HD, >2.0 g/kg/3 h) that exhibited a long-term phenotype of high ethanol consumption and a significant ethanol deprivation effect. During the anticipation period immediately preceding daily ethanol access, the HD rats compared to LD or Control animals with ad libitum ethanol access exhibited increased anticipatory behaviors, including greater exploratory behavior in a novel open field as revealed by significantly more time spent in the rearing position (+53–65%, p < 0.05) and increased number of rears made (+33–44%, p < 0.05) and greater novelty-seeking behavior in a hole-board apparatus revealed by an increase in total (+50–52%, p < 0.05) and novel nose pokes (+45–48%, p < 0.05). In the HD rats, analysis of the mPFC using real-time quantitative PCR showed significantly greater mRNA levels of ENK (p < 0.05) and the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) (p < 0.05), but not delta-opioid receptor (DOR), and this increase in ENK expression was found, using in situ hybridization, to occur specifically in the prelimbic (PrL) subregion of the mPFC. When injected into the PrL during the anticipation period, a MOR agonist but not DOR agonist significantly increased consumption of 20% ethanol (p < 0.05). These findings support the role of ENK, acting through MOR within the PrL to promote the anticipation and excessive consumption of ethanol.

Morganstern, Irene; Liang, Sherry; Ye, Zhiyu; Karatayev, Olga; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

2013-01-01

128

Disturbances in behavior and cortical enkephalin gene expression during the anticipation of ethanol in rats characterized as high drinkers.  

PubMed

The process of ethanol anticipation is a particularly important phenomenon that can determine subsequent drug-taking behavior. Recent studies suggest that systems within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), during anticipation, may contribute to the goal-directed seeking of ethanol. The current investigation examined the possibility that the opioid peptide enkephalin (ENK), known to mediate some of the reinforcing properties of ethanol, may function in the mPFC during the anticipation of ethanol access. Using a limited access (3 h/d) paradigm for 10 days with 20% ethanol, Sprague-Dawley rats were first identified either as low drinkers (LD, <1.0 g/kg/3 h) or as high drinkers (HD, >2.0 g/kg/3 h) that exhibited a long-term phenotype of high ethanol consumption and a significant ethanol deprivation effect. During the anticipation period immediately preceding daily ethanol access, the HD rats compared to LD or Control animals with ad libitum ethanol access exhibited increased anticipatory behaviors, including greater exploratory behavior in a novel open field as revealed by significantly more time spent in the rearing position (+53-65%, p < 0.05) and increased number of rears made (+33-44%, p < 0.05) and greater novelty-seeking behavior in a hole-board apparatus revealed by an increase in total (+50-52%, p < 0.05) and novel nose pokes (+45-48%, p < 0.05). In the HD rats, analysis of the mPFC using real-time quantitative PCR showed significantly greater mRNA levels of ENK (p < 0.05) and the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) (p < 0.05), but not delta-opioid receptor (DOR), and this increase in ENK expression was found, using in situ hybridization, to occur specifically in the prelimbic (PrL) subregion of the mPFC. When injected into the PrL during the anticipation period, a MOR agonist but not DOR agonist significantly increased consumption of 20% ethanol (p < 0.05). These findings support the role of ENK, acting through MOR within the PrL to promote the anticipation and excessive consumption of ethanol. PMID:22703995

Morganstern, Irene; Liang, Sherry; Ye, Zhiyu; Karatayev, Olga; Leibowitz, Sarah F

2012-09-01

129

Synergistic ablation of liver tissue and liver cancer cells with high-intensity focused ultrasound and ethanol.  

PubMed

We investigated the combined effect of ethanol and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), first, on heating and cavitation bubble activity in tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine liver tissues and, second, on the viability of HepG2 liver cancer cells. Phantoms or porcine tissues were injected with ethanol and then subjected to HIFU at acoustic power ranging from 1.2 to 20.5 W (HIFU levels 1-7). Cavitation events and the temperature around the focal zone were measured with a passive cavitation detector and embedded type K thermocouples, respectively. HepG2 cells were subjected to 4% ethanol solution in growth medium (v/v) just before the cells were exposed to HIFU at 2.7, 8.7 or 12.0 W for 30 s. Cell viability was measured 2, 24 and 72 h post-treatment. The results indicate that ethanol and HIFU have a synergistic effect on liver cancer ablation as manifested by greater temperature rise and lesion volume in liver tissues and reduced viability of liver cancer cells. This effect is likely caused by reduction of the cavitation threshold in the presence of ethanol and the increased rate of ethanol diffusion through the cell membrane caused by HIFU-induced streaming, sonoporation and heating. PMID:24798386

Hoang, Nguyen H; Murad, Hakm Y; Ratnayaka, Sithira H; Chen, Chong; Khismatullin, Damir B

2014-08-01

130

Cell recycling during repeated very high gravity bio-ethanol fermentations using the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.  

PubMed

A very high gravity (VHG) repeated-batch fermentation system using an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 (isolated from sugarcane-to-ethanol distillery in Brazil) and mimicking industrially relevant conditions (high inoculation rates and low O(2) availability) was successfully operated during fifteen consecutive fermentation cycles, attaining ethanol at 17.1 ± 0.2% (v/v) with a batch productivity of 3.5 ± 0.04 g l(-1) h(-1). Moreover, this innovative operational strategy (biomass refreshing step) prevented critical decreases on yeast viability levels and promoted high accumulation of intracellular glycerol and trehalose, which can provide an adaptive advantage to yeast cells under harsh industrial environments. This study contributes to the improvement of VHG fermentation processes by exploring an innovative operational strategy that allows attaining very high ethanol titres without a critical decrease of the viability level thus minimizing the production costs due to energy savings during the distillation process. PMID:21898130

Pereira, Francisco B; Gomes, Daniel G; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

2012-01-01

131

High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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132

High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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133

Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to High Blood Pressure  

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... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to High Blood Pressure Researchers recommend more studies to see if vitamin D supplements can lower pressure (*this news item will ...

134

High Blood Pressure Treatment in Children (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... training. Sedentary activities (watching television and/or playing video and computer games) should be limited to less than two hours per day. Participation in sports — Children who have controlled high blood pressure are generally ...

135

People with High Blood Pressure Often Have a 'Salt Tooth'  

MedlinePLUS

... blood pressure are often "salt-seeking," said Dr. William White, current president of the American Society of ... case of a high-salt taste preference." SOURCES: William B. White, M.D., president, American Society of ...

136

High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents Why Is Cholesterol Important? How Does Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease? ... cholesterol numbers compare to the tables below. Total Cholesterol Level Category Less than 200 mg/dL Desirable ...

137

Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 stress response during high-temperature ethanol fermentation.  

PubMed

Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

2013-03-01

138

Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 Stress Response during High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis.

Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

2013-01-01

139

Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

1995-01-01

140

Shape Dynamics of Nanobubbles Located on Bunched and Wide Terraces at Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite\\/Water-Ethanol Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time courses of the nanobubbles were investigated on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface contacting with the air-saturated water-ethanol mixture. On a high step density surface, bubbles were confined within a narrow bunched terrace, and coalesced to form an elliptic bubble. The final volume of the coalesced bubble was larger than that of the sum of the initial

Naoki Kameda; Seiichiro Nakabayashi

2008-01-01

141

Fermentation kinetics of Zymomonas mobilis at high ethanol concentrations: oscillations in continuous cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substrate-limited continuous culture results at 47 g\\/l ethanol show that the maintenance factor and the yield factor of an unstructured maintenance model are lower compared to the values at 23 g\\/l ethanol. Computing the results according to a structured two-compartment model predicts an enhanced turnover rate of the K-compartment (RNA fraction) by ethanol, resulting in a lower steady state amount

I. M. L. Joebses; G. T. C. Egberts; K. C. A. M. Luyben; J. A. Roels

1986-01-01

142

Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous developments in ethanol fermentation technology since the beginning of the new millennium as ethanol\\u000a has become an immediate viable alternative to fast-depleting crude reserves as well as increasing concerns over environmental\\u000a pollution. Nowadays, although most research efforts are focused on the conversion of cheap cellulosic substrates to ethanol,\\u000a methods that are cost-competitive with gasoline production are

Pradeep Puligundla; Daniela Smogrovicova; Vijaya Sarathi Reddy Obulam; Sanghoon Ko

143

Oxazolone and ethanol induce colitis in non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2R?(null) mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

Oxazolone-induced colitis in mice has become a recognized model to study the efficacy of therapeutics targeting the immunological response underlying the development of inflammatory bowel disease. However, this model cannot be used when therapeutics designed to address human targets do not interact with the respective murine counterpart. In this study, we examined the induction of oxazolone mediated colitis in non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2R?(null) (NOD-SCID IL2R?(null)) mice engrafted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) derived from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC), atopic dermatitis (AD) and healthy volunteers. NOD-SCID IL2R? (null) mice were engrafted with hPBMC followed by challenge with oxazolone or ethanol vehicle. Mice developed the same symptoms as observed previously in immunocompetent mice. The clinical activity score increased and the colon architecture was characterized by the development of oedema, fibrosis, crypt loss and dense infiltration of predominantly T cells into the lamina propria. Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of lymphocytes in the colon identified natural killer (NK) T cells as a major constituent. In contrast to studies with immunocompetent mice, we observed the same phenotype in the group challenged with ethanol vehicle. The phenotype was most pronounced in mice engrafted with PBMC derived from a patient suffering from UC, suggesting that the immunological history of the donors predisposes the engrafted mice to react to ethanol. The model described here has the potential to study the efficacy of therapeutics targeting human lymphocytes in a model which is more reflective of the human disease. In addition, it might be developed to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. PMID:23574330

Nolte, T; Zadeh-Khorasani, M; Safarov, O; Rueff, F; Gülberg, V; Herbach, N; Wollenberg, A; Mueller, T; Siebeck, M; Wolf, E; Gropp, R

2013-05-01

144

Fluidized-bed bioreactors using a flocculating strain of Zymomonas mobilis for high-productivity ethanol fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The flocculating strain of Zymomonas mobilis (NRRL B-12526) has been shown to form stable floc particles that can effectively convert glucose to ethanol at rates in excess of 400 g/L.h in a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The system is so reactive that the CO/sub 2/ off-gas makes it difficult to maintain high biomass loading in the upper part of the reactor, thus, resulting in a reduced ethanol productivity that approaches 100 g/L.h for the entire active reactor volume when over 95% of the glucose is metabolized. An increase in biomass loading and the use of a glucose feed concentration in excess of 150 g/L will undoubtedly result in even high levels of ethanol productivity. 12 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Scott, C.D.

1982-01-01

145

Feasibility of high protein flour and ethanol production in northern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study on the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a medium-scale (3,000,000 gal/year) ethanol plant in northern Idaho are presented. The boilers will be fueled with a wood waste fuel (WOODEX) and sawdust. Distiller's dried grains will be processed and produce high-protein flour which will be sold as a health food product for human consumption. The feedstock will be locally grown wheat and barley. Carbon dioxide by-product will be collected and sold to a chemical plant. A third by-product, fusel oil, will be produced and sold for use as a solvent. Processes and equipment were evaluated and recommendations are included. 5 figs. (DMC)

Snipes, D.; Korus, R.

1981-04-30

146

Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19.  

PubMed

Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is severely limited by low solvent titer and productivities. Thus, this study aims at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced ABE production capability followed by process optimization for high ABE productivity. Random mutagenesis of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK was performed by screening cells on fluoroacetate plates to isolate a mutant strain, BKM19, which exhibited the total solvent production capability 30.5% higher than the parent strain. The BKM19 produced 32.5?g?L(-1) of ABE (17.6?g?L(-1) butanol, 10.5?g?L(-1) ethanol, and 4.4?g?L(-1) acetone) from 85.2?g?L(-1) glucose in batch fermentation. A high cell density continuous ABE fermentation of the BKM19 in membrane cell-recycle bioreactor was studied and optimized for improved solvent volumetric productivity. Different dilution rates were examined to find the optimal condition giving highest butanol and ABE productivities. The maximum butanol and ABE productivities of 9.6 and 20.0?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , respectively, could be achieved at the dilution rate of 0.85?h(-1) . Further cell recycling experiments were carried out with controlled cell-bleeding at two different bleeding rates. The maximum solvent productivities were obtained when the fermenter was operated at a dilution rate of 0.86?h(-1) with the bleeding rate of 0.04?h(-1) . Under the optimal operational condition, butanol and ABE could be produced with the volumetric productivities of 10.7 and 21.1?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , and the yields of 0.17 and 0.34?g?g(-1) , respectively. The obtained butanol and ABE volumetric productivities are the highest reported productivities obtained from all known-processes. PMID:23335317

Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Sang Yup

2013-06-01

147

Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake.  

PubMed

Palm kernel press cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. PKC contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into bioethanol or in other biorefinery processes. Using a combination of mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and cellulases, it was possible without any pretreatment to hydrolyze PKC at solid concentrations of 35% dry matter with mannose yields up to 88% of theoretical. Fermentation was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) setup. The hydrolysates could readily be fermented without addition of nutrients and with average fermentation yields of 0.43 +/- 0.02 g/g based on consumed mannose and glucose. Employing SSF, final ethanol concentrations of 70 g/kg was achieved in 216 h, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 70% of theoretical or 200 g ethanol/kg PKC. Testing various enzyme mixtures revealed that including cellulases in combination with mannanases significantly improved ethanol yields. Processing PKC to ethanol resulted in a solid residue enriched in protein from 17% to 28%, a 70% increase, thereby potentially making a high-protein containing feed supplement. PMID:19855940

Jørgensen, Henning; Sanadi, Anand R; Felby, Claus; Lange, Niels Erik Krebs; Fischer, Morten; Ernst, Steffen

2010-05-01

148

Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging, needle hydrophone measurements and passive cavitation detection. Temperature in or near the focal zone was measured by thermocouples embedded in the samples. The results of this study indicate that the treatment of tissue phantoms and bovine liver samples with ethanol reduces their threshold power for inertial cavitation. This in turn leads to a sudden rise in temperature in ethanol-treated samples at a lower acoustic power than that in untreated ones. The analysis of passive cavitation detection data shows that once the threshold acoustic power is reached, inertial cavitation becomes a major contributor to acoustic scattering in ethanol-treated phantoms and bovine liver samples as compared to control. This study opens up the possibility of improved tumor ablation therapy via a combination of percutaneous ethanol injection and high-intensity focused ultrasound.

Chen, C.; Liu, Y.; Maruvada, S.; Myers, M.; Khismatullin, D.

2012-02-01

149

High productivity ethanol fermentations with Zymomonas mobilis using continuous cell recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell recycle studies have been carried out with a strain of Zymomonas mobilis selected for its improved ethanol tolerance and faster rates of glucose uptake and ethanol production. As part of the investigation a capilliary cross-flow microfiltration unit with polyamide membranes has been evaluated in view of its potential advantages (low cost and ability to withstand repeated cleaning with caustic

K. J. Lee; M. Lefebvre; D. E. Tribe; P. L. Rogers

1980-01-01

150

Impact of osmotic stress and ethanol inhibition in yeast cells on process oscillation associated with continuous very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation  

PubMed Central

Background VHG fermentation is a promising process engineering strategy aiming at improving ethanol titer, and thus saving energy consumption for ethanol distillation and distillage treatment. However, sustained process oscillation was observed during continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, which significantly affected ethanol fermentation performance of the system. Results Sustained process oscillation was investigated in continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, and stresses exerted on yeast cells by osmotic pressure from unfermented sugars and ethanol inhibition developed within the fermentation system were postulated to be major factors triggering this phenomenon. In this article, steady state was established for continuous ethanol fermentation with LG medium containing 120 g/L glucose, and then 160 g/L non-fermentable xylose was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the osmotic stress on yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, but the fermentation process was still at steady state, indicating that the impact of osmotic stress on yeast cells was not the main reason for the process oscillation. However, when 30 g/L ethanol was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the ethanol inhibition in yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, process oscillation was triggered, which was augmented with extended oscillation period and exaggerated oscillation amplitude as ethanol supplementation was increased to 50 g/L, but the process oscillation was gradually attenuated when the ethanol supplementations were stopped, and the steady state was restored. Furthermore, gas stripping was incorporated into the continuous VHG fermentation system to in situ remove ethanol produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the process oscillation was also attenuated, but restored after the gas stripping was interrupted. Conclusions Experimental results indicated that ethanol inhibition rather than osmotic stress on yeast cells is one of the main factors triggering the process oscillation under the VHG fermentation condition, and in the meantime gas stripping was validated to be an effective strategy for attenuating the process oscillation.

2013-01-01

151

Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.  

PubMed

: The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps. PMID:24983758

Lackland, Daniel T

2014-08-01

152

Rapid fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis by porcine myocardium upon ethanol infusion into the left anterior descending coronary artery.  

PubMed

Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, have been implicated in ethanol-induced heart injury. To assess the in vivo production of FAEEs by myocardial tissue, we used a modified ethanol ablation procedure in pigs. A controlled 60-minute ethanol infusion was administered into the distal left anterior descending coronary artery in seven swine; serial blood sampling of the coronary sinus and peripheral vein before, during, and after infusion allowed measurement of FAEE production and ethanol levels in the coronary sinus and the peripheral circulation. In a single animal, FAEEs were also quantified from nine different sites within the myocardium. FAEEs were produced by the heart within 5 minutes of exposure to ethanol, with very high concentrations of FAEEs detected in coronary sinus blood. Significant variability in amounts of FAEEs was detected in different regions of the heart tissue. A strong correlation was found between coronary sinus FAEEs and ethanol concentration (r = 0.9241, P < 0.00001). FAEE production by the heart after delivery of ethanol into the left anterior descending coronary artery was rapid, reaching levels in the coronary sinus blood 4 to 10 times greater than that found in peripheral blood after ethanol intake. These data demonstrate that FAEEs may be mediators of ethanol-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:16651611

Yoerger, Danita M; Best, Catherine A; McQuillan, Brendan M; Supple, Gregory E; Guererro, J Luis; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E; Hasaba, Ali; Picard, Michael H; Stone, James R; Laposata, Michael

2006-05-01

153

Rapid Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Synthesis by Porcine Myocardium Upon Ethanol Infusion into the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, have been implicated in ethanol-induced heart injury. To assess the in vivo production of FAEEs by myocardial tissue, we used a modified ethanol ablation procedure in pigs. A controlled 60-minute ethanol infusion was administered into the distal left anterior descending coronary artery in seven swine; serial blood sampling of the coronary sinus and peripheral vein before, during, and after infusion allowed measurement of FAEE production and ethanol levels in the coronary sinus and the peripheral circulation. In a single animal, FAEEs were also quantified from nine different sites within the myocardium. FAEEs were produced by the heart within 5 minutes of exposure to ethanol, with very high concentrations of FAEEs detected in coronary sinus blood. Significant variability in amounts of FAEEs was detected in different regions of the heart tissue. A strong correlation was found between coronary sinus FAEEs and ethanol concentration (r = 0.9241, P < 0.00001). FAEE production by the heart after delivery of ethanol into the left anterior descending coronary artery was rapid, reaching levels in the coronary sinus blood 4 to 10 times greater than that found in peripheral blood after ethanol intake. These data demonstrate that FAEEs may be mediators of ethanol-induced cardiotoxicity.

Yoerger, Danita M.; Best, Catherine A.; McQuillan, Brendan M.; Supple, Gregory E.; Guererro, J. Luis; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Hasaba, Ali; Picard, Michael H.; Stone, James R.; Laposata, Michael

2006-01-01

154

Fermentation kinetics of Zymomonas mobilis at high ethanol concentrations: oscillations in continuous cultures  

SciTech Connect

Substrate-limited continuous culture results at 47 g/l ethanol show that the maintenance factor and the yield factor of an unstructured maintenance model are lower compared to the values at 23 g/l ethanol. Computing the results according to a structured two-compartment model predicts an enhanced turnover rate of the K-compartment (RNA fraction) by ethanol, resulting in a lower steady state amount of K-compartment. This is in agreement with experimentally determined RNA fractions. The parameters of both models respond qualitatively in the same way to elevation of the ethanol concentration as to elevation of the temperature. In product-inhibited continuous cultures, at ethanol concentrations above 55 g/l, nearly sustained oscillations in biomass, substrate, and products were observed. The maximum ethanol concentration achieved in these continuous cultures was 70 g/l. The oscillations could be described by a structured mathematical model, in which ethanol inhibits the maximum specific growth rate indirectly by inhibiting the synthesis of an internal growth-rate-determining compound. 23 references.

Joebses, I.M.L.; Egberts, G.T.C.; Luyben, K.C.A.M.; Roels, J.A.

1986-06-01

155

Effects of hydro-ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis on blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluated the differential effects of ethanol extraction of Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) on the blood glucose concentration and pathology of pancreas, liver, lungs, kidney and gastrointestinal tract in the alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 adult female Albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The first group was treated with the extract of C. colocynthis seed (300 mg/kg) and the rats of the second group, as an untreated diabetic group, received ordinary diet. Ten non diabetic rats remained as a normal control group. Results The results of this study indicate that C. colocynthis was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control diabetic group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, alloxan resulted in severe necrotic changes in the pancreatic islets, especially in the central area of the islets. Tissue sections of the pancreas in the treated rats demonstrated enhanced regeneration of B cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Liver of the treated diabetic rats revealed significant improvement of the hepatic tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions The present study indicated a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. colocynthis seed and supported its traditional usage in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Oryan, Ahmad; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Hamidi, Ahmad-Reza; Mohammadalipour, Adel

2014-01-01

156

Ethanol levels in honeybee hemolymph resulting from alcohol ingestion.  

PubMed

Our previous work on a social insect model of ethanol-induced behavior focused on behavioral studies of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). We now investigate the dependence of honeybee blood ethanol concentration on both the amount of ethanol consumed and time elapsed since ingestion. Blood ethanol level was determined using gas chromatograph using hemolymph taken from harnessed bees. Significantly increased levels of ethanol in honeybee hemolymph were detected within 15 min of feeding bees alcohol. Within 30 min, ethanol concentration increased 2.7 times. The concentration of ethanol ingested also had a significant effect on blood ethanol level. However, postfeeding times greater than 30 min did not significantly increase ethanol concentration in bee hemolymph. This study integrates with our behavioral data on the effect of ethanol on honeybees. Our laboratory and field experiments show a correlation between the time frame for behavioral changes and significant increases of blood ethanol levels shown in this study. PMID:17521849

Bozic, Janko; DiCesare, John; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I

2007-06-01

157

High-efficiency volume reduction of cord blood using pentastarch.  

PubMed

Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been used successfully to treat a variety of genetic, hematological, and oncologic disorders. However, the low number of hematopoietic progenitor cells available in donated cord blood samples limits transplantation of cord blood to children and small adults. Reduction of the volume of umbilical cord blood is widely used in cord blood banking to reduce the storage requirements in large-scale UCB banks. Unfortunately, during the volume reduction process, up to 40% or more of the progenitor cells are lost using current reduction methods. This study describes a highly reproducible, double collection technique using Pentaspan to reduce UCB volume by red cell depletion. This results in the preservation of critical hematopoietic progenitor cells. The final volume of the leukocyte concentrates (LC) was 19.8 +/- 0.4 ml with 95% red cell depletion. The recovery of nucleated cells (NC), mononuclear cells (MNC), CD34(+) cells and colony-forming units (CFU) following double collection was 89%, 94%, 96%, and 106%, respectively. This is significantly higher than the recovery from single collections, where recovery was 74%, 77%, 84%, and 91% for NC, MNC, CD34(+) and CFU, respectively. The double collection technique provides an efficient and highly reproducible method for the preparation of UCB for long-term storage and transplantation. PMID:11313677

Yang, H; Acker, J P; Abley, D; McGann, L E; Akabutu, J

2001-02-01

158

"Drinking in the dark" (DID) procedures: a model of binge-like ethanol drinking in non-dependent mice.  

PubMed

This review provides an overview of an animal model of binge-like ethanol drinking that has come to be called "drinking in the dark" (DID), a procedure that promotes high levels of ethanol drinking and pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in ethanol-preferring strains of mice. Originally described by Rhodes, Best, Belknap, Finn, and Crabbe (2005), the most common variation of the DID procedure, using singly housed mice, involves replacing the water bottle with a bottle containing 20% ethanol for 2-4 h, beginning 3 h into the dark cycle. Using this procedure, high ethanol drinking strains of mice (e.g., C57BL/6J) typically consume enough ethanol to achieve BECs greater than 100 mg/dL and to exhibit behavioral evidence of intoxication. This limited access procedure takes advantage of the time in the animal's dark cycle in which the levels of ingestive behaviors are high, yet high ethanol intake does not appear to stem from caloric need. Mice have the choice of drinking or avoiding the ethanol solution, eliminating the stressful conditions that are inherent in other models of binge-like ethanol exposure in which ethanol is administered by the experimenter, and in some cases, potentially painful. The DID procedure is a high throughput approach that does not require extensive training or the inclusion of sweet compounds to motivate high levels of ethanol intake. The high throughput nature of the DID procedure makes it useful for rapid screening of pharmacological targets that are protective against binge-like drinking and for identifying strains of mice that exhibit binge-like drinking behavior. Additionally, the simplicity of DID procedures allows for easy integration into other paradigms, such as prenatal ethanol exposure and adolescent ethanol drinking. It is suggested that the DID model is a useful tool for studying the neurobiology and genetics underlying binge-like ethanol drinking, and may be useful for studying the transition to ethanol dependence. PMID:24275142

Thiele, Todd E; Navarro, Montserrat

2014-05-01

159

Chronic ethanol increases systemic TLR3 agonist-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence links systemic inflammation to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. We previously found that systemic endotoxin, a TLR4 agonist or TNF?, increased blood TNF? that entered the brain activating microglia and persistent neuroinflammation. Further, we found that models of ethanol binge drinking sensitized blood and brain proinflammatory responses. We hypothesized that blood cytokines contribute to the magnitude of neuroinflammation and that ethanol primes proinflammatory responses. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic ethanol on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration triggered by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist poly I:C. Methods Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) was used to induce inflammatory responses when sensitized with D-galactosamine (D-GalN). Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with water or ethanol (5?g/kg/day, i.g., 10?days) or poly I:C (250??g/kg, i.p.) alone or sequentially 24 hours after ethanol exposure. Cytokines, chemokines, microglial morphology, NADPH oxidase (NOX), reactive oxygen species (ROS), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), TLR3 and cell death markers were examined using real-time PCR, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and hydroethidine histochemistry. Results Poly I:C increased blood and brain TNF? that peaked at three hours. Blood levels returned within one day, whereas brain levels remained elevated for at least three days. Escalating blood and brain proinflammatory responses were found with ethanol, poly I:C, and ethanol-poly I:C treatment. Ethanol pretreatment potentiated poly I:C-induced brain TNF? (345%), IL-1? (331%), IL-6 (255%), and MCP-1(190%). Increased levels of brain cytokines coincided with increased microglial activation, NOX gp91phox, superoxide and markers of neurodegeneration (activated caspase-3 and Fluoro-Jade B). Ethanol potentiation of poly I:C was associated with ethanol-increased expression of TLR3 and endogenous agonist HMGB1 in the brain. Minocycline and naltrexone blocked microglial activation and neurodegeneration. Conclusions Chronic ethanol potentiates poly I:C blood and brain proinflammatory responses. Poly I:C neuroinflammation persists after systemic responses subside. Increases in blood TNF?, IL-1?, IL-6, and MCP-1 parallel brain responses consistent with blood cytokines contributing to the magnitude of neuroinflammation. Ethanol potentiation of TLR3 agonist responses is consistent with priming microglia-monocytes and increased NOX, ROS, HMGB1-TLR3 and markers of neurodegeneration. These studies indicate that TLR3 agonists increase blood cytokines that contribute to neurodegeneration and that ethanol binge drinking potentiates these responses.

2012-01-01

160

High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy and Coronary Calcification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable proportion of pregnant women develop high blood pressure in pregnancy. Although it is assumed that this condition subsides after pregnancy, many of these women develop the metabolic syndrome later in life and are at increased risk to develop coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis development is considered in between risk factors and occurrence of vascular symptoms. We set out to

Siamak Sabour; Arie Franx; Annemarieke Rutten; Diederick E. Grobbee; Mathias Prokop; Marie-Louise Bartelink; Yvonne T. van der Schouw; Michiel L. Bots

2010-01-01

161

A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

1985-01-01

162

Effects of particulate materials and osmoprotectants on very-high-gravity ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The effects of osmoprotectants (such as glycine betaine and proline) and particulate materials on the fermentation of very high concentrations of glucose by the brewing strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (uvarum) NCYC 1324 were studied. The yeast growing at 20 degrees C consumed only 15 g of the sugar per 100 ml from a minimal medium which initially contained 35% (wt/vol) glucose. Supplementing the medium with a mixture of glycine betaine, glycine, and proline increased the amount of sugar fermented to 30.5 g/100 ml. With such supplementation, the viability of the yeast cells was maintained above 80% throughout the fermentation, while it dropped to less than 12% in the unsupplemented controls. Among single additives, glycine was more effective than proline or glycine betaine. On incubating the cultures for 10 days, the viability decreased to only 55% with glycine, while it dropped to 36 and 27%, respectively, with glycine betaine and proline. It is suggested that glycine and proline, known to be poor nitrogen sources for growth, may serve directly or indirectly as osmoprotectants. Nutrients such as tryptone, yeast extract, and a mixture of purine and pyrimidine bases increased the sugar uptake and ethanol production but did not allow the population to maintain the high level of cell viability. While only 43% of the sugar was fermented in unsupplemented medium, the presence of particulate materials such as wheat bran, wheat mash insolubles, alumina, and soy flour increased sugar utilization to 68, 75, 81, and 82%, respectively.

Thomas, K C; Hynes, S H; Ingledew, W M

1994-01-01

163

Ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis in continuous culture at high glucose concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ethanol production byZ.mobilis has been studied in continuous culture with 10, 15 and 20% glucose media. At 10% glucose, steady state conditions were achieved under glucose-limited conditions. At 15 and 20% glucose, the glucose was not fully metabolized even at low dilution rates and oscillatory behavior was evident. It is proposed that ethanol inhibition of growth is responsible for

Kye Joon Lee; D. E. Tribe; P. L. Rogers

1979-01-01

164

A Comparison of Methods to Wash Liquid-Stored Red Blood Cells and Red Blood Cells Frozen with High or Low Concentrations of Glycerol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficiency of washing liquid-stored red blood cells and red blood cells frozen with high or low glycerol concentrations was evaluated by measuring the recovery of red blood cells in vitro, supernatant hemoglobin, extracellular potassium and red blood ...

T. J. Contreras C. R. Valeri

1975-01-01

165

Effects of isoflavonoids on blood pressure in subjects with high-normal ambulatory blood pressure levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetarian diets lower blood pressure (BP), but attempts to identify dietary components responsible have been unsuccessful. Isoflavonoids are commonly consumed as part of vegetarian diets. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of isoflavonoid supplementation on BP. Fifty-nine subjects with high-normal range systolic BP completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of two-way parallel design and 8

Jonathan M. Hodgson; Ian B. Puddey; Lawrence J. Beilin; Trevor A. Mori; Valerie Burke; Kevin D. Croft; Penny B. Rogers

1999-01-01

166

Interaction Between High-Fat Diet and Alcohol Dehydrogenase on Ethanol-Elicited Cardiac Depression in Murine Myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Consumption of high-fat diet and alcohol is associated with obesity, leading to enhanced morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to examine the interaction between high-fat diet and the alcohol metabolizing enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced cardiac depression.Research Methods and Procedures: Mechanical and intracellular Ca2+ properties were measured in cardiomyocytes from ADH transgenic and Friend Virus-B type (FVB)

Jun Ren

2007-01-01

167

Synthesis of high purity single-walled carbon nanotubes from ethanol by catalytic gas flow CVD reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly pure single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with their contents >96% of the total products were achieved by chemical vapour deposition gas flow reactions using ethanol as the carbon source. The high purity SWNTs were formed under critically controlled synthesis conditions and by applying a high hydrogen flow, under which the non-catalytic condensation of carbon was completely suppressed. Purification of the products in acid at ambient conditions readily yielded over 99% pure SWNT products, as the only impurities left in the products were iron particles of clean surface. Therefore, the present study demonstrates the full potential of the CVD gas flow reactions in continuous production of high quality SWNTs. Comparable syntheses were conducted using other alcohols in place of ethanol and it was found that high alkyl alcohols like isopropanol and hexanol produced more amorphous carbon while methanol produced no carbon. The high yield growth of SWNTs was attributed greatly to the reaction chemistry of ethanol and the 'right' amount of hydrogen in the system, as discussed.

Li, Ya-Li; Zhang, Liang-Hong; Zhong, Xiao-Hua; Windle, Alan H.

2007-06-01

168

The intrinsic and interactive effects of RO 15-4513 and ethanol on locomotor activity, body temperature, and blood glucose concentration  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the putative ethanol antagonist RO 15-4513 to antagonize ethanol-induced hypoactivity, hypothermia and hyperglycemia was investigated in rats. Although RO 15-4513 produced hypoactivity by itself, it attenuated ethanol-induced hypoactivity. This antagonism suggests that ethanol-induced hypoactivity is mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex which is thought to be the site of action of RO 15-4513. In contrast, although RO 15-4513 produced hypothermia by itself, it had no significant effect on ethanol-induced hypothermia. This suggests that the hypothermic effect of ethanol is not mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex. The fact that RO 15-4513, ethanol and the vehicle all produced hyperglycemia suggests a common stress effect and does not permit any firm conclusions to be drawn as to the interaction between ethanol and RO 15-4513 in modulating glycemic responses. These data indicate that the ethanol antagonism of RO 15-4513 is primarily confined to ethanol's behavioral effects and that ethanol's behavioral and physiological effects are mediated by neurochemically distinct mechanisms.

Wood, A.L.; Healey, P.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Verne, S.L.; Atrens, D.M. (Univ. of Sydney, (Australia))

1989-01-01

169

Long-term ethanol consumption impairs reverse cholesterol transport function of high-density lipoproteins by depleting high-density lipoprotein sphingomyelin both in rats and in humans  

PubMed Central

Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to lower incidence of coronary artery disease due to increased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas heavy drinking has the opposite effect. Because of the crucial role of HDL in reverse cholesterol transport and positive correlation of HDL sphingomyelin (SM) content with cholesterol efflux, we have compared HDL SM content with its reverse cholesterol transport capacity both in rats fed ethanol on long-term basis and alcoholic individuals. In rats, SM HDL content was decreased in the ethanol group (?15.4%, P < .01) with a concomitant efflux decrease (?21.0%, P < .01) compared to that in controls. Similarly, HDL from the ethanol group, when compared with HDL from the control group, exhibited 13.8% (P < .05) less cholesterol uptake with control-group hepatocytes and 35.0% (P < .05) less cholesterol uptake with ethanol-group hepatocytes. Conversely, hepatocytes from the ethanol group, when compared with hepatocytes from the control group, exhibited 31.0% (P < .01) less cholesterol uptake with control-group HDL and 48.0% (P < .01) less with ethanol-group HDL. In humans, SM content in plasma HDL was also decreased in chronically alcoholic individuals without liver disease (?51.5%, P < .01) and in chronically alcoholic individuals with liver disease (?51.3%, P < .01), compared with nondrinkers. Concomitantly, in alcoholic individuals without liver disease, both efflux and uptake were decreased by 83.0% and 54.0% (P < .01), respectively, and in chronically alcoholic individuals with liver disease by 84.0% and 61.0% (P < .01), respectively, compared with nondrinkers. Based on these findings, we conclude that long-term ethanol consumption significantly impairs not only cholesterol efflux function of HDL by decreasing its SM content but also cholesterol uptake by affecting presumably hepatocyte receptors for HDL.

Marmillot, Philippe; Munoz, Jennifer; Patel, Sanket; Garige, Mamatha; Rosse, Richard B.; Lakshman, M. Raj

2007-01-01

170

Reformulated REA ethanol assay evaluated  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reformulated Abbott radiative energy attenuation (REA) assay is an improved method for quantifying ethanol in blood, urine, and serum in clinical specimens. The method gives reproducible and accurate results that compare well with those obtained by GLC and the Du Pont ACA. This reliability has been demonstrated over a wide range of ethanol concentrations.

Cary

2009-01-01

171

Withdrawal severity after chronic intermittent ethanol in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Background To study withdrawal, ethanol is usually administered chronically without interruption. However, interest has recurred in models of episodic exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol leads to a sensitization effect in both withdrawal severity and in ethanol consumption. The goal of the present study was to examine mouse inbred strain differences in withdrawal severity following chronic intermittent exposure using the handling induced convulsion as the behavioral endpoint. We also sought to compare the withdrawal responses of inbred strains across acute, chronic continuous, and chronic intermittent exposure regimens. Methods Male mice from 15 standard inbred strains were exposed to ethanol vapor for 16 hours each day for 3 days and removed to an air chamber during the intervening 8 hours. Mice in the control groups were handled the same, except that they were exposed only to air. Daily blood ethanol concentrations were averaged for each mouse to estimate total dose of ethanol experienced. Results Across strains, mice had an average daily blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of 1.45 ± 0.02 mg/ml and we restricted the range of this value to 1.00 to 2.00 mg/ml. To evaluate strain differences, we divided data into two dose groups based on BEC, Low Dose (1.29 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and High Dose (1.71 ± 0.02 mg/ml). After the third inhalation exposure, ethanol- and air-exposed groups were tested hourly for handling-induced convulsions for 10 hr and at hr 24 and 25. Strains differed markedly in the severity of withdrawal (after subtraction of air control values) in both dose groups. Conclusion The chronic intermittent exposure paradigm is sufficient to elicit differential withdrawal responses across nearly all strains. Data from the High Dose groups correlated well with withdrawal data derived from prior acute (single high dose) and chronic continuous (for 72 hrs) ethanol withdrawal studies, supporting the influence of common genes on all three responses.

Metten, Pamela; Sorensen, Michelle L.; Cameron, Andy Jade; Yu, Chia-Hua; Crabbe, John C.

2010-01-01

172

High Ethanol Titers from Cellulose by Using Metabolically Engineered Thermophilic, Anaerobic Microbes ? † ‡  

PubMed Central

This work describes novel genetic tools for use in Clostridium thermocellum that allow creation of unmarked mutations while using a replicating plasmid. The strategy employed counter-selections developed from the native C. thermocellum hpt gene and the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum tdk gene and was used to delete the genes for both lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). The ?ldh ?pta mutant was evolved for 2,000 h, resulting in a stable strain with 40:1 ethanol selectivity and a 4.2-fold increase in ethanol yield over the wild-type strain. Ethanol production from cellulose was investigated with an engineered coculture of organic acid-deficient engineered strains of both C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Fermentation of 92 g/liter Avicel by this coculture resulted in 38 g/liter ethanol, with acetic and lactic acids below detection limits, in 146 h. These results demonstrate that ethanol production by thermophilic, cellulolytic microbes is amenable to substantial improvement by metabolic engineering.

Argyros, D. Aaron; Tripathi, Shital A.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Feinberg, Lawrence F.; Olson, Daniel G.; Foden, Justine M.; Miller, Bethany B.; Lynd, Lee R.; Hogsett, David A.; Caiazza, Nicky C.

2011-01-01

173

High ethanol titers from cellulose by using metabolically engineered thermophilic, anaerobic microbes.  

PubMed

This work describes novel genetic tools for use in Clostridium thermocellum that allow creation of unmarked mutations while using a replicating plasmid. The strategy employed counter-selections developed from the native C. thermocellum hpt gene and the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum tdk gene and was used to delete the genes for both lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). The ?ldh ?pta mutant was evolved for 2,000 h, resulting in a stable strain with 40:1 ethanol selectivity and a 4.2-fold increase in ethanol yield over the wild-type strain. Ethanol production from cellulose was investigated with an engineered coculture of organic acid-deficient engineered strains of both C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Fermentation of 92 g/liter Avicel by this coculture resulted in 38 g/liter ethanol, with acetic and lactic acids below detection limits, in 146 h. These results demonstrate that ethanol production by thermophilic, cellulolytic microbes is amenable to substantial improvement by metabolic engineering. PMID:21965408

Argyros, D Aaron; Tripathi, Shital A; Barrett, Trisha F; Rogers, Stephen R; Feinberg, Lawrence F; Olson, Daniel G; Foden, Justine M; Miller, Bethany B; Lynd, Lee R; Hogsett, David A; Caiazza, Nicky C

2011-12-01

174

Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of AFEX™-pretreated corn stover for ethanol production using Clostridium phytofermentans at a high solids loading.  

PubMed

Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using Clostridium phytofermentans (ATCC 700394) on ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-treated corn stover (AFEX™-CS) at a low solids loading showed promising results [Jin et al. (2011) Biotechnol Bioeng 108(6): 1290-1297]. However, industrial relevant process requires high solids loading. Therefore, we studied high solids loading CBP performance on AFEX™-CS. The factors potentially affecting the performance including solids loading, CBP products acetate and ethanol, and degradation products resulting from pretreatment were investigated. At 4% (w/w) glucan loading, C. phytofermentans performed well on AFEX™-CS with no nutrients supplementation and reached similar sugar conversions as a fermentation with nutrients supplementation. A glucan conversion of 48.9% and a xylan conversion of 77.9% were achieved after 264 h with 7.0 g/L ethanol and 8.8 g/L acetate produced. Relatively high concentrations of acetate produced at high solids loading was found to be the major factor limiting the CBP performance. Degradation products in AFEX™-CS helped enhance ethanol production. PMID:22359098

Jin, Mingjie; Gunawan, Christa; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

2012-08-01

175

Heavy in utero ethanol exposure is associated with the use of other drugs of abuse in a high-risk population.  

PubMed

Many ethanol dependent women also use other drugs of abuse that may affect pregnancy outcome and long-term child neurodevelopment. This study investigated the association between drugs of abuse and concurrent use of ethanol in pregnancy. A study cohort of neonates with FAEE levels above 2 nmol per gram meconium, indicative of heavy in utero ethanol exposure, was identified (n=114). Meconium and hair analyses for the presence of other drugs of abuse were obtained for some of these neonates and the rates of drug exposure were compared with the rates in a cohort of neonates who were tested negative (FAEE below 2 nmol per gram meconium) for ethanol exposure (n=622). Odds ratios (ORs) for various drugs were calculated with ethanol exposure. A 15.5% positive rate for intrauterine ethanol exposure was detected. A high rate of in utero drug exposure was detected in neonates with and without in utero ethanol exposure, 60.5% versus 62.7% respectively. Neonates with heavy in utero ethanol exposure were almost twice as likely to be exposed to narcotic opiates (OR=1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-3.20) and 3.3 times as likely to be exposed to amphetamine (OR=3.30; 95% CI 1.06-10.27) when compared to neonates with no ethanol exposure. Exposure to cannabinoids predicted less likely exposure to ethanol (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.98) and no significant difference was noted in the exposure to cocaine (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.81-1.91). Neonates suspected of heavy in utero ethanol exposure should be tested for other drugs of abuse and vice versa. Early detection of drug exposures can facilitate early intervention to both the neonate and the mother, thus decreasing the risk of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes for the child, including secondary disabilities associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. PMID:20031369

Shor, Sarit; Nulman, Irena; Kulaga, Vivian; Koren, Gideon

2010-01-01

176

High throughput screening of the propylene and ethanol sensing properties of rare-earth orthoferrites and orthochromites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perovskite-type LnMO3 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu; M=Cr, Fe) oxides were prepared by the polyol mediated synthesis. Thick films of the prepared materials were electrically characterised using high throughput impedance spectroscopy (HT-IS). All samples showed p-type semiconductivity. Ethanol and propylene were used to test the gas sensing behaviour in a temperature range

Maike Siemons; Ulrich Simon

2007-01-01

177

Detection and Control of High Blood Pressure in the Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—At the community level, the effect of national programs in increasing hypertension awareness, prevention, treatment, and control is unclear. This study evaluated the degree of detection and control of high blood pressure in a random population-based sample of Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents $45 years old, of whom 636 subjects among 1245 eligible residents agreed to participate. Home interview and home,and

Irene Meissner; Jack P. Whisnant; Sheldon G. Sheps; Gary L. Schwartz; W. Michael O'Fallon; Jody L. Covalt; JoRean D. Sicks; Kent R. Bailey; David O. Wiebers

178

Numerical model investigation for potential methane explosion and benzene vapor intrusion associated with high-ethanol blend releases.  

PubMed

Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could pose an explosion risk if methane accumulates in a confined space above the ground where ignitable conditions exist. Ethanol-derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel hydrocarbons by stimulating the depletion of oxygen by methanotrophs, and thus inhibiting aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbon vapors. To assess these processes, a three-dimensional numerical vapor intrusion model was used to simulate the degradation, migration, and intrusion pathway of methane and benzene under different site conditions. Simulations show that methane is unlikely to build up to pose an explosion hazard (5% v/v) if diffusion is the only mass transport mechanism through the deeper vadose zone. However, if methanogenic activity near the source zone is sufficiently high to cause advective gas transport, then the methane indoor concentration may exceed the flammable threshold under simulated conditions. During subsurface migration, methane biodegradation could consume soil oxygen that would otherwise be available to support hydrocarbon degradation, and increase the vapor intrusion potential for benzene. Vapor intrusion would also be exacerbated if methanogenic activity results in sufficiently high pressure to cause advective gas transport in the unsaturated zone. Overall, our simulations show that current approaches to manage the vapor intrusion risk for conventional fuel released might need to be modified when dealing with some high ethanol blend fuel (i.e., E20 up to E95) releases. PMID:24354291

Ma, Jie; Luo, Hong; Devaull, George E; Rixey, William G; Alvarez, Pedro J J

2014-01-01

179

Developmental Toxicity of Ethanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of dietary factors in the reproductive/developmental toxicity, blood levels, and pharmacokinetics of ethanol in mice was examined. A fortified liquid diet was developed that resulted in control-level intake of calories and nutrients in both pregn...

P. T. Goad D. E. Hill W. Slikker

1982-01-01

180

Ethanolic extract of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through down-regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds and flavonoids ameliorate bodyweight, blood glucose, and serum lipid profile. Since seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is known as a rich source of isoflavones and flavonoids, we hypothesized that ethanolic extract of seabuckthorn leaves (SL) may have anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects. To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of SL, 32 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups, containing 8 mice in each group: normal diet group; high-fat diet (HD) control group; high-fat diet with SL extract, 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) (SL1) group; and high-fat diet with SL extract, 1000 mg/kg BW (SL2) group. After 13 weeks, it was observed that oral administration of SL extract significantly reduced the energy intake; BW gain; epididymal fat pad weight; hepatic triglyceride, hepatic, and serum total cholesterol levels; and serum leptin levels in the SL groups compared to the HD group. However, differences in serum triglyceride and insulin levels in the SL groups were not significant in comparison to the HD group. The hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 along with PPAR-? were significantly increased in SL groups, whereas the level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was significantly reduced in SL groups compared to HD group. Our results indicated that SL is effective in preventing BW gain and fat accumulation in the liver; it also reduced adipose tissue mass, hepatic lipid profile, and serum leptin level in the mouse. Together, these observations suggest that SL is a potential agent to study in the management of obesity and related disorders. PMID:23176796

Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Moon, Hye-Jung; Park, Jeong-Eun; Moon, Yeon-Jeong; Cha, Youn-Soo

2012-11-01

181

Reduced Blood Clearance and Increased Urinary Excretion of yV-Nitrosodimethylaminein Patas Monkeys Exposed to Ethanol or Isopropyl Alcohol1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low concentrations of W-nitrosodimethylamine are metabolized in rodent and human liver by cytochrome P450IIE1, an activity competi tively inhibitable by ethanol. In rodents coadministration of ethanol with iY-nitrosodimeth>lamine results in increased tumorigenicity in extrahe- patic organs, probably as a result of reduced hepatic clearance. To test this concept in a primate, the effects of ethanol cotreatment on the pharmacokinetics of

Lucy M. Anderson; Raymond Koseniauskas; Eric S. Burak; Thomas J. Moskal; Charles T. Gombar; Jere M. Phillips; Eric B. Sansone; Scott Keimig; Peter N. Magee; Jerry M. Rice

182

High-resolution spectroscopy of induced chiral dimers: A study of the dimers of ethanol by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first recording of the high-resolution spectrum of an induced chiral dimer. Three conformers of the induced chiral dimers of ethanol have been observed using a pulsed molecular-beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The rotational constants of the normal isotopomers of the three species have been determined to be (a) A=5113.826(5), B=1329.7214(4), and C=1257.5151(3) MHz, (b) A=5086.459(5), B=1316.6508(4), and C=1243.6329(4) MHz, and (c) A=4851.608(5), B=1369.7558(6), and C=1243.4184(4) MHz. The observed species have been assigned to calculated structures via Kraitchman double substitution analyses and ab initio calculations. The Kraitchman analyses and the fitted centrifugal distortion parameters suggest that the deuterium bond is significantly stronger than the hydrogen bond in the dimers of ethanol.

Hearn, J. Paul I.; Cobley, Rachel V.; Howard, Brian J.

2005-10-01

183

Corn steep liquor as a cost-effective nutrition adjunct in high-performance Zymomonas ethanol fermentations  

SciTech Connect

The ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has been demonstrated to possess several fermentation performance characteristics that are superior to yeast. In a recent survey conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Zymomonas was selected as the most promising host for improvement by genetic engineering directed to pentose metabolism for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass and wastes. Minimization of costs associated with nutritional supplements and seed production is essential for economic large-scale production of fuel ethanol. Corn steep liquor (CSL) is a byproduct of corn wet-milling and has been used as a fermentation nutrient supplement in several different fermentations. This study employed pH-controlled batch fermenters to compare the growth and fermentation performance of Z. mobilis in glucose media with whole and clarified corn steep liquor as sole nutrient source, and to determine minimal amounts of CSL required to sustain high-performance fermentation. 44 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1997-12-31

184

Facile Synthesis of Highly Active PdAu Nanowire Networks as Self-Supported Electrocatalyst for Ethanol Electrooxidation.  

PubMed

In recent years, direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attracting increasing attention owing to their wide applications. However, a significant challenge in the development of DEFC technology is the urgent need for highly active anode catalysts for the ethanol oxidation reaction. In this work, a facile and reproducible method for the high-yield synthesis of PdAu nanowire networks is demonstrated. The whole synthetic process is very simple, just mixing Na2PdCl4, HAuCl4, and KBr in an aqueous solution and using polyvinylpyrrolidone as a protective reagent while sodium borohydride as a reductant. The whole synthetic process can be simply performed at room temperature and completed in 30 min, which can greatly simplify the synthetic process and lower the preparation cost. Electrochemical catalytic measurement results prove that the as-prepared catalysts exhibit dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution. The facile synthetic process and excellent catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalysts demonstrate that they can be used as a promising catalyst for DEFCs. PMID:24773338

Hong, Wei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

2014-06-25

185

Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... The first (or top) number— “systolic” —is the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart beats. The second (or bottom) number— “diastolic” —is the pressure in your blood vessels between heartbeats. If your blood pressure is normal, ...

186

Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9\\/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9\\/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Women's health study, United States.Participants 39 322 initially healthy women classified into four categories according to self reported baseline blood pressure and followed for a median of 10.2

David Conen; Paul M Ridker; Julie E Buring; Robert J Glynn

2007-01-01

187

Acute Ethanol Effects on Brain Activation in Low- and High-Level Responders to Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Background A low level of response (LR) to alcohol is an important endophenotype associated with an increased risk for alcoholism. However, little is known about how neural functioning may differ between individuals with low and high LRs to alcohol. This study examined whether LR group effects on neural activity varied as a function of acute alcohol consumption. Methods 30 matched high- and low-LR pairs (N=60 healthy young adults) were recruited from the University of California, San Diego and administered a structured diagnostic interview and laboratory alcohol challenge followed by two fMRI sessions under placebo and alcohol conditions, in randomized order. Task performance and BOLD response contrast to high relative to low working memory load in an event-related visual working memory (VWM) task was examined across 120 fMRI sessions. Results Both LR groups performed similarly on the VWM task across conditions. A significant LR group by condition interaction effect was observed in inferior frontal and cingulate regions, such that alcohol attenuated the LR group differences found under placebo (p<.05). The LR group by condition effect remained even after controlling for cerebral blood flow, age, and typical drinking quantity. Conclusions Alcohol had differential effects on brain activation for low and high LR individuals within frontal and cingulate regions. These findings represent an additional step in the search for physiological correlates of a low LR, and identify brain regions that may be associated with the low LR response.

Trim, Ryan S.; Simmons, Alan N.; Tolentino, Neil J.; Hall, Shana A.; Matthews, Scott C.; Robinson, Shannon K.; Smith, Tom L.; Padula, Claudia B.; Paulus, Martin P.; Tapert, Susan F.; Schuckit, Marc A.

2013-01-01

188

Shape Dynamics of Nanobubbles Located on Bunched and Wide Terraces at Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite/Water-Ethanol Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time courses of the nanobubbles were investigated on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface contacting with the air-saturated water-ethanol mixture. On a high step density surface, bubbles were confined within a narrow bunched terrace, and coalesced to form an elliptic bubble. The final volume of the coalesced bubble was larger than that of the sum of the initial individual bubbles. On a wider terrace, the volume of a solitary hemispherical bubble changed stochastically and the larger volume fluctuation accompanied a smaller bubble.

Kameda, Naoki; Nakabayashi, Seiichiro

2008-02-01

189

Ethanol induces human red cell shape transformations and enhanced ligand-mediated agglutinability  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol concentrations are markedly elevated in rat stomach wall when ulcerogenic doses of 100 % ethanol (2 ml for 5 to 10 minutes) are instilled in rat gastric lumen. The authors observed that red cells in gastric mucosal postcapillary venules become spiculated and interadherent under these conditions. The authors have now studied this phenomenon in vitro using washing human red cells. Concentrations of high grade ethanol ranging from 2 to 10% (v/v) in physiological buffered saline (pH 7.3) without Ca/sup + +/ or Mg/sup + +/ at 25/sup 0/C rapidly transformed human red cells into spiculated forms. 2% ethanol transformed human red cells into disco-echinocytes in 15 min. whereas 10% ethanol transformed red blood cells into echinocytes within 3 min. Washing out of ethanol at 1 hour reverted the echinocytes into discocytes. However, following 3 hours of incubation in 10% ethanol washing out of ethanol produced stomatocytes. The ethanol-induced echinocytic shape transformations were accompanied by a dose-related increase in red cell agglutinability with poly-L-lysine or the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin. The enhanced agglutinability was reversed by restoring the red cell shape changes and alterations in surface properties may play a role in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.

Weinstein, R.S.; McLawhon, R.W.; Marikovsky, Y.

1986-03-01

190

High yield conversion of sucrose into ethanol by a flocculent Zymomonas sp isolated from sugarcane juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A flocculentZymomonas sp strain was isolated from fermenting sugarcane juice taking advantage of the motility and ethanol tolerance. The capacity of the new isolate to convert glucose and sucrose into EtOH was investigated. using 200 g\\/l sucrose feed the isolate showed a sucrose uptake and EtOH yield over 3 times higher than those of the test organismZ. mobilis ATCC

Emilio Rodríguez; Danley A. S. Callieri

1986-01-01

191

High effective dehydration of bio-ethanol into ethylene over nanoscale HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale and microscale HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts were prepared and characterized by using SEM, XRD, IR, TPD and modified Hammett indicator method. Their performances in the dehydration of bio-ethanol into ethylene were compared in a fixed-bed reactor at 240°C under atmospheric pressure. The results show that nanoscale HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst exhibits better stability than microscale HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. When the 95(v)

Jiandong Bi; Xinwen Guo; Min Liu; Xiangsheng Wang

2010-01-01

192

A high-performance membrane bioreactor for continuous fermentation of lactose to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Productivity of the fermentation of lactose to ethanol byKluyveromyces fragilis has been significantly improved by coupling a cross-flow membrane module to the primary fermentor in a semi-closed loop configuration. At a cell concentration of 90g\\/L in the bioreactor and inlet lactose concentration of 150g\\/L, productivity was 240gETOH\\/L\\/hr at dilution rate of 6 hr-1. This was 80 times better than

Munir Cheryan; Mohamed A. Mehaia

1983-01-01

193

Fuel ethanol  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

Not Available

1989-02-01

194

Respiratory chain analysis of Zymomonas mobilis mutants producing high levels of ethanol.  

PubMed

We previously isolated respiratory-deficient mutant (RDM) strains of Zymomonas mobilis, which exhibited greater growth and enhanced ethanol production under aerobic conditions. These RDM strains also acquired thermotolerance. Morphologically, the cells of all RDM strains were shorter compared to the wild-type strain. We investigated the respiratory chains of these RDM strains and found that some RDM strains lost NADH dehydrogenase activity, whereas others exhibited reduced cytochrome bd-type ubiquinol oxidase or ubiquinol peroxidase activities. Complementation experiments restored the wild-type phenotype. Some RDM strains seem to have certain mutations other than the corresponding respiratory chain components. RDM strains with deficient NADH dehydrogenase activity displayed the greatest amount of aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that all NADH dehydrogenase-deficient strains were mutated within the ndh gene, which includes insertion, deletion, or frameshift. These results suggested that the loss of NADH dehydrogenase activity permits the acquisition of higher aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance in this industrially important strain. PMID:22660712

Hayashi, Takeshi; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

2012-08-01

195

Respiratory Chain Analysis of Zymomonas mobilis Mutants Producing High Levels of Ethanol  

PubMed Central

We previously isolated respiratory-deficient mutant (RDM) strains of Zymomonas mobilis, which exhibited greater growth and enhanced ethanol production under aerobic conditions. These RDM strains also acquired thermotolerance. Morphologically, the cells of all RDM strains were shorter compared to the wild-type strain. We investigated the respiratory chains of these RDM strains and found that some RDM strains lost NADH dehydrogenase activity, whereas others exhibited reduced cytochrome bd-type ubiquinol oxidase or ubiquinol peroxidase activities. Complementation experiments restored the wild-type phenotype. Some RDM strains seem to have certain mutations other than the corresponding respiratory chain components. RDM strains with deficient NADH dehydrogenase activity displayed the greatest amount of aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that all NADH dehydrogenase-deficient strains were mutated within the ndh gene, which includes insertion, deletion, or frameshift. These results suggested that the loss of NADH dehydrogenase activity permits the acquisition of higher aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance in this industrially important strain.

Kato, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

2012-01-01

196

Continuous high-solids corn liquefaction and fermentation with stripping of ethanol.  

PubMed

Removal of ethanol from the fermentor during fermentation can increase productivity and reduce the costs for dewatering the product and coproduct. One approach is to recycle the fermentor contents through a stripping column, where a non-condensable gas removes ethanol to a condenser. Previous research showed that this approach is feasible. Savings of $0.03 per gallon were predicted at 34% corn dry solids. Greater savings were predicted at higher concentration. Now the feasibility has been demonstrated at over 40% corn dry solids, using a continuous corn liquefaction system. A pilot plant, that continuously fed corn meal at more than one bushel (25 kg) per day, was operated for 60 consecutive days, continuously converting 95% of starch and producing 88% of the maximum theoretical yield of ethanol. A computer simulation was used to analyze the results. The fermentation and stripping systems were not significantly affected when the CO(2) stripping gas was partially replaced by nitrogen or air, potentially lowering costs associated with the gas recycle loop. It was concluded that previous estimates of potential cost savings are still valid. PMID:20153178

Taylor, Frank; Marquez, Marco A; Johnston, David B; Goldberg, Neil M; Hicks, Kevin B

2010-06-01

197

Ionic liquid ethanol sensor.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids containing lithium methylsulfonyl group were prepared from the precursors poly(propylene glycol)-block-(ethylene glycol)-block-(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) with different molecular weight. These liquids revealed excellent electrical conductivity in the temperature range -25 to 85 degrees C. Also, they exhibited a high boiling temperature and hence a low vapor pressure in ambient condition. Additionally, they showed a high fluidity with their viscosities being comparative with that of water. To determine the sensitivity of an ethanol sensor by using these ionic liquids, these liquids were subjected into a sequential electrochemical tests with nickel electrodes which performed a high sensitivity for the ethanol sensor. It was found that only the derivative with low molecular weight could detect ethanol. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the response current and the concentration of ethanol was constructed. The detection limit was found to be 0.13% (v/v) and its response time was 336 s. PMID:15142574

Lee, Yuan Gee; Chou, Tse-Chuan

2004-07-30

198

ETHANOL INDUCES HIGHER BEC IN CB1 CANNABINOID RECEPTOR KNOCKOUT MICE WHILE DECREASING ETHANOL PREFERENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract — Aims: Previous studies have shown that CB1 cannabinoid receptors are involved in the behavioural effects induced by chronic ethanol administration in Wistar rats by using SR 141716, a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist. These studies have now been extended to investigate the effect of acute and chronic alcoholization on blood ethanol concentration (BEC) and ethanol preference in CB1 knockout

F. LALLEMAND; P. De Witte

2004-01-01

199

Methodological modifications on quantification of phosphatidylethanol in blood from humans abusing alcohol, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection  

PubMed Central

Background Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an abnormal phospholipid formed slowly in cell membranes by a transphosphatidylation reaction from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol and catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D. PEth in blood is a promising new marker of ethanol abuse depending on the high specificity and sensitivity of this marker. None of the biological markers used in clinical routine at the present time are sensitive and specific enough for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse. The method for PEth analysis includes lipid extraction of whole blood, a one-hour HPLC separation of lipids and ELSD (evaporative light scattering) detection of PEth. Results Methodological improvements are presented which comprise a simpler extraction procedure, the use of phosphatidylbutanol as internal standard and a new algorithm for evaluation of unknown samples. It is further demonstrated that equal test results are obtained with blood collected in standard test tubes with EDTA as with the previously used heparinized test tubes. The PEth content in blood samples is stable for three weeks in the refrigerator. Conclusion Methodological changes make the method more suitable for routine laboratory use, lower the limit of quantification (LOQ) and improve precision.

Aradottir, Steina; Olsson, Bo L

2005-01-01

200

Change of blood viscosity and urinary frequency by high water intake.  

PubMed

Physicians recommend a high water intake to prevent cerebral infarction by decreasing blood viscosity. However, there is no evidence that high water intake decreases viscosity, although it increases urinary frequency. Therefore, we investigated the change of blood viscosity and urinary frequency by high water intake. We examined the change of blood viscosity after acute water intake, the circadian rhythm of blood viscosity, and the change of early morning blood viscosity and urinary frequency after high water intake for 1 week in healthy volunteers aged 31-75 years. Blood viscosity decreased transiently by acute water intake, but remained within the range of its circadian rhythm. Morning blood viscosity did not alter by high water intake for 1 week, although urinary frequency increased. Because excessive water intake increases urinary frequency without decreasing blood viscosity, a high water intake should not be recommended in persons with urinary frequency. PMID:17511740

Sugaya, Kimio; Nishijima, Saori; Oda, Masami; Miyazato, Minoru; Ogawa, Yoshihide

2007-05-01

201

CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF HIGH CHOLESTEROL LEVELS, HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, AND CIGARETTE SMOKING ON CAROTID STENOSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BSTRACT Background Single measurements of cardiovas- cular risk factors may not accurately reflect a person's past exposure to those risk factors. We therefore stud- ied the long-term associations of cardiovascular risk factors such as high serum cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and cigarette smoking with the prev- alence of carotid stenosis. Methods We studied cross-sectional and longitu- dinal information

P ETER W. F. W ILSON; J EFFREY; M. H OEG; R ALPH B. D'A GOSTINO; H ALIT S ILBERSHATZ; A LBERT; M. B ELANGER; H AROLD P OEHLMANN; D ANIEL O'L EARY; P HILIP A. W OLF

2010-01-01

202

Was a child poisoned by ethanol? Discrimination between ante-mortem consumption and post-mortem formation.  

PubMed

The presence of ethanol in human specimens collected during autopsies is generally considered as an indication of recent ante-mortem alcohol consumption. The interpretation of the results may however be impaired by post-mortem formation of ethanol when microorganisms capable of fermentation of glucose to ethanol are present. Since the distribution in the different fluids and tissues remains contentious to conclude on the origin of the detected ethanol, the determination of specific metabolites of ethanol such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) may be performed to discriminate between exogenous (ante-mortem) and endogenous (post-mortem). Toxicological analysis of specimens from the autopsy of a child aged 14 months displayed a high concentration of ethanol in blood and tissues. In order to discriminate between ante-mortem alcohol administration and post-mortem formation, the presence of microorganisms capable of ethanol production was checked by fermentation tests and the liver was tested for the presence of EtG and compared with a positive control. Fermentation tests displayed in the blood of the deceased the presence of the bacterial strain Lactococcus garvieae capable of producing ethanol from glucose. The absence of EtG in the liver of the deceased compared to the high level (19.56 mug/g) detected in the positive control's liver is a further indication that the ethanol detected in the body of the deceased is of post-mortem origin. PMID:18594851

Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schuman, Marc; Wennig, Robert

2008-09-01

203

REGULATION OF OPERANT ORAL ETHANOL SELF-ADMINISTRATION: A DOSE-RESPONSE CURVE STUDY IN RATS  

PubMed Central

Background Oral ethanol self-administration procedures in rats are useful pre-clinical tools for the evaluation of potential new pharmacotherapies as well as for the investigation of the etiology of alcohol abuse disorders and addiction. Determination of the effects of a potential treatment on a full ethanol dose-response curve should be essential to predict its clinical efficacy. Unfortunately, this approach has not been fully explored due to the aversive taste reaction to moderate to high doses of ethanol, which may interfere with consumption. In the present study, we set out to determine whether a meaningful dose-response curve for oral ethanol self-administration can be obtained in rats. Methods Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer a 20% ethanol solution in an operant procedure following a history of excessive voluntary ethanol intake. After stabilization of ethanol self-administration the concentration of the solution was varied from 2.5 to 60% (v/v) and operant and drinking behaviors as well as blood ethanol concentration (BEC) were evaluated following the self-administration of a 20, 40 and 60% ethanol solution. Results Varying the concentration of ethanol from 2.5% to 60% after development of excessive ethanol consumption led to a typical inverted U-shape dose-response curve. Importantly, rats adapted their level and pattern of responding to changes in ethanol concentration to obtain a constant level of intake and BEC, suggesting that their operant behavior is mainly driven by the motivation to obtain a specific pharmacological effect of ethanol. Conclusion This procedure can be a useful and straightforward tool for the evaluation of the effects of new potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol abuse disorders.

Carnicella, Sebastien; Yowell, Quinn V.; Ron, Dorit

2010-01-01

204

Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

205

Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

Derr, Dan

2013-12-30

206

Alcohol Effects on Cerebral Blood Flow in Subjects with Low and High Responses to Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Background Although there are multiple indications that alcohol can alter many physiological brain functions, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), studies of the latter have generally used small or modest sized samples. Few investigations have yet evaluated how CBF changes after alcohol relate to subsets of subjects with elevated alcoholism risks, such as those with lower levels of response (LR) to alcohol. This study used arterial spin labeling (ASL) after alcohol administration to evaluate a large sample of healthy young men and women with low and high alcohol responses, and, thus, varying risks for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods Healthy young adult social drinkers with low and high LR (N=88, 50% female) matched on demography and drinking histories were imaged with whole brain resting ASL ~1 hour after ingesting ~3 drinks of ethanol and after a placebo beverage (i.e., 178 ASL sessions). The relationships of CBF changes from placebo to alcohol for subjects with low and high LR were evaluated. Results CBF increased after alcohol as compared to placebo in five frontal brain regions. Despite identical BACs, these increases with alcohol were less prominent in individuals who required more drinks to experience alcohol-related effects (i.e., had a lower LR to alcohol). The LR group differences remained significant after covarying for recent drinking quantities. Conclusions The results confirm that alcohol intake is associated with acute increases in CBF, particularly in frontal regions. Less intense CBF changes were seen in subjects with a genetically influenced characteristic, a low LR to alcohol, that relates to the future risk of heavy drinking and alcohol problems.

Tolentino, Neil J.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Hall, Shana; Tapert, Susan F.; Paulus, Martin P.; Liu, Thomas T.; Smith, Tom L.; Schuckit, Marc A.

2011-01-01

207

A cascade mode magnetophoretic microseparator for high efficiency blood cell separations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a high efficiency blood cell separator based on a cascade design of the continuous paramagnetic capture mode magnetophoretic microseparator. The PMC cascade microseparator directly separates blood cells from whole blood based on their native magnetic properties using a high gradient magnetic field without the use of additives such as magnetic tagging

Ki-Ho Han; A. Bruno Frazier

2005-01-01

208

After-effects of a high altitude expedition on blood.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate blood alterations caused by altitude acclimatization which last more than few days after return and might play a role for exercise performance at sea level. Measurements were performed in 12 mountaineers before, during and either 7/8 or 11/12 days after a Himalaya expedition (26-29 days at 4900 to 7600 m altitude). [Erythropoietin] rose only temporarily at altitude (max. +11 +/- 1 [SE] mu/ml serum). After return hemoglobin mass (initially 881 +/- 44 g, CO-Hb method) was increased by 14% (p < 0.01); aspartate aminotransferase activity in erythrocytes (initially 682 +/- 25 U/l) was augmented (day 7: +964 +/- 152 U/l, day 11: +533 +/- 107 U/l) indicating reduced mean cell age. Calculated blood volume (+14%) was influenced by red cell formation at altitude but also by plasma expansion at sea level. The half saturation pressure for Hb-O2 (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C) as well as the 2.3-diphosphoglycerate concentration were already initially high (32.1 +/- 0.5 mmHg, 20.5 +/- 0.7 mumol/g Hb) and showed only a nonsignificant tendency to increase after return. Also Hill's n was consistently high in the mountaineers, whereas the Bohr coefficients were slightly increased only after descent. Probably the preparatory physical training, partly in the Alps, and the stay in the Himalaya influenced O2-affinity for a prolonged time. The adaptations might reduce the loss of physical performance capacity at altitude and be part of altitude training effects. PMID:9187971

Böning, D; Maassen, N; Jochum, F; Steinacker, J; Halder, A; Thomas, A; Schmidt, W; Noé, G; Kubanek, B

1997-04-01

209

[Production of ethanol by fermentation with a high concentration of yeasts. Its application in already installed distilleries].  

PubMed

Due to the dramatic increase in international oil prices, the ethanol production by fermentation is presently becoming an attractive and feasible project for many countries Argentina has implemented an experimental national program of ethanol use as fuel and the standard procedure of Melle-Boinot is currently employed in sugar cane molasses fermentation. The aim of this work was to improve the overall efficiency of the batch process by recycling high levels of yeast biomass. It was observed that the volumetric productivity increased with biomass concentration, whereas the specific productivity decreased. Both variations were not linear (Fig. 1). It was difficult to keep a yeast concentration higher than 3 x 10(8) cell/ml during batch fermentation assays. Anyhow the periodic subculturing of yeast biomass (every 13 recycling periods) proved to be an effective method to obtain a high cell density in the fermentation medium (Fig. 2). The industrial application of data reported here would not imply additional investment or equipment to distilleries using standard fermentation procedures. PMID:3685382

Navarro, A R; Marangoni, H R; de Cabada, A; Callieri, D A

1986-01-01

210

Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... lipoprotein profile test will also measure levels of triglycerides, another fatty substance in the blood. (See "What Are Triglycerides?" .) * Cholesterol levels are measured in milligrams (mg) of ...

211

High-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the ethanol oxidation reaction on Pd(110)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption, decomposition, and oxidation of ethanol on Pd(110) has been studied using high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed XPS. The decomposition pathways of ethanol on the clean surface (to methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide; and to methane, hydrogen, and carbon and oxygen adatoms) previously studied using molecular beam and thermal desorption spectroscopy were confirmed by this study. The presence of an overlayer of oxygen did not significantly alter the major or minor decomposition pathways observed on the clean surface, except for the production of water and, at temperatures above 380 K, carbon dioxide as oxidation products. It also resulted in the formation of acetate, which was first seen during temperature-programmed desorption as coincident carbon dioxide and hydrogen desorption, and was confirmed by XPS. Two C 1s peaks, one assigned to the methyl carbon in acetate and the other to the carboxylate carbon, developed simultaneously during TPXPS. The disappearance of these peaks in XPS occurred at a similar temperature (400 K) to that seen during temperature-programmed desorption.

Holroyd, R. P.; Bennett, R. A.; Jones, I. Z.; Bowker, M.

1999-05-01

212

Probing Red Blood Cell Morphology Using High-Frequency Photoacoustics  

PubMed Central

A method that can rapidly quantify variations in the morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs) using light and sound is presented. When irradiated with a laser pulse, an RBC absorbs the optical energy and emits an ultrasonic pressure wave called a photoacoustic wave. The power spectrum of the resulting photoacoustic wave contains distinctive features that can be used to identify the RBC size and morphology. When particles 5–10 ?m in diameter (such as RBCs) are probed with high-frequency photoacoustics, unique periodically varying minima and maxima occur throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum at frequencies >100 MHz. The location and distance between spectral minima scale with the size and morphology of the RBC; these shifts can be used to quantify small changes in the morphology of RBCs. Morphological deviations from the normal biconcave RBC shape are commonly associated with disease or infection. Using a single wide-bandwidth transducer sensitive to frequencies between 100 and 500 MHz, we were able to differentiate healthy RBCs from irregularly shaped RBCs (such as echinocytes, spherocytes, and swollen RBCs) with high confidence using a sample size of just 21 RBCs. As each measurement takes only seconds, these methods could eventually be translated to an automated device for rapid characterization of RBC morphology and deployed in a clinical setting to help diagnose RBC pathology.

Strohm, Eric M.; Berndl, Elizabeth S.L.; Kolios, Michael C.

2013-01-01

213

Probing red blood cell morphology using high-frequency photoacoustics.  

PubMed

A method that can rapidly quantify variations in the morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs) using light and sound is presented. When irradiated with a laser pulse, an RBC absorbs the optical energy and emits an ultrasonic pressure wave called a photoacoustic wave. The power spectrum of the resulting photoacoustic wave contains distinctive features that can be used to identify the RBC size and morphology. When particles 5-10 ?m in diameter (such as RBCs) are probed with high-frequency photoacoustics, unique periodically varying minima and maxima occur throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum at frequencies >100 MHz. The location and distance between spectral minima scale with the size and morphology of the RBC; these shifts can be used to quantify small changes in the morphology of RBCs. Morphological deviations from the normal biconcave RBC shape are commonly associated with disease or infection. Using a single wide-bandwidth transducer sensitive to frequencies between 100 and 500 MHz, we were able to differentiate healthy RBCs from irregularly shaped RBCs (such as echinocytes, spherocytes, and swollen RBCs) with high confidence using a sample size of just 21 RBCs. As each measurement takes only seconds, these methods could eventually be translated to an automated device for rapid characterization of RBC morphology and deployed in a clinical setting to help diagnose RBC pathology. PMID:23823224

Strohm, Eric M; Berndl, Elizabeth S L; Kolios, Michael C

2013-07-01

214

Upregulation of cardiac NOS due to endotoxemia and vagal overactivity contribute to the hypotensive effect of chronic ethanol in female rats  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that chronic ethanol lowers blood pressure in female rats. In this study, hemodynamic, biochemical, and immunoblot analyses were performed to investigate: (i) the roles of cardiac contractility and autonomic activity in the hypotensive action of ethanol, and (ii) whether endotoxemia-induced upregulation of cardiac and/or vascular nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms underlies the hypotensive and cardiac effects of ethanol. Telemetric monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, and myocardial contractility (dP/dtmax) was performed in female rats receiving liquid diet with or without ethanol (5% w/v, 13 weeks). Autonomic control was assessed by frequency domain analysis of interbeat intervals (IBI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Compared with pair-fed controls, ethanol caused sustained reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and +dP/dtmax. Ethanol feeding increased the spectral power of high-frequency band (IBIHF, 0.75–3 Hz) and decreased the low-frequency band (IBILF, 0.25–0.75 Hz) and IBILF/HF ratio, suggesting increased cardiac parasympathetic dominance. In contrast, vascular tone was not affected by ethanol because SBP spectral bands and plasma norepinephrine remained unchanged. Myocardial expressions of eNOS and its upstream regulators, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K) and Akt, and plasma endotoxin and nitrite/nitrate were increased by ethanol. Myocardial iNOS was also increased by ethanol whereas nNOS remained unchanged and aortic levels of all NOS isoforms were not altered by ethanol. These findings suggest that facilitation of myocardial PI3K/Akt/eNOS and iNOS pathways, due possibly to ethanol-induced endotoxemia and/or increased cardiac parasympathetic dominance, might constitute a cellular mechanism for the reduced myocardial contractility and hypotension caused by ethanol in female rats.

El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; Fan, Ming; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.

2010-01-01

215

Effect of thymoquinone on ethanol and high fat diet induced chronic pancreatitis--a dose response study in rats.  

PubMed

A significant increase in serum lipase, amylase, capase-1 and myeloperoxidase activities, oxidative stress index (OSI), IL-1beta and IL-18 was observed in rats receiving ethanol (EtOH) and high fat diet (HFD). Thymoquinone (TQ) supplementation along with EtOH and HFD significantly decreased the levels of serum lipase, amylase, capase-1, myeloperoxidase, OSI and maintained the antioxidant status when compared to untreated EtOH and HFD fed rats. Among the 4 doses, 100 mg of TQ/kg body weight was found to provide optimum protective effect on pancreas against EtOH and HFD induced abnormal changes. Histological observations added more evidence for the anti-inflammatory effect of TQ. PMID:24195349

Suguna, Periyanayagam; Geetha, Arumugam; Aruna, Ravikumar; Siva, Ganesan Vijaiyan

2013-04-01

216

Direct evidence of induction of interdigitated gel structure in large unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine by ethanol: studies by excimer method and high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy.  

PubMed Central

Interaction of large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) with ethanol was investigated by the excimer method developed by Yamazaki et al. (Yamazaki, M., M. Miyazu, and T. Asano. 1992. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1106:94-98) and the high-resolution electron cryomicroscope with a new cryostage (top-entry superfluid stage) (HiRECM) developed by Fujiyoshi, Y. et al. (Fujiyoshi, Y., T. Mizusaki, K. Morikawa, H. Aoki, H. Kihara, and Y. Harada. 1991. Ultramicroscopy. 38:241-251). The excimer method is based on the fact that the ratio of excimer to monomer fluorescence intensity (E/M) of pyrene PC is lowered in the membrane in the interdigitated gel structure (L beta I), because structural restriction of L beta I structure largely decreases collisions of pyrene rings of the pyrene PCs in the membrane. E/M of pyrene PC in DPPC LUV decreased largely at high concentrations of ethanol, which indicated the induction of L beta I structures in DPPC LUV. Frozen-hydrated DPPC LUVs in a vitreous ice were observed at 4K with HiRECM, and these images were characterized by a pair of concentric circles. The membrane thickness of DPPC LUV which was estimated from the distance between the two concentric lines decreased largely at high concentration of ethanol. The mean value of membrane thickness of the LUV in the absence of ethanol was 3.8 nm, while at 15% (w/v) ethanol was 3.0 nm. These values were almost same as those obtained from the electron density profile of DPPC MLV by the x-ray diffraction analysis in each structures, L beta' and L beta I structures, respectively. These results indicated directly the induction of L beta 1 structure in DPPC LUV at high concentration of ethanol. Images FIGURE 2

Yamazaki, M.; Miyazu, M.; Asano, T.; Yuba, A.; Kume, N.

1994-01-01

217

Recommendations on screening for high blood pressure in Canadian adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To provide recommendations on screening for hypertension in adults aged 18 years and older without previously diagnosed hypertension. Quality of evidence Evidence was found through a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (EBM Reviews), from January 1985 to September 2011. Study types were limited to randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and observational studies with control groups. Main message Three strong recommendations were made based on moderate-quality evidence. It is recommended that blood pressure measurement occur at all appropriate primary care visits, according to the current techniques described in the Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for office and ambulatory blood pressure measurement. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program criteria for assessment and diagnosis of hypertension should be applied for people found to have elevated blood pressure. Conclusion After review of the most recent evidence, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care continues to recommend blood pressure measurement during regular physician visits.

Lindsay, Patrice; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Joffres, Michel; Birtwhistle, Richard; McKay, Donald; Cloutier, Lyne

2013-01-01

218

Acute and chronic ethanol on hepatic oxygen ethanol and lactate metabolism in cats.  

PubMed

The effects of increasing blood ethanol levels on hepatic hemodynamics and O2, ethanol, and lactate metabolism were studied in two groups of anesthetized cats: a control group and a group whose prior fluid intake contained 2, 4, then 8% ethanol for 24 days. Within each group, responses were compared in cats with acutely denervated and innervated livers. A hepatic venous long-circuit technique with an extracorporeal reservoir was used to allow hemodynamic measurements and repeated sampling of arterial, portal, and hepatic venous blood without depletion of the cats' blood volume. Vmax for ethanol was 105 +/- 9 and 91 +/- 6 mumol.min-1 g liver-1 and Km was 136 +/- 18 and 168 +/- 24 microM for control and chronic alcohol groups, respectively. There was no stimulation of ethanol metabolism after chronic administration. O2 uptake by the liver was not altered during acute ethanol administration in any group and base-line O2 uptakes before acute administration of ethanol were not different between normal and chronic ethanol groups. No evidence for a hypermetabolic state induced by chronic ethanol administration was seen in innervated or acutely denervated livers. Oxidation of ethanol required 40-45% of normal O2 uptake; thus other oxidative processes must have been suppressed during ethanol metabolism. Hepatic lactate uptake remained unaltered when ethanol metabolism was less than 0.5 Vmax, but was suppressed on an equimolar basis with ethanol metabolism when ethanol metabolism rose to greater than 0.5 Vmax. Thus lactate metabolism is one process that can be suppressed to allow ethanol metabolism without additional O2 uptake by the liver. PMID:2316655

Greenway, C V; Lautt, W W

1990-03-01

219

Fitness May Help Older Men with High Blood Pressure Live Longer  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Fitness May Help Older Men With High Blood Pressure Live Longer Seniors with high fitness levels had ... 12, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Exercise for Seniors High Blood Pressure Men's Health MONDAY, May 12, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

220

Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different degrees of ethanol tolerance exhibit different adaptive responses to produced ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different degrees of ethanol tolerance adapted differently to produced ethanol. Adaptation in the less ethanol-tolerant\\u000a strain was high and resulted in a reduced formation of ethanol-induced respiratory deficient mutants and an increased ergosterol\\u000a content of the cells. Adaptation in the more ethanol-tolerant strain was less pronounced. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology (2000) 24, 75–78.

Z Chi; N Arneborg

2000-01-01

221

Ethanol-metabolizing pathways in deermice. Estimation of flux calculated from isotope effects  

SciTech Connect

The apparent deuterium isotope effects on Vmax/Km (D(V/K) of ethanol oxidation in two deermouse strains (one having and one lacking hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were used to calculate flux through the ADH, microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), and catalase pathways. In vitro, D(V/K) values were 3.22 for ADH, 1.13 for MEOS, and 1.83 for catalase under physiological conditions of pH, temperature, and ionic strength. In vivo, in deermice lacking ADH (ADH-), D(V/K) was 1.20 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.) at 7.0 +/- 0.5 mM blood ethanol and 1.08 +/- 0.10 at 57.8 +/- 10.2 mM blood ethanol, consistent with ethanol oxidation principally by MEOS. Pretreatment of ADH- animals with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole did not significantly change D(V/K). ADH+ deermice exhibited D(V/K) values of 1.87 +/- 0.06 (untreated), 1.71 +/- 0.13 (pretreated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), and 1.24 +/- 0.13 (after the ADH inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole) at 5-7 mM blood ethanol levels. At elevated blood ethanol concentrations (58.1 +/- 2.4 mM), a D(V/K) of 1.37 +/- 0.21 was measured in the ADH+ strain. For measured D(V/K) values to accurately reflect pathway contributions, initial reaction conditions are essential. These were shown to exist by the following criteria: negligible fractional conversion of substrate to product and no measurable back reaction in deermice having a reversible enzyme (ADH). Thus, calculations from D(V/K) indicate that, even when ADH is present, non-ADH pathways (mostly MEOS) participate significantly in ethanol metabolism at all concentrations tested and play a major role at high levels.

Alderman, J.; Takagi, T.; Lieber, C.S.

1987-06-05

222

Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Dichrostachys Cinerea W and Arn leaves by a thin layer chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background: The leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea are used as laxative, diuretic, painkiller. It is also used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, boils, oedema, gout, veneral diseases and nasopharyngeal affections, etc. Materials and Methods: The Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves were performed by standard chemical tests, thin layer chromatography (TLC) by using various solvent systems, and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC). Two compounds were isolated by column chromatography and one of the compounds was identified by various spectral studies. Result: Preliminary phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaves showed the presence of Carbohydrates, proteins, Glycosides, Saponins, Tannins, Aminoacids and Terpenoids. The TLC and HPTLC fingerprint of ethanolic extract were studied and various fractions were isolated by column chromatography and one of the fraction contain ?-amyrin glucoside which was confirmed by Infra Red[IR] Spectroscopy, 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), C-13 NMR and Mass spectroscopic (MS) studies.

Vijayalakshmi, M.; Periyanayagam, K.; Kavitha, K.; Akilandeshwari, K.

2013-01-01

223

Chiral separation and determination of propranolol enantiomers in rat or mouse blood and tissue by column switching high performance liquid chromatography with ovomucoid bonded stationary phase.  

PubMed

Resolution of propranolol (PL) enantiomers in biological samples was accomplished by column switching high performance liquid chromatography using a short precolumn and an analytical column of ovomucoid chiral phase. Plasma, whole blood or tissue homogenate sample was directly injected into the precolumn, and PL was adsorbed on Butyl Toyopearl 650-M. After column switching, the PL was backflushed and transferred to the analytical column (Ultron ES-OVM) by the eluant. Fluorometric detection was carried out at lambda ex = 297 nm and lambda em = 340 nm with a detection limit of 0.5 pmol (signal to noise ratio = 2). The recovery (98.8-103%), reproducibility (coefficient of variance less than 3%) and enantiomer resolution (separation factor 1.15) were satisfactory using as eluant 50 mM sodium dihydrogenphosphate (pH 4.6) containing 12% ethanol. The time course of elimination of PL enantiomers in rat or mouse blood and tissues was also studied. PMID:2207377

Tamai, G; Edani, M; Imai, H

1990-07-01

224

Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions in growing pigs.  

PubMed

A total of 105 growing pigs (24.91?±?1.06?kg) were used in a 6-week trial to investigate the effects of including Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract (SPE) in the diet on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions. Pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (seven pens/treatment, five pigs/pen) according to initial body weight and sex (two gilts and three barrows). Treatments consisted of a corn soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SPE. There was a significant linear improvement (P?blood lymphocyte percentage, immunoglobulin G concentration, fecal Escherichia?coli and Lactobacillus counts as well as fecal NH3 and H2 S emissions associated with the inclusion of SPE in the diet. Average daily feed intake, red blood cells and white blood cells concentration were not significantly (P?>?0.05) affected by SPE supplementation in the diets. In conclusion, results indicate that dietary SPE supplementation can improve growth performance, digestibility and fecal microbiota, and decrease fecal gas emissions in growing pigs. PMID:24725201

Li, Jian; Kim, In H

2014-06-01

225

Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation of High Dry Matter Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw at Low Enzyme Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O2 as oxidizing agent was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high viscosity of the material, higher inhibition of the enzymes, and fermenting microorganism. The wet-explosion pretreatment method enabled relatively high yields from both enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to be obtained when performed on unwashed slurry with 14% DM and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%.

Georgieva, Tania I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte K.

226

Lack of blood pressure effect with calcium and magnesium supplementation in adults with high-normal blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) was a randomized, multicenter investigation that included double-blind, placebo-controlled testing of calcium and magnesium supplementation among 698 healthy adults (10.5% blacks and 31% women) aged 30 to 54 years with high-normal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (80 to 89 mm Hg). Very high compliance (94 to 96% by pill counts) with daily

Monica E. Yamamoto; William B. Applegate; Michael J. Klag; Nemat O. Borhani; Jerome D. Cohen; Kent A. Kirchner; Edward Lakatos; Frank M. Sacks; James O. Taylor; Charles H. Hennekens

1995-01-01

227

High blood lead levels in recreational indoor-shooters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Recreational shooting in indoor firing ranges is very popular in Germany. Lead-containing ammunition is still in use. Therefore\\u000a we checked the blood lead levels (BLL) from 129 subjects doing several types of shooting disciplines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In total, BLLs of 129 shooters (nine female) from 11 different shooting ranges with a mean age of 49 years were measured.\\u000a The blood samples were taken

Matthias Demmeler; Dennis Nowak; Rudolf Schierl

2009-01-01

228

[Impact of fermentation system initial status on oscillations in very high gravity ethanol continuous fermentation process and analysis of fermentation efficiency improvement].  

PubMed

Prior research reported the oscillatory behavior characterized by long period and high amplitude during high gravity continuous ethanol fermentations at the dilution rate of 0.027 h(-1). In this paper, high gravity continuous ethanol fermentations using Saccharomyces cerevisia at different dilution rates were carried out. Similar oscillations were observed when the dilution rate was switched to 0.04 h(-1). Both oscillatory and steady processes can be achieved at dilution rates of 0.027 or 0.04 h(-1), which depends on the initial status of the fermentation system. However, compared to steady process at the same dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1), the average residual sugar concentration was lowered by 14.8% for the oscillatory process, while the average ethanol concentration and productivity were increased by 12.6% and 12.3%, respectively. Further investigation revealed that besides the lag time, oscillatory processes were different from steady ones in kinetics because a higher specific growth rate can be achieved at the same residual sugar and ethanol concentrations (increased by 53.8% in average). PMID:20684303

Shen, Yu; Ge, Xumeng; Bai, Fengwu

2010-05-01

229

Oral contraceptive administration aggravates nitric oxide synthesis inhibition-induced high blood pressure in female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of estrogen–progestogen oral contraceptive (OC) is associated with high blood pressure, although mechanisms responsible are still unclear. This study sought to investigate the effects of administration of OC on high blood pressure resulting from nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition in female Sprague–Dawley rats. Rats were given ethinyl estradiol in combination with norgestrel and were treated with NO synthase

L. A. Olatunji; A. O. Soladoye

2008-01-01

230

Progestogen-only pills and high blood pressure: is there an association?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progestogen-only pill (POP) is a contraceptive option for women who have high blood pressure either induced by use of combined oral pills or due to other causes; as long as it is well controlled and monitored. Combined oral contraception (COC) and Depo-Provera have been implicated in increased cardiovascular risk following use. High blood pressure has been theorized to be

Sabina F. Hussain

2004-01-01

231

Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. METHODS: Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national

Fikru Tesfaye; Peter Byass; Stig Wall

2009-01-01

232

Employment status and high blood pressure in women: Variations by time and by sociodemographic characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The association between employment status and high blood pressure in women was examined at two time periods to determine if associations between employment status and high blood pressure varied by time period or by age, race, education, marital status, or parental status.METHODS: Women participants from the National Health Examination Survey (1960) and the Second National Health and Nutrition Survey

Kathryn M. Rose; Beth Newman; Trude Bennett; Herman A. Tyroler

1997-01-01

233

Syk inhibitors with high potency in presence of blood.  

PubMed

We describe two series of Syk inhibitors which potently abrogate Syk kinase function in enzymatic assays, cellular assays and in primary cells in the presence of blood. Introduction of a 7-aminoindole substituent led to derivatives with good kinase selectivity and little or no hERG channel inhibition (3b, 10c). PMID:24726806

Thoma, Gebhard; Blanz, Joachim; Bühlmayer, Peter; Drückes, Peter; Kittelmann, Matthias; Smith, Alexander B; van Eis, Maurice; Vangrevelinghe, Eric; Zerwes, Hans-Günter; Che, Jianwei John; He, Xiaohui; Jin, Yunho; Lee, Christian C; Michellys, Pierre-Yves; Uno, Tetsuo; Liu, Hong

2014-05-15

234

Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... the “systolic” pressure. • The second number is the pressure when the vessels relax between heartbeats. It’s called the “diastolic” pressure. ... angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. These medicines lower ... your blood vessels relaxed. ACE inhibitors prevent a hormone called angiotensin ...

235

Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for high blood pressure. Munich Blood Pressure Study.  

PubMed

The Munich Blood Pressure Study (MBS), a 1980-81 cross-sectional study (with follow-up) of a random sample of 3198 Munich citizens aged 30-69 years (response rate 69%), revealed hypertensive blood pressure (BP) values in 17.7% of men and 10.7% of women (WHO criteria). One of the main goals of the MBS was to search for social, behavioral, and environmental risk factors for hypertension. The relationship between BP and five possible risk factors--alcohol consumption (g/day), cigarette smoking, oral contraceptive use, years of education, obesity (BMI)--has been examined. The major emphasis of this report is the relationship of alcohol consumption to BP. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were run controlling for both age and sex. All second- and third-order interactions between the independent variables were tested during a backward-stepping procedure. Alcohol consumption appeared as a significant main effect in many of the analyses. The coefficient of the alcohol variable ranged from 0.02 to 0.06 for men and women in the separate linear regression analyses for systolic and diastolic BP. Thus, for example, according to the model, the daily consumption of 1 liter of beer (40 g alcohol) may cause an increase in diastolic BP in women of 2.4 mm Hg. PMID:6693142

Cairns, V; Keil, U; Kleinbaum, D; Doering, A; Stieber, J

1984-01-01

236

SPECIAL ISSUE ARTICLE ETHANOL INDUCES HIGHER BEC IN CB1 CANNABINOID RECEPTOR KNOCKOUT MICE WHILE DECREASING ETHANOL PREFERENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Previous studies have shown that CB1 cannabinoid receptors are involved in the behavioural effects induced by chronic ethanol administration in Wistar rats by using SR 141716, a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist. These studies have now been extended to investigate the effect of acute and chronic alcoholization on blood ethanol concentration (BEC) and ethanol preference in CB1 knockout (? \\/?

F. LALLEMAND; P. DE WITTE

237

Minimization of glycerol production during the high-performance fed-batch ethanolic fermentation process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a metabolic model as a prediction tool.  

PubMed

On the basis of knowledge of the biological role of glycerol in the redox balance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation strategy was defined to reduce the surplus formation of NADH, responsible for glycerol synthesis. A metabolic model was used to predict the operating conditions that would reduce glycerol production during ethanol fermentation. Experimental validation of the simulation results was done by monitoring the inlet substrate feeding during fed-batch S. cerevisiae cultivation in order to maintain the respiratory quotient (RQ) (defined as the CO2 production to O2 consumption ratio) value between 4 and 5. Compared to previous fermentations without glucose monitoring, the final glycerol concentration was successfully decreased. Although RQ-controlled fermentation led to a lower maximum specific ethanol production rate, it was possible to reach a high level of ethanol production: 85 g.liter-1 with 1.7 g.liter-1 glycerol in 30 h. We showed here that by using a metabolic model as a tool in prediction, it was possible to reduce glycerol production in a very high-performance ethanolic fermentation process. PMID:16517663

Bideaux, Carine; Alfenore, Sandrine; Cameleyre, Xavier; Molina-Jouve, Carole; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Guillouet, Stéphane E

2006-03-01

238

High Blood Cholesterol Q&A Dr. Michael Lauer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Q&A with Dr. Michael Lauer Past Issues / ... heavier and older, what does recent research on cholesterol and heart health tell us that Americans need ...

239

Zymomonas ethanol fermentations  

SciTech Connect

Studies on various industrial raw materials indicate that a Zymomonas process has its greatest commercial potential in fermenting starch-based substrates. High yields, productivities and ethanol concentrations can be achieved. Genetic manipulation is now being used to extend the substrate range to lactose and other carbohydrates. 31 references.

Rogers, P.L.; Goodman, A.E.; Heyes, R.E.

1984-09-01

240

Unsolved Issues in the Management of High Blood Pressure in Acute Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

High blood pressure is common in acute stroke patients. Very high as well as very low blood pressure is associated with poor outcome. Spontaneous fall of blood pressure within the first few days after stroke was associated both with neurological improvement and impairment. Several randomized trials investigated the pharmacological reduction of blood pressure versus control. Most trials showed no significant difference in their primary outcome apart from the INWEST trial which found an increase of poor outcome when giving intravenous nimodipine. Nevertheless, useful information can be extracted from the published data to help guide the clinician's decision. Blood pressure should only be lowered when it is clearly elevated, and early after onset, reduction should be moderate but may be achieved rapidly. No clear recommendations can be given on the substances to use; however, care should be taken with intravenous calcium channel blockers and angiotensin receptor antagonists. Two ongoing randomized trials will help to solve the questions on blood pressure management in acute stroke.

Hubert, Gordian J.; Muller-Barna, Peter; Haberl, Roman L.

2013-01-01

241

Effects of vigabatrin, an irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, on ethanol reinforcement and ethanol discriminative stimuli in mice.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible ?-amino butyric acid transaminase inhibitor, ?-vinyl ?-amino butyric acid [vigabatrin (VGB)], would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative-stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity, and ethanol discrimination procedures to comprehensively examine the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol and ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering the intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200mg/kg) reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. Although not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative-stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant leftward and upward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

Griffin, William C; Nguyen, Shaun A; Deleon, Christopher P; Middaugh, Lawrence D

2012-04-01

242

Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, ?-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol.

Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

2012-01-01

243

Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?-An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model.  

PubMed

An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9?mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1?mg/L; median = 0.4?mg/L; range = 0-35?mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

2012-01-01

244

Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?--An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model  

PubMed Central

An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9?mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1?mg/L; median = 0.4?mg/L; range = 0–35?mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis.

Huynh-Delerme, Celine; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cecile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

2012-01-01

245

Feasibility of producing ethanol from food waste.  

PubMed

Food waste generated in Korea is rich in carbohydrate as high as 65% of total solids. Using the food waste, the feasibility of ethanol production was investigated in a lab-scale fermentor. Pretreatment with hydrolyzing enzymes including carbohydrase, glucoamylase, cellulase and protease were tested for hydrolysis of food waste. The carbohydrase was able to hydrolyze and produce glucose with a glucose yield of 0.63 g glucose/g total solid. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation by using carbohydrase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in the batch mode. For separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), ethanol concentration reached at the level corresponding to an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g total solids. For simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the ethanol yield was 0.31 g ethanol/g total solids. During the continuous operation of SHF, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 1.18 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.3g ethanol/g total solids. For SSF process, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 0.8 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.2g ethanol/g total solids. PMID:21596551

Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Jun Cheol; Pak, Daewon

2011-01-01

246

[Application of Q.E.D. and Alco-Screen test kits to measurements of ethanol in forensic samples].  

PubMed

We have investigated the applicability of the Q.E.D. (Quantitative Ethanol Detector) and Aloco-Screen test kits for screening ethanol concentrations in forensic samples, such as hemolyzed/decomposed blood, urine and vitreous humor. Because both kits were based on enzymatic color reactions, direct application of the kits to hemoglobin-rich samples gave unsatisfactory results. The deproteinization of blood with trichloroacetic acid followed by membrane filtration overcame such problem. This procedure was also effective for pretreatment of urine and vitreous humor samples to suppress excessive color development in the Alco-Screen test. The ethanol concentrations in whole blood (n = 29), urine (n = 7) and vitreous humor (n = 6) samples determined by the Q.E.D. kit correlated well with those determined by gas chromatography; the correlation coefficients were 0.986, 0.975 and 0.993, respectively. Because of its high specificity and sensitivity to ethanol, Q.E.D. seems to be highly reliable for quantitative estimation of ethanol concentrations in forensic samples. Alco-Screen also had high sensitivity, the specificity to ethanol was relatively low; the color reaction was also observed in the presence of acetone, n-propanol, toluene, methanol, ethylene glycol, methamphetamine, diazepam and dichrovos. Therefore, if forensic samples are analyzed by the Alco-Screen, it is essential to confirm the positive results using other analytical methods. PMID:11060993

Biwasaka, H; Tokuta, T; Sasaki, Y; Niitsu, H; Kumagai, R; Aoki, Y

2000-08-01

247

High Blood Pressure, Bone-Mineral Loss and Insulin Resistance in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence indicates that high blood pressure is associated with abnormalities in calcium metabolism. Sustained calcium loss may lead to increased bone-mineral loss in subjects with elevated blood pressure. Furthermore, recent findings indicate a possible linkage between abnormal calcium metabolism and insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship(s) among bone-mineral density (BMD), blood pressure, calcium-related and bone

Mitsuhiro Gotoh; Kenji Mizuno; Yoshiaki Ono; Michihiko Takahashi

2005-01-01

248

Enzyme hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of liquid hot water and AFEX pretreated distillers’ grains at high-solids loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry milling ethanol industry produces distiller’s grains as major co-products, which are composed of unhydrolyzed and unfermented polymeric sugars. Utilization of the distiller’s grains as an additional source of fermentable sugars has the potential to increase overall ethanol yields in current dry grind processes. In this study, controlled pH liquid hot water pretreatment (LHW) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX)

Youngmi Kim; Rick Hendrickson; Nathan S. Mosier; Michael R. Ladisch; Bryan Bals; Venkatesh Balan; Bruce E. Dale

2008-01-01

249

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and ethanol induced tissue ablation: Thermal lesion volume and temperature ex vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIFU is the upcoming technology for noninvasive or minimally invasive tumor ablation via the localized acoustic energy deposition at the focal region within the tumor target. The presence of cavitation bubbles had been shown to improve the therapeutic effect of HIFU. In this study, we have investigated the effect of HIFU on temperature rise and cavitation bubble activity in ethanol-treated porcine liver and kidney tissues. We have also explored changes in the viability and proliferation rate of HepG2, SW1376, and FB1 cancer cells with their exposure to ethanol and HIFU. Tissues were submerged in 95% ethanol for five hours and then exposed to HIFU generated by a 1.1 MHz transducer or injected into focal spot before HIFU exposure. Cavitation events were measured by a passive cavitation detection technique for a range of acoustic power from 1.17 W to 20.52 W. The temperature around the focal zone was measured by type K or type E thermocouples embedded in the samples. In experiments with cancer cells, 2.7 millions cells were treated with concentration of ethanol at concentration 2%, 4%, 10%, 25%, and 50% and the cell were exposed to HIFU with power of 2.73 W, 8.72 W, and 12.0 W for 30 seconds. Our data show that the treatment of tissues with ethanol reduces the threshold power for inertial cavitation and increases the temperature rise. The exposure of cancer cells to various HIFU power only showed a higher number of viable cells 24 to 72 hours after HIFU exposure. On the other hand, both the viability and proliferation rate were significantly decreased in cells treated with ethanol and then HIFU at 8.7 W and 12.0 W even at ethanol concentration of 2 and 4 percent. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and HIFU have a synergistic effect on cancer cells ablation.

Hoang, Nguyen Hai

250

The Edgecombe County High Blood Pressure Control Program: the process of medical care and blood pressure control.  

PubMed

As part of the Edgecombe County High Blood Pressure Control Program, a medical record review was conducted within a multispecialty private group practice in the county. The purposes of the review were to assess the relationship between the process of medical care and blood pressure control and to explore the variation in level and impact of medical care by race and sex. At the end of a three-year period, 41 percent of 628 hypertensive patients from the practice had uncontrolled diastolic blood pressure (DBP), as defined by Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program criteria. The percentage of uncontrolled hypertensives ranged from 53 percent for black men to 34 percent for white women. Hypertensive patients whose physicians were more aggressive in their use of antihypertensive drug therapy were more likely to be controlled. The effect of the level of physician drug aggressiveness tended to be more pronounced for blacks than for whites. Differences by race in exposure to and efficacy of aggressive drug treatment may influence racial variation in blood pressure control. PMID:3453192

Ballard, D J; Strogatz, D S; Wagner, E H; Siscovick, D S; James, S A; Kleinbaum, D G; Williams, C A; Cutchin, L M; Ibrahim, M A

1986-01-01

251

Production of high concentrations of ethanol from inulin by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Pure nonhydrolyzed inulin was directly converted to ethanol in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. An inulinase-hyperproducing mutant, Aspergillus niger 817, was grown in a submerged culture at 30 degrees C for 5 days. The inulin-digestive liquid culture (150 ml) was supplemented with 45 g of inulin, 0.45 g of (NH4)2SO4, and 0.15 g of KH2PO4. The medium (pH 5.0) was inoculated with an ethanol-tolerant strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1200, and fermentation was conducted at 30 degrees C. An additional 20 g of inulin was added to the culture after 15 h of fermentation. S. cerevisiae 1200 utilized 99% of the 65 g of inulin during the fermentation, and produced 20.4 and 21.0% (vol/vol) ethanol from chicory and dahlia inulins, respectively, within 3 days of fermentation. The maximum volumetric productivities of ethanol were 6.2 and 6.0 g/liter/h for chicory and dahlia inulins, respectively. The conversion efficiency of inulin to ethanol was 83 to 84% of the theoretical ethanol yield.

Ohta, K; Hamada, S; Nakamura, T

1993-01-01

252

Production of high concentrations of ethanol from inulin by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Pure nonhydrolyzed inulin was directly converted to ethanol in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. An inulinase-hyperproducing mutant, Aspergillus niger 817, was grown in a submerged culture at 30 degrees C for 5 days. The inulin-digestive liquid culture (150 ml) was supplemented with 45 g of inulin, 0.45 g of (NH4)2SO4, and 0.15 g of KH2PO4. The medium (pH 5.0) was inoculated with an ethanol-tolerant strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1200, and fermentation was conducted at 30 degrees C. An additional 20 g of inulin was added to the culture after 15 h of fermentation. S. cerevisiae 1200 utilized 99% of the 65 g of inulin during the fermentation, and produced 20.4 and 21.0% (vol/vol) ethanol from chicory and dahlia inulins, respectively, within 3 days of fermentation. The maximum volumetric productivities of ethanol were 6.2 and 6.0 g/liter/h for chicory and dahlia inulins, respectively. The conversion efficiency of inulin to ethanol was 83 to 84% of the theoretical ethanol yield. PMID:8481000

Ohta, K; Hamada, S; Nakamura, T

1993-03-01

253

Fiber-optic bio-sniffer (biochemical gas sensor) for high-selective monitoring of ethanol vapor using 335 nm UV-LED  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fiber-optic bio-sniffer (biochemical gas sensor) for continuous monitoring of gaseous alcohol with high sensitivity and high-selectivity was fabricated and tested. The bio-sniffer uses alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) for recognition of ethanol. Usually, enzyme loses activity in the gas phase. The bio-sniffer solved this problem by applying a flow-cell to refresh and wet the enzyme immobilized membrane by circulating phosphate buffer

Hiroyuki Kudo; Masayuki Sawai; Yuki Suzuki; Xin Wang; Tomoko Gessei; Daishi Takahashi; Takahiro Arakawa; Kohji Mitsubayashi

2010-01-01

254

[Chronopharmacologic characteristics of the development of tolerance for the narcotic effect of ethanol in a hot climate].  

PubMed

The experiments have been carried out on rats tested by Parsolt in various time of the day in January and July. The results of investigations showed that the behaviour activity of animals was exposed to daily and season fluctuations. The tolerance development to the ethanol narcotic effect depends upon the behaviour activity of animals. During summer the increasing of ethanol toxicity was observed. In highly active rats as distinct from low active animals the real increasing of noradrenaline concentration and the decreasing of dofamine concentration were noted. Ethanol changes the correlations of blood monoamines and the behaviour activity of animals. PMID:2532938

Khodzhagel'diev, T; Khadziev, P A; Ovvadov, O D

1989-09-01

255

Combining the effects of process design and pH for improved xylose conversion in high solid ethanol production from Arundo donax  

PubMed Central

The impact of pH coupled to process design for the conversion of the energy crop Arundo donax to ethanol was assessed in the present study under industrially relevant solids loadings. Two main process strategies were investigated, i.e. the traditional simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) and a HYBRID design, where a long high temperature enzymatic hydrolysis step was carried out prior to continued low temperature SSCF, keeping the same total reaction time. Since acetic acid was identified as the major inhibitor in the slurry, the scenarios were investigated under different fermentation pH in order to alleviate the inhibitory effect on, in particular, xylose conversion. The results show that, regardless of fermentation pH, a higher glucan conversion could be achieved with the HYBRID approach compared to SSCF. Furthermore, it was found that increasing the pH from 5.0 to 5.5 for the fermentation phase had a large positive effect on xylose consumption for both process designs, although the SSCF design was more favored. With the high sugar concentrations available at the start of fermentation during the HYBRID design, the ethanol yield was reduced in favor of cell growth and glycerol production. This finding was confirmed in shake flask fermentations where an increase in pH enhanced both glucose and xylose consumption, but also cell growth and cell yield with the overall effect being a reduced ethanol yield. In conclusion this resulted in similar overall ethanol yields at the different pH values for the HYBRID design, despite the improved xylose uptake, whereas a significant increase in overall ethanol yield was found with the SSCF design.

2014-01-01

256

High hydrostatic pressure activates gene expression that leads to ethanol production enhancement in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae distillery strain.  

PubMed

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a stress that exerts broad effects on microorganisms with characteristics similar to those of common environmental stresses. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic mechanisms that can enhance alcoholic fermentation of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Brazilian spirit fermentation vats. Accordingly, we performed a time course microarray analysis on a S. cerevisiae strain submitted to mild sublethal pressure treatment of 50 MPa for 30 min at room temperature, followed by incubation for 5, 10 and 15 min without pressure treatment. The obtained transcriptional profiles demonstrate the importance of post-pressurisation period on the activation of several genes related to cell recovery and stress tolerance. Based on these results, we over-expressed genes strongly induced by HHP in the same wild yeast strain and identified genes, particularly SYM1, whose over-expression results in enhanced ethanol production and stress tolerance upon fermentation. The present study validates the use of HHP as a biotechnological tool for the fermentative industries. PMID:22915193

Bravim, Fernanda; Lippman, Soyeon I; da Silva, Lucas F; Souza, Diego T; Fernandes, A Alberto R; Masuda, Claudio A; Broach, James R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2013-03-01

257

High Performance Nanocatalysts Supported on Micro/Nano Carbon Structures Using Ethanol Immersion Pretreatment for Micro DMFCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, highly dense platinum (Pt) nanocatalysts were successfully deposited on the hydrophilically-treated nano/micro carbon supports with an ethanol (EtOH) immersion pretreatment and an acidic treatment for the performance improvement of methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). In order to thoroughly immerse the three-dimensional, interwoven structures of the carbon cloth fibers with a 6 M sulfuric acid surface modification, which increasing more oxygen-containing functional groups on the surfaces of the carbon supports, the EtOH immersion pretreatment of the carbon supports was utilized prior to the sulfuric acid treatment. Subsequently, Pt catalysts were reduced on the modified carbon supports by a homemade open-loop reduction system (OLRS) [1] For comparisons, carbon cloth (CC) and carbon nanotube on CC (CNT/CC) supports were employed with and without EtOH immersion pretreatments before Pt catalyst reduction. In the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves, the electrosorption charges of hydrogen ion (QH) and the peak current density (IP) of the fabricated Pt/CC and Pt/CNT/CC electrodes with the EtOH immersion pretreatments can efficiently be enhanced due to more active Pt sites for electrocatalytic reactions.

Lin, Liang-You; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Chang, Chaun; Tseng, Fan-Gang

2013-12-01

258

The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

The antiobesity effects of a P. aviculare ethanol extract (PAE) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice were investigated. The mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with PAE (400?mg/kg/day) for 6.5 weeks. The increased body weights, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte area as well as serum total triglyceride, leptin, and malondialdehyde concentrations were decreased in PAE-treated HFD-induced obese mice relative to the same measurements in untreated obese mice. Furthermore, PAE significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. In addition, PAE treatment of 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PAE exerts antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice through the suppression of lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased antioxidant activity.

Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

2013-01-01

259

High versus Low Blood-Pressure Target in Septic Shock.  

PubMed

To the Editor: As noted by Asfar et al. (April 24 issue),(1) a major concern related to targeting a relatively low mean arterial blood pressure in patients with septic shock is that the brain is at risk for ischemia in this condition. The risk of potential brain ischemia is particularly pertinent among patients with a history of arterial hypertension, because their cerebral autoregulatory curve may be shifted to the right.(2) Indeed, cerebral ischemia may contribute to sepsis-associated encephalopathy and persistent neurocognitive dysfunction.(3) However, neither the primary nor the secondary outcomes in the study by Asfar et al. involved any measures . . . PMID:25014697

Kimmoun, Antoine; Ducrocq, Nicolas; Levy, Bruno

2014-07-17

260

High versus Low Blood-Pressure Target in Septic Shock.  

PubMed

To the Editor: As noted by Asfar et al. (April 24 issue),(1) a major concern related to targeting a relatively low mean arterial blood pressure in patients with septic shock is that the brain is at risk for ischemia in this condition. The risk of potential brain ischemia is particularly pertinent among patients with a history of arterial hypertension, because their cerebral autoregulatory curve may be shifted to the right.(2) Indeed, cerebral ischemia may contribute to sepsis-associated encephalopathy and persistent neurocognitive dysfunction.(3) However, neither the primary nor the secondary outcomes in the study by Asfar et al. involved any measures . . . PMID:25014695

Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Møller, Kirsten

2014-07-17

261

High versus Low Blood-Pressure Target in Septic Shock.  

PubMed

To the Editor: As noted by Asfar et al. (April 24 issue),(1) a major concern related to targeting a relatively low mean arterial blood pressure in patients with septic shock is that the brain is at risk for ischemia in this condition. The risk of potential brain ischemia is particularly pertinent among patients with a history of arterial hypertension, because their cerebral autoregulatory curve may be shifted to the right.(2) Indeed, cerebral ischemia may contribute to sepsis-associated encephalopathy and persistent neurocognitive dysfunction.(3) However, neither the primary nor the secondary outcomes in the study by Asfar et al. involved any measures . . . PMID:25014696

Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Roberts, Derek J; De Waele, Jan

2014-07-17

262

High versus Low Blood-Pressure Target in Septic Shock.  

PubMed

To the Editor: As noted by Asfar et al. (April 24 issue),(1) a major concern related to targeting a relatively low mean arterial blood pressure in patients with septic shock is that the brain is at risk for ischemia in this condition. The risk of potential brain ischemia is particularly pertinent among patients with a history of arterial hypertension, because their cerebral autoregulatory curve may be shifted to the right.(2) Indeed, cerebral ischemia may contribute to sepsis-associated encephalopathy and persistent neurocognitive dysfunction.(3) However, neither the primary nor the secondary outcomes in the study by Asfar et al. involved any measures . . . PMID:25014694

2014-07-17

263

High blood glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase levels are associated with good functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

The capacity of the blood enzyme glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to remove glutamate from the brain by means of blood glutamate degradation has been shown in experimental models to be an efficient and novel neuroprotective tool against ischemic stroke; however, the beneficial effects of this enzyme should be tested in patients with stroke to validate these results. This study aims to investigate the association of GOT levels in blood with clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In two clinical independent studies, we found that patients with poor outcome show higher glutamate and lower GOT levels in blood at the time of admission. Lower GOT levels and higher glutamate levels were independently associated with poorer functional outcome at 3 months and higher infarct volume. These findings show a clear association between high blood glutamate levels and worse outcome and vice versa for GOT, presumably explained by the capacity of this enzyme to metabolize blood glutamate. PMID:21266984

Campos, Francisco; Sobrino, Tomás; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Castellanos, Mar; Blanco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Serena, Joaquín; Leira, Rogelio; Castillo, José

2011-06-01

264

Microbial ethanol production in postmortem urine sample.  

PubMed

We present a case in which postmortem blood ethanol concentration was 0.02?g/kg and acetone concentration was 0.51?g/kg, while urine ethanol concentration was 6.0?g/kg and acetone concentration was 0.63?g/kg. In the urine sample, sodium fluoride was not added. The urinary ethanol concentration continued to increase without any remarkable increase of isopropanol concentration and external contamination was excluded. Species of bacteria and yeasts, including Candida glabrata, were isolated from urine and blood samples. A few days after the collection of samples, we received the information that the patient was diabetic and did not receive insulin therapy regularly. To prevent postmortem microbial ethanol production and incorrect diagnosis of the cause of death, it is necessary to add sodium fluoride to blood and urine samples collected from diabetic patients. PMID:23812407

Sutlovic, Davorka; Nestic, Marina; Kovacic, Zdravko; Gusic, Stjepan; Mlinarek, Tajana; Salamunic, Ilza; Sardelic, Sanda

2013-10-01

265

Ethanol and xylitol production from glucose and xylose at high temperature by Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yeast strain Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 (MTCC 5314), isolated from soil samples collected from dumping sites of crushed sugarcane bagasse in Sugar Mill,\\u000a showed growth and fermentation efficiency at high temperatures ranging from 45°C to 50°C. The yeast strain was able to use\\u000a a wide range of substrates, such as glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, sucrose, and cellobiose, either for

Sachin Kumar; Surendra P. Singh; Indra M. Mishra; Dilip K. Adhikari

2009-01-01

266

Fatty acid ethyl esters are present in human serum after ethanol ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine whether fatty acid ethyl esters, nonoxidative products of ethanol metabolism selectively present in organs damaged by ethanol abuse, are de- tectable in the serum after ethanol ingestion. Serum samples of hospital emergency room patients with positive (n = 32) and negative (n = 5) blood ethanol levels were assayed for fatty acid

Kathleen M. Doyle; David A. Bird; Salih Al-Salihi; Youseff Hallaq; Joanne E. Cluette-Brown; Kendrick A. Goss; Michael Laposata

267

Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

268

Embedding NiCo2O4 Nanoparticles into a 3DHPC Assisted by CO2-Expanded Ethanol: A Potential Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with High Performance.  

PubMed

A high-performance anode material, NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite, for lithium-ion batteries was developed through direct nanoparticles nucleation on a three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon (3DHPC) matrix and cation substitution of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles. It was synthesized via a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) expanded ethanol solution-assisted deposition method combined with a subsequent heat-treatment process. The NiCo2O4 nanoparticles were uniformly embedded into the porous carbon matrix and efficiently avoided free-growth in solution or aggregation in the pores even at a high content of 55.0 wt %. In particular, the 3DHPC was directly used without pretreatment or surfactant assistance. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite showed high reversible capacity and improved rate capability that outperformed those composites formed with single metal oxides (NiO/3DHPC, Co3O4/3DHPC), their physical mixture, and the composite prepared in pure ethanol (NiCo2O4/3DHPC-E). The superior performance is mainly contributed to the unique advantages of the scCO2-expanded ethanol medium, and the combination of high utilization efficiency and improved electrical conductivity of NiCo2O4 as well as the electronic and ionic transport advantages of 3DHPC. PMID:24937364

Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu

2014-07-01

269

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected medicinal plants--effects of high pressure and added ethanol on yield of extracted substances.  

PubMed

The possibilities and limitations of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products of low, medium and high polarity under very high pressure and with polar modifiers has been investigated. The medicinal herbs marigold (Calendula officinalis), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) were used as models in this study. Extraction profiles and the spectra of extractable metabolites were recorded following extraction with mixtures of carbon dioxide:ethanol of varying proportions (0-20% ethanol) and at various pressures in the range 300-689 bar. Components were identified by HPLC-PAD-MS or GC-MS and quantified by HPLC or GC as appropriate. Extraction yields under the varying conditions depended to a large extent on the profiles of secondary metabolites present in the three drugs. Whereas the extractability of lipophilic compounds increased substantially at pressures above 300 bar, the yields of polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds remained low even at 689 bar and with 20% modifier in the extraction fluid. PMID:14979527

Hamburger, M; Baumann, D; Adler, S

2004-01-01

270

Improved linkage analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci using bulk segregants unveils a novel determinant of high ethanol tolerance in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) coupled to high throughput sequencing is a powerful method to map genomic regions related with phenotypes of interest. It relies on crossing two parents, one inferior and one superior for a trait of interest. Segregants displaying the trait of the superior parent are pooled, the DNA extracted and sequenced. Genomic regions linked to the trait of interest are identified by searching the pool for overrepresented alleles that normally originate from the superior parent. BSA data analysis is non-trivial due to sequencing, alignment and screening errors. Results To increase the power of the BSA technology and obtain a better distinction between spuriously and truly linked regions, we developed EXPLoRA (EXtraction of over-rePresented aLleles in BSA), an algorithm for BSA data analysis that explicitly models the dependency between neighboring marker sites by exploiting the properties of linkage disequilibrium through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Reanalyzing a BSA dataset for high ethanol tolerance in yeast allowed reliably identifying QTLs linked to this phenotype that could not be identified with statistical significance in the original study. Experimental validation of one of the least pronounced linked regions, by identifying its causative gene VPS70, confirmed the potential of our method. Conclusions EXPLoRA has a performance at least as good as the state-of-the-art and it is robust even at low signal to noise ratio’s i.e. when the true linkage signal is diluted by sampling, screening errors or when few segregants are available.

2014-01-01

271

Adaptation of yeast cell membranes to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

A highly ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces wine strain is able, after growth in the presence of ethanol, to efficiently improve the ethanol tolerance of its membrane. A less-tolerant Saccharomyces laboratory strain, however, is unable to adapt its membrane to ethanol. Furthermore, after growth in the presence of ethanol, the membrane of the latter strain becomes increasingly sensitive, although this is a reversible process. Reversion to a higher tolerance occurs only after the addition of an energy source and does not take place in the presence of cycloheximide.

Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

1987-05-01

272

Effect of pH, ethanol addition and high hydrostatic pressure on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis by pulsed electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the inactivation of vegetative Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372 cells in response to high intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) is presented. The effect of medium pH in a range between 5.5 and 7 as well as the addition of 5% (v\\/v) of ethanol was studied. Furthermore, it was investigated how a simultaneous compression of the microbial suspension can

Volker Heinz; Dietrich Knorr

2000-01-01

273

High pressure VLE in alkanol + alkane mixtures. Experimental results for n-butane + ethanol, +1-propanol, +1-butanol systems and calculations with three EOS methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bubble point pressures and vapour-liquid critical points of n-butane + ethanol, n-butane + 1-propanol and n-butane + 1-butanol were measured in the temperature range 323–523 K in a high-pressure capillary glass tube apparatus, using the synthetic method. It is shown that the shape of the vapour-liquid critical curve changes systematically with the carbon number of the 1-alkanol. In the system

A. Deák; A. I. Victorov; Th. W. de Loos

1995-01-01

274

National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP) Working Group Report on Hypertension and Chronic Renal Failure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report is presented from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP) Working Group on hypertension and chronic renal failure. The report covers the following areas: (1) pathology and pathophysiology of hypertension and chronic renal insu...

1990-01-01

275

Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September 30, 2013 Categories: Heart News , Stroke ... level, new research in the American Heart Association journal Hypertension suggests. Researchers pooled results from 13 studies ...

276

Time to Talk: High Blood Cholesterol? 5 Things You Should Know  

MedlinePLUS

Time to Talk Tips High Blood Cholesterol? 5 Things You Should Know Approximately 13 percent of U.S. ... About Complementary Health Approaches for Quitting Smoking More Time To Talk Tip Sheets Home Home Page Contact ...

277

Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the Research on ACEs, ARBs, and DRIs  

MedlinePLUS

... DRIs" /> Consumer Summary – Oct. 24, 2011 Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the ... ARBs. What are the side effects of these medicines? The most common side effects from these medicines ...

278

A microfluidics approach towards high-throughput pathogen removal from blood using margination  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is an adverse systemic inflammatory response caused by microbial infection in blood. This paper reports a simple microfluidic approach for intrinsic, non-specific removal of both microbes and inflammatory cellular components (platelets and leukocytes) from whole blood, inspired by the invivo phenomenon of leukocyte margination. As blood flows through a narrow microchannel (20?×?20?µm), deformable red blood cells (RBCs) migrate axially to the channel centre, resulting in margination of other cell types (bacteria, platelets, and leukocytes) towards the channel sides. By using a simple cascaded channel design, the blood samples undergo a 2-stage bacteria removal in a single pass through the device, thereby allowing higher bacterial removal efficiency. As an application for sepsis treatment, we demonstrated separation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae spiked into whole blood, achieving high removal efficiencies of ?80% and ?90%, respectively. Inflammatory cellular components were also depleted by >80% in the filtered blood samples which could help to modulate the host inflammatory response and potentially serve as a blood cleansing method for sepsis treatment. The developed technique offers significant advantages including high throughput (?1?ml/h per channel) and label-free separation which allows non-specific removal of any blood-borne pathogens (bacteria and fungi). The continuous processing and collection mode could potentially enable the return of filtered blood back to the patient directly, similar to a simple and complete dialysis circuit setup. Lastly, we designed and tested a larger filtration device consisting of 6 channels in parallel (?6?ml/h) and obtained similar filtration performances. Further multiplexing is possible by increasing channel parallelization or device stacking to achieve higher throughput comparable to convectional blood dialysis systems used in clinical settings.

Wei Hou, Han; Gan, Hiong Yap; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Li, Leon D.; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon

2012-01-01

279

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats.

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2014-01-01

280

Is there a different dietetic pattern depending on self-knowledge of high blood pressure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study describes the dietary pattern seen at recruitment in a large Spanish cohort comprising 41,451 people (aged 30–69 years) according to high blood-pressure status. We provide information on adjusted mean daily intake of foods and nutrients, by means of a dietary history, from those people self-reported as having high blood pressure as well as from those self-reported as

M. J. Tormo; C. Navarro; M. D. Chirlaque; X. Barber

2000-01-01

281

High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats  

PubMed Central

High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l?1 blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

Kelm, Detlev H.; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C.; Ristow, Michael

2011-01-01

282

High-frequency attenuation and backscatter measurements of rat blood between 30 and 60 MHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has recently been a great deal of interest in noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound imaging of small animals such as rats due to their being the preferred animal model for gene therapy and cancer research. Improving the interpretation of the obtained images and furthering the development of the imaging devices require a detailed knowledge of the ultrasound attenuation and backscattering of biological tissue (e.g. blood) at high frequencies. In the present study, the attenuation and backscattering coefficients of the rat red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and whole blood with hematocrits ranging from 6% to 40% were measured between 30 and 60 MHz using a modified substitution approach. The acoustic parameters of porcine blood under the same conditions were also measured in order to compare differences in the blood properties between these two animals. For porcine blood, both whole blood and RBC suspension were stirred at a rotation speed of 200 rpm. Three different rotation speeds of 100, 200 and 300 rpm were carried out for rat blood experiments. The attenuation coefficients of both rat and porcine blood were found to increase linearly with frequency and hematocrit (the values of coefficients of determination (r2) are around 0.82-0.97 for all cases). The average attenuation coefficient of rat whole blood with a hematocrit of 40% increased from 0.26 Nepers mm-1 at 30 MHz to 0.47 Nepers mm-1 at 60 MHz. The maximum backscattering coefficients of both rat and porcine RBC suspensions were between 10% and 15% hematocrits at all frequencies. The fourth-power dependence of backscatter on frequency was approximately valid for rat RBC suspensions with hematocrits between 6% and 40%. However, the frequency dependence of the backscatter estimate deviates from a fourth-power law for porcine RBC suspension with hematocrit higher than 20%. The backscattering coefficient plateaued for hematocrits higher than 15% in porcine blood, but for rat blood it was maximal around a hematocrit of 20% at the same rotation speed, and shifted to a hematocrit of 10% at a higher speed. The backscattering properties of rat RBCs in plasma are similar to those of RBCs in saline at a higher rotation speed. The differences in attenuation and backscattering between rat and porcine blood may be attributed to RBCs' being smaller and the RBC aggregation level being lower for rat blood than for porcine blood.

Huang, Chih-Chung

2010-10-01

283

Simple determination of cyclosporine in human whole blood by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for determination of cyclosporine (CyA, also known as cyclosporin A) in human whole blood. The method entailed direct injection of the blood samples after deproteination using acetonitrile. Chromatography was carried out using an ODS column under isocratic elution with acetonitrile-5mM disodium hydrogen phosphate (75:25, v/v), pH 5.1 at 70 degrees C and a detector set at 210 nm. The mean absolute recovery of cyclosporine from blood was 97%, and the linearity was assessed in the range of 100-3000 ng/ml blood, with a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The limit of quantification and detection of the present method were 100 and 50 ng/ml, respectively. This method has been used to analyze several hundred human blood samples for bioavailability studies. PMID:14522025

Amini, Hossein; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

2003-10-01

284

Intermittent Availability of Ethanol Does Not Always Lead to Elevated Drinking in Mice  

PubMed Central

Aims: Intermittent access (IA) to an alcohol (ethanol) solution can lead rats to higher ethanol intakes than continuous access, and a recent report showed increased drinking in C57BL/6J mice offered 20% ethanol vs. water 3X/week (Prior studies have offered ethanol during 24 h periods, either continuously or intermittently.). Methods: We tested the high-preference C57BL/6J inbred mice: we also studied High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) mice, a line we have selectively bred to reach intoxicating blood ethanol levels after a short period of access to a single bottle of 20% ethanol. Results: Neither HDID or C57BL/6J male mice offered ethanol every other day during only a 4-h access period showed greater daily intake than mice offered ethanol daily for 4 h. There was a small increase in drinking with 24 h IA in C57BL/6J mice. An experiment with HDID mice and their control heterogeneous stock stock modeled closely after a published study with C57BL/6J mice (Hwa, Chu, Levinson SA et al. Persistent escalation of alcohol drinking in C57BL/6J mice with intermittent access to 20% ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2011;35:1938–1947) showed no significant elevation with 24 h IA exposure in either sex of any genotype. Finally, a near replication of the Hwa et al. study showed modestly greater intake in C57BL/6J mice, confirming the efficacy of 24 h IA. Conclusion: We conclude that 4 h of IA is likely insufficient to elevate drinking in mice. The lack of effect in HDID mice and their controls further suggests that not all genotypes respond to intermittency.

Crabbe, John C.; Harkness, John H.; Spence, Stephanie E.; Huang, Lawrence C.; Metten, Pamela

2012-01-01

285

Developing high-sensitivity ethanol liquid sensors based on ZnO/porous Si nanostructure surfaces using an electrochemical impedance technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO nanostructures were synthesized on porous Si (PSi) substrates using the thermal catalytic-free immersion method. Crack-like ZnO nanostructures were formed on the bare, sponge-like PSi structures. An approach to fabricate chemical sensors based on the ZnO/PSi nanostructure arrays that uses an electrochemical impedance technique is reported. Sensor performance was evaluated for ethanol solutions by the morphology and defect structures of the ZnO nanostructure layer. Results indicate that the ZnO/PSi nanostructure chemical sensor exhibits rapid and high response to ethanol compared with a PSi nanostructure sensor because of its small particle size and an oxide layer acting as a capacitive layer on the PSi nanostructure surface.

Husairi, Mohd; Rouhi, Jalal; Alvin, Kevin; Atikah, Zainurul; Rusop, Muhammad; Abdullah, Saifollah

2014-07-01

286

Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.  

PubMed

A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet. PMID:22844675

Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

2011-07-01

287

New Type of Ethanol Microbial Biosensor Based on a Highly Sensitive Amperometric Oxygen Electrode and Yeast Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial biosensor for ethanol determination was prepared by immobilization of yeast cells of Saccharomycesellipsoideus on the surface of an oxygen electrode with electrolyte in nonaqueous medium. Analytical determination is based on the respiratory activity of the microorganism in presence of the analyte. Response time of approximately 5 min for steady-state method and 2 min for kinetic method was registered. A lower

Lucian Rotariu; Camelia Bala

2003-01-01

288

Kinetic resolution of 1-phenyl ethanol with high enantioselectivity with native and immobilized lipase in organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of immobilization on activity, stability, and enantioselectivity of a Mucor miehei lipase for the kinetic resolution of 1-phenyl ethanol with vinyl propionate in organic solvents was studied. The native enzyme had a higher degree of purification as compared with previous preparations available. It had an initial esterification activity of 12 ?mol\\/min per g in hexane. Enantioselectivity exceeded 200,

Krista Frings; Martin Koch; Winfried Hartmeier

1999-01-01

289

High frequency of SEN virus infection in thalassemic patients and healthy blood donors in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background SEN virus is a blood-borne, circular ssDNA virus and possessing nine genotypes (A to I). Among nine genotypes, SENV-D and SENV-H genotypes have the strong link with patients with unknown (none-A to E) hepatitis infections. Infection with blood-borne viruses is the second important cause of death in thalassemic patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of SENV-D and SENV-H genotypes viremia by performing nested-PCR in 120 and 100 sera from healthy blood donors and thalassemic patients in Guilan Province, North of Iran respectively. Also, to explicate a possible role of SEN virus in liver disease and established changes in blood factors, the serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST) and some of the blood factors were measured. Results Frequency of SENV-D, SENV (SENV-H or SENV-D) and co-infection (both SENV-D and SENV-H) viremia was significantly higher among thalassemic patients than healthy individuals. Frequency of SENV-H viremia was significantly higher than SENV-D among healthy individuals. In comparison to SENV-D negative patients, the mean of mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly higher in SENV-D positive and co-infection cases (P < 0.05). The means of AST and ALT were significantly higher in thalassemic patients than healthy blood donors, but there were not any significant differences in the means of the liver levels between SENV-positive and -negative individuals in healthy blood donors and thalassemic patients. High nucleotide homology observed among PCR amplicon's sequences in healthy blood donors and thalassemic patients. Conclusions The high rate of co-infection shows that different genotypes of SENV have no negative effects on each other. The high frequency of SENV infection among thalassemic patients suggests blood transfusion as main route of transmission. High frequency of SENV infection in healthy individuals indicates that other routes rather than blood transfusion also are important. Frequency of 90.8% of SENV infection among healthy blood donors as well as high nucleotide homology of sequenced amplicons between two groups can probably suggest that healthy blood donors infected by SENV act partly as a source of SENV transmission to the thalassemic patients. In conclusion, SENV-D isolate in Guilan Province may be having a pathogenic agent for thalassemic patients.

2010-01-01

290

High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Superoxide (O2m), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O2m through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study measured the acute effects of high glucose or the G6PD inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of O2m from

A. Perner; S. E. Nielsen; J. Rask-Madsen

2003-01-01

291

Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Highly purified infected red blood cells (irbc), or highly synchronized parasite cultures, are regularly required in malaria research. Conventional isolation and synchronization rely on density and osmotic fragility of irbc, respectively. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) offers an alternative based on intrinsic magnetic properties of irbc, avoiding exposure to chemicals and osmotic stress. Successful HGMS concentration in malaria research

Sebastian C Bhakdi; Annette Ottinger; Sangdao Somsri; Panudda Sratongno; Peeranad Pannadaporn; Pattamawan Chimma; Prida Malasit; Kovit Pattanapanyasat; Hartmut PH Neumann

2010-01-01

292

Hemostasis of punctured blood vessels using high-intensity focused ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemorrhagic complications of vascular injury can be significant. We report on the use of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to stop the hemorrhage of punctured blood vessels in pigs. Two HIFU transducers with frequencies of 3.5 and 2.0 MHz, each equipped with a water-filled conical housing, were used. Major blood vessels (femoral artery and vein, axillary artery, carotid artery and

Shahram Vaezy; Roy Martin; Hadi Yaziji; Peter Kaczkowski; George Keilman; Steve Carter; Michael Caps; Emil Y Chi; Michael Bailey; Lawrence Crum

1998-01-01

293

Shift Work Is Not Associated with High Blood Pressure or Prevalence of Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWorking mostly at night has been suggested to be associated with upset of chronobiological rhythms and high blood pressure, but the evidence from epidemiological studies is weak.MethodsIn a cross-sectional survey, we evaluated the association between shift work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. In total, 493 nurses, nurse technicians and assistants, were selected at random in a large general hospital

Carla Sfreddo; Sandra Costa Fuchs; Álvaro Roberto Merlo; Flávio Danni Fuchs; James M. Wright

2010-01-01

294

Association between obesity and high blood pressure: Reporting bias related to gender and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity of self-reported information on obesity and high blood pressure (HBP) in relation to gender and age, and to explore the impacts of their misclassification on the association between obesity and HBP.DESIGN: Community based cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: 1791 adult subjects living in Humboldt, Saskatchewan, Canada.MEASUREMENTS: Objectively measured HBP was positive if systolic blood pressure (BP) was ?140

Y Chen; DC Rennie; LA Lockinger; JA Dosman

1998-01-01

295

Effects of High-Chromium Bakers' Yeast on Glucose Tolerance and Blood Lipids in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 63(5):41 1-413 In rats fed a chromium-deficient diet for 17 weeks, a marginal elevation less elevation of blood glucose at 30, 60, and 90 min as compared to the in blood glucose and cholesterol levels was observed. The potential of chromium-deficient diet. Bakers'yeast also caused a significant (P< 0.05) chromium in high-chromium bakers' yeast and chromium chloride to

G. S. RANHOTRA; J. A. GELROTH

296

Ethanol Selectively Attenuates NMDAR-Mediated Synaptic Transmission in the Prefrontal Cortex  

PubMed Central

Background Brain imaging studies have revealed abnormal function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of alcoholics that may contribute to the impulsive behavior and lack of control over drinking that characterizes this disorder. Understanding how ethanol affects the physiology of PFC neurons may help explain this loss of control and lead to better treatments for alcohol addiction. In a previous study from this laboratory, we showed that ethanol inhibits complex patterns of persistent activity (known as “up-states”) in medial PFC (mPFC) neurons in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. Methods In the current study, whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used to directly examine the effects of ethanol on the glutamatergic and GABAergic components that underlie persistent activity. Results In deep-layer mPFC pyramidal neurons, ethanol reversibly attenuated electrically evoked N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated EPSCs. Significant inhibition was observed at concentrations as low as 22 mM, equivalent to a blood ethanol concentration (0.1%) typically associated with legal limits for intoxication. In contrast to NMDA responses, neither evoked nor spontaneous EPSCs mediated by ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid-type glutamate receptor were affected by ethanol at concentrations as high as 88 mM, a concentration that can be fatal to non-tolerant individuals. At similar concentrations, ethanol also had little effect on spontaneous or evoked IPSCs mediated by a-type ?-amino-butyric acid receptor. Finally, mPFC neurons showed little evidence of GABAR-mediated tonic current and this was unaffected by ethanol. Conclusions Together, these results suggest that NMDAR-mediated processes in the mPFC may be particularly susceptible to disruption following the acute ingestion of ethanol.

Weitlauf, Carl; Woodward, John J.

2013-01-01

297

True color blood flow imaging using a high-speed laser photography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physiological changes in the retinal vasculature are commonly indicative of such disorders as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Thus, various methods have been developed for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics. However, to the best of our knowledge, current ophthalmic instruments do not provide a true color blood flow imaging capability. Accordingly, we propose a new method for the true color imaging of blood flow using a high-speed pulsed laser photography system. In the proposed approach, monochromatic images of the blood flow are acquired using a system of three cameras and three color lasers (red, green, and blue). A high-quality true color image of the blood flow is obtained by assembling the monochromatic images by means of image realignment and color calibration processes. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by imaging the flow of mouse blood within a microfluidic channel device. The experimental results confirm the proposed system provides a high-quality true color blood flow imaging capability, and therefore has potential for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics.

Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Sun, Yung-Nien; Ho, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Chi

2012-10-01

298

Ethanol and platelet intracellular free calcium concentrations.  

PubMed Central

The effect of 0.8 g kg-1 absolute ethanol orally on platelet intracellular free calcium was assessed in a random order study in 24 normotensive subjects with an isocaloric control. Platelet calcium was measured 90 min and 12 h after treatment by the Quin 2 method. The study had 90% power of detecting a 16.5% change. After 90 min, breath ethanol was 37 +/- 9 micrograms 100 ml-1, blood pressure was unchanged and heart rate rose slightly. Platelet calcium was unchanged by ethanol after 90 min or 12 h.

Lees, K R; Barr, S M; Butters, L; Rubin, P C

1987-01-01

299

High in omega-3 fatty acids” bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed.The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6\\/?-3 ratio from

Izaskun Berasategi; Sheila Legarra; Mikel García-Íñiguez de Ciriano; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íñigo Navarro-Blasco; Diana Ansorena; Iciar Astiasarán

2011-01-01

300

Corn steep liquor as a cost-effective nutrition adjunct in high-performance Zymomonas ethanol fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanologenic bacteriumZymomonas mobilis has been demonstrated to possess several fermentation performance characteristics that are superior to yeast. In a recent\\u000a survey conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),Zymomonas was selected as the most promising host for improvement by genetic engineering directed to pentose metabolism for the production\\u000a of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass and wastes. Minimization of costs associated

Hugh G. Lawford; Joyce D. Rousseau

1997-01-01

301

High Gain Observer for backstepping control of a MRI-guided therapeutic microrobot in blood vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports precise modeling and controller\\/ observer design for a microsized polymer aggregate of magnetic particles inside an artery, using a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) device for supplying propulsion in order to achieve targeted chemotherapy. Non-Newtonian behaviour of blood is taken into account, as well as wall effects and interactions, resulting in a highly nonlinear model. A High Gain

Laurent Arcese; Ali Cherry; Matthieu Fruchard; Antoine Ferreira

2010-01-01

302

High-frequency perfusion fluorometry: a new technique to assess bronchial mucosa blood perfusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method to estimate airway mucosa blood perfusion is proposed based on the fluorescein perfusion fluorometry principles, which allows both high temporal resolution and high sensitivity measurements to be performed. Preliminary results were obtained on different conditions of rat trachea vascularization, which provide interesting perspectives for an application to the bronchial ischemia problems in lung transplantation.

Bottiroli, Giovanni F.; Ramponi, Roberta; Croce, Anna C.; Rescigno, Giuseppe; Nazari, Stefano; Zonta, Aris

1992-05-01

303

Shift Work Is Not Associated with High Blood Pressure or Prevalence of Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Working mostly at night has been suggested to be associated with upset of chronobiological rhythms and high blood pressure, but the evidence from epidemiological studies is weak. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, we evaluated the association between shift work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. In total, 493 nurses, nurse technicians and assistants, were selected at random in a large general hospital setting. Hypertension was diagnosed by the mean of four automatic blood pressure readings ?140/90 mmHg or use of blood pressure lowering agents, and pre-hypertension by systolic blood pressure ?120–139 or diastolic blood pressure ?80–89 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The association between the shift of work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension was explored using univariate and multivariate analyses that controlled for risk factors for hypertension by covariance analysis and modified Poisson regression. Results The mean age of the participants was 34.3±9.4 years and 88.2% were women. Night shift workers were older, more frequently married or divorced, and less educated. The prevalence of hypertension in the whole sample was 16%, and 28% had pre-hypertension. Blood pressure (after adjustment for confounding) was not different in day and night shift workers. The prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension by shift work was not different in the univariate analysis and after adjustment for confounding (all risk ratios ?=?1.0). Conclusion Night shift work did not increase blood pressure and was not associated with hypertension or pre-hypertension in nursing personnel working in a large general hospital.

Sfreddo, Carla; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Merlo, Alvaro Roberto; Fuchs, Flavio Danni

2010-01-01

304

Assessment of drug compliance in patients with high blood pressure resistant to antihypertensive therapy.  

PubMed

The persistence of high blood pressure under antihypertensive treatment (resistant hypertension) entails an increased cardiovascular risk. It occurs in three of ten treated hypertensive patients, and has several possible contributing factors, notably insufficient therapeutic adherence. There are a number of ways to evaluate whether patients take their medication as prescribed. These include interviewing the patient, pill counting, prescription follow-up, assay of drugs in blood or urine, and use of electronic pill dispensers. None is perfect. However, the essential is to discuss with the patient the importance of complying with the treatment as soon as it is prescribed for the first time, and not waiting for the appearance of resistant hypertension. The measurement of blood pressure outside the medical office and the monitoring of adherence may help to identify patients in whom hypertension is truly resistant and so to tailor the measures required to improve the control of blood pressure in the most appropriate manner. PMID:23732152

Waeber, Bernard; Feihl, François

2013-05-01

305

Aerobic production of ethanol. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A computer-controlled continuous culture of yeast converted glucose to ethanol at excellent rates on a per-cell basis. This highly unconventional aerobic bioprocess makes use of oxidoreductive metabolism induced by concentrations of glucose that overload respiratory capacity and dump glucose into the ethanol pathway. Unfortunately, this yeast strain lost this high productivity when ethanol approached the concentrations required by a commercially feasible process. These results point the way for a new method for making ethanol if an organism can be found that is less inhibited by its main product.

Clesceri, L.S.; Bungay, H.R.

1990-01-01

306

ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENT RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION  

PubMed Central

Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced reinforcement. Experiment 1 compared ethanol-induced LMA in adolescent and adult rats. Subsequent experiments analyzed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion in adolescent rats evaluated for ethanol-induced LMA. Adolescent rats exhibit a robust LMA after high-dose ethanol. Ethanol-induced LMA was fairly similar across adolescents and adults. As expected, adolescents were sensitive to ethanol’s aversive reinforcement, but they also exhibited conditioned place preference. These measures of ethanol reinforcement, however, were not related to ethanol-induced LMA. Spontaneous LMA in an open field was, however, negatively associated with ethanol-induced CTA.

Acevedo, Maria Belen; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

2012-01-01

307

Hypertension-induced protein leakage in the brain in ethanol-intoxicated conscious and anesthetized rats.  

PubMed

Ethanol has been shown to aggravate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in cerebral trauma and in cerebral gas embolism, possibly by changing the endothelial cell membrane. No difference in protein extravasation was found between intoxicated and control rats under nitrous oxide anesthesia after the injection of bicuculline, a drug that hemodynamically gives rise to high blood pressure in combination with cerebral vasodilatation. In contrast there was a statistically significant increase in protein leakage in conscious intoxicated rats. The fact that ethanol increased the vulnerability only in conscious rats might indicate that nitrous oxide and ethanol have a common effect on the endothelial cell membranes or that nitrous oxide neutralizes an action of ethanol. Protein leakage induced by acute hypertension is more severe in rats anesthetized with nitrous oxide than in conscious rats, a difference that might to some extent be related to an effect of nitrous oxide on the endothelial cells. Further studies are needed to evaluate the influence of ethanol and nitrous oxide on the endothelial cell membrane. PMID:570339

Johansson, B B; Linder, L E; Persson, L I

1978-12-01

308

Exacerbation of myocardial dysfunction and autonomic imbalance contribute to the estrogen-dependent chronic hypotensive effect of ethanol in female rats  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies showed that the hypotensive effect of chronic ethanol in female rats is reduced by ovariectomy (OVX) rats and was restored after estrogen replacement (OVXE2). Further, in randomly cycling rats, chronic ethanol increased cardiac parasympathetic dominance and subsequently reduced myocardial contractility and blood pressure (BP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in myocardial contractility and sympathovagal control account for the E2 exacerbation of the hemodynamic effects of ethanol. BP, myocardial contractility (+dP/dtmax), and spectral cardiovascular autonomic profiles were evaluated in radiotelemetered OVX, and OVXE2 rats receiving liquid diet with or without ethanol (5%, w/v) for 13 weeks. In OVX rats, ethanol caused modest hypotension along with significant increases in +dP/dtmax during weeks 2–5. The high-frequency (IBIHF, 0.75–3 Hz) and low-frequency (IBILF, 0.25–0.75 Hz) bands of interbeat intervals were briefly increased and decreased, respectively, by ethanol. Compared with its effects in OVX rats, chronic treatment of OVXE2 rats with ethanol elicited significantly greater and more sustained reductions in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures and +dP/dtmax. Altered sympathovagal balance and parasympathetic overactivity were more evident in ethanol-treated OVXE2 rats as suggested by the sustained: (i) increases in high-frequency bands of interbeat intervals (IBIHF, 0.75–3 Hz), and (ii) decreases in low-frequency IBI bands (IBILF, 0.25–0.75 Hz), IBILF/HF ratio and +dP/dtmax. The plasma ethanol concentration was not affected by changes in the hormonal milieu. These findings suggest that estrogen exacerbates the ethanol-evoked reductions in myocardial contractility and BP and the associated parasympathetic overactivity in female rats.

El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.

2012-01-01

309

The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

1972-01-01

310

Cardiovascular autonomic regulation in subjects with normal blood pressure, high-normal blood pressure and recent-onset hypertension.  

PubMed

1. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced in recent-onset hypertension and that pressor responses to standard autonomic reflex tests are not any different in hypertensives compared with normotensives. We also hypothesized that subjects with high-normal blood pressure (BP) would be distinguishable from normotensives on the basis of short-term HRV indices. 2. Three groups of subjects, each consisting of 15 men and 10 women, were examined. The first group consisted of subjects with recent-onset hypertension who were not taking antihypertensive medication (mean (+/-SD) age 50 +/- 12 years; BP >/= 140/90 mmHg), the second group consisted of subjects with high-normal BP (mean age 46 +/- 13 years; BP 130-139/85-89 mmHg) and the third group consisted of subjects with normal BP (mean age 48 +/- 12 years; BP < 120/80 mmHg). The aim was to characterize the autonomic state in each group. 3. Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), indices of short-term HRV during supine rest and quiet standing, HR variation during timed deep breathing (HRVdb) and pressor responses to the cold pressor test and sustained isometric handgrip were compared between the groups. 4. Although the three groups were comparable (P > 0.1) in terms of mean HR and low-frequency (LF) power expressed in normalized units at rest and during quiet standing, the standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN) during supine rest, LF and high-frequency spectral powers during supine rest and HRVdb were lowest in hypertensives (P high-normal BP (P

Prakash, E Sankaranarayanan; Madanmohan; Sethuraman, K Raman; Narayan, Sunil K

2005-01-01

311

Awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control in a rural community in Edo State.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was carried out in Udo, a rural community in Ovia South-west LGA of Edo State to assess the level of awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control. Cluster sampling method was used to select participants and data collection was by researcher administered questionnaire. Blood pressure measurement was by standardized method. A total of 590 respondents with mean age 30.7 +/- 14.6 years participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension was 20.2% using the WHO/ISH criteria of SBP > or = 140 mmHg and/or DBP > or = 90 mmHg. Twenty two (18.5%) of the hypertensives were aware of their high blood pressure status. Awareness was higher in females, increased with age and decreased with higher educational status. Of those aware of their condition, 77.3% were on treatment and ofthese, 29.4% had adequate blood pressure control. This study has revealed a low level of awareness of high blood pressure status and control in this rural community. Therefore, there is urgent need for regular community-based hypertension screening programmes. PMID:18072446

Omuemu, V O; Okojie, O H; Omuemu, C E

2007-09-01

312

Mouse model of chronic and binge ethanol feeding (the NIAAA model)  

PubMed Central

Chronic alcohol consumption is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. currently, the most widely used model for alcoholic liver injury is ad libitum feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol for 4–6 weeks; however, this model, without the addition of a secondary insult, only induces mild steatosis, slight elevation of serum alanine transaminase (alt) and little or no inflammation. Here we describe a simple mouse model of alcoholic liver injury by chronic ethanol feeding (10-d ad libitum oral feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid diet) plus a single binge ethanol feeding. this protocol for chronic-plus-single-binge ethanol feeding synergistically induces liver injury, inflammation and fatty liver, which mimics acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver injury in patients. this feeding protocol can also be extended to chronic feeding for longer periods of time up to 8 weeks plus single or multiple binges. chronic-binge ethanol feeding leads to high blood alcohol levels; thus, this simple model will be very useful for the study of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and of other organs damaged by alcohol consumption.

Bertola, Adeline; Mathews, Stephanie; Ki, Sung Hwan; Wang, Hua; Gao, Bin

2013-01-01

313

High-throughput lens-free blood analysis on a chip.  

PubMed

We present a detailed investigation of the performance of lens-free holographic microscopy toward high-throughput on-chip blood analysis. Using a spatially incoherent source that is emanating from a large aperture, automated counting of red blood cells with minimal sample preparation steps at densities reaching up to approximately 0.4 x 10(6) cells/muL is presented. Using the same lens-free holographic microscopy platform, we also characterize the volume of the red blood cells at the single-cell level through recovery of the optical phase information of each cell. We further demonstrate the measurement of the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood samples as well as automated counting of white blood cells, also yielding spatial resolution at the subcellular level sufficient to differentiate granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes from each other. These results uncover the prospects of lens-free holographic on-chip imaging to provide a useful tool for global health problems, especially by facilitating whole blood analysis in resource-poor environments. PMID:20450181

Seo, Sungkyu; Isikman, Serhan O; Sencan, Ikbal; Mudanyali, Onur; Su, Ting-Wei; Bishara, Waheb; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan

2010-06-01

314

High-Throughput Lens-Free Blood Analysis on a Chip  

PubMed Central

We present a detailed investigation of the performance of lens-free holographic microscopy toward high-throughput on-chip blood analysis. Using a spatially incoherent source that is emanating from a large aperture, automated counting of red blood cells with minimal sample preparation steps at densities reaching up to ~0.4 × 106 cells/?L is presented. Using the same lens-free holographic microscopy platform, we also characterize the volume of the red blood cells at the single-cell level through recovery of the optical phase information of each cell. We further demonstrate the measurement of the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood samples as well as automated counting of white blood cells, also yielding spatial resolution at the subcellular level sufficient to differentiate granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes from each other. These results uncover the prospects of lens-free holographic on-chip imaging to provide a useful tool for global health problems, especially by facilitating whole blood analysis in resource-poor environments.

Seo, Sungkyu; Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Mudanyali, Onur; Su, Ting-Wei; Bishara, Waheb; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan

2010-01-01

315

A lab-on-CD prototype for high-speed blood separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood separation is the first step for subsequent blood tests in clinical diagnosis. Lab-on-a-chip technology provides an automatic, cost-effective and fast solution for a wide variety of blood analyses. The objective of this work is to design a new lab-on-CD microstructure capable of separating blood cells from the whole blood into different reservoirs directly. A CD platform including a microchannel network consisting of a straight main microchannel, a curved microchannel and a branching microchannel has been proposed. The merits of this design are its simple structure, less operating time and high separation efficiency because it utilizes multiple separation mechanisms, for instance, two centrifugal forces and Coriolis force. One centrifugal force is due to the system rotation; the other centrifugal force is due to the curvature of the specifically designed curved channel. In this work, systematical evaluation on the functionality and performance of such a design has been done. Ninety-nine per cent separation efficiency is achieved for diluted blood of 6% hematocrit.

Zhang, Jinlong; Guo, Qiuquan; Liu, Mei; Yang, Jun

2008-12-01

316

Enzyme hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of liquid hot water and AFEX pretreated distillers' grains at high-solids loadings.  

PubMed

The dry milling ethanol industry produces distiller's grains as major co-products, which are composed of unhydrolyzed and unfermented polymeric sugars. Utilization of the distiller's grains as an additional source of fermentable sugars has the potential to increase overall ethanol yields in current dry grind processes. In this study, controlled pH liquid hot water pretreatment (LHW) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) treatment have been applied to enhance enzymatic digestibility of the distiller's grains. Both pretreatment methods significantly increased the hydrolysis rate of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) over unpretreated material, resulting in 90% cellulose conversion to glucose within 24h of hydrolysis at an enzyme loading of 15FPU cellulase and 40 IU beta-glucosidase per gram of glucan and a solids loading of 5% DDGS. Hydrolysis of the pretreated wet distiller's grains at 13-15% (wt of dry distiller's grains per wt of total mixture) solids loading at the same enzyme reduced cellulose conversion to 70% and increased conversion time to 72h for both LHW and AFEX pretreatments. However, when the cellulase was supplemented with xylanase and feruloyl esterase, the pretreated wet distiller's grains at 15% or 20% solids (w/w) gave 80% glucose and 50% xylose yields. The rationale for supplementation of cellulases with non-cellulolytic enzymes is given by Dien et al., later in this journal volume. Fermentation of the hydrolyzed wet distiller's grains by glucose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 4124 strain resulted in 100% theoretical ethanol yields for both LHW and AFEX pretreated wet distiller's grains. The solids remaining after fermentation had significantly higher protein content and are representative of a protein-enhanced wet DG that would result in enhanced DDGS. Enhanced DDGS refers to the solid product of a modified dry grind process in which the distiller's grains are recycled and processed further to extract the unutilized polymeric sugars. Compositional changes of the laboratory generated enhanced DDGS are also presented and discussed. PMID:18023338

Kim, Youngmi; Hendrickson, Rick; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R; Bals, Bryan; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

2008-08-01

317

Nutrient-enhanced production of remarkably high concentrations of ethanol by Saccharomyces bayanus through soy flour supplementation  

SciTech Connect

The supplementation of a simple medium with soy flour led to an increase in the specific growth rate and viable cell concentration of saccharomyces bayanus during fermentation. Increasing the amount of soy flour led to an increase in the maximum number of viable yeast cells and the percentage of glucose fermented. It was possible in 64 h to reach 12.8% (wt/vol) ethanol by adding 4% soy flour (wt/vol) to a simple medium with 300 g of glucose per liter. The aqueous extract from soy flour was nearly as effective as whole-soy flour, whereas the lipidic fraction had no positive effect.

Viegas, C.A.; Sa-Correia, I.; Novais, J.M.

1985-11-01

318

Composition and properties of basic high molecular weight impurities in waste waters from ethanol and fodder yeast production from wood biomass processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the composition and properties of impurities of waste waters from ethanol and fodder yeast production shows that about 76% of impurities are retained in the ethanol-soluble fraction. Colloidal waste impurity particles average about 670 nm diameter. When designing water recycling schemes for ethanol and fodder yeast production by wood biomass hydrolytic and biotechnological processing, particular attention should be

Andrew V. Grammatikov; Howard D. Mettee

319

Is lead considered as a risk factor for high blood pressure during menopause period among Saudi women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case–control study was designed to examine the association between blood lead levels and high blood pressure in a restricted subpopulation, Saudi women who were 45–93-year old, during or after menopausal period and not occupationally exposed to lead. Blood lead levels were assessed in 100 women with hypertension and 85 control subjects. Lead concentrations were measured in the whole blood

Iman Al-Saleh; Neptune Shinwari; Abdulla Mashhour; Gamal El-Din Mohamed; Mohammad Abu Ghosh; Zaki Shammasi; Abdulaziz Al-Nasser

2005-01-01

320

High thermal sensitivity of blood enhances oxygen delivery in the high-flying bar-headed goose.  

PubMed

The bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) crosses the Himalaya twice a year at altitudes where oxygen (O2) levels are less than half those at sea level and temperatures are below -20°C. Although it has been known for over three decades that the major hemoglobin (Hb) component of bar-headed geese has an increased affinity for O2, enhancing O2 uptake, the effects of temperature and interactions between temperature and pH on bar-headed goose Hb-O2 affinity have not previously been determined. An increase in breathing of the hypoxic and extremely cold air experienced by a bar-headed goose at altitude (due to the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response in this species) could result in both reduced temperature and reduced levels of CO2 at the blood-gas interface in the lungs, enhancing O2 loading. In addition, given the strenuous nature of flapping flight, particularly in thin air, blood leaving the exercising muscle should be warm and acidotic, facilitating O2 unloading. To explore the possibility that features of blood biochemistry in this species could further enhance O2 delivery, we determined the P50 (the partial pressure of O2 at which Hb is 50% saturated) of whole blood from bar-headed geese under conditions of varying temperature and [CO2]. We found that blood-O2 affinity was highly temperature sensitive in bar-headed geese compared with other birds and mammals. Based on our analysis, temperature and pH effects acting on blood-O2 affinity (cold alkalotic lungs and warm acidotic muscle) could increase O2 delivery by twofold during sustained flapping flight at high altitudes compared with what would be delivered by blood at constant temperature and pH. PMID:23470665

Meir, Jessica U; Milsom, William K

2013-06-15

321

Risk factors for high blood lead levels among the general populationin Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Environmental and occupational lead pollution is a common problem in both developing and industrialized countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk factors for high blood lead levels among the general population in Taiwan. Methods: After multi-stage sampling, we randomly selected 2803 subjects (1471 males and 1332 females) for this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression

N. F. Chu; S. H. Liou; T. N. Wu; K. N. Ko; P. Y. Chang

1998-01-01

322

High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report offers a patient-based approach to lowering blood cholesterol levels which seeks to identify individuals at high risk who will benefit from intensive intervention efforts. The goal is to establish criteria that define the candidates for medical intervention and to provide guidelines on how to detect, set goals for, treat, and monitor…

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

323

High Blood Pressure Medicines Show Promise for Treating Heart Disease. Research Activities, No. 352, December 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two medications typically used to treat high blood pressure appear to be effective in treating a common type of heart disease known as stable ischemic heart disease, according to a new comparative effectiveness review funded by the Agency for Healthcare R...

2009-01-01

324

High transcytosis of melanotransferrin (P97) across the blood-brain barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) performs a neuroprotective function by tightly controlling access to the brain; consequently it also impedes access of proteins as well as pharmacological agents to cerebral tissues. We demonstrate here that recom- binant human melanotransferrin (P97) is highly accumulated into the mouse brain following intravenous injection and in situ brain perfusion. Moreover, P97 transcytosis across bovine brain

Michel Demeule; Julie Poirier; Julie Jodoin; Richard R. Desrosiers; Claude Dagenais; Tran Nguyen; Julie Lanthier; Reinhard Gabathuler; Malcolm Kennard; Wilfred A. Jefferies; Delara Karkan; Sam Tsai; Laurence Fenart; Romeo Cecchelli; Richard Beliveau

325

High blood Pressure in children and its correlation with three definitions of obesity in childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Several authors have correlated the increase of cardiovascular risk with the nutritional status, however there are different criteria for the classification of overweight and obesity in children. Objectives To evaluate the performance of three nutritional classification criteria in children, as definers of the presence of obesity and predictors of high blood pressure in schoolchildren. Methods Eight hundred and seventeen children ranging 6 to 13 years old, enrolled in public schools in the municipality of Vila Velha (ES) were submitted to anthropometric evaluation and blood pressure measurement. The classification of the nutritional status was established by two international criteria (CDC/NCHS 2000 and IOTF 2000) and one Brazilian criterion (Conde e Monteiro 2006). Results The prevalence of overweight was higher when the criterion of Conde e Monteiro (27%) was used, and inferior by the IOTF (15%) criteria. High blood pressure was observed in 7.3% of children. It was identified a strong association between the presence of overweight and the occurrence of high blood pressure, regardless of the test used (p < 0.001). The test showing the highest sensitivity in predicting elevated BP was the Conde e Monteiro (44%), while the highest specificity (94%) and greater overall accuracy (63%), was the CDC criterion. Conclusions The prevalence of overweight in Brazilian children is higher when using the classification criterion of Conde e Monteiro, and lower when the criterion used is IOTF. The Brazilian classification criterion proved to be the most sensitive predictor of high BP risk in this sample.

de Moraes, Leonardo Iezzi; Nicola, Thais Coutinho; de Jesus, Julyanna Silva Araujo; Alves, Eduardo Roberty Badiani; Giovaninni, Nayara Paula Bernurdes; Marcato, Daniele Gasparini; Sampaio, Jessica Dutra; Fuly, Jeanne Teixeira Bessa; Costalonga, Everlayny Fiorot

2014-01-01

326

Early detection and management of the high-risk patient with elevated blood pressure.  

PubMed

Severe or important blood pressure elevations are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a significant proportion of myocardial infarctions and strokes occur in subjects with only slight elevations or even with normal blood pressure. Both the coexistence of other cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes or dyslipidemia, or those recently recognized, such as elevations of C-reactive protein or abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, or the presence of target organ damage, such as microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy, mild renal dysfunction or increased intima-media thickness, all indicate the existence of a high cardiovascular risk in mild hypertensives or in subjects with normal or high-normal blood pressure. Unfortunately, these high-risk patients are often not recognized and thus under-treated. The 2003 European Societies of Hypertension and Cardiology guidelines emphasize the importance of a complete risk assessment and stratification in subjects at all blood pressure categories. The search for other cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage should be encouraged. Identification of these high-risk patients may allow an earlier indication for antihypertensive treatment and for correction of all cardiovascular risk factors. The objective would be to impair the progression or to induce the regression of silent vascular damage before a clinical event develops. PMID:18561504

Sierra, Cristina; de la Sierra, Alejandro

2008-01-01

327

Risk of High Blood Pressure Among Young Men Increases With the Degree of Immaturity at Birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Survivors of preterm birth constitute a new generation of young adults, but little is known about their long-term health. We investigated the association between gestational age (GA) and risk of high blood pressure (HBP) in young Swedish men and whether GA modified the risk of HBP; ie, whether HBP was related to being born small for gestational age (SGA). Methods

Stefan Johansson; Anastasia Iliadou; Niklas Bergvall; Torsten Tuvemo; Mikael Norman; Sven Cnattingius

2010-01-01

328

Early detection and management of the high-risk patient with elevated blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Severe or important blood pressure elevations are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a significant proportion of myocardial infarctions and strokes occur in subjects with only slight elevations or even with normal blood pressure. Both the coexistence of other cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes or dyslipidemia, or those recently recognized, such as elevations of C-reactive protein or abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, or the presence of target organ damage, such as microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy, mild renal dysfunction or increased intima-media thickness, all indicate the existence of a high cardiovascular risk in mild hypertensives or in subjects with normal or high-normal blood pressure. Unfortunately, these high-risk patients are often not recognized and thus under-treated. The 2003 European Societies of Hypertension and Cardiology guidelines emphasize the importance of a complete risk assessment and stratification in subjects at all blood pressure categories. The search for other cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage should be encouraged. Identification of these high-risk patients may allow an earlier indication for antihypertensive treatment and for correction of all cardiovascular risk factors. The objective would be to impair the progression or to induce the regression of silent vascular damage before a clinical event develops.

Sierra, Cristina; de la Sierra, Alejandro

2008-01-01

329

Family History Fails to Detect the Majority of Children with High Capillary Blood Total Cholesterol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the predictive value of family history in detecting children with high blood cholesterol, finger-stick screening was done in children (n=1,118) ages 9-10 with parental and grandparental history of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Findings showed that screening only children with positive family histories will leave most problems…

Davidson, Dennis M.; And Others

1991-01-01

330

Postmortem ethanol in the setting of ethanol-containing automotive fuel.  

PubMed

The pilot of a light aircraft that crashed after a loss of power was found to have ethanol in the vitreous and the blood, but almost none in the urine. The globes of the eyes were intact, and the body was refrigerated after recovery until the autopsy was performed the following morning. The pilot was described as a "nondrinker," and additional specialized toxicology testing results were inconsistent with ethanol ingestion. The pilot's body was extensively exposed to fuel during the prolonged extraction. Investigation determined that the aircraft had been fueled with gasoline that contained 10% ethanol. Although exposure to automotive fuel has not been previously described as a source of ethanol in postmortem specimens, it may represent a source for the ethanol detected during postmortem toxicology testing in this case, and this finding may be relevant to other cases with similar exposure. PMID:22835972

Garber, Mitchell A; Canfield, Dennis V; Lewis, Russell J; Simmons, Samuel D; Radisch, Deborah L

2013-03-01

331

Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ? 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually assaulted attending our SAC. PMID:23910880

Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

2013-08-01

332

Impairment of the Intestinal Barrier by Ethanol Involves Enteric Microflora and Mast Cell Activation in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Alcohol hepatic toxicity in heavy drinkers is associated with high endotoxin blood levels and increased intestinal permeability. Because endotoxins can cross damaged mucosa, we investigated the mechanisms through which ethanol impairs the colonic epithelium of rats submitted to acute alcohol intake. Colonic permeability to 51Cr-ethylenediamintetraacetic acid was increased 24 hours after 3.0 g/kg ethanol intake (3.2 ± 0.2% versus 2.2 ± 0.2%) and was associated with significant endotoxemia. Antibiotics and doxantrazole (a mast cell membrane stabilizer) significantly inhibited the effect of ethanol. Two hours after intake, plasma concentrations of ethanol were twofold higher in antibiotic-treated rats than in controls (155.8 ± 9.3 mg/dl versus 75.7 ± 7.6 mg/dl, P < 0.001). Lumenal concentrations of acetaldehyde were markedly increased after ethanol intake (132.6 ± 31.6 ?mol/L versus 20.8 ± 1.4 ?mol/L, P < 0.05) and antibiotics diminished this increase (86.2 ± 10.9 ?mol/L). In colonic samples mounted in Ussing chambers, acetaldehyde but not ethanol increased dextran flux across the mucosa by 54%. Doxantrazole inhibited the effect of acetaldehyde. This study demonstrates that an acute and moderate ethanol intake alters the epithelial barrier through ethanol oxidation into acetaldehyde by the colonic microflora and downstream mast cell activation. Such alterations that remain for longer periods could result in excessive endotoxin passage, which could explain the subsequent endotoxemia frequently observed in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

Ferrier, Laurent; Berard, Florian; Debrauwer, Laurent; Chabo, Chantal; Langella, Philippe; Bueno, Lionel; Fioramonti, Jean

2006-01-01

333

Liver and Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Obtained at Autopsy Are Postmortem Markers for Premortem Ethanol Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are nonoxi- dative ethanol metabolites that have been implicated as mediators of alcohol-induced organ damage. FAEEs are detectable in the blood after ethanol ingestion, and on that basis have been proposed as markers of ethanol intake. Because blood is not always available at autopsy, in this study we quantified FAEEs in human liver and

Majed A. Refaai; Phan N. Nguyen; Thora S. Steffensen; Richard J. Evans; Joanne E. Cluette-Brown; Michael Laposata

2002-01-01

334

Improving the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by laccase during ethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw at high-substrate loadings.  

PubMed

Operating the saccharification and fermentation processes at high-substrate loadings is a key factor for making ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass economically viable. However, increasing the substrate loading presents some disadvantages, including a higher concentration of inhibitors (furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds) in the media, which negatively affect the fermentation performance. One strategy to eliminate soluble inhibitors is filtering and washing the pretreated material. In this study, it was observed that even if the material was previously washed, inhibitory compounds were released during the enzymatic hydrolysis step. Laccase enzymatic treatment was evaluated as a method to reduce these inhibitory effects. The laccase efficiency was analyzed in a presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process at high-substrate loadings. Water-insoluble solids fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw was used as substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as fermenting microorganism. Laccase supplementation reduced strongly the phenolic content in the media, without affecting weak acids and furan derivatives. This strategy resulted in an improved yeast performance during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, increasing significantly ethanol productivity. PMID:23143932

Alvira, Pablo; Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Mercedes

2013-01-01

335

Adding value to carbon dioxide from ethanol fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) from ethanol production facilities is increasing as more ethanol is produced for alternative transportation fuels. CO2 produced from ethanol fermentation processes is of high purity and is nearly a saturated gas. Such highly-concentrated source of CO2 is a potential candidate for capture and utilization by the CO2 industry. Quantity, quality and capture of CO2 from ethanol fermentations

Yixiang Xu; Loren Isom; Milford A. Hanna

2010-01-01

336

Four Cases of Abnormal Neuropsychological Findings in Children with High Blood Methylmercury Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background Methylmercury (MeHg) easily crosses the blood–brain barrier and accumulates in the brain. Accumulated MeHg will cause neurological symptoms. We report four pediatric cases of neuropsychological findings with high blood MeHg concentrations. Case presentation Four children were admitted for follow-up study because their total mercury (THg) concentration in the blood was found to be high during a national survey. Case 1 was a 9-year-old female with a 16.6??g/? blood THg concentration in the survey. During admission, the blood THg, hair THg, and blood MeHg concentration(mercury indices) were 21.4??g/?, 7.2??g/g, and 20.1??g/?, respectively. In our neuropsychological examination, cognitive impairment and attention deficit were observed. Her diet included fish intake 2–3 times per week, and she had been diagnosed with epilepsy at 3 years of age. Case 2 was a 12-year-old male with blood THg of 15.4??g/? in the survey and the mercury indices were 12.7??g/?, 5.7??g/g, and 11.8??g/?, respectively, on admission. He was also observed to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Case 3 was a 10-year-old male child with blood THg of 17.4??g/? in the survey, and the mercury indices on admission were 21.6??g/?, 7.5??g/g and 21.5??g/?, respectively. In his case, mild attention deficit was observed. Case 4 was a 9-year-old male with blood THg of 20.6??g/? in the survey and the mercury indices were 18.9??g/?, 8.3??g/g, and 14.4??g/?, respectively, on admission. Mild attention difficulty was observed. Conclusion We suggest that fish consumption may be the main source of MeHg exposure, and that MeHg may have been the cause of the neuropsychological deficits in these cases.

2013-01-01

337

Ethanol Inhibitory Effect on Rat Kidney Brush Border Aminopeptidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Confusing data have been reported about the effect of ethanol or its metabolic products on blood pressure. The pressor agent, angiotensin II (Ang II), is found to be susceptible to degradation by different enzymes known as angiotensinases. We have studied the effects of ethanol and L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, consumption on rat serum and kidney ectoenzymes:

2007-01-01

338

Medroxyprogesterone at High Altitude. The Effects on Blood Gases, Cerebral Regional Oxygenation, and Acute Mountain Sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.—To study the effect of medroxyprogesterone on blood gases and cerebral regional ox- ygenation at high altitude, alone and in conjunction with acetazolamide, and to assess the effect on acute mountain sickness (AMS). Design.—Two placebo-controlled trials during rapid ascent to high altitude. Participants.—In the first trial, 20 participants, and in the second trial, 24 participants. Setting.—During rapid ascent to 4680

Alex D. Wright; Margaret F. Beazley; Arthur R. Bradwell; Ian M. Chesner; Richard N. Clayton; Peter J. G. Forster; Peter Hillenbrand; Christopher H. E. Imray

2004-01-01

339

Relationship of parental history of high blood pressure to blood pressure: combined findings of three Japanese population samples, the INTERSALT study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of parental history of high blood pressure (HBP) to blood pressure (BP) was estimated in three Japanese population samples, totalling 591 men and women aged 20–59 years, from the INTERSALT study. Parental history of HBP was defined as reported HBP by their father and\\/or mother. With adjustment for antihypertensive medication, body mass index, alcohol intake, and Na\\/K ratio

Y Naruse; H Nakagawa; S Kagamimori; Y Fujita; T Hashimoto; T Kasamatsu; K Mikawa; H Ueshima

1998-01-01

340

Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... Hospital Is there a risk for low blood sugar? Low blood sugar (defined as a blood sugar ... after your hospital stay. What are the blood sugar targets in the hospital? Health care providers want ...

341

Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation  

PubMed Central

We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver.

Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J. M. A.

2014-01-01

342

Genetic Predisposition to High Blood Pressure Associates With Cardiovascular Complications Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D) commonly coexist, and both conditions are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to high blood pressure and risk of CVD in individuals with T2D. The current study included 1,005 men and 1,299 women with T2D from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses’ Health Study, of whom 732 developed CVD. A genetic predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 29 established blood pressure–associated variants. The genetic predisposition score showed consistent associations with risk of CVD in men and women. In the combined results, each additional blood pressure–increasing allele was associated with a 6% increased risk of CVD (odds ratio [OR] 1.06 [95% CI 1.03–1.10]). The OR was 1.62 (1.22–2.14) for risk of CVD comparing the extreme quartiles of the genetic predisposition score. The genetic association for CVD risk was significantly stronger in patients with T2D than that estimated in the general populations by a meta-analysis (OR per SD of genetic score 1.22 [95% CI 1.10–1.35] vs. 1.10 [1.08–1.12]; I2 = 71%). Our data indicate that genetic predisposition to high blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of CVD in individuals with T2D.

Qi, Qibin; Forman, John P.; Jensen, Majken K.; Flint, Alan; Curhan, Gary C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

2012-01-01

343

A Convenient Method for Measuring Blood Ascorbate Concentrations in Patients Receiving High-Dose Intravenous Ascorbate  

PubMed Central

Objective A simple method of using fingerstick blood glucose monitors (FSBG) to estimate blood ascorbate values after high-dose intravenous (IV) ascorbate infusion is evaluated as a substitution for HPLC measurement. Methods In 33 participants, readings from FSBG were taken before and after IV ascorbate infusions at various time points, with the post-infusion FSBG readings subtracted by the baseline glucose readings. The results of the subtractions (AAFSBG) were correlated with ascorbate concentrations detected by HPLC (AAHPLC). Results A linear regression was found between ascorbate concentrations detected by the fingersitck method (AAFSBG) and by HPLC (AAHPLC). The linear correlations were identical in healthy subjects, diabetic subjects and cancer patients. ANOVA analysis obtained an AAFSBG/AAHPLC ratio of 0.90, with 90% confidence interval of (0.69, 1.20). The corrections of AAFSBG improved similarity to AAHPLC, but did not significantly differ from the un-corrected values. Conclusion The FSBG method can be used as an approximate estimation of high blood ascorbate concentration after IV ascorbate (>50 mg/dL, or 2.8 mM) without correction. However this measurement is not accurate in detecting lower or baseline blood ascorbate. It is also important to highlight that in regard to glucose monitoring, FSBG readings will be erroneously elevated following intravenous ascorbate use and insulin should not be administered to patients based on these readings.

Ma, Yan; Sullivan, Garrett G; Schrick, Elizabeth; Choi, In-Young; He, Zhuoya; Lierman, JoAnn; Lee, Phil; Drisko, Jeanne A; Chen, Qi

2013-01-01

344

High-throughput rare cell separation from blood samples using steric hindrance and inertial microfluidics.  

PubMed

The presence and quantity of rare cells in the bloodstream of cancer patients provide a potentially accessible source for the early detection of invasive cancer and for monitoring the treatment of advanced diseases. The separation of rare cells from peripheral blood, as a "virtual and real-time liquid biopsy", is expected to replace conventional tissue biopsies of metastatic tumors for therapy guidance. However, technical obstacles, similar to looking for a needle in a haystack, have hindered the broad clinical utility of this method. In this study, we developed a multistage microfluidic device for continuous label-free separation and enrichment of rare cells from blood samples based on cell size and deformability. We successfully separated tumor cells (MCF-7 and HeLa cells) and leukemic (K562) cells spiked in diluted whole blood using a unique complementary combination of inertial microfluidics and steric hindrance in a microfluidic system. The processing parameters of the inertial focusing and steric hindrance regions were optimized to achieve high-throughput and high-efficiency separation, significant advantages compared with existing rare cell isolation technologies. The results from experiments with rare cells spiked in 1% hematocrit blood indicated >90% cell recovery at a throughput of 2.24 × 10(7) cells min(-1). The enrichment of rare cells was >2.02 × 10(5)-fold. Thus, this microfluidic system driven by purely hydrodynamic forces has practical potential to be applied either alone or as a sample preparation platform for fundamental studies and clinical applications. PMID:24862501

Shen, Shaofei; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yaolei; Wang, Jian-Chun; Xu, Juan; Li, Tianbao; Pang, Long; Wang, Jinyi

2014-06-17

345

Managing your blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) Plan ...

346

Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

Beaufrère, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

2013-09-01

347

Ethanol production method and system  

DOEpatents

Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

1983-05-26

348

Efficacy of a church-based lifestyle intervention programme to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose in church members: a randomized controlled trial in Pretoria, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In persons 15 years and above in South Africa the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes has been estimated at 9.1% and 9.6%, respectively, and the prevalence of systolic prehypertension and hypertension, 38.2% and 24.6%, respectively. Elevated blood glucose and elevated blood pressure are prototype of preventable chronic cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lifestyle interventions have been shown to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose. Methods/Design This study proposes to evaluate the efficacy of a community (church)-based lifestyle intervention programme to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose in church members in a randomized controlled trial in Gauteng, South Africa. The objectives are to: (1) measure non-communicable diseases profile, including hypertension and diabetes, health behaviours, weight management and psychological distress of church members; (2) measure the reduction of blood glucose and blood pressure levels after the intervention; (3) prevent the development of impaired glucose tolerance; (4) compare health behaviours, weight management and psychological distress, blood glucose and blood pressure levels between intervention and control groups, and within group during 6, 12, 24 and 36 months during and post intervention. The study will use a group-randomized design, recruiting 300 church members from 12 churches. Churches will be randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions. Discussion Lifestyle interventions may prevent from the development of high blood pressure and/or diabetes. The findings will impact public health and will enable the health ministry to formulate policy related to lifestyle interventions to control blood pressure and glucose. Trial registration number PACTR201105000297151

2014-01-01

349

How Family, Community, and Work Structured High Blood Pressure AccountsFrom African Americans in Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure is one of the most often researched, yet least understood health disparities among African Americans. This descriptive, critical discourse analysis examined how family and community demographics and paid and unpaid work structured participants' accounts of high blood pressure experiences in Washington State. Thirty-seven urban-dwelling African American women (n = 17) and men (n = 20) in Washington

Doris M. Boutain; Clarence Spigner

2008-01-01

350

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National High Blood Pressure Education Program presents the complete Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Like its predecessors, the purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of hypertension. The key messages of this report are these: in those older than age 50, systolic

Aram V. Chobanian; George L. Bakris; Henry R. Black; William C. Cushman; Lee A. Green; Joseph L. Izzo; Daniel W. Jones; Barry J. Materson; Jackson T. Wright

351

INCREASING CORN THROUGHPUT IN DRY GRIND PROCESS FOR ETHANOL PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a conventional dry grind process, corn is ground and mixed with water to produce slurry. The slurry is cooked; starch in the slurry is liquefied, simultaneously saccharified and fermented to produce ethanol. Typical solids during slurry preparation range from 30 to 34%. Higher solids result in higher ethanol concentration. High final ethanol concentration improves plant profitability by increasing plant

Vijay Singh; Jameel Shihadeh; Kent D. Rausch; M. E. Tumbleson

2011-01-01

352

Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil. There are mainly two processes involved in the conversion: hydrolysis of cellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass to produce reducing sugars, and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is relatively high based on current technologies,

Ye Sun; Jiayang Cheng

2002-01-01

353

Differential modulation by vascular nitric oxide synthases of the ethanol-evoked hypotension and autonomic dysfunction in female rats  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that chronic exposure to ethanol lowers blood pressure (BP) via altering cardiac contractility and autonomic control in female rats. In this investigation we conducted pharmacological and molecular studies to elucidate the role of constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in these hemodynamic effects of ethanol. Changes caused by selective inhibition of eNOS [N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine; L-NIO], nNOS (N?-propyl-L-arginine; NPLA), or iNOS (1400W) in BP, heart rate (HR), myocardial contractility index (dP/dtmax), and power spectral indices of hemodynamic variability were evaluated in telemetered female rats receiving ethanol (5%, w/v) or control liquid diet for 8 weeks. Ethanol increased plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and enhanced the phosphorylation of eNOS and nNOS, but not iNOS, in the tail artery. Ethanol also reduced BP, +dP/dtmax, low-frequency bands of interbeat intervals (IBILF, 0.25–0.75 Hz) and IBILF/HF ratio while high-frequency bands (IBIHF, 0.75–3 Hz) were increased, suggesting parasympathetic overactivity. L-NIO (20 mg/kg i.p.) caused greater increases in BP in control than in ethanol-fed rats but elicited similar reductions in IBILF/HF and +dP/dtmax both groups. NPLA (1 mg/kg i.p.) caused minimal effects in control rats but exacerbated the reductions in BP, +dP/dtmax, and IBILF/HF in ethanol-fed rats. No hemodynamic modifications were caused by 1400W (5 mg/kg i.p.) in either rat group. Together, these findings suggest that nNOS acts tonically to offset the detrimental cardiovascular actions of ethanol in female rats, and the enhanced vascular NO bioavailability may explain the blunted L-NIO evoked pressor response in ethanol-fed rats.

El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; Fan, Ming; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.

2012-01-01

354

Metabolic engineering to improve ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoanaerobacter mathranii can produce ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass at high temperatures, but its biotechnological exploitation will require\\u000a metabolic engineering to increase its ethanol yield. With a cofactor-dependent ethanol production pathway in T. mathranii, it may become crucial to regenerate cofactor to increase the ethanol yield. Feeding the cells with a more reduced carbon\\u000a source, such as mannitol, was shown to

Shuo Yao; Marie Just Mikkelsen

2010-01-01

355

High frequency photoacoustic imaging for in vivo visualizing blood flow of zebrafish heart  

PubMed Central

A technique on high frame rate(28fps), high frequency co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for visualizing zebrafish heart blood flow was demonstrated. This approach was achieved with a 40MHz light weight(0.38g) ring-type transducer, serving as the ultrasound transmitter and receiver, to allow an optic fiber, coupled with a 532nm laser, to be inserted into the hole. From the wire target study, axial resolutions of 38µm and 42µm were obtained for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging, respectively. Carbon nanotubes were utilized as contrast agents to increase the flow signal level by 20dB in phantom studies, and zebrafish heart blood flow was successfully observed.

Park, Jinhyoung; Cummins, Thomas M.; Harrison, Michael; Lee, Jungwoo; Zhou, Qifa; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

2013-01-01

356

High frequency photoacoustic imaging for in vivo visualizing blood flow of zebrafish heart.  

PubMed

A technique on high frame rate(28fps), high frequency co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for visualizing zebrafish heart blood flow was demonstrated. This approach was achieved with a 40MHz light weight(0.38g) ring-type transducer, serving as the ultrasound transmitter and receiver, to allow an optic fiber, coupled with a 532nm laser, to be inserted into the hole. From the wire target study, axial resolutions of 38µm and 42µm were obtained for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging, respectively. Carbon nanotubes were utilized as contrast agents to increase the flow signal level by 20dB in phantom studies, and zebrafish heart blood flow was successfully observed. PMID:23787651

Park, Jinhyoung; Cummins, Thomas M; Harrison, Michael; Lee, Jungwoo; Zhou, Qifa; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K Kirk

2013-06-17

357

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of ribavirin in whole blood to assess disposition in erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Ribavirin is an antiviral agent used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. One of the limitations associated with the use of ribavirin is a reversible anemia caused by its accumulation in erythrocytes. Therefore, it is of interest to determine ribavirin levels in erythrocytes, as well as in plasma, as these measurements may be predictive of hematotoxicity. In the present study, we describe a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay for ribavirin in whole blood to estimate concentrations of free ribavirin and phosphorylated anabolites in erythrocytes. Since ribavirin exists primarily as phosphorylated anabolites (mono-, di-, and triphosphates) in erythrocytes, whole-blood extracts were initially dephosphorylated with acid phosphatase. The enzyme-treated samples were subjected to phenyl boronic acid column extraction for cleanup. The purified fraction was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, which was optimized for determination of ribavirin levels in whole blood. The recoveries of ribavirin from whole blood ranged from 63.1 to 90.7% at concentrations ranging from 1.67 to 40.0 microM. Intra- and interassay variations estimated at these concentrations were 3.2 to 10.4 and 4.7 to 11.7%, respectively. This method was used to quantitate ribavirin in samples both treated and untreated with acid phosphatase to estimate the extent of intracellular phosphorylation in erythrocytes. The method was also used to evaluate the effects of dipyridamole, a nucleoside transporter inhibitor, on ribavirin disposition in erythrocytes in in vitro experiments. PMID:10543752

Homma, M; Jayewardene, A L; Gambertoglio, J; Aweeka, F

1999-11-01

358

The Blood Lactate Increase in High Intensity Exercise Is Depressed by Acanthopanax sieboldianus  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the anti-fatigue effects of Acanthopanax sieboldianus (A. sieboldianus) at various exercise intensities. Two experiments were conducted in 18 Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, a three-stage increment test (15 m/min for 5 min, and 20 m/min for 5 min and 25 m/min for 10 min) was performed using a treadmill. In Experiment 2, a 10-min swimming test was conducted. Blood samples were extracted from each rat before, during and after the exercises and the blood concentrations of lactate and glucose measured. In both experiments, water (control) or A. sieboldianus solution (ASS) was administered orally using a zonde 30 min before the exercise. In the swimming test, ASS administration significantly decreased the blood lactate level measured at the end of the exercise and 5 min post-exercise relative to the water group, although the two groups did not differ significantly in the treadmill test. Our study demonstrates that a single oral administration of A. sieboldianus prior to high-intensity exercise significantly decreases the blood lactate concentration suggesting that A. sieboldianus has an intrinsic anti-fatigue effect.

Kato, Morimasa; Kurakane, Shizue; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Park, Jaeyoung; Chang, Hyukki

2013-01-01

359

The blood lactate increase in high intensity exercise is depressed by Acanthopanax sieboldianus.  

PubMed

This study investigates the anti-fatigue effects of Acanthopanax sieboldianus (A. sieboldianus) at various exercise intensities. Two experiments were conducted in 18 Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, a three-stage increment test (15 m/min for 5 min, and 20 m/min for 5 min and 25 m/min for 10 min) was performed using a treadmill. In Experiment 2, a 10-min swimming test was conducted. Blood samples were extracted from each rat before, during and after the exercises and the blood concentrations of lactate and glucose measured. In both experiments, water (control) or A. sieboldianus solution (ASS) was administered orally using a zonde 30 min before the exercise. In the swimming test, ASS administration significantly decreased the blood lactate level measured at the end of the exercise and 5 min post-exercise relative to the water group, although the two groups did not differ significantly in the treadmill test. Our study demonstrates that a single oral administration of A. sieboldianus prior to high-intensity exercise significantly decreases the blood lactate concentration suggesting that A. sieboldianus has an intrinsic anti-fatigue effect. PMID:24135965

Kato, Morimasa; Kurakane, Shizue; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Park, Jaeyoung; Chang, Hyukki

2013-10-01

360

Combining radiofrequency ablation and ethanol injection may achieve comparable long-term outcomes in larger hepatocellular carcinoma (3.1-4 cm) and in high-risk locations.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is more effective for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) < 3 cm. Combining percutaneous ethanol injection and RFA for HCC can increase ablation; however, the long-term outcome remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare long-term outcomes between patients with HCC of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4 cm and in high-risk versus non-high-risk locations after combination therapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival and the secondary endpoint was local tumor progression (LTP). Fifty-four consecutive patients with 72 tumors were enrolled. Twenty-two (30.6%) tumors and 60 (83.3%) tumors were of 3.1-4 cm and in high-risk locations, respectively. Primary technique effectiveness was comparable between HCC of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4 cm (98% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.521), and HCC in non-high risk and high-risk locations (100% vs. 96.7%, p = 1.000). The cumulative survival rates at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 90.3%, 78.9%, and 60.3%, respectively, in patients with HCC of 2-3 cm; 95.0%, 84.4%, and 69.3% in HCC of 3.1-4.0 cm (p = 0.397); 90.0%, 71.1%, and 71.1% in patients with HCC in non-high-risk locations; and 92.7%, 81.6%, and 65.4% in high-risk locations (p = 0.979). The cumulative LTP rates at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 10.2%, 32.6%, and 32.6%, respectively, in all HCCs; 12.6%, 33.9%, and 33.9% in HCC of 2-3 cm; 4.8%, 29.5%, and 29.5% in HCC of 3.1-4 cm (p = 0.616); 16.7%, 50.0%, and 50.0% in patients with HCC in non-high-risk locations; and 8.8%, 29.9%, and 29.9% in patients with HCC in high-risk locations (p = 0.283). The cumulative survival and LTP rates were not significantly different among the various subgroups. Combining RFA and percutaneous ethanol injection achieved comparable long-term outcomes in HCCs of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4.0 cm and in high-risk versus non-high-risk locations. A randomized controlled or cohort studies with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:25002377

Lin, Ji-Wei; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Shi-Ming

2014-08-01

361

Early blood-brain barrier disruption after high-dose single-fraction irradiation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We studied the effect of high-dose single-fraction irradiation on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rat brains. Immunohistochemistry with an antibody to serum albumin was used as a sensitive method for detecting the extravasation of endogenous serum components. Extravasation of albumin was detected as early as 1 day after irradiation with 20 or 40 Gy. Immunoreactivity reached

H. Nakata; T. Yoshimine; A. Murasawa; E. Kumura; K. Harada; Y. Ushio; T. Hayakawa

1995-01-01

362

New Study Suggests Link Between Chronic Estrogen Exposure and High Blood Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Press release on a new study that links chronic estrogen exposure to high blood pressure. This study, "Chronic Estradiol-17B Exposure Increases Superoxide Production in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) and Causes Hypertension: Reversal by Resveratrol," was conducted by P.S. MohanKumarm, Ph.D., and team from Michigan State University. The study is published in the June 2011 issue of American Journal of Physiology ÃÂ Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2011-05-26

363

High blood lead level among the Mahayana Buddhist monk: a note for environmental implication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead has no biological function and is one of the most toxic metals. Of several heavy metals, monitoring of lead is an important\\u000a focus in occupational medicine. In exposure and risk evaluation, monitoring lead biologically has several advantages over\\u000a technical exposure assessment. In this article, the authors report a very high blood lead level among the Mahayana Buddhist\\u000a monks. This

Viroj Wiwanitkit; Jamsai Suwansaksri; Suphan Soogarun

2008-01-01

364

Menopausal Hormone Therapy Is Associated with Having High Blood Pressure in Postmenopausal Women: Observational Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure.Methods and FindingsA total of 43,405 postmenopausal

Christine L. Chiu; Sanja Lujic; Charlene Thornton; Aiden OLoughlin; Angela Makris; Annemarie Hennessy; Joanne M. Lind

2012-01-01

365

Risk Factors Associated With Newly Diagnosed High Blood Pressure in Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Early diagnosis and prevention of hypertension are of great importance in reducing overall mortality. The objective was to determine which potential risk factors are associated with newly diagnosed high blood pressure in women and men.MethodsThis study is part of a population-based, cross-sectional study including 4,228 women and men aged 60 years

Axel C. Carlsson; Per E. Wändell; Ulf de Faire; Mai-Lis Hellénius

2008-01-01

366

Relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and high blood pressure by community pharmacists in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the influence that different risk factors (age, gender, obesity, smoking, inactivity,\\u000a diabetes mellitus and previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension) have on arterial pressure, and to determine the prevalence\\u000a of patients that have high blood pressure and hypertension but have not received drug-treatment for arterial hypertension.\\u000a Setting 42 Spanish community pharmacies. Method

Sebastián R. Martínez Pérez; Pedro D. Armando; Andrea C. Molina Guerra; Mercé Martí Pallarés; Fernando Martínez Martínez

2009-01-01

367

Effect of the high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip joint  

SciTech Connect

This investigation was done to study the effects of high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip and to further our knowledge of its physiologic basis. We have used established methods of study, including bone scans, microangiography, isotope clearance and perosseous venography, and based upon the results of these studies, we have reached certain conclusions. First, high femoral osteotomy increases the blood flow and vascularity in the hip joint, the femoral head and neck and the great trochanter. Second, bone scanning techniques using /sup 99m/Tc labeled diphosphonate have shown increased uptake in the femoral head and neck after high femoral osteotomy. The localization was done using a Digital Gamma III computer, and the activity on the osteotomy side at two weeks was 3.5 times as great as on the control side. By 16 weeks postoperatively, there was still two times as much activity on the osteotomy side. Third, microangiography showed increased vascularity both at the osteotomy site and in the femoral head and neck and the greater trochanter on that side. Such an increase in vascularity first became evident two weeks after osteotomy and persisted during the four month period studied. Fourth, the results of the /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate clearance study showed a 25 per cent increase in femoral head blood flow on the operative side. Fifth, perosseous venography of the femoral head and neck showed a marked increase in venous drainage through the osteotomy site in the immediate postosteotomy stage.

Day, B.; Shim, S.S.; Leung, G.

1984-05-01

368

"High in omega-3 fatty acids" bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis.  

PubMed

A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed. The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6/?-3 ratio from 17.3 to 1.9, and also the Atherogenic Index and Thrombogenic Index (0.38-0.31 and 1.03-0.54, respectively). Modified sausages with BHA and Melissa extract showed significantly lower peroxides value (2.62 and 6.11 meq O?/kg) and thiobarbituric acid value (0.26 and 0.27 mg malondialdehyde/kg) and higher antioxidant capacity (hydrophilic fraction ABTS: 0.45 and 0.74 meq Trolox/g product; lipofilic fraction ABTS: 0.44 and 0.37 meq Trolox/g product) than those without these ingredients (16.49 meq O?/kg, 2.08 mg malondialdehyde /kg, 0.26 and 0.27 meq Trolox/g product, respectively). Sensorial tests showed that acceptability of the new formulations was similar to control products. PMID:21439735

Berasategi, Izaskun; Legarra, Sheila; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

2011-08-01

369

High titer ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and combined fermentation.  

PubMed

Lodgepole wood chips were pretreated by sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) at 25% solids loading and 180 °C for 20 min with sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite charges of 2.2 and 8 wt/wt% on an oven-dry wood basis, respectively. The pretreated wood chips were disk-milled with pretreatment spent liquor and water, and the solid fraction was separated from the liquor stream. The liquor was neutralized and concentrated through vacuum evaporation. Quasi-simultaneous enzymatic saccharification of the cellulosic solids and combined fermentation with the concentrated liquor was conducted at up to 20% total solids loading. Fed-batching of the solids facilitated liquefaction and saccharification, as well as managing instantaneous inhibitor concentrations. At a commercial cellulase (CTec2) loading of only 9 FPU or 0.06 mL/g untreated wood, a maximum ethanol titer of 47.4 g/L was achieved, resulting in a calculated yield of 285 L/tonne of wood using Saccharomyces cerevisiae YRH400 at 35 °C and pH 5.5. PMID:23138055

Lan, T Q; Gleisner, Roland; Zhu, J Y; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E

2013-01-01

370

Blood Magnesium, and the Interaction with Calcium, on the Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Ionized calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) compete as essential messengers to regulate cell proliferation and inflammation. We hypothesized that inadequate Mg levels, perhaps relative to Ca levels (e.g. a high Ca/Mg ratio) are associated with greater prostate cancer risk. Study Design In this biomarker sub-study of the Nashville Men's Health Study (NMHS), we included 494 NMHS participants, consisting of 98 high-grade (Gleason?7) and 100 low-grade cancer cases, 133 prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) cases, and 163 controls without cancer or PIN at biopsy. Linear and logistic regression were used to determine associations between blood Ca, Mg, and the Ca/Mg ratio across controls and case groups while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Serum Mg levels were significantly lower, while the Ca/Mg ratio was significantly higher, among high-grade cases vs. controls (p?=?0.04, p?=?0.01, respectively). Elevated Mg was significantly associated with a lower risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR?=?0.26 (0.09, 0.85)). An elevated Ca/Mg ratio was also associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR?=?2.81 (1.24, 6.36) adjusted for serum Ca and Mg). In contrast, blood Ca levels were not significantly associated with prostate cancer or PIN.Mg, Ca, or Ca/Mg levels were not associated with low-grade cancer, PIN, PSA levels, prostate volume, or BPH treatment. Conclusion Low blood Mg levels and a high Ca/Mg ratio were significantly associated with high-grade prostate cancer. These findings suggest Mg affects prostate cancer risk perhaps through interacting with Ca.

Motley, Saundra S.; Smith, Joseph A.; Concepcion, Raoul; Barocas, Daniel; Byerly, Susan

2011-01-01

371

Endogenous bufadienolide mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal in rats  

PubMed Central

An endogenous natriuretic and vasoconstrictor Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, marinobufagenin (MBG), is implicated in NaCl-induced hypertension and in ethanol addiction. In rats, MBG suppresses voluntary alcohol intake, while immunization against MBG induces alcohol-seeking behavior. Since alcohol withdrawal is associated with elevation of blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium retention, we hypothesized that MBG mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, forced ethanol intake (20% v/v, 2.8±0.2 g/day for 7 days) did not affect BP and MBG excretion. Ethanol withdrawal was associated with a 21 mm Hg increase in BP, a 10% decrease in hematocrit, and a three-fold increase in renal MBG excretion. In vivo administration of anti-MBG antibody to rats prevented withdrawal-induced BP elevation. Therefore, MBG mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal, and may link mechanisms of ethanol dependence and hypertension.

Kashkin, Vladimir A.; Zvartau, Edwin E.; Fedorova, Olga V.; Bagrov, Yakov Y.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Bagrov, Alexei Y

2008-01-01

372

Ethanol Inhibition of Brain Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity in the Postnatal Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ornithine decarboxylase activity (ODC; a marker for perturbed cell development), the blood alcohol level, and alcohol-induced microencephaly in the developing rat brain after binge treatment with ethanol vapour. By manipulating ethanol flow we were able to adjust vapour concentrations (24–65 mg ethanol\\/l air) such that an acute exposure of

Mark Davidson; Kuldip Bedi; Peter Wilce

1998-01-01

373

High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Design Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Setting Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. Participants A total of 84?619 women were eligible for this study, of which 71?819 were included. These women had given birth between the ages of 18 and 45?years, had an intact uterus and ovaries, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to their first pregnancy. Results HDP was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure (<58?years: adjusted OR 3.79, 99% CI 3.38 to 4.24; p<0.001 and ?58?years: 2.83, 2.58 to 3.12; p<0.001) and stroke (<58?years: 1.69, 1.02 to 2.82; p=0.008 and ?58?years: 1.46, 1.13 to 1.88; p<0.001) in later life. Women with HDP had a younger age of onset of high blood pressure (45.6 vs 54.8?years, p<0.001) and stroke (58 vs 62.5?years, p<0.001). Women who had HDP and whose present day BMI was <25 had significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, compared with women who were normotensive during pregnancy (<58?years: 4.55, 3.63 to 5.71; p<0.001 and ?58?years, 2.94, 2.49 to 3.47; p<0.001). Women who had HDP and a present day BMI?25 had significantly increased odds of high blood pressure (<58?years: 12.48, 10.63 to 14.66; p<0.001 and ?58?years, 5.16, 4.54 to 5.86; p<0.001), compared with healthy weight women with a normotensive pregnancy. Conclusions HDP is an independent risk factor for future CVD, and this risk is further exacerbated by the presence of overweight or obesity in later life.

Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

2013-01-01

374

Inhalation delivery of proteins from ethanol suspensions  

PubMed Central

To circumvent inherent problems associated with pulmonary administration of aqueous-solution and dry-powder protein drugs, inhalation delivery of proteins from their suspensions in absolute ethanol was explored both in vitro and in vivo. Protein suspensions in ethanol of up to 9% (wt/vol) were readily aerosolized with a commercial compressor nebulizer. Experiments with enzymic proteins revealed that nebulization caused no detectable loss of catalytic activity; furthermore, enzyme suspensions in anhydrous ethanol retained their full catalytic activity for at least 3 weeks at room temperature. With the use of Zn2+-insulin, conditions were elaborated that produced submicron protein particles in ethanol suspensions. The latter (insulin/EtOH) afforded respirable-size aerosol particles after nebulization. A 40-min exposure of laboratory rats to 10 mg/ml insulin/EtOH aerosols resulted in a 2-fold drop in the blood glucose level and a marked rise in the serum insulin level. The bioavailability based on estimated deposited lung dose of insulin delivered by inhalation of ethanol suspension aerosols was 33% (relative to an equivalent s.c. injection), i.e., comparable to those observed in rats after inhalation administration of dry powder and aqueous solutions of insulin. Inhalation of ethanol in a relevant amount/time frame resulted in no detectable acute toxic effects on rat lungs or airways, as reflected by the absence of statistically significant inflammatory or allergic responses, damage to the alveolar/capillary barrier, and lysed and/or damaged cells.

Choi, Won Seon; Murthy, G. G. Krishna; Edwards, David A.; Langer, Robert; Klibanov, Alexander M.

2001-01-01

375

Structure and blood compatibility of highly oriented PLA/MWNTs composites produced by solid hot drawing.  

PubMed

Highly oriented poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composites were fabricated through solid hot drawing technology in an effort to improve the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA as blood-contacting medical devices. It was found that proper MWNTs content and drawing orientation can improve the tensile strength and modulus of PLA dramatically. With the increase in draw ratio, the cold crystallization peak became smaller, and the glass transition and the melting peak of PLA moved to high temperature, while the crystallinity increased, and the grain size decreased, indicating the stress-induced crystallization of PLA during drawing. MWNTs showed a nucleation effect on PLA, leading to the rise in the melting temperature, increase in crystallinity and reduction of spherulite size for the composites. Moreover, the intensity of (002) diffraction of MWNTs increased with draw ratio, indicating that MWNTs were preferentially aligned and oriented during drawing. Microstructure observation demonstrated that PLA matrix had an ordered fibrillar bundle structure, and MWNTs in the composite tended to align parallel to the drawing direction. In addition, the dispersion of MWNTs in PLA was also improved by orientation. Introduction of MWNTs and drawing orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging kinetic clotting time, reducing hemolysis ratio and platelet activation. PMID:23733838

Li, Zhengqiu; Zhao, Xiaowen; Ye, Lin; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

2014-03-01

376

ENHANCED BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILTIY IN A HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK GROUP OF AFRICAN AMERICANS  

PubMed Central

Background High blood pressure (BP) levels in African Americans elicit vascular inflammation resulting in vascular remodeling. BP variability (BPV) correlates with target organ damage. We aimed to investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and BPV in African Americans. Methodology 36 African Americans underwent 24-hr ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). BPV was calculated using the average real variability (ARV) index. Fasting blood samples were assayed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and white blood cell (WBC) count. Results Significant association between hs-CRP and 24-hr systolic variability (r = 0.50; p = 0.012) and awake systolic variability (r = 0.45; p =0.02) was identified after adjusting for age, BMI and 24-hr mean BP. ABPM variables were compared between the hs-CRP tertile groups. In Post-hoc analysis, there was a significant difference in 24-hr and awake periods for both systolic and diastolic variability among the groups. TNF-? and WBC count showed no associations with ABPM variables. Conclusion hs-CRP is associated with systolic variability and higher levels of hs-CRP are related with greater BPV. Higher inflammatory status influences wider fluctuations in systolic BP which in turn could facilitate early progression to target organ damage independent of absolute BP levelsin African Americans.

Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Diaz, Keith M.; Feairheller, Deborah L.; Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Williamson, Sheara; Crabbe, Deborah L.; Kashem, Abul; Ahrensfield, Debra; Brown, Michael D.

2010-01-01

377

High Blood Pressure Prevalence and Significant Correlates: A Quantitative Analysis from Coastal Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a premier risk factor for cardiovascular disease which can be recognized if sought and treated effectively. Effective management of high blood pressure is possible when the magnitude of the problem is identified. So, a cross-sectional community based survey among 1,239 respondents aged ?30 years was designed to estimate the prevalence and the sociodemographic correlates of hypertension among adults aged ?30 years. Data was collected by personal interviews, followed by anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. The prevalence of hypertension was 43.3%, with the prevalence being more among males (51.6%) as compared to females (38.9%). Of the total prevalence 23.1% (287) were known cases, and 20.2% (250) were newly detected cases. Based on the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC VII) on high blood pressure, prehypertension was noted among 38.7%. Advancing age, male gender, current diabetic status, central obesity, overweight and obesity as defined by body mass index, and family history of hypertension were identified as significant correlates for hypertension by multivariate logistic regression.

Rao, Chythra R.; Kamath, Veena G.; Shetty, Avinash; Kamath, Asha

2013-01-01

378

High blood cadmium levels are not associated with consumption of traditional food among the Inuit of Nunavik  

SciTech Connect

High levels of cadmium in the liver and kidneys of caribous and sea mammals of the Canadian Arctic have led to recommendations to remove such offal from the traditional diet. Blood cadmium levels have been found to be very high in samples of Inuit volunteers, hence the hypothesis that the Inuit might be exposed to cadmium through their diet. This survey of a population-based random sample of Nunavik residents (n = 518) confirms that blood cadmium of Inuit is indeed very high by comparison to published reports. Blood cadmium levels are closely associated with the current smoking status and are independent of dietary patterns among nonsmokers. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids concentrations have been used to assess the reliability of the dietary information collected by questionnaires and to test for any association of blood cadmium with the consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are not related to the reported consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are very high among smokers and are associated with levels of exposure to tobacco. Among nonsmoking Inuit, blood cadmium levels are comparable with those reported in nonsmokers elsewhere in the world. In reference to international standards, blood cadmium concentrations are high enough among the Inuit to warrant energetic public health interventions. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

Rey, M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia)] [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia); Turcotte, F.; Lapointe, C. [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada)] [and others] [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada); and others

1997-09-01

379

Effects of vitamin C on high blood pressure induced by salt in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

By breeding and feeding salt to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) continuously over a long period (until 60 wk old), rats with systolic blood pressures (SBP) of over 270 mmHg were prepared. It was studied whether or not supplying large amounts of vitamin C (200 mg/rat/d) over this period might bring any beneficial effect to blood pressure. Moreover, physico-chemical studies were performed to measure the components and enzymes in the blood and urine at 53 and 60 wk-old, and biochemical studies on vitamin C were also carried out in this experiment. Male (14 rats: 7 wk-old, 100-105 g) and female (15 rats: 7 wk-old, 95-100 g) SHR were divided into three groups and bred continuously for 53 wk. The A group rats were given salt (2.5 g/100 g of diet), the B group rats were given salt and vitamin C (500 mg/100 mL of drinking water), and the C group rats were controls. The results showed almost the same tendencies between male and female rats. The body weights of the SHR in groups A and B were slightly lower than group C. The amount of food intake in groups A and B was almost the same as group C. The amount of water intake was, in the order from highest to lowest, group A, B and C. The SBP of group A rats exhibited the highest value among the three groups. The SBP of group B rats given vitamin C simultaneously with the salt resulted in a low blood pressure level close to that of the controls (group C). Furthermore, the DBP (diastolic blood pressure) also reflected the antihypertensive effect of vitamin C as well. The heartbeat of the rats was highest in group A, and was comparable to the value in the rats receiving vitamin C simultaneously with salt. For the tests on occult blood and protein in the urine, group A rats showed strong positive reactions, whereas the group B and C rats had decreased results for both tests. The organ weights of the liver, stomach, spleen, adrenal gland and kidneys per 100 g rat body weight were not different among the three groups. The values for the bilirubin content, and the enzyme activities of ALT and AST in the blood showed to be the highest in the male rats of group A. The values from the group B rats decreased near to the normal value like the control group. Vitamin C was found to decrease the blood pressure in SHR, and also to work effectively to protect liver and kidney functions even under the condition of very high blood pressure, as high as 250 mmHg. PMID:14703303

Nishikawa, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Kaori; Matsuura, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Ayako; Nadamoto, Tomonori; Urabe, Kimiko

2003-10-01

380

THE EFFECT OF A HIGH CHROMIUM YEAST ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE CONTROL AND BLOOD LIPIDS OF NORMAL AND DIABETIC HUMAN SUBJECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high potency organic chromium yeast was investigated for its effect on blood control and serum lipids in a group of 23 normal and diabetic subjects which were sub-divided into normals, hyperglycaemics, insulin-dependent diabetics and non- insulin dependent diabetics. Each volunteer daily took 100 mg of yeast containing 218 ?g of chromium for a period of six months. The

J. A. Vinson; P. Bose

381

A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set  

PubMed Central

Background The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list, HUPO later re-analysed their own original dataset with a more stringent statistical treatment that resulted in a much reduced list of high confidence (at least 95%) proteins compared with their original findings. In order to facilitate the discovery of novel biomarkers in the future and to realize the full diagnostic potential of blood plasma, we feel that there is still a need for an ultra-high confidence reference list (at least 99% confidence) of blood plasma proteins. Methods To address the complexity and dynamic protein concentration range of the plasma proteome, we employed a linear ion-trap-Fourier transform (LTQ-FT) and a linear ion trap-Orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap) for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Both instruments allow the measurement of peptide masses in the low ppm range. Furthermore, we employed a statistical score that allows database peptide identification searching using the products of two consecutive stages of tandem mass spectrometry (MS3). The combination of MS3 with very high mass accuracy in the parent peptide allows peptide identification with orders of magnitude more confidence than that typically achieved. Results Herein we established a high confidence set of 697 blood plasma proteins and achieved a high 'average sequence coverage' of more than 14 peptides per protein and a median of 6 peptides per protein. All proteins annotated as belonging to the immunoglobulin family as well as all hypothetical proteins whose peptides completely matched immunoglobulin sequences were excluded from this protein list. We also compared the results of using two high-end MS instruments as well as the use of various peptide and protein separation approaches. Furthermore, we characterized the plasma proteins using cellular localization information, as well as comparing our list of proteins to data from other sources, including the HUPO PPP dataset. Conclusion Superior instrumentation combined with rigorous validation criteria gave rise to a set of 697 plasma proteins in which we have very high confidence, demonstrated by an exceptionally low false peptide identification rate of 0.29%.

Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo; Mann, Matthias

2008-01-01

382

Ethnic Differences in the Effects of the DASH Diet on Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping in Individuals with High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEthnic differences in nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping may contribute to the increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events noted in African Americans (AAs). The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet has been shown to be efficacious in lowering clinic and ambulatory BP; however, the effect of the DASH diet on BP dipping is unclear.MethodsOne hundred and eighteen men and

Aric A. Prather; James A. Blumenthal; Alan L. Hinderliter; Andrew Sherwood

2011-01-01

383

The rapid onset of tolerance to ataxic effects of ethanol in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a precise quantal method for assessing the sensitivity to ethanol in the mouse. Mice placed on a clamped stationary horizontal dowel are scored ataxi or not ataxic depending on whether they are able to remian on the dowel during a 30-s observation period. A threshold blood ethanol concentration is determined by assaying tail blood drawn immediately upon

Edward J. Gallaher; Linda M. Parsons; Dora B. Goldstein

1982-01-01

384

Stabilizing Unmilled Brown Rice by Ethanol Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is drawn to a highly advantageous and unobvious process for stabilizing unmilled brown rice comprising, contacting unmilled brown rice with ethanol under conditions providing extraction of 15% or less of brown rice oil from the unmilled brow...

E. T. Champagne R. J. Hron G. Abraham

1990-01-01

385

High and Low Glycemic Index Mixed Meals and Blood Glucose in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

This cross-over pilot study tested blood glucose response to low and high glycemic index meals in 12 obese youth with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Participants demonstrated significantly lower mean daytime blood glucose and a trend toward lower variability, suggesting a clinically relevant impact of reducing glycemic index.

Gellar, Lauren; Nansel, Tonja R.

2009-01-01

386

Ethanol immunosuppression in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol in concentrations equivalent to levels achieved by the ingestion of moderate to large amounts of alcoholic beverages has been shown to inhibit mitogen and anti-CD3 stimulated human T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition was monophasic suggesting that ethanol affected a single limiting component of T cell proliferation. In experiments designed to test the effect of ethanol on various aspects of proliferation, it was demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the capacity of exogenously supplied interleukin 2 to stimulate proliferation of T cells that had previously acquired interleukin 2 receptors in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there was no suppression of interleukin 2 production or interleukin 2 receptor acquisition. Thus, ethanol was shown to mediate immunosuppression by a mechanism specific to one component of proliferation. Additive inhibition of T cell proliferation was seen with ethanol plus cyclosporin A which inhibits interleukin 2 production. The level of inhibition with 250 ng/ml cyclosporin A alone was equivalent to the level seen with 62 ng/ml cyclosporin A plus 20 mM (94 mg%) ethanol. Ethanol also suppressed an immune effector mechanism. NK cytotoxicity was depressed in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Thus, ethanol might be considered as a possible adjunct in immunosuppressive therapy.

Kaplan, D.R.

1986-03-01

387

Effects of controlled blood cooling on hemodynamic stability and urea kinetics during high-efficiency hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Although the use of cooled dialysate during hemodialysis is associated with stabilization of intradialytic BP, the effects of blood cooling on hemodynamics and urea kinetics in high-efficiency hemodialysis have not been completely studied. In particular, the effects of blood cooling have not been elucidated in very short-time, high K/V dialysis treatments, in which postdialysis urea rebound is maximized. In theory, blood cooling could increase urea compartmentalization during treatment and decrease dialysis efficacy. Measurements of cardiovascular hemodynamics and urea kinetics were performed in 15 patients (56 studies) during dialysis, using a blood temperature monitor with control of dialysate temperature. Dialysate temperature was adjusted to either lower the core temperature or raise the core temperature by, respectively, producing negative heat-energy exchange (cooled dialysis) or keeping heat-energy exchange in the extracorporeal circuit neutral (thermoneutral dialysis) so that energy was not transferred to or from the patient. Each subject was studied on both protocols, thereby allowing each individual to act as his own control. In cooled dialysis, heat-energy exchange in the extracorporeal circuit was -266+/-15 kJ per treatment, and dialysate temperature averaged 35.7+/-0.02 degrees C. In thermoneutral dialysis, heat-energy exchange in the extracorporeal circuit averaged 5+/-31 kJ per treatment, and dialysate temperature averaged 37.1+/-0.02 degrees C. Dialysate cooling resulted in a reduction in mean body temperature compared with thermoneutral therapy (-0.22+/-0.04 versus +0.31+/-0.05 degrees C). Cooling resulted in a greater increase in peripheral vascular resistance index (+515+/-160 versus + 114+/-92 dyn.sec/cm5 per m2), an increase in mean arterial pressure (+4+/-3 versus -4+/-4 mmHg), a reduction in the maximum intradialytic fall in mean arterial pressure (-10+/-2 versus -18+/-3, mmHg), and a reduction in staff interventions for hypotension or dialytic symptoms (6 of 28 versus 12 of 28 studies). These differences occurred without differences in the change in blood volume (-14.3+/-1.8% versus -13.9+/-2.2%) or cardiac index (-0.4+/-0.1 versus -0.4+/-0.2, L/min per m2). Urea rebound (37+/-4% versus 38+/-3%) and effective Kt/V (1.29+/-0.05 versus 1.32+/-0.06) were not different between groups. Thus, body temperature cooling can be used to stabilize BP and reduce intradialytic events requiring staff intervention without compromising the efficacy of treatment in high-efficiency dialysis. PMID:9596086

Kaufman, A M; Morris, A T; Lavarias, V A; Wang, Y; Leung, J F; Glabman, M B; Yusuf, S A; Levoci, A L; Polaschegg, H D; Levin, N W

1998-05-01

388

Simultaneous high-resolution pH and spectrophotometric recordings of oxygen binding in blood microvolumes.  

PubMed

Oxygen equilibrium curves have been widely used to understand oxygen transport in numerous organisms. A major challenge has been to monitor oxygen binding characteristics and concomitant pH changes as they occur in vivo, in limited sample volumes. Here we report a technique allowing highly resolved and simultaneous monitoring of pH and blood pigment saturation in minute blood volumes. We equipped a gas diffusion chamber with a broad-range fibre-optic spectrophotometer and a micro-pH optode and recorded changes of pigment oxygenation along oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and pH gradients to test the setup. Oxygen binding parameters derived from measurements in only 15 ?l of haemolymph from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris showed low instrumental error (0.93%) and good agreement with published data. Broad-range spectra, each resolving 2048 data points, provided detailed insight into the complex absorbance characteristics of diverse blood types. After consideration of photobleaching and intrinsic fluorescence, pH optodes yielded accurate recordings and resolved a sigmoidal shift of 0.03 pH units in response to changing PO2 from 0 to 21 kPa. Highly resolved continuous recordings along pH gradients conformed to stepwise measurements at low rates of pH changes. In this study we showed that a diffusion chamber upgraded with a broad-range spectrophotometer and an optical pH sensor accurately characterizes oxygen binding with minimal sample consumption and manipulation. We conclude that the modified diffusion chamber is highly suitable for experimental biologists who demand high flexibility, detailed insight into oxygen binding as well as experimental and biological accuracy combined in a single setup. PMID:24436387

Oellermann, Michael; Pörtner, Hans-O; Mark, Felix C

2014-05-01

389

Risk Factors Associated with High Blood Pressure in Two-to Five-Year-Old Children  

PubMed Central

Background Over recent decades, the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) has increased among children. Several risk factors are involved in the genesis of high BP during childhood, and their early identification can prevent the development of that disease. Objectives To assess the prevalence of high BP and associated factors in children. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study, carried out at the household. This study included 276 two- to five-year-old children in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás, and assessed their BP, sociodemographic characteristics, birth weight, high BP family history, passive smoking, maternal breastfeeding, dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle and nutritional status. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between risk factors and high BP. Results Their mean age was 3.1 ± 0.79 years, and high BP and overweight were observed in 19.9% and 11.2% of the children, respectively. Direct association of high BP was identified with age [prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.2 - 4.8; p = 0.017] and overweight (PR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.2 - 3.6; p = 0.014). No other variable associated with high BP. Conclusions The prevalence of high BP in children was high. Overweight and younger children had greater prevalence of high BP.

Crispim, Paula Azevedo Aranha; Peixoto, Maria do Rosario Gondim; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Brandao Veiga

2014-01-01

390

Blood mercury levels among fish consumers residing in areas with high environmental burden.  

PubMed

Mercury is a ubiquitous, persistent toxicant found in the environment. In water, mercury bioaccumulates up the food chain and leads to high concentrations in fish. Consumption of contaminated fish is the major source of exposure to mercury in the US. The objective of this study was to enroll persons living in areas selected by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to have high mercury concentrations and who consume at least 6o z of locally caught fish per week to determine the feasibility of monitoring future trends among a population identified as highly exposed. Blood samples were collected at time of interview and analyzed for mercury. Participants (n=287) were enrolled from North Carolina, Maryland, and South Dakota. Participants reported eating an average of five servings of fish per week. The overall geometric mean for total mercury was 0.75 ?g L(-1), with North Carolina having the highest mean level (2.02 ?g L(-1)). Overall, 42% of the study population had levels greater than the US geometric mean 0.83 ?g L(-1). The number of servings of fish consumed was not found to be associated with blood mercury levels. We were able to identify some persons with elevated mercury concentrations living in areas identified by EPA; however, identifying and monitoring a highly exposed population over time would be challenging. PMID:22153999

Wolkin, Amy; Hunt, Danielle; Martin, Colleen; Caldwell, Kathleen L; McGeehin, Michael A

2012-03-01

391

Reducing high blood cholesterol level with drugs. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacologic management.  

PubMed

We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmacologic treatment of high blood cholesterol levels. Agents modeled were cholestyramine, colestipol, gemfibrozil, lovastatin, niacin, and probucol. Pharmacologic effectiveness was estimated from reported studies. Cost estimates reflect societal resource consumption. Annual costs for therapy ranged from $327 (niacin) to $1881 (lovastatin, 80 mg/d). Niacin was the most efficient agent for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, having an average cost over 5 years of $139 per percent reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Lovastatin (20 mg/d) was also efficient ($177 per percent reduction). Cholestyramine was least efficient at $347. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, niacin was most efficient, at $116 per percent increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, followed by gemfibrozil at $271. Analyses combining low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol effects suggest that niacin and lovastatin (20 mg/d) were most efficient for reducing cardiovascular risk. PMID:2123013

Schulman, K A; Kinosian, B; Jacobson, T A; Glick, H; Willian, M K; Koffer, H; Eisenberg, J M

1990-12-19

392

Development and characterization of a blood mimicking fluid for high intensity focused ultrasound.  

PubMed

A blood mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for the acoustic and thermal characterizations of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation devices. The BMF is based on a degassed and de-ionized water solution dispersed with low density polyethylene microspheres, nylon particles, gellan gum, and glycerol. A broad range of physical parameters, including attenuation coefficient, speed of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity, were characterized as a function of temperature (20-70 degrees C). The nonlinear parameter B/A and backscatter coefficient were also measured at room temperature. Importantly, the attenuation coefficient is linearly proportional to the frequency (2-8 MHz) with a slope of about 0.2 dB cm(-1) MHz(-1) in the 20-70 degrees C range as in the case of human blood. Furthermore, sound speed and bloodlike backscattering indicate the usefulness of the BMF for ultrasound flow imaging and ultrasound-guided HIFU applications. Most of the other temperature-dependent physical parameters are also close to the reported values in human blood. These properties make it a unique HIFU research tool for developing standardized exposimetry techniques, validating numerical models, and determining the safety and efficacy of HIFU ablation devices. PMID:19045670

Liu, Yunbo; Maruvada, Subha; King, Randy L; Herman, Bruce A; Wear, Keith A

2008-09-01

393

Ethanol consumption increases rat stress hormones and adrenomedullary gene expression.  

PubMed

Numerous reports document altered drinking behavior following acute stressors but few describe physiological responses to acute stress of chronic ethanol consuming subjects. We tested rats' responses to 120-min foot restraint immobilization (Immo) after 1 week of liquid diet containing 5% wt/vol ethanol (ethanol-fed). Controls consumed isocaloric liquid diet ad libitum (adlib-fed) or in amounts equal to that of ethanol-fed subjects on the previous day (pair-fed). Each rat was implanted with a tail artery cannula on day 7 to allow remote blood collection before and during Immo on day 8. Plasma epinephrine (Epi); norepinephrine (NE); corticosterone (Cort); prolactin (PRL); adrenomedullary gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase (PNMT); and TH protein levels were measured. Ethanol-fed rats had two to threefold higher basal plasma Epi and NE and tended to have increased Cort compared to adlib-fed or pair-fed rats. Immo increased Epi and NE in ethanol-fed rats more than twofold above those observed in controls, and also increased Cort more in ethanol-fed than in control rats. PRL was marginally affected. Ethanol potentiated the normal immobilization-induced increase in adrenomedullary TH, DBH, and PNMT messenger RNA (mRNA). TH protein increased only in ethanol-fed rats. Increased plasma catecholamine levels, adrenomedullary gene expression, and TH protein concentration in nonimmobilized ethanol-fed rats strongly suggest that ethanol consumption was itself a stressor, which potentiated the subsequent response to acute Immo. Moreover, the observed interaction of ethanol and stress on plasma catecholamine levels illustrates the importance of minimizing additional stressful stimuli when investigating ethanol's physiological effects. PMID:16713504

Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Kubovcakova, Lucia; Krizanova, Olga; Pohorecky, Larissa A; Kvetnansky, Richard

2005-11-01

394

Effects of Melanocortin Receptor Activation and Blockade on Ethanol Intake: A Possible Role for the Melanocortin-4 Receptor  

PubMed Central

Background The melanocortin (MC) system is composed of peptides that are cleaved from the polypeptide precursor proopiomelanocortin. A growing body of literature suggests that the MC system modulates neurobiological responses to drugs of abuse. Because ethanol has direct effects on central proopiomelanocortin activity, it is possible that MC neuropeptides participate in the control of voluntary ethanol consumption. Here we assessed the possibility that MC receptor (MCR) agonists modulate ethanol intake via the MC3 receptor (MC3R) and/or the MC4 receptor (MC4R) and whether the MCR antagonist AgRP-(83-132) controls ethanol consumption. Methods Mc3r-deficient (Mc3r?/?) and wild-type (Mc3r+/+) littermate mice were given intraperitoneal (10 mg/kg) and intracerebroventricular (1.0 ?g ICV) doses of melanotan II (MTII), a nonselective MCR agonist. To assess the role of MC4R, C57BL/6J mice were given an ICV infusion of the highly selective MC4R agonist cyclo(NH-CH2-CH2-CO-His-d-Phe-Arg-Trp-Glu)-NH2 (1.0 or 3.0 ?g). Finally, naïve C57BL/6J mice were given an ICV infusion of AgRP-(83-132) (0.05 and 1.0 ?g). Results MTII was similarly effective at reducing ethanol drinking in Mc3r-deficient (Mc3r?/?) and wild-type (Mc3r+/+) littermate mice. Furthermore, ICV infusion of the MC4R agonist significantly reduced ethanol drinking, whereas ICV infusion of AgRP-(83-132) significantly increased ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice. Neither MTII nor AgRP-(83-132) altered blood ethanol levels at doses that modulated ethanol drinking. Conclusions The present results suggest that MC4R, and not MC3R, modulates MCR agonist–induced reduction of ethanol consumption and that ethanol intake is increased by the antagonistic actions of AgRP-(83-132). These findings strengthen the argument that MCR signaling controls ethanol consumption and that compounds directed at MCR may represent promising targets for treating alcohol abuse disorders in addition to obesity.

Navarro, Montserrat; Cubero, Inmaculada; Chen, Airu S.; Chen, Howard Y.; Knapp, Darin J.; Breese, George R.; Marsh, Donald J.; Thiele, Todd E.

2006-01-01

395

A Central Role of the BK Potassium Channel in Behavioral Responses to Ethanol in C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of many neuronal proteins are modulated by ethanol, but the fundamental mechanisms underlying behavioral effects of ethanol remain unclear. To identify mechanisms responsible for intoxication, we screened for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants with altered behavioral responses to ethanol. We found that slo-1 mutants, which were previously recognized as having slightly uncoordinated movement, are highly resistant to ethanol in two

Andrew G. Davies; Jonathan T. Pierce-Shimomura; Hongkyun Kim; Miri K. VanHoven; Tod R. Thiele; Antonello Bonci; Cornelia I. Bargmann; Steven L. McIntire

2003-01-01

396

Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques  

SciTech Connect

Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

Kim, K.

1984-01-01

397

Devaluation of ethanol reinforcement.  

PubMed

Postingestive CNS pharmacologic effects of ethanol are often assumed to provide the major stimuli for development and maintenance of ethanol self-administration in rats. However, there is little direct evidence to support this assumption. In all procedures that have been used to initiate ethanol intake in rats, some type of taste adaptation or taste conditioning could account for the increased and maintained ethanol intake. Thus, it remains critical to demonstrate that increased ethanol intake is related to postingestive CNS actions of ethanol, and not to a positive shift in the hedonic taste value of the solution. Two experiments were performed to examine this question. In both studies, rats were trained to self-administer 20% ethanol by using a sucrose-substitution initiation procedure. The rats were required to press a lever 25 or 30 times to gain access to 20% ethanol for 20 min from a sipper tube. Once initiated, extinction sessions were used to determine the strength of ethanol seeking by measuring the number of lever presses that occurred in 20 min with no presentation of the ethanol solution. After initial training, the rats were split into two groups: one that received pairings of a gavage of ethanol (1 g/kg), followed after 10 min by a lithium chloride (LiCl) injection (paired group), and one that also received ethanol gavage and LiCl injections, but separated by 24 h (unpaired group). This pairing of postingestive effects with the illness induced by LiCl injection has been shown to devalue other food and fluid reinforcers. In Experiment 1, the rats received four pairings, one after the other with no behavioral testing between. In Experiment 2, the rats received three pairings and were tested for devaluation after each pairing. Results from both experiments showed significant decreases in seeking behavior in both groups, but seeking behavior was decreased significantly greater in the paired group, even though neither group had access to ethanol during the extinction testing periods. In Experiment 1, when ethanol became available after the devaluation procedure, the pattern of intake in the paired group was unchanged early in the sipper tube availability period, supporting the suggestion that the devaluation effect was not mediated by taste stimuli. These findings support the assumption that postingestive effects contribute to the reinforcement produced by self-administered ethanol in rats. PMID:15282114

Samson, Herman H; Cunningham, Christopher L; Czachowski, Cristine L; Chappell, Ann; Legg, Brooke; Shannon, Erin

2004-04-01

398

Quantification of ethanol methyl 1H magnetic resonance signal intensity following intravenous ethanol administration in primate brain  

PubMed Central

In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to directly monitor brain ethanol. Previously, studies of human subjects have lead to the suggestion that the ethanol methyl 1H MRS signal intensity relates to tolerance to ethanol’s intoxicating effects. More recently, the ethanol 1H MRS signal intensity has been recognized to vary between brain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to differences in T2 within these environments. The methods presented here extend ethanol MRS techniques to nonhuman primate subjects. Twelve monkeys were administered ethanol while sedated and positioned within a 3T MRI system. Chemical shift imaging (CSI) measurements were performed following intravenous infusion of 1g/kg ethanol. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were also recorded for each monkey to provide volume fractions of GM, WM, and CSF for each CSI spectrum. To estimate co-variance of ethanol MRS intensity with GM, WM, and CSF volume fractions, the relative contribution of each tissue subtype was determined following corrections for radiofrequency pulse profile non-uniformity, chemical shift artifacts, and differences between the point spread function in the CSI data and the imaging data. The ethanol MRS intensity per unit blood ethanol concentration was found to differ between GM, WM, and CSF. Individual differences in MRS intensity were larger in GM than WM. This methodology demonstrates the feasibility of ethanol MRS experiments and analysis in nonhuman primate subjects, and suggests GM may be a site of significant variation in ethanol MRS intensity between individuals.

Flory, Graham S.; O'Malley, Jean; Grant, Kathleen A.; Park, Byung; Kroenke, Christopher D.

2009-01-01

399

Association of High Blood Pressure with Heart Rate Variability in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and hypertension in Chinese children. Methods The study was conducted in First Hospital of Jilin University, China. A total of 101 children were recruited in this study. They were divided into a high systolic blood pressure (SBP) group (HS group) and normal SBP group (NS group) according to the SBP levels. In the second set of experiments, the children were divided into a high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) group (HD group) and normal DBP group (ND group) according to the DBP levels. HRV measurements were performed, and the time domain and power spectrum values were calculated. Findings The differences of low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio, HF, and standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN) between daytime and nighttime were obviously abolished in HS and HD groups. The HS group displayed significantly lower values of HRV over a 24 h period compared to the NS group (SDNN, standard deviation of the averaged normal-to-normal RR intervals [SDANN], Triangle Index, root mean square successive difference [RMSSD], total power [TP], ultra-LF [ULF], and HF). Only the Triangle Index in the HD group was lower than that in ND group. Conclusion We provide evidence that HRV is reduced and the circadian rhythm of HRV is weakened in hypertensive children, and hypothesize that a reduced HRV is a potential pathophysiological mechanism linking childhood hypertension and adulthood cardiovascular diseases.

Xie, Gui-Ling; Wang, Jing-hua; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Hui; Sun, Jing-Hui; Yang, Si-Rui

2013-01-01

400

High-fidelity large eddy simulation of blood flow through a mechanical heart valve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bileaflet heart valves are currently the most commonly implanted type of mechanical heart valve (MHV). However, the current designs are far from being optimal and, due to non-physiological flow characteristics, significant complications often arise after implantation. We carry out a high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) of blood flow through a bileaflet MHV for a better understanding of the dynamics of flow in both 2-D and 3-D models. For this purpose, we employ a sixth-order Pad'e approximant compact scheme that is coupled with an eleventh-order filtering procedure for removing high wave number noise. To our knowledge, this is one of the most complicated applications of high-order CFD methods, from the standpoint of geometry, and the first attempt at simulating blood flow in 3-D mechanical heart valves using such methods, with and without the overset grid methodology. The results clearly show the need for a full 3-D model for MHV. The formation of vortices and shear layers is discussed, as are their physiological implications.

Zhou, Min

2005-11-01

401

Zanthoxylum piperitum DC ethanol extract suppresses fat accumulation in adipocytes and high fat diet-induced obese mice by regulating adipogenesis.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the anti-obesity effects of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC fruit ethanol extract (ZPE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. We evaluated the influence of the addition of ZPE to a high-fat diet on body weight, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipids in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, adipogenic gene expression was determined by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. We assessed the effect of ZPE on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. ZPE reduced weight gain, white adipose tissue mass, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels (p<0.05) in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. ZPE decreased lipid accumulation and PPAR?, C/EBP?, SREBP-1, and FAS protein and mRNA levels in the liver. ZPE inhibited in vitro adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and significantly attenuated adipogenic transcription factors, such as PPAR?, C/EBP?, and SREBP-1 in 3T3L1 cells. These findings suggest that Z. piperitum DC exerts an anti-obesity effect by inhibiting adipogenesis through the downregulation of genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway. PMID:23419397

Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Tae Wan; Ha, Tae Youl

2012-01-01

402

Effect of high dose isoflurane on cerebral blood flow in macaque monkeys.  

PubMed

The effect of high dose isoflurane on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was investigated in adult macaque monkeys receiving 1% to 2% isoflurane with the pseudo continuous arterial-spin-labeling (pCASL) MRI technique. High concentration (2%) of isoflurane resulted in significant increase in the mean CBF of the global, cortical, subcortical regions and the regional CBF in all subcortical structures and most cortical structures (such as motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, but not media prefrontal cortex). In addition, the changes of regional CBF in the affected regions correlated linearly with increasing isoflurane concentrations. The study demonstrates region-specific CBF abnormal increase in adult macaque monkeys under high dose (2%) isoflurane and suggests that the brain functionality in the corresponding structures may be affected and need to be taken consideration in either human or non-human primate neuroimaging studies. PMID:24890304

Li, Chun-Xia; Patel, Sudeep; Wang, Danny J J; Zhang, Xiaodong

2014-09-01

403

Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

D. Abril, and A. Abril. 2009. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36(2):177-190. Ethanol is the liquid combustible that has become the most promising alternative substitute for gasoline because of the experience gained in its production, the possibility of mixing it with gasoline in different proportions, the possibility of using the existing gasoline distribution infrastructure, and the fact that

Diana Abril; Alejandro Abril

2009-01-01

404

Intravenous pyridoxine in acute ethanol intoxication.  

PubMed

Intravenous pyridoxine was evaluated as an agent for the reversal of ethanol-induced central nervous depression in a randomised double blind controlled study of 108 patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis of acute ethanol intoxication to two accident and emergency departments. Level of consciousness, measured by a modified Glasgow coma scale, showed no significant change after a single 1 g dose of intravenous pyridoxine when compared to controls given saline. The mean fall in blood alcohol concentration after one hour was 33 mg dl-1 (7.2 mmol l-1) in both groups suggesting that pyridoxine has no antidotal action and no short term effect on the rate of metabolism of ethanol. PMID:8043313

Mardel, S; Phair, I; O'Dwyer, F; Henry, J A

1994-05-01

405

Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary β-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank

C. G. Gianoulakis; D. Beliveau; P. Angelogianni; M. Meaney; J. Thavundayil; V. Tawar; M. Dumas

1989-01-01

406

Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPAR?, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24746837

Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

2014-07-01

407

[A comparison of blood pressure load in groups of children with high and low levels of neuroticism].  

PubMed

The significance of mental stress in the etiology and pathogenesis of essential hypertension is still a matter of disputes and controversies. The authors wondered if normotensive children prone to stress reactions show significant abnormalities in their ABPM patterns. The aim of this study was comparison of blood pressure loads in children of high and low neuroticism levels. 121 healthy children underwent the psychometric test evaluating the level of neuroticism. From this group 43 children with the lowest and 33 children with the highest levels of neuroticism were selected. The groups were comparable in respect of age, gender, overweight, obesity and low birth weight. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed. Average systolic and diastolic blood pressure loads were calculated. In neurotic boys and girls considered together and girls analysed separately both systolic and diastolic blood pressure loads were significantly higher than in their low-neurotic counterparts. In boys only systolic blood pressure load difference between high and low-neurotic group was statistically significant. Diastolic blood pressure load only tended to be higher in neurotic boys, without statistical significance. In our study neurotic children demonstrated in general significantly higher blood pressure loads than low-neurotic children. The prognostic value of this difference has not yet been determined. Perhaps further investigation would prove risk of developing hypertension in neurotic children with levels of blood pressure loads as observed in our study. If so, introducing of hypertension preventive measures could be profitable in neurotic children. PMID:11434175

Pijanowska, M; Zajaczkowska, M; Pijanowski, Z

2001-04-01

408

A high-throughput assay of NK cell activity in whole blood and its clinical application.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system and have the ability to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. Malignant tumors and viruses have developed, however, strategies to suppress NK cells to escape from their responses. Thus, the evaluation of NK cell activity (NKA) could be invaluable to estimate the status and the outcome of cancers, viral infections, and immune-mediated diseases. Established methods that measure NKA, such as (51)Cr release assay and CD107a degranulation assay, may be used to determine NK cell function, but they are complicated and time-consuming because they require isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or NK cells. In some cases these assays require hazardous material such as radioactive isotopes. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a simple assay that uses whole blood instead of PBMC or isolated NK cells. This novel assay is suitable for high-throughput screening and the monitoring of diseases, because it employs serum of ex vivo stimulated whole blood to detect interferon (IFN)-? secreted from NK cells as an indicator of NKA. After the stimulation of NK cells, the determination of IFN? concentration in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provided a swift, uncomplicated, and high-throughput assay of NKA ex vivo. The NKA results microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer patients was showed significantly lower NKA, 263.6 ± 54.5 pg/mL compared with healthy subjects, 867.5 ± 50.2 pg/mL (p value <0.0001). Therefore, the NKA could be utilized as a supportive diagnostic marker for microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer. PMID:24561245

Lee, Saet-byul; Cha, Junhoe; Kim, Im-kyung; Yoon, Joo Chun; Lee, Hyo Joon; Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Sunjung; Youn, Dong-ye; Lee, Heyja; Lee, Choong Hwan; Lee, Jae Myun; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Jongsun

2014-03-14

409

Soft inertial microfluidics for high throughput separation of bacteria from human blood cells  

SciTech Connect

We developed a new approach to separate bacteria from human blood cells based on soft inertial force induced migration with flow defined curved and focused sample flow inside a microfluidic device. This approach relies on a combination of an asymmetrical sheath flow and proper channel geometry to generate a soft inertial force on the sample fluid in the curved and focused sample flow segment to deflect larger particles away while the smaller ones are kept on or near the original flow streamline. The curved and focused sample flow and inertial effect were visualized and verified using a fluorescent dye primed in the device. First the particle behavior was studied in detail using 9.9 and 1.0 {micro}m particles with a polymer-based prototype. The prototype device is compact with an active size of 3 mm{sup 2}. The soft inertial effect and deflection distance were proportional to the fluid Reynolds number (Re) and particle Reynolds number (Re{sub p}), respectively. We successfully demonstrated separation of bacteria (Escherichia coli) from human red blood cells at high cell concentrations (above 10{sup 8}/mL), using a sample flow rate of up to 18 {micro}L/min. This resulted in at least a 300-fold enrichment of bacteria at a wide range of flow rates with a controlled flow spreading. The separated cells were proven to be viable. Proteins from fractions before and after cell separation were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and staining to verify the removal of red blood cell proteins from the bacterial cell fraction. This novel microfluidic process is robust, reproducible, simple to perform, and has a high throughput compared to other cell sorting systems. Microfluidic systems based on these principles could easily be manufactured for clinical laboratory and biomedical applications.

Wu, Zhigang; Willing, Ben; Bjerketorp, Joakim; Jansson, Janet K.; Hjort, Klas

2009-01-05

410

Determination of Aconitum alkaloids in blood and urine samples. I. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation, solid-phase extraction and mass spectrometric confirmation.  

PubMed

Determination of four toxic Aconitum alkaloids, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine and jesaconitine, in blood and urine samples has been established using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with ultraviolet absorbance detection, solid-phase extraction and mass spectrometry (MS). These alkaloids were hydrolyzed rapidly in alkaline solution (half lives (t1/2)five months) and were unstable in solutions of methanol and ethanol (t1/2blood samples spiked with more than 50 ng ml(-1) of alkaloids, but were not detectable from urine samples spiked with 5 microg ml(-1) of alkaloids because of severe sample interference. PMID:9174271

Ohta, H; Seto, Y; Tsunoda, N

1997-04-11

411

Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

PubMed

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-10-01

412

Very high blood lead levels among adults - United States, 2002-2011.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades there has been a remarkable reduction in environmental sources of lead, improved protection from occupational lead exposure, and an overall decreasing trend in the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in U.S. adults. As a result, the U.S. national BLL geometric mean among adults was 1.2 µg/dL during 2009-2010. Nonetheless, lead exposures continue to occur at unacceptable levels. Current research continues to find that BLLs previously considered harmless can have harmful effects in adults, such as decreased renal function and increased risk for hypertension and essential tremor at BLLs <10 µg/dL. CDC has designated 10 µg/dL as the reference BLL for adults; levels ?10 µg/dL are considered elevated. CDC's Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program tracks elevated BLLs among adults in the United States. In contrast to the CDC reference level, prevailing Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) lead standards allow workers removed from lead exposure to return to lead work when their BLL falls below 40 µg/dL. During 2002-2011, ABLES identified 11,536 adults with very high BLLs (?40 µg/dL). Persistent very high BLLs (?40 µg/dL in ?2 years) were found among 2,210 (19%) of these adults. Occupational exposures accounted for 7,076 adults with very high BLLs (91% of adults with known exposure source) and 1,496 adults with persistent very high BLLs. Adverse health effects associated with very high BLLs underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent lead exposure at workplaces and in communities. PMID:24280917

2013-11-29

413

Ethanol extract of Liuwei Dihuang reduces weight gain and visceral fat in obese-prone CD rats fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the effect and mechanisms of action of Liuwei Dihuang ethanol extract (LWDH-EE) on obesity and related metabolic phenotypes in male obese-prone CD rats. The rats were fed a high-fat diet and treated with 0 (obese control), 350 (EE350), or 700 (EE700) mg/kg/d of LWDH-EE in water once a day by gavage feeding for 10 weeks. The EE700 decreased body weight after 3 weeks of the treatment and the effect was maintained throughout the remaining study period. The EE700 also significantly reduced visceral fat and improved metabolic phenotypes by lowering the serum total cholesterol (T-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), and leptin levels. The EE350 reduced epididymal fat, serum T-C, and FFA but did not significantly affect other parameters. LWDH-EE dose-dependently increased fat and carbohydrate oxidations, energy expenditure, and the relative efficiency of fat oxidation for energy expenditure. EE350 and EE700 reduced food intake only in week 5 and did not affect the accumulative food intake in every week and the entire treatment period. Taken together, the results suggest that LWDH-EE is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity possibly through a primary action of increasing energy metabolism and expenditure, along with a possible effect of decreasing energy intake. PMID:24603076

Nair, Sandhya Vg; Zhang, Junzeng; Wang, Yanwen

2014-05-01

414

Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: Effects on social behavior and ethanol sensitivity in adulthood.  

PubMed

This study assessed long-lasting consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during two different periods of adolescence on 1) baseline levels of social investigation, play fighting, and social preference and 2) sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (3.5 g/kg intragastrically [i.g.], every other day for a total of 11 exposures) in a modified social interaction test. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (e-AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25 and 45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (l-AIE) was conducted between P45 and P65. Significant decreases in social investigation and social preference were evident in adult male rats, but not their female counterparts following e-AIE, whereas neither males nor females demonstrated these alterations following l-AIE. In contrast, both e-AIE and l-AIE produced alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge in males tested 25 days after adolescent exposure. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social investigation and play fighting, reminiscent of that normally seen during adolescence, was evident in adult males after e-AIE, whereas control males showed an age-typical inhibition of social behavior. Males after l-AIE were found to be insensitive to the socially suppressing effects of acute ethanol challenge, suggesting the development of chronic tolerance in these animals. In contrast, females showed little evidence for alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge following either early or late AIE. The results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol. Retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol could potentially make ethanol especially appealing to these males, therefore pr