Sample records for high blood ethanol

  1. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2015-07-01

    The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:26061228

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique in 26 healthy volunteers before and 60 minutes after the oral administration of ethyl alcohol or placebo on a double-blind basis. The cerebral blood flow values, corrected for test-retest differences in carbon dioxide showed a significant bilateral increase after ethanol administration. Blood levels of ethanol, estimated with a breath analyser, did not correlate with the CBF changes.

  3. Effects of ethanol on red blood cell rheological behavior.

    PubMed

    Rabai, M; Detterich, J A; Wenby, R B; Toth, K; Meiselman, H J

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of red wine is associated with a decreased risk of several cardiovascular diseases (e.g., coronary artery disease, stroke), but unfortunately literature reports regarding ethanol's effects on hemorheological parameters are not concordant. In the present study, red blood cell (RBC) deformability was tested via laser ektacytometry (LORCA, 0.3-30 Pa) using two approaches: 1) addition of ethanol to whole blood at 0.25%-2% followed by incubation and testing in ethanol-free LORCA medium; 2) addition of ethanol to the LORCA medium at 0.25%-6% then testing untreated native RBC in these media. The effects of ethanol on deformability for oxidatively stressed RBC were investigated as were changes of RBC aggregation (Myrenne Aggregometer) for cells in autologous plasma or 3% 70 kDa dextran. Significant dose-related increases of RBC deformability were observed at 0.25% (p < 0.05) and higher concentrations only if ethanol was in the LORCA medium; no changes occurred for cells previously incubated with ethanol then tested in ethanol-free medium. The impaired deformability of cells pre-exposed to oxidative stress was improved only if ethanol was in the LORCA medium. RBC aggregation decreased with concentration at 0.25% and higher for cells in both autologous plasma and dextran 70. Our results indicate that ethanol reversibly improves erythrocyte deformability and irreversibly decreases erythrocyte aggregation; the relevance of these results to the health benefits of moderate wine consumption require further investigation. PMID:23089886

  4. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? Click for more information Blood pressure is ... active. So it varies throughout the day. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A systolic blood pressure of 140 ...

  5. Comparison of blood ethanol stabilities in different storage periods

    PubMed Central

    Isiklar, Ozben Ozden; Kocak, Havva; Meral, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Measurements of blood ethanol concentrations must be accurate and reliable. The most important factors affecting blood ethanol stability are temperature and storage time. In this study, we aimed to compare ethanol stability in plasma samples at -20 °C for the different storage periods. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected from intoxicated drivers (N = 80) and initial plasma ethanol concentrations were measured immediately. Plasma samples were then stored at -20 °C and re-assessed after 2, 3, 4, or 5 months of storage. Differences between the initial and stored ethanol concentrations in each group (N = 20) were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. The deviation from the initial concentration was calculated and compared with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA’88) Proficiency Testing Limits. Relationships between the initial concentrations and deviations from initial concentrations were analyzed by Spearman’s correlation analysis. For all statistical tests, differences with P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Statistically significant differences were observed between the initial and poststorage ethanol concentrations in the overall sample group (P < 0.001). However, for the individual storage duration groups, analytically significant decreases were observed only for samples stored for 5 months, deviations from the initial concentrations exceeded the allowable total error (TEa). Ethanol decreases in the other groups did not exceed the TEa. Conclusion According to our results, plasma ethanol samples can be kept at -20 °C for up to 3-4 months until re-analysis. However, each laboratory should also establish its own work-flow rules and criterion for reliable ethanol measurement in forensic cases. PMID:25672467

  6. Kinetics of ethanol degradation in forensic blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, L A; Triszcz, J M; Giannuzzi, L

    2006-09-12

    To determine ethanol in human post-mortem blood samples is problematic, largely due to the inappropriate and variable methods of preserving and storing, which can cause decomposition and loss of alcohol concentration. In this study, four crucial parameters of sample conservation were studied: temperature (T), percentage of air chamber in container (%CA), ethanol concentration in blood and post-mortem time. Blood samples from post-mortem cases were stored under different conditions (ethanol levels were known in all cases); factorial design variables: (%CA) 0, 5, 20, 35, 65%; storage temperature: 25, 4 and -10 degrees C; in a total of 15 experiments. No preserving agent was used in samples. Quantification of ethanol in blood was carried out by gas chromatography with head-space FID detector. Initial ethanol concentration ranged from 0.50 to 4.30 g/L. The kinetics of degradation observed was pseudo-first-order. The parameter that characterised the kinetics of ethanol degradation (k(0)) ranged from (4 x 10(-4) and 5.0 x 10(-1) day(-1)), depending on storage conditions. A strong dependence between ethanol degradation and the content of the air chamber was observed and this dependence was found to be stronger than that between degradation and temperature; there was an experimental relation between (k(0)) and (%CA). Activation energy for different conditions, i.e. 0, 5, 20, 35 and 65 (%CA), were calculated and contour plots were made. A mathematical equation relating air chamber, temperature and ethanol concentration at a certain time was determined. This equation allowed estimation of initial concentrations of ethanol with minimal error. A good correlation between experimental data and data calculated with the equation was obtained (r(2) = 0.9998). The best storage conditions were: 0% CA and storage at -10 degrees C, obtaining an ethanol degradation of 0.01% after 15 days. However, 33% of ethanol degradation was obtained with 35% CA at 25 degrees C after 15 days. This equation is useful in forensic cases in which original concentration of ethanol has to be estimated under different sample storage conditions. PMID:16872775

  7. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults ... if your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ...

  8. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... during light physical activity or exercise. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... stated as 120/80. Do You Have High Blood Pressure? One reason to have regular visits to ...

  9. Biotransformation of ethanol to ethyl glucuronide in a rat model after a single high oral dosage.

    PubMed

    Wright, Trista H; Ferslew, Kenneth E

    2012-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor ethanol metabolite that confirms the absorption and metabolism of ethanol after oral or dermal exposure. Human data suggest that maximum blood EtG (BEtG) concentrations are reached between 3.5 and 5.5h after ethanol administration. This study was undertaken to determine if the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat biotransforms ethanol to EtG after a single high oral dose of ethanol. SD rats (male, n=6) were gavaged with a single ethanol dose (4 g/kg), and urine was collected for 3 h in metabolic cages, followed by euthanization and collection of heart blood. Blood and urine were analyzed for ethanol and EtG by gas chromatography and enzyme immunoassay. Blood and urine ethanol concentrations were 195±23 and 218±19 mg/dL, whereas BEtG and urine EtG (UEtG) concentrations were 1,363±98 ng equivalents/mL and 210±0.29 mg equivalents/dL (X ± standard error of the mean [S.E.M.]). Sixty-six male SD rats were gavaged ethanol (4 g/kg) and placed in metabolic cages to determine the extent and duration of ethanol to EtG biotransformation and urinary excretion. Blood and urine were collected up to 24 h after administration for ethanol and EtG analysis. Maximum blood ethanol, urine ethanol, and UEtG were reached within 4 h, whereas maximum BEtG was reached 6 h after administration. Maximum concentrations were blood ethanol, 213±20 mg/dL; urine ethanol, 308±34 mg/dL; BEtG, 2,683±145 ng equivalents/mL; UEtG, 1.2±0.06 mg equivalents/mL (X±S.E.M.). Areas under the concentration-time curve were blood ethanol, 1,578 h*mg/dL; urine ethanol, 3,096 h*mg/dL; BEtG, 18,284 h*ng equivalents/mL; and UEtG, 850 h*mg equivalents/dL. Blood ethanol and BEtG levels were reduced to below limits of detection (LODs) within 12 and 18 h after ethanol administration. Urine ethanols were below LOD at 18 h, but UEtG was still detectable at 24h after administration. Our data prove that the SD rat biotransforms ethanol to EtG and excretes both in the urine and suggest that it is similar to that of the human. PMID:22019193

  10. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure ... Common Are High Blood Pressure and Preeclampsia in Pregnancy? High blood pressure problems occur in 6 percent ...

  11. Acute ethanol treatment induces a bimodal response of phospholipid acylation rates in rat red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Verine, A.; Valette, A.; Richard, D.; Boyer, J. (INSERM, Marseille (France))

    1991-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal injection of ethanol in rats elicited a bimodal response of acylation rates in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine of intact red blood cells. Within an initial period, ethanol inhibited acylation rates. The inhibition then reversed, leading to increased values which persisted as long as ethanol was present in plasma. Acylation rates were not correlated to ethanol concentrations in plasma. The authors suggest that red cells first desensitize to, then overcompensate for the inhibitory effect of ethanol on acylation reactions. These adaptive changes may be one of the events mediating membrane tolerance to ethanol.

  12. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  13. High blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

  14. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But ...

  15. High Blood Pressure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2004-01-01

    The Science Inside: High Blood PressureThis booklet explains what health professionals know about high blood pressure or hypertension, one of the leading causes of heart disease and stroke. It shows how to prevent high blood pressure, as well as how to care for yourself if you have been diagnosed with the disease. The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

  16. Ethanol Ingestion: Differences in Blood Acetaldehyde Concentrations in Relatives of Alcoholics and Controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc A. Schuckit; Vidamantas Rayses

    1979-01-01

    Blood acetaldehyde concentrations were significantly elevated after a moderate ethanol dose in 20 healthy young men with alcoholic parents or siblings compared to matched controls with no familial alcoholism.

  17. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... click may be heard if a bicuspid aortic valve occurs with the coarctation. Other tests in infants with high blood pressure will try to find the cause of the problem. Such tests may include: A special type of x-ray that uses a dye to look at ...

  18. High Blood Pressure and Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in life. Blood pressure during childbearing years Do birth control pills cause high blood pressure? Medical researchers have found that birth control pills increase blood pressure in some women. It's ...

  19. Increased rate of ethanol elimination and elevated blood acetate in asthmatics on corticosteroid, beta-2-sympathicomimetic and theophylline treatment.

    PubMed

    Korri, U M; Salaspuro, M

    1988-01-01

    The rate of ethanol elimination and blood acetate concentrations after a peroral dose of alcohol were measured in eight asthmatic patients receiving high-dose corticosteroid, sustained release theophylline and beta-2-sympathicomimetic treatment and in eight nonalcoholic, healthy controls. Mean ethanol elimination rate (ER) and mean blood acetate concentration (AC) were significantly (P less than 0.01) higher in asthmatics (ER = 134.8 +/- 12.9 mg/kg/hr, AC = 1.13 +/- 0.25 mM) than in controls (ER = 100.2 +/- 12.3 mg/kg/hr, AC = 0.64 +/- 0.10 mM). In the asthmatics there was a significant negative correlation between the age and the rate of ethanol elimination (r = -0.890, P less than 0.01); in the control group, however, this correlation was of lower degree (r = -0.423) and did not achieve statistical significance. Enhanced ethanol metabolism in asthmatics is possibly due to the effect of drugs. Our results suggest that ethanol elimination rate is increased in asthmatics receiving medication and that the effect is most significant in younger age groups. PMID:2906542

  20. Ethanol enrichment from ethanol-water mixtures using high frequency ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Kirpalani, D M; Suzuki, K

    2011-09-01

    The influence of high frequency ultrasound on the enrichment of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures was investigated. Experiments performed in a continuous enrichment system showed that the generated atomized mist was at a higher ethanol concentration than the feed and the enrichment ratio was higher than the vapor liquid equilibrium curve for ethanol-water above 40 mol%. Well-controlled experiments were performed to analyze the effect of physical parameters; temperature, carrier gas flow and collection height on the enrichment. Droplet size measurements of the atomized mist and visualization of the oscillating fountain jet formed during sonication were made to understand the separation mechanism. PMID:21300561

  1. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Web Sites with More Information About High Blood Pressure ...

  2. Comparison Among Plasma, Serum, and Whole Blood Ethanol Concentrations: Impact of Storage Conditions and Collection Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; McNeil, Jane F.; Ryan, Elizabeth T.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    How blood samples are processed and stored before being analyzed for alcohol levels is of concern in the forensic and toxicological fields, and is important in the standardization of research methods. This experiment explored for systematic differences in ethanol levels among several methods of processing and storing blood samples. Five adults consumed a standard alcoholic drink (0.7 g/kg) over a 15-min period, and blood samples were taken 5 times during a 3-h period following drinking onset. Samples for plasma and whole blood were drawn into Vacutainers® containing either an anticoagulant or an anticoagulant plus preservative. Samples for serum were drawn into Vacutainers containing no additives or a preservative only. Separate sets of samples were analyzed on the day of the study, after storage at room temperature (25°C) for 24 h, after storage at room temperature for 10 days, or after 10 days of refrigerated storage. Neither processing condition (i.e., type of additive) nor storage condition significantly affected ethanol levels. Consistent with the literature, plasma and serum samples had significantly higher concentrations of ethanol than whole blood. This study shows that blood samples containing ethanol at levels ranging from 60 to 90 mg/dL (0.06 to 0.09 mg%) are not significantly altered by the type of collection tube used or storage condition during a 10-day period. PMID:18713519

  3. Preventive effect of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on blood ethanol elevation in ethanol-loaded rat: Structure requirement and suppression of gastric emptying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisashi Matsuda; Hiroshi Shimoda; Toshiaki Uemura; Masayuki Yoshikawa

    1999-01-01

    The methanolic extract from the leaves of Laurus nobilis (bay leaf, laurel) potently inhibited the elevation of blood ethanol level in ethanol-loaded rat. Through bioassay-guided separation, costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, and santamarine were isolated as the active constituents and the ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone structure was found to be essential for the preventive effect on ethanol absorption. In addition, the retardation of gastric emptying

  4. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  5. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  6. High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cholesterol that your body needs to do this. Lipoproteins and Cholesterol Cholesterol circulates in your blood stream. ... travels through your bloodstream in small packages called lipoproteins. The packages are made of fat (lipids) on ...

  7. Ethanol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Cluette, J.E.; Mulligan, J.J.; Noring, R.; Doyle, K.; Hojnacki, J.

    1984-05-01

    Male squirrel monkeys fed ethanol at variable doses were used to assess whether alcohol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in vivo. Monkeys were divided into three groups: 1) controls fed isocaloric liquid diet; 2) low ethanol monkeys fed liquid diet with vodka substituted isocalorically for carbohydrate at 12% of calories; and 3) High Ethanol animals fed diet plus vodka at 24% of calories. High Ethanol primates had significantly higher levels of HDL nonesterified cholesterol than Control and Low Ethanol animals while serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase was similar for the three treatments. There were no significant differences between the groups in HDL cholesteryl ester mass or specific activity following intravenous injection of labeled mevalonolactone. By contrast, High Ethanol monkeys had significantly greater HDL nonesterified cholesterol specific activity with approximately 60% of the radioactivity distributed in the HDL/sub 3/ subfraction. This report provides the first experimental evidence that ethanol at 24% of calories induces elevations in HDL cholesterol in primates through enhanced de novo synthesis without adverse effects on liver function.

  8. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after intensive exposure to high ethanol content mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Pesce, Amadeo J; Crews, Bridgit O; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    To determine the degree of ethanol absorption and the resultant formation and urinary excretion of its conjugated metabolites following intensive use of high ethanol content mouthwash, 10 subjects gargled with Listerine(®) antiseptic 4 times daily for 3¼ days. First morning void urine specimens were collected on each of the four study days and post-gargle specimens were collected at 2, 4, and 6 h after the final gargle of the study. Urine ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and creatinine were measured. Ethanol was below the positive threshold of 20 mg/dL in all of the urine specimens. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (6 and 82 ng/mL; 16 and 83 ?g/g creatinine). Only one specimen contained detectable EtG (173 ng/mL; 117 ?g/g creatinine). EtS was detected in the urine of seven study subjects, but was not detected in the single specimen that had detectable EtG. The maximum EtS concentrations were 104 ng/mL and 112 ?g/g creatinine (in different subjects). Three subjects produced a total of eight (non-baseline) urinary EtS concentrations above 50 ng/mL or 50 ?g/g creatinine and three EtS concentrations exceeding 100 ng/mL or 100 ?g/g creatinine. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG and EtS concentrations, currently accepted EtG and EtS cutoffs of 500 ng/mL are adequate to distinguish between ethanol consumption and four times daily use of high ethanol content mouthwash. PMID:21619720

  9. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 130 mg/dL Almost everyone else may get health benefits from LDL cholesterol that is lower than 160 mg/dL to 190 mg/dL There are several types of drugs to help lower blood cholesterol levels. The drugs work in different ways. Statins are one kind of ...

  10. Ethanol drinking microstructure of a High Drinking in the Dark selected mouse line

    PubMed Central

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) selected mouse line was bred for high blood ethanol concentration (BEC) following the limited access Drinking in the Dark (DID) test and is a genetic animal model of binge-like drinking. The present study examines the microstructure of ethanol drinking in these mice and their control line during three versions of the DID test to determine how drinking structure differences might relate to overall intake and BEC. Methods Male mice from the HDID-1 replicate line and HS/Npt progenitor stock were tested in separate experiments on 2- and 4-day versions of the DID test, and on a 2-day two-bottle choice DID test with 20% ethanol and water. Testing took place in home cages connected to a continuous fluid intake monitoring system (BioDAQ) and drinking during the DID test was analyzed for drinking microstructure. Results HDID-1 mice had more drinking bouts, shorter interbout interval, larger bout size, greater total ethanol intake, and higher BECs than HS/Npt mice on the 2nd day of the 2-day DID test. The 4-day DID test showed greater bout size, total ethanol intake, and BEC in the HDID-1 mice than the HS/Npt mice. Total ethanol intake and BECs for the HDID-1 mice in the DID tests averaged 2.6-3.0 g/kg and 0.4-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The two-bottle choice test showed no genotype differences in drinking microstructure or total consumption, but did show greater preference for the ethanol solution in HDID-1 mice than HS/Npt. Conclusions These results suggest that inherent differences in ethanol drinking structure between the HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice, especially the larger bout size in the HDID-1 mice, contribute to the difference in intake during the standard DID test. PMID:22524154

  11. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Trans fats are made when hydrogen is added to vegetable oil to harden it. ... High Blood Cholesterol Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, ...

  12. Myths about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can increase blood pressure dramatically. It can also cause heart failure, lead to stroke and produce irregular heartbeats. Too much alcohol can contribute to high triglycerides, cancer, obesity, alcoholism, suicide and accidents, and it can be ...

  13. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses hypertension including the causes, complications, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of the disease. It also explains what blood pressure is. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  14. Ultrasensitive method for determination of ethanol in whole blood by headspace capillary gas chromatography with cryogenic oven trapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanako Watanabe-Suzuki; Hiroshi Seno; Akira Ishii; Takeshi Kumazawa; Osamu Suzuki

    1999-01-01

    We have established an ultra-sensitive method for determination of ethanol in whole blood by headspace capillary gas chromatography (GC) with cryogenic oven trapping. After heating a blood sample containing ethanol and isobutyl alcohol (internal standard, IS) in a 7.0-ml vial at 55°C for 15 min, 5 ml of the headspace vapor was drawn into a glass syringe and injected into

  15. Biotransformation of Ethanol to Ethyl Glucuronide in a Rat Model after a Single High Oral Dosage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trista H. Wright; Kenneth E. Ferslew

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor ethanol metabolite that confirms the absorption and metabolism of ethanol after oral or dermal exposure. Human data suggest maximum blood EtG (BEtG) concentrations are reached between 3.5 - 5.5 hours post ethanol administration (Hoiseth et al, 2007). This study was undertaken to determine if the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat biotransforms ethanol to EtG after

  16. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hurts the brain's ability to think and control body functions. Strokes can affect language, memory and vision as well as cause paralysis and other health issues. How does high blood pressure cause a stroke? ... can damage arteries throughout the body. Weakened arteries in the brain put you at ...

  17. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in oral fluid, blood, and urine after volunteers drank 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg doses of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Mørland, Jørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid, blood, and urine after healthy volunteers drank two doses of ethanol, 0.5 (n = 11) and 1.0 g/kg (n = 10), after an overnight fast. Samples of oral fluid, blood, and urine were collected before drinking started and at 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 8.5, 11.5, and 24 h post-dosing. Following ingestion of low dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 0.36 mg/L (range 0.28-0.41 mg/L) in blood and 69.8 mg/L (range 47.1-96.5 mg/L) in urine. In oral fluid, the concentrations were < 1% of those in blood, and only three subjects exceeded the limit of quantification for EtG in oral fluid. After ingestion of the high dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 1.06 mg/L (range 0.8-1.22 mg/L) in blood, 159.9 mg/L (range 97.2-225.5 mg/L) in urine, and 0.032 mg/L (range 0.013-0.059 mg/L) in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood ratio was 0.029 (range 0.012-0.054) for EtG. The detection time for EtG was median 11.5 h (range 3.5-11.5 h) in oral fluid. According to this, the detection time for EtG in oral fluid is therefore only a few hours longer than for ethanol itself and represents limited additional value. PMID:20663284

  18. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Prevention,

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Complete Report U . S . D E Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National High Blood Pressure Education Program

  19. Hexitol repression effects in the high corn ethanol fermentation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Ziffer

    1983-01-01

    Summary Manitol and sorbitol were used in theSaccharomyces cerevisiae glucose ethanol fermentation to study osmotic and membrane transport effects in the presence of non-saccharified high corn solids. Both hexitols caused temporary depression of alcohol yield during the early growth period but did not appear to affect maximum hourly production rates.

  20. 40 CFR 1065.725 - High-level ethanol-gasoline blends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. 1065.725 Section...Standards § 1065.725 High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. For testing vehicles capable of operating on a high-level ethanol-gasoline blend, create a test...

  1. Use of high-ethanol-resistant yeast isolates from Nigerian palm wine in lager beer brewing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Agu; T. U. Anyanwu; A. H. Onwumelu

    1993-01-01

    High-ethanol-resistant yeasts, characterized as Saccharomyces sp., were isolated from Nigerian palm wine with added sucrose for high gravity brewing. The yeast isolates that survived the highest ethanol production were used to ferment brewery wort and produced 8.2 to 8.5% (v\\/v) ethanol; values almost double that of the control yeast from a local brewery.

  2. Immobilization-induced increases of systolic blood pressure and dysregulation of electrolyte balance in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Farzana; Haque, Zeba; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2015-07-01

    Clinical and experimental studies revealed that alcohol drinking and life event stresses are predisposing factors to hypertension. Intra and extra cellular levels of electrolytes may play important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of hypertension. Dietary intake of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium is suggested to have a role in the regulation of blood pressure. The present study was designed to monitor the effects of acute exposure to 2h immobilization stress and ethanol administration at a dose of 2.5g/kg body weight (i.p.) and combined effect of acute administration of ethanol and immobilization stress on systolic blood pressure (SBP), intraerythrocyte, serum and tissue electrolytes in rats. Results showed that acute exposure to 2h immobilization increased SBP, intraerythrocyte sodium and decreased intraerythrocyte potassium in water as well as in ethanol injected rats. The concentration of Na(+) and Ca(2+) increased while that of K(+) and Mg(2+) decreased in the heart and kidney tissue. Ethanol administration also increased Na(+) and Ca(2+)levelsand decreased K(+) and Mg(2+) levels in the heart and kidney tissue. Restraint stress decreased serum levels of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), P, and Cl(-) and increased serum Mg(2+), glucose and haematocrit. Ethanol administration also decreased serum levels of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), P, and Cl(-) and increased serum Mg(2+), glucose and haematocrit. The effects of ethanol and stress on the changes of blood and tissues electrolytes were additive and may be involved in the greater occurrence of hypertension in alcoholics. Our results suggested an important role of intra and extra cellular electrolytes in both stress and ethanol-induced hypertension. The findings may help to develop strategies for the treatment of hypertension in alcoholics. PMID:26142527

  3. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure Visoki krvni tlak - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) High Blood Pressure ??? - ???? ( ...

  4. GC-MS analysis of ethanol and other volatile compounds in micro-volume blood samples--quantifying neonatal exposure.

    PubMed

    Cordell, Rebecca L; Pandya, Hitesh; Hubbard, Marie; Turner, Mark A; Monks, Paul S

    2013-05-01

    A static headspace gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and fully validated for the quantitative measurement of acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid in the headspace of micro-volumes of blood using n-propanol as an internal standard. The linearity of the method was established over the range 0.2-100 mg/L (R(2) > 0.99) and the limits of detection were 0.1-0.2 mg/L and lower limits quantification 0.5-1 mg/L. Precision and accuracies fell within acceptable limits (20 % for LLOQ and 15 %) for both intra- and inter-day analyses for all compounds except acetaldehyde which had inter-day variability of ?25 %. The method was applied to analyse blood samples from neonatal patients receiving courses of ethanol excipient containing medications. Baseline levels of acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol and ethanol could be measured in patients before dosing commenced and an increase in levels of some volatiles were observed in several neonates after receiving ethanol-containing medications. PMID:23420137

  5. Blood alcohol concentration for monitoring ethanol treatment to prevent alcohol withdrawal in the intensive care unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verena Eggers; Joke Tio; Tim Neumann; Fritz Pragst; Christian Müller; Lutz G. Schmidt; Wolfgang J. Kox; Claudia D. Spies

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a serious complication during postoperative treatment in chronic alcoholics. Despite prophylactic treatment, AWS occurs in at least 25% of these patients after elective surgery. An established protocol for the prevention of AWS is ethanol administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in ethanol dose and levels between successfully treated patients

  6. Determination of Total Glutathione in Dried Blood Spot Samples Using a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kan?ár, Roman; Štramová, Xenie; Drábková, Petra; Brandtnerová, Martina

    2015-07-01

    A method is described for the determination of total glutathione (TGSH) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Whole blood and DBS samples were obtained from a group of blood donors. After GSH reduction with dithiothreitol and protein precipitation with ethanol, the samples were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde to form a very stable, highly fluorescent derivative. For the separation, a reversed phase HPLC method was used. The mixture of ethanol and deionized water (8 : 92, v/v) was used as a mobile phase. The analytical performance of this method was satisfactory: the intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Quantitative recoveries from spiked DBS samples were between 98.3 and 103.6%. The presented method is inexpensive and suitable for clinical testing purposes. PMID:25344838

  7. CHRONOBIOLOGY OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelková, A.; Dušek, J.; Sva?inová, H.; Siegelová, J.; Fišer, B.

    2008-01-01

    BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:19122770

  8. High Blood Pressure: The Science Inside

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Healthy People Library Project

    2004-01-01

    This booklet is a resource to help individuals at risk to high blood pressure. Supported by Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) from the National Center for Research Resources Grant # 5R25RR15601

  9. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. ...

  10. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani

    2003-01-01

    Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

  11. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  12. THERMOREGULATION AT A HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE FOLLOWING THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to assess the thermoregulatory mechanisms responsible for the elevation in body temperature following ethanol administration when exposed to a high ambient temperature (Ta). ale rats of the Fischer 344 strain were gavaged with 20% ethanol at doses of 0, 2....

  13. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Results Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. Conclusions In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall ethanol production yield. PMID:24401142

  14. “Jello® Shots” and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dess, Nancy K.; Madkins, Chardonnay D.; Geary, Bree A.; Chapman, Clinton D.

    2013-01-01

    Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose); ethanol concentration (4% or 10%); and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib.) during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed. PMID:24284614

  15. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis). PMID:25706565

  16. High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform.

    PubMed

    Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G; Abell, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production. PMID:25878135

  17. High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform

    PubMed Central

    Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G.; Abell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production. PMID:25878135

  18. Effects of the nootropic AWD 52-39 on the blood-brain transfer of leucine, choline and glucose in rats after 14-d exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Brust, P; Jordan, K

    1992-08-01

    The transport of the neutral amino acid L-leucine as well as of choline and D-glucose across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of male Wistar rats was studied after 14-day exposure to ethanol and treatment with the nootropic drug AWD 52-39 (1). After ethanol exposure the half-saturation constant (Km) and the maximum velocity of transport (Vmax) declined in the majority of the investigated brain regions. Also, the treatment elicited a regionally different increase of the permeability-surface area (PS) product of choline (between 10% and 33%) and glucose (between 12% and 27%). The changes in the blood-brain transfer of the three compounds were diminished or prevented by additional application of 1. The cerebral blood flow was increased by the exposure to ethanol by maximally 44%. After additional administration of 1 the changes were reversed and the blood flow reached control values. In addition, the activity of the enzyme acetylcholine esterase was determined in the striatum and the hippocampus. After ethanol exposure the enzyme activity declined by 32%. It was less diminished after treatment with 1. The latter effects let assume that the changes of the BBB permeability elicited by ethanol and 1 are related to alterations of brain metabolism. PMID:1438514

  19. [The correlation of results of breath analysers and laboratory blood examinations of blood-ethanol concentration (Czech and Slovak study)].

    PubMed

    Hirt, M; Vojtísek, T; Zelený, M; Krajsa, J; Stanková, M; Fialka, J; Holoubek, J; Novotná, Rychtecká A; Vlcková, A; Pilin, A; Ondra, P; Hejna, P; Mudrová, J; Duchanová, S; Zedniková, K; Machácek, R; Cerná, I; Krejzlíková, E; Válka, I; Schneller, K; Vanerková, H; Datko, M; Novomeský, F; Straka, L; Krajcovic, J; Hajtman, A; Macko, V; Vorel, F

    2010-01-01

    The target of this study was to compare the results of breath analysers and "lege artis" laboratory blood examinations when determining alcohol levels. This was then used to determine whether any differences exist between the two methods, and how large these differences are. 610 cases from 11 workplaces in the Czech Republic and Slovakia were analysed. The type of breath analyser was not taken into consideration. All cases had to be in the elimination phase. Difference of time between breath test and blood test were rectified through the use of reverse recomputation. It was detected that only 20.8% of the results of respiratory analyser tests correspond to the detected real alcohol level in blood. The maximum difference when a respiratory analyser measured more than a blood test was 1.34 g x kg(-1). and the maximum difference when the analyse measured less was 1.86 g x kg(-1). PMID:21280283

  20. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Dry-grind Highly Digestible Grain Sorghum Lines for Ethanol Production

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Joan R.

    2010-07-14

    The potential of high digestible grain sorghum (HDGS) with a modified starch protein endosperm matrix to replace corn in ethanol production was investigated using dry grind simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Preliminary...

  1. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Dry-grind Highly Digestible Grain Sorghum Lines for Ethanol Production 

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Joan R.

    2010-07-14

    The potential of high digestible grain sorghum (HDGS) with a modified starch protein endosperm matrix to replace corn in ethanol production was investigated using dry grind simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Preliminary...

  2. Know Your Blood Pressure Many people with diabetes also have high blood pressure.

    E-print Network

    Know Your Blood Pressure Many people with diabetes also have high blood pressure. Blood pressure whole body. #12; When your heart pumps, your blood pressure goes up. The pressure in your arteries is your blood pressure. · This is like pumping air into a tire. · When you push down on the pump it pumps

  3. Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

  4. Numerical Model Investigation for Potential Methane Explosion and Benzene Vapor Intrusion Associated with High-Ethanol Blend

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Associated with High-Ethanol Blend Releases Jie Ma, Hong Luo, George E. DeVaull,§ William G. Rixey, and Pedro ABSTRACT: Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could conditions exist. Ethanol- derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel

  5. Role of an Ethanolic Extract of Crotalaria juncea L. on High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinakaran Sathis; David, Banji; Harani, Avasarala; Vijay, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic effects of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) by performing in vivo studies. Methods The effects of oral administration of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) in rats fed with a high-fat diet were investigated by evaluating parameters like food consumption, weight gain, fecal fat excretion, serum and liver lipids, and biochemical profiles as well as by histopathological studies. The results were compared to animals fed with the standard diet and animals fed with a high-fat diet and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg BW). Results The animal group administered with the ethanolic extract for 35 days showed decreased levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, TG, HDL+VLDL, VLDL+LDL, LDL/TC, AI, SGOT, SGPT, and elevated levels of HDL, HDL/TC, significantly (p<0.01 & p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of liver tissues of the animal groups treated with the herbal extract and standard had shown increased levels of SOD, GSH, and catalase, whereas levels of SGOT, SGPT, total glucose, HMG-CoA, lipase, amylase, and the percentage of malon-dialdehyde were decreased when compared with the high-fat diet-fed rats. Body weight and food intake in the treated groups were significantly lower than that in the model control. Conclusion The present study showed that an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea L. influences several blood lipid and metabolic parameters in rats, suggesting a potential benefit as an antihypercholesterolemic agent. PMID:24959408

  6. Experimental Study on Thermal Interaction of Ethanol Jets in High Temperature Fluorinert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Rongyuan; Takahashi, Minoru

    As a fundamental study for the direct contact heat exchange which was employed for in-vessel heat exchange in the Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water small fast reactor (PBWFR) and for the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident in lead alloy-cooled fast reactor (LFR), ethanol jet was injected into high temperature fluorinert (FC-3283) as a simulation experiment in order to investigate the jet boiling phenomena just after volatile water contacting with the high temperature continuous lead alloy liquid. Two series of tests (no-boiling and boiling) were initiated to evaluate the ethanol vapor volume which generated around the ethanol jet. From synchronized temperature measurement around ethanol jet, the overview of the boiling behavior showed that jet boiling occurred at bottom part of jet first and developed to the upper part within very narrow area around jet.

  7. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2 %, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol. PMID:25877397

  8. Aeration strategy: a need for very high ethanol performance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch process.

    PubMed

    Alfenore, S; Cameleyre, X; Benbadis, L; Bideaux, C; Uribelarrea, J-L; Goma, G; Molina-Jouve, C; Guillouet, S E

    2004-02-01

    In order to identify an optimal aeration strategy for intensifying bio-fuel ethanol production in fermentation processes where growth and production have to be managed simultaneously, we quantified the effect of aeration conditions--oxygen limited vs non limited culture (micro-aerobic vs aerobic culture)--on the dynamic behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in very high ethanol performance fed-batch cultures. Fermentation parameters and kinetics were established within a range of ethanol concentrations (up to 147 g l(-1)), which very few studies have addressed. Higher ethanol titres (147 vs 131 g l(-1) in 45 h) and average productivity (3.3 vs 2.6 g l(-1) h(-1)) were obtained in cultures without oxygen limitation. Compared to micro-aerobic culture, full aeration led to a 23% increase in the viable cell mass as a result of the concomitant increase in growth rate and yield, with lower ethanol inhibition. The second beneficial effect of aeration was better management of by-product production, with production of glycerol, the main by-product, being strongly reduced from 12 to 4 g l(-1). We demonstrate that aeration strategy is as much a determining factor as vitamin feeding (Alfenore et al. 2002) in very high ethanol performance (147 g l(-1) in 45 h) in order to achieve a highly competitive dynamic process. PMID:12879304

  9. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow: Role of acetate and A sub 1 - and A sub 2 -adenosine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Varghese, G.A.; Israel, Y.; Orrego, H. (Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1988-10-01

    The increase in portal blood flow induced by ethanol appears to be adenosine mediated. Acetate, which is released by the liver during ethanol metabolism, is known to increase adenosine levels in tissues and in blood. The effects of acetate on portal blood flow were investigated in rats using the microsphere technique. The intravenous infusion of acetate resulted in vasodilation of the preportal vasculature and in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This acetate-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. Using the A{sub 1}-adenosine receptor agonist N-6-cyclohexyl adenosine and the A{sub 2}-agonist 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine, we demonstrate that the effect of adenosine on the preportal vasculature is mediated by the A{sub 2}-subtype of adenosine receptors. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the increase in portal blood flow after ethanol administration results from a preportal vasodilatory effect of adenosine formed from acetate metabolism in extrahepatic tissues.

  10. Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Edwin van der, E-mail: e.van.der.linden@mchaaglanden.nl [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Baalen, Jary M. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Pattynama, Peter M. T. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient. Methods: This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success. Results: Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients. Conclusion: Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.

  11. The relationship between adjunctive drinking, blood ethanol concentration and plasma corticosterone across fixed-time intervals of food delivery in two inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Matthew M.; Steele, Andrea M.; McCracken, Aubrey D.; Finn, Deborah A.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schedules of intermittent food delivery induce excessive fluid intake, termed schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is important for the expression and maintenance of this adjunctive behavior. Previous work has focused of examining the relationship between water intake and plasma corticosterone (CORT) in rats at a single or a limited range of fixed time (FT) intervals. However, little remains known regarding SIP and the corresponding stress response 1) across the bitonic function that epitomizes adjunctive behavior, 2) when ethanol is the available fluid, and 3) when a species other than rat or multiple strains are studied. Here we report the findings from ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) and non-preferring DBA/2J (D2) mice serially exposed to progressively larger FT intervals (0 ? 60 min) and given access to either water or a 5% v/v ethanol solution. Following 2 weeks of experience with each schedule, blood samples were collected at the conclusion of the last 60-min session to evaluate CORT and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) achieved. While both strains exhibited a bitonic function of ethanol intake and BEC that peaked at or near a 5-min interval, only D2 mice showed a similar response with water. In contrast, CORT levels rose monotonically with incremental increases in the FT interval regardless of the strain examined or fluid type offered, indicating that glucocorticoid release likely reflects the aversive aspects of increasing intervals between reinforcement rather than engagement in adjunctive behavior. These findings also caution against the use of a single intensity stressor to evaluate the relationship between stress and ethanol intake, as the magnitude of stress appears to affect ethanol consumption in a non-linear fashion. PMID:23827168

  12. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney disease is diagnosed with urine and blood tests. Health care providers measure blood pressure with a blood pressure ... the sample to a lab for analysis. A health care provider may order a blood test to estimate how much blood the kidneys filter ...

  13. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ???? ????? ????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Visok ... u trudno?i - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy ...

  14. Nitrogen Requirements for Ethanol Production from Sweet and Photoperiod Sensitive Sorghums in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorhum bicolor L.) has high water use efficiency, and is therefore widely cultivated in the Southern High Plains (SHP). Interest in sorghums for biofuel feedstock has increased recently as ethanol demand expands. Unlike grain sorghum, little data are available on N fertilizer requirements f...

  15. Continuous ethanol production with a membrane bioreactor at high acetic Acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-01-01

    The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L-1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h-1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L-1) and very high (100-200 g·L-1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L-1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5-6 g·L-1·h-1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L-1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L-1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials. PMID:25028956

  16. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L?1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h?1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L?1) and very high (100–200 g·L?1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L?1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L?1·h?1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L?1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L?1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials. PMID:25028956

  17. [Effect of temperature on the no cook, very high gravity ethanol fermentation process].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongxian; Duan, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The effect of temperature on a very high gravity ethanol fermentation using no cook process was investigated. We found that a gradient temperature control strategy could improve the fermentation efficiency significantly, With the assistance of a new raw starch hydrolyzing enzyme and a gradient temperature control strategy, the ethanol concentration could reach up to 20% (V/V) within 90 h using commercially available dry yeast, when sorghum was used as the raw material and the dry substrate concentration was controlled at 35%. PMID:20518345

  18. Alcoholic fatty liver in rats: Role of fat and ethanol intake

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W. (VA Medical Centers, Portland, OR (United States)); Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. (VA Medical Centers, Martinez, CA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The claim that high intake of both ethanol and fat is essential to induce fatty liver and high blood alcohol levels (BAL) was tested. Two groups of rats were fed liquid diets containing 26% and 36% of calories as ethanol respectively. After 4 weeks, all rats were bled for BAL and some were sacrificed to obtain liver morphology. Remaining rats in Group 1 (26% ethanol) were switched to 36% ethanol diet and Group 2 (36% ethanol) to 26% ethanol diet. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks to obtain blood for BAL and liver morphology. The results indicate that high ethanol intake and high fat ingestion is not the criterion for induction of fatty liver. Inadequate ingestion of macronutrients plays a major role in alcoholic fatty liver and BAL.

  19. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

  20. Effect of ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds on antioxidative defense system and oxidative stress in rats fed high-fat · high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Song, Won-Young; Ku, Kyung-Hyung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds on the antioxidative defense system and oxidative stress in rats fed a high fat · high cholesterol diet. Rats were divided into four experimental groups which were composed of high fat · high cholesterol diet group (HF), high fat · high cholesterol diet with 0.1% ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds supplemented group (HEA), high fat · high cholesterol diet with 0.2% ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds supplemented group (HEB) and high fat·high cholesterol diet with 0.5% ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds supplemented group (HEC). Supplementation of ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds groups (HEA, HEB and HEC) resulted in significantly increased activities of hepatic glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Hepatic superoxide radical contents in microsome and mitochondria were significantly reduced in the groups supplemented with red pepper seeds ethanol extracts. Hepatic hydrogen peroxide content in the mitochondria was reduced in ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds supplemented groups. TBARS values in the liver were reduced in red pepper seeds ethanol extracts supplemented groups. Especially, HEB and HEC groups were significantly decreased compared to the HF group. Hepatic carbonyl values were significantly reduced in mitochondria in these supplemented groups. These results suggest that red pepper seeds ethanol extracts may reduce oxidative damage, by activation of antioxidative defense system in rats fed high fat · high cholesterol diets. PMID:20198203

  1. Deaths from High Blood Pressure Should Plummet Under 'Obamacare': Study

    MedlinePLUS

    Deaths From High Blood Pressure Should Plummet Under 'Obamacare': Study Researchers estimate access to treatment could save ... 2015 THURSDAY, July 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. deaths from blood pressure-related diseases are expected to ...

  2. Short-term selection for acute ethanol tolerance and sensitization from an F2 population derived from the high and low alcohol-sensitive selectively bred rat lines.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, Richard A; Bludeau, Pequita; Deng, Xin-Sheng; Erwin, V Gene; Deitrich, Richard A

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the inbred high and low alcohol-sensitive rat (IHAS1 and ILAS1) strains. The original development of the strains involved selection for ethanol sensitivity based on duration of the loss of the righting reflex (LORR) after a standard dose of ethanol. This paper confirms some of these QTL using a short-term selection procedure based on the difference between the blood ethanol level at LORR and regain of the righting response. An F(2) population of rats was developed by a reciprocal cross of IHAS1 and ILAS1 rats. Selection for five generations was carried out using delta-blood ethanol concentration (dBEC) as the selection trait, where dBEC=BECLR (BEC at loss of righting reflex)-BECRR (BEC at regain of righting reflex). The lines were labeled tolerant (TOL) or sensitive (SENS). Approximately one-third of the offspring for each generation in each line were genotyped using DNA markers that had been previously found to be linked to QTL on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 12, and 13. By the fifth generation of selection, the lines showed a very large difference in dBEC, BECRR, and duration of LORR; BECLR showed little segregation during the selection, and latency to lose the righting reflex showed none. IHAS allele frequency increased in the SENS line for markers on chromosomes 1, 5, 12, and 13 while ILAS allele frequency increased in the TOL line. These results were in good agreement with the two previous QTL studies. On chromosome 2, the selection resulted in an accumulation of ILAS alleles in both lines. This study provides independent confirmation of the location of QTL on chromosomes 1, 5, 12, and 13 for ethanol sensitivity. It also suggests that genetic differences in duration of LORR are mediated primarily by the dBEC phenotype. PMID:18047909

  3. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in your blood. A blood test called a lipoprotein panel can measure your cholesterol levels. Before the ... but water) for 9 to 12 hours. The lipoprotein panel will give your doctor information about your: ...

  4. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oil. • Trans fat comes from adding hydrogen to vegetable oils and tends to raise blood cholesterol. It’s used ... milk and beef. • Polyunsaturated fats are found in vegetable oils and fish oils. These tend to lower blood ...

  5. THE EFFECTS OF PREGNANCY ON ETHANOL CLEARANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the effects of pregnancy on ethanol clearance rates and on blood and urine ethanol concentrations (BECs and UECs) in adult Sprague–Dawley rats infused with ethanol intragastrically. Pregnant rats had greater ethanol clearance following an intragastric or intravenous ethanol bolus (3 ...

  6. Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups

    SciTech Connect

    Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet.

  7. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... there? • DIURETICS rid the body of excess sodium (salt) and water and help control blood pressure. • BETA BLOCKERS reduce the heart rate and the ... make the other lifestyle changes that help reduce blood pressure ... sodium (salt) intake, being more regularly physically active and limiting ...

  8. Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

  9. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT METABOLITES RELEVANT TO ETHANOL METABOLISM: CORRELATION WITH ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SEVERITY AND UTILITY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF ALCOHOLICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAVEL S. PRONKO; MAGDALENA G. VELICHKO; ADAM R. MOROZ; NELLA N. RUBANOVICH

    1997-01-01

    The blood levels of ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetate, methanol, acetone, lactate, pyruvate, and glucose were measured in 23 male alcohol-dependent patients on days 2 to 6 after hospitalization and in 22 healthy male blood donors. Correlations between the biochemical parameters and 17 symptoms of the alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS) were calculated. Abnormally high levels of ethanol, methanol, acetate, and acetone as well

  10. Prenatal ethanol increases sucrose reinforcement, an effect strengthened by postnatal association of ethanol and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Culleré, Marcela Elena; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Late prenatal exposure to ethanol recruits sensory processing of the drug and of its motivational properties, an experience that leads to heightened ethanol affinity. Recent studies indicate common sensory and neurobiological substrates between this drug and sweet tastants. Using a recently developed operant conditioning technique for infant rats, we examined the effects of prenatal ethanol history upon sucrose self-administration (postnatal days, PDs 14-17). Prior to the last conditioning session, a low (0.5 g/kg) or a high (2.5 g/kg) ethanol dose were paired with sucrose. The intention was to determine if ethanol would inflate or devalue the reinforcing capability of the tastant and if these effects are dependent upon prenatal ethanol history. Male and female pups prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) responded more when reinforced with sucrose than pups lacking this antenatal experience. Independently of prenatal status, a low ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) enhanced the reinforcing capability of sucrose while the highest dose (2.5 g/kg) seemed to ameliorate the motivational properties of the tastant. During extinction (PD 18), two factors were critical in determining persistence of responding despite reinforcement omission. Pups prenatally exposed to ethanol that subsequently experienced the low ethanol dose paired with sucrose, showed higher resistance to extinction. The effects here reported were not associated with differential blood alcohol levels across prenatal treatments. These results indicate that fetal ethanol experience promotes affinity for a natural sweet reinforcer and that low doses of ethanol are also capable of enhancing the positive motivational consequences of sucrose when ethanol and sucrose are paired during infancy. PMID:24398347

  11. Ethanol fermentation of crude acid hydrolyzate of cellulose using high-level yeast inocula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Chung; Y. Y. Lee

    1985-01-01

    High-level yeast inocula was investigated as a means of overcoming the toxicity problem in ethanol fermentation of acid hydrolyzate of wood cellulose. When the inoculum level exceeded 10⁸ initial cells\\/mL, 50% of the yeast cells survived the initial cell death period during which furfural and HMF were depleted. The fermentation thus proceeded to completion by virtue of cell regrowth. The

  12. Dietary grapes (Vitis vinifera) feeding attenuates ethanol-induced oxidative stress in blood and modulates immune functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sukhes; Das, Subir Kumar; Vasudevan, D M

    2012-10-01

    Ethanol metabolism is known to induce overwhelming production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and also to cause associated immune dysfunction. Several interventional agents of plant origin, in particular fruits and vegetables have been used to counteract these alterations induced by ethanol. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of dietary feeding of skin and flesh of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) on the alterations in immune and vascular functions in mice with liver abnormalities induced by chronic ethanol consumption. Results revealed that feeding of both grape skin and flesh (2.5 g/kg body wt/day) effectively attenuated the oxidative stress and alterations in immune function and angiogenesis induced by chronic ethanol consumption (1.6 g/kg body wt/day for 12 weeks) in mice. The antioxidant actions of the grape skin and flesh as observed in this study might be attributed to the polyphenols present in the grapes. PMID:23259325

  13. Effect of propylene glycol and ethanol on 3 H-noradrenaline efflux from an isolated blood vessel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schrold; O. A. Nedergaard

    1977-01-01

    Summary Propylene glycol (14 mM), but not ethanol (17 mM), enhanced the late phase of passive3H-efflux from rabbit isolated aortic rings preloaded with3H-(?)-noradrenaline. We conclude that, with regard to3H-noradrenaline release studies, propylene glycol is unsuitable for aiding the dissolution of e.g. corticosterone in physiological salt solution, while ethanol can be used for this purpose.

  14. Ru-assisted synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites with high activity for ethanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Bin, Duan; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Caiqin; Ren, Fangfang; Du, Yukou

    2015-08-01

    Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium, which are mainly ascribed to the synergetic effect between Pd and Ru. This indicates that the Pd7/Ru1 catalysts should have great potential applications in direct ethanol fuel cells. PMID:26135381

  15. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

  16. Cellulases without carbohydrate-binding modules in high consistency ethanol production process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enzymes still comprise a major part of ethanol production costs from lignocellulose raw materials. Irreversible binding of enzymes to the residual substrate prevents their reuse and no efficient methods for recycling of enzymes have so far been presented. Cellulases without a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) have been found to act efficiently at high substrate consistencies and to remain non-bound after the hydrolysis. Results High hydrolysis yields could be obtained with thermostable enzymes of Thermoascus aurantiacus containing only two main cellulases: cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), Cel7A and endoglucanase II (EG II), Cel5A. The yields were decreased by only about 10% when using these cellulases without CBM. A major part of enzymes lacking CBM was non-bound during the most active stage of hydrolysis and in spite of this, produced high sugar yields. Complementation of the two cellulases lacking CBM with CBH II (CtCel6A) improved the hydrolysis. Cellulases without CBM were more sensitive during exposure to high ethanol concentration than the enzymes containing CBM. Enzymes lacking CBM could be efficiently reused leading to a sugar yield of 90% of that with fresh enzymes. The applicability of cellulases without CBM was confirmed under industrial ethanol production conditions at high (25% dry matter (DM)) consistency. Conclusions The results clearly show that cellulases without CBM can be successfully used in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose at high consistency, and that this approach could provide new means for better recyclability of enzymes. This paper provides new insight into the efficient action of CBM-lacking cellulases. The relationship of binding and action of cellulases without CBM at high DM consistency should, however, be studied in more detail. PMID:24559384

  17. Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    This report updates the 1990 “National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy” and focuses on classification, pathophysiologic features, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Through a combination of evidence-based medicine and consensus this report updates contemporary approaches to hypertension control during pregnancy by expanding on recommendations made in “The Sixth

  18. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stored fat instead in an attempt to provide fuel to hungry cells. Feeling tired: Because the body can't use ... blood and can't get into the body's cells to be used for energy. This can ... body can't use glucose for fuel, it starts to use fat. When this happens, ...

  19. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body gets desperate for a source of fuel. The body wants to use glucose (sugar). But without insulin, that glucose stays stuck in the blood — and isn't available to the cells — so the body uses fat instead. But that ...

  20. Production of fuel ethanol at high temperature from sugar cane juice by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Sringiew, Chutima; Yongmanitchai, Wichien

    2007-12-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042, isolated by an enrichment technique in a sugar cane juice medium supplemented with 4% (w/v) ethanol at 35 degrees C, produced high concentrations of ethanol at both 40 and 45 degrees C. Ethanol production by this strain in shaking flask cultivation in sugar cane juice media at 37 degrees C was highest in a medium containing 22% total sugars, 0.05% (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 0.05% KH(2)PO(4), and 0.15% MgSO(4).7H(2)O and having a pH of 5.0; the ethanol concentration reached 8.7% (w/v), productivity 1.45 g/l/h and yield 77.5% of theoretical yield. At 40 degrees C, a maximal ethanol concentration of 6.78% (w/v), a productivity of 1.13 and a yield 60.4% of theoretical yield were obtained from the same medium, except that the pH was adjusted to 5.5. In a study on ethanol production in a 5l jar fermenter with an agitation speed of 300 rpm and an aeration rate of 0.2 vvm throughout the fermentation, K. marxianus DMKU 3-1042 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 6.43% (w/v), a productivity of 1.3g/l/h and a yield of 57.1% of theoretical yield. PMID:17537627

  1. Highly sensitive detection of blood by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Samantha; Bertino, Massimo F; Ye, Dexian; White, Lauren S; Seashols, Sarah J

    2013-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy for forensic body fluid analysis has received some attention due to the nondestructive nature and potential application for identification at the crime scene; however, its usage has been limited by low detection sensitivity. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was evaluated for blood identification for forensic applications. Specifically, a SERS-active substrate was fabricated, composed of nickel nanotips coated with Ag nanoparticles. Compared with a conventional substrate, the SERS substrate enhanced Raman scattering by more than two orders of magnitude and allowed blood to be identified to a dilution of 1:100,000. Blood was also successfully detected by swabbing the SERS substrate directly on mock evidence. Most importantly, Raman spectra obtained by swabbing the SERS substrate on blood stains were free of luminescence even when blood was deposited on luminescent fabrics. The nondestructive character, simplicity of sample preparation, and high sensitivity make SERS a prime candidate for field and laboratory-based blood identification. PMID:23488826

  2. [High blood pressure in obese children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rascher, W; Kiess, W; Körner, A

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is also an important risk factor in children and adolescents for "essential" arterial hypertension, and contrary to what was assumed earlier, high blood pressure does cause damage to the cardiovascular system. As known from adults, elevated blood pressure induces cardiac hypertrophy, calcifications and atherosclerosis at the coronary vessels and thickens the small blood vessels. These early vascular alterations are particularly pronounced, when increased blood pressure is accompanied by other risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia or smoking. As in any child with elevated blood pressure, the diagnostic evaluation should focus on confirmation of hypertension, determine if an underlying cause can be identified and whether hypertensive target organ damage is present. New reference office blood pressure values were recently published by a large representative community-based study in Germany. Therapy should begin with lifestyle modifications; however, antihypertensive medications will often be needed. Hypertension in obese adolescents occurs frequently and must be diagnosed and treated adequately. PMID:23529593

  3. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead to heart failure? HBP damages the entire circulatory system. "Heart failure" is the term used for a ... body. High blood pressure damages the entire complex circulatory system. As mentioned above, HBP creates conditions for blocked ...

  4. Concurrent cocaine-ethanol ingestion in humans: pharmacology, physiology, behavior, and the role of cocaethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elinore F. McCance-Katz; Lawrence H. Price; Christopher J. McDougle; Thomas R. Kosten; Jed E. Black; Peter I. Jatlow

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous abuse of cocaine and ethanol is a common occurrence. Cocaethylene, the ethyl ester of benzoylecgonine, has been detected in the urine of patients reporting concurrent use of cocaine and ethanol, and high levels have been found in the blood of victims of fatal drug overdose. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the pharmacokinetic, physiologic, and behavioral effects of dual cocaine

  5. Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Switzer; J. J. B. Anderson; J. R. Pick

    1986-01-01

    Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g\\/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1

  6. High stable suspension of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol by using sono-synthesized nanomagnetite in polyol medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Entezari, Mohammad H., E-mail: moh_entezari@yahoo.com

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out in EG without any surfactant. • The nanoparticles with sizes ?24 nm were composed of small building blocks with sizes ?2 nm. • The hydrophilic magnetite nanoparticles were stable in ethanol even after 8 months. • Ultrasonic intensity showed a crucial role on the obtained high stable magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol. - Abstract: The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out at relatively low temperature (80 °C) in ethylene glycol (EG) as a polyol solvent. The particle size was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 24 nm were composed of small building blocks with an average size of 2–3 nm and the particles exhibited nearly spherical shape. The surface characterization was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The stability of magnetite nanoparticles was studied in ethanol as a polar solvent. The nanoparticles showed an enhanced stability in ethanol which is due to the hydrophilic surface of the particles. The colloidal stability of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol was monitored by UV–visible spectrophotometer. According to the results, the nanoparticles synthesized in 30 min of sonication with intensity of 35 W/cm{sup 2} (50%) led to a maximum stability in ethanol as a polar solvent with respect to the other applied intensities. The obtained magnetite nanoparticles were stable for more than12 months.

  7. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  8. Isolation, selection, and characterization of highly ethanol-tolerant strains of Oenococcus oeni from south Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Bordas, Meritxell; Araque, Isabel; Alegret, Joan O; El Khoury, Mariette; Lucas, Patrick; Rozès, Nicolas; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert

    2013-06-01

    Twenty-one strains of Oenococcus oeni were isolated during the malolactic fermentation of wines from south Catalonia. Due to their high ethanol tolerance (14 %, or more), these strains may serve as promising starters. The strains were screened by assays in a wine-like medium and by their co-inoculation in wine, resulting in the selection of well-performing strains, subsequently shown not to produce the main biogenic amines and lacking the genes involved in their synthesis. The genetic diversity of the isolates was studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), in which seven housekeeping genes were sequenced. Although the concatenated allelic profile of some strains was the same, the profiles obtained by random amplification of polymorphic DNA together with the variable number of tandem repeats at several loci showed that none of the strains were identical. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on MLST with the seven genes and clearly showed two phylogroups, in accordance with previous studies. The best-performing strains occurred in members of both subgroups, suggesting that the grouping of housekeeping genes is not directly related to adaptation and ethanol tolerance. PMID:24400529

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 Stress Response during High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

  10. Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

    1995-01-01

    Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

  11. Highly Sensitive Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Patient Blood

    PubMed Central

    Banada, Padmapriya P.; Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Shah, Darshini; Burday, Michele; Mazzella, Fermina M.; Alland, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs) can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing – polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform as a model diagnostic system. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD) of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU) per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs), plasma or whole blood), using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive) as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs) (71% samples positive) or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive). Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75–0.96) and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92–1). Conclusions We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture. PMID:22363564

  12. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diabetes and heart disease, severe risk factors, or metabolic syndrome . If you’re at very high risk, your ... especially important if you have a condition called metabolic syndrome . Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group ...

  13. Effects of the pretreatment method on high solids enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of the cellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luiza Helena da Silva; Rabelo, Sarita Cândida; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse at high solids loadings in the pretreatment (20-40% w/v) and hydrolysis (10-20% w/v) stages. The best conditions for diluted sulfuric acid, AHP and Ox-B pretreatments were determined and mass balances including pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation were calculated. From a technical point of view, the best pretreatment was AHP, which enabled the production of glucose concentrations near 8% with high productivity (3.27g/Lh), as well as ethanol production from 100.9 to 135.4kg ethanol/ton raw bagasse. However, reagent consumption for acid pretreatment was much lower. Furthermore, for processes that use pentoses and hexoses separately, this pretreatment produces the most desirable pentoses liquor, with higher xylose concentration in the monomeric form. PMID:26004382

  14. Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Puligundla; Daniela Smogrovicova; Vijaya Sarathi Reddy Obulam; Sanghoon Ko

    There have been numerous developments in ethanol fermentation technology since the beginning of the new millennium as ethanol\\u000a has become an immediate viable alternative to fast-depleting crude reserves as well as increasing concerns over environmental\\u000a pollution. Nowadays, although most research efforts are focused on the conversion of cheap cellulosic substrates to ethanol,\\u000a methods that are cost-competitive with gasoline production are

  15. Alterations in Ethanol Seeking and Self-Administration Following Yohimbine in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) and High Alcohol Drinking (HAD-2) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bertholomey, Megan L.; Verplaetse, Terril L.; Czachowski, Cristine L.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that stress increases alcohol drinking and promotes relapse in humans. Animal models that assess related behaviors include the sipper tube ethanol self-administration and the stress-induced reinstatement paradigms. While selectively bred for the same high-ethanol-drinking behavior, alcohol-preferring P rats appear to show greater sensitivity to ethanol reinforcement than high-alcohol-drinking HAD rats. The present experiment tested the effects of the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, on the motivation to seek and consume ethanol implementing a combined sipper tube/reinstatement model using male P and HAD-2 rats. Following training to self-administer ethanol using the sipper tube procedure, rats were tested for the effects of yohimbine (0.625-2.5 mg/kg) on ethanol drinking. Subsequently, rats were tested for the effects of 1.25 mg/kg yohimbine on reinstatement of ethanol seeking. Yohimbine (0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg) increased ethanol self-administration, and the latter dose also decreased latency to complete the response requirement. Yohimbine elicited reinstatement of ethanol seeking in both lines. HAD-2 rats drank more ethanol, but showed similar responding on the ethanol-associated lever compared to P rats. These findings extend both the reinstatement and sipper tube models and justify further exploration of this unique combined paradigm. Despite prior evidence suggesting that P rats are more motivated to seek and consume ethanol, differences in these behaviors between P and HAD-2 rats were not systematic in the present experiment. Further investigation may elucidate whether either selected line may be more sensitive than other selectively bred or outbred rats to stress-related changes in ethanol's reinforcing effects. PMID:23103404

  16. What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar.

    E-print Network

    What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar. DIABETES IS HIGH BLOOD SUGAR We all have sugar in our blood. When you have diabetes you have too much sugar in your blood muscles can then use sugar for fuel. Insulin keeps blood sugar in balance. #12; If you have diabetes

  17. High-efficiency ethanol production from lignocellulosic residues pretreated with alkaline H/sub 2/O/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, J.M.; Freer, S.N.

    1984-06-01

    Pretreatment should be economic and should not utilize toxic reagents. In this study locally obtained residues were used - wheat straw, cornstalks, corn husks and kenaf -as substrates. The high efficiency of glucose production from alkaline H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ pretreated lignocellulosic residues made these materials excellent substrates for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in combined saccharification/fermentation experiments. Results showed that overall efficiency of ethanol formation was 90% for pretreated corn cobs, stalks and husks compared to 50% for untreated materials. Yields from kenaf and oak were also enhanced although below the theoretical maximum. The lignin containing supernatant does not appear to be inhibitory to Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth or ethanol production. The improvement in conversion efficiency is apparently the result of the removal of about one half of the lignin along with an apparent reduction in the degree of crystallinity within the cellulose structure itself. 16 references.

  18. EARLY MATERNAL SEPARATION AFFECTS ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONING IN A nor-BNI INSENSITIVE MANNER, BUT DOES NOT ALTER ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Fabio, Ma. Carolina; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Early environmental stress significantly affects the development of offspring. This stress has been modeled in rats through the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which alters the functioning of the HPA axis and can enhance ethanol intake at adulthood. Infant rats are sensitive to ethanol’s reinforcing effects, which modulate ethanol seeking and intake. Little is known about the impact of MS on sensitivity to ethanol’s appetitive and aversive effects during infancy. The present study assessed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference established through second-order conditioning (SOC), spontaneous or ethanol-induced locomotor activity and ethanol intake in preweanling rats that experienced normal animal facility rearing (AFR) or daily episodes of maternal separation (MS) during postnatal days 1-13 (PDs 1-13). Low-ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) induced appetitive conditioned place preference (via SOC) in control rats given conventional rearing but not in rats given maternal separation in early infancy, whereas 2.0 g/kg ethanol induced aversive conditioned place preference in the former but not the latter. The administration of a kappa antagonist at PD1 or immediately before testing did not alter ethanol-induced reinforcement. High (i.e., 2.5 and 2.0 g/kg) but not low (i.e., 0.5 g/kg) ethanol dose induced reliable motor stimulation, which was independent of early maternal separation. Ethanol intake and blood alcohol levels during conditioning were unaffected by rearing conditions. Pups given early maternal separation had lower body weights than controls and showed an altered pattern of exploration when placed in an open field. These results indicate that, when assessed in infant rats, earlier maternal separation alters the balance between the appetitive and aversive motivational effects of ethanol but has no effect on the motor activating effects of the drug. PMID:22108648

  19. Caffeine promotes ethanol drinking in rats. Examination using a limited-access free choice paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kunin, D; Gaskin, S; Rogan, F; Smith, B R; Amit, Z

    2000-07-01

    There is growing evidence that caffeine may alter the pattern of intake of a variety of drugs. The present study was designed to assess the effect of caffeine pretreatment on voluntary ethanol consumption. The first experiment examined the effect of caffeine on the acquisition of ethanol intake in a limited-access-choice procedure in which water and ethanol were presented concurrently. Male Wistar rats, exposed to food and water ad lib, were presented with a daily 1-h choice session between water and progressively increasing concentrations of ethanol (2-10%). Each ethanol concentration was made available for 4-6 days for a total of 20 days of access to ethanol. Intraperitoneal injections of caffeine (5 or 10 mg/kg) or saline were administered to the rats 30 min prior to each choice session. Caffeine produced a dose-related facilitation in ethanol drinking whereby the lower caffeine dose produced enhancement in ethanol drinking. The second experiment examined the effect of caffeine on the maintenance of established ethanol consumption. Male Wistar rats, initially acclimatized to increasing concentrations of ethanol (2%-10), were presented with an additional 18 ethanol (10%) presentations, comprised of a 6-day baseline period followed by 6 days of treatment where animals were given one of three doses of caffeine (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg) or saline prior to ethanol presentation. A final 6-day post-treatment period followed treatment. These results revealed an inverted-U effect of caffeine dose on ethanol ingestion where the low and high caffeine doses produced no effect but the moderate dose of 5 mg/kg enhanced ethanol drinking that persisted throughout the post-treatment period. A third experiment revealed that caffeine did not alter levels of blood ethanol within the time period used for the ethanol drinking session. PMID:11091031

  20. Impact of osmotic stress and ethanol inhibition in yeast cells on process oscillation associated with continuous very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background VHG fermentation is a promising process engineering strategy aiming at improving ethanol titer, and thus saving energy consumption for ethanol distillation and distillage treatment. However, sustained process oscillation was observed during continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, which significantly affected ethanol fermentation performance of the system. Results Sustained process oscillation was investigated in continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, and stresses exerted on yeast cells by osmotic pressure from unfermented sugars and ethanol inhibition developed within the fermentation system were postulated to be major factors triggering this phenomenon. In this article, steady state was established for continuous ethanol fermentation with LG medium containing 120 g/L glucose, and then 160 g/L non-fermentable xylose was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the osmotic stress on yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, but the fermentation process was still at steady state, indicating that the impact of osmotic stress on yeast cells was not the main reason for the process oscillation. However, when 30 g/L ethanol was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the ethanol inhibition in yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, process oscillation was triggered, which was augmented with extended oscillation period and exaggerated oscillation amplitude as ethanol supplementation was increased to 50 g/L, but the process oscillation was gradually attenuated when the ethanol supplementations were stopped, and the steady state was restored. Furthermore, gas stripping was incorporated into the continuous VHG fermentation system to in situ remove ethanol produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the process oscillation was also attenuated, but restored after the gas stripping was interrupted. Conclusions Experimental results indicated that ethanol inhibition rather than osmotic stress on yeast cells is one of the main factors triggering the process oscillation under the VHG fermentation condition, and in the meantime gas stripping was validated to be an effective strategy for attenuating the process oscillation. PMID:24041271

  1. Emergy analysis of ethanol production from low-input, high-diversity (LIHD) grasslands on degraded farmland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Urban; Bhavik R. Bakshi

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to analyze ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass produced from low-input, high- diversity (LIHD) grasslands (often referred to as prairies) on degraded farmland by applying the principles of emergy analysis. This type of cellulosic biomass is an attractive alternative to traditional monocultural biomass sources such as corn because it requires less purchased inputs in the agricultural phase and

  2. Continuous High-solids corn liquefaction and fermentation with stripping of ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of ethanol from the fermentor during fermentation can increase productivity and reduce the costs for dewatering the product and coproduct. One approach is to recycle the fermentor contents through a stripping column, where a non-condensable gas removes ethanol to a condenser. Previous resear...

  3. Thermal conductivity of methanol-ethanol mixture and silicone oil at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin

    2015-06-01

    4:1 methanol-ethanol (ME) mixture and silicone oil are common, important pressure transmitting media used in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments. Their thermal conductivities and elastic properties are critical for modeling heat conduction in the DAC experiments and for determining thermal conductivity of measurement samples under extreme conditions. We used time-domain thermoreflectance and picosecond interferometry combined with the DAC to study the thermal conductivities and elastic constants C11 of the ME mixture and silicone oil at room temperature and to pressures as high as ?23 GPa. We found that pressure dependence of the thermal conductivity of ME and silicone oil are both well described by the prediction of the minimum thermal conductivity model, confirming the diffusion of thermal energy between nonpropagating molecular vibrational modes is the dominant heat transport mechanism in a liquid and amorphous polymer. Our results not only provide new insights into the physics of thermal transport in these common pressure media for high pressure thermal measurements, but will also significantly extend the feasibility of using silicone fluid medium to much higher pressure and moderately high temperature conditions with higher measurement accuracy than other pressure media.

  4. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  5. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Levine, G.F. (California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services)

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  6. Urease expression in a Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ethanologen allows high titer ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A Joe; Covalla, Sean F; Miller, Bethany B; Firliet, Brian T; Hogsett, David A; Herring, Christopher D

    2012-09-01

    Genes encoding the enzyme urease were integrated in a Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ethanologen. The engineered strain hydrolyzed urea, as evidenced by increased cellular growth and elevated final pH in urea minimal medium and urease activity in cell free extracts. Interestingly, replacement of ammonium salts with urea resulted in production of 54 g/L ethanol, one of the highest titers reported for Thermoanaerobacterium. The observed increase in ethanol titer may result from reduced pH, salt, and osmolality stresses during fermentation. Urea utilization is attractive for industrial scale fermentation, where pH control is technically challenging and increased ethanol titer is desirable. PMID:22781282

  7. Towards high water permeability in triazine-framework-based microporous membranes for dehydration of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu Pan; Wang, Huan; Chung, Tai Shung

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of a series of triazine framework-based microporous (TFM) membranes under different conditions has been explored in this work. The pristine TFM membrane is in?situ fabricated in the course of polymer synthesis via a facile Brønsted-acid-catalyzed cyclotrimerizaiton reaction. The as-synthesized polymer exhibits a microporous network with high thermal stability. The free volume size of the TFM membranes gradually evolved from a unimodal distribution to a bimodal distribution under annealing, as analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The emergence of the bimodal distribution is probably ascribed to the synergetic effect of quenching and thermal cyclization reaction. In addition, the fractional free volume (FFV) of the membranes presents a concave trend with increasing annealing temperature. Vapor sorption tests reveal that the mass transport properties are closely associated with the free volume evolution, which provides an optimal condition for dehydration of biofuels. A promising separation performance with extremely high water permeability has been attained for dehydration of an 85?wt?% ethanol aqueous solution at 45?°C. The study on the free volume evolution of the TFM membranes may provide useful insights about the microstructure and mass transport behavior of the microporous polymeric materials. PMID:25394279

  8. Association between the A107V substitution in the ?-opioid receptors and ethanol drinking in mice selected for high and low analgesia.

    PubMed

    Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Lesniak, Anna; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Korostynski, Michal; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Sadowski, Bogdan

    2014-07-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that endogenous opioids play an important role in the development of ethanol addiction. In this study, we employed two mouse lines divergently bred for opioid-mediated stress-induced analgesia. In comparison with HA (high analgesia line) mice, LA (low analgesia line) mice, having lower opioid receptor system activity, manifest enhanced basal as well as stress-induced ethanol drinking. Here, we found that recently discovered C320T transition in exon 2 of the ?-opioid receptor gene (EU446125.1), which results in an A107V substitution (ACA23171.1), leads to higher ethanol preference in CT mice compared with CC homozygotes. This genetic association is particularly evident under chronic mild stress (CMS) conditions. The interaction between stress and ethanol intake was significantly stronger in HA than in LA mice. Ethanol almost completely attenuated the pro-depressive effect of CMS (assessed with the tail suspension test) in both the CC and CT genotypes in the HA line. In the LA mice, a lack of response to ethanol was observed in the CC genotype, whereas ethanol consumption strengthened depressive-like behaviours in CT individuals. Our results suggest that constitutively active A107V substitution in ?-opioid receptors may be involved in stress-enhanced vulnerability to ethanol abuse and in the risk of ethanol dependence. PMID:23301597

  9. Aging, High Altitude, and Blood Pressure: A Complex Relationship.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Torlasco, Camilla; Salvi, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Bilo, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Parati, Gianfranco, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Camilla Torlasco, Paolo Salvi, Carolina Lombardi, and Grzegorz Bilo. Aging, high altitude, and blood pressure: A complex relationship. High Alt Biol Med 16:97-109, 2015.-Both aging and high altitude exposure may induce important changes in BP regulation, leading to significant increases in BP levels. By inducing atherosclerotic changes, stiffening of large arteries, renal dysfunction, and arterial baroreflex impairment, advancing age may induce progressive increases in systolic BP levels, promoting development and progression of arterial hypertension. It is also known, although mainly from studies in young or middle-aged subjects, that exposure to high altitude may influence different mechanisms involved in BP regulation (i.e., neural central and reflex control of sympathetic activity), leading to important increases in BP levels. The evidence is less clear, however, on whether and to what extent advancing age may influence the BP response to acute or chronic high altitude exposure. This is a question not only of scientific interest but also of practical relevance given the consistent number of elderly individuals who are exposed for short time periods (either for leisure or work) or live permanently at high altitude, in whom arterial hypertension is frequently observed. This article will review the evidence available on the relationship between aging and blood pressure levels at high altitude, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this complex association, as well as some questions of practical interest regarding antihypertensive treatment in elderly subjects, and the effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure response during high altitude exposure. PMID:26070056

  10. Brain catalase activity is highly correlated with ethanol-induced locomotor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Correa, M; Sanchis-Segura, C; Aragon, C M

    2001-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that acute administration of lead to mice enhances brain catalase activity and ethanol-induced locomotion. These effects of lead seem to be related, since they show similar time courses and occur at similar doses. In the present study, in an attempt to further evaluate the relation between brain catalase activity and lead-induced changes in ethanol-stimulated locomotion, the interaction between lead acetate and 3-amino-1H,2,4-triazole (AT), a well-known catalase inhibitor, was assessed. In this study, lead acetate or saline was acutely injected intraperitoneally to Swiss mice at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg 7 days before testing. On the test day, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of AT (0, 10, or 500 mg/kg). Five hours following AT treatment, ethanol (0.0 or 2.5 g/kg, ip) was injected and the animals were placed in open-field chambers, in which locomotion was measured for 10 min. Neither lead exposure nor AT administration, either alone or in combination, had any effect on spontaneous locomotor activity. AT treatment reduced ethanol-induced locomotion as well as brain catalase activity. On the other hand, ambulation and brain catalase activity were significantly increased by both doses of lead. Furthermore, AT significantly reduced the potentiation produced by lead acetate on brain catalase and on ethanol-induced locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner. A significant correlation was found between locomotion and catalase activity across all test conditions. The results show that brain catalase activity is involved in the effects of lead acetate on ethanol-induced locomotion in mice. Thus, this study confirms the notion that brain catalase provides the molecular basis for understanding some of the mechanisms of the action of ethanol in the central nervous system. PMID:11495670

  11. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of AFEX™-pretreated corn stover for ethanol production using Clostridium phytofermentans at a high solids loading.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingjie; Gunawan, Christa; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

    2012-08-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using Clostridium phytofermentans (ATCC 700394) on ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-treated corn stover (AFEX™-CS) at a low solids loading showed promising results [Jin et al. (2011) Biotechnol Bioeng 108(6): 1290-1297]. However, industrial relevant process requires high solids loading. Therefore, we studied high solids loading CBP performance on AFEX™-CS. The factors potentially affecting the performance including solids loading, CBP products acetate and ethanol, and degradation products resulting from pretreatment were investigated. At 4% (w/w) glucan loading, C. phytofermentans performed well on AFEX™-CS with no nutrients supplementation and reached similar sugar conversions as a fermentation with nutrients supplementation. A glucan conversion of 48.9% and a xylan conversion of 77.9% were achieved after 264 h with 7.0 g/L ethanol and 8.8 g/L acetate produced. Relatively high concentrations of acetate produced at high solids loading was found to be the major factor limiting the CBP performance. Degradation products in AFEX™-CS helped enhance ethanol production. PMID:22359098

  12. High ethanol titers from cellulose by using metabolically engineered thermophilic, anaerobic microbes.

    PubMed

    Argyros, D Aaron; Tripathi, Shital A; Barrett, Trisha F; Rogers, Stephen R; Feinberg, Lawrence F; Olson, Daniel G; Foden, Justine M; Miller, Bethany B; Lynd, Lee R; Hogsett, David A; Caiazza, Nicky C

    2011-12-01

    This work describes novel genetic tools for use in Clostridium thermocellum that allow creation of unmarked mutations while using a replicating plasmid. The strategy employed counter-selections developed from the native C. thermocellum hpt gene and the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum tdk gene and was used to delete the genes for both lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). The ?ldh ?pta mutant was evolved for 2,000 h, resulting in a stable strain with 40:1 ethanol selectivity and a 4.2-fold increase in ethanol yield over the wild-type strain. Ethanol production from cellulose was investigated with an engineered coculture of organic acid-deficient engineered strains of both C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Fermentation of 92 g/liter Avicel by this coculture resulted in 38 g/liter ethanol, with acetic and lactic acids below detection limits, in 146 h. These results demonstrate that ethanol production by thermophilic, cellulolytic microbes is amenable to substantial improvement by metabolic engineering. PMID:21965408

  13. High Sensitivity Micro-Elastometry: Applications in Blood Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gongting; Krebs, Charles R.; Lin, Feng-Chang; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Highly sensitive methods for the assessment of clot structure can aid in our understanding of coagulation disorders and their risk factors. Rapid and simple clot diagnostic systems are also needed for directing treatment in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. Here we demonstrate a method for micro-elastometry, named Resonant Acoustic Spectroscopy with Optical Vibrometry (RASOV), which measures the clot elastic modulus (CEM) from the intrinsic resonant frequency of a clot inside a microwell. We observed a high correlation between the CEM of human blood measured by RASOV and a commercial Thromboelastograph (TEG), (R=0.966). Unlike TEG, RASOV requires only 150 ?L of sample and offers improved repeatability. Since CEM is known to primarily depend upon fibrin content and network structure, we investigated the CEM of purified clots formed with varying amounts of fibrinogen and thrombin. We found that RASOV was sensitive to changes of fibrinogen content (0.5–6 mg/mL), as well as to the amount of fibrinogen converted to fibrin during clot formation. We then simulated plasma hypercoagulability via hyperfibrinogenemia by spiking whole blood to 150% and 200% of normal fibrinogen levels, and subsequently found that RASOV could detect hyperfibrinogenemia-induced changes in CEM and distinguish these conditions from normal blood. PMID:23649979

  14. High solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wet oxidized corn stover to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Varga, Enikõ; Klinke, Helene B; Réczey, Kati; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2004-12-01

    In this study ethanol was produced from corn stover pretreated by alkaline and acidic wet oxidation (WO) (195 degrees C, 15 min, 12 bar oxygen) followed by nonisothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In the first step of the SSF, small amounts of cellulases were added at 50 degrees C, the optimal temperature of enzymes, in order to obtain better mixing condition due to some liquefaction. In the second step more cellulases were added in combination with dried baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 30 degrees C. The phenols (0.4-0.5 g/L) and carboxylic acids (4.6-5.9 g/L) were present in the hemicellulose rich hydrolyzate at subinhibitory levels, thus no detoxification was needed prior to SSF of the whole slurry. Based on the cellulose available in the WO corn stover 83% of the theoretical ethanol yield was obtained under optimized SSF conditions. This was achieved with a substrate concentration of 12% dry matter (DM) acidic WO corn stover at 30 FPU/g DM (43.5 FPU/g cellulose) enzyme loading. Even with 20 and 15 FPU/g DM (corresponding to 29 and 22 FPU/g cellulose) enzyme loading, ethanol yields of 76 and 73%, respectively, were obtained. After 120 h of SSF the highest ethanol concentration of 52 g/L (6 vol.%) was achieved, which exceeds the technical and economical limit of the industrial-scale alcohol distillation. The SSF results showed that the cellulose in pretreated corn stover can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with up to 15% DM concentration. A further increase of substrate concentration reduced the ethanol yield significant as a result of insufficient mass transfer. It was also shown that the fermentation could be followed with an easy monitoring system based on the weight loss of the produced CO2. PMID:15470714

  15. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News on Heart.org Learn More Leisure-time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure ... high blood pressure than people who didn’t exercise much. Physical activity at work was not linked ...

  16. Corn steep liquor as a cost-effective nutrition adjunct in high-performance Zymomonas ethanol fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has been demonstrated to possess several fermentation performance characteristics that are superior to yeast. In a recent survey conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Zymomonas was selected as the most promising host for improvement by genetic engineering directed to pentose metabolism for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass and wastes. Minimization of costs associated with nutritional supplements and seed production is essential for economic large-scale production of fuel ethanol. Corn steep liquor (CSL) is a byproduct of corn wet-milling and has been used as a fermentation nutrient supplement in several different fermentations. This study employed pH-controlled batch fermenters to compare the growth and fermentation performance of Z. mobilis in glucose media with whole and clarified corn steep liquor as sole nutrient source, and to determine minimal amounts of CSL required to sustain high-performance fermentation. 44 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Ethanol Causes Protein Precipitation—New Safety Issues for Catheter Locking Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Schilcher, Gernot; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Schneditz, Daniel; Scharnagl, Hubert; Ribitsch, Werner; Krause, Robert; Rosenkranz, Alexander R.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Horina, Joerg H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The ethanol lock technique has shown great potential to eradicate organisms in biofilms and to treat or prevent central venous catheter related infections. Following instillation of ethanol lock solution, however, the inherent density gradient between blood and ethanol causes gravity induced seepage of ethanol out of the catheter and blood influx into the catheter. Plasma proteins so are exposed to highly concentrated ethanol, which is a classic agent for protein precipitation. We aimed to investigate the precipitating effect of ethanol locks on plasma proteins as a possible cause for reported catheter occlusions. Methods Plasma samples were exposed in-vitro to ethanol (concentrations ranging from 7 to 70 v/v%) and heparin lock solutions. In catheter studies designed to mimic different in-vivo situations, the catheter tip was placed in a plasma reservoir and the material contained within the catheter was analyzed after ethanol lock instillation. The samples underwent standardized investigation for protein precipitation. Results Protein precipitation was observed in plasma samples containing ethanol solutions above a concentration of 28%, as well as in material retrieved from vertically positioned femoral catheters and jugular (subclavian) catheters simulating recumbent or head down tilt body positions. Precipitates could not be re-dissolved by dilution with plasma, urokinase or alteplase. Plasma samples containing heparin lock solutions showed no signs of precipitation. Conclusions Our in-vitro results demonstrate that ethanol locks may be associated with plasma protein precipitation in central venous catheters. This phenomenon could be related to occlusion of vascular access devices locked with ethanol, as has been reported. Concerns should be raised regarding possible complications upon injection or spontaneous gravity induced leakage of such irreversibly precipitated protein particles into the systemic circulation. We suggest limiting the maximum advisable concentration of ethanol to 28 v/v% in catheter lock solutions. PMID:24391979

  18. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood. PMID:25080183

  19. A pre-injury high ethanol intake in rats promotes brain edema following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weichuan; Tian, Runfa; Hao, Shuyu; Xu, Feifan; Mao, Xiang; Liu, Baiyun

    2014-12-01

    Drinking is a risk factor for traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ethanol can aggravate the outcome by promoting brain edema. The mechanism involved is not fully understood. It has been confirmed that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play pivotal roles in cytotoxic/vasogenic brain edema individually, and both of these proteins are downstream regulatory factors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). In this study, we used a fluid percussion injury (FPI) model in rats to determine the effects of acute ethanol intake on the expression levels of HIF-1?, AQP4, and VEGF prior to FPI. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, and 4 days post-injury. We found that the expression levels of HIF-1? and AQP4 were significantly upregulated in the ethanol-pretreated groups, whereas the VEGF expression level was not. In addition, there was a positive correlation between HIF-1? and AQP4. The results of this study indicate that cytotoxic brain edema may play an important role in the early stage of FPI in ethanol-pre-treated animals and that HIF-1? and AQP4 might be involved. PMID:24814385

  20. High gravity brewing: Nutrient enhanced production of high concentrations of ethanol by brewing yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Casey; C. A. Magnus; W. M. Ingledew

    1983-01-01

    Summary  Supplementation of high gravity brewing worts with 0.8% yeast extract, 24 ppm ergosterol and 0.24% (v\\/v) Tween 80 can result\\u000a in the production of >14% (v\\/v) alcohol at 14°C within 5 days. Unsupplemented worts require up to 2 weeks to end ferment.\\u000a Overcoming nitrogenous and lipid nutritional deficiencies results in substantial increases in cell mass production, decreased\\u000a fermentation times and

  1. Acute Ethanol Effects on Brain Activation in Low- and High-Level Responders to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Trim, Ryan S.; Simmons, Alan N.; Tolentino, Neil J.; Hall, Shana A.; Matthews, Scott C.; Robinson, Shannon K.; Smith, Tom L.; Padula, Claudia B.; Paulus, Martin P.; Tapert, Susan F.; Schuckit, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A low level of response (LR) to alcohol is an important endophenotype associated with an increased risk for alcoholism. However, little is known about how neural functioning may differ between individuals with low and high LRs to alcohol. This study examined whether LR group effects on neural activity varied as a function of acute alcohol consumption. Methods 30 matched high- and low-LR pairs (N=60 healthy young adults) were recruited from the University of California, San Diego and administered a structured diagnostic interview and laboratory alcohol challenge followed by two fMRI sessions under placebo and alcohol conditions, in randomized order. Task performance and BOLD response contrast to high relative to low working memory load in an event-related visual working memory (VWM) task was examined across 120 fMRI sessions. Results Both LR groups performed similarly on the VWM task across conditions. A significant LR group by condition interaction effect was observed in inferior frontal and cingulate regions, such that alcohol attenuated the LR group differences found under placebo (p<.05). The LR group by condition effect remained even after controlling for cerebral blood flow, age, and typical drinking quantity. Conclusions Alcohol had differential effects on brain activation for low and high LR individuals within frontal and cingulate regions. These findings represent an additional step in the search for physiological correlates of a low LR, and identify brain regions that may be associated with the low LR response. PMID:20477775

  2. Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-08-31

    Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance. PMID:22387426

  3. Ionic liquid ethanol sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuan Gee; Chou, Tse-Chuan

    2004-07-30

    Ionic liquids containing lithium methylsulfonyl group were prepared from the precursors poly(propylene glycol)-block-(ethylene glycol)-block-(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) with different molecular weight. These liquids revealed excellent electrical conductivity in the temperature range -25 to 85 degrees C. Also, they exhibited a high boiling temperature and hence a low vapor pressure in ambient condition. Additionally, they showed a high fluidity with their viscosities being comparative with that of water. To determine the sensitivity of an ethanol sensor by using these ionic liquids, these liquids were subjected into a sequential electrochemical tests with nickel electrodes which performed a high sensitivity for the ethanol sensor. It was found that only the derivative with low molecular weight could detect ethanol. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the response current and the concentration of ethanol was constructed. The detection limit was found to be 0.13% (v/v) and its response time was 336 s. PMID:15142574

  4. Gene specific modifications unravel ethanol and acetaldehyde actions

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Yedy; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, María E.; Tampier, Lutske; Morales, Paola; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde mainly by the action of alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver, while mainly by the action of catalase in the brain. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 metabolizes acetaldehyde into acetate in both organs. Gene specific modifications reviewed here show that an increased liver generation of acetaldehyde (by transduction of a gene coding for a high-activity liver alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1*B2) leads to increased blood acetaldehyde levels and aversion to ethanol in animals. Similarly aversive is an increased acetaldehyde level resulting from the inhibition of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) synthesis (by an antisense coding gene against aldh2 mRNA). The situation is diametrically different when acetaldehyde is generated in the brain. When the brain ventral tegmental area (VTA) is endowed with an increased ability to generate acetaldehyde (by transfection of liver rADH) the reinforcing effects of ethanol are increased, while a highly specific inhibition of catalase synthesis (by transduction of a shRNA anti catalase mRNA) virtually abolishes the reinforcing effects of ethanol as seen by a complete abolition of ethanol intake in rats bred for generations as high ethanol drinkers. Data shows two divergent effects of increases in acetaldehyde generation: aversive in the periphery but reinforcing in the brain. PMID:23847486

  5. Cerebral blood flow recorded at high sensitivity in two dimensions using high resolution optical imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo Vanzetta; Thomas Deneux; Guillaume S. Masson; Olivier D. Faugeras

    2006-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Knowledge about sensory-evoked blood-fl ow changes is es- sential for constraining hemodynamic response models used to interpret functional brain imaging signals, such as fMRI. Here, we extracted 2-dimensional blood-flow and its tempo- ral modulations from high-resolution optical imaging data in the awake monkey. Optical imaging allows to track moving erythrocytes (or small clusters thereof), thus providing, albeit noisy,

  6. Short-term selection for acute ethanol tolerance and sensitization from an F 2 population derived from the high and low alcohol-sensitive selectively bred rat lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Radcliffe; Pequita Bludeau; Xin-Sheng Deng; V. Gene Erwin; Richard A. Deitrich

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the inbred high and low alcohol-sensitive rat (IHAS1 and ILAS1) strains. The original development of the strains involved selection for ethanol sensitivity based on duration of the loss of the righting reflex (LORR) after a standard dose of ethanol. This paper confirms some of these QTL using a short-term selection procedure

  7. Ethanol production in an integrated process of fermentation and ethanol recovery by pervaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Groot; M. R. Kraayenbrink; R. H. Waldram; R. G. J. M. Lans; K. Ch. A. M. Luyben

    1992-01-01

    In ethanol fermentations inhibition of the microorganism by ethanol limits the amount of substrate in the feed that can be converted. In a process high feed concentrations are desirable to minimize the flows. Such high feed concentrations can be realized in integrated processes in which ethanol is recovered from the fermentation broth as it is formed. In this study ethanol

  8. Highly Active Iridium/Iridium Tin/Tin Oxide Heterogeneous Nanoparticles as Alternative Electrocatalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Du W.; Su D.; Wang Q.; Saxner D.; Deskins N.A.; Krzanowski J.E.; Frenkel A.I.; Teng X.

    2011-08-03

    Ethanol is a promising fuel for low-temperature direct fuel cell reactions due to its low toxicity, ease of storage and transportation, high-energy density, and availability from biomass. However, the implementation of ethanol fuel cell technology has been hindered by the lack of low-cost, highly active anode catalysts. In this paper, we have studied Iridium (Ir)-based binary catalysts as low-cost alternative electrocatalysts replacing platinum (Pt)-based catalysts for the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) reaction. We report the synthesis of carbon supported Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29} catalysts with an average diameter of 2.7 {+-} 0.6 nm through a 'surfactant-free' wet chemistry approach. The complementary characterization techniques, including aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, are used to identify the 'real' heterogeneous structure of Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C particles as Ir/Ir-Sn/SnO{sub 2}, which consists of an Ir-rich core and an Ir-Sn alloy shell with SnO{sub 2} present on the surface. The Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C heterogeneous catalyst exhibited high electrochemical activity toward the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to the commercial Pt/C (ETEK), PtRu/C (Johnson Matthey) as well as PtSn/C catalysts. Electrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the superior electro-activity is directly related to the high degree of Ir-Sn alloy formation as well as the existence of nonalloyed SnO{sub 2} on surface. Our cross-disciplinary work, from novel 'surfactant-free' synthesis of Ir-Sn catalysts, theoretical simulations, and catalytic measurements to the characterizations of 'real' heterogeneous nanostructures, will not only highlight the intriguing structure-property correlations in nanosized catalysts but also have a transformative impact on the commercialization of DEFC technology by replacing Pt with low-cost, highly active Ir-based catalysts.

  9. Selection of C3 alcohols by high and low ethanol selecting mouse strains and the effects on open field activity.

    PubMed

    Strange, A W; Goldbort, R; Golbort, R

    1976-05-01

    Mice of the high-ethanol selecting C57BL/6j strain consume significantly larger amounts of 10% solution of 1,2-propanediol and 1-propanol than the low-ethanol selecting DBA/2j strain. Both strains uniformly avoid a 10% solution of 1,3-propanediol and 2-propanol. Open field activity was tested 30 min after an IP injection of 3 different equimolar doses of each alcohol. An increase in activity was produced in the DBA/2j strain by high (0.003 ml/mg) and middle (0.0015 ml/lg) doses of 1,2-propanediol and by a low dose (0.0005 ml/mg) of 2-propanol. The C57BL/6j strain were unaffected by these doses. High doses of 2-propanol produced sleep in both strains with the DBA/2j strain sleeping significantly longer, and 1,3-propanediol produced depression in both strains. Death resulted in all animals following injections at the high (0.002 mg/gm) and medium (0.001 ml/gm) doses of 1-propanol while the low dose (0.0005 ml/gm) produced slight depression. PMID:951431

  10. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix; Carlsson, Hans-Erik; Hau, Jann

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia, a catheter was placed in the jugular vein and attached to an Accusampler. Blood samples (200 microl) were withdrawn with a high (24 samples) or low frequency (3 samples) during a six-hour period immediately after the catheter insertion. The corticosterone levels in the plasma were quantified with ELISA. The corticosterone levels persisted at high post-operation concentrations when blood was collected frequently, while the levels steadily declined significantly during low-frequency sampling. The corticosterone levels were higher in female than in male rats, but the curves were similar. The present study elucidates the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels may affect the normal physiology of the animals. PMID:16097432

  11. Inhibition of ethanol absorption by Rhodiola sachalinensis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moon-Hee Kim; Chan-Koo Park

    1997-01-01

    We used a herbal medicine, roots ofRhodiola sachalinensis (RS) to assess whether RS extract can decrease blood ethanol concentrations in rats fed ethanol and if so, to elucidate the\\u000a mechanism by which RS extract reduces blood ethanol levels. Rats were fed ethanol orally 1 hr after the oral administration\\u000a of various doses of RS extract. In another experiment, rats were

  12. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195

  13. High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation and Transformation with Linear DNA in the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU3-1042?

    PubMed Central

    Nonklang, Sanom; Abdel-Banat, Babiker M. A.; Cha-aim, Kamonchai; Moonjai, Nareerat; Hoshida, Hisashi; Limtong, Savitree; Yamada, Mamoru; Akada, Rinji

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate herein the ability of Kluyveromyces marxianus to be an efficient ethanol producer and host for expressing heterologous proteins as an alternative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth and ethanol production by strains of K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae were compared under the same conditions. K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 was found to be the most suitable strain for high-temperature growth and ethanol production at 45°C. This strain, but not S. cerevisiae, utilized cellobiose, xylose, xylitol, arabinose, glycerol, and lactose. To develop a K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 derivative strain suitable for genetic engineering, a uracil auxotroph was isolated and transformed with a linear DNA of the S. cerevisiae ScURA3 gene. Surprisingly, Ura+ transformants were easily obtained. By Southern blot hybridization, the linear ScURA3 DNA was found to have inserted randomly into the K. marxianus genome. Sequencing of one Lys? transformant confirmed the disruption of the KmLYS1 gene by the ScURA3 insertion. A PCR-amplified linear DNA lacking K. marxianus sequences but containing an Aspergillus ?-amylase gene under the control of the ScTDH3 promoter together with an ScURA3 marker was subsequently used to transform K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 in order to obtain transformants expressing Aspergillus ?-amylase. Our results demonstrate that K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 can be an alternative cost-effective bioethanol producer and a host for transformation with linear DNA by use of S. cerevisiae-based molecular genetic tools. PMID:18931291

  14. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  15. Co-solvent Pretreatment Reduces Costly Enzyme Requirements for High Sugar and Ethanol Yields from Lignocellulosic Biomass.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Yen; Cai, Charles M; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2015-05-22

    We introduce a new pretreatment called co-solvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF) to reduce enzyme costs dramatically for high sugar yields from hemicellulose and cellulose, which is essential for the low-cost conversion of biomass to fuels. CELF employs THF miscible with aqueous dilute acid to obtain up to 95?% theoretical yield of glucose, xylose, and arabinose from corn stover even if coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis at only 2?mgenzyme ?gglucan (-1) . The unusually high saccharification with such low enzyme loadings can be attributed to a very high lignin removal, which is supported by compositional analysis, fractal kinetic modeling, and SEM imaging. Subsequently, nearly pure lignin product can be precipitated by the evaporation of volatile THF for recovery and recycling. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of CELF-pretreated solids with low enzyme loadings and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced twice as much ethanol as that from dilute-acid-pretreated solids if both were optimized for corn stover. PMID:25677100

  16. Ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers at high temperature by newly isolated thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus using consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Charoensopharat, Kanlayani; Thanonkeo, Pornthap; Thanonkeo, Sudarat; Yamada, Mamoru

    2015-07-01

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains were successfully isolated in this study. Among the isolated strains, Kluyveromyces marxianus DBKKU Y-102 was found to be the most effective strain for direct ethanol fermentation at high temperature from fresh Jerusalem artichoke (JA) tubers without inulin hydrolysis under consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). The maximum ethanol concentrations produced by this strain under the optimum culture conditions were 104.83 and 97.46 g L(-1) at 37 and 40 °C, respectively. Data from this study clearly demonstrated that the use of thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast K. marxianus for ethanol production from fresh JA tubers in the CBP process not only provided high levels of ethanol, but also could eliminate the addition of external enzyme for inulin hydrolysis, which might lead to the reduction of operating costs. The expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in K. marxianus DBKKU Y-102 during ethanol fermentation was investigated by real-time RT-PCR, and the results revealed that expression levels were distinctive depending on the growth phase and growth conditions. However, among the genes tested, adh4 and tdh2 were highly expressed under high temperature conditions in both exponential- and stationary-growth phases, suggesting that these genes might play a crucial role in acquiring thermotolerance ability in this organism under stress conditions. PMID:25980834

  17. Probing red blood cell morphology using high-frequency photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Eric M; Berndl, Elizabeth S L; Kolios, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    A method that can rapidly quantify variations in the morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs) using light and sound is presented. When irradiated with a laser pulse, an RBC absorbs the optical energy and emits an ultrasonic pressure wave called a photoacoustic wave. The power spectrum of the resulting photoacoustic wave contains distinctive features that can be used to identify the RBC size and morphology. When particles 5-10 ?m in diameter (such as RBCs) are probed with high-frequency photoacoustics, unique periodically varying minima and maxima occur throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum at frequencies >100 MHz. The location and distance between spectral minima scale with the size and morphology of the RBC; these shifts can be used to quantify small changes in the morphology of RBCs. Morphological deviations from the normal biconcave RBC shape are commonly associated with disease or infection. Using a single wide-bandwidth transducer sensitive to frequencies between 100 and 500 MHz, we were able to differentiate healthy RBCs from irregularly shaped RBCs (such as echinocytes, spherocytes, and swollen RBCs) with high confidence using a sample size of just 21 RBCs. As each measurement takes only seconds, these methods could eventually be translated to an automated device for rapid characterization of RBC morphology and deployed in a clinical setting to help diagnose RBC pathology. PMID:23823224

  18. Effect of natural and synthetic polyamines on ethanol intake in UChB drinker rats.

    PubMed

    Bilbeny, Norberto; Contreras, Selfa; Font, María; Paeile, Carlos; García, Hernán

    2005-07-01

    Because of the important glutamatergic mediation of the behavioral effects of ethanol, glutamatergic agents have attracted attention for the treatment of ethanol abuse and dependence in preclinical and clinical studies. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pharmacological doses of the natural polyamines putrescine, spermine, and spermidine and the synthetic polyamine N,N'-bis-(3-aminopropyl)cyclohexane-1,4-diamine (DCD) on alcohol consumption in a free-choice paradigm carried out in genetically high-ethanol-consumer UChB rats. Short 3-day treatment with either polyamine, administered p.o., significantly reduced ethanol intake without modifying water and food intakes. Neither polyamine was able to increase markedly blood acetaldehyde in rats submitted to a standard challenge dose of ethanol, to rule out a disulfiram-like effect. Besides, blood ethanol disappearance after a test dose of ethanol was not affected by the synthetic polyamine DCD. Long-term treatment with DCD dose-dependently reduced ethanol intake in UChB rats without producing any observable effect on overt behavior, food consumption, and total fluid intake. The present results indicate that pharmacological doses of polyamines can reduce ethanol consumption in genetically drinking rats without producing significant side effects, suggesting that modulation of brain N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors by polyamines could represent a suitable strategy to reduce appetite for ethanol. However, caution must be exercised in interpreting the results because polyamines can also affect neuronal excitability by acting at other receptor targets, such as AMPA and kainate receptors, as well as at some voltage-dependent ion channels. PMID:16377458

  19. [Effects of dilution rates on the oscillatory behaviors of a very high gravity continuous ethanol fermentation system].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin-Peng; Chen, Li-Jie; Wang, Fang; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2005-07-01

    Continuous ethanol fermentation using very high gravity medium containing 280 g/L glucose, 5 g/L yeast extract and 3 g/L peptone was run at the dilute rates of 0.006 h(-1), 0.012 h(-1), 0.017 h(-1), 0.024 h(-1) and 0.032 h(-1) (based on the total working volume) in a combined bioreactor system composed of a stirred tank and three-stage tubular bioreactors in series. Oscillations marked by big fluctuations of residual glucose, ethanol and biomass were observed at the dilution rate of 0.012 h(-1). The Hopf Bifurcation theory was used to analyze and predict the occurring of these oscillations and the dilution rates that incited oscillations. Theoretical analysis revealed that oscillations can occur at designated specific growth rates and was validated by experimental results. The benefits of oscillations for the fermentation system were also discussed by comparing the fermentation results with those without oscillations. PMID:16176100

  20. Ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Scott, C.D.; Donaldson, T.L.; Worden, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Research progress is described on the development of laboratory-scale columnar bioreactors utilizing the flocculent bacterium, X. mobilis, for ethanol production. X. mobilis forms stable, ball-like aggregates which maintain structural integrity even when subjected to the high shear forces generated in the active 3-phase fluidized-bed reactors. Cell retention and ethanol production were studied using 3 bioreactor configurations. Ethanol productivity appeared to be primarily affected by glucose feed concentration. In addition, it was found that in the absence of nutrients, the level of ethanol productivity can be maintained for at least 1 h before a severe drop occurred. Ethanol inhibition is considered to be a limiting factor in ethanol production. (DMC)

  1. Relationships between blood pressure, anthropometric characteristics and blood lipids in high- and low-altitude populations from Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Fiori, G; Facchini, F; Pettener, D; Rimondi, A; Battistini, N; Bedogni, G

    2000-01-01

    We studied the relationships between blood pressure, anthropometric characteristics and blood lipids in 72 low altitude (LA) Uighurs (600 m), 91 LA-Kirghizs (900 m), 117 medium altitude (MA) Kazakhs (2100 m) and 94 high altitude (HA) Kirghizs (3200 m). All subjects were male and had a similar age (p = ns, ANOVA; range for all 374 subjects: 18-66 yr). Body weight (Wt), body mass index (BM1) and the sum of four skinfolds (4SF) were significantly lower in HA-Kirghizs than the remaining groups (p < 0.0005, p < 0.0005 and p < 0.05 respectively, ANOVA). However, no difference was found in body fat distribution as detected by waist:hip circumference (WHR) and triceps:subscapular skinfold ratios (TSR; p = ns, ANOVA). Stage 1 hypertension was detected in 18% of LA-Uighurs, 2% of LA-Kirghizs, 4% of MA-Kazakhs and 1% of HA-Kirghizs; stage 2 hypertension was detected in 2% of LA-Uighurs and none of the remaining groups; no subject had stage 3 hypertension (The Joint National Committee on Prevention. Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 1997). Blood cholesterol (CH) and triglycerides (TG) did not differ between groups (p = ns, ANOVA). The relationships between systolic (SBP) or diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and age, Wt, BMI, 4SF, WHR, TSR, CH and TG were independent from altitude (p = ns, ANCOVA). In the pooled sample (n = 374), age explained 1 and 3% of SBP (p < 0.05) and DBP (p < 0.005) variance respectively, Wt was the best predictor of SBP and DBP explaining 11 and 10% of their variance respectively (p < 0.0001) and CH explained 5% of DBP variance (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, hypertension is more frequent in LA- than MA- and HA-subjects from Central Asia. However, anthropometric characteristics and blood lipids do similarly contribute to explain blood pressure in these subjects. PMID:10673137

  2. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for ethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisbeth Olsson; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in an economically feasible process requires microorganisms that produce ethanol with a high yield from all sugars present (hexoses as well as pentoses) and have a high ethanol productivity in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, i.e., can withstand potential inhibitors. Different fermentation organisms among bacteria, yeasts, and fungi (natural as well as recombinant) are reviewed with emphasis on

  3. Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant eff...

  4. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Kim, In H

    2014-06-01

    A total of 105 growing pigs (24.91?±?1.06?kg) were used in a 6-week trial to investigate the effects of including Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract (SPE) in the diet on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions. Pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (seven pens/treatment, five pigs/pen) according to initial body weight and sex (two gilts and three barrows). Treatments consisted of a corn soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SPE. There was a significant linear improvement (P?blood lymphocyte percentage, immunoglobulin G concentration, fecal Escherichia?coli and Lactobacillus counts as well as fecal NH3 and H2 S emissions associated with the inclusion of SPE in the diet. Average daily feed intake, red blood cells and white blood cells concentration were not significantly (P?>?0.05) affected by SPE supplementation in the diets. In conclusion, results indicate that dietary SPE supplementation can improve growth performance, digestibility and fecal microbiota, and decrease fecal gas emissions in growing pigs. PMID:24725201

  5. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... best to have a blood test called a "lipoprotein profile" to find out your cholesterol numbers. This ... If it is not possible to get a lipoprotein profile done, knowing your total cholesterol and HDL ...

  6. Influence of ethanol on circulation in surface-induced hypothermia and subsequent rewarming.

    PubMed

    Lauri, T; Timisjärvi, J; Saukko, P

    1996-01-01

    Hypothermia and ethanol are often closely linked and in hypothermic accidents ethanol is often a contributing factor. To study the effects of ethanol on the circulation in hypothermic conditions, cardiac catheterization was carried out on 18 anaesthetized beagle dogs. They were divided into two groups. One gram of ethanol/kg of b.wt. diluted in saline was infused into the vena cava superior within 30 min to seven dogs. The dogs were then cooled between ice bags until the blood temperature in the ascending aorta was 25 degrees C and they were then rewarmed. The control group of 11 dogs was cooled and rewarmed without ethanol infusion. The heart rate first increased when cooling down to 33 degrees C and decreased thereafter in the control group. In the ethanol group heart rate increased during the ethanol infusion and remained high when cooling down to 33 degrees C and decreased thereafter. Heart rate was higher in the ethanol group throughout the experiments, and during rewarming the difference was significant. In the control group cardiac output first increased until a body temperature of 33 degrees C was achieved but then decreased. In the ethanol group cardiac output started to decrease after ethanol infusion. During rewarming there was a significantly higher cardiac output in the ethanol group, probably due to the higher heart rate. In the cardiac cycle the systolic period prolonged significantly (p < 0.001) in both groups when the body temperature decreased from 37 degrees C to 25 degrees C whereas the diastolic period remained quite stable. The contraction phase was also affected by the cooling. The changes in contraction force cannot be seen in dP/dt alone because dP/dt values first increased significantly when cooling from 37 degrees C to 33 degrees C but then decreased. Ejection fraction, systolic period, and the systemic vascular resistance increased despite the reduction of the dP/dt and thus we conclude that the contraction force is augmented in hypothermia. In the ethanol group the myocardium seems to be depressed due to ethanol. In the early phase of cooling heart rate increased but cardiac output decreased in the ethanol group, indicating the decreased ability of the heart to respond to cooling in the presence of ethanol. The time constant of exponential pressure fall (tau) increased linearly with cooling from 37 degrees C to 25 degrees C and recovered with rewarming in both groups. Changes in negative dP/dt coincided with the changes in the time constant of exponential isovolumic pressure fall. Ethanol did not influence relaxation. All the parameters we checked recovered to normal during rewarming. PMID:8814644

  7. Characterization and bioavailability of tea polyphenol nanoliposome prepared by combining an ethanol injection method with dynamic high-pressure microfluidization.

    PubMed

    Zou, Li-qiang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Wei-lin; Liang, Rui-hong; Li, Ti; Liu, Cheng-mei; Cao, Yan-lin; Niu, Jing; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-29

    Tea polyphenols are major polyphenolic substances found in green tea with various biological activities. To overcome their instability toward oxygen and alkaline environments, tea polyphenol nanoliposome (TPN) was prepared by combining an ethanol injection method with dynamic high-pressure microfluidization. Good physicochemical characterizations (entrapment efficiency = 78.5%, particle size = 66.8 nm, polydispersity index = 0.213, and zeta potential = -6.16 mv) of TPN were observed. Compared with tea polyphenol solution, TPN showed equivalent antioxidant activities, indicated by equal DPPH free radical scavenging and slightly lower ferric reducing activities and lower inhibitions against Staphylococcus aureus , Escerhichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium , and Listeria monocytogenes . In addition, a relatively good sustained release property was observed in TPN, with only 29.8% tea polyphenols released from nanoliposome after 24 h of incubation. Moreover, TPN improved the stability of tea polyphenol in alkaline solution. This study expects to provide theories and practice guides for further applications of TPN. PMID:24428744

  8. Construction and Analysis of High-Ethanol-Producing Fusants with Co-Fermentation Ability through Protoplast Fusion and Double Labeling Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jingping; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Luyan; Zhang, Mengyun; Ping, Wenxiang

    2014-01-01

    Double labeling of resistance markers and report genes can be used to breed engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that can assimilate xylose and glucose as a mixed carbon source for ethanol fermentation and increased ethanol production. In this study Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and Candida shehatae 20335 were used as parent strains to conduct protoplast fusion and the resulting fusants were screened by double labeling. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to assess the ethanol yield following the fermentation of xylose and glucose, as both single and mixed carbon sources, by the fusants. Interestingly, one fusant (ZLYRHZ7) was demonstrated to have an excellent fermentation performance, with an ethanol yield using the mixed carbon source of 0.424 g g?1, which compares with 0.240 g g?1 (W5) and 0.353 g g?1 (20335) for the parent strains. This indicates an improvement in the ethanol yield of 43.4% and 16.7%, respectively. PMID:25268957

  9. Oral contraceptive administration aggravates nitric oxide synthesis inhibition-induced high blood pressure in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Olatunji; A. O. Soladoye

    2008-01-01

    The use of estrogen–progestogen oral contraceptive (OC) is associated with high blood pressure, although mechanisms responsible are still unclear. This study sought to investigate the effects of administration of OC on high blood pressure resulting from nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition in female Sprague–Dawley rats. Rats were given ethinyl estradiol in combination with norgestrel and were treated with NO synthase

  10. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?—An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9?mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1?mg/L; median = 0.4?mg/L; range = 0–35?mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

  11. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat\\/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si-Yuan Pan; Zhi-Ling Yu; Hang Dong; Chun-Jing Xiang; Wang-Fun Fong

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat\\/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induc- tion of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, respectively) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels

  12. Effects of enzyme feeding strategy on ethanol yield in fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of spruce at high dry matter

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To make lignocellulosic fuel ethanol economically competitive with fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce the production cost. One way to achieve this is by increasing the substrate concentration in the production process, and thus reduce the energy demand in the final distillation of the fermentation broth. However, increased substrate concentration in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields and severe stirring problems. Because the SSF medium is being continuously hydrolyzed, running the process in fed-batch mode could potentially reduce the stirring problems and lead to increased ethanol yields in high-solids SSF. Different enzyme feeding strategies, with the enzymes either present in the reactor from start-up or fed into the reactor together with the substrate, have been studied, along with the influence of the enzyme feeding strategy on the final ethanol yield and productivity. Results In the present study, SSF was run successfully with 10% and 14% water-insoluble solids (WIS) in batch and fed-batch mode. The mixing of the material in the reactor was significantly better in fed-batch than batch mode, and similarly high or higher ethanol yields were achieved in fed-batch mode compared with batch SSF in some cases. No general trend in the dependence of ethanol yield on enzyme feeding strategy was found. Conclusions The optimum enzyme feeding strategy appears to depend on the conditions during SSF, such as the WIS concentration and the concentration of inhibitory compounds in the SSF medium. PMID:20579340

  13. Effects of growth, diving history, and high altitude on blood oxygen capacity in harbor seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodama, A. M.; Elsner, R.; Pace, N.

    1977-01-01

    Blood volume and body composition for diving and nondiving harbor seals were measured at six-week intervals during a 10-month period of captitivity. Whole body hematocrit, red cell volume per kg of lean body mass, and total circulating hemoglobin per kg lean body mass were significantly higher in the diving group, but relatively large blood volumes expressed in terms of body weight (11-12%) were found in both groups. A pair of harbor seals exposed to high altitude for about three months registered significant increases in red cell volume, blood hemoglobin levels, and blood volume expressed in terms of body weight; results of alveolar gas analyses indicate that hyperventilation also occurred. These typical mammalian responses to hypoxia suggest that the harbor seal's large blood volume and high hemoglobin content are an expression of phylogenetic control, and that in spite of its adaptability to apnea during its diving life, the animal cannot be considered preacclimatized to high altitude.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of ethanol after oral administration in the fasting state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul K. Wilkinson; Allen J. Sedman; Ermelinda Sakmar; Donald R. Kay; John G. Wagner

    1977-01-01

    A nonlinear relationship between the total area under the blood ethanol concentration-time curve and the orally administered dose (mg\\/kg) of ethanol was observed in fasting subjects. A preliminary model, based on physiological considerations, was elaborated and shown, for the first time, to describe the entire time course of blood alcohol concentrations after four different doses of alcohol. The model could

  15. Hoe 140 abolishes the blood pressure lowering effect of taurine in high fructose-fed rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. A. Nandhini; C. V. Anuradha

    2004-01-01

    Summary. High fructose feeding induces moderate increases in blood pressure of normal rats, associated with hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Increased vascular resistance, and sodium retention have been proposed to contribute to the blood pressure elevation in this model. Taurine, a sulphur-containing amino acid has been reported to have antihypertensive and antinatriuretic actions. In addition, taurine is shown

  16. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    , Plasmodium falcipa- rum and Plasmodium vivax, resulted in approximately 660,000 deaths in 2010 from amongHigh-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction

  17. High blood pressure and associated symptoms were reduced by massage therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Hernandez-Reif; Tiffany Field; Josh Krasnegor; Z. Hossain; Hillary Theakston; I. Burman

    2000-01-01

    High blood pressure is associated with elevated anxiety, stress and stress hormones, hostility, depression and catecholamines. Massage therapy and progressive muscle relaxation were evaluated as treatments for reducing blood pressure and these associated symptoms. Adults who had been diagnosed as hypertensive received ten 30 min massage sessions over five weeks or they were given progressive muscle relaxation instructions (control group).

  18. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and ethanol induced tissue ablation: Thermal lesion volume and temperature ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen Hai

    HIFU is the upcoming technology for noninvasive or minimally invasive tumor ablation via the localized acoustic energy deposition at the focal region within the tumor target. The presence of cavitation bubbles had been shown to improve the therapeutic effect of HIFU. In this study, we have investigated the effect of HIFU on temperature rise and cavitation bubble activity in ethanol-treated porcine liver and kidney tissues. We have also explored changes in the viability and proliferation rate of HepG2, SW1376, and FB1 cancer cells with their exposure to ethanol and HIFU. Tissues were submerged in 95% ethanol for five hours and then exposed to HIFU generated by a 1.1 MHz transducer or injected into focal spot before HIFU exposure. Cavitation events were measured by a passive cavitation detection technique for a range of acoustic power from 1.17 W to 20.52 W. The temperature around the focal zone was measured by type K or type E thermocouples embedded in the samples. In experiments with cancer cells, 2.7 millions cells were treated with concentration of ethanol at concentration 2%, 4%, 10%, 25%, and 50% and the cell were exposed to HIFU with power of 2.73 W, 8.72 W, and 12.0 W for 30 seconds. Our data show that the treatment of tissues with ethanol reduces the threshold power for inertial cavitation and increases the temperature rise. The exposure of cancer cells to various HIFU power only showed a higher number of viable cells 24 to 72 hours after HIFU exposure. On the other hand, both the viability and proliferation rate were significantly decreased in cells treated with ethanol and then HIFU at 8.7 W and 12.0 W even at ethanol concentration of 2 and 4 percent. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and HIFU have a synergistic effect on cancer cells ablation.

  19. [Unfavorable outcome of aggressive lowering of high blood pressure. Case report].

    PubMed

    Kuperczkó, Diána; Csécsei, Péter; Komáromy, Hedvig; Szapáry, László; Fehér, Gergely

    2014-10-19

    Cerebral autoregulation is essential in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow. Due to this autoregulation, cerebral perfusion is constant in healthy subjects if blood pressure values are between 50-150 mmHg. In hypertensive patients the curve is right-shifted towards higher blood pressure values (pathological autoregulation). Aggressive blood pressure reduction can lead to severe ischaemia. The authors report the history of a 73-year-old man with the background history of widespread atherosclerotic disease. The patient complained about headache and dizziness and was found to have high blood pressure (160/100 mmHg) and increased blood glucose (14.8 mmol/l). Prior to his admission an aggressive blood pressure and blood sugar reduction was carried out and, within a short period of time he became unconscious and was transferred to the department of the authors with the possible diagnosis of brainstem stroke. On admission the patient was unresponsive, comatose with brainstem symptoms. Urgent brain computed tomography failed to show any acute alterations. However, repeat CT scan revealed extensive bilateral space occupying ischemic changes involving in territories of both internal carotid arteries with consequent brainstem compression. Computed tomography angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. The authors conclude that intensive blood pressure reduction result in ischemic lesions via hypoperfusion especially in patients with widespread atherosclerotic disease and significant carotid vessel pathology. PMID:25305726

  20. Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Woong Sun; Choung, Se Young

    2013-01-01

    Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE) and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2) and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis. PMID:23365609

  1. U.S. Deaths Due to High Blood Pressure Keep Rising: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that could have been prevented, Fonarow added. "High-quality blood pressure management is complex and requires the engagement of patients, families, doctors, the health care systems and communities," Fonarow noted. This effort includes expanding ...

  2. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  3. A microfluidics approach towards high-throughput pathogen removal from blood using margination

    PubMed Central

    Wei Hou, Han; Gan, Hiong Yap; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Li, Leon D.; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis is an adverse systemic inflammatory response caused by microbial infection in blood. This paper reports a simple microfluidic approach for intrinsic, non-specific removal of both microbes and inflammatory cellular components (platelets and leukocytes) from whole blood, inspired by the invivo phenomenon of leukocyte margination. As blood flows through a narrow microchannel (20?×?20?µm), deformable red blood cells (RBCs) migrate axially to the channel centre, resulting in margination of other cell types (bacteria, platelets, and leukocytes) towards the channel sides. By using a simple cascaded channel design, the blood samples undergo a 2-stage bacteria removal in a single pass through the device, thereby allowing higher bacterial removal efficiency. As an application for sepsis treatment, we demonstrated separation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae spiked into whole blood, achieving high removal efficiencies of ?80% and ?90%, respectively. Inflammatory cellular components were also depleted by >80% in the filtered blood samples which could help to modulate the host inflammatory response and potentially serve as a blood cleansing method for sepsis treatment. The developed technique offers significant advantages including high throughput (?1?ml/h per channel) and label-free separation which allows non-specific removal of any blood-borne pathogens (bacteria and fungi). The continuous processing and collection mode could potentially enable the return of filtered blood back to the patient directly, similar to a simple and complete dialysis circuit setup. Lastly, we designed and tested a larger filtration device consisting of 6 channels in parallel (?6?ml/h) and obtained similar filtration performances. Further multiplexing is possible by increasing channel parallelization or device stacking to achieve higher throughput comparable to convectional blood dialysis systems used in clinical settings. PMID:22655023

  4. Viola mandshurica ethanolic extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2014-07-01

    Viola mandshurica W. Becker has been used as an expectorant, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory agent. We evaluated the effects of V. mandshurica ethanol extract (VME) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. HPLC analysis showed that the VME contained 11.95 ± 0.37 mg/g esculetin and 0.13 ± 0.01 mg/g scopoletin. Orally administered VME decreased the body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, and triglyceride and leptin serum concentrations. In contrast, VME increased serum adiponectin concentrations and adiponectin expression levels in epididymal adipose tissues. VME also significantly reversed the HFD-induced elevation of the mRNA and protein levels of lipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty-acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, VME reversed the HFD-induced inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coA carboxylase phosphorylation in epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, treatment of VME and esculetin in 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation. These results suggest that VME exerts anti-obesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice by activating AMPK and suppressing PPAR? expression in adipose tissues. PMID:24879516

  5. The contribution of arterial blood gases in cerebral blood flow regulation and fuel utilization in man at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Willie, Christopher K; MacLeod, David B; Smith, Kurt J; Lewis, Nia C; Foster, Glen E; Ikeda, Keita; Hoiland, Ryan L; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of partial acclimatization to high altitude (HA; 5,050 m) on cerebral metabolism and cerebrovascular function have not been characterized. We hypothesized (1) increased cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) at HA; and (2) that CO2 would affect cerebral metabolism more than hypoxia. PaO2 and PaCO2 were manipulated at sea level (SL) to simulate HA exposure, and at HA, SL blood gases were simulated; CVR was assessed at both altitudes. Arterial-jugular venous differences were measured to calculate cerebral metabolic rates and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We observed that (1) partial acclimatization yields a steeper CO2-H(+) relation in both arterial and jugular venous blood; yet (2) CVR did not change, despite (3) mean arterial pressure (MAP)-CO2 reactivity being doubled at HA, thus indicating effective cerebral autoregulation. (4) At SL hypoxia increased CBF, and restoration of oxygen at HA reduced CBF, but neither had any effect on cerebral metabolism. Acclimatization resets the cerebrovasculature to chronic hypocapnia. PMID:25690474

  6. High-frequency attenuation and backscatter measurements of rat blood between 30 and 60 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung

    2010-10-01

    There has recently been a great deal of interest in noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound imaging of small animals such as rats due to their being the preferred animal model for gene therapy and cancer research. Improving the interpretation of the obtained images and furthering the development of the imaging devices require a detailed knowledge of the ultrasound attenuation and backscattering of biological tissue (e.g. blood) at high frequencies. In the present study, the attenuation and backscattering coefficients of the rat red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and whole blood with hematocrits ranging from 6% to 40% were measured between 30 and 60 MHz using a modified substitution approach. The acoustic parameters of porcine blood under the same conditions were also measured in order to compare differences in the blood properties between these two animals. For porcine blood, both whole blood and RBC suspension were stirred at a rotation speed of 200 rpm. Three different rotation speeds of 100, 200 and 300 rpm were carried out for rat blood experiments. The attenuation coefficients of both rat and porcine blood were found to increase linearly with frequency and hematocrit (the values of coefficients of determination (r2) are around 0.82-0.97 for all cases). The average attenuation coefficient of rat whole blood with a hematocrit of 40% increased from 0.26 Nepers mm-1 at 30 MHz to 0.47 Nepers mm-1 at 60 MHz. The maximum backscattering coefficients of both rat and porcine RBC suspensions were between 10% and 15% hematocrits at all frequencies. The fourth-power dependence of backscatter on frequency was approximately valid for rat RBC suspensions with hematocrits between 6% and 40%. However, the frequency dependence of the backscatter estimate deviates from a fourth-power law for porcine RBC suspension with hematocrit higher than 20%. The backscattering coefficient plateaued for hematocrits higher than 15% in porcine blood, but for rat blood it was maximal around a hematocrit of 20% at the same rotation speed, and shifted to a hematocrit of 10% at a higher speed. The backscattering properties of rat RBCs in plasma are similar to those of RBCs in saline at a higher rotation speed. The differences in attenuation and backscattering between rat and porcine blood may be attributed to RBCs' being smaller and the RBC aggregation level being lower for rat blood than for porcine blood.

  7. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Y. Petrov; Yuriy Petrov; Donald S. Prough; Rinat O. Esenaliev

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used

  8. Production of 21% (v\\/v) ethanol by fermentation of very high gravity (VHG) wheat mashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Thomas; W. M. Ingledew

    1992-01-01

    Summary Very high gravity wheat mashes containing 300 g or more sugares per liter were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch and fermented with a commercial preparation of active dry yeast. The active dry yeast used in this study was a blend of several strains ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentation was carried out at 20°C at different pitching rates (inoculation levels)

  9. Symptoms of neonatal ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Robe, L B; Gromisch, D S; Iosub, S

    1981-01-01

    Neonatal withdrawal symptoms in 15 cases of fetal alcohol syndrome with maternal intoxication at time of delivery, reported in 9 studies, are compared with symptoms reported in 138 cases of neonatal narcotic withdrawal. Seen frequently in ethanol but rarely in narcotic withdrawal are abdominal distention and opisthotonos. Seen frequently in narcotic but rarely in ethanol withdrawal are high pitch cry, frequent yawning, excessive sucking, mottling of the skin, excoriation, nasal stuffiness, excess sweating, sleeplessness and diarrhea. Seen frequently in both are increased muscle tonicity and tremors; however, convulsions are rare in narcotic yet are fairly frequent in neonatal ethanol withdrawal. PMID:7343193

  10. Effects of ethanol on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Korkosz, Agnieszka; Zatorski, Pawel; Taracha, Ewa; Plaznik, Adam; Kostowski, Wojciech; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2006-09-30

    It has been shown that small doses of ethanol (ethanol could antagonize nicotine's rewarding effects in the conditioned place preference procedure. For comparison, effects of ethanol on nicotine-induced seizures were assessed. Male C57BL/6J mice were used in all experiments. Lower doses of nicotine (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg, s.c.) induced significant conditioned place preference, while higher doses (0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg) induced neither conditioned place preference nor conditioned place aversion. In the following experiments, ethanol (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg, i.p.) was administered 5 min before 0.3 mg/kg nicotine. Ethanol did not antagonize nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Contrary to our hypothesis, a non-significant (p = 0.07) enhancement of nicotine-induced place preference conditioning was observed in mice pre-treated with 1.0 g/kg ethanol. Both doses of ethanol (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) suppressed seizures elicited by a high dose of nicotine (6.0 mg/kg). Ethanol totally eliminated clonic-tonic component of nicotine-induced seizures. Maximal blood ethanol levels after i.p. administration of 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg ethanol exceeded 60 and 115 mg%, respectively. The present results may indicate that the rewarding and seizure-inducing effects of nicotine are differentially modulated by clinically relevant concentrations of ethanol in mice. PMID:16769170

  11. High tolerance of wild Lactobacillus plantarum and Oenococcus oeni strains to lyophilisation and stress environmental conditions of acid pH and ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel López; J. Ignacio Ruiz; Julio Sáenz; Eva Fernández; Myriam Zarazaga; Marta Dizy; Carmen Torres; Fernanda Ruiz-Larrea

    2004-01-01

    A total of 76 Lactobacillus plantarum and Oenococcus oeni wild strains were recovered from traditionally elaborated Spanish red wines and were investigated with respect to their response to acid pH, lyophilisation, temperature and ethanol concentrations which are normally lethal to lactic acid bacteria. Both L. plantarum and O. oeni strains were able to grow at pH 3.2, were highly resistant

  12. Distinct molecular targets including SLO-1 and gap junctions are engaged across a continuum of ethanol concentrations in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, James; Andrianakis, Ioannis; Mould, Richard; Ient, Ben; Liu, Wei; James, Christopher; O'Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) interacts with diverse molecular effectors across a range of concentrations in the brain, eliciting intoxication through to sedation. Invertebrate models including the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans have been deployed for molecular genetic studies to inform on key components of these alcohol signaling pathways. C. elegans studies have typically employed external dosing with high (>250 mM) ethanol concentrations: A careful analysis of responses to low concentrations is lacking. Using the C. elegans pharyngeal system as a paradigm, we report a previously uncharacterized continuum of cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol from low (10 mM) to high (300 mM) concentrations. The complexity of these responses indicates that the pleiotropic action of ethanol observed in mammalian brain is conserved in this invertebrate model. We investigated two candidate ethanol effectors, the calcium-activated K+ channel SLO-1 and gap junctions, and show that they contribute to, but are not sole determinants of, the low- and high-concentration effects, respectively. Notably, this study shows cellular and whole organismal behavioral responses to ethanol in C. elegans that directly equate to intoxicating through to supralethal blood alcohol concentrations in humans and provides an important benchmark for interpretation of paradigms that seek to inform on human alcohol use disorders.—Dillon, J., Andrianakis, I., Mould, R., Ient, B., Liu, W., James, C., O'Connor, V., Holden-Dye, L. Distinct molecular targets including SLO-1 and gap junctions are engaged across a continuum of ethanol concentrations in Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:23882127

  13. Relationship of low lysine and high arginine concentrations to efficient ethanolic fermentation of wheat mash.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K C; Ingledew, W M

    1992-07-01

    Very high gravity wheat mashes containing 20 or more grams of carbohydrates per 100 mL were fermented completely by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even though these mashes contained low amounts of assimilable nitrogen. Supplementation of wheat mashes with various amino acids or with yeast extract, urea, or ammonium sulfate reduced the fermentation time. However, lysine or glycine added as single supplements, inhibited yeast growth and fermentation. With lysine, yeast growth was severely inhibited, and a loss of cell viability as high as 80% was seen. Partial or complete reversal of lysine-induced inhibition was achieved by the addition of a number of nitrogen sources. All nitrogen sources that relieved lysine-induced inhibition of yeast growth also promoted uptake of lysine and restored cell viability to the level observed in the control. They also increased the rate of fermentation. Experiments with minimal media showed that for lysine to be inhibitory to yeast growth, assimilable nitrogen in the medium must be in growth-limiting concentrations or totally absent. In the presence of excess nitrogen, lysine stimulated yeast growth and fermentation. Results indicate that supplementing wheat mash with other nitrogen sources increases the rate of fermentation not only by providing extra nitrogen but also by reducing or eliminating the inhibitory effect of lysine on yeast growth. PMID:1393832

  14. Alcohol-induced insulin resistance in liver: Potential roles in regulation of ADH expression; ethanol clearance and alcohol liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using total enteral nutrition (TEN), we demonstrated that low carbohydrate, high alcohol-containing diets (10-12 g/kg/dO produced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g). Intragastric infusion of this diet generates regular pulses of blood ethanol concentrations (BEC...

  15. High Fibrinogen in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Sho; Sakagami, Masafumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Shingo; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. Study Design A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. Methods Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients’ initial visit to our clinic. Results In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. Conclusions High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset. PMID:25166620

  16. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Gabriel R.; Santos, Heleodório H.; Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Júnior, Adenilson T. A.; Araújo, Joamira P.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Sousa, Maria S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years) were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6) and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6) that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups. PMID:25114743

  17. Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-03-01

    A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. PMID:24463536

  18. High resolution blood flow mapping in the anterior segment of the eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kruse; R. Silverman; D. J. Coleman; S. Erickson; K. Ferrara

    1999-01-01

    A new high frequency ultrasound system has been developed to visualize and measure blood flow parameters in the superficial microvasculature with a resolution of 40 ?m. A recently reported method (D.E. Kruse et al., 1998, R.H. Silverman et al., 1999), which the authors call swept-scan or swept Doppler, has been developed to rapidly acquire 2-D frames data for blood velocity

  19. Acute ethanol responses in Drosophila are sexually dimorphic

    PubMed Central

    Devineni, Anita V.; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian and insect models of ethanol intoxication, low doses of ethanol stimulate locomotor activity whereas high doses induce sedation. Sex differences in acute ethanol responses, which occur in humans, have not been characterized in Drosophila. In this study, we find that male flies show increased ethanol hyperactivity and greater resistance to ethanol sedation compared with females. We show that the sex determination gene transformer (tra) acts in the developing nervous system, likely through regulation of fruitless (fru), to at least partially mediate the sexual dimorphism in ethanol sedation. Although pharmacokinetic differences may contribute to the increased sedation sensitivity of females, neuronal tra expression regulates ethanol sedation independently of ethanol pharmacokinetics. We also show that acute activation of fru-expressing neurons affects ethanol sedation, further supporting a role for fru in regulating this behavior. Thus, we have characterized previously undescribed sex differences in behavioral responses to ethanol, and implicated fru in mediating a subset of these differences. PMID:23213244

  20. Blood lead levels among children in high-risk areas--California, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In the United States, elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) are a major health risk for children; this risk is totally preventable (1). To better characterize lead poisoning among children at high risk for lead exposure in California, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) conducted lead-screening surveys that measured lead levels in children's blood, household paint, and soil in three selected high-risk areas in northern, southern, and central California. This report summarizes the survey findings and describes CDHS's efforts to reduce lead exposure among children in California, especially among those in high-risk areas.

  1. Ethanol production in the Southern High Plains of Texas: Impacts on the economy and scarce water resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of new biorefineries in an effort to increase energy security in the United States has generated positive impacts by creating jobs and generating economic output. However, communities and local and state leaders are concerned about whether ethanol production is an effective use o...

  2. Ultrasonic and high-temperature pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulosic sweet sorghum to bio-ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahmina Imam; Sergio Capareda

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to hexose and pentose sugars through ultrasonic and hot water pretreatment, followed by hydrolysis with a mixture of enzymes and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to bio-ethanol. Lignin concentration decreased by 52%, cellulose and hemicellulose concentrations increased by 49% and 25%, respectively, after the ultrasonic plus hot water pretreatment. Cellulose conversion to glucose

  3. EFFECTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS ON LIQUID-PHASE ADSORPTION OF ETHANOL AND WATER BY HIGH-SILICA ZSM-5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption isotherms were measured for each compound adsorbed on commercially available ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 140) powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures of ethanol, carboxylic acids, and water at room temperature. The amounts adsorbed were measured using a recently developed t...

  4. High catalytic performance of Pt nanoparticles on plasma treated carbon nanotubes for electrooxidation of ethanol in a basic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhongqing; Jiang, Zhong-jie; Meng, Yuedong

    2011-01-01

    Nanosized Pt particles deposited on plasma treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been used in electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol in a basic solution. These Pt nanoparticles have very narrow size distribution and exhibit significant higher catalytic activities, higher Pt utilization efficiency (93.77%) and improved durability in comparison to the commercial available Johnson Matthey Pt/C catalyst.

  5. High-frequency perfusion fluorometry: a new technique to assess bronchial mucosa blood perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottiroli, Giovanni F.; Ramponi, Roberta; Croce, Anna C.; Rescigno, Giuseppe; Nazari, Stefano; Zonta, Aris

    1992-05-01

    A new method to estimate airway mucosa blood perfusion is proposed based on the fluorescein perfusion fluorometry principles, which allows both high temporal resolution and high sensitivity measurements to be performed. Preliminary results were obtained on different conditions of rat trachea vascularization, which provide interesting perspectives for an application to the bronchial ischemia problems in lung transplantation.

  6. Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. Methods This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. Results A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P < 0.01). The rate of successful glucose control (blood glucose level < 150 mg/dl maintained for 6 days or longer) decreased with increase in blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P < 0.01). The blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions High blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control. PMID:22494810

  7. Velocity measurement of both red blood cells and plasma of in vitro blood flow using high-speed micro PIV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugii, Yasuhiko; Okuda, Remi; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a new high-speed micro PIV technique for measuring both red blood cell velocity and plasma velocity to investigate rheology of blood flow in microcirculation. The measurement system consists of an epi-fluorescent microscope equipped with a high-speed camera with an image intensifier and two sets of colour filters. The technique was applied to in vitro blood flow through a micro round tube of 100 µm diameter. Velocity distributions of dyed red blood cells and plasma seeded with fluorescent particles were obtained separately. The obtained velocity distributions have a high spatial resolution of 9.0 µm × 2.2 µm and high temporal resolution of 6000 Hz.

  8. A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of cyanide in equine blood.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Charlie; Lehner, Fritz; Dirikolu, Levent; Harkins, Dan; Boyles, Jeff; McDowell, Karen; Tobin, Thomas; Crutchfield, James; Sebastian, Manu; Harrison, Lenn; Baskin, Stephen I

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological association among black cherry trees (Prunus serotina), eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americana), and the spring 2001 episode of mare reproductive loss syndrome in central Kentucky focused attention on the potential role of environmental cyanogens in the causes of this syndrome. To evaluate the role of cyanide (CN (-)) in this syndrome, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive method for determination of low parts per billion concentrations of CN (-) in equine blood and other biological fluids was developed. The analytical method is an adaptation of methods commonly in use and involves the evolution and trapping of gaseous hydrogen cyanide followed by spectrophotometric determination by autoanalyzer. The limit of quantitation of this method is 2 ng/mL in equine blood, and the standard curve shows a linear relationship between CN (-) concentration and absorbance (r >. 99). The method throughput is high, up to 100 samples per day. Normal blood CN (-) concentrations in horses at pasture in Kentucky in October 2001 ranged from 3-18 ng/mL, whereas hay-fed horses showed blood CN (-) levels of 2-7 ng/mL in January 2002. Blood samples from a small number of cattle at pasture showed broadly similar blood CN (-) concentrations. Intravenous administration of sodium cyanide and oral administration of mandelonitrile and amygdalin yielded readily detectable increases in blood CN (-) concentrations. This method is sufficiently sensitive and specific to allow the determination of normal blood CN (-) levels in horses, as well as the seasonal and pasture-dependent variations. The method should also be suitable for investigation of the toxicokinetics and disposition of subacutely toxic doses of CN (-) and its precursor cyanogens in the horse as well as in other species. PMID:20021191

  9. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested in adulthood. Adult males exposed to ethanol early in adolescence also show enhanced sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol, whereas adult males exposed to ethanol during late adolescence demonstrate insensitivity to the socially suppressing effects of ethanol. To the extent that these results are applicable to humans, stressful live events may make alcohol more attractive for stressed adolescents and adults due to its socially facilitating and socially anxiolytic properties, therefore fostering high levels of drinking. Retention of adolescent-typical responsiveness to alcohol in adult males following adolescent alcohol exposure, including enhanced sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol following early exposure and insensitivity to the socially inhibiting effects following late adolescent exposure, may put these males at risk for the development of alcohol-related disorders later in life. PMID:25431835

  10. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of a Type 2 Blood Group A Tetrasaccharide and Development of High-throughput Assays Enables a Platform for Screening Blood Group Antigen-cleaving Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kwan, David H; Ernst, Sabrina; Kötzler, Miriam P; Withers, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    A facile enzymatic synthesis of the methylumbelliferyl ?-glycoside of the type 2 A blood group tetrasaccharide in good yields is reported. Using this compound, we developed highly sensitive fluorescence-based high-throughput assays for both endo-?-galactosidase and ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity specific for the oligosaccharide structure of the blood group A antigen. We further demonstrate the potential to use this assay to screen the expressed gene products of metagenomic libraries in the search for efficient blood group antigen-cleaving enzymes. PMID:25964111

  11. 1 H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Liver, Serum, and Brain Following Ethanol Administration in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Nicholas; Daniel Kim; Fulton T. Crews; Jeffrey M. Macdonald

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug that is consumed in large amounts for pharmacologic effects. Elimination of ethanol alters metabolism in the liver and throughout an organism. Ethanol's effect on metabolites can influence the regulation of key pathways such as gluconeogenesis. We adopted a proton NMR-based metabolomic approach to study ethanol-induced metabolic changes in liver, blood, and brain tissue from

  12. High-Resolution Mapping of the Blood Pressure QTL on Chromosome 7 Using Dahl Rat Congenic Strains

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    High-Resolution Mapping of the Blood Pressure QTL on Chromosome 7 Using Dahl Rat Congenic Strains-sensitive (S) and salt-resistant (R) rats that a blood pressure quan- titative trait locus (QTL) was present-hydroxy- 11-deoxy corticosterone, is very likely to account for the blood pressure QTL on chromosome 7

  13. Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ? 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually assaulted attending our SAC. PMID:23910880

  14. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Slininger, Patricia J; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A; Thompson, Stephanie R; Dien, Bruce S; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment.

  15. High-Throughput Lens-Free Blood Analysis on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sungkyu; Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Mudanyali, Onur; Su, Ting-Wei; Bishara, Waheb; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the performance of lens-free holographic microscopy toward high-throughput on-chip blood analysis. Using a spatially incoherent source that is emanating from a large aperture, automated counting of red blood cells with minimal sample preparation steps at densities reaching up to ~0.4 × 106 cells/?L is presented. Using the same lens-free holographic microscopy platform, we also characterize the volume of the red blood cells at the single-cell level through recovery of the optical phase information of each cell. We further demonstrate the measurement of the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood samples as well as automated counting of white blood cells, also yielding spatial resolution at the subcellular level sufficient to differentiate granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes from each other. These results uncover the prospects of lens-free holographic on-chip imaging to provide a useful tool for global health problems, especially by facilitating whole blood analysis in resource-poor environments. PMID:20450181

  16. A lab-on-CD prototype for high-speed blood separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Guo, Qiuquan; Liu, Mei; Yang, Jun

    2008-12-01

    Blood separation is the first step for subsequent blood tests in clinical diagnosis. Lab-on-a-chip technology provides an automatic, cost-effective and fast solution for a wide variety of blood analyses. The objective of this work is to design a new lab-on-CD microstructure capable of separating blood cells from the whole blood into different reservoirs directly. A CD platform including a microchannel network consisting of a straight main microchannel, a curved microchannel and a branching microchannel has been proposed. The merits of this design are its simple structure, less operating time and high separation efficiency because it utilizes multiple separation mechanisms, for instance, two centrifugal forces and Coriolis force. One centrifugal force is due to the system rotation; the other centrifugal force is due to the curvature of the specifically designed curved channel. In this work, systematical evaluation on the functionality and performance of such a design has been done. Ninety-nine per cent separation efficiency is achieved for diluted blood of 6% hematocrit.

  17. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  18. Inhibition of plasma membrane and mitochondrial transmembrane potentials by ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmin M. Samynathan; Stephen C. Bondy

    1995-01-01

    The actions of ethanol and its primary oxidative metabolite, acetaldehyde, on plasma membrane and mitochondrial transmembrane potentials were examined in rat brain using fluorescence techniques. Subchronic treatment of adult rats with ethanol resulted in a significant depolarization of both the plasma and mitochondrial membranes when the mean blood ethanol level of the rats was 59±11 mM (mean±SEM, n=6). Acute dosing

  19. “High in omega-3 fatty acids” bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izaskun Berasategi; Sheila Legarra; Mikel García-Íñiguez de Ciriano; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íñigo Navarro-Blasco; Diana Ansorena; Iciar Astiasarán

    2011-01-01

    A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed.The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6\\/?-3 ratio from

  20. Higher blood flow and circulating NO products offset high-altitude hypoxia among Tibetans

    PubMed Central

    Erzurum, S. C.; Ghosh, S.; Janocha, A. J.; Xu, W.; Bauer, S.; Bryan, N. S.; Tejero, J.; Hemann, C.; Hille, R.; Stuehr, D. J.; Feelisch, M.; Beall, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    The low barometric pressure at high altitude causes lower arterial oxygen content among Tibetan highlanders, who maintain normal levels of oxygen use as indicated by basal and maximal oxygen consumption levels that are consistent with sea level predictions. This study tested the hypothesis that Tibetans resident at 4,200 m offset physiological hypoxia and achieve normal oxygen delivery by means of higher blood flow enabled by higher levels of bioactive forms of NO, the main endothelial factor regulating blood flow and vascular resistance. The natural experimental study design compared Tibetans at 4,200 m and U.S. residents at 206 m. Eighty-eight Tibetan and 50 U.S. resident volunteers (18–56 years of age, healthy, nonsmoking, nonhypertensive, not pregnant, with normal pulmonary function) participated. Forearm blood flow, an indicator of systemic blood flow, was measured noninvasively by using plethysmography at rest, after breathing supplemental oxygen, and after exercise. The Tibetans had more than double the forearm blood flow of low-altitude residents, resulting in greater than sea level oxygen delivery to tissues. In comparison to sea level controls, Tibetans had >10-fold-higher circulating concentrations of bioactive NO products, including plasma and red blood cell nitrate and nitroso proteins and plasma nitrite, but lower concentrations of iron nitrosyl complexes (HbFeIINO) in red blood cells. This suggests that NO production is increased and that metabolic pathways controlling formation of NO products are regulated differently among Tibetans. These findings shift attention from the traditional focus on pulmonary and hematological systems to vascular factors contributing to adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia. PMID:17971439

  1. Attitude and Willingness towards Tissue Donation in Iranian High School Students: Bone Marrow and Blood

    PubMed Central

    Sanavi, S.; Afshar, R.; Sanavi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tissue donation has been promising in prolonging the lives of people with life-threatening diseases. Objective: To assess the attitude and willingness of high school students towards bone marrow (BM) and blood (as tissue) donation for maintaining a safe and adequate pool. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the high school girls, aged 15–18 years, who studied in natural sciences, mathematics and humanities. All participants filled a questionnaire consisting of age, religion, education levels and study branch, attitude and willingness towards BM and blood donation according to a Likert scale. Results: Out of 416 students, with the mean±SD age of 16.3±1.2 years, 31% studied in grade I, 27% in grade II (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics, and 48% humanities), 26% in grade III (30% natural sciences, 34% mathematics, and 36% humanities), and 16% in pre-university level (college) (32% natural sciences, 42% mathematics, and 6% humanities). The students had highly positive attitudes toward BM and blood donation (mean±SD score of 4.2±0.54). The willingness for BM and blood donation was declared respectively, in 87% and 71% of respondents. Moreover, 16% of students wanted to donate only to their relatives and 84% to all persons in need of therapy. There was no significant correlation between the donation willingness and educational levels and study branch; however, these variables significantly correlated with attitude towards tissue donation (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Despite positive attitude towards BM and blood donation, willingness for BM donation is lesser than blood which may be attributed to insufficient information about this type of tissue donation. An organized educational program for high school students in all aspects of tissue donation seems necessary. PMID:25013613

  2. Impaired oxygen utilization. A new mechanism for the hepatotoxicity of ethanol in sub-human primates.

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, C S; Baraona, E; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Kubota, S; Sato, N; Kawano, S; Matsumura, T; Inatomi, N

    1989-01-01

    The role of oxygenation in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury was investigated in six baboons fed alcohol chronically and in six pair-fed controls. All animals fed alcohol developed fatty liver with, in addition, fibrosis in three. No evidence for hypoxia was found, both in the basal state and after ethanol at moderate (30 mM) or high (55 mM) levels, as shown by unchanged or even increased hepatic venous partial pressure of O2 and O2 saturation of hemoglobin in the tissue. In controls, ethanol administration resulted in enhanced O2 consumption (offset by a commitant increase in splanchnic blood flow), whereas in alcohol fed animals, there was no increase. At the moderate ethanol dose, the flow-independent O2 extraction, measured by reflectance spectroscopy on the liver surface, tended to increase in control animals only, whereas a significant decrease was observed after the high ethanol dose in the alcohol-treated baboons. This was associated with a marked shift in the mitochondrial redox level in the alcohol-fed (but not in control) baboons, with striking rises in splanchnic output of glutamic dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde, reflecting mitochondrial injury. Increased acetaldehyde, in turn, may aggravate the mitochondrial damage and exacerbate defective O2 utilization. Thus impaired O2 consumption rather than lack of O2 supply characterizes liver injury produced by high ethanol levels in baboons fed alcohol chronically. Images PMID:2708529

  3. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

  4. High thermal sensitivity of blood enhances oxygen delivery in the high-flying bar-headed goose.

    PubMed

    Meir, Jessica U; Milsom, William K

    2013-06-15

    The bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) crosses the Himalaya twice a year at altitudes where oxygen (O2) levels are less than half those at sea level and temperatures are below -20°C. Although it has been known for over three decades that the major hemoglobin (Hb) component of bar-headed geese has an increased affinity for O2, enhancing O2 uptake, the effects of temperature and interactions between temperature and pH on bar-headed goose Hb-O2 affinity have not previously been determined. An increase in breathing of the hypoxic and extremely cold air experienced by a bar-headed goose at altitude (due to the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response in this species) could result in both reduced temperature and reduced levels of CO2 at the blood-gas interface in the lungs, enhancing O2 loading. In addition, given the strenuous nature of flapping flight, particularly in thin air, blood leaving the exercising muscle should be warm and acidotic, facilitating O2 unloading. To explore the possibility that features of blood biochemistry in this species could further enhance O2 delivery, we determined the P50 (the partial pressure of O2 at which Hb is 50% saturated) of whole blood from bar-headed geese under conditions of varying temperature and [CO2]. We found that blood-O2 affinity was highly temperature sensitive in bar-headed geese compared with other birds and mammals. Based on our analysis, temperature and pH effects acting on blood-O2 affinity (cold alkalotic lungs and warm acidotic muscle) could increase O2 delivery by twofold during sustained flapping flight at high altitudes compared with what would be delivered by blood at constant temperature and pH. PMID:23470665

  5. Applications of schedule-induced polydipsia in rodents for the study of an excessive ethanol intake phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is generated by subjecting a highly motivated animal to a sub-optimal rate of food reinforcement while also providing access to a fluid. SIP is one of several adjunctive (or displacement) behaviors that are expressed in an exaggerated form that is deemed ‘excessive’. This feature makes SIP an attractive model for studying an excessive ethanol drinking phenotype in rodents. Multiple experimental variables are crucial for the full manifestation of adjunctive drinking, including the degree of food deprivation, the inter-pellet interval selected, and the size of the food reward offered. Although these variables were extensively studied and optimized for water polydipsia in rats, a similarly customized approach to ethanol SIP and application of the procedure in mice have largely been curtailed in favor of the default variable values historically used for water SIP in rats. Further, ethanol SIP also requires careful consideration of variables such as taste and ethanol concentration. Investigation of the stress axis and neurochemical systems such as dopamine and serotonin in mediating adjunctive drinking stemmed from two leading hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of SIP generation: 1) SIP as a coping strategy to mitigate stress associated with the aversive environmental condition, and 2) SIP as a displacement of reward in a highly motivated animal. Ethanol SIP is a powerful model of excessive intake because it can generate an ethanol-dependent state and sustain frequent and intoxicating levels of blood ethanol with voluntary oral consumption. The required food deprivation and the loss of the excessive drinking phenotype following removal of the generator schedule are the two main limitations of the model. Future utility of ethanol SIP will be enhanced by more fully dissecting the underlying hormonal and neurochemical mechanisms and optimizing experimental variables for ethanol SIP on a per species and strain basis. PMID:24680665

  6. Transurethral ethanol ablation of the prostate (TEAP): an effective minimally invasive treatment alternative to traditional surgery for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in high-risk comorbidity patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Magno; Giuseppe Mucciardi; Alessandro Galì; Giuseppina Anastasi; Antonino Inferrera; Giuseppe Morgia

    2008-01-01

    Objective  To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transurethral ethanol ablation of the prostate (TEAP) for patients with symptomatic\\u000a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and high-risk comorbidities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Thirty-six patients (mean age 77.3 years) with symptomatic BPH or persistent urinary retention were assessed at baseline and\\u000a at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. All patients were affected by comorbidities (cardiovascular, respiratory,

  7. Measurements and correlation of high-pressure VLE of binary CO 2–alcohol systems (methanol, ethanol, 2-methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Nam Joung; Chang Woo Yoo; Hun Yong Shin; Sun Young Kim; Ki-Pung Yoo; Chul Soo Lee; Wan Soo Huh

    2001-01-01

    High-pressure vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) data were measured for binary CO2–alcohol systems (e.g. methanol, ethanol, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-ethoxyethanol) at various isotherms (313.15–345.15K). The quantitative VLE data and mixture critical conditions were measured using a new design for a circulation VLE system. The measure data were correlated by the classical Peng–Robinson and the multi-fluid nonrandom lattice fluid hydrogen-bonding (MF-NLF-HB) equation of state.

  8. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Stabilized and Manganese-Modified Rhodium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Highly Selective Synthesis of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde from Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulin; Deng, Weihua; Guo, Enruo; Chung, Po-Wen; Chen, Senniang; Trewyn, Brian; Brown, Robert; Lin, Victor

    2012-03-30

    Well-defined and monodispersed rhodium nanoparticles as small as approximately 2?nm were encapsulated in?situ and stabilized in a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) framework during the synthesis of the mesoporous material. Although both the activity and selectivity of MSN-encapsulated rhodium nanoparticles in CO hydrogenation could be improved by the addition of manganese oxide as expected, the carbon selectivity for C2 oxygenates (including ethanol and acetaldehyde) was unprecedentedly high at 74.5?% with a very small amount of methanol produced if rhodium nanoparticles were modified by manganese oxide with very close interaction.

  9. Weight Status and High Blood Pressure Among Low-Income African American Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marino A. Bruce; Bettina M. Beech; Christopher L. Edwards; Mario Sims; Isabel Scarinci; Keith E. Whitfield; Keon Gilbert; Errol D. Crook

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a biological risk factor or comorbidity that has not received much attention from scientists studying hypertension among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weight status and high blood pressure among African American men with few economic resources. The authors used surveillance data collected from low-income adults attending community- and faith-based

  10. Effect of High-Pressure Helium on Latex-Induced Activated Chemiluminescence of Human Blood Leucocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yu. Tyurin-Kuz'min; A. V. Vdovin

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure helium reduces the latex-induced activated chemiluminescence of diluted human blood. This effect is more noticeable, when lucigenin rather than luminol is used as the activator of chemiluminescence. The effect lessens in the presence of Mg2+ but not Ca2+. The data suggest the association of this effect with actin polymerization in leucocytes phagocytosing the latex particles.

  11. High Initial Blood Levels of Tacrolimus in Overweight Renal Transplant Recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rodrigo; M. A. de Cos; B. Sánchez; J. C. Ruiz; C. Piñera; G. Fernández-Fresnedo; R. Palomar; M. A. Pérez-Ceballos; J. G. Cotorruelo; J. A. Zubimendi; A. L. M. de Francisco; M. Arias

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of both efficacy and safety, exposure to tacrolimus and other immunosuppressive drugs must be monitored, since initial levels influence the development of acute rejection episodes, nephrotoxicity, and posttransplantation diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for developing high initial tacrolimus blood levels. We analyzed clinical and biochemical parameters of 85 renal transplant

  12. Adrenomedullin alleviates pulmonary artery collagen accumulation in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by high blood flow.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lulu; Qi, Jianguang; Gao, Yang; Jin, Hongfang; Du, Junbao

    2014-04-01

    Collagen accumulation is one of the important pathologic changes in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Previous research showed that adrenomedullin (ADM) mitigates the development of pulmonary hypertension. The present study explored the role of ADM in the development of pulmonary artery collagen accumulation induced by high pulmonary blood flow, by investigating the effect of ADM [1.5 ?g/(kg h)] subcutaneously administered by mini-osmotic pump on pulmonary hemodynamics, pulmonary vascular structure and pulmonary artery collagen accumulation and synthesis in rats with high pulmonary blood flow induced by aortocaval shunting. The results showed that ADM significantly decreased mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and the ratio of right ventricular mass to left ventricular plus septal mass [RV/(LV+SP)], attenuated the muscularization of small pulmonary vessels and relative medial thickness (RMT) of pulmonary arteries in rats with high pulmonary blood flow. Meanwhile, ADM ameliorated pulmonary artery collagen deposition represented by a decrease in lung tissue hydroxyproline, collagens I and III content and pulmonary artery collagens I and III expression, reduced collagen synthesis represented by a decrease in lung tissue procollagens I and III mRNA expression. The results suggest that ADM plays a protective role in the development of pulmonary hypertension induced by high blood flow, by inhibiting pulmonary procollagen synthesis and alleviating pulmonary artery collagen accumulation. PMID:24480725

  13. A High Phosphate Diet Lowers Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. BINDELS; SILVIA J. W. HILLEBRAND; JOHN M. P. WOKKE

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Plasma phosphate values are significantly lower in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). In this study, we increased plasma phosphate in SHR by a high dietary phosphate intake and followed the effects on blood pressure. Fifteen male WKY and 15 male SHR were housed from 4 weeks of age up to 26 weeks. At 4

  14. High Sodium Intake Increases Blood Pressure and Alters Renal Function in Intrauterine Growth-Retarded Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marijke W. Sanders; Gregorio E. Fazzi; Ger M. J. Janssen; Carlos E. Blanco; Jo G. R. De Mey

    2009-01-01

    A suboptimal fetal environment increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in the adult. We reported previously that intrauterine stress in response to reduced uteroplacental blood flow in the pregnant rat limits fetal growth and compromises renal development, leading to an altered renal function in the adult offspring. Here we tested the hypothesis that high dietary sodium intake in rats

  15. High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This report offers a patient-based approach to lowering blood cholesterol levels which seeks to identify individuals at high risk who will benefit from intensive intervention efforts. The goal is to establish criteria that define the candidates for medical intervention and to provide guidelines on how to detect, set goals for, treat, and monitor…

  16. Distinct molecular targets including SLO-1 and gap junctions are engaged across a continuum of ethanol concentrations in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dillon, James; Andrianakis, Ioannis; Mould, Richard; Ient, Ben; Liu, Wei; James, Christopher; O'Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy

    2013-10-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) interacts with diverse molecular effectors across a range of concentrations in the brain, eliciting intoxication through to sedation. Invertebrate models including the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans have been deployed for molecular genetic studies to inform on key components of these alcohol signaling pathways. C. elegans studies have typically employed external dosing with high (>250 mM) ethanol concentrations: A careful analysis of responses to low concentrations is lacking. Using the C. elegans pharyngeal system as a paradigm, we report a previously uncharacterized continuum of cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol from low (10 mM) to high (300 mM) concentrations. The complexity of these responses indicates that the pleiotropic action of ethanol observed in mammalian brain is conserved in this invertebrate model. We investigated two candidate ethanol effectors, the calcium-activated K(+) channel SLO-1 and gap junctions, and show that they contribute to, but are not sole determinants of, the low- and high-concentration effects, respectively. Notably, this study shows cellular and whole organismal behavioral responses to ethanol in C. elegans that directly equate to intoxicating through to supralethal blood alcohol concentrations in humans and provides an important benchmark for interpretation of paradigms that seek to inform on human alcohol use disorders. PMID:23882127

  17. Adding value to carbon dioxide from ethanol fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yixiang Xu; Loren Isom; Milford A. Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) from ethanol production facilities is increasing as more ethanol is produced for alternative transportation fuels. CO2 produced from ethanol fermentation processes is of high purity and is nearly a saturated gas. Such highly-concentrated source of CO2 is a potential candidate for capture and utilization by the CO2 industry. Quantity, quality and capture of CO2 from ethanol fermentations

  18. Four Cases of Abnormal Neuropsychological Findings in Children with High Blood Methylmercury Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Methylmercury (MeHg) easily crosses the blood–brain barrier and accumulates in the brain. Accumulated MeHg will cause neurological symptoms. We report four pediatric cases of neuropsychological findings with high blood MeHg concentrations. Case presentation Four children were admitted for follow-up study because their total mercury (THg) concentration in the blood was found to be high during a national survey. Case 1 was a 9-year-old female with a 16.6??g/? blood THg concentration in the survey. During admission, the blood THg, hair THg, and blood MeHg concentration(mercury indices) were 21.4??g/?, 7.2??g/g, and 20.1??g/?, respectively. In our neuropsychological examination, cognitive impairment and attention deficit were observed. Her diet included fish intake 2–3 times per week, and she had been diagnosed with epilepsy at 3 years of age. Case 2 was a 12-year-old male with blood THg of 15.4??g/? in the survey and the mercury indices were 12.7??g/?, 5.7??g/g, and 11.8??g/?, respectively, on admission. He was also observed to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Case 3 was a 10-year-old male child with blood THg of 17.4??g/? in the survey, and the mercury indices on admission were 21.6??g/?, 7.5??g/g and 21.5??g/?, respectively. In his case, mild attention deficit was observed. Case 4 was a 9-year-old male with blood THg of 20.6??g/? in the survey and the mercury indices were 18.9??g/?, 8.3??g/g, and 14.4??g/?, respectively, on admission. Mild attention difficulty was observed. Conclusion We suggest that fish consumption may be the main source of MeHg exposure, and that MeHg may have been the cause of the neuropsychological deficits in these cases. PMID:24472601

  19. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. PMID:24871566

  20. Production of the Anaerobic GMAX-L Yeast Using High-Throughput Mating and Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae With Identified Genes For Simultaneous Cellulosic Ethanol and Biodiesel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tailored GMAX-L yeast engineering for strains capable of universal ethanol production industrially with coproduction of an expressed lipase catalyst for coproduction of ethyl esters from corn oil and ethanol from the modern dry grind ethanol facility: Production of the stable baseline glucose, mann...

  1. High-carbohydrate diet: antinatriuretic and blood pressure response in normal men13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hani B Affarah; W Dallas Hall; Steven B Heymsfield; Michael Kutner; Elbert P Tuttle

    The hypothesis that high-carbohydrate feeding leads to increased insulin secretion, sodium retention, and elevation in blood pressure was examined in seven healthy men. A baseline 7-day balance study on low (13%) or high (52%)carbohydrate was followed by a 2-wk balance on the alternate diet and a 1-wkbalance on the baseline diet Results indicated that changing carbohydrate intake caused a rapid

  2. High-yield nanosized (Si)AlPO-41 using ethanol polarity equalization and co-templating synthesis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majano, Gerardo; Raltchev, Kolio; Vicente, Aurelie; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-03-01

    Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting methods, is presented.Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting methods, is presented. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07272c

  3. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. METHODS Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. RESULTS In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (?5.93 ± 6.25 vs. ?1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (?6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (?7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. CONCLUSION High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control.

  4. Short-term effects of nitrate-rich green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for a beneficial effect of dietary nitrate, through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, on measures of cardiovascular function in healthy individuals is accumulating. It is less clear whether increased dietary nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables would have similar beneficial vascular effects in those at increased risk of developing hypertension. Our aim was to assess the effects of short-term regular consumption of increased nitrate from green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure. Thirty-eight men and women ages 30-70 years with systolic blood pressure 120 to 139 mm Hg were recruited to a randomized controlled crossover trial. The effects of a 7-day high-nitrate diet intervention (increased nitrate intake by at least 300 mg/day from green leafy vegetables) were compared to a 7-day low-nitrate diet intervention. Outcome measures included pre- and postintervention salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations; ambulatory, home, and office blood pressure; augmentation index; and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. The high-nitrate diet intervention resulted in at least a fourfold increase in salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite (P<0.001). Ambulatory, home, and office blood pressure and arterial stiffness were not different between the high-nitrate diet and the low-nitrate diet. Increasing dietary nitrate intake in those with high-normal blood pressure and at increased risk of hypertension may not be an effective short-term strategy to lower blood pressure. PMID:25261227

  5. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  6. Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hospital Is there a risk for low blood sugar? Low blood sugar (defined as a blood sugar ... after your hospital stay. What are the blood sugar targets in the hospital? Health care providers want ...

  7. Real-time measurement of human blood flow with high temporal and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menn, Ingolf; Wild, Walter; Aschemann, Harald

    2007-02-01

    The examination of human microcirculation allows for monitoring important body conditions. To analyze the human microcirculation, the measurement of the blood flow in capillaries is a efficient method. This requires a high spatial resolution in the first instance. The cutaneous capillary microscopy is a noninvasive optical method, which makes the capillary shape visible in the microcirculation area of interest. A convenient area for observation is the nail fold of the fingers. The erythrocyte columns in these capillaries can be distinguished from their surroundings and from the the blood plasma. This paper presents a system, that determines the flow rate of the erythrocytes in the capillary at the nail fold according to the spatial filter principle. This measuring principle represents an interesting and powerful approach for the determination of the blood flow rate in the capillaries. In the practical use, the unavoidable finger movements of the patients inducing problems in the capillary measurements. This problem is solved by implementing a new fast movement correction. To this end the finger movements will computed and therewith the position of the points for measuring the erythrocyte velocity is corrected. This new system detects the path of a capillary and is able to issue velocity values of blood in the capillaries over a long time and with high temporal resolution.

  8. High-throughput rare cell separation from blood samples using steric hindrance and inertial microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shaofei; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yaolei; Wang, Jian-Chun; Xu, Juan; Li, Tianbao; Pang, Long; Wang, Jinyi

    2014-07-21

    The presence and quantity of rare cells in the bloodstream of cancer patients provide a potentially accessible source for the early detection of invasive cancer and for monitoring the treatment of advanced diseases. The separation of rare cells from peripheral blood, as a "virtual and real-time liquid biopsy", is expected to replace conventional tissue biopsies of metastatic tumors for therapy guidance. However, technical obstacles, similar to looking for a needle in a haystack, have hindered the broad clinical utility of this method. In this study, we developed a multistage microfluidic device for continuous label-free separation and enrichment of rare cells from blood samples based on cell size and deformability. We successfully separated tumor cells (MCF-7 and HeLa cells) and leukemic (K562) cells spiked in diluted whole blood using a unique complementary combination of inertial microfluidics and steric hindrance in a microfluidic system. The processing parameters of the inertial focusing and steric hindrance regions were optimized to achieve high-throughput and high-efficiency separation, significant advantages compared with existing rare cell isolation technologies. The results from experiments with rare cells spiked in 1% hematocrit blood indicated >90% cell recovery at a throughput of 2.24 × 10(7) cells min(-1). The enrichment of rare cells was >2.02 × 10(5)-fold. Thus, this microfluidic system driven by purely hydrodynamic forces has practical potential to be applied either alone or as a sample preparation platform for fundamental studies and clinical applications. PMID:24862501

  9. Hydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel enginesHydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel engines Anil Singh Bika, Luke Franklin, Prof. David B. Kittelson

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Hydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel enginesHydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) · A good diesel fuel has a low ignition delay period and hence a high CN · Ethanol has

  10. Ethanol production method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  11. High-throughput automated molecular biology platform for production of fuel ethanol yeast capable of expressing high-value heterologous proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of fuel ethanol currently produced in the United States is made from corn starch. Projections indicate that corn supplies will not be able to meet the increasing demand for biofuels. Lignocellulosic biomass, an abundant and renewable carbon source, has the potential to supplement star...

  12. Fetal Exposure to Moderate Ethanol Doses: Heightened Operant Responsiveness elicited by Ethanol-Related Reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    March, Samanta M.; Abate, Paula; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to moderate ethanol doses during late gestation modifies postnatal ethanol palatability and ingestion. The use of Pavlovian associative procedures, has indicated that these prenatal experiences broaden the range of ethanol doses capable of supporting appetitive conditioning. Recently, a novel operant technique aimed at analyzing neonatal predisposition to gain access to ethanol has been developed. Experiment 1 tested the operant conditioning technique for developing rats described by Arias et al. (2007) and Bordner et al. (2008). In Experiment 2 we analyzed changes in the disposition to gain access to ethanol as a result of moderate prenatal exposure to the drug. Methods In Experiment 1 newborn pups were intraorally cannulated and placed in a supine position that allowed access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Paired pups received an intraoral administration of a given reinforcer (milk or quinine) contingent upon physical contact with the sensor. Yoked controls received similar reinforcers only when Paired pups activated the circuit. In Experiment 2, natural reinforcers (water or milk) as well as ethanol (3% or 6 % v/v) or an ethanol-related reinforcer (sucrose compounded with quinine) were tested. In this Experiment pups had been exposed to water or ethanol (1 or 2 g/kg) during gestational days 17–20. Results Experiment 1 confirmed previous results showing that 1-day-old pups rapidly learn an operant task to gain access to milk, but not to gain access to a bitter tastant. Experiment 2 showed that water and milk were highly reinforcing across prenatal treatments. Furthermore, general activity during training was not affected by prenatal exposure to ethanol. Most importantly, prenatal ethanol exposure facilitated conditioning when the reinforcer was 3% v/v ethanol or a psychophysical equivalent of ethanol’s gustatory properties (sucrose-quinine). Conclusions The present results suggest that late prenatal experience with ethanol changes the predisposition of the newborn to gain access to ethanol-related stimuli. In conjunction with prior literature, this study emphasizes the fact that intrauterine experience with ethanol not only augments ethanol’s palatability and ingestion, but also facilitates the acquisition of response-stimulus associations where the drug acts as an intraoral reinforcer. PMID:19719792

  13. Metabolic Profiling of Human Blood by High Resolution Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry (IM-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Prabha; Schultz, Albert J.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization source (ESI-IM-MS) was evaluated as an analytical method for rapid analysis of complex biological samples such as human blood metabolome was investigated. The hybrid instrument (IM-MS) provided an average ion mobility resolving power of ~90 and a mass resolution of ~1500 (at m/z 100). A few µL of whole blood was extracted with methanol, centrifuged and infused into the IM-MS via an electrospray ionization source. Upon IM-MS profiling of the human blood metabolome approximately 1,100 metabolite ions were detected and 300 isomeric metabolites separated in short analyses time (30 minutes). Estimated concentration of the metabolites ranged from the low micromolar to the low nanomolar level. Various classes of metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, purines and pyrimidines etc) were found to form characteristic mobility-mass correlation curves (MMCC) that aided in metabolite identification. Peaks corresponding to various sterol derivatives, estrogen derivatives, phosphocholines, prostaglandins, and cholesterol derivatives detected in the blood extract were found to occupy characteristic two dimensional IM-MS space. Low abundance metabolite peaks that can be lost in MS random noise were resolved from noise peaks by differentiation in mobility space. In addition, the peak capacity of MS increased six fold by coupling IMS prior to MS analysis. PMID:21113320

  14. High levels of blood lead in griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from Cazorla Natural Park (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fernandez, A J; Martinez-Lopez, E; Romero, D; Maria-Mojica, P; Godino, A; Jimenez, P

    2005-08-01

    The blood lead of 23 griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) trapped in 2003 was analyzed in order to evaluate exposure to lead in the vulture population of Cazorla Natural Park (in southern Spain). In 2001 the use of leaded gasoline in vehicles was banned in the European Union; however, lead ammunition is still used in Spain in big-game hunting for red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, and wild boar, which are ingested by vultures from September to March. The mean concentration of lead in blood was 43.07 +/- 31.96 microg/dL with a range of 17.39-144.80 microg/dL. Only two vultures had lead levels below 20 microg/dL, and two others had blood lead concentrations close to 150 microg/dL. In view of the results, we think the population of vultures from Cazorla Natural Park is suffering subclinical exposure to lead, with some individuals exposed to high toxicity risk. We concluded that ingestion of lead in the metallic form alone is sufficient to produce these blood lead concentrations, and we recommend the prohibition of lead ammunition for big-game hunting in order to preserve the vulture population. PMID:16007647

  15. Determination of mitoxantrone in mouse whole blood and different tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina M. Rentsch; Reto A. Schwendener; Edgar Hänseler

    1996-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the specific determination of mitoxantrone (MTO) in whole blood and different tissues of mice (liver, heart, spleen, kidneys). MTO was extracted into dichloromethane with ametantrone (AMT) as internal standard. The different tissues were homogenised in citrate buffer (pH 3.0) containing 20% ascorbic acid. Separation of MTO and AMT was carried out

  16. Determination of Riboflavin and Flavocoenzymes in Human Blood Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janos Zempleni

    1995-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determining ribofiavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, and flavin mononucleotide in human blood plasma is presented. Flavocoenzymes are determined as flavin mononucleotide after acid hydrolysis of flavin adenine dinucleotide. Metabolites are separated by reversed-phase column chromatography and quantified by their native fluorescence. Criteria of quality are (riboflavin\\/flavocoenzymes): coefficients of variation 2.8\\/ 4.6% (intra-assay) and 2.8\\/4.4% (inter-assay);

  17. High-purity neutrophil isolation from human peripheral blood and saliva for transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Lakschevitz, Flavia S; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The oral cavity is a source of readily available neutrophils and can be used as a model to better understand the role of neutrophils in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, periodontitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In this chapter we describe reproducible methods to obtain highly purified neutrophil samples from blood and saliva in humans to enable cell analysis using whole-genome microarrays. PMID:24504969

  18. Relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and high blood pressure by community pharmacists in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastián R. Martínez Pérez; Pedro D. Armando; Andrea C. Molina Guerra; Mercé Martí Pallarés; Fernando Martínez Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the influence that different risk factors (age, gender, obesity, smoking, inactivity,\\u000a diabetes mellitus and previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension) have on arterial pressure, and to determine the prevalence\\u000a of patients that have high blood pressure and hypertension but have not received drug-treatment for arterial hypertension.\\u000a Setting 42 Spanish community pharmacies. Method

  19. High-contrast real-time optoacoustic imaging of subcutaneous blood vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fournelle; H.-J. Welsch; H. Fonfara; H. Hewener; C. Günther; W. Bost; R. Lemor

    \\u000a In optoacoustic imaging, acoustical signals are generated when short light pulses are absorbed in tissue. Thus, the higher\\u000a the absorption coefficient of the investigated tissue is, the stronger the optoacoustic signals will be. The absorption of\\u000a blood in the NIR is several orders of magnitude higher than of other tissue types, so that it can be imaged with very high

  20. High-Normal Blood Pressure Is Associated With Poor Cognitive Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Knecht; Heike Wersching; Hubertus Lohmann; Maximilian Bruchmann; Thomas Duning; Rainer Dziewas; Klaus Berger; E. Bernd Ringelstein

    2009-01-01

    While the relation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and vascular events is linear down to the high-normal range, the relation between SBP and cognition is less clear. We cross-sectionally assessed the relation between SBP and cognition in a cohort extending from mid- to late-life. From a total of 2200 community-dwelling individuals we recruited 377 aged 44 to 82 years (median:

  1. High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin An; Hrebesh M. Subhush; David J. Wilson; Ruikang K. Wang

    2010-01-01

    We present high-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography (OMAG) technology. Based on spatial frequency analysis, OMAG is capable of visualizing the vascular perfusion map down to capillary-level resolution. An OMAG system operating at 840 nm is used with an A-scan rate of 27,000 Hz, axial resolution of 8 mum, and sensitivity of 98 dB.

  2. New Study Suggests Link Between Chronic Estrogen Exposure and High Blood Pressure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2011-05-26

    Press release on a new study that links chronic estrogen exposure to high blood pressure. This study, "Chronic Estradiol-17B Exposure Increases Superoxide Production in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) and Causes Hypertension: Reversal by Resveratrol," was conducted by P.S. MohanKumarm, Ph.D., and team from Michigan State University. The study is published in the June 2011 issue of American Journal of Physiology Â? Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

  3. Intracellular sodium sensing: SIK1 network, hormone action and high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Jaitovich, Ariel; Bertorello, Alejandro M

    2010-12-01

    Sodium is the main determinant of body fluid distribution. Sodium accumulation causes water retention and, often, high blood pressure. At the cellular level, the concentration and active transport of sodium is handled by the enzyme Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, whose appearance enabled evolving primitive cells to cope with osmotic stress and contributed to the complexity of mammalian organisms. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is a platform at the hub of many cellular signaling pathways related to sensing intracellular sodium and dealing with its detrimental excess. One of these pathways relies on an intracellular sodium-sensor network with the salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) at its core. When intracellular sodium levels rise, and after the activation of calcium-related signals, this network activates the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and expel the excess of sodium from the cytosol. The SIK1 network also mediates sodium-independent signals that modulate the activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, like dopamine and angiotensin, which are relevant per se in the development of high blood pressure. Animal models of high blood pressure, with identified mutations in components of multiple pathways, also have alterations in the SIK1 network. The introduction of some of these mutants into normal cells causes changes in SIK1 activity as well. Some cellular processes related to the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin effects on the kidney and other tissues, also appear to involve the SIK1. Therefore, it is likely that this protein, by modulating active sodium transport and numerous hormonal responses, represents a "crossroad" in the development and adaptation to high blood pressure and associated diseases. PMID:20347966

  4. High-yield blood plasma separation by modulating inertial migration in a contraction-expansion array microchannel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Lee; S. Choi; H.-J. Kim; H. K. Lim; J.-H. Kim; N. Huh; J.-K. Park

    2011-01-01

    We report contraction–expansion array (CEA) microchannels for high-yield blood plasma separation utilizing differential inertial migration. An abrupt change of the cross-sectional area curves fluid streams and accelerates the flow velocity, which induces Dean flow. Utilizing the balance between inertial lift force and Dean drag force, we were able to separate blood plasma from human whole blood with a level of

  5. Lowering serum cholesterol level by feeding a 40% ethanol-eluted fraction from HP20 resin treated with hot water extract of adzuki beans ( Vigna angularis) to rats fed a high-fat cholesterol diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiro Itoh; Yukio Furuichi

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveHot water extract of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) was subjected to HP-20 resin chromatography. The fraction eluted from the column using 40% ethanol (EtEx.40) was investigated by its effect on serum lipids in rats fed a high-fat cholesterol and\\/or cholesterol-free high-fat diet.

  6. Aversive Effects of Ethanol in Adolescent vs. Adult Rats: potential causes and implication for future drinking

    PubMed Central

    Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L.; DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra; Foscue, Ethan; Glowacz, Susan; Haseeb, Naadeyah; Wang, Nancy; Zhou, Cathy; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Many people experiment with alcohol and other drugs of abuse during their teenage years. Epidemiological evidence suggests that younger initiates into drug taking are more likely to develop problematic drug seeking behavior, including binge and other high-intake behaviors. The level of drug intake for any individual depends on the balance of rewarding and aversive effects of the drug in that individual. Multiple rodent studies have demonstrated that aversive effects of drugs of abuse are reduced in adolescent compared to adult animals. In the present study we addressed two key questions: First, do reduced aversive effects of ethanol in younger rats correlate with increased ethanol consumption? Second, are the reduced aversive effects in adolescents attributable to reduced sensitivity to ethanol's physiological effects? Methods Adolescent and adult rats were tested for ethanol conditioned taste aversion followed by a voluntary drinking period, including post-deprivation consumption. Multivariate regression was used to assess correlations. In separate experiments, adolescent and adult rats were tested for their sensitivity to the hypothermic and sedative effects of ethanol, and for blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). Results We observed that in adolescent rats but not adults, taste aversion was inversely correlated with post-deprivation consumption. Adolescents also exhibited a greater increase in consumption after deprivation than adults. Furthermore, the age difference in ethanol conditioned taste aversion was not attributable to differences in hypothermia, sedation, or BECs. Conclusions These results suggest that during adolescence, individuals that are insensitive to aversive effects are most likely to develop problem drinking behaviors. These results underscore the importance of the interaction between developmental stage and individual variation in sensitivity to alcohol. PMID:20860614

  7. A pharmacokinetic study of ethyl glucuronide in blood and urine: applications to forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Bernard, Jean Paul; Karinen, Ritva; Johnsen, Lene; Helander, Anders; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2007-10-25

    This pharmacokinetic study investigated the kinetics of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in blood and urine during the whole time course of absorption and elimination. There are few previous studies on the kinetics of EtG in blood, and we wanted to evaluate whether such knowledge could yield valuable information regarding the time of ethanol ingestion in forensic cases, such as, for instance, drunk driving. Ten male volunteers consumed ethanol at a fixed dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight in a fasted state. Blood samples were collected for 14 h and urine samples were collected for 45-50 h after the start of drinking. EtG reached its maximum concentration (C(max)) in blood after a median of 4 h (range 3.5-5), a median of 3 h (range 2-4.5) after C(max) for ethanol. The ethanol-to-EtG ratios in blood (ethanol in g/L, EtG in mg/L) were >1 only for the first median 3.5 h (range 2.5-3.5) after drinking. EtG elimination occurred with a median half-life of 2.2 h (range 1.7-3.1 h), and the renal clearance was 8.32 L/h (median, range 5.25-20.86). The concentrations of EtG were always much higher in urine than in blood. The total amount of EtG excreted in the urine was median 30 mg (range 21.5-39.7), representing 0.017% (median, range 0.013-0.022) of the ethanol given, on a molar basis. The information from the present study may be a valuable supplement to determine the time of ethanol ingestion. For this purpose, two subsequent increasing EtG values and a high ethanol-to-EtG ratio in blood would support information of recent drinking. PMID:17306943

  8. High blood cadmium levels are not associated with consumption of traditional food among the Inuit of Nunavik

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia)] [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia); Turcotte, F.; Lapointe, C. [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada)] [and others] [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada); and others

    1997-09-01

    High levels of cadmium in the liver and kidneys of caribous and sea mammals of the Canadian Arctic have led to recommendations to remove such offal from the traditional diet. Blood cadmium levels have been found to be very high in samples of Inuit volunteers, hence the hypothesis that the Inuit might be exposed to cadmium through their diet. This survey of a population-based random sample of Nunavik residents (n = 518) confirms that blood cadmium of Inuit is indeed very high by comparison to published reports. Blood cadmium levels are closely associated with the current smoking status and are independent of dietary patterns among nonsmokers. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids concentrations have been used to assess the reliability of the dietary information collected by questionnaires and to test for any association of blood cadmium with the consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are not related to the reported consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are very high among smokers and are associated with levels of exposure to tobacco. Among nonsmoking Inuit, blood cadmium levels are comparable with those reported in nonsmokers elsewhere in the world. In reference to international standards, blood cadmium concentrations are high enough among the Inuit to warrant energetic public health interventions. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Laboratorytestingfor recent alcohol consumption:comparisonof ethanol, methanol, and 5-hydroxytryptophol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDERS HELANDER; OLOF BECK; A. WAYNE

    The ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3- acetic acid (5HTOIJSHIAA) in urine was compared with concentrations of ethanol and methanol as a way to monitor recent alcohol consumption. During detoxification of alco- hol-dependent subjects, ethanol persisted longer in urine than in breath or plasma. Blood and urinary methanol remained increased for 2-6 h after blood ethanol had returned to background concentrations,

  10. Inhalation delivery of proteins from ethanol suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Seon; Murthy, G. G. Krishna; Edwards, David A.; Langer, Robert; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    2001-01-01

    To circumvent inherent problems associated with pulmonary administration of aqueous-solution and dry-powder protein drugs, inhalation delivery of proteins from their suspensions in absolute ethanol was explored both in vitro and in vivo. Protein suspensions in ethanol of up to 9% (wt/vol) were readily aerosolized with a commercial compressor nebulizer. Experiments with enzymic proteins revealed that nebulization caused no detectable loss of catalytic activity; furthermore, enzyme suspensions in anhydrous ethanol retained their full catalytic activity for at least 3 weeks at room temperature. With the use of Zn2+-insulin, conditions were elaborated that produced submicron protein particles in ethanol suspensions. The latter (insulin/EtOH) afforded respirable-size aerosol particles after nebulization. A 40-min exposure of laboratory rats to 10 mg/ml insulin/EtOH aerosols resulted in a 2-fold drop in the blood glucose level and a marked rise in the serum insulin level. The bioavailability based on estimated deposited lung dose of insulin delivered by inhalation of ethanol suspension aerosols was 33% (relative to an equivalent s.c. injection), i.e., comparable to those observed in rats after inhalation administration of dry powder and aqueous solutions of insulin. Inhalation of ethanol in a relevant amount/time frame resulted in no detectable acute toxic effects on rat lungs or airways, as reflected by the absence of statistically significant inflammatory or allergic responses, damage to the alveolar/capillary barrier, and lysed and/or damaged cells. PMID:11562495

  11. [Lacidipine efficacy and safety for high blood pressure treatment in pediatric oncohematology].

    PubMed

    Bernard, E; Mialou, V; Dony, A; Garnier, N; Renard, C; Bleyzac, N

    2014-10-01

    In adults, lacidipine seems to have no CYP3A4-inhibiting action. This particular characteristic makes it advantageous when combined with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, such as cyclosporine. Until now, no data on the efficacy or safety of this calcium antagonist have been available in children. Thirty-nine hypertensive children (age: 0.13-14 years) receiving lacidipine in oncohematology for a mean of 75 days were included in this retrospective study. The causes of high blood pressure were renal tumor (n=7), catecholamine-secreting tumor (n=4), corticoid treatment (n=5), and cyclosporine treatment (n=23). An initial dosage of 0.05 mg/kg/day was sufficient for 41% of the patients. The remaining patients needed to increase the dosage, by steps of 0.03 mg/kg/day, until reaching an average effective dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day. Lacidipine significantly decreased blood pressure by 30 (±14) mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 26 (±13) mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. A medication plan with twice-daily administration was not significantly more effective than a single administration per day. Lacidipine was well tolerated, and no toxicity-related withdrawal of treatment occurred. For 22 patients treated with both cyclosporine and lacidipine, renal function was not disturbed over time, suggesting its preservation by lacidipine. No significant increase in cyclosporine blood concentration was detected. Lacidipine seems to be an effective calcium antagonist in pediatric oncohematology, is well tolerated, has a kidney-protector effect and no drug interaction when combined with cyclosporine. PMID:25125033

  12. Summary of the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    This is a special report by The Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents to inform clinicians on recent scientific evidence related to blood pressure in children and to offer recommendations for evaluation and treatment of hypertension in these patients.

  13. Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood triglycerides reflect key metabolic processes including sensitivity to insulin. Blood lipoprotein and lipid concentrations are heritable. To date, the identification o...

  14. Ethacrynic Acid EFFECTS ON THE COCHLEAR POTENTIALS IN NORMAL AND HIGH BLOOD OXYGEN

    PubMed Central

    Prazma, Jiri; Pecorak, John B.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of ethacrynic acid (EA) at different blood O2 saturations on cochlear potentials of guinea pigs was investigated. All 18 young healthy guinea pigs received 50 mg/kg/h of EA intravenously and were divided into three groups: first group, normal (90.00±6.30-86.17±4.83 mm Hg); second group, lower Po2 (78.00±4.74-70.00±4.42 mm Hg); and third group, high Po2 (174.40±13.41-179.00±26.15 mm Hg). The partial pressure of oxygen (Po2), the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and the pH of the blood were measured before EA administration and at the end of the experiment (3 h later) by drawing blood samples from the contralateral carotid artery. Cochlear potentials—endocochlear potential (EP), cochlear microphonics (CM), and action potentials (AP)—were recorded by standard methods from the first turn of the cochlea. Experimental data seem to indicate that elevation of the Po2 to 174-179 mm Hg during relatively high doses of EA treatment prevents the declines in cochlear potentials which were observed in the first and second groups (normal and lower Po2), and preserves active ion transport which is responsible for the generation of cochlear potentials. These data suggest a means by which to reduce the ototoxic effect of EA and possibly indicates a method of treatment for hearing loss which developed after the administration of EA. PMID:235563

  15. Determination of carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, glycerol, ethanol, and 5-HMF in beer by high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-refractive index double detection.

    PubMed

    Castellari, M; Sartini, E; Spinabelli, U; Riponi, C; Galassi, S

    2001-06-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method is proposed for the simultaneous separation of main carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, ethanol, glycerol, and 5-HMF in beer by direct injection. A column packed with a sulfonated divinyl benzene-styrene copolymer and an isocratic elution with 0.0045N sulfuric acid and acetonitrile (6%, v/v) are employed. UV and refractive index detectors connected in series are also used to reduce the matrix interference of phenolic compounds. In conditions described, nine compounds are quantitated in a single chromatographic run without any pretreatment except for sample dilution and filtration before injection. Precision, accuracy, linearity of response, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation are also evaluated for each compound. Satisfactory results are obtained to justify the application of this method to all phases of beer production for process and quality control. PMID:11396687

  16. Detailed Kinetic Modelling of Hydrogen Production from Ethanol Reforming for Use in Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Vourliotakis; G. Skevis; M. A. Founti

    Ethanol is particularly attractive as an alternative fuel for both automotive and stationary applications. Due to its high hydrogen content, ethanol can also be utilized for hydrogen production in SOFC systems. The present study assesses the potential of non-catalytic ethanol reforming process using a detailed kinetic modelling approach. A recently developed comprehensive detailed mechanism for ethanol oxidation, pyrolysis and combustion

  17. Identification of genes required for growth under ethanol stress using transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takahashi; H. Shimoi; K. Ito

    2001-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits high ethanol tolerance compared with other microorganisms. The mechanism of ethanol tolerance in yeast is thought to be regulated by many genes. To identify some of these genes, we screened for ethanol-sensitive S. cerevisiae strains among a collection of mutants obtained using transposon mutagenesis. Five ethanol-sensitive (ets) mutants were isolated from approximately 7000 mutants created

  18. Role of acetaldehyde in the actions of ethanol on the brain — A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter A. Hunt

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, acetaldehyde has been postulated to mediate various actions of ethanol on the brain. Experiments have studied ethanol consumption after acetaldehyde infusions into the brain, in rodents with high or low activities of hepatic and brain ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, and after treatment with drugs that alter the metabolism of acetaldehyde after ethanol ingestion. Evidence that acetaldehyde is

  19. Role of nitric oxide and prostanoids in the regulation of leg blood flow and blood pressure in humans with essential hypertension: effect of high-intensity aerobic training

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Michael; Jensen, Lasse G; Thaning, Pia; Hellsten, Ylva; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in the regulation of leg blood flow and systemic blood pressure before and after 8 weeks of aerobic high-intensity training in individuals with essential hypertension (n= 10) and matched healthy control subjects (n= 11). Hypertensive subjects were found to have a lower (P < 0.05) blood flow to the exercising leg than normotensive subjects (30 W: 2.92 ± 0.16 vs. 3.39 ± 0.37 l min?1). Despite the lower exercise hyperaemia, pharmacological inhibition of the NO and prostanoid systems reduced leg blood flow to a similar extent during exercise in the two groups and vascular relaxation to the NO-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine was also similar between groups. High-intensity aerobic training lowered (P < 0.05) resting systolic (?9 mmHg) and diastolic (?12 mmHg) blood pressure in subjects with essential hypertension, but this effect of training was abolished when the NO and prostanoid systems were inhibited. Skeletal muscle vascular endothelial NO synthase uncoupling, expression and phosphorylation status were similar in the two groups before and after training. These data demonstrate that a reduction in exercise hyperaemia in hypertensive subjects is not associated with a reduced capacity of the NO and prostanoid systems to induce vasodilatation or with altered acetylcholine-induced response. However, our data suggest that the observed reduction in blood pressure is related to a training-induced change in the tonic effect of NO and/or prostanoids on vascular tone. PMID:22271868

  20. "High in omega-3 fatty acids" bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Legarra, Sheila; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2011-08-01

    A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed. The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6/?-3 ratio from 17.3 to 1.9, and also the Atherogenic Index and Thrombogenic Index (0.38-0.31 and 1.03-0.54, respectively). Modified sausages with BHA and Melissa extract showed significantly lower peroxides value (2.62 and 6.11 meq O?/kg) and thiobarbituric acid value (0.26 and 0.27 mg malondialdehyde/kg) and higher antioxidant capacity (hydrophilic fraction ABTS: 0.45 and 0.74 meq Trolox/g product; lipofilic fraction ABTS: 0.44 and 0.37 meq Trolox/g product) than those without these ingredients (16.49 meq O?/kg, 2.08 mg malondialdehyde /kg, 0.26 and 0.27 meq Trolox/g product, respectively). Sensorial tests showed that acceptability of the new formulations was similar to control products. PMID:21439735

  1. Influence of Cerebral Blood Flow on Central Sleep Apnea at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Keith R.; Lucas, Samuel J.E.; Shepherd, Kelly; Dawson, Andrew; Swart, Marianne; Thomas, Kate N.; Lucas, Rebekah A.I.; Donnelly, Joseph; Peebles, Karen C.; Basnyat, Rishi; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To further our understanding of central sleep apnea (CSA) at high altitude during acclimatization, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically altering cerebral blood flow (CBF) would alter the severity of CSA at high altitude. Design: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled single-blind study. Setting: A field study at 5,050 m in Nepal. Patients or Participants: We studied 12 normal volunteers. Interventions: Between days 5 to10 at high altitude, CBF velocity (CBFv) was increased by intravenous (IV) acetazolamide (10 mg/kg) and reduced by oral indomethacin (100 mg). Measurements and Results: Arterial blood gases, hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and CBFv and its reactivity to carbon dioxide were measured awake. Overnight polysomnography was performed. The central apnea-hypopnea index was elevated following administration of indomethacin (89.2 ± 43.7 to 112.5 ± 32.9 events/h; mean ± standard deviation; P < 0.05) and was reduced following IV acetazolamide (89.2 ± 43.7 to 47.1 ± 48.1 events/h; P < 0.001). Intravenous acetazolamide elevated CBFv at high altitude by 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22-34%) but did not affect ventilatory responses. The elevation in CBFv was partly mediated via a selective rise in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (28 ± 4 to 31 ± 3 mm Hg) and an associated fall in pH (P < 0.01). Oral indomethacin reduced CBFv by 23% (95% CI: 16-30%), blunted CBFv reactivity, and increased the hypercapnic ventilatory response by 66% (95% CI: 30-102%) but had no effect on PaCO2 or pH. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an important role for cerebral blood flow regulation in the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea at high altitude. Citation: Burgess KR, Lucas SJE, Shepherd K, Dawson A, Swart M, Thomas KN, Lucas RAI, Donnelly J, Peebles KC, Basnyat R, Ainslie PN. Influence of cerebral blood flow on central sleep apnea at high altitude. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1679-1687. PMID:25197804

  2. Preferential Ethanol Consumption in Drosophila Models Features of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Devineni, Anita V.; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Summary Alcohol addiction is a common affliction with a strong genetic component [1]. Although mammalian studies have provided significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol consumption [2], other organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster are better suited for unbiased, forward genetic approaches to identify novel genes. Behavioral responses to ethanol, such as hyperactivity, sedation, and tolerance, are conserved between flies and mammals [3, 4], as are the underlying molecular pathways [5–9]. However, few studies have investigated ethanol self-administration in flies [10]. Here we characterize ethanol consumption and preference in Drosophila. Flies prefer to consume ethanol-containing food over regular food, and this preference increases over time. Flies are attracted to the smell of ethanol, which partially mediates ethanol preference, but are averse to its taste. Preference for consuming ethanol is not entirely explained by attraction to either its sensory or caloric properties. We demonstrate that flies can exhibit features of alcohol addiction. First, flies self-administer ethanol to pharmacologically relevant concentrations. Second, flies will overcome an aversive stimulus in order to consume ethanol. Third, flies rapidly return to high levels of ethanol consumption after a period of imposed abstinence. Thus, Drosophila ethanol preference provides a new model for studying aspects of addiction. PMID:20005106

  3. Simultaneous high-resolution pH and spectrophotometric recordings of oxygen binding in blood microvolumes.

    PubMed

    Oellermann, Michael; Pörtner, Hans-O; Mark, Felix C

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen equilibrium curves have been widely used to understand oxygen transport in numerous organisms. A major challenge has been to monitor oxygen binding characteristics and concomitant pH changes as they occur in vivo, in limited sample volumes. Here we report a technique allowing highly resolved and simultaneous monitoring of pH and blood pigment saturation in minute blood volumes. We equipped a gas diffusion chamber with a broad-range fibre-optic spectrophotometer and a micro-pH optode and recorded changes of pigment oxygenation along oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and pH gradients to test the setup. Oxygen binding parameters derived from measurements in only 15 ?l of haemolymph from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris showed low instrumental error (0.93%) and good agreement with published data. Broad-range spectra, each resolving 2048 data points, provided detailed insight into the complex absorbance characteristics of diverse blood types. After consideration of photobleaching and intrinsic fluorescence, pH optodes yielded accurate recordings and resolved a sigmoidal shift of 0.03 pH units in response to changing PO2 from 0 to 21 kPa. Highly resolved continuous recordings along pH gradients conformed to stepwise measurements at low rates of pH changes. In this study we showed that a diffusion chamber upgraded with a broad-range spectrophotometer and an optical pH sensor accurately characterizes oxygen binding with minimal sample consumption and manipulation. We conclude that the modified diffusion chamber is highly suitable for experimental biologists who demand high flexibility, detailed insight into oxygen binding as well as experimental and biological accuracy combined in a single setup. PMID:24436387

  4. NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

  5. A novel anticoagulant protein with high affinity to blood coagulation factor Va from Tegillarca granosa.

    PubMed

    Jung, Won-Kyo; Jo, Hee-Yeon; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sae-Gwang; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2007-09-30

    A novel inhibitory protein against blood coagulation factor Va (FVa) was purified from muscle protein of granulated ark (Tegillarca granosa, order Arcoida, marine bivalvia) by consecutive FPLC method using anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography. In the results of ESIQTOF tandem mass analysis and database research, it was revealed that the purified T. granosa anticoagulant protein (TGAP) has 7.7 kDa of molecular mass and its partial sequence, HTHLQRAPHPNALGYHGK, has a high identity (64%) with serine/threonine kinase derived from Rhodopirellula baltica (order Planctomycetales, marine bacteria). TGAP could potently prolong thrombin time (TT), corresponding to inhibition of thrombin (FIIa) formation. Specific factor inhibitory assay showed that TGAP inhibits FVa among the major components of prothrombinase complex. In vitro assay for direct-binding affinity using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometer indicated that TGAP could be directly bound with FVa. In addition, the binding affinity of FVa to FII was decreased by addition of TGAP in dose-dependant manner (IC50 value = 77.9 nM). These results illustrated that TGAP might interact with a heavy chain of FVa (FVa(H)) bound to FII in prothrombin complex. The present study elucidated that non-cytotoxic T. granosa anticoagulant protein (TGAP) bound to FVa can prolong blood coagulation time by inhibiting conversion of FII to FIIa in blood coagulation cascade. In addition, TGAP did not significantly (P < 0.05) show fibrinolytic activity and cytotoxicity on venous endothelial cell line (ECV 304). PMID:17927919

  6. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO) high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Lum-Kwong, Margaret Moy; Perkins, Nancy; Von Sychowski, Shirley; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Kiss, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal of improving the management of this chronic health condition by primary care providers and patients in the community. Methods This study will test the effect of a systems change on the management of high blood pressure in real world practice in primary care in Ontario, Canada. The systems change intervention involves an interprofessional educational program bringing together physicians, nurses and pharmacists with tools for both providers and patients to facilitate blood pressure management. Each of two waves of subjects were enrolled over a 6 month period with the initial enrollment between waves separated by 9 months. Blood pressure will be measured with the BpTru ® automated blood pressure device. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, a before and after analysis within all subjects will compare blood pressure at baseline to annual measurements for the three year study. To assess whether the intervention has an impact on blood pressure control independent of community trends, a betwen group comparison of baseline blood pressures in the delayed wave will be made with the immediate wave during the same time period, so that the immediate wave has experienced the intervention for at least 9 months. The total enrollment goal is 5,000 subjects. The practice locations include 10 Family Health Teams (FHTs) and 1 Community Health Centre (CHC) and approximately 49 primary care physicians, 15 nurse practitioners, 37 registered nurses and over 150 community pharmacists across the 11 communities throughout the province of Ontario. The 11 primary care sites will be divided into immediate and delayed groups based on geography and the use of an electronic versus a traditional chart patient record. Discussion Initial consideration was given to randomizing the groups, however, for a number of reasons, this was deemed to not be possible. In order to ensure that the sites in the immediate intervention and delayed intervention groups are not different from each other, the sites will be assigned to the intervention groups manually to ensure a distribution of the variables as evenly as possible. Given that HSFO approached this particular group of health care providers to participate in a program relating to hypertension, this may have heightened their awareness of the issue and affected their management of patients with hypertension. Thus, data will be collected to allow an assessment of previous practice patterns and determine any impact of the Hawthorne Effect. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00425828 PMID:19068141

  7. Quantification of ethanol methyl 1H magnetic resonance signal intensity following intravenous ethanol administration in primate brain

    PubMed Central

    Flory, Graham S.; O’Malley, Jean; Grant, Kathleen A.; Park, Byung; Kroenke, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to directly monitor brain ethanol. Previously, studies of human subjects have lead to the suggestion that the ethanol methyl 1H MRS signal intensity relates to tolerance to ethanol’s intoxicating effects. More recently, the ethanol 1H MRS signal intensity has been recognized to vary between brain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to differences in T2 within these environments. The methods presented here extend ethanol MRS techniques to nonhuman primate subjects. Twelve monkeys were administered ethanol while sedated and positioned within a 3T MRI system. Chemical shift imaging (CSI) measurements were performed following intravenous infusion of 1g/kg ethanol. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were also recorded for each monkey to provide volume fractions of GM, WM, and CSF for each CSI spectrum. To estimate co-variance of ethanol MRS intensity with GM, WM, and CSF volume fractions, the relative contribution of each tissue subtype was determined following corrections for radiofrequency pulse profile non-uniformity, chemical shift artifacts, and differences between the point spread function in the CSI data and the imaging data. The ethanol MRS intensity per unit blood ethanol concentration was found to differ between GM, WM, and CSF. Individual differences in MRS intensity were larger in GM than WM. This methodology demonstrates the feasibility of ethanol MRS experiments and analysis in nonhuman primate subjects, and suggests GM may be a site of significant variation in ethanol MRS intensity between individuals. PMID:20018244

  8. Blood Alcohol Concentrations after \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veeravan Lekskulchai

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate if drinking one standard drink per hour could keep blood alcohol concentration below the legal limit of 0.05% in Thai men and women. Material and Method: After overnight fast, 15 healthy Thai men and 15 healthy Thai women received 12 g of ethanol by drinking beer, rum, or carbonate mixed rum and their

  9. Stroke, High Blood Pressure and The Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System – New Developments

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This review considers whether a case can be made for a protective effect of inhibitors and blockers of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) on the cerebral circulation. It first looks at whether there exists a preferential effect on the cerebral circulation during a drug-induced lowering of high arterial blood pressure and cardiovascular morbi-mortality. It then goes on to consider background studies on the relationship between inhibition of the RAAS and stroke. This is followed by exploration of possible new directions in the inhibition of the RAAS and its effect on stroke. PMID:21687514

  10. High polymorphism in Est-SSR loci for cellulose synthase and ?-amylase of sugarcane varieties (Saccharum spp.) used by the industrial sector for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Raphael; Maranho, Rone Charles; Mangolin, Claudete Aparecida; Pires da Silva Machado, Maria de Fátima

    2015-01-01

    High and low polymorphisms in simple sequence repeats of expressed sequence tag (EST-SSR) for specific proteins and enzymes, such as ?-amylase, cellulose synthase, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, were used to illustrate the genetic divergence within and between varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and to guide the technological paths to optimize ethanol production from lignocellulose biomass. The varieties RB72454, RB867515, RB92579, and SP813250 on the second stage of cutting, all grown in the state of Paraná (PR), and the varieties RB92579 and SP813250 cultured in the PR state and in Northeastern Brazil, state of Pernambuco (PE), were analyzed using five EST-SSR primers for EstC66, EstC67, EstC68, EstC69, and EstC91 loci. Genetic divergence was evident in the EstC67 and EstC69 loci for ?-amylase and cellulose synthase, respectively, among the four sugarcane varieties. An extremely high level of genetic differentiation was also detected in the EstC67 locus from the RB82579 and SP813250 varieties cultured in the PR and PE states. High polymorphism in SSR of the cellulose synthase locus may explain the high variability of substrates used in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis processes, which has been an obstacle to effective industrial adaptations. PMID:25351629

  11. An Ethanol Vapor Chamber System for Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Jiang, Lihong; Du, Hongying; Mason, Graeme F.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol vapor chambers have been utilized widely in alcohol research since their introduction in 1971, and implementations of these systems are now available commercially. Here, we present a modification of the chamber that can be built at lower cost and greater simplicity of operation. The six-chamber system for rats has multiple air pumps. Ethanol vapor levels are adjusted with the air flow rate, ethanol drip rate, and dilution with room air, without a heater or fans. Ethanol vapor concentrations are measured with a breathalyzer, using room air to dilute the vapor chamber output into the range of the breathalyzer. Multiple pumps provide backup to ensure animal survival in the case of failure of the primary air pump. Tests in animals demonstrated comfortable and stable elevation of blood ethanol, with tight control of the ethanol vapor concentrations and the ability to select from a broad range of levels. The ethanol vapor measurement was rapid and efficient. The parts cost was a few thousand U.S. dollars. This vapor chamber system features low cost, ease of use, and convenient and inexpensive measurement of ethanol vapor concentrations. The lack of a heater and electrical components that could come into contact with ethanol in our case facilitated institutional approval. PMID:22575431

  12. Transcriptome profiling of Zymomonas mobilis under ethanol stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High tolerance to ethanol is a desirable characteristics for ethanologenic strains used in industrial ethanol fermentation. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanologenic strains tolerance of ethanol stress may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic production. Many extensive studies have been performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. However, the physiological basis and genetic mechanisms involved in ethanol tolerance for Zymomonas mobilis are poorly understood on genomic level. To identify the genes required for tolerance to ethanol, microarray technology was used to investigate the transcriptome profiling of the ethanologenic Z. mobilis in response to ethanol stress. Results We successfully identified 127 genes which were differentially expressed in response to ethanol. Ethanol up- or down-regulated genes related to cell wall/membrane biogenesis, metabolism, and transcription. These genes were classified as being involved in a wide range of cellular processes including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall/membrane biogenesis, respiratory chain, terpenoid biosynthesis, DNA replication, DNA recombination, DNA repair, transport, transcriptional regulation, some universal stress response, etc. Conclusion In this study, genome-wide transcriptional responses to ethanol were investigated for the first time in Z. mobilis using microarray analysis.Our results revealed that ethanol had effects on multiple aspects of cellular metabolism at the transcriptional level and that membrane might play important roles in response to ethanol. Although the molecular mechanism involved in tolerance and adaptation of ethanologenic strains to ethanol is still unclear, this research has provided insights into molecular response to ethanol in Z. mobilis. These data will also be helpful to construct more ethanol resistant strains for cellulosic ethanol production in the future. PMID:23057803

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency Induces High Blood Pressure and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jisu; Riek, Amy E.; Chin, Kathleen; Garcia, Miguel; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies link vitamin D deficiency to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), but causality and possible mechanisms underlying these associations are not established. To clarify the role of vitamin D-deficiency in CVD in vivo, we generated mouse models of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency in two backgrounds (LDL receptor- and ApoE-null mice) that resemble humans with diet-induced hypertension and atherosclerosis. Mice were fed vitamin D-deficient or -sufficient chow for 6 weeks and then switched to high fat (HF) vitamin D-deficient or –sufficient diet for 8–10 weeks. Mice with diet-induced vitamin D deficiency showed increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high plasma renin, and decreased urinary sodium excretion. Hypertension was reversed and renin was suppressed by returning chow-fed vitamin D-deficient mice to vitamin D-sufficient chow diet for 6 weeks. On a HF diet, vitamin D-deficient mice had ?2-fold greater atherosclerosis in the aortic arch and ?2–8-fold greater atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aorta compared to vitamin D-sufficient mice. In the aortic root, HF-fed vitamin D-deficient mice had increased macrophage infiltration with increased fat accumulation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation, but a lower prevalence of the M1 macrophage phenotype within atherosclerotic plaques. Similarly, peritoneal macrophages from vitamin D-deficient mice displayed an M2-predominant phenotype with increased foam cell formation and ER stress. Treatment of vitamin D-deficient mice with the ER stress reliever PBA during HF feeding suppressed atherosclerosis, decreased peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation, and downregulated ER stress proteins without changing blood pressure. Thus, we suggest that vitamin D deficiency activates both the renin angiotensin system and macrophage ER stress to contribute to the development of hypertension and accelerated atherosclerosis, highlighting vitamin D replacement as a potential therapy to reduce blood pressure and atherosclerosis. PMID:23349943

  14. Temperature regulation during withdrawal from ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Crawshaw, L.I.; Hayteas, D.L.; O'Connor, C.S.; Crabbe, J.C. (Portland State Univ., OR (United States) Veterans Administration Hospital, Portland, OR (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Male HS mice were exposed to ethanol vapor for 72 hrs. The ethanol concentration in the air during this period was increase from 4-9 mg{center dot}1{sup {minus}1}. At time zero, the mice were injected with a pyrazole and ethanol. At 24 and 48 hrs, the pyrazole alone was administered. Control groups received either pyrazole or saline, but no ethanol vapor. The vapor dosing resulted in blood ethanol concentrations which increased from 0.64 {plus minus} 0.09 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 24 hr. to 1.89 {plus minus} 0.40 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 72 hrs. The mice carried intraperitoneally implanted mini-mitter temperature transmitters, which sensed core temperature. The selected temperature was quantified by monitoring the position of the mice within the tubes. During the 24 hr. of withdrawal, the core temperature of the experimental and control groups were very similar. During the first 10 hr., the selected temperature was lower for the withdrawal group than for the saline or pyrazole controls. By the end of the 24 hr., the selected temperature was similar for all three groups.

  15. Research on ethanol synthesis from syngas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie He; Wen-nan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    It is a very fine substitutable energy technology to synthesize ethanol from biomass-derived syngas. This paper summarized\\u000a the development of preparing ethanol from syngas, and especially elaborated on the research status of catalysts for the process.\\u000a Based on the relative researches on the reaction mechanism, structure and performance of the catalysts, the optimum design\\u000a of catalysts with high activity was

  16. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.ed [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup -}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH{sup -} and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was {approx} 1.5-fold greater in ADH{sup -} vs. ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH{sup -} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

  17. Improving low-dose blood-brain barrier permeability quantification using sparse high-dose induced prior for Patlak model

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Improving low-dose blood-brain barrier permeability quantification using sparse high-dose induced dose is of high value in clinical practice but can degrade the image quality due to the introduced severe noise. The purpose of this work is to construct high quality BBBP maps from low-dose PCT data

  18. Mechanisms of blood pressure regulation that differ in men repeatedly exposed to high-G acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated exposure to high acceleration (G) would be associated with enhanced functions of specific mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. We measured heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (), mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, forearm and leg vascular resistance, catecholamines, and changes in leg volume (%DeltaLV) during various protocols of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), carotid stimulation, and infusions of adrenoreceptor agonists in 10 males after three training sessions on different days over a period of 5-7 days using a human centrifuge (G trained). These responses were compared with the same measurements in 10 males who were matched for height, weight, and fitness but did not undergo G training (controls). Compared with the control group, G-trained subjects demonstrated greater R-R interval response to equal carotid baroreceptor stimulation (7.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.4 ms/mmHg, P = 0.02), less vasoconstriction to equal low-pressure baroreceptor stimulation (-1.4 +/- 0.2 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.3 U/mmHg, P = 0.01), and higher HR (-1.2 +/- 0.2 vs. -0.5 +/- 0.1 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1), P = 0.01) and alpha-adrenoreceptor response (32.8 +/- 3.4 vs. 19.5 +/- 4.7 U/mmHg, P = 0.04) to equal dose of phenylephrine. During graded LBNP, G-trained subjects had less decline in and SV, %DeltaLV, and elevation in thoracic impedance. G-trained subjects also had greater total blood (6,497 +/- 496 vs. 5,438 +/- 228 ml, P = 0.07) and erythrocyte (3,110 +/- 364 vs. 2,310 +/- 96 ml, P = 0.06) volumes. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to repeated high G is associated with increased capacities of mechanisms that underlie blood pressure regulation.

  19. Congenital brain serotonin deficiency leads to reduced ethanol sensitivity and increased ethanol consumption in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Benjamin D.; Salahi, A. Ayten; Caron, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to play an important role in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. However, whether congenital serotonin (5-HT) deficiency leads to increased alcohol consumption or affects ethanol-related behaviors has not been established. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line that expresses a hypofunctional variant of the 5-HT synthesis enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, to examine the impact of 5-HT deficiency on responses to alcohol. We demonstrate that these 5-HT-deficient transgenic animals (Tph2KI mice) recover their righting reflex more rapidly than wild-type controls following a high dose of ethanol and exhibit blunted locomotor retardation in response to repeated ethanol administration. In addition, compared to WT controls, 5-HT-deficient animals consume significantly more ethanol and exhibit increased preference for ethanol in two-bottle choice tests. Our data also suggest that 5-HT plays a critical role in mediating the effects of ethanol on Akt/GSK3? signaling in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results corroborate previous theories regarding the importance of brain 5-HT levels in mediating responsiveness to alcohol and demonstrate, for the first time, that congenital 5-HT deficiency leads to increased ethanol consumption and decreased sensitivity to the sedative-like effects of ethanol, perhaps in part through modulating Akt/GSK3? signaling. PMID:24067926

  20. Isolation of a very high molecular weight polylactosamine from an ovarian cyst mucin of blood group

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.S.S.; Bush, C.A.

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of a blood group A active ovarian cyst mucin glycoprotein with alkaline borohydride under conditions expected to cleave-O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains releases a polysaccharide of average molecular weight 25,000 daltons. It contains no peptide or mannose at the 1% level and carbohydrate analysis gives fuc:galNAc:gal:glcNAc in the ratio of 1:1:2.5:2.5. The /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H NMR spectra show that the polysaccharide has non-reducing terminal side chains of the structure galNAc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 3)(fuc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 2)) gal(..beta..-1 ..-->.. 3) glcNAc (i.e. a type 1 chain). Periodate oxidation removes all the fucose and galNAc from the non-reducing terminal but leaves intact the backbone composed of ..beta..-linked gal and glcNAc as would be expected for a polylactosamine. They conclude that this is a high molecular weight polylactosamine which is related to the asparagine linked polylactosamine chains of cell surface glycoproteins which have been implicated in cell differentiation. However, the blood group A polysaccharide from the ovarian cyst mucin is unique in several respects. It has a much larger molecular weight than even the erythroglycan of the red cell membrane protein, band 3, and is linked to the protein by an -O-glycosidic bond rather than the -N-asparagine linkage of the previously known polylactosamines which have a trimannosyl core. Its blood group A side chains are on a type one core rather than type 2 which is found on other polylactosamines.

  1. Depression and blood pressure in high-risk children and adolescents: an investigation using two longitudinal cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between blood pressure and depressive disorder in children and adolescents at high risk for depression. Design Multisample longitudinal design including a prospective longitudinal three-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression and an on-going birth cohort for replication. Setting Community-based studies. Participants High-risk sample includes 281 families where children were aged 9–17?years at baseline and 10–19?years at the final data point. Replication cohort includes 4830 families where children were aged 11–14?years at baseline and 14–17?years at follow-up and a high-risk subsample of 612 offspring with mothers that had reported recurrent depression. Main outcome measures The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments—the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample. Results Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses. In the high-risk sample, lower systolic blood pressure at wave 1 significantly predicted new-onset depressive disorder in children (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96; p=0.029) but diastolic blood pressure did not. Depressive disorder at wave 1 did not predict systolic blood pressure at wave 3. A significant association between lower systolic blood pressure and future depression was also found in the replication cohort in the second subset of high-risk children whose mothers had experienced recurrent depression in the past. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure predicts new-onset depressive disorder in the offspring of parents with depression. Further studies are needed to investigate how this association arises. PMID:24071459

  2. Initiation and maintenance of oral ethanol self-administration in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Neill, J C; Domeney, A M; Costall, B

    1994-01-01

    Group-housed female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer 5% ethanol (v/v) in a large self-administration chamber (100 x 40 x 40 cm) following three different initiation methods. The procedures were 1) an ethanol injection procedure, 2) a sucrose substitution procedure, and 3) a prandial drinking technique. Only the prandial drinking method served to maintain responding for ethanol in the absence of water deprivation or sweetening of the alcohol solution. Rats trained using this technique showed a large preference for 5% ethanol over water and a significant increase in locomotor activity while responding for 5% ethanol but not while responding for water. When the concentration of ethanol was increased from 1% to 32%, the amount of ethanol ingested increased up to a maximum of 1.233 +/- 0.3 g/kg of 32% ethanol, and response rates and number of ethanol deliveries followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Appreciable blood ethanol levels were detected immediately following self-administration of 8% ethanol. These results show that, in female Sprague-Dawley rats under the experimental conditions described, the prandial drinking technique was the most effective in inducing stable oral ethanol self-administration and suggest that under these conditions and in these subjects ethanol was acting as a positive reinforcer. PMID:8060521

  3. Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Table of Contents Mary Ellen Gannon Photo: NHLBI Name: Mary Ellen Gannon Age: 72 Blood Pressure: 170/ ... better care of yourself!” Ron Tucker Photo: NHLBI Name: Ron Tucker Age: 42 Blood Pressure: 150/96 ...

  4. Ethanol blocks nicotine-induced seizures in mice: comparison with midazolam and baclofen.

    PubMed

    Korkosz, Agnieszka; Zatorski, Pawel; Taracha, Ewa; Plaznik, Adam; Kostowski, Wojciech; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2006-11-01

    Low doses of ethanol may antagonize the pharmacological effects of nicotine. Recently, it has been shown that the effects of ethanol on nicotine discrimination are not correlated with blood ethanol levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether ethanol (0.5-2g/kg, i.p.) could block nicotine-induced seizures in C57BL/6J mice and to correlate ethanol's actions with blood ethanol concentrations. For comparison, the effects of a gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA)/benzodiazepine receptor positive modulator, midazolam (0.25-40 mg/kg, i.p.), and a gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor agonist, baclofen (2.5-20 mg/kg, i.p.), were assessed in the same procedure. Nicotine (3-9 mg/kg, s.c.) induced clonic-tonic seizures in a dose-dependent manner. Ethanol, administered 5 or 50 min before nicotine, dose dependently antagonized seizures elicited by 6 mg/kg nicotine. The anticonvulsant effects of ethanol correlated with blood ethanol levels and were comparable to those exerted by midazolam. Baclofen antagonized only the tonic component of nicotine-induced convulsions. The anticonvulsant doses of ethanol (0.5-2 g/kg), midazolam (0.5-1 mg/kg), and baclofen (5-10 mg/kg) did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity in a control experiment. The present results indicate that (i) ethanol may block nicotine-induced seizures in mice at doses that do not alter locomotor activity and (ii) the anti-seizure effects of ethanol depend on blood ethanol levels and are comparable to those exerted by the GABAA positive modulator midazolam. PMID:17418694

  5. Blood Glucose Log

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here ¢ cut here ¢ If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  6. Mild Adrenal Steroidogenic Defects and ACTH-Dependent Aldosterone Secretion in High Blood Pressure: Preliminary Evidence.

    PubMed

    Martin Martins, João; do Vale, Sónia; Martins, Ana Filipa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Adrenal glands play a major role in the control of blood pressure and mild defects of steroidogenesis and/or inappropriate control of mineralocorticoid production have been reported in high blood pressure (HBP). Patients and Methods. We used a specific protocol for the evaluation of 100 consecutive patients with inappropriate or recent onset HBP. Specific methods were used to confirm HBP and to diagnose secondary forms of HBP. In addition we tested adrenal steroidogenesis with the common cosyntropin test, modified to include the simultaneous measurement of renin and aldosterone besides 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) and 11-deoxycortisol (S). Results. Secondary forms of HBP were diagnosed in 32 patients, including 14 patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) (14%) and 10 patients with pheochromocytoma (10%). Mild defects of the 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) and 11-hydroxylase (11OHD) enzymes were common (42%). ACTH-dependent aldosterone secretion was found in most patients (54%) and characteristically in those with mild defects of adrenal steroidogenesis (>60%), PA (>75%), and otherwise in patients with apparent essential HBP (EHBP) (32%). Discussion. Mild defects of adrenal steroidogenesis are common in patients with HBP, occurring in almost half of the patients. In those patients as well as in patients with apparent EHBP, aldosterone secretion is commonly dependent on ACTH. PMID:25580122

  7. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP) by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic’s BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. PMID:25525386

  8. High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography

    PubMed Central

    An, Lin; Subhush, Hrebesh M.; Wilson, David J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2010-01-01

    We present high-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography (OMAG) technology. Based on spatial frequency analysis, OMAG is capable of visualizing the vascular perfusion map down to capillary-level resolution. An OMAG system operating at 840 nm is used with an A-scan rate of 27,000 Hz, axial resolution of 8 ?m, and sensitivity of 98 dB. To achieve wide-field imaging, we capture 16 optical coherence tomography (OCT) 3-D datasets in a sequential order, which together provide an area of ?7.4×7.4 mm2 at the posterior segment of the human eye. For each of these datasets, the bulk tissue motion artifacts are eliminated by applying a phase compensation method based on histogram estimation of bulk motion phases, while the displacements occurring between adjacent B-frames are compensated for by 2-D cross correlation between two adjacent OMAG flow images. The depth-resolved capability of OMAG imaging also provides volumetric information on the ocular circulations. Finally, we compare the clinical fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography imaging results with the OMAG results of blood perfusion map within the retina and choroid, and show excellent agreement between these modalities. PMID:20459256

  9. High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography.

    PubMed

    An, Lin; Subhush, Hrebesh M; Wilson, David J; Wang, Ruikang K

    2010-01-01

    We present high-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography (OMAG) technology. Based on spatial frequency analysis, OMAG is capable of visualizing the vascular perfusion map down to capillary-level resolution. An OMAG system operating at 840 nm is used with an A-scan rate of 27,000 Hz, axial resolution of 8 mum, and sensitivity of 98 dB. To achieve wide-field imaging, we capture 16 optical coherence tomography (OCT) 3-D datasets in a sequential order, which together provide an area of approximately 7.4 x 7.4 mm(2) at the posterior segment of the human eye. For each of these datasets, the bulk tissue motion artifacts are eliminated by applying a phase compensation method based on histogram estimation of bulk motion phases, while the displacements occurring between adjacent B-frames are compensated for by 2-D cross correlation between two adjacent OMAG flow images. The depth-resolved capability of OMAG imaging also provides volumetric information on the ocular circulations. Finally, we compare the clinical fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography imaging results with the OMAG results of blood perfusion map within the retina and choroid, and show excellent agreement between these modalities. PMID:20459256

  10. Sanguis draconis, a Dragon's Blood Resin, Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yi; Chang, Ting-Chen; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Nen-Chung; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus, induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications by limiting the proliferative potential of these cells. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Sanguis draconis (SD), a kind of dragon's blood resin that is obtained from Daemonorops draco (Palmae), on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under high-glucose (HG) stimulation and its underlying mechanism. Concentration-dependent (0–50??g/mL) assessment of cell viability showed that SD does not affect cell viability with a similar trend up to 48?h. Remarkably, SD (10–50??g/mL) significantly attenuated the high-glucose (25 and 50?mM) induced cell toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. SD inhibited high glucose-induced nitrite (NO) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that SD treatments abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), nuclear transcription factor, ?B (NF-?B), VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and it also blocked the breakdown of PARP-116 kDa protein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that SD increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased Bax protein expression in HG-stimulated HUVEC. Thus, these results of this study demonstrate for the first time that SD inhibits glucose induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in HUVEC by inhibiting the ERK/NF-?B/PARP-1/Bax signaling cascade followed by suppressing the activation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. These data suggest that SD may have a therapeutic potential in vascular inflammation due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activation. PMID:24987732

  11. Ultra-high spatial resolution basal and evoked cerebral blood flow MRI of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiang; Huang, Shiliang; Duong, Timothy Q

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is tightly coupled to metabolism and neural activity under normal physiological conditions, and is often perturbed in disease states. The goals of this study were to implement a high-resolution (up to 50×38?m(2)) CBF MRI protocol of the rat brain, create a digital CBF atlas, report CBF values for 30+ brain structures based on the atlas, and explore applications of high-resolution CBF fMRI of forepaw stimulation. Excellent blood-flow contrasts were observed among different cortical and subcortical structures. CBF MRI showed column-like alternating bright and dark bands in the neocortices, reflecting the layout of descending arterioles and ascending venules, respectively. CBF MRI also showed lamina-like alternating bright and dark layers across the cortical thicknesses, consistent with the underlying vascular density. CBF profiles across the cortical thickness showed two peaks in layers IV and VI and a shallow trough in layer V. Whole-brain CBF was about 0.89ml/g/min, with the highest CBF values found amongst the neocortical structures (1ml/g/min, range: 0.89-1.16ml/g/min) and the lowest CBF values in the corpus callosum (0.32ml/g/min), yielding a gray:white matter CBF ratio of 3.1. CBF fMRI responses peaked across layers IV-V, whereas the BOLD fMRI responses showed a peak in the superficial layers II-III. High-resolution basal CBF MRI, evoked CBF fMRI, and CBF brain atlas can be used to study neurological disorders (such as ischemic stroke). PMID:25557404

  12. Preyssler type heteropolyacid-incorporated highly water-selective sodium alginate-based inorganic–organic hybrid membranes for pervaporation dehydration of ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veeresh T. Magalad; Amit R. Supale; Sanjeev P. Maradur; Gavisiddappa S. Gokavi; Tejraj M. Aminabhavi

    2010-01-01

    Sodium alginate (NaAlg) hybrid membranes containing 6, 8 and 10wt.% of Preyssler type heteropolyacid H14[NaP5W30O110] (HPA) were prepared and characterized by FTIR, SEM, TGA, DSC, UTM and contact angle measurements. Hybrid membranes were more hydrophilic than pristine NaAlg membrane and exhibited increased pervaporation separation index (PSI) for selectively separating water from the azeotropic mixture (4wt.% water+96wt.% ethanol) with ethanol. The

  13. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  14. Ethanol's Molecular Targets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    R. Adron Harris (University of Texas; Institutes for Neuroscience and Cell & Molecular Biology REV)

    2008-07-15

    For much of the 20th century, it was widely believed that ethanol exerts its effects on neuronal function in a nonspecific manner—perhaps through the disordering of membrane lipids. However, over the past two decades, evidence has mounted that ethanol instead produces its effects by altering the functioning of specific proteins through its interaction with a select few amino acids in those proteins. In this Review with 2 figures and 60 citations, we focus on proteins for which evidence for specific alcohol binding sites has been obtained, and we briefly describe and compare these ethanol receptors.

  15. Ethanol attenuates peripheral NMDAR-mediated vascular oxidative stress and pressor response.

    PubMed

    McGee, Marie A; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2015-08-01

    There are no studies on the acute effect of ethanol on peripheral N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blood pressure (BP). We tested the hypothesis that ethanol antagonism of peripheral NMDAR dampens systemic NMDA-evoked increases in vascular ROS and BP. We investigated the effect of ethanol (1 g/kg) on BP and heart rate (HR) responses elicited by systemic bolus (125-1000 ?g/kg, intra-venous [i.v.]) or infused (180 ?g/kg/min) NMDA in conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats. We also hypothesized that peripheral NMDAR blockade with DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5; 5 mg/kg, i.v.) uncovers an ethanol- (1 or 1.5 g/kg) evoked hypotensive response. Ethanol attenuated the peripheral NMDAR-mediated pressor and bradycardic responses caused by NMDA infusion, and ex vivo studies revealed parallel ethanol attenuation of peripheral NMDAR-mediated increases in vascular ROS. While ethanol (1 or 1.5 g/kg) alone had no effect on BP, the higher dose caused a hypotensive response in the presence of NMDAR blockade (AP-5). Blood ethanol concentrations were not statistically different in the groups that received ethanol alone or along with NMDA or AP-5. These findings are the first to demonstrate ethanol attenuation of peripheral NMDAR-mediated pressor response, and the uncovering of ethanol-evoked hypotension in the presence of peripheral NMDAR blockade. PMID:25986731

  16. Ethanol Myths: Under the Microscope

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Ethanol Myths: Under the Microscope . .GrowingAmerica'sEnergyFuture Biomass MYTH: Ethanol cannot supplies. FACT: Corn is only one source of biofuel. In the future, a significant amount of ethanol will be made from other biomass sources. The corn used to produce ethanol today is the type used as animal feed

  17. Full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system for blood-flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Alexandre; Lasser, Theo

    2006-02-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system developed for mapping and monitoring of blood flow in biological tissue. The total imaging time for 256x256 pixels region of interest is 1.2 seconds. An integrating CMOS image sensor is utilized to detect Doppler signal in a plurality of points simultaneously on the sample illuminated by a divergent laser beam of a uniform intensity profile. The integrating property of the detector improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, which results in high-quality flow-images provided by the system. The new technique is real-time, non-invasive and the instrument is easy to use. The wide range of applications is one of the major challenges for a future application of the imager. High-resolution high-speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a promising optical technique for diagnostic and assessing the treatment effect of the diseases such as e.g. atherosclerosis, psoriasis, diabetes, skin cancer, allergies, peripheral vascular diseases, skin irritancy and wound healing. We present some biological applications of the new imager and discuss the perspectives for the future implementations of the imager for clinical and physiological applications.

  18. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Hang; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5?g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1?g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46?g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment. PMID:19592476

  19. The ethanol extract of Zingiber zerumbet Smith attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in hamsters fed on high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia Ju; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liu, I-Min

    2014-03-01

    The beneficial effects of the ethanol extract of Zingiber zerumbet rhizome (EEZZR) for use in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated. Syrian golden hamsters were fed a high-fat diet to induce NAFLD. EEZZR (100, 200, or 300mg/kg) were orally administered by gavage once daily for 8weeks. The higher plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and hepatic lipids, as well as the degree of insulin resistance were lowered by EEZZR. Histological evaluation of liver specimens demonstrated that the hepatic steatosis of EEZZR-treated groups was improved. EEZZR decreased hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and its lipogenic target genes. The hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, together with its target genes responsible for ?-oxidation of fatty acids were also upregulated by EEZZR. In conclusion, these findings suggest that EEZZR has the promising potential to ameliorate NAFLD. PMID:24342243

  20. Effect of sludge retention time on the biological performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating corn-to-ethanol thin stillage with high lipid content.

    PubMed

    Dereli, Recep Kaan; van der Zee, Frank P; Heffernan, Barry; Grelot, Aurelie; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-02-01

    The potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the treatment of lipid rich corn-to-ethanol thin stillage was investigated at three different sludge retention times (SRT), i.e. 20, 30 and 50 days. The membrane assisted biomass retention in AnMBRs provided an excellent solution to sludge washout problems reported for the treatment of lipid rich wastewaters by granular sludge bed reactors. The AnMBRs achieved high COD removal efficiencies up to 99% and excellent effluent quality. Although higher organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 8.0 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) could be applied to the reactors operated at shorter SRTs, better biological degradation efficiencies, i.e. up to 83%, was achieved at increased SRTs. Severe long chain fatty acid (LCFA) inhibition was observed at 50 days SRT, possibly caused by the extensive dissolution of LCFA in the reactor broth, inhibiting the methanogenic biomass. Physicochemical mechanisms such as precipitation with divalent cations and adsorption on the sludge played an important role in the occurrence of LCFA removal, conversion, and inhibition. PMID:24238260

  1. Biofuel Ethanol Transport Risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol production has increased rapidly over the last 10 years and many communities lack awareness of the increased and growing extent of biofuel transportation through their jurisdictions. These communities and their emergency responders may not have the information and resour...

  2. High quality methylome-wide investigations through next-generation sequencing of DNA from a single archived dry blood spot

    PubMed Central

    Aberg, Karolina A.; Xie, Lin Y.; Nerella, Srilaxmi; Copeland, William E.; Costello, E. Jane; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The potential importance of DNA methylation in the etiology of complex diseases has led to interest in the development of methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) aimed at interrogating all methylation sites in the human genome. When using blood as biomaterial for a MWAS the DNA is typically extracted directly from fresh or frozen whole blood that was collected via venous puncture. However, DNA extracted from dry blood spots may also be an alternative starting material. In the present study, we apply a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein enrichment-based technique in combination with next generation sequencing (MBD-seq) to assess the methylation status of the ~27 million CpGs in the human autosomal reference genome. We investigate eight methylomes using DNA from blood spots. This data are compared with 1,500 methylomes previously assayed with the same MBD-seq approach using DNA from whole blood. When investigating the sequence quality and the enrichment profile across biological features, we find that DNA extracted from blood spots gives comparable results with DNA extracted from whole blood. Only if the amount of starting material is ? 0.5µg DNA we observe a slight decrease in the assay performance. In conclusion, we show that high quality methylome-wide investigations using MBD-seq can be conducted in DNA extracted from archived dry blood spots without sacrificing quality and without bias in enrichment profile as long as the amount of starting material is sufficient. In general, the amount of DNA extracted from a single blood spot is sufficient for methylome-wide investigations with the MBD-seq approach. PMID:23644822

  3. Effects of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde on Tight Junction Integrity: In Vitro Study in a Three Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cell Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Elamin, Elhaseen; Jonkers, Daisy; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; van IJzendoorn, Sven; Troost, Freddy; Duimel, Hans; Broers, Jos; Verheyen, Fons; Dekker, Jan; Masclee, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Background Intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of endotoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Exposure to ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde at relatively high concentrations have been shown to disrupt intestinal epithelial tight junctions in the conventional two dimensional cell culture models. The present study investigated quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of ethanol at concentrations detected in the blood after moderate ethanol consumption, of its metabolite acetaldehyde and of the combination of both compounds on intestinal barrier function in a three-dimensional cell culture model. Methods and Findings Caco-2 cells were grown in a basement membrane matrix (Matrigel™) to induce spheroid formation and were then exposed to the compounds at the basolateral side. Morphological differentiation of the spheroids was assessed by immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The barrier function was assessed by the flux of FITC-labeled dextran from the basal side into the spheroids' luminal compartment using confocal microscopy. Caco-2 cells grown on Matrigel assembled into fully differentiated and polarized spheroids with a central lumen, closely resembling enterocytes in vivo and provide an excellent model to study epithelial barrier functionality. Exposure to ethanol (10–40 mM) or acetaldehyde (25–200 µM) for 3 h, dose-dependently and additively increased the paracellular permeability and induced redistribution of ZO-1 and occludin without affecting cell viability or tight junction-encoding gene expression. Furthermore, ethanol and acetaldehyde induced lysine residue and microtubules hyperacetylation. Conclusions These results indicate that ethanol at concentrations found in the blood after moderate drinking and acetaldehyde, alone and in combination, can increase the intestinal epithelial permeability. The data also point to the involvement of protein hyperacetylation in ethanol- and acetaldehyde-induced loss of tight junctions integrity. PMID:22563376

  4. Evaluation of the ethanol antagonist' Ro15-4513 on cardiovascular and metabolic responses induced by ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.R.; Gauvin, D.V.; Holloway, F.A.; Wilson, M.F.; Brackett, D.J. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (United States) Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1992-02-26

    The putative ethanol antagonist Ro15-4513 has been reported to attenuate many behavioral responses induced by ethanol, including motor coordination, narcosis, ethanol self administration and intake, and anticonvulsant actions. This study was designed to study the effect of Ro15-4513 on cardiovascular and metabolic responses elicited by intragastric ethanol in conscious rats. Four groups of rats were catheterized under enflurane anesthesia and allowed to regain consciousness. Each group was given either 3.2, 10.0, or 32.0 mg/kg Ro15-4513 or equivalent Tween (i.p.) following ethanol. Ro15-4513 had no effect at any concentration on the decreases in mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, central venous pressure, respiration rate, and cardiac stroke volume and the increases in systemic vascular resistance, heart rate, and glucose evoked by the ethanol challenge. Blood alcohol concentrations measured throughout the study were not affected by any concentration of Ro15-4513. These data suggest that even though Ro15-4513 has significant effects on behavioral responses induced by ethanol it has no effect on the cardiovascular and metabolic responses elicited during ethanol intoxication.

  5. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansouri, Shamma; Al Maamari, Alyazia; Bahi, Amine

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin modification (specifically histone acetylation) may play a crucial role in the development of addictive behavior. However, little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in the rewarding properties of ethanol. In the current study, we studied the effects of systemic injection of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA) on ethanol consumption and ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP). The effect of VPA (300 mg/kg) on voluntary ethanol intake and preference was assessed using continuous two-bottle choice procedure with escalating concentrations of alcohol (2.5-20% v/v escalating over 4 weeks). Taste sensitivity was studies using saccharin (sweet; 0.03% and 0.06%) and quinine (bitter; 20 µM and 40 µM) tastants solutions. Ethanol conditioned reward was investigated using an unbiased CPP model. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Compared to vehicle, VPA-injected rats displayed significantly lower preference and consumption of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm, with no significant difference observed with saccharin and quinine. More importantly, 0.5 g/kg ethanol-induced-CPP acquisition was blocked following VPA administration. Finally, vehicle- and VPA-treated mice had similar BECs. Taken together, our results implicated HDAC inhibition in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of alcohol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target HDAC could potentially help to tackle alcoholism in humans. PMID:25108044

  6. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  7. Ethanol Production from Maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Schwietzke; Youngmi Kim; Eduardo Ximenes; Nathan Mosier; Michael Ladisch

    The production of fuel ethanol from corn grain is widely carried out in the US, with total current production at 7 billion\\u000a gallons. This may soon reach 10 billion gallons or more. This chapter addresses the potential of fuel ethanol as an additional\\u000a source of product based on utilization of the cellulosic (non-food) portions of maize, and in particular the

  8. Ethanol preference and behavioral tolerance in mice, biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl W. Schneider; Sally K. Evans; Maynard B. Chenoweth; Floyd L. Beman

    1973-01-01

    Determinations were made of ethanol preference and behavioral tolerance in 4 experiments with inbred strains of mice. High- and low-preference strains were compared on neural tolerance to ethanol and metabolic capacity. High preference for ethanol was accompanied by higher behavioral and neural tolerance than that found in low-preference Ss. Differences in metabolism of ethanol between high- and low-preferring Ss were

  9. Lipid?Ethanol Interaction Studied by NMR on Bicelles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd W. Koenig; Klaus Gawrisch

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with phospholipids was studied in bicelles at a physiologically relevant ethanol concentration of 20 mM and a lipid content of 14 wt % by high-resolution NMR. Transient association of ethanol with magnetically aligned bicelles imparts a small degree of anisotropy to the solute. This anisotropy allows detection of residual 1H-1H and 1H-13C dipolar couplings, which are

  10. Molecular Structure of Ethanol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-14

    Ethanol is a clear, colorless liquid that has a very distinct alcohol smell. It was discovered/made as far back as 6000 B.C. in the production of beer and wine. The Chinese were the first to distill it from fermented rice liquor. It is fermented from glucose sugars of plant cell walls. Ethanol is the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages and is a central nervous system depressant in humans. It is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and reacts violently with oxidants. Henry Ford used ethanol to run the first engine for the Model T. Currently, there is a lot of research related to increasing use of ethanol as a fuel to help the environment and offset the demand of oil since it burns much cleaner than oil and is a renewable resource. Ethanol is commonly used as a disinfectant; it kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids: it is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses, but is ineffective against bacterial spores. This disinfectant property of ethanol is the reason that alcoholic beverages can be stored for a long time.

  11. Peripheral circulation in the newborn: Interaction of peripheral blood flow, blood pressure, blood volume, and blood viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Linderkamp; I. Strohhacker; H. T. Versmold; H. Klose; K. P. Riegel; K. Betke

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral blood flow and systolic blood pressure (strain-gauge plethysmograph), blood volume (Evans blue) and whole blood viscosity (cone-plate viscometer) have been measured in 66 premature and full-term infants 6 to 144h of age. Blood flow and blood volume were moderately decreased in the infants with respiratory distress. Highly significant (Pr=0.77), blood pressure and blood volume (r=0.50), peripheral resistance and blood

  12. Induction of physical dependence upon ethanol and the associated behavioral changes in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Majchrowicz; William A. White

    1975-01-01

    This paper reports findings relative to a simple, rapid and reproducible technique for the induction of physical dependence upon ethanol in the rat. The dependence was induced by intragastric intubation of 20% (w\\/v) ethanol solutions at 9–15 g\\/kg in 3–5 fractional doses daily for 4 days, maintaining blood ethanol concentrations above a threshold level sufficient to sustain observable sedation throughout

  13. Accelerated Stability and Chemical Kinetics of Ethanol Extracts of Fruit of Piper sarmentosum Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Hussain; Zhari, Ismail; Amirin, Sadikun; Pazilah, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of Piper sarmentosum, a medicinal plant, are being used to prepare phytopharmaceuticals while the information about chemical kinetics of constituents of the extract is unavailable to assign precise shelf life (t90) and find optimum storage conditions of the product for patient safety, and to avoid economic repercussions of launching an unstable product. The extract was exposed to three different conditions of high temperature and relative humidity (RH) for six months. The samples were then analyzed at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 months by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine as markers. Different chemical kinetic parameters of the markers were evaluated by Arrhenius equation to predict shelf life (t90) at different storage conditions and at room temperature. The markers in the extract followed the zero order degradation, and the activation energy, pre exponential factor and rate constant of the reaction of the markers were found to be varying in samples stored at different conditions. The contents of the markers were found to be decreasing at high temperature and humidity with the passage of time. The predicted shelf life (t90) of the markers at room temperature was found to be 16 months approximately. Results of this study indicate that extracts of the plant are stable at room temperature for 16 months. Moreover, the chemical kinetic data of the markers and the analytical method used to quantify the markers may be useful for phytopharmaceutical industry to produce efficacious and stable products from extracts of the plant. PMID:24250372

  14. Accelerated Stability and Chemical Kinetics of Ethanol Extracts of Fruit of Piper sarmentosum Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Hussain; Zhari, Ismail; Amirin, Sadikun; Pazilah, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of Piper sarmentosum, a medicinal plant, are being used to prepare phytopharmaceuticals while the information about chemical kinetics of constituents of the extract is unavailable to assign precise shelf life (t90) and find optimum storage conditions of the product for patient safety, and to avoid economic repercussions of launching an unstable product. The extract was exposed to three different conditions of high temperature and relative humidity (RH) for six months. The samples were then analyzed at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 months by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine as markers. Different chemical kinetic parameters of the markers were evaluated by Arrhenius equation to predict shelf life (t90) at different storage conditions and at room temperature. The markers in the extract followed the zero order degradation, and the activation energy, pre exponential factor and rate constant of the reaction of the markers were found to be varying in samples stored at different conditions. The contents of the markers were found to be decreasing at high temperature and humidity with the passage of time. The predicted shelf life (t90) of the markers at room temperature was found to be 16 months approximately. Results of this study indicate that extracts of the plant are stable at room temperature for 16 months. Moreover, the chemical kinetic data of the markers and the analytical method used to quantify the markers may be useful for phytopharmaceutical industry to produce efficacious and stable products from extracts of the plant. PMID:24250372

  15. Effects of high-dose prednisolone on optic nerve head blood flow in patients with acute optic neuritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kircher; G. Weigert; H. Resch; G. Garhöfer; G. T. Dorner; G. Fuchsjäger Mayrl; A. Reitner; L. Schmetterer

    2008-01-01

    Background  In this study, patients with optic neuritis were treated with high-dose prednisolone. Little information is available about\\u000a the effects of this treatment on ocular blood flow. We set out to investigate the effects of high-dose prednisolone on optic\\u000a nerve head (ONH) blood flow in patients with acute optic neuritis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirteen patients with acute optic neuritis were included in the study.

  16. Intrinsic Properties of Larval Zebrafish Neurons in Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Hiromi; Delargy, Alison H.; Yokogawa, Tohei; Urban, Jason M.; Burgess, Harold A.; Ono, Fumihito

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral effects of ethanol have been studied in multiple animal models including zebrafish. Locomotion of zebrafish larvae is resistant to high concentrations of ethanol in bath solution. This resistance has been attributed to a lower systemic concentration of ethanol in zebrafish when compared with bath solution, although the mechanism to maintain such a steep gradient is unclear. Here we examined whether the intrinsic properties of neurons play roles in this resistance. In order to minimize the contribution of metabolism and diffusional barriers, larvae were hemisected and the anterior half immersed in a range of ethanol concentrations thereby ensuring the free access of bath ethanol to the brain. The response to vibrational stimuli of three types of reticulospinal neurons: Mauthner neurons, vestibulospinal neurons, and MiD3 neurons were examined using an intracellular calcium indicator. The intracellular [Ca2+] response in MiD3 neurons decreased in 100 mM ethanol, while Mauthner neurons and vestibulospinal neurons required >300 mM ethanol to elicit similar effects. The ethanol effect in Mauthner neurons was reversible following removal of ethanol. Interestingly, activities of MiD3 neurons displayed spontaneous recovery in 300 mM ethanol, suggestive of acute tolerance. Finally, we examined with mechanical vibration the startle response of free-swimming larvae in 300 mM ethanol. Ethanol treatment abolished long latency startle responses, suggesting a functional change in neural processing. These data support the hypothesis that individual neurons in larval zebrafish brains have distinct patterns of response to ethanol dictated by specific molecular targets. PMID:23658822

  17. Ontogenetic differences in ethanol's motivational properties during infancy.

    PubMed

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Rahmani, Pouyan; Spear, Norman E

    2012-05-01

    Pairing a conditioned stimulus (CS) with ethanol generally produces aversion for that CS in adult rodents. However, infant rats (PD1-PD3) exposed to ethanol demonstrate appetitive reinforcement to ethanol (Nizhnikov, Varlinskaya, Petrov, & Spear, 2006; Petrov, Varlinskaya, & Spear, 2003). This sensitivity to the appetitive properties of ethanol during infancy may be transient, as during the second postnatal week rat pups tend to exhibit conditioned aversions to flavors paired with ethanol. The present study examined changes in the motivation properties of ethanol through ontogeny and the neurobiology underlying these changes. Rat pups were exposed to a taste conditioning procedure on PD4 or PD12. Rat pups were intraorally infused with 2.5% of their body weight of saccharin solution (0.1%) and immediately after injected intraperitoneolly (i.p.) with one of six doses of ethanol (0.0-2.0 g/kg). A day later pups were given saccharine infusions and percent body weight gain was used as an index of ethanol's reinforcing effects. PD4 pups expressed appetitive reinforcement to ethanol, as indicated by greater saccharin intake, as compared to control counterparts and to the older PD12 pups. Subsequent experiments revealed that PD4 pups were less sensitive to the aversive properties of the drug than PD12 pups. The older pups found high doses of ethanol aversive while PD4 rat pups did not condition aversions to this dose of ethanol after a single trial. A similar pattern of results was observed between the low doses of ethanol and the highest doses of a kappa opioid agonist. The PD12 animals did not condition to the kappa opioid agonist, while the younger rats expressed an appetitive response. These results illustrate an ontogenetic change in the motivational properties of ethanol, with sensitivity to its appetitive properties declining and responsiveness to the aversive properties increasing with age during early infancy. PMID:22440692

  18. Effects of blood flow to the prefrontal cortex on high-intensity exercise combined with high-decibel music

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyukki; Kim, Kyungae; Jung, Yu-Jin; Ahn, Na-Ri; So, Wi-Young; KATO, Morimasa

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of high-intensity exercise (70-75% of VO2 max) combined with high-decibel music (100 dB) on cognitive function (measured by the Stroop test) and related blood flow changes to the prefrontal cortex (measured by Oxy-hemoglobin (Hb), Deoxy-Hb, tissue oxygen index (TOI), and normalized tissue hemoglobin index (nTHI)). The subjects of the study were 28 healthy female university students in their early 20s. Subjects were categorized into control group (CG), music group (MG), exercise group (Ex), and music and exercise group (MnEx). A crossover design was implemented so that all subjects participated in all test groups. We found no significant difference in reaction time between CG and MG for the neutral and incongruent tasks of Stroop test. However, there were significant improvements in the neutral and incongruent tasks for both the Ex (p < 0.01) and MnEx (p < 0.01) groups. Oxy-Hb measurements in the prefrontal cortex of the brain supported the Stroop test data. We found no difference between Ex and MnEx in the TOI; however, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in MnEx compared to Ex. In addition, Ex resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in nTHI as compared to CG. These results indicate that high decibel music could negatively affect prefrontal cortex activation of the brain during exercise. PMID:25566422

  19. Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Highly purified infected red blood cells (irbc), or highly synchronized parasite cultures, are regularly required in malaria research. Conventional isolation and synchronization rely on density and osmotic fragility of irbc, respectively. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) offers an alternative based on intrinsic magnetic properties of irbc, avoiding exposure to chemicals and osmotic stress. Successful HGMS concentration in malaria research was previously reported using polymer coated columns, while HGMS depletion has not been described yet. This study presents a new approach to both HGMS concentration and depletion in malaria research, rendering polymer coating unnecessary. Methods A dipole magnet generating a strong homogenous field was custom assembled. Polypropylene syringes were fitted with one-way stopcocks and filled with stainless steel wool. Rbc from Plasmodium falciparum cultures were resuspended in density and viscosity optimized HGMS buffers and HGMS processed. Purification and depletion results were analysed by flow cytometer and light microscopy. Viability was evaluated by calculating the infection rate after re-culturing of isolates. Results In HGMS concentration, purity of irbc isolates from asynchronous cultures consistently ranged from 94.8% to 98.4% (mean 95.7%). With further optimization, over 90% of isolated irbc contained segmented schizonts. Processing time was less than 45 min. Reinfection rates ranged from 21.0% to 56.4%. In HGMS depletion, results were comparable to treatment with sorbitol, as demonstrated by essentially identical development of cultures. Conclusion The novel HGMS concentration procedure achieves high purities of segmented stage irbc from standard asynchronous cultures, and is the first HGMS depletion alternative to sorbitol lysis. It represents a simple and highly efficient alternative to conventional irbc concentration and synchronization methods. PMID:20122252

  20. Histone acetyltransferase p300 modulates gene expression in an epigenetic manner at high blood alcohol levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fawzia Bardag-Gorce; Barbara A. French; Michael Joyce; Mercedes Baires; Rosalyn O. Montgomery; Jun Li; Samuel French

    2007-01-01

    When rats are fed ethanol intragastrically at a constant rate for 1 month, the urinary alcohol level (UAL) cycles over 7–9 day intervals. At the peak UAL, the liver is hypoxic shifting the redox state to a reduced rate. Microarray analysis done on livers at the UAL peaks shows changes in ?1300 gene expression compared to the pair-fed controls. To determine the

  1. High-frequency photoacoustic imaging of erythrocyte aggregation and oxygen saturation: probing hemodynamic relations under pulsatile blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of high-frequency photoacoustic (PA) imaging to study the shear rate dependent relationship between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and oxygen saturation (SO2) in a simulated blood flow system. The PA signal amplitude increased during the formation of aggregates and cyclically varied at intervals corresponding to the beat rate (30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 bpm) for all optical wavelengths of illumination (750 and 850 nm).The SO2 also cyclically varied in phase with the PA signal amplitude for all beat rates. In addition, the mean blood flow velocity cyclically varied at the same interval of beat rate, and the shear rate (i.e. the radial gradient of flow velocity) also cyclically varied. On the other hand, the phase of the cyclic variation in the shear rate was reversed compared to that in the PA signal amplitude. This study indicates that RBC aggregation induced by periodic changes in the shear rate can be correlated with the SO2 under pulsatile blood flow. Furthermore, PA imaging of flowing blood may be capable of providing a new biomarker for the clinical application in terms of monitoring blood viscosity, oxygen delivery and their correlation.

  2. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  3. Effect of allicin from garlic powder on serum lipids and blood pressure in rats fed with a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Al-Qattan, K K; Al-Enezi, F; Khanafer, R M; Mustafa, T

    2000-04-01

    The use of fresh aqueous garlic extract is known to be effective in reducing thromboxane formation by platelets in both in vivo and in vitro animal models of thrombosis. In the present study, we studied the effect of Lichtwer garlic powder (containing 1.3% alliin equivalent to 0.6% allicin) on the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, protein, and systolic blood pressure in rats fed with a high cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were fed a 2% high cholesterol diet with and without garlic powder for 6 weeks. Control rats were fed a normal diet. The aqueous garlic powder extract was given orally to rats on a daily basis. It was observed that cholesterol-fed animals had a significant increase in serum cholesterol compared to the control group of rats fed on a normal diet. However, when the rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with garlic powder, there was a significant reduction in their serum cholesterol levels compared with the group which were on a diet containing high cholesterol without garlic powder. Serum triglyceride levels were also significantly lowered by garlic powder when compared to control and high cholesterol diet group rats. The blood pressure of the high cholesterol diet animals was significantly higher compared to the animals receiving the control diet. The blood pressure of the animals receiving garlic powder and high cholesterol diet was significantly lower as compared to the high cholesterol and control diet group. No significant changes were observed in the serum glucose and protein in all of the rats. These results show that garlic is beneficial in reducing blood cholesterol, triglycerides levels and systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic rats. Our experimental results show that garlic may beneficially affect two risk factors for atherosclerosis--hyperlipidemia and hypertension. PMID:10882191

  4. Lethal poisoning with ethiofencarb and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Al-Samarraie, Muhammad S J; Karinen, Ritva; Rognum, Torleiv; Hasvold, Inger; Opdal Stokke, Mimi; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2009-09-01

    Ethiofencarb is one of the carbamate compounds, which are, in general, less toxic than organophosphorus insecticides. This is due to their reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition and relative inability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Generally, ethiofencarb is regarded to be of low toxicity (LD(50) > 200 mg/kg); however, severe poisoning and death are not uncommon. To our knowledge, no measurements of ethiofencarb and its metabolites in human postmortem whole blood have been published. We present here a case report of fatal ethiofencarb intoxication with quantitative analysis of ethiofencarb and its metabolites in ante- and postmortem blood. In addition, postmortem urine was collected and analyzed. A 56-year-old man, who worked as a gardener, was found in poor condition, sitting in his car seat. He had been vomiting. The man was admitted to the local hospital about 1 h later. At admission, he was conscious, but unable to speak clearly. His condition deteriorated, and he developed severe pulmonary edema. Resuscitation with atropine and adrenaline were attempted, but he died approximately 3 h after admission. The analysis of postmortem peripheral blood revealed 0.12 g/100 mL ethanol, 26.4 mg/L ethiofencarb, 37.9 mg/L ethiofencarbsulfoxide, and 0.9 mg/L ethiofencarbsulfone. Ethanol (0.26 g/100 mL), ethiofencarb, ethiofencarbsulfoxide, and ethiofencarbsulfone were also detected in urine. PMID:19796510

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF DRUG-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN BLOOD USING HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Hage, David S.; Jackson, Abby; Sobansky, Matt; Schiel, John E.; Yoo, Michelle J.; Joseph, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    The binding of drugs with proteins in blood, serum or plasma is an important process in determining the activity, distribution, rate of excretion, and toxicity of drugs in the body. High-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) has received a great deal of interest as a means for studying these interactions. This review examines the various techniques that have been used in HPAC to examine drug-protein binding and discusses the types of information that can be obtained through this approach. A comparison of these techniques with traditional methods for binding studies (e.g., equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration) will also be presented. The use of HPAC with specific serum proteins and binding agents will then be discussed, including human serum albumin and ?1-acid glycoprotein. Several examples from the literature are provided to illustrate the applications of such research. Recent developments in this field are also described, such as the use of improved immobilization techniques, new data analysis methods, techniques for working for directly with complex biological samples, and work with immobilized lipoproteins. The relative advantages and limitations of the methods that are described will be considered and the possible use of these techniques in the high-throughput screening or characterization of drug-protein binding will be discussed. PMID:19278006

  6. Heterogeneous catalytic synthesis of ethanol from biomass-derived syngas.

    PubMed

    Spivey, James J; Egbebi, Adefemi

    2007-09-01

    The selective catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas into ethanol is thermodynamically feasible at temperatures below roughly 350 degrees C at 30 bar. However, if methane is allowed as a reaction product, the conversion to ethanol (or other oxygenates) is extremely limited. Experimental results show that high selectivities to ethanol are only achieved at very low conversions, typically less than 10%. The most promising catalysts for the synthesis of ethanol are based on Rh, though some other formulations (such as modified methanol synthesis catalysts) show promise. PMID:17660882

  7. Differential neural representation of oral ethanol by central taste-sensitive neurons in ethanol-preferring and genetically heterogeneous rats

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David M.; Brasser, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    In randomly bred rats, orally applied ethanol stimulates neural substrates for appetitive sweet taste. To study associations between ethanol's oral sensory characteristics and genetically mediated ethanol preference, we made electrophysiological recordings of oral responses (spike density) by taste-sensitive nucleus tractus solitarii neurons in anesthetized selectively bred ethanol-preferring (P) rats and their genetically heterogeneous Wistar (W) control strain. Stimuli (25 total) included ethanol [3%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, and 40% (vol/vol)], a sucrose series (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1 M), and other sweet, salt, acidic, and bitter stimuli; 50 P and 39 W neurons were sampled. k-means clustering applied to the sucrose response series identified cells showing high (S1) or relatively low (S0) sensitivity to sucrose. A three-way factorial analysis revealed that activity to ethanol was influenced by a neuron's sensitivity to sucrose, ethanol concentration, and rat line (P = 0.01). Ethanol produced concentration-dependent responses in S1 neurons that were larger than those in S0 cells. Although responses to ethanol by S1 cells did not differ between lines, neuronal firing rates to ethanol in S0 cells increased across concentration only in P rats. Correlation and multivariate analyses revealed that ethanol evoked responses in W neurons that were strongly and selectively associated with activity to sweet stimuli, whereas responses to ethanol by P neurons were not easily associated with activity to representative sweet, sodium salt, acidic, or bitter stimuli. These findings show differential central neural representation of oral ethanol between genetically heterogeneous rats and P rats genetically selected to prefer alcohol. PMID:21918002

  8. Alcohol Dependence Produced in Mice by Inhalation of Ethanol: Grading the Withdrawal Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora B. Goldstein; Nandita Pal

    1971-01-01

    Intoxicating blood levels of ethanol are maintained for several days in mice housed in an atmosphere of ethanol vapor. On removal from the alcohol, all the mice develop withdrawal signs. The signs can be graded to indicate the time course and intensity of the withdrawal reaction.

  9. Studying the rapid bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars into ethanol using high cell density fermentations with cell recycle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Rapid Bioconversion with Integrated recycle Technology (RaBIT) process reduces capital costs, processing times, and biocatalyst cost for biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels by reducing total bioprocessing time (enzymatic hydrolysis plus fermentation) to 48 h, increasing biofuel productivity (g/L/h) twofold, and recycling biocatalysts (enzymes and microbes) to the next cycle. To achieve these results, RaBIT utilizes 24-h high cell density fermentations along with cell recycling to solve the slow/incomplete xylose fermentation issue, which is critical for lignocellulosic biofuel fermentations. Previous studies utilizing similar fermentation conditions showed a decrease in xylose consumption when recycling cells into the next fermentation cycle. Eliminating this decrease is critical for RaBIT process effectiveness for high cycle counts. Results Nine different engineered microbial strains (including Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis strains, Zymomonas mobilis 8b, and Escherichia coli KO11) were tested under RaBIT platform fermentations to determine their suitability for this platform. Fermentation conditions were then optimized for S. cerevisiae GLBRCY128. Three different nutrient sources (corn steep liquor, yeast extract, and wheat germ) were evaluated to improve xylose consumption by recycled cells. Capacitance readings were used to accurately measure viable cell mass profiles over five cycles. Conclusion The results showed that not all strains are capable of effectively performing the RaBIT process. Acceptable performance is largely correlated to the specific xylose consumption rate. Corn steep liquor was found to reduce the deleterious impacts of cell recycle and improve specific xylose consumption rates. The viable cell mass profiles indicated that reduction in specific xylose consumption rate, not a drop in viable cell mass, was the main cause for decreasing xylose consumption. PMID:24847379

  10. High normal fasting blood glucose is associated with dementia in Chinese elders

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, J.A.; Borenstein, A.R.; Ding, D.; DeCarli, C.; Zhao, Q.; Copenhaver, C.; Guo, Q.; Chu, S.; Galasko, D.; Salmon, D.P.; Dai, Q.; Wu, Y.; Petersen, R.; Hong, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a risk factor for MCI and dementia. However, the association between high normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) and dementia has not been studied. Methods Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess the association of dementia and MCI with FBG in an age- and sex-matched sample of 32 dementia patients, 27 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients and 31 normal controls (NC). Analyses were repeated for those with normal FBG. Correlations between FBG and cognitive test scores were obtained. Results Controlling for age, sex, education, body mass index, Hachinski Ischemic Score, MRI stroke, and normalized brain, hippocampal and white matter hyperintensity MRI volumes; higher FBG was associated with dementia vs. aMCI status (OR= 3.13; 95% CI:1.28–7.69). This association remained (OR= 7.75; 95% CI:1.10–55.56) when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal FBG. When dementia patients were compared with NC adjusting for age, sex and education a significant association with FBG also was seen (OR=1.83; 95%CI:1.09–3.08), but the association was lost when vascular covariates were added to the model. FBG was not associated with aMCI status vs. NC. Higher FBG was correlated with poorer performance on the Trailmaking Test Part B (p=0.003). The percentage of dementia patients with high normal FBG (90%) was significantly higher than that of aMCI patients with high normal FBG (32.9%) (?2=13.9, p<0.001). Conclusions Higher FBG was associated with dementia (vs. aMCI) independent of vascular risk factors and MRI indicators of vascular disease, and remained a significant risk factor when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal FBG. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that a high normal level of FBG may be a risk factor for dementia. PMID:21044774

  11. Direct ethanol production from starch using a natural isolate, Scheffersomyces shehatae: Toward consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Ayumi; Kikukawa, Minako; Yamaguchi, Shino; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), which integrates enzyme production, saccharification and fermentation into a one-step process, is a promising strategy for cost-effective ethanol production from starchy biomass. To gain insights into starch-based ethanol production using CBP, an extensive screening was undertaken to identify naturally occurring yeasts that produce ethanol without the addition of any amylases. Three yeast strains were capable of producing a significant amount of ethanol. Quantitative assays revealed that Scheffersomyces shehatae JCM 18690 was the strain showing the highest ethanol production ability. This strain was able to utilize starch directly, and the ethanol concentration reached 9.21 g/L. We attribute the ethanol-producing ability of this strain to the high levels of glucoamylase activity, fermentation potential and ethanol stress tolerance. This study strongly suggests the possibility of starch-based ethanol production by consolidated bioprocessing using natural yeasts such as S. shehatae JCM 18690. PMID:25901788

  12. High red blood cell nitric oxide synthase activation is not associated with improved vascular function and red blood cell deformability in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Grau, Marijke; Mozar, Anaïs; Charlot, Keyne; Lamarre, Yann; Weyel, Linda; Suhr, Frank; Collins, Bianca; Jumet, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Bloch, Wilhelm; Connes, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Human red blood cells (RBC) express an active and functional endothelial-like nitric oxide (NO) synthase (RBC-NOS). We report studies on RBC-NOS activity in sickle cell anaemia (SCA), a genetic disease characterized by decreased RBC deformability and vascular dysfunction. Total RBC-NOS content was not significantly different in SCA patients compared to healthy controls; however, using phosphorylated RBC-NOS-Ser(1177) as a marker, RBC-NOS activation was higher in SCA patients as a consequence of the greater activation of Akt (phosphorylated Akt-Ser(473) ). The higher RBC-NOS activation in SCA led to higher levels of S-nitrosylated ?- and ?-spectrins, and greater RBC nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels compared to healthy controls. Plasma nitrite content was not different between the two groups. Laser Doppler flowmetric experiments demonstrated blunted microcirculatory NO-dependent response under hyperthermia in SCA patients. RBC deformability, measured by ektacytometry, was reduced in SCA in contrast to healthy individuals, and pre-shearing RBC in vitro did not improve deformability despite an increase of RBC-NOS activation. RBC-NOS activation is high in freshly drawn blood from SCA patients, resulting in high amounts of NO produced by RBC. However, this does not result in improved RBC deformability and vascular function: higher RBC-NO is not sufficient to counterbalance the enhanced oxidative stress in SCA. PMID:25316332

  13. Insight into steam reforming of ethanol to produce hydrogen for fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prakash D. Vaidya; Alirio E. Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol can be prepared from agricultural residues and hence is a renewable resource. Its production is simple and cheap and hence steam reforming of ethanol to produce hydrogen for fuel cells is attractive. Process engineering aspects of ethanol steam reforming are discussed here. High temperatures, low pressures and high water-to-ethanol ratios in the feed favor hydrogen production. Ni, Co, Ni\\/Cu

  14. Physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Takamatsu, Ako; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-03-01

    Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment ("forest bathing" or "forest therapy") has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest) on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p<0.05). Subjects reported feeling significantly more "relaxed" and "natural" according to the Semantic Differential (SD) method. Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale scores for "tension-anxiety," "confusion," and "anger-hostility," as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. PMID:25809507

  15. Determination of formaldehyde in blood plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenhong Luo; Hui Li; Yuan Zhang; Catharina Y. W Ang

    2001-01-01

    An HPLC method was developed for the determination of formaldehyde in human blood plasma. The method was based on the determination of the fluorescent product of the chemical reaction between formaldehyde and ampicillin. A 0.2-ml aliquot of blood plasma was reacted directly with ampicillin under acidic and heating conditions. The reaction product was extracted from the matrix with diethyl ether

  16. Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the Research on ACEs, ARBs, and DRIs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ARBs do not have any effect — good or bad — on blood sugar levels or cholesterol (fat) in your blood. DRIs are new medications so there is not yet enough research on how they compare to ACEIs and ARBs. What are the side effects of these medicines? The most common side ...

  17. High-throughput biophysical measurement of human red blood cells{ Yi Zheng,ab

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yu

    blood samples) and 82,253 neonatal RBCs (from 5 newborn blood samples), reveal different biophysical properties across samples and between the adult and neonatal RBC populations. In comparison with previously RBC deform- ability, such as sepsis,6,7 malaria,8,9 sickle cell anemia (hemoglo- bin disorder),10

  18. Superior reproductive success on human blood without sugar is not limited to highly anthropophilic mosquito

    E-print Network

    Juliano, Steven A.

    conducted with Aedes albopictus Skuse and Ae. aegypti to compare the effects of sugar availabil- ity on age of the ability to thrive on human blood alone. Key words. Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, blood.S.A. Abstract. Anthropophilic mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) have been shown to have

  19. Identification of 5' AMP-activated kinase as a target of reactive aldehydes during chronic ingestion of high concentrations of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Shearn, Colin T; Backos, Donald S; Orlicky, David J; Smathers-McCullough, Rebecca L; Petersen, Dennis R

    2014-05-30

    The production of reactive aldehydes including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) is a key component of the pathogenesis in a spectrum of chronic inflammatory hepatic diseases including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). One consequence of ALD is increased oxidative stress and altered ?-oxidation in hepatocytes. A major regulator of ?-oxidation is 5' AMP protein kinase (AMPK). In an in vitro cellular model, we identified AMPK as a direct target of 4-HNE adduction resulting in inhibition of both H2O2 and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR)-induced downstream signaling. By employing biotin hydrazide capture, it was confirmed that 4-HNE treatment of cells resulted in carbonylation of AMPK?/?, which was not observed in untreated cells. Using a murine model of alcoholic liver disease, treatment with high concentrations of ethanol resulted in an increase in phosphorylated as well as carbonylated AMPK?. Despite increased AMPK phosphorylation, there was no significant change in phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase. Mass spectrometry identified Michael addition adducts of 4-HNE on Cys(130), Cys(174), Cys(227), and Cys(304) on recombinant AMPK? and Cys(225) on recombinant AMPK?. Molecular modeling analysis of identified 4-HNE adducts on AMPK? suggest that inhibition of AMPK occurs by steric hindrance of the active site pocket and by inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation. The observed inhibition of AMPK by 4-HNE provides a novel mechanism for altered ?-oxidation in ALD, and these data demonstrate for the first time that AMPK is subject to regulation by reactive aldehydes in vivo. PMID:24722988

  20. Identification of 5? AMP-activated Kinase as a Target of Reactive Aldehydes during Chronic Ingestion of High Concentrations of Ethanol*

    PubMed Central

    Shearn, Colin T.; Backos, Donald S.; Orlicky, David J.; Smathers-McCullough, Rebecca L.; Petersen, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    The production of reactive aldehydes including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) is a key component of the pathogenesis in a spectrum of chronic inflammatory hepatic diseases including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). One consequence of ALD is increased oxidative stress and altered ?-oxidation in hepatocytes. A major regulator of ?-oxidation is 5? AMP protein kinase (AMPK). In an in vitro cellular model, we identified AMPK as a direct target of 4-HNE adduction resulting in inhibition of both H2O2 and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR)-induced downstream signaling. By employing biotin hydrazide capture, it was confirmed that 4-HNE treatment of cells resulted in carbonylation of AMPK?/?, which was not observed in untreated cells. Using a murine model of alcoholic liver disease, treatment with high concentrations of ethanol resulted in an increase in phosphorylated as well as carbonylated AMPK?. Despite increased AMPK phosphorylation, there was no significant change in phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase. Mass spectrometry identified Michael addition adducts of 4-HNE on Cys130, Cys174, Cys227, and Cys304 on recombinant AMPK? and Cys225 on recombinant AMPK?. Molecular modeling analysis of identified 4-HNE adducts on AMPK? suggest that inhibition of AMPK occurs by steric hindrance of the active site pocket and by inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation. The observed inhibition of AMPK by 4-HNE provides a novel mechanism for altered ?-oxidation in ALD, and these data demonstrate for the first time that AMPK is subject to regulation by reactive aldehydes in vivo. PMID:24722988

  1. Quantitative analysis of Z-2-[4-(4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-but-1-enyl)phenoxy]ethanol in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy L. Taras; Gregory T. Wurz; Utha Hellmann-Blumberg; Michael W. DeGregorio

    1999-01-01

    A highly sensitive and precise high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed and validated for the quantitation of Z-2-[4-(4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-but-1-enyl) phenoxy]ethanol (FC-1271a) in human plasma. Plasma samples (1.0 ml) containing FC-1271a and internal standard (toremifene citrate; Fareston®) were extracted using a 2% 1-butanol, 98% hexane solution with an extraction efficiency of >97%. Samples were reconstituted in methanol, irradiated with high intensity

  2. Indirect Determination of Potassium Calcium and Magnesium in Blood Plasma by High Perf ormance Capillary Electrophoresis with UV2Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHENG Na

    Potassium sodium calcium and magnesium in blood plasma were separated by high performance capillary elect rop ho resis ( HPCE) in a buffer medium of p H 5. 5 , using tartaric acid as complexing agent . Imidazole was used as backgro und reagent in t he UV2detectio n. Various conditio ns fo r t he CE separation and UV2detection

  3. Relationship of Dietary Crude Protein to Composition of Uterine Secretions and Blood in High-Producing Postpartum Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen R. Jordan; Thomas E. Chapman; Donald W. Holtan; Lloyd V. Swanson

    1983-01-01

    Effects of dietary crude protein on constituents of plasma and uterine secretions were examined at various stages of the estrous cycle of high pro- ducing Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were assigned randomly to isocalorie diets (74% total digestible nutrients) containing either 12 or 23% crude protein (dry matter) on day 40 postpartum. Uterine secretion and coccygeal blood samples were collected

  4. Sodium and potassium in blood and milk and plasma aldosterone levels in high-yield dairy cows

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sodium and potassium in blood and milk and plasma aldosterone levels in high-yield dairy cows A milk production and milk sodium and potassium were measured in 10 Holstein x Friesian cows during a whole lactation period beginning in November and ending in November the following year. The milk

  5. High preoperative blood levels of HE4 predicts poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of preoperative blood levels of HE4 as a predictor of overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer and to validate previous data of HE4 and the ROMA algorithm including HE4 and CA125 in discriminating benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Experimental design The preoperative plasma levels of HE4 and CA125 were analyzed with ELISA in 312 patients with adnexal lesions. Tumors were classified as benign (n= 206), borderline (i.e. low malignant potential tumors) (n= 25), and well (n= 14), moderately (n= 15), and poorly (n= 51) differentiated malignant. Results In univariate Cox regression analyses high levels (dichotomized at the median) of HE4, CA125, increased age (continuous variable), advanced-stage of disease 2–4, histological grade 3 and non-optimal tumor debulking at primary surgery were all significantly associated with shorter overall survival. A multivariate Cox regression model including pre-operative available covariates HE4 and CA125 both dichotomized at median in addition to age as continuous variable showed that high levels of HE4 was an independent prognostic marker for worse prognosis HR 2.02 (95% CI 1.1-3.8). In postmenopausal women the ROMA algorithm gave the highest AUC of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.97) which was higher than the separate markers HE4 AUC 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.95) and CA125 AUC 0.91(95% CI 0.87-0.96). Conclusions High concentration of plasma HE4 is an independent preoperative marker of poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. The algorithm ROMA discriminates in postmenopausal women between malignant and benign tumors with an AUC of 0.94. PMID:22909379

  6. Catalytic depolymerization of lignin in supercritical ethanol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoming; Korányi, Tamás I; Boot, Michael D; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2014-08-01

    One-step valorization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol using a CuMgAlOx catalyst results in high monomer yield (23 wt%) without char formation. Aromatics are the main products. The catalyst combines excellent deoxygenation with low ring-hydrogenation activity. Almost half of the monomer fraction is free from oxygen. Elemental analysis of the THF-soluble lignin residue after 8 h reaction showed a 68% reduction in O/C and 24% increase in H/C atomic ratios as compared to the starting Protobind P1000 lignin. Prolonged reaction times enhanced lignin depolymerization and reduced the amount of repolymerized products. Phenolic hydroxyl groups were found to be the main actors in repolymerization and char formation. 2D HSQC?NMR analysis evidenced that ethanol reacts by alkylation and esterification with lignin fragments. Alkylation was found to play an important role in suppressing repolymerization. Ethanol acts as a capping agent, stabilizing the highly reactive phenolic intermediates by O-alkylating the hydroxyl groups and by C-alkylating the aromatic rings. The use of ethanol is significantly more effective in producing monomers and avoiding char than the use of methanol. A possible reaction network of the reactions between the ethanol and lignin fragments is discussed. PMID:24867490

  7. Oleanolic acid ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Anna; Gzella, Andrzej K.

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound (systematic name: 3?-hy­droxy­olean-12-en-28-oic acid ethanol monosolvate), C30H48O3·C2H5OH, were obtained from unsuccessful co-crystallization trials. The asymmetric unit contains two symmetry-independent oleanolic acid mol­ecules, as well as two ethanol solvent mol­ecules. Inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal packing. In the oleanolic acid mol­ecules, ring C has a slightly distorted envelope conformation, while rings A, B, D and E adopt chair conformations and rings D and E are cis-fused. Both independent ethanol mol­ecules are orientationally disordered [occupancy ratios of 0.742?(8):0.258?(8) and 0.632?(12):0.368?(12). PMID:21588987

  8. Arterial stiffness is increased in young normotensive subjects with high central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Totaro, Silvia; Khoury, Philip R; Kimball, Thomas R; Dolan, Lawrence M; Urbina, Elaine M

    2015-04-01

    Information on high central blood pressure (CBP; HCP) in normotensive subjects (NT) and its relation to target organ damage (TOD) is not well established in young subjects. This study aimed to elucidate determinants of HCP and its relation with TOD. Anthropometrics, lab, brachial, and CBP were obtained on 430 normotensive subjects (NT; 16-24 years, 34% male, 44% Caucasian, 27% type 2 diabetes). HCP was defined as elevated CBP, with normal brachial BP. Subjects with HCP (prevalence, 16%) were more frequently female and African American, and had a higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes, a more adverse metabolic profile, higher levels of inflammation, brachial BP, central pulse pressure, and heart rate compared with NT. HCP also had evidence for TOD with a significant higher carotid intima media thickness, left ventricular mass, augmentation index, pulse wave velocity, and lower brachial distensibility than NT. HCP is related to early cardiac and vascular dysfunction and remain an independent predictor of TOD even after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25891361

  9. Optimization of real-time high-frequency ultrasound for blood flow imaging in the microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Dustin E.; Mai, Jerome J.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Insana, Michael F.; Coleman, D. J.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2001-05-01

    The first high frequency ultrasound system able to image blood flow in the microcirculation in real-time has been developed. 2D color flow frames are rapidly acquired using a recently reported method to achieve frame rates approaching 10 fps. A new flow phantom was constructed in order to tune the wall filter order, cutoff and attenuation for a 25 MHz, f/2 transducer. RF data were acquired in both M-mode and swept-mode, and processed in order to tune the wall filter. These filters were then used in making controlled measurements of flow velocity and volume flow rate for a typical PRF of 500 Hz (1 mm/sec scan speed). Over th einput of mean axial velocities ranging from 0.3 to 3.0 mm/sec (0.88 to 8.8 mm/sec angle corrected), the measured mean and maximum flow velocities were linear, with slight over-estimation of mean velocities due to the wall filter cutoff. Without correction for finite beam size, the volume flow rates were over-estimated by a factor of 2. The color flow settings were then applied to image microcirculatory flow within the nail bed of a human finger, where they were tested and optimized for a variety of vessel sizes and flow velocities.

  10. The switch from xylose to glucose stalled by repression of xylose-utilizing enzymes during exposure of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis to high ethanol concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 (CBS 5773), the switch from glucose to xylose uptake results in a diauxic lag unless process strategies to prevent this are applied. When cells were grown on glucose, the length of th...

  11. Stability of diazepam in blood samples at different storage conditions and in the presence of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, V N; Stoykova, S; Runiov, A; Dimitrova, T; Aleksandrova, D; Tsakovski, S; Mitewa, M

    2012-02-10

    Diazepam is one of the mostly used benzodiazepines and it is frequently analyzed in different biological samples, especially blood samples. The diazepam stability in the sample matrices is an important factor regarding reliable data obtaining. The storage is the main factor determining the stability of diazepam in blood samples and it is the object of the study presented. Remaining diazepam amount in spiked whole blood and plasma samples were tested at different storage temperatures, in the absence or presence of sodium fluoride as stabilizer as well as the influence of ethanol on diazepam stability was evaluated. The results of the study indicated that the temperature is the main storage factor affecting diazepam stability. In the fluoride stabilized blood samples the amount of diazepam decreases up to 85% of initial level when stored at -20° C for the period of testing (12 weeks). The presence of low (0.5 g/L) or high (3g/L) ethanol concentrations influences the stability of diazepam at -20 °C. In whole blood samples, the combination of sodium fluoride and ethanol decreases additionally (15-25%) the concentration of the analyte. Freeze-thaw experiments of whole blood samples show about 5-9% decrease in diazepam concentration after the first cycle. The freeze-thaw experiments on plasma samples, containing ethanol and/or fluoride show insignificant decreases of analyte concentration. Further experiments on benzodiazepines stability at different storage conditions or in combination of different factors should be undertaken in forensic toxicology to ensure the data quality, their reliability and reproducibility. PMID:21549532

  12. High-Permittivity Thin Dielectric Padding Improves Fresh Blood Imaging of Femoral Arteries at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, Marc D; Kim, Daniel; Morrell, Glen; Heilbrun, Marta E; Storey, Pippa; Hanrahan, Christopher J; Lee, Vivian S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fresh blood imaging (FBI) is a useful non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) method for assessment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), particularly in patients with poor renal function. Compared with 1.5T, 3T enables higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and/or spatio-temporal resolution in FBI, as demonstrated successfully for the calf station. However, FBI of the thigh station at 3T has been reported to suffer from signal void in the common femoral artery of one thigh only due to the radial symmetry in transmit radio-frequency field (B1+) variation. We sought to increase the femoral arterial signal attenuated by B1+ variation in FBI at 3T using high permittivity dielectric padding. Materials and Methods We performed FBI of the thigh station in 13 human subjects at 3T to compare the following 3 settings: no padding, commercially available thick (~ 5 cm) dielectric padding, and high-permittivity thin (~2 cm) dielectric padding. B1+ mapping was also performed in the common femoral arteries to characterize the radial symmetry in B1+ variation and quantify the improvement in B1+ excitation. We characterized the impact of radial symmetry in B1+ variation on the FBI signal and FBI MRA of the right common femoral artery using quantitative (i.e., contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)) and qualitative (i.e., conspicuity) analyses. Results The radial symmetry in B1+ variation attenuates signal in the right common femoral artery, which can be partially improved with commercial padding and improved further with high permittivity padding. Averaging the results over 13 subjects, the B1+, CNR and conspicuity scores in the right common femoral artery were significantly better with high-permittivity padding than with commercial padding and baseline (p<0.001). Conclusions Our study shows that high-permittivity dielectric padding can be used to increase the femoral arterial signal attenuated by B1+ variation in FBI at 3T. PMID:25329606

  13. Consumption of Pistachio Nuts Beneficially Affected Blood Lipids and Total Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. ALTURFAN; E. EMEKLI-ALTURFAN; E. USLU

    Although nuts are typically high in dietary fat, novel studies have shown that regular consump- tion of these heart-healthy foods might confer a bene- ficial effect on cardiovascular disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the effects of pista- chio consumption on blood lipids, antioxidant activity, oxidative stress and sialic acid levels in high-fat-fed rats for 8

  14. Role of parenteral nutrition in cancer patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tartarone, Alfredo; Wunder, Jenna; Romano, Gianpiero; Ardito, Raffaele; Iodice, Giovanni; Mazzuoli, Silvia; Barone, Marialucia; Matera, Rosella; Di Renzo, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation represents a recognized option in the treatment of solid tumors and hematologic diseases. Patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy are traditionally supported with parenteral nutrition with the aim to prevent malnutrition secondary to gastrointestinal toxicity and metabolic alterations induced by the conditioning regimens. Nevertheless, well-defined guidelines for its use in this clinical setting are lacking and there are several areas of controversy. PMID:16206647

  15. Chemosensory responsiveness to ethanol and its individual sensory components in alcohol-preferring, -nonpreferring and genetically heterogeneous rats

    PubMed Central

    Brasser, Susan M.; Silbaugh, Bryant C.; Ketchum, Myles J.; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Lemon, Christian H.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol activates orosensory circuits that project to motivationally relevant limbic forebrain areas that control appetite, feeding and drinking. To date, limited data exists regarding the contribution of chemosensory-derived ethanol reinforcement to ethanol preference and consumption. Measures of taste reactivity to intra-orally infused ethanol have not found differences in initial orofacial responses to alcohol between alcohol-preferring (P) and – nonpreferring (NP) genetically selected rat lines. Yet, in voluntary intake tests P rats prefer highly-concentrated ethanol upon initial exposure, suggesting an early sensory-mediated attraction. Here, we directly compared self-initiated chemosensory responding for alcohol and prototypic sweet, bitter, and oral trigeminal stimuli among selectively bred P, NP, and non-selected Wistar (WI) outbred lines to determine whether differential sensory responsiveness to ethanol and its putative sensory components are phenotypically associated with genetically-influenced alcohol preference. Rats were tested for immediate short-term lick responses to alcohol (3–40%), sucrose (0.01–1 M), quinine (0.01–3 mM) and capsaicin (0.003–1 mM) in a brief-access assay designed to index orosensory-guided behavior. P rats exhibited elevated short-term lick responses to both alcohol and sucrose relative to NP and WI lines across a broad range of concentrations of each stimulus and in the absence of blood alcohol levels that would produce significant postabsorptive effects. There was no consistent relationship between genetically-mediated alcohol preference and orosensory avoidance of quinine or capsaicin. These data indicate that enhanced initial chemosensory attraction to ethanol and sweet stimuli are phenotypes associated with genetic alcohol preference and are considered within the framework of downstream activation of oral appetitive reward circuits. PMID:22129513

  16. Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?

    E-print Network

    Boas, Harold P.

    Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant? JAMES M. GRIFFIN & RACHAEL DAHL The Mosbacher Institute VOLUME 3 | ISSUE 2 | 2012 2012 RELAXING THE ETHANOL MANDATE The severity of the drought of 2012 affecting for ethanol production, 6.72 BB for domestic food and feed and the remainder for exports (Figure 1). The USDA

  17. Fuel ethanol after 25 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan E Wheals; Luiz C Basso; Denise M. G Alves; Henrique V Amorim

    1999-01-01

    After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for

  18. Deficient Dopamine D2 Receptor Function Causes Renal Inflammation Independently of High Blood Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanrong Zhang; Santiago Cuevas; Laureano D. Asico; Crisanto Escano; Yu Yang; Annabelle M. Pascua; Xiaoyan Wang; John E. Jones; David Grandy; Gilbert Eisner; Pedro A. Jose; Ines Armando

    2012-01-01

    Renal dopamine receptors participate in the regulation of blood pressure. Genetic factors, including polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) are associated with essential hypertension, but the mechanisms of their contribution are incompletely understood. Mice lacking Drd2 (D2?\\/?) have elevated blood pressure, increased renal expression of inflammatory factors, and renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that decreased dopamine D2

  19. Syzygium aromaticum ethanol extract reduces high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through downregulation of adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, CHANG HWA; AHN, JIYUN; JEON, TAE-IL; KIM, TAE WAN; HA, TAE YOUL

    2012-01-01

    Numerous medicinal plants and their derivatives have been reported to prevent obesity and related diseases. Although Syzygium aromaticum has traditionally been used as an anodyne, carminative and anthelmintic in Asian countries, its potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity has not yet been explored. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-obesity effect of S. aromaticum ethanol extract (SAE) both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the anti-obesity potential of SAE in vitro, the effect of SAE treatment on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated. To evaluate its potential in vivo, mice were assigned to three groups: a group fed the American Institute of Nutrition AIN-76A diet (normal group), an experimental group fed a high-fat diet (HFD group) and an experimental group fed an HFD supplemented with 0.5% (w/w) SAE (HFD + SAE group). After 9 weeks of feeding, the body weight; white adipose tissue (WAT) mass; serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose, insulin and leptin; hepatic lipid accumulation; and levels of lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver and WAT were measured. In vitro investigation of the effect of SAE treatment on 3T3-L1 cells revealed that it had efficiently inhibited the conversion of cells into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo investigation revealed that SAE supplementation had significantly decreased HFD-induced increases in the body weight, liver weight, WAT mass, and serum TG, TC, lipid, glucose, insulin and leptin levels. Consistent with its effects on liver weight and WAT mass, SAE supplementation was found to have suppressed the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins, including SREBP-1, FAS, CD36 and PPAR? in the liver and WAT, in addition to downregulating mRNA levels of transcription factors including Srebp and Pparg. SAE inhibits fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice via the suppression of transcription factors integral to adipogenesis and lipogenesis, suggesting its potential in preventing obesity. PMID:23181109

  20. Transportation Fuels: Ethanol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This teacher's guide includes activities and lessons on ethanol which could be used for grades 4-12. The document includes national science content standards, elementary, intermediate and secondary level activities, math content, crosswords and an evaluation form. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  1. Developmental Differences in Acute Ethanol Withdrawal in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara L. Doremus-Fitzwater; Linda P. Spear

    2007-01-01

    Background: Withdrawal from an acute high ethanol dose induces behaviors reminiscent of withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure. While such ''hangover''-related anxiety has previously been shown to be considerably less pronounced in adolescent compared to adult male rats, onto- genetic studies are limited and few experiments have directly compared sex- and age-related differ- ences in sensitivity to ethanol hangover. Methods: The

  2. Cosolvency effect in subsurface systems contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry X. Corseuil; Beatriz I. A. Kaipper; Marilda Fernandes

    2004-01-01

    In Brazil, most gas stations and terminals store tanks containing hydrated ethanol, gasohol and diesel. In case of spills, it is possible that a high aqueous ethanol concentration can facilitate the transfer of hydrocarbons into the aqueous phase, enhancing contaminant concentrations in groundwater, a process called cosolvency. This study investigates the cosolvency effect of ethanol on the aqueous solubility of

  3. Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harinder Singh Oberoi; Praveen V. Vadlani; Lavudi Saida; Sunil Bansal; Joshua D. Hughes

    2011-01-01

    Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.92 for ethanol

  4. Conversion of wet ethanol to syngas via filtration combustion: An experimental and computational investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin H. Smith; Daniel M. Leahey; Liane E. Miller; Janet L. Ellzey

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol is often promoted as the biofuel of the future, yet its acceptance as a fuel for combustion devices is limited by the cost of production. Since most combustion engines cannot tolerate high concentrations of water, the ethanol must be distilled and dehydrated, requiring large amounts of energy. Ethanol also has great potential as a feedstock for syngas consisting of

  5. Proteomic Analyses of Ethanol Tolerance in Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929 strain, isolated from a fuel ethanol production facility, exhibits high tolerance to environmental ethanol concentrations. In this study, the ethanol tolerance trait was elucidated at the molecular level by using proteomics comparison and analyses. Cellular p...

  6. OVERVIEW AND EVALUATION OF FUEL ETHANOL FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS: Technology, Economics, the Environment, and Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee R. Lynd

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol is a high performance fuel in internal combustion engines. It is a liquid, which is advantageous in terms of storage, delivery, and infrastructural compatability. Ethanol burns relatively cleanly, especially as the amount of gasoline with which it is blended decreases. Evaporative and toxicity-weighted air toxics emissions are consistently lower for ethanol than for gasoline. It is likely that

  7. Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen Using Combinatorial Shici Duan and Selim Senkan*

    E-print Network

    Senkan, Selim M.

    Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen Using Combinatorial Methods Shici Duan and Selim Senkan* Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1532 Ethanol in this area focused on steam reforming of ethanol at relatively high temperatures (T > 500 °C), where carbon

  8. Adding value to carbon dioxide from ethanol fermentations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yixiang; Isom, Loren; Hanna, Milford A

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from ethanol production facilities is increasing as more ethanol is produced for alternative transportation fuels. CO(2) produced from ethanol fermentation processes is of high purity and is nearly a saturated gas. Such highly-concentrated source of CO(2) is a potential candidate for capture and utilization by the CO(2) industry. Quantity, quality and capture of CO(2) from ethanol fermentations are discussed in this review. The established and emerging value-added opportunities and markets for CO(2) from ethanol plants also are reviewed. The majority of CO(2) applications are dedicated to serving carbonated beverage and food processing and preservation markets. Beyond traditional merchant markets, the potential for exploring some fresh and profitable markets are discussed including carbon sources in chemical industries for the following: enhanced oil recovery; production of chemicals, fuels, and polymers; and production of algae-based biofuels through CO(2) fixation by microalgae. PMID:20110166

  9. National Conference on High Blood Pressure Control in Native American Communities (2nd, Tulsa, Oklahoma, November 6-7, 1980). Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    As part of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program effort, the conference explored the impact of high blood pressure (hypertension) on Native Americans. Participants, including health professionals, health service consumers, and volunteers providing health services to Native Americans, discussed these issues: traditional Native American…

  10. Hypertension and chronic ethanol consumption: What do we know after a century of study?

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Katia Colombo; Muniz, Jaqueline Jóice; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato

    2014-01-01

    The influences of life habits on the cardiovascular system may have important implications for public health, as cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of shorter life expectancy worldwide. A link between excessive ethyl alcohol (ethanol) consumption and arterial hypertension was first suggested early last century. Since then, this proposition has received considerable attention. Support for the concept of ethanol as a cause of hypertension derives from several epidemiologic studies demonstrating that in the general population, increased blood pressure is significantly correlated with ethanol consumption. Although the link between ethanol consumption and hypertension is well established, the mechanism through which ethanol increases blood pressure remains elusive. Possible mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hypertension were proposed based on clinical and experimental observations. These mechanisms include an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an increase of intracellular Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle, increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. The present report reviews the relationship between ethanol intake and hypertension and highlights some mechanisms underlying this response. These issues are of interest for the public health, as ethanol consumption contributes to blood pressure elevation in the population. PMID:24944758

  11. Long-Term Reduction of High Blood Pressure by Angiotensin II DNA Vaccine in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hironori; Nakagami, Futoshi; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Kyutoku, Mariko; Shimamura, Munehisa; Kurinami, Hitomi; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2015-07-01

    Recent research on vaccination has extended its scope from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, including Alzheimer disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to design DNA vaccines for high blood pressure and eventually develop human vaccine therapy to treat hypertension. Plasmid vector encoding hepatitis B core-angiotensin II (Ang II) fusion protein was injected into spontaneously hypertensive rats using needleless injection system. Anti-Ang II antibody was successfully produced in hepatitis B core-Ang II group, and antibody response against Ang II was sustained for at least 6 months. Systolic blood pressure was consistently lower in hepatitis B core-Ang II group after immunization, whereas blood pressure reduction was continued for at least 6 months. Perivascular fibrosis in heart tissue was also significantly decreased in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. Survival rate was significantly improved in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. This study demonstrated that Ang II DNA vaccine to spontaneously hypertensive rats significantly lowered high blood pressure for at least 6 months. In addition, Ang II DNA vaccines induced an adequate humoral immune response while avoiding the activation of self-reactive T cells, assessed by ELISPOT assay. Future development of DNA vaccine to treat hypertension may provide a new therapeutic option to treat hypertension. PMID:26015450

  12. Toxicological outcomes in rats exposed to inhaled ethanol during gestation.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Rogers, John M; Copeland, Carey B; Bushnell, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Recent legislation has encouraged replacing petroleum-based fuels with renewable alternatives including ethanol, which is typically blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 10%, with allowances for concentrations up to 85% for some vehicles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol, and the lack of information about its toxicity by inhalation prompted the present work on its potential developmental effects in a rat model. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or ethanol vapor at concentrations of 5000, 10,000, or 21,000 ppm, which resulted in estimated peak blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) of 2.3, 6.7, and 192 mg/dL, respectively. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed. Ethanol did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the pups. Motor activity was normal in offspring through postnatal day (PND) 29. On PND 62, the 5000 and 21,000 ppm groups were more active than controls. On PND 29 and 62, offspring were tested with a functional observational battery, which revealed small changes in the neuromuscular and sensorimotor domains that were not systematically related to dose. Cell-mediated and humoral immunity were not affected by ethanol exposure in 6-week-old offspring. Systolic blood pressure was increased by 10,000 ppm ethanol in males at PND 90 but not at PND 180. No differences in lipoprotein profile, liver function, or kidney function were observed. In summary, prenatal exposure to inhaled ethanol caused some mild changes in physiological and behavioral development in offspring that were not clearly related to inhaled concentration or BEC, and did not produce detectable changes in immune function. This low toxicity of inhaled ethanol may result from the slow rise in BEC by the inhalation route. PMID:25092052

  13. Fuel ethanol after 25 years.

    PubMed

    Wheals, A E; Basso, L C; Alves, D M; Amorim, H V

    1999-12-01

    After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for fuel-ethanol production was to become more independent of oil imports; now, the emphasis is on its use as an oxygenated gasoline additive. There will only be sufficient, low-cost ethanol if lignocellulose feedstock is also used. PMID:10557161

  14. Low Frequency Electroacupuncture Selectively Decreases Voluntarily Ethanol Intake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zou, Yihuai; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Although there is increasing clinical acceptance of acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) as a treatment of substance abuse-related disorders, our understanding of this treatment remains incomplete. Previous clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that acupuncture and EA are effective in reducing ethanol consumption. Recent studies have shown that Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats under an intermittent-access two-bottle choice drinking procedure (IE procedure) voluntarily drank high amounts of ethanol. However, an effect of EA on ethanol consumption of the SD rats under this drinking procedure has not been demonstrated. In the present study, we demonstrated that SD rats escalated their ethanol intake and subsequently developed ethanol dependence under the IE procedure. A single low (2 Hz), but not high frequency (100 Hz) EA treatment applied at the bilateral acupoint Zusanli (ST36), but not at the tail reduced voluntary intake of, and preference for ethanol, but not sucrose. Furthermore, repeated EA treatments decreased the intake of and preference for ethanol, without resulting in a rebound increase in ethanol intake when the EA treatments were terminated. These observations indicate that EA may be a useful treatment for alcohol abuse. PMID:21893169

  15. Parallel donor genotyping for 46 selected blood group and 4 human platelet antigens using high-throughput maldi-tof mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Stefan; Trost, Nadine; Frey, Beat M; Gassner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Most blood group antigens are defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Highly accurate MALDI-TOF MS has proven its potential in SNP genotyping and was therefore chosen for blood donor oriented genotyping with high-throughput capability, e.g., 380 samples per day. The Select Module covers a total of 36 SNPs in two single-tube reactions, representative of 46 blood group and 4 human platelet antigens. Using this tool, confirmatory blood group typing for RhD, RhCE, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MN, Ss, and selected rare antigens is performed on a routine basis. PMID:26024625

  16. [The high pressure liquid chromatography of corticoids. II. Analysis of synthetic corticoids in blood and urine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Saito, Z; Amatsu, E; Ono, T; Hihumi, S; Mimou, T; Hashiba, T; Sakato, S; Miyamoto, M; Takeda, R

    1979-10-20

    The high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique was developed to separate and quantitate the synthetic corticosteroids (s-CS) which are widely used clinically. 1) 12 kinds of s-CS in alcoholic solvent and 2) some of their metabolites in the plasma and urine of healthy subjects with oral administration of s-CS were investigated for the preliminary work. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Cortisol sodium phosphate, Dexamethasone 21, disodium phosphate, Paramethasone acetate, Cortisol acetate, Cortisone acetate, Methylprednisolone acetate, Prednisone, Dexamethasone, 9 alpha-fluorocortisol, Betamethasone, Triamcinolone, and Prednisolone in ethanol were clearly separated by HPLC from Cortisol (F). In the suitable condition of the HPLC (LC-2 type) with a Zorbax SIL column, organic solvent (cyclohexane:dichloromethane:ethanol = 9:4:1)-carrier mobile phases and UV detector, the retention time of each s-CS was obviously different from that of F. The calibration curve was obtained in a linear line with regards to each s-CS. The mean recovery was 97.6% and the coefficient of variation were 1.6 (intraassay) and 7.2 (interassay)%. The sensitivity of the steroid determination was 200pg order. 2) The serial changes in plasma concentrations of s-CS; CS-metabolites and endogenous F were shown in 3 healthy males and 2 females following oral administration of the s-CS. The separated metabolites in number and quality depended on the kind of s-CS. Prednisone and other kinds of the acidified products were separated from prednisolone in the plasma and urinary samples of the healthy subjects as well as Addisonian patients. In conclusion, the HPLC method is useful for the separation and quantitation of the UV-absorbing CS of human plasma and urine. The obtained chromatograms may be an indication of the metabolic state of the subject with treatment of s-CS. PMID:510630

  17. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  18. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their blood . Donors give blood at local blood banks, at community centers during blood drives, or through ... in the world. Many organizations, including community blood banks and the federal government, work hard to ensure ...

  19. Blood Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t have serious reactions to having blood drawn. Laboratory (lab) workers draw the blood and analyze it. They use either whole blood to count blood cells, or they separate the blood cells from the ...

  20. Up-regulation of high-affinity neurotrophin receptor, trk B-like protein on Western blots of rat cortex after chronic ethanol treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-K. Baek; M. B. Heaton; D. W. Walker

    1996-01-01

    We previously reported that the total neurotrophic activity of hippocampal extracts was significantly (25–50%) reduced after 21–28 weeks of chronic ethanol treatment (CET) [23]. To test whether the level of a neurotrophic factor (i.e., ligand itself) is compromised, we measured nerve growth factor (NGF) protein and NGF mRNA contents using ELISA and Northern analysis. We reported that CET did not

  1. Gas-liquid interface-mediated room-temperature synthesis of "clean" PdNiP alloy nanoparticle networks with high catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongfang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hui; Key, Julian; Ji, Shan

    2014-11-01

    PdNiP alloy nanoparticle networks (PdNiP NN) were prepared by simultaneous reduction of PdCl2, NiCl2 and NaH2PO2 with NaBH4via a gas-liquid interface reaction at room temperature using N2 bubbles. PdNiP NN had markedly higher activity and durability for ethanol oxidation than PdNi nanoparticle networks and PdNiP grain aggregates. PMID:25213875

  2. Social rank, chronic ethanol self-administration, and diurnal pituitary–adrenal activity in cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    McClintick, Megan N.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Dominance hierarchies affect ethanol self-administration, with greater intake among subordinate animals compared to dominant animals. Excessive ethanol intake disrupts circadian rhythms. Diurnal rhythms of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis have not been characterized in the context of ethanol self-administration with regard to social rank. Objective This study aimed to determine whether diurnal pituitary–adrenal hormonal rhythms account for differences between social ranks in ethanol self-administration or are differentially affected by ethanol self-administration between social ranks. Methods During alternating individual (n=11–12) and social (n=3 groups) housing of male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), diurnal measures of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were obtained from plasma samples three times per week. Social rank was determined, ethanol (4 %, w/v) self-administration was induced, and then the monkeys were allowed a choice of water or ethanol for 22 h/day for 49 weeks. Results For all social ranks, plasma ACTH was elevated during social housing, but cortisol was stable, although greater among dominant monkeys. Ethanol self-administration blunted the effect of social housing, cortisol, and the diurnal rhythm for both hormones, regardless of daily ethanol intake (1.2–4.2 g/kg/day). Peak ACTH and cortisol were more likely to be observed in the morning during ethanol access. Ethanol, not vehicle, intake was lower during social housing across social ranks. Only dominant monkeys showed significantly lower blood–ethanol concentration during social housing. Conclusions There was a low threshold for disruption of diurnal pituitary rhythms by ethanol drinking, but sustained adrenal corticosteroid rhythms. Protection against heavy drinking among dominant monkeys may have constrained ethanol intoxication, possibly to preserve dominance rank. PMID:22526537

  3. ACUTE EFFECT OF A SINGLE HIGH-FAT MEAL ON FOREARM BLOOD FLOW, BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE IN HEALTHY MALE ASIANS AND CAUSASIANS: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Chumjit; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Shavlik, David; Remigio, Wilton; Montgomery, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that ingestion of a single high-fat (HF) meal causes postprandial lipemia and produces a reduced brachial artery blood flow response to vascular occlusion in Caucasians. However, the forearm BF response to occlusion in Caucasian and Asian populations after a single HF meal has not been compared. Eleven healthy male Asians, mean age 26.4 (±4.2) years, height 174.2 (±7.4) cm, and weight 73.8 (±5.7) kg and eight Caucasians, mean age 26.8 (±4.6) years, height 182.9 (±5.9) cm, and weight 82.8 (±4.8) kg were studied. A randomized cross-over study design was used with a HF (50.1 g total fat) or low-fat (LF) (5.1 g total fat) test meal 1 week apart. Forearm blood flow was measured over a 2-minute period following a 4-minute occlusion (FBFO) at 2 and 4 hours following ingestion of a test meal. This study found that FBFO was significantly attenuated in Asians (19.3%; p=0.09) compared to Caucasians after the ingestion of a HF meal. When comparing LF vs HF meals in Asians, the FBFO were 336.9 ml/100 ml tissue/minute and 240.8 ml/100 ml tissue/minute, respectively (p=0.02), whereas in Caucasians, the FBFO were 344.8 ml/100 ml tissue/minute and 287.4 ml/100 ml tissue/minute, respectively. It appears Asians have a more sensitive response to a single HF meal which may be explained, in part, by genotypic variation. These findings suggest that a single HF meal may contribute to the detrimental effects on vascular health in Asian males and raises speculation regarding the cumulative impact of a chronic HF diet in this population. PMID:20578534

  4. Ethanol Sensor of CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 Obtained from Ce-DOPED Layered Double Hydroxides with High Response and Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongmei; Guan, Meiyu; Xu, Qinghong; Guo, Ying; Wang, Yao

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, Ce-doped CdAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) was first synthesized and the derivative CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 composite oxide was prepared by calcining Ce-doped CdAl LDH. The structure, morphology and chemical state of the Ce doped CdAl LDH and CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 were also investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The gas sensing properties of CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 to ethanol were further studied and compared with CdO/Al2O3 prepared from CdAl LDH, CeO2 powder as well as the calcined Ce salt. It turns out that CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 sensor shows best performance in ethanol response. Besides, CdO/Al2O3/CeO2 possesses short response/recovery time (12/72 s) as well as remarkable selectivity in ethanol sensing, which means composite oxides prepared from LDH are very promising in gas sensing application.

  5. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition reveals an important role for the renin system in the control of normal and high blood pressure in man.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, G A; Markandu, N D; Smith, S J; Sagnella, G A; Morton, J J

    1983-01-01

    Captopril, given for 5 days to normotensive healthy subjects caused a significant fall in blood pressure. The fall in mean supine blood pressure was greater on a low sodium diet (10 mmols/day) - 19.6% and was less on a high sodium diet (350 mmols/day) - 11% compared to the normal sodium intake (120 mmols/day) when the fall in blood pressure was 16.5%. Patients with essential hypertension who were studied on their normal diet had a similar fall in blood pressure for a given plasma renin activity. It seems likely that the predominant mechanism whereby captopril lowers blood pressure is through the inhibition of the formation of angiotensin II. If this is so, our results suggest that the renin system is an important control of both normal and high blood pressure when on a normal sodium intake. PMID:6315274

  6. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in adult patients with high-risk or advanced Ewing and soft tissue sarcoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Engelhardt; R. Zeiser; G. Ihorst; J. Finke; C. I. Müller

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  Despite the availability of combined-modality treatment for Ewing sarcoma (ES) and soft tissue sarcomas (STS), results from independent groups still indicate a poor prognosis for high-risk and metastasized patients. The benefit of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as compared to standard treatment is not defined.Methods  Here, we report of HDCT in 35 consecutive adult patients

  7. Undernutrition and Obesity Associated with High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents from João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly S. Silva; Rosane C. R. Silva; Maria F. S. Duarte; Adair S. Lopes; Francisco M. Silva

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, correlation, and association of undernutrition and obesity with\\u000a high blood pressure (HBP). One thousand five hundred seventy (1570) students (808 boys and 762 girls), aged 7–12 years, from\\u000a João Pessoa, Paraíba (Northeastern Brazil) participated. Measurements of stature, body weight, skinfolds [triceps (TS) and\\u000a subscapular (SS)], upper-arm circumference (UAC), upper-arm fat area

  8. Simultaneous measurement of allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine in blood by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Czauderna; J Kowalczyk

    1997-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determining catabolism products of nucleic acids and purines, such as oxypurines (i.e. uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine) and allantoin in the blood plasma of ruminants was developed. The plasma was deproteinized with 10% trichloroacetic acid. The method enabled determination of oxypurines without derivatization. Allantoin was determined after conversion with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to a hydrazone (GLX-DNPH).

  9. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Yki-Jaervinen, H.; Koivisto, V.A.; Ylikahri, R.; Taskinen, M.R. (Helsinki Univ. and Research Labs. of the Finnish State Alcohol Co. (Finland))

    1988-02-01

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in R{sub a} was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (R{sub d}), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on R{sub a} is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of R{sub d}; (2) basal R{sub a} and R{sub d} are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance.

  10. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Schniedermann; Moritz Rennecke; Kerstin Buttler; Georg Richter; Anna-Maria Städtler; Susanne Norgall; Muhammad Badar; Bernhard Barleon; Tobias May; Jörg Wilting; Herbert A Weich

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. RESULTS: In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung

  11. Kiss High Blood Pressure Goodbye: The Relationship between Dark Chocolate and Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmoe, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a delicious finding from a recent study claiming a causal link between dark chocolate consumption and blood pressure reductions. In the article, I provide ideas for using this study to whet student appetites for a discussion of statistical ideas, including experimental design, measurement error and inference methods.

  12. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  13. A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susann Schenk; Gary J Schoenhals; Gustavo de Souza; Matthias Mann

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list, HUPO later re-analysed their own original dataset with a more stringent statistical treatment that resulted in a much

  14. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  15. Highly accurate quantification of hydroxyproline-containing peptides in blood using a protease digest of stable isotope-labeled collagen.

    PubMed

    Taga, Yuki; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2014-12-17

    Collagen-derived hydroxyproline (Hyp)-containing dipeptides and tripeptides, which are known to possess physiological functions, appear in blood at high concentrations after oral ingestion of gelatin hydrolysate. However, highly accurate and sensitive quantification of the Hyp-containing peptides in blood has been challenging because of the analytical interference from numerous other blood components. We recently developed a stable isotope-labeled collagen named "SI-collagen" that can be used as an internal standard in various types of collagen analyses employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Here we prepared stable isotope-labeled Hyp-containing peptides from SI-collagen using trypsin/chymotrypsin and plasma proteases by mimicking the protein degradation pathways in the body. With the protease digest of SI-collagen used as an internal standard mixture, we achieved highly accurate simultaneous quantification of Hyp and 13 Hyp-containing peptides in human blood by LC-MS. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve of Hyp-containing peptides ranged from 0.663 ± 0.022 nmol/mL·h for Pro-Hyp-Gly to 163 ± 1 nmol/mL·h for Pro-Hyp after oral ingestion of 25 g of fish gelatin hydrolysate, and the coefficient of variation of three separate measurements was <7% for each peptide except for Glu-Hyp-Gly, which was near the detection limit. Our method is useful for absorption/metabolism studies of the Hyp-containing peptides and development of functionally characterized gelatin hydrolysate. PMID:25417748

  16. High Genotypic Discordance of Concurrent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Sputum and Blood of HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ssengooba, Willy; Cobelens, Frank G.; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Mboowa, Gerald; Armstrong, Derek T.; Manabe, Yukari C.; Joloba, Moses L.; de Jong, Bouke C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Among HIV-infected individuals with CD4 less than 200 cells/mm3, tuberculosis often has an atypical presentation, is more likely to be disseminated and is diagnostically challenging. We sought to understand the genotypic discordance of concurrent sputum and blood M. tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from HIV-infected individuals. Methods From a prospective diagnostic accuracy study with 182 HIV-infected culture-positive TB adults, isolates were obtained from 51 of 66 participants who were MTB culture-positive by both sputum and blood. Isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing to 1st line drugs, spoligotyping and 24 locus- MIRU-VNTR. Results The median age of the participants was 31 (IQR; 27–38) years and 51% were male. The median CD4 count was 29 (IQR; 10–84) cells/mm3 with 20% taking ART; 8.0% were previously treated for TB, and 63% were AFB smear-negative. The isolates belonged to two of the main global MTB-lineages; East-African-Indian (L3) 17 (16.7%) and Euro-American (L4) 85 (83.3%). We identified 26 (51.0%) participants with discordant MTB-genotypes between sputum and blood, including two patients with evidence of mixed infection in either compartment. Having discordant MTB-genotypes was not predicted by the MTB-lineage in either blood or sputum, CD4 cell count, or any other clinical characteristic. Conclusions There is a high genotypic discordance among M. tuberculosis concurrently isolated from sputum and blood of HIV-infected individuals. These findings suggest that infection with more than one strain of M. tuberculosis occurs in at least half of patients with advanced HIV infection. PMID:26176604

  17. New Ethanol Ordering Process Effective March 11, 2013, Ethanol must be ordered through an Ethanol Form in the

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    New Ethanol Ordering Process Effective March 11, 2013, Ethanol must be ordered through an Ethanol Services will accept faxed orders for Ethanol. · Monday, March 11, 2013 is the first day the PantherExpress System will accept orders for Ethanol. Requirements · Your PantherExpress System account must be properly

  18. Cord blood testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the cord blood may be found if the mother has diabetes. The newborn will be watched for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) after delivery. High levels of bilirubin could be due ... Mother taking sulfa drugs during pregnancy Rh incompatibility ...

  19. The Product of Resting Heart Rate Times Blood Pressure Is Associated with High Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiuhua; Liu, Xuemei; Luo, Yanxia; Liu, Xiurong; Huang, Zhe; Chen, Shuohua; Zhao, Xingquan; Jonas, Jost B.; Wu, Shouling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate potential associations between resting heart rate, blood pressure and the product of both, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) as a maker of arterial stiffness. Methods The community-based “Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC) Study” examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a general Chinese population and included participants with an age of 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. Arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV?1400 cm/s. We measured and calculated the product of resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure (RHR-SBP) and the product of resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure (RHR-MAP). Results The study included 5153 participants with a mean age of 55.1±11.8 years. Mean baPWV was 1586±400 cm/s. Significant (P<0.0001) linear relationships were found between higher baPWV and higher resting heart rate or higher arterial blood pressure, with the highest baPWV observed in individuals from the highest quartiles of resting heart rate and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding parameters such as age, sex, educational level, body mass index, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, blood lipids and high-sensitive C-reactive protein, smoking status and alcohol consumption, prevalence of arterial stiffness increased significantly (P<0.0001) with increasing RHR-SBP quartile (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.72;95%Confidence interval (CI):1.46,5.08) and increasing RHR-MAP (OR:2.10;95%CI:1.18,3.72). Similar results were obtained in multivariate linear regression analyses with baPWV as continuous variable. Conclusions Higher baPWV as a marker of arterial stiffness was associated with a higher product of RHR-SBP and RHR-MAP in multivariate analysis. In addition to other vascular risk factors, higher resting heart rate in combination with higher blood pressure are risk factors for arterial stiffness. PMID:25225895

  20. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at moderate levels (67 kg N ha-1). Increasing fertilizer application beyond the point of diminishing returns for grain (67 kg N ha-1) to double the regionally-recommended amount (202 kg N ha-1) resulted in only marginal increases (25%) in crop residue carbohydrate yield, while increasing lignin yields 41%. In the case of at least this ecosystem, high fertilization rates did not result in large carbohydrate yield increases in the crop residue, and instead produced a lower quality feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production.

  1. A compact and high sensitivity positron detector using dual-layer thin GSO scintillators for a small animal PET blood sampling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiichi Yamamoto; Masao Imaizumi; Eku Shimosegawa; Yasukazu Kanai; Yusuke Sakamoto; Kotaro Minato; Keiji Shimizu; Michio Senda; Jun Hatazawa

    2010-01-01

    For quantitative measurements of small animals such as mice or rats, a compact and high sensitivity continuous blood sampling detector is required because their blood sampling volume is limited. For this purpose we have developed and tested a new positron detector. The positron detector uses a pair of dual-layer thin gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillators with different decay times. The front

  2. Influence of poststenotic collateral pressure on blood flow velocities within high-grade carotid artery stenosis: Differences between morphologic and functional measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zachrisson; B. Berthelsen; C. Blomstrand; J. Holm; R. Volkmann

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The driving force for blood flow through a high-grade stenosis in the internal carotid artery can be expressed as the pressure gradient over the stenosis itself, which, however, might be reduced by the back pressure exerted by distal collateral vessels. Theoretically the maximum blood flow velocity as a measure of the functional grade of obstruction may therefore be lower

  3. Review and Response to the Final Report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report presents the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) review of and response to the final report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control. The response includes a statement of NHLBI's involvement in health research, and descriptions of what steps can be taken to solve the…

  4. In-vivo real-time monitoring of nanoparticle clearance rate from blood circulation using high speed flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2012-06-01

    The rapidly growing application of nanotechnology in medicine has placed new demands on monitoring the clearance rate of various nanoparticles with different shapes, compositions, and conjugations within blood circulation. No clinically relevant method has been developed for rapid and sensitive detection of nanoparticles in blood flow. Our laboratory has developed a laser-based platform with the purpose of in vivo real-time monitoring of nanoparticles using a highly advanced high-speed, multicolor photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). As most nanoparticles have intrinsic absorption, PAFC is an ideal tool for real-time, label-free monitoring of nanoparticle pharmacokinetics. We used four laser wavelengths to verify the concept of in vivo multicolor PAFC, and hypothesize that the potential exists to increase the number of spectral channels. The capability of this platform was demonstrated for detection of magnetic nanobeads and gold nanorods of different sizes and conjugations in blood circulation of animal models. The advantages as well as potential limitations of the new technique are discussed in detail.

  5. Microdialysis of Ethanol During Operant Ethanol Self-administration and Ethanol Determination by Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Schier, Christina J.; Mangieri, Regina A.; Dilly, Geoffrey A.; Gonzales, Rueben A.

    2012-01-01

    Operant self-administration methods are commonly used to study the behavioral and pharmacological effects of many drugs of abuse, including ethanol. However, ethanol is typically self-administered orally, rather than intravenously like many other drugs of abuse. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs are more complex than intravenously administered drugs. Because understanding the relationship between the pharmacological and behavioral effects of ethanol requires knowledge of the time course of ethanol reaching the brain during and after drinking, we use in vivo microdialysis and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection to monitor brain dialysate ethanol concentrations over time. Combined microdialysis-behavioral experiments involve the use of several techniques. In this article, stereotaxic surgery, behavioral training and microdialysis, which can be adapted to test a multitude of self-administration and neurochemical centered hypotheses, are included only to illustrate how they relate to the subsequent phases of sample collection and dialysate ethanol analysis. Dialysate ethanol concentration analysis via gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection, which is specific to ethanol studies, is described in detail. Data produced by these methods reveal the pattern of ethanol reaching the brain during the self-administration procedure, and when paired with neurochemical analysis of the same dialysate samples, allows conclusions to be made regarding the pharmacological and behavioral effects of ethanol. PMID:22986267

  6. Microdialysis of ethanol during operant ethanol self-administration and ethanol determination by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schier, Christina J; Mangieri, Regina A; Dilly, Geoffrey A; Gonzales, Rueben A

    2012-01-01

    Operant self-administration methods are commonly used to study the behavioral and pharmacological effects of many drugs of abuse, including ethanol. However, ethanol is typically self-administered orally, rather than intravenously like many other drugs of abuse. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs are more complex than intravenously administered drugs. Because understanding the relationship between the pharmacological and behavioral effects of ethanol requires knowledge of the time course of ethanol reaching the brain during and after drinking, we use in vivo microdialysis and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection to monitor brain dialysate ethanol concentrations over time. Combined microdialysis-behavioral experiments involve the use of several techniques. In this article, stereotaxic surgery, behavioral training and microdialysis, which can be adapted to test a multitude of self-administration and neurochemical centered hypotheses, are included only to illustrate how they relate to the subsequent phases of sample collection and dialysate ethanol analysis. Dialysate ethanol concentration analysis via gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection, which is specific to ethanol studies, is described in detail. Data produced by these methods reveal the pattern of ethanol reaching the brain during the self-administration procedure, and when paired with neurochemical analysis of the same dialysate samples, allows conclusions to be made regarding the pharmacological and behavioral effects of ethanol. PMID:22986267

  7. A new kind of highly active hollow flower-like NiPdPt nanoparticles supported by multiwalled-carbon nanotubes toward ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2013-11-01

    Hollow flower-like NiPdPt nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared through galvanic replacement between Ni nanoparticles and noble metal salts. Multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be used to support the as synthesized hollow flower-like NiPdPt NPs through electrostatic self-assembly. The structure and composition are analyzed by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Electrochemical catalytic measurement results prove that the as synthesized MWCNTs supported NiPdPt NPs present excellent catalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution.

  8. Coordinated FA-MS and SIFT-MS analyses of breath following ingestion of D2O and ethanol: total body water, dispersal kinetics and ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Spanel, Patrik; Wang, Tianshu; Smith, David

    2005-08-01

    A coordinated study of the dispersal of water between the various body compartments (stomach and gut, blood stream and tissue) and the similar dispersal kinetics of ethanol and its metabolism has been carried out involving two healthy volunteers using flowing afterglow mass spectrometry, FA-MS, and selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS. Thus, using these techniques, the variations of HDO and ethanol in breath, measured in successive single exhalations, were followed in real time after the ingestion of measured quantities of D2O and ethanol in proportion to the body weights of the subjects at the dose rates D2O approximately 0.283 g kg-1, ethanol approximately 0.067 g kg-1. During the FA-MS experimental periods (about 2 h), the dispersion of HDO into the body water and finally its equilibration in the total body water is observed from which total body water for each subject was determined. In the SIFT-MS measurements, the dispersion of ethanol into the body water and its loss via metabolism was observed until the physiological (pre-dose) breath level of ethanol for each individual was restored. A simple linear transformation is used to derive the time variations of the blood levels of HDO and ethanol. This has allowed a comparison of the fractions of the ingested ethanol that are metabolized during first-pass metabolism for the two subjects. Thus, in one subject 30% and in the other subject 40% of the ingested alcohol is metabolized in the first 20 min following ingestion. The good time resolution allowed by non-invasive breath analysis ensures that the rates of processes such as ethanol metabolism can be accurately measured. Simultaneous measurements of breath acetaldehyde (largely formed via the ethanol metabolism) and acetone were also performed during the SIFT-MS single breath exhalations. PMID:15886440

  9. Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary ethanol consumption by their adolescent young. We found that exposure to an ethanol-ingesting dam

  10. Rapid High-Affinity Transport of a Chemotherapeutic Amino Acid across the Blood-Brain Barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiaki Takada; David T. Vistica; Nigel H. Greig; David Purdon; Stanley I. Rapoport; Quentin R. Smith

    1992-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of many anticancer drugs against intracerebral tumors is limited by poor uptake into the central nervous system. One way to enhance brain delivery is to design agents that are transported into the brain by the saturable nutrient carriers of the blood-brain barrier. In this paper, we describe a nitrogen mustard amino acid, Di.-2-amino-7- bis((2-chloroethyl)amino)-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid, that is

  11. BloodVolumeChanges duringThree-Week Residence at HighAltitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Myhre; D. B. Dill; D. K. Brown

    Circulating red blood cell volumes were determined by the carbon monoxide method, and plasma volumes were calculated in four men 20,29,71,and 75 years old, and two women 29years of age before, during, and after exposure to an altitude of 3800m. In the four youngest subjects there were early in- creases in hemoglobin concentration during the first days at the stated

  12. Low-volume, high-sensitivity assay for cadmium in blood and urine using conventional atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Cerny, E. A.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Biosciences Division

    2003-03-15

    An assay for cadmium in whole blood and urine using deuterium background-correction electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (D2-ETAAS) was developed. Cadmium (in a 1- to 2-ml sample) was bound to 15 mg anion-exchange resin, interfering ions were removed in a 2-ml Bio-Spin column, and cadmium was extracted into 100 {mu}l 1 M nitric acid for analysis. Cadmium in the sample extract was concentrated 7-fold for blood and 10-fold for urine over the starting material. These steps produced cadmium atomic absorption traces with high signal to background ratios and allowed analysis against aqueous standards. At {approx}0.1 ng Cd/ml, mean intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 11-12%. Cadmium recovery for 0.1 to 0.6 ng added cadmium was 107{+-}4% for blood and 94{+-}4% for urine (mean{+-}SE, n=3). The mean detection limit (mean + 3x SD of blank) was 0.008 ng/ml for blood and 0.003 ng/ml for urine. Samples from 'unexposed' animals including humans ranged from 0.051{+-}0.000 to 0.229{+-}0.035 ng/ml. Values were approximately 10-fold lower than those obtained by the method of Stoeppler and Brandt using Zeeman background-correction ETAAS. This new high-sensitivity, low-volume assay will be useful for epidemiological studies, even those involving children, and will provide a means to help determine the contribution of cadmium to disease incidence in the general population.

  13. A pharmacokinetic study of ethyl glucuronide in blood and urine: Applications to forensic toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Høiseth; Jean Paul Bernard; Ritva Karinen; Lene Johnsen; Anders Helander; Asbjørg S. Christophersen; Jørg Mørland

    2007-01-01

    This pharmacokinetic study investigated the kinetics of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in blood and urine during the whole time course of absorption and elimination. There are few previous studies on the kinetics of EtG in blood, and we wanted to evaluate whether such knowledge could yield valuable information regarding the time of ethanol ingestion in forensic cases,

  14. Blood culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  15. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common ... Very rarely, serious problems develop. Important Information About Blood The heart pumps blood through a network of ...

  16. Blood clotting

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  17. What's Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Let's find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- rith - ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical ...

  18. In vivo wireless ethanol vapor detection in the Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, C. Parks; Srijanto, B.; Hedden, D. L.; Gehl, A.; Ferrell, T. L.; Schultz, J.; Engleman, E. A.; McBride, W. J.; O'Connor, S.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional alcohol studies measure blood alcohol concentration to elucidate the biomedical factors that contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism. These measurements require large and expensive equipment, are labor intensive, and are disruptive to the subject. To alleviate these problems, we have developed an implantable, wireless biosensor that is capable of measuring alcohol levels for up to six weeks. Ethanol levels were measured in vivo in the interstitial fluid of a Wistar rat after administering 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg ethanol by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. The data were transmitted wirelessly using a biosensor selective for alcohol detection. A low-power piezoresistive microcantilever sensor array was used with a polymer coating suitable for measuring ethanol concentrations at 100% humidity over several hours. A hydrophobic, vapor permeable nanopore membrane was used to screen liquid and ions while allowing vapor to pass to the sensor from the subcutaneous interstitial fluid. PMID:20161283

  19. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  20. Biochemical characterization of blood plasma of coronary artery disease patients by in vitro high-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Malik, Anu; Sharma, Uma; Lakshmy, R; Narang, Rajiv; Jagannathan, Naranamanglam R

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical profile of blood plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographically normal subjects (controls) to determine biomarkers for their differentiation. In this double blind study, 5 mL venous blood was drawn before angiography from CAD patients (n=60) and controls (n=13) comprising angiography normal individuals. In vitro high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of these blood plasma samples was carried out at 400 MHz, and intensity data were analysed with partial least square discriminant analysis. Categorization of subjects as controls or CAD patients and the patients further as single vessel disease (SVD), double vessel disease (DVD) and triple vessel disease (TVD) was done at the end of the study based on their angiography reports. Raised levels of lipids, alanine (Ala) and isoleucine/leucine/valine (Ile/Leu/Val) were observed in CAD patients compared with controls. Partial least square discriminant analysis showed separation between controls vs CAD patients. TVD patients showed increased levels of Ile/Leu/Val and Ala compared with controls and SVD. Alanine, Ile/Leu/Val, and LDL/VLDL appear as possible biomarkers for distinguishing between controls and patients with SVD and TVD. A metabolic adaptation of myocardium may play a role in raising the Ala level. PMID:25740139

  1. Analysis of new designer drugs in post-mortem blood using high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pasin, Daniel; Bidny, Sergei; Fu, Shanlin

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the purpose of detecting and quantifying 37 new designer drugs including cathinones, hallucinogenic phenethylamines and piperazines. Using only 100 µL whole blood, a salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile was performed to isolate target compounds followed by chromatographic separation using a Waters ACQUITY ultra performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a Waters XEVO quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Mephedrone-d3 was used as an internal standard. A gradient elution was used in combination with a Waters ACQUITY HSS C18 column (2.1 × 150 mm, 1.8 µm). Samples were analyzed using the detector in positive electrospray ionization mode with MS(E) acquisition. All compounds of interest were resolved in a 15 min run time and positively identified based on accurate mass of the molecular ion, two product ions and retention time. All analyte calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.05-2 mg/L with most correlation coefficient (r(2)) values >0.98. The limits of detection were within the range of 0.007-0.07 mg/L and limits of quantification within 0.05-0.1 mg/L. All analytes were stable 48 h after extraction and most were stable in blood after 1 week stored in a refrigerator and 3 freeze-thaw cycles. No carryover was observed up to 10 mg/L and no interferences from common therapeutic drugs or endogenous compounds. Recoveries ranged from 71 to 100% and matrix effects were assessed for blank, post-mortem and decomposed blood. All bias and % coefficient of variation values were within the acceptable values of ±15 and ?15%, respectively (±20 and ?20% at lower limit of quantification). The method was applied to several forensic cases where the subject exhibited behavior characteristic of designer drug intoxication and where routine screening for a panel of drugs was negative. PMID:25552261

  2. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography

    E-print Network

    Kim, Kyoohyun

    We present high-resolution optical tomographic images of human red blood cells (RBC) parasitized by malaria-inducing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-RBCs. Three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) tomograms are reconstructed ...

  3. Health advisory: high blood sugar and diabetes seen in protease inhibitor users.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned physicians that protease inhibitors may contribute to increased blood sugar or diabetes in HIV-positive patients, and recommends closely monitoring their glucose levels. These events occur relatively infrequently, and the FDA believes that the benefits of these drugs outweigh potential complications. All four approved protease inhibitors (saquinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, and nelfinavir) will soon carry revised labeling warning of this potential side effect. Patients taking protease inhibitors should be made aware of the warning signs of hyperglycemia and diabetes. The FDA's warning letter, detailing the effects, is included. PMID:11364437

  4. Factors affecting the accurate determination of cerebrovascular blood flow using high-speed droplet imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Stephen; Divani, Afshin; Wakhloo, Ajay K.; Lieber, Baruch B.; Granger, William; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Yang, Chang-Ying J.

    1998-07-01

    Detailed cerebrovascular blood flow can be more accurately determined radiographically from the new droplet tracking method previously introduced by the authors than from standard soluble contrast techniques. For example, arteriovenous malformation (AVM) transit times which are crucial for proper glue embolization treatments, were shown to be about half when using droplets compared to those measured using soluble contrast techniques. In this work, factors such as x-ray pulse duration, frame rate, system spatial resolution (focal spot size), droplet size, droplet and system contrast parameters, and system noise are considered in relation to their affect on the accurate determination of droplet location and velocity.

  5. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Engineered for Anaerobic Conversion of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Sugars to Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced high-throughput screening has resulted in the discovery of several yeast strains that are capable of anaerobically utilizing pentose, as well as hexose sugars. The growth and ethanol production of these developed strains will be described. The paradigm for using genetically engineered Sac...

  6. Effect of dietary magnesium and calcium on blood lipids and minerals in tissues in rats fed a high fat diet 

    E-print Network

    Conboy-Downs, Jean

    1991-01-01

    on Blood Lipids and Minerals in Tissues in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet. (May 1991) Jean Conboy-Downs B. S. , State University of New York at Oneonta Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Karen S. Kubena The relationship between minerals and disease, e. g... have adverse effects on tissues, e. g. , calcification of bone. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to extend a special thanks to Dr. Karen S. Kubena for her guidance, encouragement, and expertise throughout this research pro)ect. The author...

  7. Patient characteristics with high or low blood urea nitrogen in upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine characteristics of patients with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels higher and lower than the normal limit. METHODS: Patient records between April 2011 and March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. During this time, 3296 patients underwent upper endoscopy. In total, 50 male (69.2 ± 13.2 years) and 26 female (72.3 ± 10.2 years) patients were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups based on BUN levels: higher than the normal limit (21.0 mg/dL) (H) and lower than the normal limit (L). One-way analysis of variance was performed to reveal differences in the variables between the H and L groups. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the percentage of patients with gastric ulcer or gastric cancer in the H and L groups. RESULTS: White blood cell count was higher in the H group than in the L group (P = 0.0047). Hemoglobin level was lower in the H group than in the L group (P = 0.0307). Glycated hemoglobin was higher in the H group than in the L group (P = 0.0264). The percentage of patients with gastric ulcer was higher in the H group (P = 0.0002). The H group contained no patients with gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: Patients with BUN ? 21 mg/dL might have more severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  8. Diminished pulse pressure under mental stress characterizes normotensive adolescents with parental high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ewart, C K; Harris, W L; Zeger, S; Russell, G A

    1986-01-01

    An exaggerated blood pressure response to mental stress is believed to characterize young adults with genetic risk of essential hypertension, suggesting that stress-induced changes might provide a useful index of pathogenetic processes. We explored this by studying pressor responsivity to competitive tasks in adolescents drawn from a large urban population. Individuals with systolic or diastolic pressures persistently between the 85th and 95th percentiles were evaluated on basal blood pressure, parental history of hypertension, and pressor and heart rate response to a challenging video game. Basal pressure was measured again at 6, 10, and 14 months. A persistently diminished pulse pressure was the cardiovascular characteristic that most reliably typified normotensive subjects with familial hypertension. Response to the video game was the best indicator of risk status. Contrary to expectations derived from research with convenience samples, epidemiologic investigation points to an increased peripheral resistance and lower cardiac output as the cardiovascular pattern more prominently associated with genetic risk in the normotensive adolescent. PMID:3763788

  9. Determination of ethanol in breath for legal purposes using a five-filter infrared analyzer: studies on response to volatile interfering substances.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne; Andersson, Lars

    2008-06-01

    The analysis of ethanol in exhaled breath is widely accepted and used worldwide for legal purposes to gather evidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Most evidential breath-alcohol instruments incorporate infrared (IR) spectroscopy as the analytical principle focusing on C-H or C-O stretching frequencies in ethanol molecules. The instrument approved for legal purposes in Sweden is called Evidenzer and is equipped with five infrared filters of which four are used for identification and quantification of ethanol and the fifth is a reference filter. The response of Evidenzer was tested against 21 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the instrument was programmed to deduct any bias caused by these VOCs if present in a sample of breath. If the amount deducted exceeds a certain threshold value, the entire test is aborted. Whenever this happens, the police request a specimen of venous blood for analysis by gas chromatography. Of a total of 24?072 drunken drivers, the evidential breath-alcohol test was aborted on 27 occasions (0.11%) because an interfering substance was present above the critical threshold. The VOCs most commonly identified in blood were acetone, isopropanol and/or methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). Elevated levels of acetone and isopropanol might arise during ketogenesis in people suffering from diabetes, or in those who eat low carbohydrate diets. High concentrations of acetone and MEK are probably caused by people drinking a technical alcohol product (T-Red), which is available in Sweden and is denatured with these agents. This study confirms that relatively few apprehended drivers in Sweden have elevated concentrations of VOCs in breath other than ethanol. Even the aborted breath tests, to a large extent, contained ethanol above the legal limit for driving. PMID:21383447

  10. Role of interleukin-1 receptor signaling in the behavioral effects of ethanol and benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Blednov, Yuri A; Benavidez, Jillian M; Black, Mendy; Mayfield, Jody; Harris, R Adron

    2015-08-01

    Gene expression studies identified the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1R1) as part of a pathway associated with a genetic predisposition to high alcohol consumption, and lack of the endogenous IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) strongly reduced ethanol intake in mice. Here, we compared ethanol-mediated behaviors in mice lacking Il1rn or Il1r1. Deletion of Il1rn (the gene encoding IL-1ra) increases sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol and flurazepam and reduces severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, deletion of Il1r1 (the gene encoding the IL-1 receptor type I, IL-1R1) reduces sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol and flurazepam and increases the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. The sedative effects of ketamine and pentobarbital were not altered in the knockout (KO) strains. Ethanol intake and preference were not changed in mice lacking Il1r1 in three different tests of ethanol consumption. Recovery from ethanol-induced motor incoordination was only altered in female mice lacking Il1r1. Mice lacking Il1rn (but not Il1r1) showed increased ethanol clearance and decreased ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. The increased ethanol- and flurazepam-induced sedation in Il1rn KO mice was decreased by administration of IL-1ra (Kineret), and pre-treatment with Kineret also restored the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. Ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal severity were changed in opposite directions in the null mutants, indicating that these responses are likely regulated by IL-1R1 signaling, whereas ethanol intake and preference do not appear to be solely regulated by this pathway. PMID:25839897

  11. Ethanol Coproducts for Livestock Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid growth of the ethanol industry in the United States has generated large quantities of ethanol coproducts, primarily distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), available as a feedstuff for livestock. These coproducts are often added to livestock diets as a source of protein and energy. The...

  12. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Weller; E. D. Rodda; M. P. Steinberg

    1983-01-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an

  13. Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    This minireview discusses various factors which require consideration for the ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates. The production of an alternative transportation fuel requires pretreatment of the biomass and detoxification to enhance the fermentability. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to engineer new microorganisms for efficient ethanol production from all sugars present in the hydrolysates. 60 refs.

  14. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    March, Samanta M.; Abate, P.; Molina, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption. PMID:23801947

  15. Ethanol production from whey permeate in a continuous anaerobic bioreactor by Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejewska, M; Kozak, K

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of using whey permeate as a raw material for the production of ethanol by continuous fermentation by using Kluyveromyces marxianus was examined. The ethanol formation was investigated as a function of the hydraulic retention time in a UASB reactor. The initial lactose concentration in permeate was 50.0 g L(-1). The hydraulic retention time supplied were 12, 24, 48 h and the daily ethanol formations were 4.46, 8.61, 7.73 g L(-1), respectively. The yield coefficient of ethanol was 0.089 g ethanol g(-1) lactose when the hydraulic retention time was 12 h and raised to 0.325 g g(-1) when the hydraulic retention time was as long as 48 h. The results indicated that in ethanol fermentation the hydraulic retention time should be 24 h to obtain high rates of ethanol formation and to avoid product inhibition. PMID:21473267

  16. Rapid purification of a high-affinity plasminogen activator from human blood plasma by specific adsorption on fibrin/Celite.

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S S; Lipinski, B; Greuwich, V

    1981-01-01

    A preparation of fibrin precipitated over a solid Celite (diatomaceous earth) matrix that selectively binds 50-70% of the plasminogen activator present in human blood plasma is described. Affinity chromatography of plasma on fibrin/Celite followed by gel filtration led to a 29,000-fold purification of the plasminogen activator. The activator, referred to as the high-affinity plasminogen activator, is characterized by its ability to be strongly adsorbed by fibrin. Smaller amounts of other plasminogen activators and essentially all plasminogen were not bound to fibrin. The high-affinity plasminogen activator is a single-chain unstable protease with a molecular weight of 65,000-70,000. The high-affinity plasminogen activator has a low specific activity (500 CTA units/mg) compared to tissue or urine plasminogen activators (100,000-200,000 CTA units/mg) (CTA, Committee on Thrombolytic Agents). Images PMID:6270665

  17. Antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, S.; Montasser Kouhsari, S; Monavar Feshani, A

    2010-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Fruits of Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae) are traditionally used as a table spice in Iran and are highly recommended for diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits and also its mechanisms of action. Methods The effects of ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits were measured on blood glucose, lipids and antioxidant enzymes by commercial kits. mRNA levels of insulin (INS) and glucose transporter type-4 (GLUT-4) genes were investigated by RT-PCR (Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction) technique. Moreover, its effects on intestinal a-glucosidases was measured using an in vitro method. Results and Conclusion Following a single dose administration of the extract it was found that extract could significantly reduce postprandial blood glucose by 24% (at 5 hrs). In the long term experiment, on the day of 21, postprandial blood glucose (PBG) was found to be significantly lower (by 26%) compared to diabetic control group. The plant extract raised markedly serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 34% and also reduced low-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 32%. Also it had noticeable antioxidant effects by elevating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase(CAT) activities by 46% and 77%, respectively. However it did not show a strong effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. The extract inhibited maltase and sucrase activities by 44% and 27%, respectively. However it made no changes in the transcript levels of INS and GLUT-4 genes. It can be concluded that constituents of Rhus coriaria fruits have effective components which can be utilized as useful herb for alleviation of diabetes complications. PMID:22615627

  18. Long-term exposure to a sweetened alcoholic solution does not alter genetic aversion to ethanol in Sardinian alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliana Brunetti; Salvatore Serra; Giovanni Vacca; Carla Lobina; Tiziana Curreli; Mauro A. M. Carai; Giancarlo Colombo; Gian Luigi Gessa

    2003-01-01

    Results of a recent investigation revealed that selectively bred Indiana ethanol-nonpreferring (NP) rats could be “environmentally” conditioned to consume high amounts of ethanol. Specifically, a long-term exposure to a sucrose-plus-ethanol solution resulted, when sucrose was faded out, in an ethanol intake that was equivalent to that recorded in the counterpart ethanol-preferring (P) rats. The current study was designed to extend

  19. What is Blood Pressure?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Z. Tharp

    2009-01-01

    In this activity about heart health (on page 34 of the PDF), learners measure their own blood pressure using an electronic blood pressure monitor with a self-inflating cuff (included in cost of materials) and learn about the health effects of high blood pressure. Learners also discover how to interpret the blood pressure number (diastolic vs. systolic) and healthy ranges. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, and web resources.

  20. Death due to combined intake of ethanol and toluene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gürses, Murat Seradar; Türkmen, Nursel; Eren, Bulent; Çetin, Selcuk; Gündo?mu?, Umit Naci

    2014-12-01

    Toluene is a commonly used volatile organic chemical in industry and is the most often chosen illicit substance among volatile substance abusers. Studies involving healthy volunteers suggest that ethanol consumption inhibits toluene metabolism, thus increasing its blood levels. In this study, a lethal case of combined ethanol consumption and toluene inhalation has been reported. Our case was a 30-year-old male who had used volatile substance for 15 years. The autopsy revealed no abnormal findings. Toxicological analysis revealed alcohol and toluene in the blood and the cause of death was considered as toxicity due to acute combined intake of alcohol and toluene. Lethal combined ethanol and toluene intake is rarely reported in the literature. Experimental studies indicate that toluene increases the risk of ethanol dependence and each substance increases the toxic effects of the other. PMID:25705313

  1. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  2. Steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production: Thermodynamic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Vasudeva; N. Mitra; P. Umasankar; S. C. Dhingra

    1996-01-01

    The thermodynamic feasibility of the steam reforming of ethanol has been re-examined under conditions conducive to carbon formation using a modified approach. The findings are compared with the previously published results of Garcia and Laborde. In addition, the computations are extended to high water-to-ethanol ratios (and higher temperatures) as applicable to dilute stream produced during the fermentation of molasses. Equilibrium

  3. Printed microwells with highly stable thin-film enzyme coatings for point-of-care multiplex bioassay of blood samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liting; Cao, Xiaodan; Wang, Lu; Zhao, Xueyan; Zhang, Songping; Wang, Ping

    2015-06-21

    A paper-based colorimetric biosensor suitable for point-of-care bioassay of blood samples is developed using highly stable enzyme thin-film coatings confined within inkjet printed polymeric microwells. The microwells are developed through a simple one-step inkjet printing of hydrophobic polystyrene on paper, with walls formed by the polymer that fills the gaps inside the paper body. The microwells can also be patterned to be interlinked with printed microchannels for multiplex bioassays. Thin film enzyme coatings confined within the microwells are then constructed, thereby constituting biosensors that work like traditional microwell plates, yet allow easy colorimetric readouts with naked eyes or portable devices, such as smart phones. The efficiency of the paper-based sensor was demonstrated for colorimetric assays of glucose and lactate, both as individual analytes or mixed, as well as samples with red blood cells. Such sensors showed good sensitivities within the concentration ranges of the analytes in human blood (0.5-10 mM), with a visible sensitivity of <0.5 mM detectable by naked eyes for a sample size as small as 1 ?L. More accurate digital readouts were shown to be feasible with computerized scanners or smartphones. The thin-film coating format affords the paper biosensors an extended lifetime, and they could retain 100% performance over 6 months of storage at room temperature, or up to one month heated at 50 °C, which promises refrigeration-free storage of the sensor. The simple preparation, high enzyme stability and ease-of-use of the paper-based sensor promise low-cost and reliable point-of-care multiplex bioassay for biomedical diagnostics. PMID:25893863

  4. Validation of self diagnosis of high blood pressure in a sample of the Spanish EPIC cohort: overall agreement and predictive values

    PubMed Central

    Tormo, M; Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M; Barber, X; the, E

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—High blood pressure is a variable related to several chronic conditions whose repeated measurement in large cohort studies is often not feasible having to rely on the self reporting of the subjects. The aim of the study is to validate such self diagnosis in a sample of members from the Spanish EPIC cohort study.?DESIGN—Comparison of high blood pressure self diagnosis with the information provided by the personal medical record drawn from the primary health centre of reference for such population.?SETTING—A small town near the EPIC-Murcia centre, one of five Spanish EPIC centres located in the south east, where inclusion in the cohort was offered to the general population.?PARTICIPANTS—The agreement between self reported high blood pressure status and data from medical records was measured in a representative sample of men and women (n= 248) aged 30-69 years. Medical records were studied for a diagnosis of high blood pressure, an anti-hypertensive pharmacological treatment or subject's inclusion in a hypertension control programme run in the medical centre only for hypertensive people (definite high blood pressure cases). As well, in the absence of such a diagnosis, medical annotations of systolic or diastolic high blood pressure? 140/90 mm Hg (possible high blood pressure cases) were considered. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and ? scores were calculated for all, definite and possible high blood pressure cases. Variables associated with the probability of having a true positive or negative self report of high blood pressure were also tested.?MAIN RESULTS—As expected, sensitivity was higher among definite cases (72.7%) than among possible cases (31.6%). Accordingly, the agreement between self report and medical record was higher for definite cases (? = 0.65) than for possible (? = 0.29) cases leading to a moderate overall agreement for all cases (? = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.69). Having some level of education (OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.09, 1.05) was negatively associated to a true self report of high blood pressure while being female was positively associated (OR: 4.01; 95% CI: 1.04, 16.8). No variable showed any association with having a true self report of being normotensive.?CONCLUSIONS—High blood pressure self report shows a moderate agreement with medical information in this cohort allowing it to be used, with caution, as a surrogate variable of actual blood pressure status. However, because of its moderate sensitivity, it is not possible to rule out some underestimation when using self reported high blood pressure information for high blood pressure frequency measurements such as prevalence or incidence rates. This underestimation will be higher among men and educated people.???Keywords: hypertension; high blood pressure; validation; agreement PMID:10746117

  5. Quantitative trait loci for ethanol sensitivity in the LS X SS recombinant inbred strains: Interval mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Markel; David W. Fulker; Beth Bennett; Robin P. Corley; John C. DeFries; V. Gene Erwin

    1996-01-01

    We are mapping the genes (quantitative trait loci or QTLs) that are responsible for individual differences in ethanol sensitivity,\\u000a measured as the duration of loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol concentrations upon recovery of the righting\\u000a reflex (BEC). The Long-Sleep (LS) and Short-Sleep (SS) selected lines of mice manifest an 18-fold difference in LORR and serve\\u000a as a

  6. Naïve T cells, unconventional NK and NKT cells, and highly responsive monocyte-derived macrophages characterize human cord blood.

    PubMed

    López, María C; Palmer, Brent E; Lawrence, David A

    2014-10-01

    This study compares the human immune systems of neonates and adults. Flow cytometric analysis was used to study the cellular phenotypes of cord blood (CB) and adult peripheral blood (APB). Luminex analysis was used to determine the levels of cytokines in cell culture supernatants. Our findings indicate that T cells in CB were mainly naïve and thus less responsive to PMA/ionomycin with the synthesis of cytokines. The percentages of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(high) and of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(dim) cells expressing chemokine receptors were different between CB and APB. TLR1, TLR6 and TLR9 expressions on NK and NKT cells also differed between CB and APB. CB monocyte-derived macrophages responded better than APB macrophages to TLR ligands with increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6. The high levels of the inflammatory cytokines in cell culture supernatants of CB were mainly due to higher numbers of responsive macrophages, since dendritic cell numbers were lower in CB than APB. PMID:24986635

  7. Analysis of coffee cut-stems (CCS) as raw material for fuel ethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian F. Triana; Julián A. Quintero; Roberto A. Agudelo; Carlos A. Cardona; Juan C. Higuita

    2011-01-01

    Coffee cut-stems (CCS) represent a promising candidate for fuel ethanol production in tropical countries because of their high availability and high biomass yield per hectare. In this work, pretreatment of this agricultural residue with dilute sulfuric acid and liquid hot water (LHW) was integrated in the simulation and economic assessment of the process for fuel ethanol production. High reducing sugars

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide protects rat cerebellar granule neurons against ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Vaudry; Cécile Rousselle; Magali Basille; Anthony Falluel-Morel; Tommy F. Pamantung; Marc Fontaine; Alain Fournier; Hubert Vaudry; Bruno J. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during development can cause brain malformations and neurobehavioral abnormalities. In view of the teratogenicity of ethanol, identification of molecules that could counteract the neurotoxic effects of alcohol deserves high priority. Here, we report that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) can prevent the deleterious effect of ethanol on neuronal precursors. Exposure of cultured cerebellar granule cells to ethanol inhibited

  9. nNOS is involved in cardiac remodeling induced by chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Silva, Susana M; Silva, Sérgio; Meireles, Manuela; Leal, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption has deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system by directly damaging the myocardial structure and/or by neurohormonal activation. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) derived from neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) seems to be important to balance the harmful effects of ethanol consumption, because it influences several aspects of cardiac physiology and attenuates pathological cardiac remodeling. However, the impact of chronic ethanol consumption on nNOS expression is unknown. We address this subject in the present study by evaluating whether chronic ethanol consumption induces cardiac remodeling and hypertension, and if these changes are associated with alterations in the expression of nNOS. Male Wistar rats were examined after ingesting a 20% alcohol solution for 6 months. Blood alcohol concentration and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were measured. The cardiac remodeling was assessed by histomorphometric analysis and the nNOS expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Our results show that chronic ethanol consumption induces cardiac remodeling, namely thinning of left ventricular wall, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased fibrosis, and elevations of arterial blood pressure. They also show that in rats fed with ethanol for 6 months, the circulating BNP levels had decreased as well as the expression of nNOS in left ventricle cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest that the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on BNP levels and/or on nNOS expression in cardiomyocytes may contribute to aggravate the cardiac remodeling and leads to progression of cardiomyopathy. PMID:25598224

  10. Enhanced catabolism to acetaldehyde in rostral ventrolateral medullary neurons accounts for the pressor effect of ethanol in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol microinjection into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) elicits sympathoexcitation and hypertension in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) but not in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. In this study, evidence was sought to implicate the oxidative breakdown of ethanol in this strain-dependent hypertensive action of ethanol. Biochemical experiments revealed significantly higher catalase activity and similar aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the RVLM of SHRs compared with WKY rats. We also investigated the influence of pharmacological inhibition of catalase (3-aminotriazole) or ALDH (cyanamide) on the cardiovascular effects of intra-RVLM ethanol or its metabolic product acetaldehyde in conscious rats. Compared with vehicle, ethanol (10 ?g/rat) elicited a significant increase in blood pressure in SHRs that lasted for the 60-min observation period but had no effect on blood pressure in WKY rats. The first oxidation product, acetaldehyde, played a critical role in ethanol-evoked hypertension because 1) catalase inhibition (3-aminotriazole treatment) virtually abolished the ethanol-evoked pressor response in SHRs, 2) intra-RVLM acetaldehyde (2 ?g/rat) reproduced the strain-dependent hypertensive effect of intra-RVLM ethanol, and 3) ALDH inhibition (cyanamide treatment) uncovered a pressor response to intra-RVLM acetaldehyde in WKY rats similar to the response observed in SHRs. These findings support the hypothesis that local production of acetaldehyde, due to enhanced catalase activity, in the RVLM mediates the ethanol-evoked pressor response in SHRs. PMID:22159996

  11. Airway exchange of highly soluble gases.

    PubMed

    Hlastala, Michael P; Powell, Frank L; Anderson, Joseph C

    2013-03-01

    Highly blood soluble gases exchange with the bronchial circulation in the airways. On inhalation, air absorbs highly soluble gases from the airway mucosa and equilibrates with the blood before reaching the alveoli. Highly soluble gas partial pressure is identical throughout all alveoli. At the end of exhalation the partial pressure of a highly soluble gas decreases from the alveolar level in the terminal bronchioles to the end-exhaled partial pressure at the mouth. A mathematical model simulated the airway exchange of four gases (methyl isobutyl ketone, acetone, ethanol, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether) that have high water and blood solubility. The impact of solubility on the relative distribution of airway exchange was studied. We conclude that an increase in water solubility shifts the distribution of gas exchange toward the mouth. Of the four gases studied, ethanol had the greatest decrease in partial pressure from the alveolus to the mouth at end exhalation. Single exhalation breath tests are inappropriate for estimating alveolar levels of highly soluble gases, particularly for ethanol. PMID:23305981

  12. Determination of ubiquinone in blood by high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column fluorescence derivatization using 2-cyanoacetamide.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Yukio; Suzuki, Junko; Kubo, Hiroaki

    2011-11-01

    It was shown that ubiquinone (CoQ(10)) and ubiquinol (CoQ(10)H(2)) produce fluorescence products under alkaline conditions when reacted with 2-cyanoacetamide. The reaction mixture from CoQ(10) gave fluorescence with excitation and emission maximum wavelengths at 442 nm and 549 nm, respectively. This reaction was considered to proceed via Craven's reaction. Moreover, 2-cyanoacetamide was shown to be a useful reagent for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with post-column fluorescence derivatization of CoQ(10) and CoQ(10)H(2) in blood. CoQ(10) showed a linear response in the range of 0.32-1276 ng, and the detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.16 ng. Moreover, the sample pretreatment by deproteinization and extraction of CoQ(10) and CoQ(10)H(2) from plasma using 1-propanol with potassium formate was effective for excellent separation of CoQ(10) and CoQ(10)H(2) from other fluorescent substances in the blood. This simple and rapid pretreatment was considered to minimize the oxidation of CoQ(10)H(2). On the other hand, CoQ(10) and CoQ(10)H(2) in plasma samples obtained by finger prick were detected, as in venous blood obtained by venipuncture. Our method involving the simple and rapid collection of plasma by finger prick and sample pretreatment is thought to be applicable for the determination of CoQ(10)H(2)/total CoQ(10) ratio as a biomarker of oxidative stress. PMID:21647607

  13. Effects of bicarbonate ingestion and high intensity exercise on lactate and H(+)-ion distribution in different blood compartments.

    PubMed

    Zinner, Christoph; Wahl, Patrick; Achtzehn, Silvia; Sperlich, Billy; Mester, Joachim

    2011-08-01

    Lactate (La) and H(+)-ions are unequally distributed in the blood between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). To our knowledge there is no data concerning the effects of an oral ingestion of bicarbonate (HCO(3) (-)) on repeated high intensity sprint exercise and La and H(+) distribution between plasma and RBCs. Since an oral ingestion of HCO(3) (-) leads to a higher efflux of La from the working skeletal muscle to the plasma, as it was shown by previous studies, this would lead to a higher gradient of La between plasma and RBCs. Although a higher gradient leads to a higher uptake, it is even more difficult for the RBCs to take up La fast enough, due to the more stressed transport system. Since RBCs function to transport La from the working muscle and help to maintain a concentration difference between plasma and muscle, this potentially increases performance during repeated sprint exercise (e.g. 4 × 30 s). The major goal of the present investigation was to test this hypothesis. 11 male participants ingested either a solution of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) or placebo (CaCO(3)). Thereafter all performed four maximal 30 s sprints with 5 min of passive rest. During the resting periods concentrations of HCO(3) (-), La and H(+) where measured in both blood compartments (plasma and RBCs). There were no significant differences in the La-ratios between plasma and RBCs between both interventions. These results indicate that the La/H(+) co-transport is not affected by an oral ingestion on NaHCO(3). PMID:21197542

  14. Hydrogen Production from Ethanol Steam Reforming over Supported Cobalt Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Sean S.-Y.; Kim, Do Heui; Ha, Su Y.

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen production was carried out via ethanol steam reforming over supported cobalt catalysts. Wet incipient impregnation method was used to support cobalt on ZrO2, CeO2 and CeZrO4 followed by pre-reduction with H2 up to 677 °C to attain supported cobalt catalysts. It was found that the non-noble metal based 10 wt % Co/CeZrO4 is an efficient catalyst to achieve ethanol conversion of 100% and hydrogen yield of 82% (4.9 mol H2/ mol ethanol) at 450 oC , which is superior to 0.5 wt % Rh/Al2O3. The pre-reduction process is required to activate supported cobalt catalysts for high H2 yield of ethanol steam reforming. In addition, support effect is found significant for cobalt during ethanol steam reforming. 10% Co/CeO2 gave high H2 selectivity while suffered low conversion due to the poor thermal stability. In contrast to CeO2, 10 wt % Co/ZrO2 achieved high conversion while suffered lower H2 yield due to the production of methane. The synergistic effect of ZrO2 and CeO2 to promote high ethanol conversion while suppress methanation was observed when CeZrO4 was used as a support for cobalt. This synergistic effect of CeZrO4 support leads to a high hydrogen yield at low temperature for 10 wt % Co/CeZrO4 catalyst. Under the high weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of ethanol (2.5 h-1), the hydrogen yield over 10 wt % Co/CeZrO4 was found to gradually decrease to 70% of its initial value in 6 hours possibly due to the coke formation on the catalyst.

  15. Clinical utility of valsartan in treatment of children and adolescents with high blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Manu; Mohiuddin, Syed M

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of hypertension in the pediatric population has been increasing secondary to lifestyle changes in children and adolescents. Recent studies have enhanced our understanding of the treatment of pediatric hypertension. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have traditionally been the most commonly used class of medication in children with hypertension. This is partly due to the important role of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system pathway in the mediation of pediatric hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blockers provide a reasonable alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The need for better tolerated antihypertensives had led to development of many new antihypertensives. Valsartan is a relatively novel angiotensin receptor blocker that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of pediatric hypertension. Two recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of valsartan monotherapy in the pediatric population aged 1–16 years. Once-daily oral preparations of valsartan achieve adequate blood pressure control in the pediatric population. Lack of generic formulations is an important disadvantage. Plasma levels are predictable and clearance is primarily by the liver. Valsartan should be prescribed cautiously for sexually active adolescent females due to concern about angiotensin receptor blocker fetopathy. Otherwise, the drug has infrequent side effects. In summary, valsartan is a new and useful alternative to conventional antihypertensive therapy in pediatric population. PMID:24600279

  16. [Faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening: high quality for a good price].

    PubMed

    van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Bonfrer, J M G Hans; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) awarded the immunochemical faecal occult blood test (IFOBT) to FOB Gold of Sentinel following a European call for tenders. The contract-awarding procedure included the application of quality knock-out criteria, which were met by two suppliers. The decisive factor was the best price/quality ratio. A recent review indicated that, at present, no single IFOBT is better than any other. The decision to opt for a test manufactured by a different supplier than was used in the previous screening pilots made it necessary to re-determine the cut-off value. This value has now been set (88 ng/ml) and is confirmed by a laboratory test. Colonoscopy-related capacity planning, as well as its diagnostic yield, depends on numerous factors; therefore, the RIVM is currently monitoring the referral percentage and number of adenomas detected and is collaborating on quality terms. Any necessary adjustments are to be made during the introduction of the screening test. PMID:23594877

  17. Real-Time Electronic Medical Record Alerts Increase High Blood Pressure Recognition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Tammy M.; Neu, Alicia M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Siberry, George K.; Solomon, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pediatric hypertension remains largely unrecognized. We hypothesized that an electronic medical record (EMR) alert would increase elevated blood pressure (BP) recognition in a pediatric primary care setting. Study Design Pre–post evaluation of a real-time EMR alert and one-time provider educational session. A total of 1305 encounters of children 3 to 21 years with elevated intake BP and no prior hypertension diagnosis were included. Elevated BP recognition and relationship of recognition with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during the intervention was compared with an historical control. Results Recognition increased from 12.5% to 42% (P < .001). Recognition increased soon after alert implementation and was sustained without evidence of “alert fatigue.” During both periods, presence of CVD risk factors was associated with recognition. However, the magnitude was lesser in the intervention period. Conclusions Real-time EMR alerts substantially increase elevated BP recognition in children. However, underrecognition of elevated BP persisted, highlighting the need for additional strategies to improve provider recognition. PMID:25416626

  18. Effect of sucralfate on gastric mucosal blood flow in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, B W; Hiu, W M; Lam, S K; Cho, C H; Ng, M M; Luk, C T

    1989-01-01

    Sucralfate possesses site protective and cytoprotective actions and heals ulcers effectively, but its effect on gastric mucosal blood flow is unknown. Using an ex vivo gastric chamber preparation, we studied the effect of sucralfate on gastric mucosal blood flow in rats by laser doppler flowmetry. Under both fasting and fed states, measurements of gastric mucosal blood flow and damage were made in rats after topical application of absolute ethanol alone or after pretreatment with sucralfate. Gastric mucosal damage was assessed by measuring the total area of haemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions were significantly less with sucralfate pretreatment than without (p less than 0.008). Mucosal blood flow significantly fell after ethanol application (p less than 0.001). The fall was significantly less in fed than in fasted rats (p less than 0.05), and after pretreatment with sucralfate 100 mg or 200 mg than without in both fasted (p less than 0.0008 and 0.00001, respectively) and fed (p less than 0.002 and 0.001, respectively) rats. Graded doses of sucralfate (25-400 mg) resulted in an increase in gastric mucosal blood flow in a dose dependent manner (r = 0.731, p less than 0.001). In conclusion that sucralfate increases gastric mucosal blood flow in rats and lessens the fall in blood flow in rats treated with ethanol, and this action may contribute to its protection against the vascular damage of mucosa by ethanol. PMID:2599440

  19. Fermentation of soybean hulls to ethanol while retaining protein value

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Wyman, Professor Charles E [University of California, Riverside; John, Bardsley [Dartmouth College

    2009-01-01

    Soybean hulls were evaluated as a resource for production of ethanol by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, and no pretreatment of the hulls was found to be needed to realize high ethanol yields with S. cerevisiae D5A. The impact of cellulase, -glucosidase and pectinase dosages were determined at a 15% biomass loading, and ethanol concentrations of 25-30 g/L were routinely obtained, while under these conditions corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass produced 3-4 times lower ethanol yields. Removal of carbohydrates also concentrated the hull protein to over 25% w/w from the original roughly 10%. Analysis of the soybean hulls before and after fermentation showed similar amino acid profiles including an increase in the essential amino acids lysine and threonine in the residues. Thus, eliminating pretreatment should assure that the protein in the hulls is preserved, and conversion of the carbohydrates to ethanol with high yields produces a more concentrated and valuable co-product in addition to ethanol. The resulting upgraded feed product from soybean hulls would likely to be acceptable to monogastric as well as bovine livestock.

  20. Effects of topiramate on ethanol-cocaine interactions and DNA methyltransferase gene expression in the rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Echeverry-Alzate, V; Giné, E; Bühler, K M; Calleja-Conde, J; Olmos, P; Gorriti, M A; Nadal, R; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; López-Moreno, J A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent and ongoing clinical studies have indicated that topiramate (Topamax®) could be effective in treating ethanol or cocaine abuse. However, the effects of topiramate on the co-administration of ethanol and cocaine remain largely unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We studied the effects of topiramate, in Wistar rats, on operant ethanol self-administration with the co-administration of cocaine (i.p.). The psychomotor effects of topiramate were examined before ethanol self-administration and cocaine exposure. Blood samples were collected to analyse ethanol and cocaine metabolism (blood ethanol levels and benzoylecgonine). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to characterize the gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. KEY RESULTS Topiramate prevented the cocaine-induced increased response to ethanol in a dose-dependent manner without causing any motor impairment by itself. This effect was observed when topiramate was administered before ethanol access, but not when topiramate was administered before the cocaine injection. Topiramate did not block cocaine-induced psychomotor stimulation. Topiramate reduced blood ethanol levels but did not affect cocaine metabolism. Ethanol increased the gene expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a), the corepressor Dnmt1-associated protein 1 (Dmap1), and the RNA methyltransferase Trdmt1. These effects were prevented by topiramate or cocaine. Gene expression of histone deacetylase-2 and glutamate receptor kainate-1 were only increased by cocaine treatment. Topiramate and cocaine co-administration caused an up-regulation of dopamine (Drd1, Th) and opioid (Oprm1) receptor genes. Topiramate showed a tendency to alter episodic-like memory. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Topiramate is an effective inhibitor of the cocaine-induced increase in operant ethanol self-administration. PMID:24527678

  1. Environmental Releases in the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corn ethanol is the largest produced alternate biofuel in the United States. More than 13 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2010. The projected corn ethanol production is 15 billion gallons by 2015. With increased production of ethanol, the environmental releases from e...

  2. Blood Clots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through veins and arteries . Some blood clotting, or coagulation , is ... Venous clots are those that form in the veins. Venous clots typically form slowly over a period ...

  3. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  4. Bilirubin - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... made by the liver. This article discusses the laboratory test that is done to measure bilirubin in the blood. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. ...

  5. Blood Components

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of volume) suspended in plasma (~55% of volume). Red cells Red cells, or erythrocytes , carry oxygen from the lungs ... frozen plasma. Transfusable Blood Components Summary Whole Blood Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma Cryoprecipitated AHF COLOR OF ...

  6. Electric conductivities of 1:1 electrolytes in high-temperature ethanol along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve. II. Tetraalkylammonium bromides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Tomoko; Hoshina, Taka-aki; Tsuchihashi, Noriaki; Ibuki, Kazuyasu; Ueno, Masakatsu

    2011-03-01

    The molar electrolyte conductivities of dilute solutions of the tetramethyl, tetraethyl, tetra-n-propyl, and tetra-n-butylammonium bromides were measured in ethanol along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve up to 160 °C. The limiting molar electrolyte conductivities and the molar association constants were obtained from the analysis of the concentration dependence of the conductivity. The ionic friction coefficients were estimated from the electrolyte conductivities. On the basis of the present data together with the literature ones at higher densities (lower temperatures) and comparisons with the continuum dielectric friction theory, the density (temperature) dependence of the translational friction coefficients of the tetraalkylammonium ions were discussed in the range of 0.810 ? ? ? 0.634 g cm-3 (-5 °C ? t ? 160 °C). The dielectric friction effect was important for the tetramethylammonium ion in the whole range studied. The tetraethylammonium ion showed a relatively small friction coefficient in ambient condition indicating the structure-loosening effect around the ion, while the dielectric friction effect became more important as the density reduces and the temperature raises. For the tetra-n-butylammonium ion, the friction coefficients were determined mainly by the bulky size effect. The tetra-n-propylammonium ion showed an intermediate tendency between the tetraethylammonium and tetra-n-butylammonium ions.

  7. Hip arthroplasty with high chromium and cobalt blood levels - Case report of a patient followed during pregnancy and lactation period.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Marc; Borisch, Cornelia; Schaefer, Christof

    2015-06-01

    Metal-on-metal arthroplasty may lead to elevated blood chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) levels (>7?g/l). Since carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects have been suggested, there is concern of pregnancy hazards for women with this condition. The 34-year-old patient has had a unilateral hip replacement for seven years. Before her pregnancy high Cr (47?g/l) and Co (103?g/l) blood concentrations were measured, but she did not develop any symptoms. A male infant was delivered after 41 weeks with first degree hypospadias. His levels were increased at 3 weeks of age: 14?g/l (Cr) and 20?g/l (Co), but decreased by 9 weeks to 6.7?g/l (Cr) and 10.0?g/l (Co). Maternal levels at delivery were 25?g/l (Cr) and 51?g/l (Co). The child was fully breast-fed and developed normally. An association between hypospadias and Cr/Co has to be considered speculative. The otherwise favorable outcome of this case may be reassuring for pregnant and breast-feeding patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements. PMID:25828057

  8. Micro determination of cortisol and cortisone in umbilical cord blood by chemiluminescent high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kubo, Hiroaki; Shinozaki, Koichi; Nowatari, Masahiko; Ishii, Masahiro

    2010-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific chemiluminescent high-performance liquid chromatography method, based on the luminol reaction, for determination of serum cortisol and cortisone, was established. In infants, placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme (11beta-HSD2) activity may affect adrenal function early after birth. The cortisol-cortisone ratio of serum concentrations in umbilical cord blood is an indicator of placental 11beta-HSD2 activity. The optimum conditions for the luminol reaction were determined to be 1.5 mM luminol, 0.6 M sodium hydroxide, 0.15 mm potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and 200 mM potassium hexacyanoferrate (II). The calibration curves for cortisol and cortisone exhibited good linearity. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were 0.996. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the ranges: cortisol 7.0-12.2 and 4.4-9.2%, cortisone 5.3-7.0 and 6.2-9.9%. The recoveries of these steroids were in the ranges: cortisol 97-105%, cortisone 94-102%. The limits of detection were as follows: cortisol, 0.17 microg/dl; cortisone 0.15 microg/dl. This assay could be successfully applied to determination of the cortisol-cortiosone ratio of serum concentrations in umbilical cord bloods. PMID:19816851

  9. Generation of High Contrast Image from X-ray Scene Images of Brain Blood Vessel of Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, Yasuyuki; Kondoh, Takeshi; Saitoh, Fumihiko

    The X-ray scene image of a brain blood vessel of a rat can be shot by using SPring-8 that is a high-performance X-ray sensing system. However, the contrast of the scene image is not enough visually. Even if the contrast of a scene image is poor, a single image that has good contrast can be generated by accumulating all frames in the scene image. However, objects in the scene image must be fixed to use the method. This paper proposes a method to generate a single image with good contrast from X-ray scene images of brain blood vessel of a rat. The partial optimal frames that are useful for generating an output image with good contrast are selected in all frames and the selected frames are accumulated after optimal two-dimensional moving. The genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the selection and moving of frames. The experimental results show that the generated output image by the proposed method had good contrast, clearness and fewer noises in comparison with the generated image by the conventional method.

  10. Ethanol withdrawal increases oxidative stress and reduces nitric oxide bioavailability in the vasculature of rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Natalia A; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; De Martinis, Bruno S; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed the effects of ethanol withdrawal on the vascular and systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and vascular oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol 3-9% (v/v) for a period of 21 days. Ethanol withdrawal was induced by abrupt discontinuation of the treatment. Experiments were performed 48 h after ethanol discontinuation. Rats from the ethanol withdrawal group showed decreased exploration of the open arms of the elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone levels. Ethanol withdrawal significantly increased systolic blood pressure and plasma angiotensin II (ANG II) levels without an effect on plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, or plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) levels. No differences in vascular ANG I, ANG II levels, and ACE activity/expression and AT1 and AT2 receptor expression were detected among the experimental groups. Plasma osmolality, as well as plasma sodium, potassium, and glucose levels were not affected by ethanol withdrawal. Ethanol withdrawal induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels and the vascular generation of superoxide anion. Ethanol withdrawal significantly decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite levels. Major new findings of the present study are that ethanol withdrawal induces vascular oxidative stress and reduces nitric oxide (NO) levels in the vasculature. Additionally, our study provides novel evidence that ethanol withdrawal does not affect the vascular ANG II generating system while stimulating systemic RAS. These responses could predispose individuals to the development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25557835

  11. Determination of maternal-fetal biomarkers of prenatal exposure to ethanol: a review.

    PubMed

    Joya, X; Friguls, B; Ortigosa, S; Papaseit, E; Martínez, S E; Manich, A; Garcia-Algar, O; Pacifici, R; Vall, O; Pichini, S

    2012-10-01

    The deleterious effects exerted by prenatal ethanol exposure include physical, mental, behavioural and/or learning disabilities that are included in the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Objective assessment of exposure to ethanol at both prenatal and postnatal stages is essential for early prevention and intervention. Since pregnant women tend to underreport alcohol drinking by questionnaires, a number of biological markers have been proposed and evaluated for their capability to highlight gestational drinking behaviour. These biomarkers include classical biomarkers (albeit indirect) of alcohol-induced pathology (mean corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) acetaldehyde-derived conjugates, and finally derivatives of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphaditylethanol (PEth)). Since ethanol itself and acetaldehyde are only measured few hours after ethanol intake in conventional matrices such as blood, urine and sweat, they are only useful to detect recent ethanol exposure. In the past few years, the non-oxidative ethanol metabolites have received increasing attention because of their specificity and in some case wide time-window of detection in non-conventional matrices from the pregnant mother (oral fluid and hair) and fetus-newborn (neonatal hair, meconium, placenta and umbilical cord). This article reviews bioanalytical procedures for the determination of these markers of ethanol consumption during pregnancy and related prenatal exposure. In addition, clinical toxicological applications of these procedures are presented and discussed. PMID:22300909

  12. Ethanol, fruit ripening, and the historical origins of human alcoholism in primate frugivory.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert

    2004-08-01

    Ethanol is a naturally occurring substance resulting from the fermentation by yeast of fruit sugars. The association between yeasts and angiosperms dates to the Cretaceous, and dietary exposure of diverse frugivorous taxa to ethanol is similarly ancient. Ethanol plumes can potentially be used to localize ripe fruit, and consumption of low-concentration ethanol within fruit may act as a feeding stimulant. Ripe and over-ripe fruits of the Neotropical palm Astrocaryum standleyanum contained ethanol within the pulp at concentrations averaging 0.9% and 4.5%, respectively. Fruit ripening was associated with significant changes in color, puncture resistance, sugar, and ethanol content. Natural consumption rates of ethanol via frugivory and associated blood levels are not known for any animal taxon. However, behavioral responses to ethanol may have been the target of natural selection for all frugivorous species, including many primates and the hominoid lineages ancestral to modern humans. Pre-existing sensory biases associating this ancient psychoactive compound with nutritional reward might accordingly underlie contemporary patterns of alcohol consumption and abuse. PMID:21676715

  13. A pilot study on the ability of clinoptilolite to absorb ethanol in vivo in healthy drinkers: effect of gender.

    PubMed

    Federico, A; Dallio, M; Gravina, A G; Iannotta, C; Romano, M; Rossetti, G; Somalvico, F; Tuccillo, C; Loguercio, C

    2015-06-01

    Zeolites are microscopic minerals of volcanic origin, and the zeolite most commonly used in medicine is clinoptilolite. Over the years, clinoptilolite has been tested in several ways: as an antioxidant, as an adjuvant in anticancer therapy due to its ability to capture chemotoxins, as an antidiarrhoeal agent and as a chelating agent for heavy metals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of clinoptilolite to absorb ethanol in vivo in healthy drinkers. We enrolled 12 healthy drinkers in this study. The study was conducted as follows: phase 1: consumption of a hydroalcoholic solution containing 25 g of ethanol; phase 2: use of a 16.25 mL medical device containing clinoptilolite (2.5 g of clinoptilolite within a single-dose sachet) + consumption of a hydroalcoholic solution containing 25 g of ethanol; phase 3: use of a 32.5 mL medical device (5 g of clinoptilolite within a single-dose sachet) + consumption of a hydroalcoholic solution containing 25 g of ethanol. At the time of blood sampling, alcohol ingestion was also measured using an Alcolmeter instrument, and the results showed that the two methods overlapped. Reductions of 43%, 35%, 41% and 34% in blood ethanol at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, respectively, were observed after the consumption of 5 g of clinoptilolite + 25 g of ethanol in both males and females, whereas the consumption of 2.5 g of clinoptilolite did not result in a statistically significant reduction in blood ethanol. In particular, the blood ethanol reduction was more significant in males. Our study highlights and confirms the ability of clinoptilolite to decrease the absorption of ingested ethanol by reducing blood alcohol levels. This effect was statistically significant at a dose of 5 g. PMID:26084226

  14. Towards a Psychosis Risk Blood Diagnostic for Persons Experiencing High-Risk Symptoms: Preliminary Results From the NAPLS Project

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Diana O.; Jeffries, Clark D.; Addington, Jean; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Heinssen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A barrier to preventative treatments for psychosis is the absence of accurate identification of persons at highest risk. A blood test that could substantially increase diagnostic accuracy would enhance development of psychosis prevention interventions. Methods: The North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study project is a multisite endeavor that aims to better understand predictors and mechanisms for the development of psychosis. In this study, we measured expression of plasma analytes reflecting inflammation, oxidative stress, hormones, and metabolism. A “greedy algorithm” selected analytes that best distinguished persons with clinical high-risk symptoms who developed psychosis (CHR-P; n = 32) from unaffected comparison (UC) subjects (n = 35) and from those who did not develop psychosis during a 2-year follow-up (CHR-NP; n = 40). Results: The classifier included 15 analytes (selected from 117), with an area under the receiver operating curve for CHR-P vs UC of 0.91 and CHR-P vs CHR-NP of 0.88. Randomly scrambled group membership followed by reconstructions of the entire classifier method yielded consistently weak classifiers, indicating that the true classifier is highly unlikely to be a chance occurrence. Such randomization methods robustly imply the assays contain consistent information distinguishing the groups which was not obscured by the data normalization method and was revealed by classifier construction. These results support the hypothesis that inflammation, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary axes may be prominent in the earliest stages of psychosis. Conclusion: If confirmed in other groups of persons at elevated risk of psychosis, a multiplex blood assay has the potential for high clinical utility. PMID:25103207

  15. High blood pressure-lowering and vasoprotective effects of milk products in experimental hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Pauliina I; Kivimäki, Anne S; Turpeinen, Anu M; Korpela, Riitta; Vapaatalo, Heikki

    2011-11-01

    Milk casein-derived angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro) and valine-proline-proline (Val-Pro-Pro) have been shown to have antihypertensive effects in human subjects and to attenuate the development of hypertension in experimental models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a fermented milk product containing Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro and plant sterols on already established hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and aortic gene expression. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 195 mmHg were given either active milk (tripeptides and plant sterols), milk or water ad libitum for 6 weeks. SBP was measured weekly by the tail-cuff method. The endothelial function of mesenteric arteries was investigated at the end of the study. Aortas were collected for DNA microarray study (Affymetrix Rat Gene 1.0 ST Array). The main finding was that active milk decreased SBP by 16 mmHg compared with water (178 (SEM 3) v. 195 (SEM 3) mmHg; P < 0.001). Milk also had an antihypertensive effect. Active milk improved mesenteric artery endothelial dysfunction by NO-dependent and endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor-dependent mechanisms. Treatment with active milk caused mild changes in aortic gene expression; twenty-seven genes were up-regulated and eighty-two down-regulated. Using the criteria for fold change (fc) < 0.833 or > 1.2 and P < 0.05, the most affected (down-regulated) signalling pathways were hedgehog, chemokine and leucocyte transendothelial migration pathways. ACE expression was also slightly decreased (fc 0.86; P = 0.047). In conclusion, long-term treatment with fermented milk enriched with tripeptides and plant sterols decreases SBP, improves endothelial dysfunction and affects signalling pathways related to inflammatory responses in SHR. PMID:21736845

  16. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)] [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)] [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase?mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ? Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ? RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation. ? Translocation of p47phox and MAPKs phosphorylation are downstream effectors. ? Acute ethanol consumption increases the risk for acute vascular injury.

  17. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  18. An improved enrichment method for functionally competent, highly purified peripheral blood dendritic cells and its application to HIV-infected blood samples.

    PubMed Central

    Karhumäki, E; Viljanen, M E; Cottler-Fox, M; Ranki, A; Fox, C H; Krohn, K J

    1993-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) were purified from human peripheral blood using a rapid and simple method based on magnetic depletion of phagocytes with carbonyl iron, followed by centrifugation of nonphagocytic cells on a Percoll density gradient and depletion of lymphocytes and macrophages/monocytes with a panel of MoAbs and immunomagnetic beads. Enriched DC were obtained with > 99% purity as judged by non-specific esterase (NSE) staining. After isolation, these cells, representing 0.4% of the starting mononuclear cell population, still function as potent antigen-presenting cells for purified T lymphocytes. The present results confirm the ability of human peripheral blood DC to present soluble antigens to T cells including microbial antigens and show, further, that DC are more potent soluble antigen-presenting cells than monocytes. The method was successfully applied to the purification of DC from the blood of HIV-infected individuals. We could not detect decreased numbers of DC in four individuals with early HIV infection and no replicating HIV was detected by in situ hybridization in the DC. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8383023

  19. Ethanol Promotes Arteriogenesis and Restores Perfusion to Chronically Ischemic Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Lassaletta, Antonio D.; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y.; Liu, Yuhong; Feng, Jun; Burgess, Thomas A.; Karlson, Nicholas W.; Laham, Roger J.; Sellke, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption is known to be cardioprotective as compared to either heavy drinking or complete abstinence. We assessed the hypothesis that ethanol supplementation would improve myocardial function in the setting of chronic ischemia. Methods and Results Sixteen male Yorkshire swine underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor to the left circumflex artery to induce chronic myocardial ischemia. Post-operatively animals were supplemented with either 90 ml of ethanol daily (50%/V, EtOH) or 80 g of sucrose of equal caloric value (SUC) serving as controls. Seven weeks after ameroid placement, arteriolar density (1.74 ± 0.210 vs. 3.11 ± 0.368 % area of arterioles per low-powered field in SUC vs. EtOH, p = 0.004), myocardial perfusion (ratio of blood flow to the at-risk myocardium compared to the normal ventricle during demand pacing was 0.585 ± 0.107 vs. 1.08 ± 0.138 for SUC vs. EtOH, p = 0.014), and microvascular reactivity were significantly increased in the ethanol-treated animals compared to controls in the at-risk myocardium. Analysis of VEGF and NOTCH pathway signaling suggested pro-neovascular and proliferative activity in the ischemic area. The average peak blood alcohol level in the treatment group was 40 ± 4 mg/dL consistent with levels of moderate drinking in humans. Conclusions Ethanol supplementation increased arteriolar density and significantly improved myocardial perfusion and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in chronically ischemic myocardium. These findings suggest that at moderate doses, ethanol directly promotes vasculogenesis and improves microvascular function resulting in significant improvements in myocardial perfusion in the setting of chronic ischemia. PMID:24030397

  20. Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?

    E-print Network

    Griffin, James M.; Dahl, Rachel

    Because of the magnitude of the existing corn harvest shortfall coupled with the large ethanol mandates, policymakers face extreme uncertainties looking into the future with potentially large economic ramifications. Precisely, because neither...