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Ultrarapid rate of ethanol elimination from blood in drunken drivers with extremely high blood-alcohol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of alcohol elimination from blood was determined in drunken drivers by taking two blood samples about 1 h apart.\\u000a These cases were selected because the individuals concerned had reached an extremely high blood-alcohol concentration (BAC)\\u000a when they were apprehended. This suggests a period of continuous heavy drinking leading to the development of metabolic tolerance.\\u000a Use of double blood samples

Alan Wayne Jones



Ethanol and blood pressure in rats  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologists have identified alcohol as a risk factor in hypertension. Attempts to increase blood pressure in rats with chronic alcohol ingestion have met with mixed results. Some investigators have reported increases in blood pressure while others have reported decreases. Most investigators have given alcohol in the drinking water which produced differences in food intake across groups. To control for food intake, Wister rats were simultaneously pair fed a liquid diet with either ethanol as 35% of calories or a control diet using ARF/Israel pair-feeding devices. At 5 weeks of age, animals on ethanol diets had lower systolic blood pressure than control animals (145 (n-19) vs. 121 (n-19) mmHg). There was no difference in weight between ethanol and control animals. The same pattern of results was apparent at 7 weeks (143 (n-13) vs. 119 (n-13) mmHg) and 9 weeks (147 (n-7) vs. 124 (n-7)). The data indicate that ethanol produces hypotension in rats when food intake is controlled.

Hatton, D.C.; Edgar, S.; McCarron, D.A. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland (USA))



Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with ethanol intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique in 26 healthy volunteers before and 60 minutes after the oral administration of ethyl alcohol or placebo on a double-blind basis. The cerebral blood flow values, corrected for test-retest differences in carbon dioxide showed a significant bilateral increase after ethanol administration. Blood levels of ethanol, estimated with a breath analyser, did not correlate with the CBF changes.

Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.



Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines  

SciTech Connect

Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

Szybist, J.; Confer, K. (Delphi Automotive Systems)



Comparison of ethanol concentrations in right cardiac blood, left cardiac blood and peripheral blood in a series of 30 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare ethanol concentrations in right cardiac blood, left cardiac blood and peripheral blood. Samples were taken from a series of 30 medicolegal autopsies. Ethanol was measured by headspace GC-FID. In each case, the degree of putrefaction, chest or abdominal injury, and\\/or regurgitation of gastric contents into the airways were noted. Our results show

Anne-Laure Pelissier-Alicot; Nicolas Coste; Christophe Bartoli; Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti; Alain Sanvoisin; Joanny Gouvernet; Georges Leonetti



High Blood Cholesterol  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...


Leucine accelerates blood ethanol oxidation by enhancing the activity of ethanol metabolic enzymes in the livers of SHRSP rats.  


Chronic ethanol consumption induces liver diseases, such as alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. The enhancement of alcohol oxidation is important in the prevention of these liver diseases. Chronic supplementation with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) prevents liver cirrhosis. Therefore, BCAAs may be associated with enhanced ethanol oxidation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of the administration of individual BCAAs on ethanol oxidation and changes in alcohol-metabolizing enzyme activities following acute alcohol intake in rats. Blood ethanol concentrations and the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and low and high Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), were measured in the liver following acute ethanol administration in rats; the ethanol was administered 30 min after the treatment with amino acids [such as leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) or alanine (Ala)]. Leu significantly decreased the blood ethanol concentration 1 h after ethanol administration compared to the water-treated control (C) [C 0.46 ± 0.09, Leu 0.18 ± 0.04, Ile 0.27 ± 0.09, Val 0.46 ± 0.1, Ala 0.43 ± 0.06, mean ± SEM (g/l), P < 0.05]. In addition, leucine significantly stimulated ADH activity 30 min after ethanol intake [C 0.042 ± 0.014, Leu 0.090 ± 0.016, Ile 0.042 ± 0.008, Val 0.022 ± 0.010, Ala 0.070 ± 0.016, mean ± SEM (unit/mg protein), P < 0.05] and low Km ALDH activity 15 min after ethanol intake [C 0.51 ± 0.63, Leu 3.72 ± 0.66, Ile 1.26 ± 0.89, Val: ND, Ala 1.86 ± 1.57, mean ± SEM (unit/mg protein), P < 0.05]. However, leucine and its metabolite ?-keto-isocaproic acid did not enhance ethanol clearance in isolated rat hepatocytes. These results indicate that leucine accelerates ethanol oxidation by indirectly enhancing ADH and low Km ALDH activities in the liver. PMID:23053019

Murakami, Hitoshi; Ito, Michiko; Furukawa, Yuji; Komai, Michio



Coexistence and concentrations of ethanol and diazepam in postmortem blood specimens: risk for enhanced toxicity?  


Both ethanol and diazepam are classified as depressants of the central nervous system and exert their effects via the GABAA receptor complex. We report the coexistence and concentrations of ethanol, diazepam, and its primary metabolite nordiazepam in a case series of 234 forensic autopsies collected over a ten-year period. Diazepam, nordiazepam, and ethanol were determined in femoral venous blood by highly selective gas chromatographic methods. The mean (median) femoral blood concentrations were ethanol 0.24 g/100 mL (0.25 g/100 mL), diazepam (D) 0.23 microg/g (0.10 microg/g), nordiazepam (ND) 0.24 micro/g (0.20 microg/g), sum (D + ND) 0.43 microg/g (0.30 microg/g), and the ratio D/ND was 1.19 (1.0). When cause of death was attributed to alcohol and/or drug intoxication (N = 50), the mean and median blood-ethanol concentration was higher, being 0.36 g/100 mL and 0.38 g/100 mL, respectively, whereas the mean (median) and range of blood-diazepam concentrations were about the same, 0.23 microg/g (0.10 microg/g) and 0.05 to 1.2 microg/g. The femoral-blood concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam were highly correlated (r = 0.73), but there was no correlation between the concentrations of ethanol and diazepam (r = -0.15). In another 114 fatalities (all causes of death) with diazepam and/or nordiazepam as the only drugs present, the mean (median) and range of blood-diazepam concentrations were 0.22 microg/g (0.10 microg/g) and 0.03 to 3.5 microg/g. The pathologists report showed that none of these deaths were classed as drug intoxications. The impression gleaned from this study of ethanol-diazepam deaths is that high blood-ethanol concentration is the major causative factor. We found no evidence that concurrent use of diazepam enhanced the acute toxicity of ethanol, although interpretation is complicated by the high blood-ethanol concentration (median 0.38 g/100 mL), making it difficult to discern an added effect of diazepam. PMID:14640294

Holmgren, P; Jones, A W



Effect of ethanol of heart rate and blood pressure in nonstressed and stressed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethanol on the cardiovascular system (ECG, heart rate, blood pressure) was studied in anesthetized, nonstressed or stressed rats. In anesthetized rats, ethanol showed no effect on heart rate or ECG. In nonstressed rats, ethanol sedated the animals but increased heart rate significantly. This ethanol induced tachycardia seemed the result of a direct stimulation of the sympathetic nerves

M. G. Sparrow; H. Roggendorf; W. H. Vogel



High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

M. Clark Dale



High blood sugar  


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High Blood Cholesterol Prevention  


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Acute ethanol treatment induces a bimodal response of phospholipid acylation rates in rat red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

A single intraperitoneal injection of ethanol in rats elicited a bimodal response of acylation rates in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine of intact red blood cells. Within an initial period, ethanol inhibited acylation rates. The inhibition then reversed, leading to increased values which persisted as long as ethanol was present in plasma. Acylation rates were not correlated to ethanol concentrations in plasma. The authors suggest that red cells first desensitize to, then overcompensate for the inhibitory effect of ethanol on acylation reactions. These adaptive changes may be one of the events mediating membrane tolerance to ethanol.

Verine, A.; Valette, A.; Richard, D.; Boyer, J. (INSERM, Marseille (France))




PubMed Central

Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor activation on postnatal day 28. These animals were then evaluated for ethanol-mediated conditioned taste aversion and underwent a 16-day-long ethanol intake protocol. Ethanol-mediated aversive effects were unrelated to ethanol locomotor stimulation or subsequent ethanol consumption patterns. Ethanol intake during late adolescence was greatest in animals initiated to ethanol earliest at postnatal day 28. Females that were more sensitive to ethanol’s locomotor-activating effects showed a transient increase in ethanol self-administration. Blood ethanol concentrations during initiation were not related to ethanol-induced locomotor activation. Adolescent rats appeared sensitive to the locomotor-stimulatory effects of ethanol. Even brief ethanol exposure during adolescence may promote later ethanol intake.

Acevedo, Maria Belen; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos



Isopropyl Alcohol Pad Use for Blood Ethanol Sampling Does Not Cause False-Positive Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data collected from a study of blood ethanol levels after the use of the alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS). A total of 5 male volunteers were enrolled. Eight of the 10 total blood ethanol level measurements were drawn after skin preparation with Kendall WEBCOL® Alcohol Preps (APP) containing 70% isopropyl alcohol. All had an

Michael A. Miller; Alex Rosin; Marc E. Levsky; Timothy J. D. Gregory; Chad S. Crystal



Ethanol metabolism in ALDH2 knockout mice--blood acetate levels.  


We described here blood acetate levels in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 knockout (ALDH2 KO) male mice based on C57BL/6J strain after ethanol (EtOH) dosing (2 g/kg). Blood samples were collected at 30, 60, 90, 120 180, and 240 min after decapitation, and then EtOH, acetaldehyde (AcH) and acetate were determined by head-space gas chromatography. We found that blood acetate levels in ALDH2 KO mice were slightly lower than those in wild type (WT), whereas EtOH and AcH levels in ALDH2 KO were significantly higher than those in WT. These observations indicate that high EtOH, AcH and low acetate in the blood of ALDH2 KO are due to the deficient effect of ALDH2 enzyme activity. PMID:19356968

Kiyoshi, Ameno; Weihuan, Wang; Mostofa, Jamal; Mitsuru, Kumihashi; Toyoshi, Isse; Toshihiro, Kawamoto; Kyoko, Kitagawa; Keiichi, Nakayama; Iwao, Ijiri; Hiroshi, Kinoshita



High Blood Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside: High Blood PressureThis booklet explains what health professionals know about high blood pressure or hypertension, one of the leading causes of heart disease and stroke. It shows how to prevent high blood pressure, as well as how to care for yourself if you have been diagnosed with the disease. The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Effects of perimortem physical factors associated with death on exogenous ethanol concentrations in cardiac blood.  


The purpose of this study was to determine whether perimortem physical factors associated with death affect exogenous ethanol concentrations in cardiac blood. Forty-one autopsies of alcohol-intoxicated decedents with no or little putrefaction were involved. Postmortem intervals ranged from 6 to 96 h at the time of autopsy. Our 41 cases consisted of 17 fire victims, 8 drowned persons, 3 blood-loss patients who underwent unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for 30-50 min, 3 blood-loss persons without CPR, three non-blood-loss patients who underwent unsuccessful CPR for 5-60 min, and seven people who died of other causes. Ethanol concentrations in right cardiac chamber blood ranged from 0.12 to 4.40 mg/g (mean 1.39 mg/g) in all cases. An excellent correlation was observed between ethanol concentrations in right cardiac chamber blood and femoral venous blood (y=1.01x-0.087, n=38, r2=0.990). The ratios of blood ethanol concentrations in the left to right cardiac chambers were significantly lower in blood-loss decedents with CPR (0.71+/-0.13) than other decedents (0.92+/-0.07-1.06+/-0.06). Two factors, blood-loss and prolonged chest compression under ventilation, might have caused a decrease in blood ethanol concentration in the left cardiac chambers. Postmortem cardiac blood ethanol concentration as well as postmortem femoral venous blood ethanol concentration may usually reflect blood ethanol levels at the time of death when putrefaction is not evident. However, special attention is required for cases that received CPR after massive bleeding. PMID:15946884

Moriya, Fumio; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Furumiya, Junichi; Nishioka, Sachie



Effect of ethanol of heart rate and blood pressure in nonstressed and stressed rats  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ethanol on the cardiovascular system (ECG, heart rate, blood pressure) was studied in anesthetized, nonstressed or stressed rats. In anesthetized rats, ethanol showed no effect on heart rate or ECG. In nonstressed rats, ethanol sedated the animals but increased heart rate significantly. This ethanol induced tachycardia seemed the result of a direct stimulation of the sympathetic nerves to the heart. Blood pressure was not significantly affected by ethanol in these nonstressed rats. In stressed rats, marked behavioral excitation and significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure were noted. Ethanol pretreatment calmed the animals considerably during restraint. Ethanol did reduce slightly the stress-induced tachycardia but markedly reduced or antagonized stress-induced blood pressure increases. No major changes in the ECG were noted during these studies with the exception of a few individual animals which showed pathologic ECG responses to ethanol. These data show that ethanol affects cardiovascular functions differently in anesthetized, non stressed or stressed rats, and that ethanol can significantly reduce or antagonize stress-induced behavioral excitation, tachycardia and hypertension. 32 references, 4 tables.

Sparrow, M.G.; Roggendorf, H.; Vogel, W.H.



High-yield ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation conditions were optimized for the production of ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae able to use high-concentration juice and undiluted pulp. Yields (95 to 125 g ethanol\\/l=85 to 98% of the theoretical value) exceeded those obtained with strain of Kluyveromyces used classically.

C. Barthomeuf; F. Regerat; H. Pourrat



Postmortem blood and vitreous humor ethanol concentrations in a victim of a fatal motor vehicle crash.  


A 20-year-old male was found on the passenger side of a small car after a collision with a semi-trailer truck. Postmortem blood, collected from the chest cavity, and vitreous humor samples were collected following harvesting of the heart and bones. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed a blood ethanol concentration of 0.32 g/dL and a vitreous humor ethanol concentration of 0.09 g/dL. The stomach was intact and full of fluid and food, but its contents were not collected. Possible explanations for the large difference between the two results include diffusion of ethanol from the stomach into the chest cavity, contamination of the blood sample prior to collection, and ingestion of a large quantity of ethanol shortly before death. This case demonstrates the importance of proper quality assurance procedures in collecting postmortem specimens and of collecting a vitreous humor sample for ethanol analysis in postmortem toxicology cases. PMID:11908619

Hardin, Glenn G



High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy  


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High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium for R-22 + ethanol and R-22 + ethanol + water  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the systems COâ + methanol at 313.05 K, COâ + ethanol at 323.55, 325.15, and 333.35 K, R-22 (chlorodifluoromethane) + ethanol at 343.25, 361.45, and 382.45 K, and R-22 + ethanol + water at 351.55, 362.65, and 371.85 K are obtained using a circulation-type VLE apparatus. The apparatus is tested with measurements of the

Mohamed M. Elbaccouch; Michael B. Raymond; J. Richard Elliott



The cyclic pattern of blood alcohol levels during continuous ethanol feeding in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the major methyl donor for DNA and histone methylation was fed with ethanol for 1month in order to modify the effects of ethanol on rat liver. The following parameters were studied to determine the effects of SAMe; liver histology, the blood alcohol cycle (BAL), changes in gene expression mined from microarray analysis, changes in histone methylation, changes in

F. Bardag-Gorce; J. Li; J. Oliva; S. C. Lu; B. A. French; S. W. French



Blood ethanol levels and adenylyl cyclase activity in lymphocytes of alcoholic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The adenylyl cyclase (AC) signal transduction pathway is a target of acute and chronic ethanol actions. This study examined whether AC activity in lymphocyte membranes of male alcoholic patients correlated with blood concentrations of ethanol.Methods: Patients (n = 13; mean age: 40 ± 8 years) were studied on the day of admission (day 0) and 2 days later under

Thorsten Pauly; Norbert Dahmen; Armin Szegedi; Hermann Wetzel; Gaby-Fleur Böl; Kirsten Ferdinand; Christoph Hiemke



Ethanol enrichment from ethanol-water mixtures using high frequency ultrasonic atomization.  


The influence of high frequency ultrasound on the enrichment of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures was investigated. Experiments performed in a continuous enrichment system showed that the generated atomized mist was at a higher ethanol concentration than the feed and the enrichment ratio was higher than the vapor liquid equilibrium curve for ethanol-water above 40 mol%. Well-controlled experiments were performed to analyze the effect of physical parameters; temperature, carrier gas flow and collection height on the enrichment. Droplet size measurements of the atomized mist and visualization of the oscillating fountain jet formed during sonication were made to understand the separation mechanism. PMID:21300561

Kirpalani, D M; Suzuki, K



Ethanol Sensitivity in High Drinking in the Dark Selectively Bred Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Mouse lines are being selectively bred in replicate for high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) achieved after a short period of ethanol drinking early in the circadian dark phase. High Drinking in the Dark -1 (HDID-1) mice were in selected generation S18, and the replicate HDID-2 line in generation S11. Methods To determine other traits genetically correlated with high DID, we compared naive animals from both lines with the unselected, segregating progenitor stock, HS/Npt. Differences between HDID-1 and HS would imply commonality of genetic influences on DID and these traits. Results HDID-1 showed less basal activity, greater ethanol stimulated activity and greater sensitivity to ethanol-induced foot slips than HS. They showed lesser sensitivity to acute ethanol hypothermia and longer duration loss of righting reflex (LORR) than HS. HDID-1 and control HS lines did not differ in sensitivity on two measures of intoxication, the balance beam and the accelerating rotarod. None of the acute response results could be explained by differences in ethanol metabolism. HDID-2 mice differed from HS on some, but not all of the above responses. Conclusions These results show that some ethanol responses share common genetic control with reaching high BECs after DID, a finding consistent with other data regarding genetic contributions to ethanol responses.

Crabbe, John C.; Kruse, Lauren C.; Colville, Alexandre M.; Cameron, Andy J.; Spence, Stephanie E.; Schlumbohm, Jason P.; Huang, Lawrence C.; Metten, Pamela



Temperature effects in ethanol fermentation high corn media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relationship between temperature and high ethanol yields has been found using whole corn mashes saccharified with Aspergillus oryzae wheat bran koji. Decreased ethanol yields were obtained at 34.5°C with high concentration corn mashes in contrast to high ethanol yields with the same medium at lower temperatures. The decreased yields appear to be related to mass and\\/or heat transfer problems

Jack Ziffer; Mario I. Iosif



High ethanol yields using Aspergillus oryzae koji and corn media  

Microsoft Academic Search

High ethanol and stillage solids have been achieved using whole corn mashes. Ethanol yields of 14% (v\\/v) (89.5% of theory) and stillage levels of approximately 23% (w\\/v) were obtained in 74–90 hours using mild acid pretreatment with Aspergillus oryzae wheat bran koji saccharification. High ethanol yields were also obtained with bacterial amylase, instead of the acid treatment, when the sterilization

Jack Ziffer; Mario C. Iosif



Isopropyl alcohol pad use for blood ethanol sampling does not cause false-positive results.  


This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data collected from a study of blood ethanol levels after the use of the alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS). A total of 5 male volunteers were enrolled. Eight of the 10 total blood ethanol level measurements were drawn after skin preparation with Kendall WEBCOL Alcohol Preps (APP) containing 70% isopropyl alcohol. All had an initial and post-ABHS application blood alcohol level (BAL) drawn, for a total of 10 BAL measurements. Measurements upon completion of the study were <5 mg/dL in all 5 study participants and in each of the 10 blood draws regardless of skin preparation technique. This study demonstrates that the use of isopropyl skin prep pads is unlikely to cause significant false-positive blood ethanol levels. PMID:17630067

Miller, Michael A; Rosin, Alex; Levsky, Marc E; Gregory, Timothy J D; Crystal, Chad S



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Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood glow: Role of adenosine  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism by which ethanol induces an increase in portal vein blood flow was studied in rats using radiolabeled microspheres. Ethanol by gavage resulted in an increase of 50-70% in portal vein blood flow. The ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker 8-phenyltheophylline. By itself, 8-phenyltheophylline was without effect on cardiac output or portal blood flow. Adenosine infusion resulted in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This adenosine-induced increase in portal blood flow was inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline in a dose-dependent manner. Both alcohol and adenosine significantly reduced preportal vascular resistance by 40% and 60%, respectively. These effects were fully suppressed by 8-phenyltheophylline. It is concluded that adenosine is a likely candidate to mediate the ethanol-induced increase in portal vein blood flow. It is suggested that an increase in circulating acetate and liver hypoxia may mediate the effects of alcohol by increasing tissue and interstitial adenosine levels.

Orrego, H.; Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Giles, H.G.; Sandrin, S.; Israel, Y. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))



Intragastric self-infusion of ethanol in high and low drinking mouse genotypes after passive ethanol exposure  

PubMed Central

Two experiments examined the effect of 5 days of passive exposure to ethanol (or water) on later self-infusion of ethanol or water via surgically implanted intragastric catheters in mouse genotypes previously shown to drink high (C57BL/6J, HAP2) or low (DBA/2J, LAP2) amounts of ethanol in home-cage continuous access two-bottle choice procedures. Intragastric ethanol self-infusion was affected by both genotype and a history of passive ethanol exposure, with greater intakes in the high drinking genotypes and in groups that received passive exposure to ethanol. Passive ethanol exposure also increased preference for the flavor that signaled ethanol infusion (S+), eliminating genetic differences in this measure. The increases in ethanol intake and S+ preference induced by ethanol exposure might have been mediated jointly by development of tolerance to aversive post-absorptive ethanol effects and negative reinforcement due to alleviation of withdrawal. Bout analyses indicated that ethanol exposure increased ethanol self-infusion by increasing the total number of daily bouts rather than by increasing bout size. These analyses also showed that DBA/2J mice infused larger ethanol bouts and a greater percentage of their total intakes in large bouts than C57BL/6J mice. Overall, these studies suggest that the intragastric self-infusion procedure is a potentially useful new tool for studying genetic and environmental influences on excessive ethanol intake and preference in mice.

Fidler, Tara L.; Dion, Amanda M.; Powers, Matthew S.; Ramirez, Jason J.; Mulgrew, Jennifer A.; Smitasin, Phoebe J.; Crane, Andrew T.; Cunningham, Christopher L.



Comparison of blood ethanol concentrations in samples simultaneously collected into expired and unexpired venipuncture tubes.  


Blood sample collection kits manufactured for the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension contain venipuncture tubes with an expiration date that the tube manufacturer utilizes to ensure sufficient vacuum to fill the tubes. Legal challenges to blood ethanol analyses that involved the use of expired venipuncture tubes prompted a study comparing ethanol analysis results in expired venipuncture tubes (up to 74 months beyond the expiration date) and in unexpired venipuncture tubes. Blood samples were collected during controlled drinking sessions using 10-mL venipuncture tubes containing 100 mg of sodium fluoride and 20 mg of potassium oxalate and were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography. The data obtained indicate that the ethanol concentrations in the expired and unexpired venipuncture tubes were statistically identical. PMID:16839468

Zittel, Donna B; Hardin, Glenn G



High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium for R-22 + ethanol and R-22 + ethanol + water  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the systems CO{sub 2} + methanol at 313.05 K, CO{sub 2} + ethanol at 323.55, 325.15, and 333.35 K, R-22 (chlorodifluoromethane) + ethanol at 343.25, 361.45, and 382.45 K, and R-22 + ethanol + water at 351.55, 362.65, and 371.85 K are obtained using a circulation-type VLE apparatus. The apparatus is tested with measurements of the CO{sub 2} + methanol and CO{sub 2} + ethanol systems. The experimental data are correlated using the Peng-Robinson and Elliott-Suresh-Donohue equations of state.

Elbaccouch, M.M.; Raymond, M.B.; Elliott, J.R.



Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris and its clerodane diterpen (caseargrewiin F) protect against DNA damage at low concentrations and cause DNA damage at high concentrations in mice's blood cells.  


Casearia sylvestris is used in Brazil as a popular medicine to treat ulcer, inflammation and tumour. Caseargrewiin F is a clerodane diterpene isolated from the ethanolic leaf extract of C.sylvestris. The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of the ethanolic extract of C.sylvestris leaves and caseargrewiin F to protect DNA and verify if both the compounds cause some DNA damage, using the micronucleus (MN) test and comet assay in mice. Balb-C mice were treated with the extract [3.13, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)] and caseargrewiin F (0.16, 0.32, 0.63, 1.3, 2.5 and 3.8 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days. On day 15, DNA damage was induced by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of cyclophosphamide (CP) (i.p.) at 50 mg/kg b.w. after the MN test and comet assay were performed. A protective effect of ethanolic extract was observed in MN test (6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg b.w.) and the comet assay (3.13 and 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg b.w.). Caseargrewiin F showed protective effect at 0.63, 1.3 and 2.5 mg/kg b.w. only in comet assay. We also tested the ability of compounds of C.sylvestris to induce MN and to increase the comet assay tail moment. The experimental design was similar to the DNA protection assay except that in test groups we omitted the CP challenge. We observed increased damage at 50 and 75 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of C.sylvestris and caseargrewiin F at 3.18 mg/kg b.w. in both the MN test and comet assay. We conclude that ethanolic extract of C. sylvestris and caseargrewiin F can protect cells against DNA damage induced by CP at low concentrations, but at high concentrations these compounds also induce DNA damage. PMID:19736218

de Oliveira, Aline M; dos Santos, André G; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Csipak, Angélica R; Olivato, Camila; da Silva, Isabel C; de Freitas, Maura B; Bassi, Carmen L; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Silva, Dulce H S; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T; Takahashi, Catarina S; Soares, Christiane P



Effect of tranquilizers of blood endogenous ethanol level in alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood was taken from the cubital vein (2-3 ml) at the same time of day (from 9:30 to Ii a.m., 1.5-2 h after breakfast). Each patient was investigated once only. After initial blood sampling and 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after administration of a single dose of the tranquilizers the psychopathological investigation was carried out and a further blood

Yu. V. Burov; V. G. Treskov; É. S. Drozdov; A. E. Kovalenko



Ethanol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein cholesterol  

SciTech Connect

Male squirrel monkeys fed ethanol at variable doses were used to assess whether alcohol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in vivo. Monkeys were divided into three groups: 1) controls fed isocaloric liquid diet; 2) low ethanol monkeys fed liquid diet with vodka substituted isocalorically for carbohydrate at 12% of calories; and 3) High Ethanol animals fed diet plus vodka at 24% of calories. High Ethanol primates had significantly higher levels of HDL nonesterified cholesterol than Control and Low Ethanol animals while serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase was similar for the three treatments. There were no significant differences between the groups in HDL cholesteryl ester mass or specific activity following intravenous injection of labeled mevalonolactone. By contrast, High Ethanol monkeys had significantly greater HDL nonesterified cholesterol specific activity with approximately 60% of the radioactivity distributed in the HDL/sub 3/ subfraction. This report provides the first experimental evidence that ethanol at 24% of calories induces elevations in HDL cholesterol in primates through enhanced de novo synthesis without adverse effects on liver function.

Cluette, J.E.; Mulligan, J.J.; Noring, R.; Doyle, K.; Hojnacki, J.



Development of Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Sensitization and Relapse Drinking in Mice Selected for High or Low Ethanol Preference  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that high alcohol consumption is associated with low withdrawal susceptiblility, while at the same time, other studies have shown that exposure to ethanol vapor increases alcohol drinking in rats and mice. In the present studies, we sought to shed light on this seeming contradiction by using mice selectively bred for High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preference, first, assessing these lines for differences in signs of ethanol withdrawal and second, for differences in the efficacy of intermittent alcohol vapor exposure on elevating subsequent ethanol intake. Methods Experiment 1 examined whether these lines of mice differed in ethanol withdrawal-induced CNS hyperexcitability and the development of sensitization to this effect following intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Adult HAP and LAP lines (replicates 1 and 2), and the C3H/HeNcr inbred strain (included as a control genotype for comparison purposes) received intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor and were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures assessed by scoring handling-induced convulsions (HIC). Experiment 2 examined the influence of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on voluntary ethanol drinking. Adult male and female HAP-2 and LAP-2 mice, along with male C57BL/6J (included as comparative controls) were trained to drink 10% ethanol using a limited access (2 hr/day) 2-bottle choice paradigm. After stable baseline daily intake was established, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers. Ethanol intake sessions resumed 72 hr after final ethanol (or air) exposure for 5 consecutive days. Results Following chronic ethanol treatment, LAP mice exhibited overall greater withdrawal seizure activity compared to HAP mice. In Experiment 2, chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal resulted in a significant increase in ethanol intake in male C57BL/6J, and modestly elevated intake in HAP-2 male mice. Ethanol intake for male control mice did not change from baseline levels of intake. In contrast, HAP-2 females and LAP-2 mice of both sexes did not show changes in ethanol intake as a consequence of intermittent ethanol exposure. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the magnitude of ethanol withdrawal-related seizures is inversely related to inherited ethanol intake preference. Additionally, intermittent ethanol vapor exposure appears more likely to affect high-drinking mice (C57BL/6J and HAP-2) than low drinkers, even though these animals are less affected by ethanol withdrawal.

Lopez, Marcelo F.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Becker, Howard C.



Effects of perimortem physical factors associated with death on exogenous ethanol concentrations in cardiac blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether perimortem physical factors associated with death affect exogenous ethanol concentrations in cardiac blood. Forty-one autopsies of alcohol-intoxicated decedents with no or little putrefaction were involved. Postmortem intervals ranged from 6 to 96h at the time of autopsy. Our 41 cases consisted of 17 fire victims, 8 drowned persons, 3 blood-loss patients

Fumio Moriya; Yoshiaki Hashimoto; Junichi Furumiya; Sachie Nishioka



Assessment of postmortem blood alcohol concentrations by ethanol levels measured in fluids from putrefactive blisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was the aim of the present study to investigate whether the postmortem blood alcohol concentration (BAC) can be assessed by means of ethanol values measured in fluids from putrefactive blisters. Fluids from one or two putrefactive blisters were collected in 45 putrefied corpses (postmortem interval: 3–23 days, graduation of the degree of decomposition into four stages) and compared with

Wolfgang Grellner; Rolf Iffland



Microarray characterization of gene expression changes in blood during acute ethanol exposure  

PubMed Central

Background As part of the civil aviation safety program to define the adverse effects of ethanol on flying performance, we performed a DNA microarray analysis of human whole blood samples from a five-time point study of subjects administered ethanol orally, followed by breathalyzer analysis, to monitor blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to discover significant gene expression changes in response to the ethanol exposure. Methods Subjects were administered either orange juice or orange juice with ethanol. Blood samples were taken based on BAC and total RNA was isolated from PaxGene™ blood tubes. The amplified cDNA was used in microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses to evaluate differential gene expression. Microarray data was analyzed in a pipeline fashion to summarize and normalize and the results evaluated for relative expression across time points with multiple methods. Candidate genes showing distinctive expression patterns in response to ethanol were clustered by pattern and further analyzed for related function, pathway membership and common transcription factor binding within and across clusters. RT-qPCR was used with representative genes to confirm relative transcript levels across time to those detected in microarrays. Results Microarray analysis of samples representing 0%, 0.04%, 0.08%, return to 0.04%, and 0.02% wt/vol BAC showed that changes in gene expression could be detected across the time course. The expression changes were verified by qRT-PCR. The candidate genes of interest (GOI) identified from the microarray analysis and clustered by expression pattern across the five BAC points showed seven coordinately expressed groups. Analysis showed function-based networks, shared transcription factor binding sites and signaling pathways for members of the clusters. These include hematological functions, innate immunity and inflammation functions, metabolic functions expected of ethanol metabolism, and pancreatic and hepatic function. Five of the seven clusters showed links to the p38 MAPK pathway. Conclusions The results of this study provide a first look at changing gene expression patterns in human blood during an acute rise in blood ethanol concentration and its depletion because of metabolism and excretion, and demonstrate that it is possible to detect changes in gene expression using total RNA isolated from whole blood. The analysis approach for this study serves as a workflow to investigate the biology linked to expression changes across a time course and from these changes, to identify target genes that could serve as biomarkers linked to pilot performance.





Ethanol is a widely used drug whose mechanism of action, despite intensive study, remains uncertain. Biochemical and electrophysiological experiments have identified receptors and ion channels whose functions are altered at physiological concentrations of ethanol. Yet, the contribution of these potential targets to its intoxicating or behavioral effects is unclear. Unbiased forward genetic screens for resistant or hypersensitive mutants represent an attractive means of identifying the relevant molecular targets or biochemical pathways mediating the behavioral effects of neuroactive compounds. C. elegans has proven to be a particularly useful system for such studies. The behavioral effects of ethanol occur at equivalent tissue concentrations in mammals and in C. elegans, suggesting the existence of conserved drug targets in the nervous system. This chapter reviews the results of studies directed toward determining the mechanisms of action of ethanol. Studies of the neural adaptations that occur with prolonged drug exposure are also discussed. The methods used to characterize the actions of ethanol should be applicable to the characterizations of other compounds that affect the behavior of C. elegans. PMID:20432508

McIntire, Steven L



Influence of high temperature and ethanol on thermostable lignocellulolytic enzymes.  


Lignocellulolytic enzymes are among the most costly part in production of bioethanol. Therefore, recycling of enzymes is interesting as a concept for reduction of process costs. However, stability of the enzymes during the process is critical. In this work, focus has been on investigating the influence of temperature and ethanol on enzyme activity and stability in the distillation step, where most enzymes are inactivated due to high temperatures. Two enzyme mixtures, a mesophilic and a thermostable mixture, were exposed to typical process conditions [temperatures from 55 to 65 °C and up to 5 % ethanol (w/v)] followed by specific enzyme activity analyses and SDS-PAGE. The thermostable and mesophilic mixture remained active at up to 65 and 55 °C, respectively. When the enzyme mixtures reached their maximum temperature limit, ethanol had a remarkable influence on enzyme activity, e.g., the more ethanol, the faster the inactivation. The reason could be the hydrophobic interaction of ethanol on the tertiary structure of the enzyme protein. The thermostable mixture was more tolerant to temperature and ethanol and could therefore be a potential candidate for recycling after distillation. PMID:23483355

Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Jørgensen, Henning



Orexin-1 receptor antagonism decreases ethanol consumption and preference selectively in high-ethanol--preferring Sprague--Dawley rats.  


Work from our laboratory has shown that orexin (ORX; or hypocretin) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus are involved in preference for morphine, cocaine, and food. Other groups have demonstrated a connection between the ORX system and ethanol-related behaviors. Here, we extended those results to investigate, in outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, the relationship between ethanol preference and the ORX system. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to drink 10% ethanol using the intermittent access (IA) technique. In Experiment 2, different groups of rats were trained to drink 10% ethanol using either IA or the sucrose-fade (SF) technique. Following ethanol-drinking acquisition, ethanol preference was assessed using two-bottle-choice tests. The rats were then tested for changes in preference with additional two-bottle-choice tests following administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB; 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Differences in ethanol preference were observed across individuals, with a significantly higher ethanol preference observed in rats trained to drink using IA compared with SF. In both Experiments 1 and 2, SB reduced ethanol preference selectively in rats with high ethanol preference. These results demonstrate a strong, causal relationship between the ORX system and ethanol preference in outbred rats. These findings provide additional evidence that the ORX system provides opportunities to develop novel treatments for alcohol abuse. PMID:19671464

Moorman, David E; Aston-Jones, Gary



Ethanolic fermentation of cane molasses by a highly flocculent yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A study of the comparative kinetics of standardS.uvarum ATCC 26602 withS.cerevisiae Y-10 (an isolate) and a highly flocculent strain ofS.uvarum in batch mode has shown that both the isolate and the highly flocculentS.uvarum strain have more desirable characteristics than the standard strains for ethanol production from cane molasses.

R. Raghav; H. Sivaraman; D. V. Gokhale; B. Seetarama Rao



High-degree atrioventricular block in acute ethanol poisoning: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute ethanol ingestion can prolong the PR interval, but searching Medline, we have found only one report of Wenckebach-type atrioventricular block in ethanol poisoning. We present a high-degree atrioventricular block in an ethanol-poisoned patient. Case presentation A 17-year-old woman with a non-contributory medical history ingested 3dcl of vodka and was found comatose. On arrival she was somnolent with nausea, tympanic temperature 36.0°C, pulse 70 counts/min, blood pressure 90/60 mmHg, respiratory rate 12 counts/min and SpO2 96% on room air. Her blood ethanol level was 130 mg/dL; other blood laboratory test results were normal. ECG revealed sinus rhythm, first-degree atrioventricular block with a PR interval of 0.32 seconds and intermittent second- and third-degree atrioventricular blocks with up to 4-second-long pauses that appeared 15-30 seconds after each vomiting. She was given thiethylperazine and vomiting resolved within an hour. ECG 12 hours after admission revealed a first-degree atrioventricular block with a PR interval of 0.24 seconds. One month later Holter monitor showed a sinus rhythm and first-degree atrioventricular block with a PR interval of 0.21 seconds. Vagal maneuvers did not provoke high-degree atrioventricular block. The echocardiogram was normal. Conclusion Acute ethanol poisoning has the potential to prolong the PR interval in adults with first-degree atrioventricular block and provoke intermittent second- and third-degree atrioventricular blocks, possibly by its direct inhibitory action on the conduction system and increasing parasympathetic tone due to nausea and vomiting.

Bunc, Matjaz



Urine\\/blood ratios of ethanol in deaths attributed to acute alcohol poisoning and chronic alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of ethanol were determined in femoral venous blood (BAC) and urine (UAC) and the UAC\\/BAC ratios were evaluated for a large case series of forensic autopsies in which the primary cause of death was either acute alcohol poisoning (N=628) or chronic alcoholism (N=647). In alcohol poisoning deaths both UAC and BAC were higher by about 2g\\/l compared with

A. W. Jones; P. Holmgren



The effect of propranolol on gene expression during the blood alcohol cycle of rats fed ethanol intragastrically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propranolol, a beta adrenergic blocker prevents the blood alcohol (BAL) cycle in rats fed ethanol intragastrically at a constant rate by preventing the cyclic changes in the metabolic rate caused by fluctuating levels of norepinephrine released into the blood. The change in the rate of metabolism changes the rate of alcohol elimination in the blood which causes the BAL to

J. Li; F. Bardag-Gorce; J. Oliva; B. A. French; J. Dedes; S. W. French



Ethanol Palatability and Consumption by High Ethanol-Drinking Rats: Manipulation of the Opioid System With Naltrexone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments examined the effect of acute naltrexone treatment on both taste reactivity and consumption of ethanol in high ethanol-preferring rat lines: Alko Alcohol-Accepting (AA) rats (Experiments 1 and 2) and Alcohol-Preferring (P) rats (Experiment 3). A 3.0 mg\\/kg naltrexone dose was ineffective at altering ethanol palatability for either line, whereas 7.5 mg\\/kg was effective at reducing palatability of 10%

Daniel L. Coonfield; Stephen W. Kiefer; John David Sinclair



Ultrasensitive method for determination of ethanol in whole blood by headspace capillary gas chromatography with cryogenic oven trapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have established an ultra-sensitive method for determination of ethanol in whole blood by headspace capillary gas chromatography (GC) with cryogenic oven trapping. After heating a blood sample containing ethanol and isobutyl alcohol (internal standard, IS) in a 7.0-ml vial at 55°C for 15 min, 5 ml of the headspace vapor was drawn into a glass syringe and injected into

Kanako Watanabe-Suzuki; Hiroshi Seno; Akira Ishii; Takeshi Kumazawa; Osamu Suzuki



High Blood Pressure in Children  


... adults unless they begin treatment. A common complication associated with high blood pressure in children is sleep apnea, a condition in which your child may snore or have abnormal breathing when he or she sleeps. Pay attention to breathing problems your child may have while sleeping. Children who ...


High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy  


... in which there is high blood pressure, and protein is present in the urine. If you have further questions, contact your obstetrician–gynecologist. FAQ034: Designed as an aid to patients, this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s ...


Differential Dietary Ethanol Intake and Blood Ethanol Levels in Adolescent and Adult Rats: Effects on Anxiety-Like Behavior and Seizure Thresholds  

PubMed Central

Background Adult rats exhibit increased anxiety-like behavior after exposure to repeated cycles of chronic ethanol and withdrawal. While adolescent rats have differential responses to both acute and chronic ethanol treatments, the potential differences in the effects of repeated withdrawals in this population have yet to be determined. Methods Male adult and adolescent rats received three 5-day cycles of either a 4.5% or 7% ethanol diet (ED) separated by two 2-day withdrawal periods. Five hours into the final withdrawal, rats were tested for social interaction (SI) deficits (an index of anxiety-like behavior) and then assessed for seizure thresholds (audiogenic and bicuculline-induced). Ethanol intake was monitored throughout, and blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were obtained from a separate group of rats. Results Adolescent rats have reduced SI during the final withdrawal from either ED and exhibit a greater reduction in SI compared to adult rats when exposed to a 7%ED. Audiogenic seizures were not increased during withdrawal from either ED in adult rats, but adolescent rats that received 7%ED displayed increased seizures. The bicuculline seizure thresholds were decreased in both ages exposed to a 7%ED, but only adolescent rats showed this decreased threshold after 4.5%ED. Ethanol intakes and BECs were higher in adolescent rats compared to similarly treated adults. However, ethanol intakes and BECs were comparable between 4.5%ED-treated adolescent and 7%ED-treated adult rats. Conclusions Behavioral results from the 7%ED-treated groups suggested that adolescent rats may be more vulnerable to repeated withdrawals from ethanol than adults; however, differences in ethanol intake and BECs may be at least in part responsible. When ethanol intakes and BECs were similar between 4.5%ED-treated adolescent and 7%ED-treated adult rats, behavioral effects were not different. Importantly, these data illustrated that adolescent rats can exhibit anxiety and reduced seizure thresholds following this repeated withdrawal paradigm.

Wills, Tiffany A.; Knapp, Darin J.; Overstreet, David H.; Breese, George R.



Retrobulbar blood flow and visual field alterations after acute ethanol ingestion  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ethyl alcohol on the koniocellular and magnocellular pathway of visual function and to investigate the relationship between such visual field changes and retrobulbar blood flow in healthy subjects. Methods In 12 healthy subjects (mean age 32 ± 4 years), color Doppler imaging, short-wavelength automated perimetry, and frequency doubling perimetry was performed before and 60 minutes after oral intake of 80 mL of 40 vol% ethanol. Mean and pattern standard deviations for short-wavelength automated and frequency doubling perimetry were assessed. End diastolic velocity (EDV) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using color Doppler imaging. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, intraocular pressure, and blood alcohol concentration were determined. Results Mean PSV and EDV in the central retinal artery showed a significant increase after alcohol intake (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). Similarly, we found a significant acceleration of blood flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery (P = 0.02 for PSV; P = 0.04 for EDV). Mean intraocular pressure decreased by 1.0 mmHg after alcohol ingestion (P = 0.01). Retinal sensitivity in short-wavelength automated perimetry did not alter, whereas in frequency doubling perimetry, the mean deviation decreased significantly. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly. Mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.38 ± 0.16 g/L. Conclusion Although ethanol is known to cause peripheral vasodilation, our subjects had no significant drop in systemic blood pressure. However, a significant increase of blood flow velocity was seen in the retrobulbar vessels. Regarding visual function, moderate alcohol consumption led to reduced performance in the magnocellular visual system tested by frequency doubling perimetry, but had no effect on short-wavelength automated perimetry.

Weber, Anke; Remky, Andreas; Bienert, Marion; der Velden, Klaudia Huber-van; Kirschkamp, Thomas; Rennings, Corinna; Roessler, Gernot; Plange, Niklas



Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.  


The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ?17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ?17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance. PMID:23754966

Pais, Thiago M; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Françoise; Thevelein, Johan M



Comparative Polygenic Analysis of Maximal Ethanol Accumulation Capacity and Tolerance to High Ethanol Levels of Cell Proliferation in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ?17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ?17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

Pais, Thiago M.; Foulquie-Moreno, Maria R.; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Francoise; Thevelein, Johan M.



Comparison of ethanol concentrations in venous blood and end-expired breath during a controlled drinking study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration–time profiles of ethanol were determined for venous whole blood and end-expired breath during a controlled drinking experiment in which healthy men (n=9) and women (n=9) drank 0.40–0.65g ethanol per kg body weight in 20–30min. Specimens of blood and breath were obtained for analysis of ethanol starting at 50–60min post-dosing and then every 30–60min for 3–6h. This protocol furnished 130

A. W Jones; L Andersson



Effects of beta-phenylethylamine on locomotor activity, body temperature and ethanol blood concentrations during acute ethanol intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta-phenylethylamine (PEA) is an endogenous amine which is metabolised by MAO B. The function of this enzyme is known to\\u000a be modified by ethanol so we have studied the interactions of PEA with ethanol. Rectal temperatures of rats were determined\\u000a and animals pretreated with ethanol (2.5 g kg?1 IP) 90 min before PEA 20, 40, 100 mg kg?1 IP). Spontaneous

S. U. Aliyu; R. D. E. Sewell



Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data£  

PubMed Central

Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data.

Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, RM



The effect of "superactive" charcoal and magnesium citrate solution on blood ethanol concentrations and area under the curve in humans.  


Eleven healthy males between 21 and 37 years of age were enrolled into a non-randomized crossover study comparing superactive charcoal (SAC) given after ethanol administration. After receiving 0.6 gm/kg ethanol orally (95% V/V diluted in orange juice), blood was sampled at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 hours. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated and the highest ethanol level was recorded. After a minimum of 1 week washout, the volunteers ingested an identical ethanol dose but in addition received 60 grams of SAC and 300 ml of 5.8% magnesium citrate solution 1 and 3 hours post ingestion. The data was compared using the paired t-test with p less than 0.05 considered significant. Nine volunteers completed the study. Volunteers had difficulty ingesting the full second 60 gram SAC dose. The AUC (mean 1184 mcg x hr/ml) and highest ethanol concentrations (mean 46.3 mg/dl) for the control group were not significantly greater than in the SAC group (mean AUC 1167 mcg x hr/ml and highest ethanol concentration of 49.0 mg/dl). The ethanol concentration in the SAC group was significantly less than control only at 2.0 hours (31.6 mg/dl vs 36.6 mg/dl, p less than 0.01). The peak ethanol concentration in the SAC group occurred at 1.0 hours in 7 of 9 volunteers, while in the control group, peak concentration occurred randomly between 0.5 and 2.0 hours. We conclude SAC in the dose used is not effective in decreasing AUC, highest ethanol concentration, and blood ethanol levels when given 1 and 3 hours after ethanol ingestion. PMID:2769820

Katona, B G; Siegel, E G; Roberts, J R; Fant, W K; Hassen, M



High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v\\/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting\\u000a factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic\\u000a anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70°C.

Tania I. Georgieva; Marie J. Mikkelsen; Birgitte K. Ahring



Highly selective ethanol In 2O 3-based gas sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitive composite material was prepared by loading Pt and La2O3 into ultrafine In2O3 matric material (8nm) synthesized by microemulsion method. A highly selective ethanol gas sensor was developed based on hot-wire type gas sensor, which was sintered in a bead (0.8mm in diameter) to cover a platinum wire coil (0.4mm in diameter). The gas sensor was operated by a

Zili Zhan; Jianwei Lu; Wenhui Song; Denggao Jiang; Jiaqiang Xu



Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in oral fluid, blood, and urine after volunteers drank 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg doses of ethanol.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid, blood, and urine after healthy volunteers drank two doses of ethanol, 0.5 (n = 11) and 1.0 g/kg (n = 10), after an overnight fast. Samples of oral fluid, blood, and urine were collected before drinking started and at 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 8.5, 11.5, and 24 h post-dosing. Following ingestion of low dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 0.36 mg/L (range 0.28-0.41 mg/L) in blood and 69.8 mg/L (range 47.1-96.5 mg/L) in urine. In oral fluid, the concentrations were < 1% of those in blood, and only three subjects exceeded the limit of quantification for EtG in oral fluid. After ingestion of the high dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 1.06 mg/L (range 0.8-1.22 mg/L) in blood, 159.9 mg/L (range 97.2-225.5 mg/L) in urine, and 0.032 mg/L (range 0.013-0.059 mg/L) in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood ratio was 0.029 (range 0.012-0.054) for EtG. The detection time for EtG was median 11.5 h (range 3.5-11.5 h) in oral fluid. According to this, the detection time for EtG in oral fluid is therefore only a few hours longer than for ethanol itself and represents limited additional value. PMID:20663284

Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Mørland, Jørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg


How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated?  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated? High blood cholesterol is treated with lifestyle ... need to follow a heart healthy diet . Lowering Cholesterol Using Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes TLC is a set ...


High Blood Pressure: Treat it for Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High blood pressure will not simply go away. This comprehensive booklet describes how to take action against high blood pressure, including losing weight if overweight, increasing physical activity, choosing foods low in salt and sodium, and limiting alco...



Analysis of adaptation to high ethanol concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarray.  


In industrial process, yeast cells are exposed to ethanol stress that affects the cell growth and the productivity. Thus, investigating the intracellular state of yeast cells under high ethanol concentration is important. In this study, using DNA microarray analysis, we performed comprehensive expression profiling of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, i.e., the ethanol-adapted strain that shows active growth under the ethanol stress condition and its parental strain used as the control. By comparing the expression profiles of these two strains under the ethanol stress condition, we found that the genes related to ribosomal proteins were highly up-regulated in the ethanol-adapted strain. Further, genes related to ATP synthesis in mitochondria were suggested to be important for growth under ethanol stress. We expect that the results will provide a better understanding of ethanol tolerance of yeast. PMID:19125301

Dinh, Thai Nho; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Hirasawa, Takashi; Furusawa, Chikara; Shimizu, Hiroshi



Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  


... On Track Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar htmDiab1OnTrack_Dangers Illness, insulin, food and exercise all can affect blood sugar. When these elements get out of balance, sugar ...


High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome  


... Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Metabolic Syndrome BP vs. Heart Rate BP Quizzes Myths About High Blood Pressure Your ... Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 7 Target Heart Rates 8 Good vs. Bad Cholesterol 9 Types of ...


Mate Tea Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Blood and Hippocampus of Rats with Acute or Chronic Ethanol Administration  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic intake of mate tea on the effects elicited by acute and chronic administration of ethanol. Methods. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus and blood of rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups, for both acute and chronic treatment: (1) control group, (2) treated group, (3) intoxicated group, (4) and intoxicated group treated with mate tea. Results. Both ethanol administrations significantly increased TBARS in plasma and hippocampus of rats and altered antioxidant enzyme activities, changes which were reverted by mate tea administration. Conclusions. Data indicate that acute and chronic ethanol administration induced oxidative stress in hippocampus and blood and that mate tea treatment was able to prevent this situation.

Scolaro, Bianca; Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; da Cruz, Jose Geraldo Pereira; Delwing-Dal Magro, Debora



Potassium and High Blood Pressure  


A diet that includes natural sources of potassium is important in controlling blood pressure because potassium lessens the effects of sodium. The recommended daily intake of potassium for an average adult ...


ATP metabolism in rat liver chronically treated with ethanol and high fat  

SciTech Connect

Five pairs of Wistar male rats weighing about 350 g were continuously infused with a liquid diet in which 25-35% of total calories was derived from fat, plus ethanol or isocaloric dextrose through gastrostomy cannulas for 3 wks to 3.5 mos. Mean ethanol intake was 12.9 +/- 0.7 g/kg B.W. (55% of total calories). High blood alcohol levels (BAL, 342 +/- 151 mg/dl) were maintained. The liver showed severe steatosis (4+) in all the ethanol-fed rats (ER). Two had mild focal mononuclear cell infiltration, one had mild fibrosis and one had spotty necrosis. Mild steatosis (1+) was seen in 4 out of 5 pair-fed control rats (CR). Serum ALT was significantly higher in ER (129 +/- 44 U) compared with Cr (59 +/- 30 U) or rats fed chow ad lib (NR) (48 +/- 26 U). Biopsied liver tissue was used to measure the concentration of adenine nucleotides by HPLC (6 pairs). There was a significant decrease of ATP in ER (1.7 +/- 0.3 liver) as compared to CR (2.5 +/- 0.5 or NR (2.8 +/- 0.2, n = 6). There was no significant change in the ADP or AMP content, however. The total adenylate pool of the liver was also significantly reduced in ER when compared to that of CR or NR (3.2 +/- 0.4, 4.0 +/- 0.5 and 4.3 +/- 0.2 liver, respectively). Adeynlate energy charge (E.C.) of the ER livers (0.71 +/- 0.05) was significantly reduced compared to NR (0.77 +/- 0.02) but not with CR (0.75 +/- 0.06). The results indicate that ethanol decreases the level of ATP as well as the biological mechanism to compensate for the lowered level.

Miyamoto, K.; French, S.W.



Only high concentrations of ethanol affect GABAA receptors of rat cerebellum granule cells in culture.  


In the experiments described in the present report, we evaluated the effects of ethanol on the activity of GABAA receptors of cerebellar granule cells in culture. Only very high ethanol concentrations (100-300 mM) showed a clear and significant stimulatory effect on the activity of such receptors. This result was unexpected. In fact, previous reports from other groups would have suggested high ethanol sensitivity of at least one population of GABAA receptors expressed by granule cells. PMID:17234340

Casagrande, S; Cupello, A; Pellistri, F; Robello, M



Effect of different columns and internal standards on the quality assurance of the gas chromatographic determination of blood ethanol.  


Quality assurance is an essential requirement of clinical and forensic laboratories, especially in the determination of ethanol. Opinions differ as to whether normal gas chromatographic methods should be used with modified procedures, or whether different chromatographic strategies should be adopted, the choice being based entirely on practical considerations. We have evaluated the influence on the blood ethanol determination of the frequently used glass and steel columns, as well as the use of isopropanol and tert-butanol as internal standards. All the different combinations of column type and standard provided accurate and reliable results with no significant deviation. Standardization of the analytical procedure is therefore unnecessary, but international ethanol standards should be analysed sequentially to test the method and the staff performing the analyses in the different laboratories. PMID:8305622

Varga, M; Somogyi, G; Posta, J; Buris, L



High Blood Pressure Medications and You: Infographic  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... High Blood Pressure Medications and You: Infographic. Click here for a high-resolution, printable PDF (5.7 MB) of this infographic. ... More results from


High production of prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens grown on ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serratia marcescens S389, isolated as an ethanol-utilizing bacterium, produced prodigiosin at up to 3 mg ml-1 when grown on ethanol and with the omission of inorganic phosphate and NaCl from the medium. This yield was some 200-fold greater than that previously reported.

Song Cang; Makoto Sanada; Osamu Johdo; Shinji Ohta; Yasunori Nagamatsu; Akihiro Yoshimoto




PubMed Central

BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs.

Cornelissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelkova, A.; Dusek, J.; Svacinova, H.; Siegelova, J.; Fiser, B.



Highly Efficient Prion Transmission by Blood Transfusion  

PubMed Central

It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely on infectious titers measured in rodent models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) using intra-cerebral (IC) inoculation of blood components. To address the biological relevance of this approach, we compared the efficiency of TSE transmission by blood and blood components when administrated either through transfusion in sheep or by intra-cerebral inoculation (IC) in transgenic mice (tg338) over-expressing ovine PrP. Transfusion of 200 µL of blood from asymptomatic infected donor sheep transmitted prion disease with 100% efficiency thereby displaying greater virulence than the transfusion of 200 mL of normal blood spiked with brain homogenate material containing 103ID50 as measured by intracerebral inoculation of tg338 mice (ID50 IC in tg338). This was consistent with a whole blood titer greater than 103.6 ID50 IC in tg338 per mL. However, when the same blood samples were assayed by IC inoculation into tg338 the infectious titers were less than 32 ID per mL. Whereas the transfusion of crude plasma to sheep transmitted the disease with limited efficacy, White Blood Cells (WBC) displayed a similar ability to whole blood to infect recipients. Strikingly, fixation of WBC with paraformaldehyde did not affect the infectivity titer as measured in tg338 but dramatically impaired disease transmission by transfusion in sheep. These results demonstrate that TSE transmission by blood transfusion can be highly efficient and that this efficiency is more dependent on the viability of transfused cells than the level of infectivity measured by IC inoculation.

Andreoletti, Olivier; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Corbiere, Fabien; Lugan, Severine; Costes, Pierrette; Schelcher, Francois; Vilette, Didier; Grassi, Jacques; Lacroux, Caroline



Experimental determination of suitable ethanol–gasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol produced from biomass has high octane number and gives lower emissions. Therefore, it is used as alternative fuel in the gasoline engines. In this study, ethanol was used as fuel at high compression ratio to improve performance and to reduce emissions in a small gasoline engine with low efficiency. Initially, the engine whose compression ratio was 6\\/1 was tested

M. Bahattin Celik



Ethanol production from sugar cane segments in a high solids drum fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful yeast fermentation for the production of relatively high concentration of ethanol (9% w\\/v) was carried out using sugar cane segments. Extraction of sugar from segments occurred simultaneously with ethanol formation. The beer produced was transferred to a fresh batch of sugar cane segments and the fermentation cycle was repeated successively three times with the same beer. A high

Z. Er-el; E. Battat; U. Shechter; I. Goldberg



Analysis of adaptation to high ethanol concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

In industrial process, yeast cells are exposed to ethanol stress that affects the cell growth and the productivity. Thus,\\u000a investigating the intracellular state of yeast cells under high ethanol concentration is important. In this study, using DNA\\u000a microarray analysis, we performed comprehensive expression profiling of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, i.e., the ethanol-adapted strain that shows active growth under the

Thai Nho Dinh; Keisuke Nagahisa; Katsunori Yoshikawa; Takashi Hirasawa; Chikara Furusawa; Hiroshi Shimizu



And so can plants with high starch contents. [Cereal grains conversion to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at Miles Laboratories are looking into the hydrolysis of starch using two enzymes - alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, as high concentrations of starch like those found in cereal grains can be converted into ethanol by way of sugars. It is estimated that to produce 1 gallon of ethanol requires about 56 lb of corn and with 85% fermentation efficiency, the enzyme cost per gallon of ethanol would be 6-7 cents.

Not Available



Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3?H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6?% higher ethanol concentration and a 17?% higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic fermentation performance for sustainable bio-ethanol production.



Effect of ethanol on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism (CMRO2) in conscious sheep  

SciTech Connect

A moderate dose of ethanol severely depresses CBF and CMRO2 in the awake sheep fetus. However, the effects of ethanol on CBF and CMRO2 in the adult are unclear. The same dose of ethanol was infused for 2 hr in 5 ewes instrumented with aortic, left ventricular and sagittal sinus catheters. Ethanol caused ataxia accompanied by early modest and variable increases of total and regional CBF and CMRO2, followed by later modest and variable decreases of total and regional CBF (cerebellum) and CMRO2. Ethanol caused a cerebral transcapillary fluid shift as indicated by significant increases of the arterial-cerebral venous differences for hematocrit and hemoglobin. Brain wet-dry ratios increased by 10% above control levels. However, cerebral venous pressures were unchanged. The authors conclude that the adult cerebral response to ethanol differs quantitatively from that of the fetus. The functional significance of the cerebral fluid shift is unclear.

Krasney, J.A.; Zubkov, B.; Iwamoto, J. (Univ. of Buffalo, NY (United States))



Blood alcohol concentration for monitoring ethanol treatment to prevent alcohol withdrawal in the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a serious complication during postoperative treatment in chronic alcoholics. Despite prophylactic treatment, AWS occurs in at least 25% of these patients after elective surgery. An established protocol for the prevention of AWS is ethanol administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in ethanol dose and levels between successfully treated patients

Verena Eggers; Joke Tio; Tim Neumann; Fritz Pragst; Christian Müller; Lutz G. Schmidt; Wolfgang J. Kox; Claudia D. Spies




Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel ethanol is currently made by large-scale yeast fermentation of sugars, that are extracted or prepared from crops, followed by distillation. Traditionally, sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) juice or beet (Beta vulgaris) molasses are used in ethanol production. The use of sweet sorghum to provide liquid fuels for the transport sector represent a new challenge, mainly due to its high yield

G. Stoian; G. Leurzeanu; V. Zaharescu; I. Iorgulescu


High Blood Pressure: The Science Inside  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This booklet is a resource to help individuals at risk to high blood pressure. Supported by Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) from the National Center for Research Resources Grant # 5R25RR15601

Healthy People Library Project;



Symptoms and Dangers of High Blood Sugar  


... diabetics but is dangerous when it does occur. Yeast and fungus commonly found on body surfaces grow ... blood sugar is high. This can lead to yeast and fungal infections. Examples include: A rash in ...


Selective oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid in highly efficient polymer electrolyte membrane-direct ethanol fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective conversion of ethanol into potassium acetate with concomitant production of electrical energy has been achieved in both passive and active direct fuel cells containing platinum-free electrodes and an anion-exchange polymer membrane. The power densities supplied by the passive systems at r.t. can be as high as 55mWcm?2, while the active systems can deliver up to 170mWcm?2 at 80°C.

Claudio Bianchini; Valentina Bambagioni; Jonathan Filippi; Andrea Marchionni; Francesco Vizza; Paolo Bert; Alessandro Tampucci



Very high gravity ethanol fermentation by flocculating yeast under redox potential-controlled conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation using medium in excess of 250 g/L sugars for more than 15% (v) ethanol can save energy consumption, not only for ethanol distillation, but also for distillage treatment; however, stuck fermentation with prolonged fermentation time and more sugars unfermented is the biggest challenge. Controlling redox potential (ORP) during VHG fermentation benefits biomass accumulation and improvement of yeast cell viability that is affected by osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition, enhancing ethanol productivity and yield, the most important techno-economic aspect of fuel ethanol production. Results Batch fermentation was performed under different ORP conditions using the flocculating yeast and media containing glucose of 201?±?3.1, 252?±?2.9 and 298?±?3.8 g/L. Compared with ethanol fermentation by non-flocculating yeast, different ORP profiles were observed with the flocculating yeast due to the morphological change associated with the flocculation of yeast cells. When ORP was controlled at ?100 mV, ethanol fermentation with the high gravity (HG) media containing glucose of 201?±?3.1 and 252?±?2.9 g/L was completed at 32 and 56 h, respectively, producing 93.0?±?1.3 and 120.0?±?1.8 g/L ethanol, correspondingly. In contrast, there were 24.0?±?0.4 and 17.0?±?0.3 g/L glucose remained unfermented without ORP control. As high as 131.0?±?1.8 g/L ethanol was produced at 72 h when ORP was controlled at ?150 mV for the VHG fermentation with medium containing 298?±?3.8 g/L glucose, since yeast cell viability was improved more significantly. Conclusions No lag phase was observed during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast, and the implementation of ORP control improved ethanol productivity and yield. When ORP was controlled at ?150 mV, more reducing power was available for yeast cells to survive, which in turn improved their viability and VHG ethanol fermentation performance. On the other hand, controlling ORP at ?100 mV stimulated yeast growth and enhanced ethanol production under the HG conditions. Moreover, the ORP profile detected during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast was less fluctuated, indicating that yeast flocculation could attenuate the ORP fluctuation observed during ethanol fermentation with non-flocculating yeast.



Methodological modifications on quantification of phosphatidylethanol in blood from humans abusing alcohol, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an abnormal phospholipid formed slowly in cell membranes by a transphosphatidylation reaction from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol and catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D. PEth in blood is a promising new marker of ethanol abuse depending on the high specificity and sensitivity of this marker. None of the biological markers used in clinical routine

Steina Aradottir; Bo L Olsson



[The significance of ethanolemia for the diagnosis of death from acute ethanol poisoning].  


Foci of myolysis of cardiac muscle fibers are suggested to be used for evaluation of thanatogenetic significance of ethanol concentration in cadaveric blood. This sign of acute ethanol poisoning is absent in case of other cause of death in a state of ethanol intoxication, even in the presence of high ethanolemia. Therefore, foci of myolysis are a sign of ethanol tolerance. PMID:12165959

Kapustin, A V; Panfilenko, O A; Serebriakova, V G


Rise of inhaled toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene, or mesitylene in rat blood after treatment with ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene, and mesitylene (1,3,5-methyl benzene) are widespread as solvents in industries and laboratories or in the manufacture and application of glues, paints, printing inks etc. These aromatics may be absorbed by employees during exposure at the workplace. Alcoholic beverages may be consumed during occupational inhalation or after shift's end at times. Toxicokinetic interactions between the aromatics and ethanol must be assumed because of the common pathway of biotransformation. The blood levels of toluene and m-xylene after inhalation increased significantly in volunteers dosed simultaneously with ethanol. In this view the present experiments in rats should elucidate whether the blood concentrations of inhaled ethyl benzene and mesitylene (both structurally related to toluene and m-xylene) can rise under the influence of ethanol, and whether quantitative differences of this effect due to the structure of these aromatics can occur. From the results informations important for the assessment of occupational health risk are to be expected.

Roemer, K.G.; Federsel, R.J.; Freundt, K.J.



Effects of chronic ethanol consumption in blood: A time dependent study on rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption and health outcomes are complex and multidimensional. Ethanol (1.6g \\/ kg body weight\\/ day) exposure initially\\u000a affects liver function followed by renal function of 16–18 week-old male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 200–220 g.\\u000a Chronic ethanol ingestion increased in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level and glutathione s-transferase activity;\\u000a while decreased reduced gluatathione content and activities of catalase,

Subir Kumar Das; L. Dhanya; Sowmya Varadhan; Sukhes Mukherjee; D. M. Vasudevan



High Blood Pressure and Sex: Overcome the Challenges  


... personal, noncommercial use only. High blood pressure and sex: Overcome the challenges By Mayo Clinic staff Original ... mail address Sign up High blood pressure and sex: Overcome the challenges Treatment for high blood pressure ...


Thermoregulation at a High Ambient Temperature Following the Oral Administration of Ethanol in the Rat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was designed to assess the thermoregulatory mechanisms responsible for the elevation in body temperature following ethanol administration when exposed to a high ambient temperature (Ta). Male rats of the Fischer 344 strain were gavaged with 20% ...

C. J. Gordon F. S. Mohler



Ethanol effects on local cerebral glucose utilization in high-alcohol-drinking and low-alcohol-drinking rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divergent ethanol-drinking behavior in rats selectively bred for high- or low-ethanol-drinking behavior could be related to differences in the sensitivity of the CNS to ethanol. In the current study, we examined the effects of acute (i.e., single injection) ethanol administration on local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) within selected brain regions of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) and low-alcohol-drinking (LAD) rats. Adult, male, HAD

Jennifer E Learn; Daniel G Smith; William J McBride; Lawrence Lumeng; Ting-Kai Li



Highly concentrated aqueous ethanol solutions by pervaporation using silicalite membrane — Improvement of ethanol selectivity by addition of sugars to ethanol solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervaporation performance using silicalite membranes in the separation of an ethanol\\/water solution was affected by the addition of sugars, sugar alcohols or yeast cells. Although the membrane flux drastically decreased to about 30% of that for an aqueous ethanol solution with increasing glucose or lactose concentration, the selectivity towards ethanol was inversely enhanced by the addition of glucose from 23

Toru Ikegami; Hiroshi Yanagishita; Dai Kitamoto; Kenji Haraya; Takashi Nakane; Hiroyuki Matsuda; Nobuyuki Koura; Tsuneji Sano



Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani



Photoinduced reactivity of liquid ethanol at high pressure.  


The room temperature photoinduced reactivity of liquid ethanol has been studied as a function of pressure up to 1.5 GPa by means of a diamond anvil cell. Exploiting the dissociative character of the lowest electronic excited states, reached through two-photon absorption of near-UV photons (350 nm), irreversible reactive processes have been triggered in the pure system. The active species are radicals forming along two main dissociation channels involving the split of C-O and O-H bonds. The characterization of the reaction products has been performed by in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. At pressures of a few megapascals, molecular hydrogen is the main reaction product, an important issue in the framework of environmentally friendly synthesis of this energetic vector. In the gigapascal range, the main products are ethane, 2-butanol, 2,3-butanediol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, and some carbonylic compounds. The relative amount of these species changes with pressure reflecting the nature of the radicals formed in the photodissociation process. As the pressure increases, the processes requiring a greater molecularity are favored, whereas those requiring internal rearrangements are inhibited. Disproportion products like CH(4), H(2)O, and CO(2) increase when the amount of ethanol decreases due to the reaction, becoming the main products only when ethanol is exhausted. PMID:21053928

Ceppatelli, Matteo; Fanetti, Samuele; Citroni, Margherita; Bini, Roberto



Blood Gas Transport at High Altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a model of human hypoxia, exposure to high altitude causes a number of ventilatory, circulatory and hemopoietic adaptations. A review of the literature on blood gas transport responses to hypoxia indicates that they are influenced not only by altitude, but also by factors related to acclimatization. In addition, it appears that the need to oxygenate tissues conflicts with the

Michele Samaja



Moderate doses of ethanol partially reverse avoidance learning deficits in high-alcohol-drinking rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that ethanol-naive high-alcohol-drinking (HAD1 and HAD2) rats exhibited selective deficits in active avoidance learning, as compared to low-alcohol-drinking (LAD1 and LAD2) rats, in a signaled bar-pressing task [Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 24 (2000) 1778]. In the current study, we used appetitive and aversive learning tasks to assess whether administration of ethanol influences approach and avoidance learning in

Linda M. Rorick; Peter R. Finn; Joseph E. Steinmetz



A Shortcut to the Production of High Ethanol Concentration from Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aspergillus niger SL-09, a newly isolated exoinulinase-hyperproducing strain, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Z-06, with high ethanol tolerance, were used in a fed-batch process for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber mash and flour. S. cerevisiae Z-06 utilized 98 % of the total sugar and produced 19.6 % of ethanol in 48 h. In this process the conversion efficiency

Xiang-Yang Ge; Wei-Guo Zhang


Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))



Gas chromatographic procedures for determination of ethanol in postmortem blood using t-butanol and methyl ethyl ketone as internal standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three gas chromatographic procedures for the determination of ethanol in postmortem blood using alternative internal standards to n-propanol are presented: a direct injection procedure using t-butanol, and two headspace methods using t-butanol and methyl ethyl ketone. t-Butanol and methyl ethyl ketone were well resolved from ethanol, acetone, methanol and other commonly observed putrefactive volatiles using direct injection or headspace analysis.

Carol L. O'Neal; Carl E. Wolf; Barry Levine; Gary Kunsman; Alphonse Poklis



Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient. Methods: This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success. Results: Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients. Conclusion: Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.

Linden, Edwin van der, E-mail: [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Baalen, Jary M. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Pattynama, Peter M. T. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)



Gastric evacuation for acute ethanol intoxication in a three year old.  

PubMed Central

A three year old girl presented in a deeply comatose state. She had drunk ethanol four hours previously and her blood ethanol concentration on arrival was 79.8 mmol/litre (3.69 g/litre). Because of her young age, high blood ethanol concentration, time since ingestion, and severe neurological depression on presentation, nasogastric aspiration of the stomach contents was performed and 4.2 g of ethanol were removed. She made an uneventful recovery.

Hussain, S Z; Rawal, J; Henry, J A



Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by combining high-pressure thermal sterilization and ethanol.  


High-pressure thermal sterilization (HPTS) is a new and promising sterilization technology of foods. Effects of combining HPTS and ethanol treatment on inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores were investigated. An interesting phenomenon was observed. The inactivation effect of HPTS treatment on the spores was enhanced significantly with the increase in ethanol concentration from 0 to 15%. However, the inactivation effect was decreased with further increase in ethanol concentration up to 70%. In addition, the release of DPA and leakages of OD(260) and OD(280) material from the spores increased continuously with the increase in ethanol concentration. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis suggested that although the inner membrane of the spores was damaged, PI could not bind with the spore DNA immediately after HPTS treatment. In conclusion, the mechanism of this special phenomenon could be attributed to the germination of spores under HPTS treatment and effects of ethanol on the protein or water activity. HPTS caused other lethal damages to the spores besides its damage to the inner membrane. Ethanol of low concentrations could significantly enhance the sterilization effects of HPTS, which was good for keeping the qualities of foods. PMID:23177048

Zhang, Zhong; Jiang, Bin; Liao, Xiaojun; Yi, Jianyong; Hu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yan



Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion  

SciTech Connect

The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, the authors have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10/sup -9/ to 16 x 10/sup -8/ of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10/sup -8/ of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place.

Farahnak, F.; Seki, T.; Ryu, D.D.Y.; Ogrydziak, D.



Novel instrumentation for determination of ethanol concentrations in human perspiration by gas chromatography and a good interrelationship between ethanol concentrations in sweat and blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel instrumentation for the estimation of ethanol concentration in sweat is proposed. It is composed of a sampling probe attached directly to the skin surface, a sweat rate meter for measuring the total amount of sweat secreted, a cold trap and a capillary gas chromatograph. The variation of ethanol concentration in sweat after ingestion has been measured precisely at intervals

Tomoya Kamei; Takao Tsuda; Yuuko Mibu; Shinya Kitagawa; Hiroko Wada; Ken Naitoh; Koji Nakashima



How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?  


... so your blood pressure goes down. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers Angiotensin II receptor blockers are newer blood pressure medicines that protect ... Nervous system inhibitors increase nerve impulses from the brain to relax and widen blood vessels. This causes ...


Highly Efficient Prion Transmission by Blood Transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely

Olivier Andréoletti; Claire Litaise; Hugh Simmons; Fabien Corbière; Séverine Lugan; Pierrette Costes; François Schelcher; Didier Vilette; Jacques Grassi; Caroline Lacroux



Effects of route of administration of ethanol on high-speed reaction time in young and old rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) and reactive capacity of young (8 months) and old (24 months) male Fischer 344 rats were compared at 5, 10, 20, 45, 65, and 90 min following the administration of ethanol (EtOH). The time-dependent effects of intragastric intubation (IG; 3 g\\/kg) and intraperitoneal injection (IP; 1.5 g\\/kg) of EtOH (20% w\\/v) were determined. Subsequent to

Waneen W. Spirduso; Dayne Mayfield; Mitzie Grant; Timothy Schallert



Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow: Role of acetate and A sub 1 - and A sub 2 -adenosine receptors  

SciTech Connect

The increase in portal blood flow induced by ethanol appears to be adenosine mediated. Acetate, which is released by the liver during ethanol metabolism, is known to increase adenosine levels in tissues and in blood. The effects of acetate on portal blood flow were investigated in rats using the microsphere technique. The intravenous infusion of acetate resulted in vasodilation of the preportal vasculature and in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This acetate-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. Using the A{sub 1}-adenosine receptor agonist N-6-cyclohexyl adenosine and the A{sub 2}-agonist 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine, we demonstrate that the effect of adenosine on the preportal vasculature is mediated by the A{sub 2}-subtype of adenosine receptors. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the increase in portal blood flow after ethanol administration results from a preportal vasodilatory effect of adenosine formed from acetate metabolism in extrahepatic tissues.

Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Varghese, G.A.; Israel, Y.; Orrego, H. (Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))



Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report updates the 1990 National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy and focuses on classification, pathophysiology, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.



Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials at high temperature using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displaying cellulolytic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To exploit cellulosic materials for fuel ethanol production, a microorganism capable of high temperature and simultaneous\\u000a saccharification–fermentation has been required. However, a major drawback is the optimum temperature for the saccharification\\u000a and fermentation. Most ethanol-fermenting microbes have an optimum temperature for ethanol fermentation ranging between 28 °C\\u000a and 37 °C, while the activity of cellulolytic enzymes is highest at around 50 °C and

Shuhei Yanase; Tomohisa Hasunuma; Ryosuke Yamada; Tsutomu Tanaka; Chiaki Ogino; Hideki Fukuda; Akihiko Kondo



The relationship between adjunctive drinking, blood ethanol concentration and plasma corticosterone across fixed-time intervals of food delivery in two inbred mouse strains.  


Schedules of intermittent food delivery induce excessive fluid intake, termed schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is important for the expression and maintenance of this adjunctive behavior. Previous work has focused on examining the relationship between water intake and plasma corticosterone (CORT) in rats at a single or a limited range of fixed time (FT) intervals. However, little remains known regarding SIP and the corresponding stress response (1) across the bitonic function that epitomizes adjunctive behavior, (2) when ethanol is the available fluid, and (3) when a species other than rat or multiple strains are studied. Here we report the findings from ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) and non-preferring DBA/2J (D2) mice serially exposed to progressively larger FT intervals (0?60min) and given access to either water or a 5% (v/v) ethanol solution. Following 2 weeks of experience with each schedule, blood samples were collected at the conclusion of the last 60-min session to evaluate CORT and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) achieved. While both strains exhibited a bitonic function of ethanol intake and BEC that peaked at or near a 5-min interval, only D2 mice showed a similar response with water. In contrast, CORT levels rose monotonically with incremental increases in the FT interval regardless of the strain examined or fluid type offered, indicating that glucocorticoid release likely reflects the aversive aspects of increasing intervals between reinforcement rather than engagement in adjunctive behavior. These findings also caution against the use of a single intensity stressor to evaluate the relationship between stress and ethanol intake, as the magnitude of stress appears to affect ethanol consumption in a non-linear fashion. PMID:23827168

Ford, Matthew M; Steele, Andrea M; McCracken, Aubrey D; Finn, Deborah A; Grant, Kathleen A



Does the clinical use of ethanol-based hand sanitizer elevate blood alcohol levels? A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEthanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) are used in most health care facilities in the United States. Infection control personnel advocate the use of generous quantities of EBHS before and after contact with patients. Although it is assumed that little systemic absorption of ethanol occurs during EBHS use, many alcohols are absorbed to varying degrees via the transdermal route. Ethanol intoxication by

Michael A. Miller; Alex Rosin; Marc E. Levsky; Manish M. Patel; Timothy J. D. Gregory; Chad S. Crystal



Sclerocarya birrea [(A. Rich.) Hochst.] [Anacardiaceae] stem-bark ethanolic extract (SBE) modulates blood glucose, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of STZ-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in our laboratories suggest that Sclerocarya birrea stem-bark ethanolic extract (SBE) has hypoglycemic properties. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of SBE on major complications of diabetes mellitus; blood glucose, renal function and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in non-diabetic and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance test responses to various SBE doses (60, 120 and 240mgkg?1) were studied in

M. Gondwe; D. R. Kamadyaapa; M. Tufts; A. A. Chuturgoon; C. T. Musabayane



Continuous production of high-purity fructooligosaccharides and ethanol by immobilized Aspergillus japonicus and Pichia heimii.  


High-purity fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were produced from sucrose by an innovative process incorporating immobilized Aspergillus japonicus and Pichia heimii cells. Intracellular FTase of A. japonicus converted sucrose into FOS and glucose, and P. heimii fermented glucose mainly into ethanol. The continuous production of FOS was carried out using a tanks-in-series bioreactor consisting of three stirred tanks. When a solution composed of 1 g L(-1) yeast extract and 300 g L(-1) sucrose was fed continuously to the bioreactor at a dilution rate of 0.1 h(-1), FOS at a purity of up to 98.2 % could be achieved and the value-added byproduct ethanol at 79.6 g L(-1) was also obtained. One gram of sucrose yielded 0.62 g FOS and 0.27 g ethanol. This immobilized dual-cell system was effective for continuous production of high-purity FOS and ethanol for as long as 10 days. PMID:23568753

Sheu, Dey Chyi; Chang, Jan Yi; Wang, Chung Yih; Wu, Chang Ta; Huang, Chen Ji



Carbohydrate repression effects in the high corn ethanol fermentation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sumnary TheSaccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol fermentation of sucrose and maltose was studied in the presence of high levels of non-saccharified corn solids. The factors mediating the fermentation were carbohydrate repression of alcohol production and high corn solids effects. Depression of alcohol yield appears to be due to factors affecting early yeast growth.

Jack Ziffer



Short-term Selection for Acute Ethanol Tolerance and Sensitization from an F2 Population Derived from the High and Low Alcohol Sensitive Selectively Bred Rat Lines  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the inbred High and Low Alcohol Sensitive Rat (IHAS1 and ILAS1) strains. The original development of the strains involved selection for ethanol sensitivity based on duration of the loss of the righting reflex (LORR) following a standard dose of ethanol. This paper confirms some of these QTL using a short-term selection procedure based on the difference between the blood ethanol level at loss and regain of the righting response. An F2 population of rats was developed by a reciprocal cross of IHAS1 and ILAS1 rats. Selection for 5 generations was carried out using delta-blood ethanol concentration (dBEC) as the selection trait, where dBEC = BECLR (BEC at loss of righting reflex) – BECRR (BEC at regain of righting reflex). The lines were labeled Tolerant (TOL) or Sensitive (SENS). Approximately one-third of the offspring for each generation in each line were genotyped using DNA markers that had been previously found to be linked to QTL on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 12, and 13. By the fifth generation of selection, the lines showed a very large difference in dBEC, BECRR, and duration of LORR; BECLR showed little segregation during the selection, and latency to lose the righting reflex showed none. IHAS allele frequency increased in the SENS line for markers on chromosomes 1, 5, 12, and 13 while ILAS allele frequency increased in the TOL line. These results were in good agreement with the two previous QTL studies. On chromosome 2, the selection resulted in an accumulation of ILAS alleles in both lines. This study provides independent confirmation of the location of QTL on chromosomes 1, 5, 12, and 13 for ethanol sensitivity. It also suggests that genetic differences in duration of LORR are mediated primarily by the dBEC phenotype.

Radcliffe, Richard A.; Bludeau, Pequita; Deng, Xin-Sheng; Erwin, V. Gene; Deitrich, Richard A.



Consolidated bioprocessing of highly concentrated jerusalem artichoke tubers for simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation.  


Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of Jerusalem artichoke tuber (Jat) for ethanol production is one of the most promising options for an alternate biofuel technology development. The technical barriers include the weak saccharolytic enzyme (inulinase) activity of the fermentation strain, and the well mixing of the high viscous fermentation slurry at the highly concentrated Jat loading. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 was found to produce relatively large amount of inulinase for hydrolysis of inulin in Jat, and the helical ribbon stirring bioreactor used provided well mixing performance under the high Jat loading. Even a highly concentrated Jat loading up to 35% (w/w) in the helical ribbon bioreactor for CBP was allowed. The results obtained from this study have demonstrated a feasibility of developing a CBP process technology in the helical ribbon bioreactor for ethanol production at a high yield 128.7?g/L and the theoretical yield 73.5%, respectively. This level of ethanol yield from Jat is relatively higher than others reported so far. The results of this study could provide a practical CBP process technology in the helical ribbon bioreactor for economically sustainable alternate biofuel production using highly concentrated inulin containing biomass feedstock such as Jat, at least 35%. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013;110: 2606-2615. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23568827

Guo, Lihao; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Fengxian; Dy Ryu, Dewey; Bao, Jie



Chronic vascular risk factors (cholesterol, homocysteine, ethanol) impair spatial memory, decline cholinergic neurons and induce blood-brain barrier leakage in rats in vivo.  


Epidemiological studies show that vascular risk factors (e.g. atherosclerosis, diabetes, homocysteine, hypertension or cholesterol) may play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Animal models may help to discover the role of vascular risk factors on cognition. In the present project we treated male Sprague Dawley rats with a diet containing homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) or cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) for 5 months or exposed the rats to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or a combination of cholesterol+ethanol (mix) for 12 months. Our experiments show that all 3 treatments (homocysteine, cholesterol, ethanol) declined spatial memory in the 8-arm radial maze, reduced the number of cholinergic neurons and induced blood-brain barrier leakage in the cortex. Rats treated with cholesterol also displayed markedly enhanced inflammation in the cortex. Levels of amyloid precursor protein, beta-amyloid((1-42)), as well as tau and phospho-tau 181 were significantly enhanced in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rats. A combination of ethanol and cholesterol did not further potentiate the effects on spatial memory, cholinergic neurons and blood-brain barrier leakage. The data suggest that chronic mild vascular risk factors over months induce small lesions of the brain capillaries in the cortex, which may contribute to the development of vascular dementia or also Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22819352

Ehrlich, Daniela; Humpel, Christian



Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield.  


We report engineering Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments xylan and biomass-derived sugars, to produce ethanol at high yield. Knockout of genes involved in organic acid formation (acetate kinase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase) resulted in a strain able to produce ethanol as the only detectable organic product and substantial changes in electron flow relative to the wild type. Ethanol formation in the engineered strain (ALK2) utilizes pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase with electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(P), a pathway different from that in previously described microbes with a homoethanol fermentation. The homoethanologenic phenotype was stable for >150 generations in continuous culture. The growth rate of strain ALK2 was similar to the wild-type strain, with a reduction in cell yield proportional to the decreased ATP availability resulting from acetate kinase inactivation. Glucose and xylose are co-utilized and utilization of mannose and arabinose commences before glucose and xylose are exhausted. Using strain ALK2 in simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation experiments at 50 degrees C allows a 2.5-fold reduction in cellulase loading compared with using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 37 degrees C. The maximum ethanol titer produced by strain ALK2, 37 g/liter, is the highest reported thus far for a thermophilic anaerobe, although further improvements are desired and likely possible. Our results extend the frontier of metabolic engineering in thermophilic hosts, have the potential to significantly lower the cost of cellulosic ethanol production, and support the feasibility of further cost reductions through engineering a diversity of host organisms. PMID:18779592

Shaw, A Joe; Podkaminer, Kara K; Desai, Sunil G; Bardsley, John S; Rogers, Stephen R; Thorne, Philip G; Hogsett, David A; Lynd, Lee R



Paramagnetic microchip for high-gradient separation of blood cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a magnetophoretic separation method on a chip of white blood cells from blood under continuous flow. The separation of red blood cells from the whole blood is performed using a high gradient magnetic separation method under continuous flow to trap the particles inside the device. The device is fabricated by microfabrication technology and enables to capture the red blood cells without the use of labelling tecniques such as magnetic beads. The method consists of flowing diluted whole blood through a microfluidic channel where a ferromagnetic layer, subjected to a permanent magnetic field, is located. The majority of red blood cells are trapped at the bottom of the device while the rest of the blood is collected at the outlet. Experimental results show that an average of 95% of red blood cells are trapped in the device.

Iliescu, Ciprian; Xu, Guolin; Barbarini, Elena; Avram, Marioara; Iliescu, Florina S.



Ethanol fermentation of crude acid hydrolyzate of cellulose using high-level yeast inocula  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level yeast inocula was investigated as a means of overcoming the toxicity problem in ethanol fermentation of acid hydrolyzate of wood cellulose. When the inoculum level exceeded 10⁸ initial cells\\/mL, 50% of the yeast cells survived the initial cell death period during which furfural and HMF were depleted. The fermentation thus proceeded to completion by virtue of cell regrowth. The

I. S. Chung; Y. Y. Lee



High gravity fermentation of sugarcane molasses to produce ethanol: Effect of nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation efficiency of more than 85% was obtained by high gravity fermentation of 33–34°Bx (spec. gravity ?1.134) molasses\\u000a medium with certain nutrients, instead of generally employed medium containing ?16% (w\\/v) total sugar (spec. gravity ?1.090)\\u000a for ethanol fermentation in distilleries to get maximum 80–85% conversion. The fermenting yeast, Saccharomyces, has varied capabilities, depending on the species and nutrition for fermenting

P. Pradeep; O. V. S. Reddy



Continuous production of ethanol in high concentration using immobilized growing yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Application of an immobilized growing yeast cell system to continuous production of ethanol in high concentration (10%) was\\u000a investigated using Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 2363. When a medium containing 25% glucose was fed, the growth of yeast cells in gel was inhibited. The inhibitory effect\\u000a was found to be reduced by a stepwise increase in concentration of glucose in the feed

Mitsuru Wada; Jyoji Kato; Ichiro Chibata



Alcoholic fatty liver in rats: Role of fat and ethanol intake  

SciTech Connect

The claim that high intake of both ethanol and fat is essential to induce fatty liver and high blood alcohol levels (BAL) was tested. Two groups of rats were fed liquid diets containing 26% and 36% of calories as ethanol respectively. After 4 weeks, all rats were bled for BAL and some were sacrificed to obtain liver morphology. Remaining rats in Group 1 (26% ethanol) were switched to 36% ethanol diet and Group 2 (36% ethanol) to 26% ethanol diet. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks to obtain blood for BAL and liver morphology. The results indicate that high ethanol intake and high fat ingestion is not the criterion for induction of fatty liver. Inadequate ingestion of macronutrients plays a major role in alcoholic fatty liver and BAL.

Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W. (VA Medical Centers, Portland, OR (United States)); Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. (VA Medical Centers, Martinez, CA (United States))



High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  


... trudno?i - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy ????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...


A highly sensitive ethanol sensor based on mesoporous ZnO-SnO2 nanofibers  

PubMed Central

A facile and versatile method for the large-scale synthesis of sensitive mesoporous ZnO–SnO2 (m-Z–S) nanofibers through a combination of surfactant-directed assembly and an electrospinning approach is reported. The morphology and the structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm analysis. The results showed that the diameters of fibers ranged from 100 to 150 nm with mixed structures of wurtzite (ZnO) and rutile (SnO2), and a mesoporous structure was observed in the m-Z–S nanofibers. The sensor performance of the prepared m-Z–S nanofibers was measured for ethanol. It is found that the mesoporous fiber film obtained exhibited excellent ethanol sensing properties, such as high sensitivity, quick response and recovery, good reproducibility, and linearity in the range 3–500 ppm.

Song, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhaojie; Liu, Yongben; Wang, Ce; Li, Lijuan



Chain elongation of acetate and ethanol in an upflow anaerobic filter for high rate MCFA production.  


Recently, interest has regained for medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) as a low cost feedstock for bio-based chemical and fuel production processes. To become cost-effective, the volumetric MCFA production rate by chain elongation should increase to comparable rates of other fermentation processes. We investigate the MCFA production process at a hydraulic retention time of 17 h in an upflow anaerobic filter to improve the volumetric MCFA production rate. This approach resulted in a MCFA production with a volumetric production rate of 16.6 g l(-1) d(-1), which is more than seven times higher than the current production rate. Moreover the rate is now in the range of other fermentation processes like methane, butanol and ethanol production. Increasing the ethanol load lead to higher volumetric production rates and a high MCFA selectivity of 91%. During operation, methane percentages lower than 0.1% were detected in the headspace of reactor. PMID:23228455

Grootscholten, T I M; Steinbusch, K J J; Hamelers, H V M; Buisman, C J N



The Potential Impact of a Texas High Plains Ethanol Plant on Local Water Supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the passage of the Energy Policy Act, the rapidly expanding number of ethanol plants, and the fury with which ethanol is being promoted, it is clear that ethanol will play a rising role in our domestic energy supply. Along with this rise there will be an increase in the consumptive use of water by ethanol production facilities. Regions, such

Lindsey M. Higgins; James W. Richardson; Joe L. Outlaw



Application of oscillation for efficiency improvement of continuous ethanol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae under very-high-gravity conditions.  


Compared with steady state, oscillation in continuous very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae improved process productivity, which was thus introduced for the fermentation system composed of a tank fermentor followed by four-stage packed tubular bioreactors. When the very-high-gravity medium containing 280 g l(-1) glucose was fed at the dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1), the average ethanol of 15.8% (v/v) and residual glucose of 1.5 g l(-1) were achieved under the oscillatory state, with an average ethanol productivity of 2.14 g h(-1) l(-1). By contrast, only 14.8% (v/v) ethanol was achieved under the steady state at the same dilution rate, and the residual glucose was as high as 17.1 g l(-1), with an ethanol productivity of 2.00 g h(-1) l(-1), indicating a 7% improvement under the oscillatory state. When the fermentation system was operated under the steady state at the dilution rate of 0.027 h(-1) to extend the average fermentation time to 88 h from 59 h, the ethanol concentration increased slightly to 15.4% (v/v) and residual glucose decreased to 7.3 g l(-1), correspondingly, but the ethanol productivity was decreased drastically to 1.43 g h(-1) l(-1), indicating a 48% improvement under the oscillatory state at the dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1). PMID:19898843

Shen, Yu; Ge, X M; Bai, Feng Wu



Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing.

Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.



Cardiovascular outcomes of treating high blood pressure.  


Because hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, it has been anticipated that therapeutic reduction of blood pressure would protect patients from serious complications. In fact, this has been shown for strokes, congestive heart failure, and renal insufficiency. But in large trials of hypertension treatment, patients receiving active medications experienced an incidence of coronary events that averaged only 7% lower than that in placebo-treated patients. This report examines some of the reasons for this disappointing outcome. During therapeutic trials patients receiving placebo tended to have fewer cardiovascular events than predicted. However, patients on active therapy in large-scale studies may have suboptimal blood pressure control. They may also be exposed to the adverse effects of inappropriate therapy. Careful selection of modern drugs should allow blood pressure to be controlled in a safe manner, and possibly contribute directly to protection from coronary events and other cardiovascular complications. PMID:3310572

Weber, M A



Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups  

SciTech Connect

Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet.

Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.



Treatment of high ethanol concentration wastewater by biological sand filters: enhanced COD removal and bacterial community dynamics.  


Winery wastewater is characterized by its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), seasonal occurrence and variable composition, including periodic high ethanol concentrations. In addition, winery wastewater may contain insufficient inorganic nutrients for optimal biodegradation of organic constituents. Two pilot-scale biological sand filters (BSFs) were used to treat artificial wastewater: the first was amended with ethanol and the second with ethanol, inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A number of biochemical parameters involved in the removal of pollutants through BSF systems were monitored, including effluent chemistry and bacterial community structures. The nutrient supplemented BSF showed efficient COD, N and P removal. Comparison of the COD removal efficiencies of the two BSFs showed that N and P addition enhanced COD removal efficiency by up to 16%. Molecular fingerprinting of BSF sediment samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amendment with high concentrations of ethanol destabilized the microbial community structure, but that nutrient supplementation countered this effect. PMID:22683841

Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Ramond, J-B; Welz, P J; Cowan, D A; Odlare, M; Burton, S G



Liver hypoxia and lack of recovery after reperfusion at high blood alcohol levels in the intragastric feeding model of alcohol liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test for the presence of liver hypoxia and recovery after reperfusion when blood alcohol levels (BAL) are high. Male rats were fed ethanol intragastrically at a constant rate for 1 month. The pO2 levels were then measured on the liver surface of these rats, in vivo during laparatomy under isoflurane anesthesia. To measure

Jun Li; Barbara French; Yong Wu; Ravi Venkatesh; Rosalyn Montgomery; Fawzia Bardag-Gorce; Jennifer Kitto; Samuel W. French




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have studied the effects of pregnancy on ethanol clearance rates and on blood and urine ethanol concentrations (BECs and UECs) in adult Sprague–Dawley rats infused with ethanol intragastrically. Pregnant rats had greater ethanol clearance following an intragastric or intravenous ethanol bolus (3 ...


High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy of ethanol in intense laser fields  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy is used to (i) map correlations between electrons and ions from atomlike ionization of ethanol by intense 400 and 800 nm light pulses and (ii) disentangle the effects of dissociative multiphoton (MPI) and tunneling (TI) ionization. Electron spectra correlated with C{sup n+} (n=1,2,3) exhibit a continuum structure with a high-energy tail due to inelastic collisions involving rescattered electrons following TI, while those correlated with C{sub 2}H{sub n}O{sup +} have structure characteristic of MPI and above-threshold ionization.

Hatamoto, T.; Pruemper, G.; Okunishi, M.; Ueda, K. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Mathur, D. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)



Genes Tied to High Blood Pressure Found in Black Americans  


... this page, please enable JavaScript. Genes Tied to High Blood Pressure Found in Black Americans Study findings may lead ... Pages African American Health Genes and Gene Therapy High Blood Pressure MONDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Black Americans are ...


Extra Vitamin D Doesn't Cut High Blood Pressure  


... enable JavaScript. Extra vitamin D doesn't cut high blood pressure: study (*this news item will not be available ... 2013) Wednesday, August 14, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages High Blood Pressure Seniors' Health Vitamin D By Andrew M. Seaman ...


The effect of ethanol on cell wall antigens of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and specific isolation of high ethanol producing strains of this yeast, making use of a serological technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, natural isolates of high ethanol producingSaccharomyces cerevisiae obtained by screening are used in alcoholic industries. The methods involved in their isolation and identification are elaborate.\\u000a Antigenic analysis using antibodies raised against wholeSaccharomyces cells indicated species specificity of cell wall surface thermostable antigens. By affinity purification, the specific antibodies\\u000a could be obtained and used for specific isolation ofS. cerevisiae. Antigenic

S. Umesh-Kumar; L. Nagarajan; F. Rehana; Krishna Nand



Dietary grapes (Vitis vinifera) feeding attenuates ethanol-induced oxidative stress in blood and modulates immune functions in mice.  


Ethanol metabolism is known to induce overwhelming production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and also to cause associated immune dysfunction. Several interventional agents of plant origin, in particular fruits and vegetables have been used to counteract these alterations induced by ethanol. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of dietary feeding of skin and flesh of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) on the alterations in immune and vascular functions in mice with liver abnormalities induced by chronic ethanol consumption. Results revealed that feeding of both grape skin and flesh (2.5 g/kg body wt/day) effectively attenuated the oxidative stress and alterations in immune function and angiogenesis induced by chronic ethanol consumption (1.6 g/kg body wt/day for 12 weeks) in mice. The antioxidant actions of the grape skin and flesh as observed in this study might be attributed to the polyphenols present in the grapes. PMID:23259325

Mukherjee, Sukhes; Das, Subir Kumar; Vasudevan, D M



Effects of saltwort plants on blood plasma lipids in rats during chronic alcohol intoxication and after ethanol withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saltwort plants (salsocollin) ameliorated plasma contents of total lipids, triacylglycerols, and phosphatidylcholine in rats\\u000a with alcohol intoxication, but had no effect on cholesterol and total phospholipid levels. Salsocollin did not prevent the\\u000a increase in the levels of total lipids and triacylglycerols 3 days after ethanol withdrawal. During abstinence, salsocollin\\u000a potentiated symptoms of ethanol withdrawal (7 days later) in relation to

M. I. Selevich; V. V. Lelevich; Yu. E. Razvadovskii



At low doses ethanol maintains blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity after hypoxia and reoxygenation: a brain slice study.  


Post-ischemia ethanol (EtOH) treatments have been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects and those on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we determined whether administering differing concentrations of EtOH alter the expressions of BBB integral proteins, including aquaporins-4 and -9 (AQP-4, AQP-9), matrix metallopeptidases-2 and -9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and basal lamina (laminin). We employed an organotypic brain slice culture model that utilizes oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R). Brain slices were obtained from 10-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats and divided into the following five groups (n = 8 subjects per group): (1) control, (2) hypoxia (OGD/R), no EtOH, (3) OGD/R and 10 mM EtOH, (4) OGD/R and 30 mM EtOH, and (5) OGD/R and 90 mM EtOH. To assess BBB integrity, levels of AQPs, MMPs, ZO-1, and laminin were determined by Western blot. Compared to control, OGD/R without EtOH significantly increased AQP-4, AQP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-9 levels, while decreasing ZO-1 and laminin levels. All EtOH concentration treatments (groups 3 through 5) significantly reduced the expressions of AQP-4, AQP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-9, compared to the OGD/R, non-alcohol treated slices. Furthermore, compared to the OGD/R without EtOH group, the 30 mM EtOH treatment significantly increased ZO-1 and laminin levels. In contrast, the 90 mM EtOH level neither enhanced the reduction in AQP and MMP levels nor increased ZO-1 or basal lamina expressions observed in the 30 mM treatment. In conclusion, at an optimal dose of 30 mM, EtOH improves the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, AQP-4, AQP-9, ZO-1, and basal laminin, previously altered by OGD/R. These effects may indicate a beneficial effect of EtOH on BBB integrity after stroke. PMID:23582053

Peng, Changya; Li, William A; Fu, Paul; Chakraborty, Tia; Hussain, Mohammed; Guthikonda, Murali; Rafols, Jose A; Ding, Yuchuan



High Blood Pressure in Acute Ischaemic Stroke – Broadening Therapeutic Horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure (BP) is present in 80% of patients with acute ischaemic stroke and is independently associated with poor outcome. Although this epidemiology suggests that BP should be lowered acutely, concerns about dysfunctional cerebral autoregulation suggest otherwise. Several small randomised trials have assessed cerebral blood flow with various antihypertensive classes and agents in acute ischaemic stroke. Overall, these studies

Gillian M. Sare; Chamila Geeganage; Philip M. W. Bath



[High blood pressure in obese children and adolescents].  


Obesity is also an important risk factor in children and adolescents for "essential" arterial hypertension, and contrary to what was assumed earlier, high blood pressure does cause damage to the cardiovascular system. As known from adults, elevated blood pressure induces cardiac hypertrophy, calcifications and atherosclerosis at the coronary vessels and thickens the small blood vessels. These early vascular alterations are particularly pronounced, when increased blood pressure is accompanied by other risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia or smoking. As in any child with elevated blood pressure, the diagnostic evaluation should focus on confirmation of hypertension, determine if an underlying cause can be identified and whether hypertensive target organ damage is present. New reference office blood pressure values were recently published by a large representative community-based study in Germany. Therapy should begin with lifestyle modifications; however, antihypertensive medications will often be needed. Hypertension in obese adolescents occurs frequently and must be diagnosed and treated adequately. PMID:23529593

Rascher, W; Kiess, W; Körner, A



Disturbances in behavior and cortical enkephalin gene expression during the anticipation of ethanol in rats characterized as high drinkers  

PubMed Central

The process of ethanol anticipation is a particularly important phenomenon that can determine subsequent drug-taking behavior. Recent studies suggest that systems within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), during anticipation, may contribute to the goal-directed seeking of ethanol. The current investigation examined the possibility that the opioid peptide enkephalin (ENK), known to mediate some of the reinforcing properties of ethanol, may function in the mPFC during the anticipation of ethanol access. Using a limited access (3 h/d) paradigm for 10 days with 20% ethanol, Sprague-Dawley rats were first identified either as low drinkers (LD, <1.0 g/kg/3 h) or as high drinkers (HD, >2.0 g/kg/3 h) that exhibited a long-term phenotype of high ethanol consumption and a significant ethanol deprivation effect. During the anticipation period immediately preceding daily ethanol access, the HD rats compared to LD or Control animals with ad libitum ethanol access exhibited increased anticipatory behaviors, including greater exploratory behavior in a novel open field as revealed by significantly more time spent in the rearing position (+53–65%, p < 0.05) and increased number of rears made (+33–44%, p < 0.05) and greater novelty-seeking behavior in a hole-board apparatus revealed by an increase in total (+50–52%, p < 0.05) and novel nose pokes (+45–48%, p < 0.05). In the HD rats, analysis of the mPFC using real-time quantitative PCR showed significantly greater mRNA levels of ENK (p < 0.05) and the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) (p < 0.05), but not delta-opioid receptor (DOR), and this increase in ENK expression was found, using in situ hybridization, to occur specifically in the prelimbic (PrL) subregion of the mPFC. When injected into the PrL during the anticipation period, a MOR agonist but not DOR agonist significantly increased consumption of 20% ethanol (p < 0.05). These findings support the role of ENK, acting through MOR within the PrL to promote the anticipation and excessive consumption of ethanol.

Morganstern, Irene; Liang, Sherry; Ye, Zhiyu; Karatayev, Olga; Leibowitz, Sarah F.



High intracolonic acetaldehyde values produced by a bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation in piglets.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Human colonic contents and many colonic microbes produce considerable amounts of acetaldehyde from ethanol in vitro. AIMS: To examine in piglets if acetaldehyde is produced in the colon also in vivo, and if so, what is the fate of intracolonically formed acetaldehyde. ANIMALS: Seventeen native, non-fasted female piglets (20-25 kg) were used. METHODS: Six piglets received either 1.5 g/kg bw or 2.5 g/kg bw of ethanol intravenously. In seven piglets, 0.7 g or 1.75 g of ethanol/kg bw was administered intravenously, followed by a subsequent intragastric ethanol infusion of 1.8 g/kg bw and 4.5 g/kg bw, respectively. The samples of colonic contents for the assessment of ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations were obtained up to seven hours. In four additional piglets, the intracolonic values of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate were observed for 60 minutes after an intracolonic infusion of acetaldehyde solution. RESULTS: A raised intracolonic, endogenous acetaldehyde concentration (mean (SEM); 36 (9) microM) was found in all piglets before ethanol infusion. After the infusion of ethanol, intracolonic ethanol and acetaldehyde values increased in parallel, reaching the peak values 57 (4) mM of ethanol and 271 (20) microM of acetaldehyde in the group that received the highest dose of ethanol. A positive correlation (r = 0.45; p < 0.001) was found between intracolonic ethanol and acetaldehyde values. Acetaldehyde administered intracolonically was mainly metabolised to acetate but also to ethanol in the colon. CONCLUSIONS: Significant endogenous intracolonic acetaldehyde values can be found in the normal porcine colon. Furthermore, our results suggest the existence of a bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation. Increased amounts of acetaldehyde are formed intracolonically from ingested ethanol by this pathway.

Jokelainen, K; Matysiak-Budnik, T; Makisalo, H; Hockerstedt, K; Salaspuro, M



High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know  


High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents Why Is Cholesterol Important? How Does Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease? ... cholesterol numbers compare to the tables below. Total Cholesterol Level Category Less than 200 mg/dL Desirable ...


Cell recycling during repeated very high gravity bio-ethanol fermentations using the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.  


A very high gravity (VHG) repeated-batch fermentation system using an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 (isolated from sugarcane-to-ethanol distillery in Brazil) and mimicking industrially relevant conditions (high inoculation rates and low O(2) availability) was successfully operated during fifteen consecutive fermentation cycles, attaining ethanol at 17.1 ± 0.2% (v/v) with a batch productivity of 3.5 ± 0.04 g l(-1) h(-1). Moreover, this innovative operational strategy (biomass refreshing step) prevented critical decreases on yeast viability levels and promoted high accumulation of intracellular glycerol and trehalose, which can provide an adaptive advantage to yeast cells under harsh industrial environments. This study contributes to the improvement of VHG fermentation processes by exploring an innovative operational strategy that allows attaining very high ethanol titres without a critical decrease of the viability level thus minimizing the production costs due to energy savings during the distillation process. PMID:21898130

Pereira, Francisco B; Gomes, Daniel G; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília



Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 stress response during high-temperature ethanol fermentation.  


Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung



Rat muscle blood flows during high-speed locomotion  

SciTech Connect

We previously studied blood flow distribution within and among rat muscles as a function of speed from walking (15 m/min) through galloping (75 m/min) on a motor-driven treadmill. The results showed that muscle blood flows continued to increase as a function of speed through 75 m/min. The purpose of the present study was to have rats run up to maximal treadmill speeds to determine if blood flows in the muscles reach a plateau as a function of running speed over the animals normal range of locomotory speeds. Muscle blood flows were measured with radiolabeled microspheres at 1 min of running at 75, 90, and 105 m/min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The data indicate that even at these relatively high treadmill speeds there was still no clear evidence of a plateau in blood flow in most of the hindlimb muscles. Flows in most muscles continued to increase as a function of speed. These observed patterns of blood flow vs. running speed may have resulted from the rigorous selection of rats that were capable of performing the high-intensity exercise and thus only be representative of a highly specific population of animals. On the other hand, the data could be interpreted to indicate that the cardiovascular potential during exercise is considerably higher in laboratory rats than has normally been assumed and that inadequate blood flow delivery to the muscles does not serve as a major limitation to their locomotory performance.

Armstrong, R.B.; Laughlin, M.H.





... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...


Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.  


Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits ? and ?) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, ?-globulin, ?-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, ?-globulin, and ?-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, ?-globulin, ?-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity. PMID:22194055

Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A



High Pressure Equation of State Studies Using Ethanol-Methanol And Argon As Pressure Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental high pressure studies are extremely important to planetary science, material science and to the development of condensed matter theory. With experimental difficulties in creating the extreme pressure temperature conditions appropriate to planetary interiors, the approach used is to obtain the thermodynamic data on materials of interest by extrapolating the condensed matter theory which has been benchmarked with the outcome of high pressure experiments to the available high pressures. However the high pressure data used to match the theory heavily depends on the use of pressure media; like ethanol-methanol, silicon oil, argon and helium. Unfortunately still there exist controversy in the literature even with the use of helium as pressure medium as illustrated by the unsettled debate on Zn and Os among different groups. We have measured the equation of state of intermetallic compound AuIn2 and Cd0.8Hg0.2 alloy using ethanol-methanol and argon to the pressure of 20 GPa to confirm the appearance of anomalies in the data due to occurrence of subtle electronic phase transitions. However these anomalies can also be attributed to oriented lattice strains and local non-hydrostatic conditions. We have tried to remove these at room temperature by stabilizing the sample in argon medium in the diamond anvil cell with proper annealing as indicated by the uniformity of the pressure across the sample by ruby fluorescence measurements. We will present the data revealing the electronic transition in AuIn2 at 2.7 GPa and in Cd0.8Hg0.2 near 9 and 18 GPa.

Godwal, B. K.; Speziale, S.; Clark, S.; Yan, J.; Jeanloz, R.



Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.  


Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41-46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed after 21 days. The extract lowered the total cholesterol and serum triglycerides by 22 and 30%, respectively. The increase in HDL-cholesterol was much higher (12%) under the influence of the extract as compared to that of glibenclamide (1%). The hypoglycemic activity of this extract is comparable to that of glibenclamide but is not mediated through insulin release. Other possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:14522433

Sachdewa, Archana; Khemani, L D



Toxicology findings in suicides: Concentrations of ethanol and other drugs in femoral blood in victims of hanging and poisoning in relation to age and gender of the deceased.  


Over-consumption of alcohol and/or abuse of other drugs are closely linked to attempted or completed suicides. In this retrospective 10-year study (2001-2010), we compared the toxicology findings in hanging suicides (n = 4551) with drug poisoning (intoxication) suicides (n = 2468). The mean age of hanging deaths was 49 ± 19 y (±SD) and 80% were male, compared with a mean age of 52 ± 17 y and 47% males for the intoxication deaths. Poly-drug use was more common in poisoning suicides with an average of 3.6 drugs/case compared with 1.8 drugs/case in hangings. Moreover, 31% of hangings were negative for alcohol and/or drugs. Alcohol was detected (>0.20 g/L) in femoral blood in 30% of hanging suicides (mean 1.39 g/L) and 36% of drug poisonings (mean 1.39 g/L). The median BACs did not depend on the person's age or gender (p > 0.05). Ethanol, paracetamol, citalopram, diazepam, propiomazine, alimemazine and zopiclone were amongst the top-ten drugs detected in both methods of suicide. With the exception of ethanol, the concentrations of drugs in blood were considerably higher in the poisoning deaths, as might be expected. Regardless of the method of suicide, antidepressants and/or antipsychotics were common findings, which could implicate mental health as a significant suicide risk factor. PMID:24112333

Jones, Alan Wayne; Holmgren, Anita; Ahlner, Johan



Feasibility of high protein flour and ethanol production in northern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study on the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a medium-scale (3,000,000 gal/year) ethanol plant in northern Idaho are presented. The boilers will be fueled with a wood waste fuel (WOODEX) and sawdust. Distiller's dried grains will be processed and produce high-protein flour which will be sold as a health food product for human consumption. The feedstock will be locally grown wheat and barley. Carbon dioxide by-product will be collected and sold to a chemical plant. A third by-product, fusel oil, will be produced and sold for use as a solvent. Processes and equipment were evaluated and recommendations are included. 5 figs. (DMC)

Snipes, D.; Korus, R.



Display of cellulases on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for high yield ethanol production from high-solid lignocellulosic biomass.  


Economically feasible processes for industrial cellulosic ethanol production requires increasing the final ethanol titer during fermentation due to the high energy demands of the subsequent ethanol distillation. In the present study, high-yield ethanol production was achieved by short-term liquefaction and fermentation of lignocellulose biomass in a novel drum-type rotary fermentation system using a yeast strain developed for cell-surface display of fungal endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and ?-glucosidase. In the presence of 10 FPU/g-biomass cellulase added, the recombinant cellulolytic strain produced 1.4-fold higher ethanol (89% of theoretical yield) from high-solid (200 g-dry weight/L) rice straw within 72 h of fermentation than wild type strain. Cell-surface engineering successfully reduced the amount of commercial enzyme required for the fermentation of cellulose. This study demonstrates that cellulases displayed on the yeast cell surface are capable of hydrolyzing cellulose that was not hydrolyzed by commercial cellulases, leading to increased sugar utilization for improved ethanol production. PMID:22265982

Matano, Yuki; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko



Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19.  


Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is severely limited by low solvent titer and productivities. Thus, this study aims at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced ABE production capability followed by process optimization for high ABE productivity. Random mutagenesis of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK was performed by screening cells on fluoroacetate plates to isolate a mutant strain, BKM19, which exhibited the total solvent production capability 30.5% higher than the parent strain. The BKM19 produced 32.5?g?L(-1) of ABE (17.6?g?L(-1) butanol, 10.5?g?L(-1) ethanol, and 4.4?g?L(-1) acetone) from 85.2?g?L(-1) glucose in batch fermentation. A high cell density continuous ABE fermentation of the BKM19 in membrane cell-recycle bioreactor was studied and optimized for improved solvent volumetric productivity. Different dilution rates were examined to find the optimal condition giving highest butanol and ABE productivities. The maximum butanol and ABE productivities of 9.6 and 20.0?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , respectively, could be achieved at the dilution rate of 0.85?h(-1) . Further cell recycling experiments were carried out with controlled cell-bleeding at two different bleeding rates. The maximum solvent productivities were obtained when the fermenter was operated at a dilution rate of 0.86?h(-1) with the bleeding rate of 0.04?h(-1) . Under the optimal operational condition, butanol and ABE could be produced with the volumetric productivities of 10.7 and 21.1?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , and the yields of 0.17 and 0.34?g?g(-1) , respectively. The obtained butanol and ABE volumetric productivities are the highest reported productivities obtained from all known-processes. PMID:23335317

Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Sang Yup



Amitriptyline and ethanol: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amitriptyline has clinically important interactions with ethanol. Five healthy volunteers received 25 mg of amitriptyline orally, preceded by one hour and followed for eight hours by oral ethanol (or juice), dosed to achieve and maintain blood ethanol concentrations of 800 mg\\/l. In the presence of ethanol, amitriptyline free plasma concentrations were increased by a logarithmic mean of 204%, 186% and

P. Dorian; E. M. Sellers; K. L. Reed; J. J. Warsh; H. L. Kaplan; T. Fan



Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound.  


Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging, needle hydrophone measurements and passive cavitation detection. Temperature in or near the focal zone was measured by thermocouples embedded in the samples. The results of this study indicate that the treatment of tissue phantoms and bovine liver samples with ethanol reduces their threshold power for inertial cavitation. This in turn leads to a sudden rise in temperature in ethanol-treated samples at a lower acoustic power than that in untreated ones. The analysis of passive cavitation detection data shows that once the threshold acoustic power is reached, inertial cavitation becomes a major contributor to acoustic scattering in ethanol-treated phantoms and bovine liver samples as compared to control. This study opens up the possibility of improved tumor ablation therapy via a combination of percutaneous ethanol injection and high-intensity focused ultrasound. PMID:22290554

Chen, C; Liu, Y; Maruvada, S; Myers, M; Khismatullin, D



The Neurobiology of Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking: Evidence from Rodent Models  

PubMed Central

Binge alcohol (ethanol) drinking is a destructive pattern of ethanol consumption that may precipitate ethanol dependence, a chronic, debilitating, and prevalent health problem. While an abundance of research has focused on the neurochemical underpinnings of ethanol dependence, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying the heavy consumption characteristic of binge ethanol drinking. Recently, a simple preclinical model termed “drinking in the dark” (DID) was developed to examine binge-like ethanol consumption in a rodent population. This assay capitalizes on the predisposition of C57BL/6J mice to voluntarily consume substantial quantities of a high concentration (20% v/v) ethanol solution, resulting in pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This review provides a comprehensive overview of recent literature utilizing this model to investigate the neuromodulatory systems that may influence binge ethanol drinking. Studies examining the glutamatergic and opioidergic systems not only provide evidence for these systems in the modulation of binge-like ethanol consumption, but also suggest this preclinical model has predictive validity and may be an appropriate tool for screening novel pharmacological compounds aimed at treating binge ethanol drinking in the human population. Additionally, this review presents evidence for the involvement of the GABAergic, dopaminergic, nicotinic, and endocannabinoid systems in modulating binge-like ethanol consumption. Finally, recent evidence shows that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and ghrelin are also implicated as impacting this pattern of ethanol consumption.

Sprow, Gretchen M.; Thiele, Todd E.



The neurobiology of binge-like ethanol drinking: evidence from rodent models.  


Binge alcohol (ethanol) drinking is a destructive pattern of ethanol consumption that may precipitate ethanol dependence-a chronic, debilitating, and prevalent health problem. While an abundance of research has focused on the neurochemical underpinnings of ethanol dependence, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying the heavy consumption characteristic of binge ethanol drinking. Recently, a simple preclinical model termed "drinking in the dark" (DID) was developed to examine binge-like ethanol consumption in a rodent population. This assay capitalizes on the predisposition of C57BL/6J mice to voluntarily consume substantial quantities of a high concentration (20% v/v) ethanol solution, resulting in pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This review provides a comprehensive overview of recent literature utilizing this model to investigate the neuromodulatory systems that may influence binge ethanol drinking. Studies examining the glutamatergic and opioidergic systems not only provide evidence for these systems in the modulation of binge-like ethanol consumption, but also suggest this preclinical model has predictive validity and may be an appropriate tool for screening novel pharmacological compounds aimed at treating binge ethanol drinking in the human population. Additionally, this review presents evidence for the involvement of the GABAergic, dopaminergic, nicotinic, and endocannabinoid systems in modulating binge-like ethanol consumption. Finally, recent evidence shows that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and ghrelin are also implicated as impacting this pattern of ethanol consumption. PMID:22245775

Sprow, Gretchen M; Thiele, Todd E



Female Syrian golden hamster: drinking of high concentrations of ethanol aversive to other mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiments were designed to determine: 1) the pattern of preference for different concentrations of ethanol in the female Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and 2) the influence of drinking ethanol on their intakes of food and total calories. A standard three-bottle preference test was undertaken in six female hamsters over an 11-day period in which water was offered

K. Todd Piercy; R. D. Myers



Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat

Per Sassner; Guido Zacchi



High-efficiency ethanol production from lignocellulosic residues pretreated with alkaline H/sub 2/O/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment should be economic and should not utilize toxic reagents. In this study locally obtained residues were used - wheat straw, cornstalks, corn husks and kenaf -as substrates. The high efficiency of glucose production from alkaline H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ pretreated lignocellulosic residues made these materials excellent substrates for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in combined saccharification/fermentation experiments. Results showed that overall efficiency of ethanol formation was 90% for pretreated corn cobs, stalks and husks compared to 50% for untreated materials. Yields from kenaf and oak were also enhanced although below the theoretical maximum. The lignin containing supernatant does not appear to be inhibitory to Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth or ethanol production. The improvement in conversion efficiency is apparently the result of the removal of about one half of the lignin along with an apparent reduction in the degree of crystallinity within the cellulose structure itself. 16 references.

Gould, J.M.; Freer, S.N.



Alterations in ethanol seeking and self-administration following yohimbine in selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high alcohol drinking (HAD-2) rats.  


Evidence suggests that stress increases alcohol drinking and promotes relapse in humans. Animal models that assess related behaviors include the sipper tube ethanol self-administration and the stress-induced reinstatement paradigms. While selectively bred for the same high-ethanol-drinking behavior, alcohol-preferring P rats appear to show greater sensitivity to ethanol reinforcement than high-alcohol-drinking HAD rats. The present experiment tested the effects of the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, on the motivation to seek and consume ethanol implementing a combined sipper tube/reinstatement model using male P and HAD-2 rats. Following training to self-administer ethanol using the sipper tube procedure, rats were tested for the effects of yohimbine (0.625-2.5 mg/kg) on ethanol drinking. Subsequently, rats were tested for the effects of 1.25 mg/kg yohimbine on reinstatement of ethanol seeking. Yohimbine (0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg) increased ethanol self-administration, and the latter dose also decreased latency to complete the response requirement. Yohimbine elicited reinstatement of ethanol seeking in both lines. HAD-2 rats drank more ethanol, but showed similar responding on the ethanol-associated lever compared to P rats. These findings extend both the reinstatement and sipper tube models and justify further exploration of this unique combined paradigm. Despite prior evidence suggesting that P rats are more motivated to seek and consume ethanol, differences in these behaviors between P and HAD-2 rats were not systematic in the present experiment. Further investigation may elucidate whether either selected line may be more sensitive than other selectively bred or outbred rats to stress-related changes in ethanol's reinforcing effects. PMID:23103404

Bertholomey, Megan L; Verplaetse, Terril L; Czachowski, Cristine L




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biochemical reactor design plays a major role in determining the economics of fuel and chemical production. Reactors that result in continuously high productivities can significantly reduce the cost of the final product. With this aim, five different reactor systems were evaluated for ethanol prod...


Occurrence of ethanol and other drugs in blood and urine specimens from female victims of alleged sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of toxicological analysis of blood and urine specimens from 1806 female victims of alleged non-consensual sexual activity are reported. After making contact with the police authorities, the victims were examined by a physician for injuries and biological specimens were taken for forensic toxicology and other purposes (e.g. DNA). Urine if available or otherwise on an aliquot of blood after

Alan Wayne Jones; Fredrik C. Kugelberg; Anita Holmgren; Johan Ahlner



Fatty acid ethyl esters. Ethanol metabolites that reflect ethanol intake.  


Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are nonoxidative ethanol metabolites that have been implicated as mediators of alcohol-induced organ damage. FAEEs are detectable in the blood after ethanol ingestion, and on that basis represent markers of ethanol intake. FAEEs have also been quantitated in human liver and adipose tissue and have been shown to be postmortem markers of premortem ethanol intake. A substantial difference in FAEE concentration was found in liver and adipose tissue of patients with detectable blood ethanol at the time of autopsy vs those with no detectable blood ethanol, who were either chronic alcoholics or social drinkers. Most currently available diagnostic markers for chronic alcoholism have limited clinical utility. Data in this report demonstrate that the amount or type of FAEEs can be used to differentiate a chronic alcoholic from an episodic heavy drinker (binage drinker) at or near peak blood ethanol concentrations and approximately 24 hours after discontinuation of ethanol. Thus, FAEEs are markers of ethanol intake in blood and tissues and can be useful in distinguishing chronic alcoholics from binge drinkers. PMID:12951847

Soderberg, Britt L; Salem, Raneem O; Best, Catherine A; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E; Laposata, Michael



Urease expression in a Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ethanologen allows high titer ethanol production.  


Genes encoding the enzyme urease were integrated in a Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ethanologen. The engineered strain hydrolyzed urea, as evidenced by increased cellular growth and elevated final pH in urea minimal medium and urease activity in cell free extracts. Interestingly, replacement of ammonium salts with urea resulted in production of 54 g/L ethanol, one of the highest titers reported for Thermoanaerobacterium. The observed increase in ethanol titer may result from reduced pH, salt, and osmolality stresses during fermentation. Urea utilization is attractive for industrial scale fermentation, where pH control is technically challenging and increased ethanol titer is desirable. PMID:22781282

Shaw, A Joe; Covalla, Sean F; Miller, Bethany B; Firliet, Brian T; Hogsett, David A; Herring, Christopher D



A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)|

Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others



High-resolution cerebral blood volume imaging in humans using the blood pool contrast agent ferumoxytol.  


Cerebral blood volume maps are usually acquired using dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging which inherently limits the spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio of the images. In this study, we used ferumoxytol (AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, MA), an FDA-approved compound, to obtain high-resolution cerebral blood volume maps with a steady-state approach in seven healthy volunteers. R?2* maps (0.8 × 0.8 × 1 mm(3) ) were acquired before and after injection of ferumoxytol and an intraindividual normalization protocol was used to obtain quantitative values. The results show excellent contrast between white and gray matter as well as fine highly detailed vascular structures. An average blood volume of 4% was found in the brain of all volunteers, consistent with prior literature values. A linear relationship was found between ferumoxytol dose (mg/kg) and ?R?2* (1/s) in gray (R(2) = 0.98) and white matter (R(2) = 0.98). A quadratic relationship was found in the sagittal sinus (R(2) = 0.98). The cerebral blood volume maps compare well with lower resolution dynamic susceptibility contrast-MRI and their use should improve the evaluation of small and heterogeneous lesions and facilitate intrapatient and interpatient comparisons. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23001902

Christen, Thomas; Ni, Wendy; Qiu, Deqiang; Schmiedeskamp, Heiko; Bammer, Roland; Moseley, Michael; Zaharchuk, Greg



Effects of chronic low- and high-dose ethanol intake on the nitrergic relaxations of corpus cavernosum and penile nitric oxide synthase in the rabbit.  


Epidemiological evidence showed that chronic ethanol consumption is a major risk factor in the development of impotence. The present study investigated the effects of carbachol-, electrical field stimulation (EFS)-, sodium nitroprusside (SNP)- and papaverine-induced relaxant responses in the isolated corpus cavernosum tissues from rabbits submitted to an 12-week course of chronic low (5% v/v) or high ethanol intake (30% v/v). Increased carbachol- and EFS-induced relaxant responses but not SNP and papaverine, were observed in low ethanol-fed rabbits compared with controls. However, impaired carbachol- and EFS-induced relaxant responses were observed in high ethanol-fed rabbits compared with control rabbits. There were no significant differences in SNP- and papaverine-induced relaxant responses between control and high ethanol-fed rabbits. In addition, decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) immunoreactivity in penile tissue were found in high ethanol-fed rabbits, but increased the immunoreactivity in low ethanol-fed group, compared with control group. These results suggest that alterations in nitric oxide (NO) production within the cavernous tissue in the high ethanol-fed rabbits are, at least in part, responsible for the erectile dysfunction. PMID:22573232

Yazir, Y; Gocmez, S S; Utkan, T; Komsuoglu-Celikyurt, I; Gacar, N; Sarioglu, Y



Identification of novel causative genes determining the complex trait of high ethanol tolerance in yeast using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis  

PubMed Central

High ethanol tolerance is an exquisite characteristic of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which enables this microorganism to dominate in natural and industrial fermentations. Up to now, ethanol tolerance has only been analyzed in laboratory yeast strains with moderate ethanol tolerance. The genetic basis of the much higher ethanol tolerance in natural and industrial yeast strains is unknown. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to map all quantitative trait loci (QTL) determining high ethanol tolerance. We crossed a highly ethanol-tolerant segregant of a Brazilian bioethanol production strain with a laboratory strain with moderate ethanol tolerance. Out of 5974 segregants, we pooled 136 segregants tolerant to at least 16% ethanol and 31 segregants tolerant to at least 17%. Scoring of SNPs using whole-genome sequence analysis of DNA from the two pools and parents revealed three major loci and additional minor loci. The latter were more pronounced or only present in the 17% pool compared to the 16% pool. In the locus with the strongest linkage, we identified three closely located genes affecting ethanol tolerance: MKT1, SWS2, and APJ1, with SWS2 being a negative allele located in between two positive alleles. SWS2 and APJ1 probably contained significant polymorphisms only outside the ORF, and lower expression of APJ1 may be linked to higher ethanol tolerance. This work has identified the first causative genes involved in high ethanol tolerance of yeast. It also reveals the strong potential of pooled-segregant sequence analysis using relatively small numbers of selected segregants for identifying QTL on a genome-wide scale.

Swinnen, Steve; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Pais, Thiago; Claesen, Jurgen; Hubmann, Georg; Yang, Yudi; Demeke, Mekonnen; Foulquie-Moreno, Maria R.; Goovaerts, Annelies; Souvereyns, Kris; Clement, Lieven; Dumortier, Francoise; Thevelein, Johan M.



Scheduled access to ethanol results in motor impairment and tolerance in female C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported a method where water-restricted mice were given scheduled access to ethanol followed by access to water. C57BL\\/6J mice would repeatedly self-administer ethanol in amounts that produced high and stable blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) [Finn DA, Belknap JK, Cronise K, Yoneyama N, Murillo A, Crabbe JC. A procedure to produce high alcohol intake in mice. Psychopharmacol 2005;178:471–480]. The

K. Cronise; D. A. Finn; P. Metten; J. C. Crabbe



Brain catalase activity is highly correlated with ethanol-induced locomotor activity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that acute administration of lead to mice enhances brain catalase activity and ethanol-induced locomotion. These effects of lead seem to be related, since they show similar time courses and occur at similar doses. In the present study, in an attempt to further evaluate the relation between brain catalase activity and lead-induced changes in ethanol-stimulated locomotion, the

Mercè Correa; Carles Sanchis-Segura; Carlos M. G. Aragon



High yield simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production under extreme-thermophilic (70 °C) mixed culture environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH and medium composition on extreme-thermophilic (70°C) dark fermentative simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (process performance and microbial ecology) was investigated. Hydrogen and ethanol yields were optimized with respect to glucose, peptone, FeSO4, NaHCO3, yeast extract, trace mineral salts, vitamins, and phosphate buffer concentrations as well as initial pH as independent variables. A combination of low levels

Chenxi Zhao; Sompong O-Thong; Dimitar Karakashev; Irini Angelidaki; Wenjing Lu; Hongtao Wang



Interaction Between High-Fat Diet and Alcohol Dehydrogenase on Ethanol-Elicited Cardiac Depression in Murine Myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Consumption of high-fat diet and alcohol is associated with obesity, leading to enhanced morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to examine the interaction between high-fat diet and the alcohol metabolizing enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced cardiac depression.Research Methods and Procedures: Mechanical and intracellular Ca2+ properties were measured in cardiomyocytes from ADH transgenic and Friend Virus-B type (FVB)

Jun Ren



Development of continuous-vacuum fermentation\\/fractional distillation for the small-scale production of high-proof ethanol. Annual report, September 1, 1981November 30, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous vacuum fermentation and continuous vacuum fractional distillation, COVFAD, is an experimental process that has been proposed for the small scale production of high proof ethanol. A lab-scale version of the COVFAD system was constructed and evaluated with respect to ethanol production and operating stability. Methods of controlling temperature, rate of feedstock addition in continuous operation, maintenance of system pressure,

J. L. Robinson; J. R. Wright; L. C. Chan



Development of redox potential-controlled schemes for very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation.  


Fermentation redox potential reflects the momentary physiological status of organisms. Controlling redox potential can modulate the redistribution of intracellular metabolic flux to favor the formation of the desired metabolite. Accordingly, we have developed three redox potential-controlled schemes to maximize their effects on the very-high-gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentation. They are aeration-controlled scheme (ACS), glucose-controlled feeding scheme (GCFS), and combined chemostat and aeration-controlled scheme (CCACS). These schemes can maintain fermentation redox potential at a prescribed level (i.e., -50, -100, and -150 mV) by supplementing sterile air, fresh glucose media, or a combination of sterile air and fresh glucose media into a fermenter to counteract the decline of redox potential due to yeast growth. When ACS was employed, the fermentation efficiency at -150 mV is superior to the other two redox potential levels especially when the initial glucose concentration is higher than 250 g/l. The redox potential-controlled period for ACS, GCFS, and CCACS at -150 mV under the same 200 g glucose/l condition was 2.5, 21.7 and 64.6h and the corresponding fermentation efficiency was 85.9,89.3 and 92.7%, respectively. PMID:21419814

Liu, Chen-Guang; Lin, Yen-Han; Bai, Feng-Wu



High efficiency magnetic bearing for a rotary blood pump.  


Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc. (MiTi; Albany, NY) and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (Cleveland, OH) have been engaged in a joint project to develop a new, high efficiency magnetic bearing for use in a rotary blood pump. Such a bearing would have some advantages with respect to permitting large, low shear clearances and avoiding crevice-like pivot interfaces and surface wear related issues. While magnetically suspended blood pumps have been demonstrated, other prototypes reported in the literature consume 5-15 W of power to energize the bearing. The MiTi bearing has been prototyped and tested. The design is a hybrid configuration, radially passive and axially active. The rotor-and-bearing system has been run in air and in blood analog solution, in all orientations. Measurements show a bearing power consumption below 0.5 W. Vibration peaked at 0.2 g in blood analog solution; frequency analysis indicated that this was primarily related to motor design features. Measured displacements from the equilibrium position were less than 0.005 cm. Based on this highly successful bearing prototype, an integrated pump/bearing system is now being developed. PMID:9804532

Chen, H M; Smith, W A; Walton, J F


Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol  

PubMed Central

Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol.

Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.



High-temperature fermentation: how can processes for ethanol production at high temperatures become superior to the traditional process using mesophilic yeast?  


The process of ethanol fermentation has a long history in the production of alcoholic drinks, but much larger scale production of ethanol is now required to enable its use as a substituent of gasoline fuels at 3%, 10%, or 85% (referred to as E3, E10, and E85, respectively). Compared with fossil fuels, the production costs are a major issue for the production of fuel ethanol. There are a number of possible approaches to delivering cost-effective fuel ethanol production from different biomass sources, but we focus in our current report on high-temperature fermentation using a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. We demonstrate that a 5 degrees C increase only in the fermentation temperature can greatly affect the fuel ethanol production costs. We contend that this approach may also be applicable to the other microbial fermentations systems and propose that thermotolerant mesophilic microorganisms have considerable potential for the development of future fermentation technologies. PMID:19820925

Abdel-Banat, Babiker M A; Hoshida, Hisashi; Ano, Akihiko; Nonklang, Sanom; Akada, Rinji



High Ethanol Titers from Cellulose by Using Metabolically Engineered Thermophilic, Anaerobic Microbes ? † ‡  

PubMed Central

This work describes novel genetic tools for use in Clostridium thermocellum that allow creation of unmarked mutations while using a replicating plasmid. The strategy employed counter-selections developed from the native C. thermocellum hpt gene and the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum tdk gene and was used to delete the genes for both lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). The ?ldh ?pta mutant was evolved for 2,000 h, resulting in a stable strain with 40:1 ethanol selectivity and a 4.2-fold increase in ethanol yield over the wild-type strain. Ethanol production from cellulose was investigated with an engineered coculture of organic acid-deficient engineered strains of both C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Fermentation of 92 g/liter Avicel by this coculture resulted in 38 g/liter ethanol, with acetic and lactic acids below detection limits, in 146 h. These results demonstrate that ethanol production by thermophilic, cellulolytic microbes is amenable to substantial improvement by metabolic engineering.

Argyros, D. Aaron; Tripathi, Shital A.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Feinberg, Lawrence F.; Olson, Daniel G.; Foden, Justine M.; Miller, Bethany B.; Lynd, Lee R.; Hogsett, David A.; Caiazza, Nicky C.



Concentration-Dependent Protection by Ethanol Extract of Propolis against ?-Ray-Induced Chromosome Damage in Human Blood Lymphocytes.  


Radioprotection with natural products may be relevant to the mitigation of ionizing radiation-induced damage in mammalian systems; in this sense, propolis extracts have shown effects such as antioxidant, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulant. We report for the first time a cytogenetic study to evaluate the radioprotective effect, in vitro, of propolis against radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Lymphocytes were cultured with increasing concentrations of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP), including 20, 40, 120, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 2000??g?mL(-1) and then exposed to 2 Gy ?-rays. A significant and concentration-dependent decrease is observed in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in samples treated with EEP. The protection against the formation of dicentrics was concentration-dependent, with a maximum protection at 120??g?mL(-1) of EEP. The observed frequency of dicentrics is described as negative exponential function, indicating that the maximum protectible fraction of dicentrics is approximately 44%. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities are the mechanisms that these substances use to protect cells from ionizing radiation. PMID:20981159

Montoro, A; Barquinero, J F; Almonacid, M; Montoro, A; Sebastià, N; Verdú, G; Sahuquillo, V; Serrano, J; Saiz, M; Villaescusa, J I; Soriano, J M



Heavy in utero ethanol exposure is associated with the use of other drugs of abuse in a high-risk population.  


Many ethanol dependent women also use other drugs of abuse that may affect pregnancy outcome and long-term child neurodevelopment. This study investigated the association between drugs of abuse and concurrent use of ethanol in pregnancy. A study cohort of neonates with FAEE levels above 2 nmol per gram meconium, indicative of heavy in utero ethanol exposure, was identified (n=114). Meconium and hair analyses for the presence of other drugs of abuse were obtained for some of these neonates and the rates of drug exposure were compared with the rates in a cohort of neonates who were tested negative (FAEE below 2 nmol per gram meconium) for ethanol exposure (n=622). Odds ratios (ORs) for various drugs were calculated with ethanol exposure. A 15.5% positive rate for intrauterine ethanol exposure was detected. A high rate of in utero drug exposure was detected in neonates with and without in utero ethanol exposure, 60.5% versus 62.7% respectively. Neonates with heavy in utero ethanol exposure were almost twice as likely to be exposed to narcotic opiates (OR=1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-3.20) and 3.3 times as likely to be exposed to amphetamine (OR=3.30; 95% CI 1.06-10.27) when compared to neonates with no ethanol exposure. Exposure to cannabinoids predicted less likely exposure to ethanol (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.98) and no significant difference was noted in the exposure to cocaine (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.81-1.91). Neonates suspected of heavy in utero ethanol exposure should be tested for other drugs of abuse and vice versa. Early detection of drug exposures can facilitate early intervention to both the neonate and the mother, thus decreasing the risk of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes for the child, including secondary disabilities associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. PMID:20031369

Shor, Sarit; Nulman, Irena; Kulaga, Vivian; Koren, Gideon



Step by Step: Eating To Lower Your High Blood Cholesterol. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet offers advice for adults who want to lower their blood cholesterol level. The first section, "What You Need To Know about High Blood Cholesterol," discusses blood cholesterol and why it matters, what cholesterol numbers mean, and what affects blood cholesterol levels. Section 2, "What You Need To Do To Lower Blood Cholesterol,"…

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.


[Process strategy for ethanol production from lignocellulose feedstock under extremely low water usage and high solids loading conditions].  


The massive water and steam are consumed in the production of cellulose ethanol, which correspondingly results in the significant increase of energy cost, waster water discharge and production cost as well. In this study, the process strategy under extremely low water usage and high solids loading of corn stover was investigated experimentally and computationally. The novel pretreatment technology with zero waste water discharge was developed; in which a unique biodetoxification method using a kerosene fungus strain Amorphotheca resinae ZN1 to degrade the lignocellulose derived inhibitors was applied. With high solids loading of pretreated corn stover, high ethanol titer was achieved in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, and the scale-up principles were studied. Furthermore, the flowsheet simulation of the whole process was carried out with the Aspen plus based physical database, and the integrated process developed was tested in the biorefinery mini-plant. Finally, the core technologies were applied in the cellulose ethanol demonstration plant, which paved a way for the establishment of an energy saving and environment friendly technology of lignocellulose biotransformation with industry application potential. PMID:20954396

Zhang, Jian; Chu, Deqiang; Yu, Zhanchun; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Deng, Hongbo; Wang, Xiusheng; Zhu, Zhinan; Zhang, Huaiqing; Dai, Gance; Bao, Jie



Single-Dose Ethanol Administration Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis: Exploration of the Mechanism of Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) by single-dose ethanol administration, which achieved moderately high blood ethanol levels, was explored in naive rats in order to determine the mechanism of ethano?s activation of the stress axis. Adult male rats received a single dose (3.2 g\\/kg body weight–1 of a 12% solution of ethanol in physiological saline. The plasma concentration of immunoreactive

Arun B. Thiagarajan; Ivan N. Mefford; Robert L. Eskay



Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 and ethanol coexposure in rat organotypic brain slice cultures: Curtailment of gp120-induced neurotoxicity and neurotoxic mediators by moderate but not high ethanol concentrations.  


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein gp120, implicated with other retroviral proteins in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related dementia, causes neuronal degeneration by inciting cascades of neurotoxic mediators from glia. It also may facilitate neuronal glutamate (N-methyl-D-aspartate, NMDA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity by interacting at the glycine coagonist site. The authors reported that preconditioning rat organotypic hippocampal-cortical slice cultures subchronically with ethanol at concentrations occurring during moderate drinking (20 to 30 mM) prevented gp120's induction of neurotoxic mediators and intracellular calcium, as well as neuronal death. The authors now find that the acute copresence of ethanol in moderate as opposed to high concentrations similarly blocks the retroviral protein's neurotoxic effects in brain slice cultures, assessed with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and propidium iodide (PI) labeling. As with ethanol preconditioning, neuroprotection against gp120 by moderate ethanol coexposure appears secondary to abrogation of the retroviral protein's early induction of arachidonic acid (AA), glutamate, and superoxide (but not nitric oxide) elevations/release. Additionally, experiments indicate that 30 mM ethanol is sufficient to inhibit the NMDA receptor, particularly in the presence of added glycine, thus hindering potential direct neuronal stimulation by gp120. However, in contrast to moderate ethanol, 100 mM ethanol, a concentration tolerated only in chronic alcoholics, potentiates gp120-dependent neurotoxicity (PI labeling) in the hippocampal CA1 region, augments LDH release, and fails to curtail gp120's actions on AA, glutamate, and superoxide-but does suppress nitric oxide induction. The results indicate dominant roles for AA, superoxide, and glutamate-mediated oxidative stress in gp120's neurotoxic mechanism, but perhaps a less important role for NMDA receptor stimulation, which would be constrained at both ethanol concentrations employed. We suggest that ethanol's concentration-dependent, two-edged sword behavior could alter the development of dementia in HIV-1-infected individuals during social consumption or abuse. Further studies are needed to elucidate the differing apparently glial effects of the two concentrations of ethanol. PMID:12587068

Belmadani, A; Neafsey, E J; Collins, M A



The intrinsic and interactive effects of RO 15-4513 and ethanol on locomotor activity, body temperature, and blood glucose concentration  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the putative ethanol antagonist RO 15-4513 to antagonize ethanol-induced hypoactivity, hypothermia and hyperglycemia was investigated in rats. Although RO 15-4513 produced hypoactivity by itself, it attenuated ethanol-induced hypoactivity. This antagonism suggests that ethanol-induced hypoactivity is mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex which is thought to be the site of action of RO 15-4513. In contrast, although RO 15-4513 produced hypothermia by itself, it had no significant effect on ethanol-induced hypothermia. This suggests that the hypothermic effect of ethanol is not mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex. The fact that RO 15-4513, ethanol and the vehicle all produced hyperglycemia suggests a common stress effect and does not permit any firm conclusions to be drawn as to the interaction between ethanol and RO 15-4513 in modulating glycemic responses. These data indicate that the ethanol antagonism of RO 15-4513 is primarily confined to ethanol's behavioral effects and that ethanol's behavioral and physiological effects are mediated by neurochemically distinct mechanisms.

Wood, A.L.; Healey, P.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Verne, S.L.; Atrens, D.M. (Univ. of Sydney, (Australia))



National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP). Working Group Report on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, February 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, a state-of-the-art publication was written to improve the practice of high blood pressure management by educating physicians and other health care providers about special management issues in high blood presssure treatment and control. This re...



Comparison of casual blood pressure and twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure in high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To perform ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in high school students and to compare the 24-hour values with casual blood pressure (BP). Methods: Ambulatory BP monitoring was carried out in 190 high school students, 15 or 16 years of age, with elevated casual BP during the first examination at school for hypertension; 66 had elevated casual BP at both

Kenji Nishibata; Masami Nagashima; Akihito Tsuji; Seiichi Hasegawa; Noriko Nagai; Masahiko Goto; Hiroshi Hayashi



Ethanolic extract of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through down-regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression.  


Phenolic compounds and flavonoids ameliorate bodyweight, blood glucose, and serum lipid profile. Since seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is known as a rich source of isoflavones and flavonoids, we hypothesized that ethanolic extract of seabuckthorn leaves (SL) may have anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects. To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of SL, 32 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups, containing 8 mice in each group: normal diet group; high-fat diet (HD) control group; high-fat diet with SL extract, 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) (SL1) group; and high-fat diet with SL extract, 1000 mg/kg BW (SL2) group. After 13 weeks, it was observed that oral administration of SL extract significantly reduced the energy intake; BW gain; epididymal fat pad weight; hepatic triglyceride, hepatic, and serum total cholesterol levels; and serum leptin levels in the SL groups compared to the HD group. However, differences in serum triglyceride and insulin levels in the SL groups were not significant in comparison to the HD group. The hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 along with PPAR-? were significantly increased in SL groups, whereas the level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was significantly reduced in SL groups compared to HD group. Our results indicated that SL is effective in preventing BW gain and fat accumulation in the liver; it also reduced adipose tissue mass, hepatic lipid profile, and serum leptin level in the mouse. Together, these observations suggest that SL is a potential agent to study in the management of obesity and related disorders. PMID:23176796

Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Moon, Hye-Jung; Park, Jeong-Eun; Moon, Yeon-Jeong; Cha, Youn-Soo



High-resolution spectroscopy of induced chiral dimers: a study of the dimers of ethanol by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy.  


We present the first recording of the high-resolution spectrum of an induced chiral dimer. Three conformers of the induced chiral dimers of ethanol have been observed using a pulsed molecular-beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The rotational constants of the normal isotopomers of the three species have been determined to be (a) A=5113.826(5), B=1329.7214(4), and C=1257.5151(3) MHz, (b) A=5086.459(5), B=1316.6508(4), and C=1243.6329(4) MHz, and (c) A=4851.608(5), B=1369.7558(6), and C=1243.4184(4) MHz. The observed species have been assigned to calculated structures via Kraitchman double substitution analyses and ab initio calculations. The Kraitchman analyses and the fitted centrifugal distortion parameters suggest that the deuterium bond is significantly stronger than the hydrogen bond in the dimers of ethanol. PMID:16223305

Hearn, J Paul I; Cobley, Rachel V; Howard, Brian J



High concentrations of cellulosic ethanol achieved by fed batch semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of waste-paper.  


A fundamental goal of second generation ethanol production is to increase the ethanol concentration to 10% (v/v) or more to optimise distillation costs. Semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentations (SSSF) were conducted at small pilot scale (5L) utilising fed-batch additions of solid shredded copier paper substrate. Early addition of Accellerase® 1500 at 16 FPU/g substrate and 30 U/g ?-glucosidase followed by substrate only batch addition allowed low final equivalent enzyme concentrations to be achieved (3.7 FPU/g substrate) whilst maintaining digestion. Batch addition resulted in a cumulative substrate concentration equivalent to 65% (w/v). This in turn resulted in the production of high concentrations of ethanol (11.6% v/v). The success of this strategy relied on the capacity of the bioreactor to perform high shear mixing as required. Further research into the timing and number of substrate additions could lead to further improvement in overall yields from the 65.5% attained. PMID:23500568

Elliston, Adam; Collins, Samuel R A; Wilson, David R; Roberts, Ian N; Waldron, Keith W



Teratological assessment of methanol and ethanol at high inhalation levels in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohols are widely used as industrial solvents. In spite of the fact that ethanol is a human teratogen, there has not been systematic investigation of the potential teratogenic effects of other alcohols, particularly using the inhalation route of exposure, as would be appropriate in assessing occupational and environmental types of experience. As part of a large teratological examination of industrial

B. K. Nelson; W. S. Brightwell; D. R. MacKenzie; A. Khan; J. R. Burg; W. W. Weigel; P. T. Goad



Development of Continuous-Vacuum Fermentation/Fractional Distillation for the Small-Scale Production of High-Proof Ethanol. Annual Report, September 1, 1981-November 30, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Continuous vacuum fermentation and continuous vacuum fractional distillation, COVFAD, is an experimental process that has been proposed for the small scale production of high proof ethanol. A lab-scale version of the COVFAD system was constructed and eval...

J. L. Robinson J. R. Wright L. C. Chan



Analysis of Risk by 2004 National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Staging Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents recently recommended staging hypertension (HTN) in children and adolescents based on blood pressure severity. The use of blood pressure staging and its corresponding therapeutic approach was examined in this pooled analysis assessing the risk for end-organ damage, specifically left ventricular hypertrophy among hypertensive

Karen L. McNiece; Monesha Gupta-Malhotra; Joshua Samuels; Cynthia Bell; Kathleen Garcia; Timothy Poffenbarger; Jonathan M. Sorof; Ronald J. Portman


Selection and characterization of a newly isolated thermotolerant Pichia kudriavzevii strain for ethanol production at high temperature from cassava starch hydrolysate.  


Pichia kudriavzevii DMKU 3-ET15 was isolated from traditional fermented pork sausage by an enrichment technique in a yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) broth, supplemented with 4 % (v/v) ethanol at 40 °C and selected based on its ethanol fermentation ability at 40 °C in YPD broth composed of 16 % glucose, and in a cassava starch hydrolysate medium composed of cassava starch hydrolysate adjusted to 16 % glucose. The strain produced ethanol from cassava starch hydrolysate at a high temperature up to 45 °C, but the optimal temperature for ethanol production was at 40 °C. Ethanol production by this strain using shaking flask cultivation was the highest in a medium containing cassava starch hydrolysate adjusted to 18 % glucose, 0.05 % (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 0.09 % yeast extract, 0.05 % KH(2)PO(4), and 0.05 % MgSO(4)·7H(2)O, with a pH of 5.0 at 40 °C. The highest ethanol concentration reached 7.86 % (w/v) after 24 h, with productivity of 3.28 g/l/h and yield of 85.4 % of the theoretical yield. At 42 °C, ethanol production by this strain became slightly lower, while at 45 °C only 3.82 % (w/v) of ethanol, 1.27 g/l/h productivity and 41.5 % of the theoretical yield were attained. In a study on ethanol production in a 2.5-l jar fermenter with an agitation speed of 300 rpm and an aeration rate of 0.1 vvm throughout the fermentation, P. kudriavzevii DMKU 3-ET15 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 7.35 % (w/v) after 33 h, a productivity of 2.23 g/l/h and a yield of 79.9 % of the theoretical yield. PMID:23132277

Yuangsaard, Napatchanok; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Yamada, Mumoru; Limtong, Savitree



Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.  


Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance. PMID:22387426

Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu



Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9\\/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9\\/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Women's health study, United States.Participants 39 322 initially healthy women classified into four categories according to self reported baseline blood pressure and followed for a median of 10.2

David Conen; Paul M Ridker; Julie E Buring; Robert J Glynn



A regression model applied to gender-specific ethanol elimination rates from blood and breath measurements in non-alcoholics.  


As elimination rates for alcohol are suggested to be gender specific, a novel regression model has been applied to estimate these rates for both men and women using experimentally measured data from 81 female and 96 male volunteers described in previous papers. Breath alcohol measurements were done with the Alcotest 7110 Evidential device and were coupled with concomitant sampling of venous blood. Statistical analyses involved use of a mixed linear model for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), respectively. The model takes regression lines for each test subject into account with an individual starting value (2 h after the end of drinking) and with an individual alcohol elimination rate per hour (coincidental effects). Further, the data was modeled so that an average alcohol elimination rate per hour could be estimated separately for both genders (constant effects). This enables us to methodically correctly estimate the back calculation. The elimination rates beta (60), which can be used for minimum and maximum back calculations for the BAC, were 0.115 g/kg/h and 0.260 g/kg/h, respectively, for women and 0.096 g/kg/h and 0.241 g/kg/h, respectively, for men. These figures widely deviate from gender-unspecific values commonly used in Germany (0.1 and 0.2 g/kg/h, respectively). The corresponding values for the BrAC were 0.061 mg/l/h and 0.124 mg/l/h for women and 0.049 mg/l/h and 0.112 mg/l/h for men. The probability of an over- or underestimation of the abovementioned extreme values is 0.3% in each case. PMID:18839202

Dettling, A; Witte, S; Skopp, G; Graw, M; Haffner, H Th




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethanol has been used, or proposed for use, as a process fluid or separation agent for a number of bio-refining operations. These include oil extraction, solvent exchange, displacement drying, protein extraction, blood plasma fractionation, shellac deposition, protein film deposition, corn zein prot...


Reduced Blood Clearance and Increased Urinary Excretion of yV-Nitrosodimethylaminein Patas Monkeys Exposed to Ethanol or Isopropyl Alcohol1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low concentrations of W-nitrosodimethylamine are metabolized in rodent and human liver by cytochrome P450IIE1, an activity competi tively inhibitable by ethanol. In rodents coadministration of ethanol with iY-nitrosodimeth>lamine results in increased tumorigenicity in extrahe- patic organs, probably as a result of reduced hepatic clearance. To test this concept in a primate, the effects of ethanol cotreatment on the pharmacokinetics of

Lucy M. Anderson; Raymond Koseniauskas; Eric S. Burak; Thomas J. Moskal; Charles T. Gombar; Jere M. Phillips; Eric B. Sansone; Scott Keimig; Peter N. Magee; Jerry M. Rice


Highly efficient rapid ethanol sensing based on Co-doped In 2O 3 nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pristine and Co-doped In2O3 nanowires were synthesized via electrospinning with subsequent calcination. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize nanowire morphology and structure. Ethanol sensing performance analyzed in the range of temperatures and concentrations showed that Co-doped In2O3 nanowires exhibited significantly enhanced sensitivity and rate of performance with the response and recovery times of

Zhenyu Li; Yuris Dzenis



Acceleration of the rate of ethanol fermentation by addition of nitrogen in high tannin grain sorghum  

SciTech Connect

In this communication, the authors show that accelerated rates of ethanol production, comparable to sorghum varieties containing low levels of tannins and to corn, can occur without the removal of the tannins. The basis of the inhibition appears to be a lack of sufficient nitrogen in the mash for protein synthesis required to support an accelerated fermentative metabolism in Saccharomyces. No inhibition of the enzymes used for starch hydrolysis was found.

Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.



Redirecting carbon flux through exogenous pyruvate kinase to achieve high ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum.  


In Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium able to rapidly ferment cellulose to ethanol, pyruvate kinase (EC is absent based on both the genome sequence and enzymatic assays. Instead, a new pathway converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate via a three-step pathway involving phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, NADH-linked malate dehydrogenase, and NADP-dependent malic enzyme has been found. We examined the impact of targeted modification of enzymes associated with this pathway, termed the "malate shunt", including expression of the pyruvate kinase gene from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, mutation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and deletion of malic enzyme gene. Strain YD01 with exogenous pyruvate kinase, in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was diminished by modifying the start codon from ATG to GTG, exhibited 3.25-fold higher ethanol yield than the wild-type strain. A second strain, YD02 with exogenous pyruvate kinase, in which the gene for malic enzyme and part of malate dehydrogenase were deleted, had over 3-fold higher ethanol yield than the wild-type strain. PMID:23202749

Deng, Yu; Olson, Daniel G; Zhou, Jilai; Herring, Christopher D; Joe Shaw, A; Lynd, Lee R



Impact of High Temperature on Ethanol Fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus Immobilized on Banana Leaf Sheath Pieces.  


Ethanol fermentation was carried out with Kluyveromyces marxianus cells at various temperatures (30, 35, 40, and 45 °C). Fermentation performance of the immobilized yeast on banana leaf sheath pieces and the free yeast were evaluated and compared. Generally, ethanol production of the immobilized and free yeast was stable in a temperature range of 30-40 °C. Temperature of 45 °C restricted yeast growth and lengthened the fermentation. The immobilized yeast demonstrated faster sugar assimilation and higher ethanol level in the fermentation broth in comparison with the free yeast at all fermentation temperatures. Change in fatty acid level in cellular membrane was determined to clarify the response of the free and immobilized yeast to thermal stress. The free cells of K. marxianus responded to temperature increase by increasing saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0) level and by decreasing unsaturated fatty acid (C18:1 and C18:2) level in cellular membrane. For fermentation at 40 °C with immobilized cells of K. marxianus, however, the changes were not observed in both saturated fatty acid (C16:0) and unsaturated fatty acid (C18:1 and C18:2) level. PMID:23900619

Du Le, Hoang; Thanonkeo, Pornthap; Le, Van Viet Man



Radioactivity of Human Blood as a Measure of Integral Dose from High Energy Protons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The carbon 11 -radioactivity of blood samples taken from patients undergoing tumour therapy with high energy protons was measured. The results indicate that the blood radioactivity may be a good measure of integral radiation dose from high energy protons....

S. Graffman B. Jung



High Blood Pressure Reading in Kids Linked to Triple Risk for Condition as Adults  


High blood pressure reading in kids linked to triple risk for condition as adults American Heart Association Meeting Report: ... 2013 Study Highlight: Kids with at least one high blood pressure reading were about three times more likely to ...


Half of People with High Blood Pressure Don't Know It  


... 3, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages High Blood Pressure International Health TUESDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- High blood pressure, ... of Sydney University and the George Institute for Global Health in Australia, said in the news release. The ...


Isothermal vapor--liquid equilibrium data for binary systems at high pressures; Carbon dioxide-methanol, carbon dioxide-ethanol, carbon dioxide1-propanol, methaneethanol, methane1-propanol, ethaneethanol, and ethane1-propanol systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an experiment conducted on isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium data for binary systems at high pressure. Carbon dioxide-methanol, carbon dioxide-ethanol, carbon dioxide-1-propanol, methane-ethanol, methane-1-propanol, ethane-ethanol, and ethane-1-propanol were measured by a new static phase equilibrium apparatus at 313.4 and 333,4 K.

Kazuhiko Suzuki; Haruhusa Sue; Masahiro Itou; Richard L. Smith; Hiroshi Inomata; K. Aria; Shozaburo Saito



Influence of chronic ethanol consumption on the inositol phospholipid fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.  


The breakdown of inositol phospholipids is an important event after the binding of antigens to the T-cell antigen receptor. In alcoholics, changes either in early or in late steps of lymphocyte activation have been documented, however no study on the role of phosphoinositide fatty acid composition in signal transduction has been reported. We have analyzed the fatty acid pattern of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate from peripheral blood lymphocytes of alcoholic patients and healthy controls, in order to point out the possible compositional differences which could interfere with the signal transmission responsible for the early events in lymphocyte activation. In alcoholics, the arachidonic acid relative molar content in all the inositol phospholipid (PtdIns) fractions derived from lymphocytes was lower than in controls; all PtdIns classes appeared much more saturated than the corresponding fractions from control lymphocytes. The different fatty acid pattern of PtdIns in alcoholic patients could be responsible for an altered second messenger production, above all the production of a modified diacylglycerol which, in turn, could cause a different activation pattern of protein kinase C, with a consequent alteration in cell proliferation. The decrease in arachidonic acid molar content in the phosphoinositides and particularly in the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate fraction of PBL of alcoholic patients could lead to a reduced synthesis of prostanoids of the (n-6) series, and, as a consequence, to an alteration in the mitogenic response of the cells. PMID:1336764

Celadon, M; Biagi, P L; Bordoni, A; Mazzetti, M; Castelli, E; Stefanini, G F; Hrelia, S


Highly Active Iridium/Iridium Tin/Tin Oxide Heterogeneous Nanoparticles as Alternative Electrocatalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a promising fuel for low-temperature direct fuel cell reactions due to its low toxicity, ease of storage and transportation, high-energy density, and availability from biomass. However, the implementation of ethanol fuel cell technology has been hindered by the lack of low-cost, highly active anode catalysts. In this paper, we have studied Iridium (Ir)-based binary catalysts as low-cost alternative electrocatalysts replacing platinum (Pt)-based catalysts for the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) reaction. We report the synthesis of carbon supported Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29} catalysts with an average diameter of 2.7 {+-} 0.6 nm through a 'surfactant-free' wet chemistry approach. The complementary characterization techniques, including aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, are used to identify the 'real' heterogeneous structure of Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C particles as Ir/Ir-Sn/SnO{sub 2}, which consists of an Ir-rich core and an Ir-Sn alloy shell with SnO{sub 2} present on the surface. The Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C heterogeneous catalyst exhibited high electrochemical activity toward the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to the commercial Pt/C (ETEK), PtRu/C (Johnson Matthey) as well as PtSn/C catalysts. Electrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the superior electro-activity is directly related to the high degree of Ir-Sn alloy formation as well as the existence of nonalloyed SnO{sub 2} on surface. Our cross-disciplinary work, from novel 'surfactant-free' synthesis of Ir-Sn catalysts, theoretical simulations, and catalytic measurements to the characterizations of 'real' heterogeneous nanostructures, will not only highlight the intriguing structure-property correlations in nanosized catalysts but also have a transformative impact on the commercialization of DEFC technology by replacing Pt with low-cost, highly active Ir-based catalysts.

Du W.; Su D.; Wang Q.; Saxner D.; Deskins N.A.; Krzanowski J.E.; Frenkel A.I.; Teng X.



Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract of Artemisia princeps in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.  


Artemisia princeps is commonly used as a food ingredient and in traditional Asian medicine. In this study, we examined the effects of long-term administration of an ethanol extract of A. princeps (APE) on body weight, white adipose tissue, blood glucose, insulin, plasma and hepatic lipids, and adipocytokines in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Daily feeding of a 1% APE diet for 14 weeks normalized elevated body weight, white adipose tissue, and plasma glucose and insulin levels, and delayed impaired glucose tolerance in mice a fed high-fat diet. These events were not observed in mice fed a control diet containing 1% APE. Liver triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar in mice fed a 1% APE-diet and those fed a control diet. In the high-fat diet groups, APE inhibited hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and suppressed the elevation of plasma leptin, but had no effect on adiponectin levels. These findings suggest that the regulation of leptin secretion by APE may inhibit FAS activity with subsequent suppression of triglyceride accumulation in the liver and adipose tissues. Inhibition of lipid accumulation can, in turn, lead to improvements in impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:21773585

Yamamoto, Norio; Kanemoto, Yuki; Ueda, Manabu; Kawasaki, Kengo; Fukuda, Itsuko; Ashida, Hitoshi



Utilization of dry distiller’s grain and solubles as nutrient supplement in the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high solids loading of corn stover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry distiller’s grain and solubles (DDGS) is a major by-product of corn-based ethanol production and is usually used as animal\\u000a feed. Here, it was added to the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) carried out at high solids loading\\u000a of steam explosion pretreated corn stover using a mutant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1. The performance of SSF process with DDGS was

Dexi BiDeqiang; Deqiang Chu; Pei Zhu; Chenyang Lu; Chao Fan; Jian Zhang; Jie Bao



Rapid and enhanced production of ethanol in very high gravity (VHG) sugar fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Role of finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L.) flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the supplementation of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) flour (4–6%, w\\/v) in the production of ethanol by yeasts in high gravity sugar (30–40%, w\\/v) containing yeast extract-peptone-malt extract medium was investigated. It was found that the finger millet flour not only reduced the fermentation time (from 5 to 3 days) but also enhanced the ethanol concentration from

L. V. A. Reddy; O. V. S. Reddy



Novel, High-Yield Red Blood Cell Production Methods from CD34-Positive Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem, Yolk Sac, Fetal Liver, Cord Blood, and Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34+ cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34+ cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6–8-week yolk sacs, 16–18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34+ cells.

Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong



Ethanol Production and Maximum Cell Growth Are Highly Correlated with Membrane Lipid Composition during Fermentation as Determined by Lipidomic Analysis of 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains  

PubMed Central

Optimizing ethanol yield during fermentation is important for efficient production of fuel alcohol, as well as wine and other alcoholic beverages. However, increasing ethanol concentrations during fermentation can create problems that result in arrested or sluggish sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The fundamental cellular basis for these problem fermentations, however, is not well understood. Small-scale fermentations were performed in a synthetic grape must using 22 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (primarily wine strains) with various degrees of ethanol tolerance to assess the correlation between lipid composition and fermentation kinetic parameters. Lipids were extracted at several fermentation time points representing different growth phases of the yeast to quantitatively analyze phospholipids and ergosterol utilizing atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry methods. Lipid profiling of individual fermentations indicated that yeast lipid class profiles do not shift dramatically in composition over the course of fermentation. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed using partial least-squares linear regression modeling to correlate lipid composition data with fermentation kinetic data. The results indicate a strong correlation (R2 = 0.91) between the overall lipid composition and the final ethanol concentration (wt/wt), an indicator of strain ethanol tolerance. One potential component of ethanol tolerance, the maximum yeast cell concentration, was also found to be a strong function of lipid composition (R2 = 0.97). Specifically, strains unable to complete fermentation were associated with high phosphatidylinositol levels early in fermentation. Yeast strains that achieved the highest cell densities and ethanol concentrations were positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine species similar to those known to decrease the perturbing effects of ethanol in model membrane systems.

Henderson, Clark M.; Lozada-Contreras, Michelle; Jiranek, Vladimir; Longo, Marjorie L.



High-resolution spectroscopy of induced chiral dimers: A study of the dimers of ethanol by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first recording of the high-resolution spectrum of an induced chiral dimer. Three conformers of the induced chiral dimers of ethanol have been observed using a pulsed molecular-beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The rotational constants of the normal isotopomers of the three species have been determined to be (a) A=5113.826(5), B=1329.7214(4), and C=1257.5151(3) MHz, (b) A=5086.459(5), B=1316.6508(4), and

J. Paul I. Hearn; Rachel V. Cobley; Brian J. Howard



Electrophysiological Evidence that Ethanol Alters Function of Medial Septal Area Without Affecting Lateral Septal Function1  

PubMed Central

Evidence is provided in this manuscript that ethanol acts directly on neurons in the medial septal area (MSA). Initially, the electrophysiological characteristics of MSA neurons in freely moving rats were characterized and found similar to that observed in rats anesthetized with urethane, but not chloral hydrate. Therefore, urethane was used to evaluate the effects of ethanol in anesthetized rats. The conclusion that ethanol influences neural function in the MSA is based on electrophysiological data that ethanol (0.75–3.0 g/kg i.p.) suppresses neural firing of medial septal cells in urethane-anesthetized as well as in unanesthetized rats in a dose-related fashion. Concurrent with the suppression of firing rate, the rhythmic bursting pattern of activity of MSA neurons is disrupted by ethanol. The changes observed in the MSA could not be attributed to an indirect action of ethanol on afferents from the lateral septum to the MSA, because ethanol did not alter neural activity of cells in the lateral septum. These data indicate that ethanol does not have a common action on all neurons. Neural activity in the MSA recovered from the acute action of ethanol at a time when blood ethanol levels were near maximal, indicating an acute tolerance to this effect of ethanol. The time course of change in neural activity in the MSA was highly correlated with the time course of a measure of behavioral sedation, but not the hypothermia produced by ethanol. Thus, the work in this manuscript supports the view that ethanol has selective actions on MSA neurons in the rat septal area and that these actions may influence the behavioral sedation induced by ethanol.




Early maternal separation affects ethanol-induced conditioning in a nor-BNI insensitive manner, but does not alter ethanol-induced locomotor activity.  


Early environmental stress significantly affects the development of offspring. This stress has been modeled in rats through the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which alters the functioning of the HPA axis and can enhance ethanol intake at adulthood. Infant rats are sensitive to ethanol's reinforcing effects, which modulate ethanol seeking and intake. Little is known about the impact of MS on sensitivity to ethanol's appetitive and aversive effects during infancy. The present study assessed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference established through second-order conditioning (SOC), spontaneous or ethanol-induced locomotor activity and ethanol intake in preweanling rats that experienced normal animal facility rearing (AFR) or daily episodes of maternal separation (MS) during postnatal days 1-13 (PDs 1-13). Low-ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) induced appetitive conditioned place preference (via SOC) in control rats given conventional rearing but not in rats given maternal separation in early infancy, whereas 2.0 g/kg ethanol induced aversive conditioned place preference in the former but not the latter. The administration of a kappa antagonist at PD 1 or immediately before testing did not alter ethanol-induced reinforcement. High (i.e., 2.5 and 2.0 g/kg) but not low (i.e., 0.5 g/kg) ethanol dose induced reliable motor stimulation, which was independent of early maternal separation. Ethanol intake and blood alcohol levels during conditioning were unaffected by rearing conditions. Pups given early maternal separation had lower body weights than controls and showed an altered pattern of exploration when placed in an open field. These results indicate that, when assessed in infant rats, earlier maternal separation alters the balance between the appetitive and aversive motivational effects of ethanol but has no effect on the motor activating effects of the drug. PMID:22108648

Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Fabio, Ma Carolina; Spear, Norman E



High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066) were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI), gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN) were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ? 85th percentile) and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

Urrutia-Rojas, Ximena; Egbuchunam, Christie U; Bae, Sejong; Menchaca, John; Bayona, Manuel; Rivers, Patrick A; Singh, Karan P



Aerobic Production of Ethanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer-controlled continuous culture of yeast converted glucose to ethanol at excellent rates on a per-cell basis. This highly unconventional aerobic bioprocess makes use of oxidoreductive metabolism induced by concentrations of glucose that overload ...

L. S. Clesceri H. R. Bungay



Unacceptably high site variability in postmortem blood alcohol analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood alcohol concentration is a frequently requested test in forensic pathology. The variability of this value was studied by measuring the blood alcohol concentration from six sites in nine subjects at necropsy in whom alcohol was the implicated cause of death. There were small consistent differences in the blood alcohol concentrations between the sites in the nine subjects (p <

P. A. Sylvester; N. A. Wong; B. F. Warren; D. L. Ranson



Effects of fenfluramine, 8-OH-DPAT, and tryptophan-enriched diet on the high-ethanol intake by rats bred for susceptibility to stress.  


The swim-test susceptible (SUS) line of rats has been bred in our laboratory for the characteristic of reduced motor activity in the swim test following exposure to an acute stressor. Testing of multiple generations of SUS rats has also revealed that they consume large amounts of ethanol voluntarily. As reported for lines of rats that show a propensity for high-ethanol intake, the SUS rats show evidence of low serotonergic function. Because serotonergic function has often been shown to be involved in the regulation of alcohol consumption, here we examined the effects of manipulations of serotonin transmission on intake of ethanol by SUS rats. Fenfluramine, a serotonin-releasing drug, was injected at various doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0mg/kg) twice per day and ethanol intake was measured using a two-bottle free-choice method. The 8-OH-DPAT, a 5?HT(1A) agonist, was injected at various doses (0.03125, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0mg/kg) before a 1-h session of exposure to ethanol (single-bottle test, water available the other 23h per day). A diet enriched with 3% tryptophan (TRP), the amino acid precursor for serotonin synthesis, was administered in a restricted feeding schedule (5h per day) with ethanol intake measured the last 4h. Fenfluramine decreased ethanol intake at all doses tested. The 8-OH-DPAT increased ethanol intake at lower doses, presumably acting at autoreceptors, which inhibit serotonergic neurons, and decreased intake at higher doses, presumably acting at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. TRP-enriched diet also significantly decreased ethanol intake. Food and water intake were less or unaffected by these three manipulations. With all three manipulations, ethanol intake remained suppressed one or more days after the day of tests that decreased ethanol intake. These data suggest that SUS rats, like many other lines/strains of rodents that consume large amounts of alcohol, show an inverse relationship between serotonin transmission and voluntary intake of ethanol. PMID:21924578

West, Charles H K; Boss-Williams, Katherine A; Weiss, Jay M



High-calcium diet reduces blood pressure, blood volume and preserves vasorelaxation in oral contraceptive-treated female rats.  


Cardiovascular complications are the major clinical challenges among users of synthetic steroids in oral contraceptive (OC) formulations. Interventions that reduce blood volume and improve vasorelaxation have been shown to reduce hypertension and the associated risk factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of increasing dietary calcium from 0.9 to 3.0% on the development of OC-induced high blood pressure and associated changes in female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a combination of OC steroids (1 microg ethinyl estradiol and 10 microg norgestrel; p.o.) daily for 10 weeks. Results showed that OC administration led to significant increases in blood pressure, blood volume and cardiac weight. Conversely, OC caused significant reductions in body weight, urinary excretion of water, plasma levels of calcium, 17beta-estradiol and progesterone. Increased dietary calcium attenuated the elevation in blood pressure induced by OC and abrogated the associated changes in blood volume, cardiac weight, plasma calcium and urinary excretion of water. The endothelium-dependent relaxation responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside in noradrenaline-precontracted aortic rings were not significantly different among the groups. The results indicate that increased calcium intake abrogated the development of high blood pressure and associated increased blood volume and cardiac weight during OC treatment. The beneficial effect of increased dietary calcium during OC use may be explained by improved diuretic and preserved vasorelaxant responses. PMID:20036339

Olatunji, Lawrence A; Soladoye, Ayodele O



Alcohol Effects on Cerebral Blood Flow in Subjects with Low and High Responses to Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Background Although there are multiple indications that alcohol can alter many physiological brain functions, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), studies of the latter have generally used small or modest sized samples. Few investigations have yet evaluated how CBF changes after alcohol relate to subsets of subjects with elevated alcoholism risks, such as those with lower levels of response (LR) to alcohol. This study used arterial spin labeling (ASL) after alcohol administration to evaluate a large sample of healthy young men and women with low and high alcohol responses, and, thus, varying risks for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods Healthy young adult social drinkers with low and high LR (N=88, 50% female) matched on demography and drinking histories were imaged with whole brain resting ASL ~1 hour after ingesting ~3 drinks of ethanol and after a placebo beverage (i.e., 178 ASL sessions). The relationships of CBF changes from placebo to alcohol for subjects with low and high LR were evaluated. Results CBF increased after alcohol as compared to placebo in five frontal brain regions. Despite identical BACs, these increases with alcohol were less prominent in individuals who required more drinks to experience alcohol-related effects (i.e., had a lower LR to alcohol). The LR group differences remained significant after covarying for recent drinking quantities. Conclusions The results confirm that alcohol intake is associated with acute increases in CBF, particularly in frontal regions. Less intense CBF changes were seen in subjects with a genetically influenced characteristic, a low LR to alcohol, that relates to the future risk of heavy drinking and alcohol problems.

Tolentino, Neil J.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Hall, Shana; Tapert, Susan F.; Paulus, Martin P.; Liu, Thomas T.; Smith, Tom L.; Schuckit, Marc A.



Ionic liquid ethanol sensor.  


Ionic liquids containing lithium methylsulfonyl group were prepared from the precursors poly(propylene glycol)-block-(ethylene glycol)-block-(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) with different molecular weight. These liquids revealed excellent electrical conductivity in the temperature range -25 to 85 degrees C. Also, they exhibited a high boiling temperature and hence a low vapor pressure in ambient condition. Additionally, they showed a high fluidity with their viscosities being comparative with that of water. To determine the sensitivity of an ethanol sensor by using these ionic liquids, these liquids were subjected into a sequential electrochemical tests with nickel electrodes which performed a high sensitivity for the ethanol sensor. It was found that only the derivative with low molecular weight could detect ethanol. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the response current and the concentration of ethanol was constructed. The detection limit was found to be 0.13% (v/v) and its response time was 336 s. PMID:15142574

Lee, Yuan Gee; Chou, Tse-Chuan



High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation and Transformation with Linear DNA in the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU3-1042?  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate herein the ability of Kluyveromyces marxianus to be an efficient ethanol producer and host for expressing heterologous proteins as an alternative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth and ethanol production by strains of K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae were compared under the same conditions. K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 was found to be the most suitable strain for high-temperature growth and ethanol production at 45°C. This strain, but not S. cerevisiae, utilized cellobiose, xylose, xylitol, arabinose, glycerol, and lactose. To develop a K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 derivative strain suitable for genetic engineering, a uracil auxotroph was isolated and transformed with a linear DNA of the S. cerevisiae ScURA3 gene. Surprisingly, Ura+ transformants were easily obtained. By Southern blot hybridization, the linear ScURA3 DNA was found to have inserted randomly into the K. marxianus genome. Sequencing of one Lys? transformant confirmed the disruption of the KmLYS1 gene by the ScURA3 insertion. A PCR-amplified linear DNA lacking K. marxianus sequences but containing an Aspergillus ?-amylase gene under the control of the ScTDH3 promoter together with an ScURA3 marker was subsequently used to transform K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 in order to obtain transformants expressing Aspergillus ?-amylase. Our results demonstrate that K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 can be an alternative cost-effective bioethanol producer and a host for transformation with linear DNA by use of S. cerevisiae-based molecular genetic tools.

Nonklang, Sanom; Abdel-Banat, Babiker M. A.; Cha-aim, Kamonchai; Moonjai, Nareerat; Hoshida, Hisashi; Limtong, Savitree; Yamada, Mamoru; Akada, Rinji



Patient Guide to Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital  


... based on the most advanced clinical and scientific knowledge from The Endocrine Society. A PAtient’s Guide Hyperglycemia is the medical term for blood glucose (sugar) that is too high. High blood glucose (HBG) is a common problem for people with diabetes. Blood glucose can ...


Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Responses to Anticipated High-stress Dental Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four healthy adults participated in a study to determine the effects of anticipated high-stress dental treatment on blood pressure and heart rate. Blood pressure, heart rate, and state anxiety were assessed prior to four consecutive dental appointments. Appointments 1, 2, and 4 were of relatively low stress and appointment 3 was of relatively high stress. Blood pressure was unaffected while

Frank M. Beck; Joël M. Weaver



Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the Research on ACEs, ARBs, and DRIs  


... differently to lower blood pressure. ACEIs, ARBs, and DRI Three types of high blood pressure medicine work ... II receptor blockers/antagonists (ARBs) Direct renin inhibitor (DRI) Some people are more likely to be given ...


Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women  

PubMed Central

African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ? .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension.

Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi



Ethanol production in an integrated process of fermentation and ethanol recovery by pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ethanol fermentations inhibition of the microorganism by ethanol limits the amount of substrate in the feed that can be converted. In a process high feed concentrations are desirable to minimize the flows. Such high feed concentrations can be realized in integrated processes in which ethanol is recovered from the fermentation broth as it is formed. In this study ethanol

W. J. Groot; M. R. Kraayenbrink; R. H. Waldram; R. G. J. M. Lans; K. Ch. A. M. Luyben



Ethanol plant  

SciTech Connect

It is reported that Alcogas' 400,000 gal/year ethanol plant at Ordway, Colorado has been put onstream. The plant can produce 190 proof ethanol from corn, milo, and watermelon which will then be refined to 200 proof and sold to petroleum distributors for use in gasohol.

Not Available



Probing red blood cell morphology using high-frequency photoacoustics.  


A method that can rapidly quantify variations in the morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs) using light and sound is presented. When irradiated with a laser pulse, an RBC absorbs the optical energy and emits an ultrasonic pressure wave called a photoacoustic wave. The power spectrum of the resulting photoacoustic wave contains distinctive features that can be used to identify the RBC size and morphology. When particles 5-10 ?m in diameter (such as RBCs) are probed with high-frequency photoacoustics, unique periodically varying minima and maxima occur throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum at frequencies >100 MHz. The location and distance between spectral minima scale with the size and morphology of the RBC; these shifts can be used to quantify small changes in the morphology of RBCs. Morphological deviations from the normal biconcave RBC shape are commonly associated with disease or infection. Using a single wide-bandwidth transducer sensitive to frequencies between 100 and 500 MHz, we were able to differentiate healthy RBCs from irregularly shaped RBCs (such as echinocytes, spherocytes, and swollen RBCs) with high confidence using a sample size of just 21 RBCs. As each measurement takes only seconds, these methods could eventually be translated to an automated device for rapid characterization of RBC morphology and deployed in a clinical setting to help diagnose RBC pathology. PMID:23823224

Strohm, Eric M; Berndl, Elizabeth S L; Kolios, Michael C



High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats.  


Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia, a catheter was placed in the jugular vein and attached to an Accusampler. Blood samples (200 microl) were withdrawn with a high (24 samples) or low frequency (3 samples) during a six-hour period immediately after the catheter insertion. The corticosterone levels in the plasma were quantified with ELISA. The corticosterone levels persisted at high post-operation concentrations when blood was collected frequently, while the levels steadily declined significantly during low-frequency sampling. The corticosterone levels were higher in female than in male rats, but the curves were similar. The present study elucidates the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels may affect the normal physiology of the animals. PMID:16097432

Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix; Carlsson, Hans-Erik; Hau, Jann



PubMed Central

Background Oral ethanol self-administration procedures in rats are useful pre-clinical tools for the evaluation of potential new pharmacotherapies as well as for the investigation of the etiology of alcohol abuse disorders and addiction. Determination of the effects of a potential treatment on a full ethanol dose-response curve should be essential to predict its clinical efficacy. Unfortunately, this approach has not been fully explored due to the aversive taste reaction to moderate to high doses of ethanol, which may interfere with consumption. In the present study, we set out to determine whether a meaningful dose-response curve for oral ethanol self-administration can be obtained in rats. Methods Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer a 20% ethanol solution in an operant procedure following a history of excessive voluntary ethanol intake. After stabilization of ethanol self-administration the concentration of the solution was varied from 2.5 to 60% (v/v) and operant and drinking behaviors as well as blood ethanol concentration (BEC) were evaluated following the self-administration of a 20, 40 and 60% ethanol solution. Results Varying the concentration of ethanol from 2.5% to 60% after development of excessive ethanol consumption led to a typical inverted U-shape dose-response curve. Importantly, rats adapted their level and pattern of responding to changes in ethanol concentration to obtain a constant level of intake and BEC, suggesting that their operant behavior is mainly driven by the motivation to obtain a specific pharmacological effect of ethanol. Conclusion This procedure can be a useful and straightforward tool for the evaluation of the effects of new potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol abuse disorders.

Carnicella, Sebastien; Yowell, Quinn V.; Ron, Dorit



Quantification of red blood cell deformation at high-hematocrit blood flow in microvessels.  


The deformation of red blood cells in microvessels was investigated numerically for various vessel diameters, hematocrits, and shear rates. We simulated blood flow in circular channels with diameters ranging from 9 to 50 ?m, hematocrits from 20% to 45%, and shear rates from 20 to 150 s(-1) using a particle-based model with parallel computing. The apparent viscosity predicted by the simulation was in good agreement with previous experimental results. We quantified the deformation of red blood cells as a function of radial position. The numerical results demonstrated that because of the shape transition in response to local shear stress and the wall effect, the radial variation of red blood cell deformation in relatively large microvessels could be classified into three different regions: near-center, middle, and near-wall regions. Effects of the local shear stress and wall varied with vessel diameter, hematocrit, and shear rate. PMID:22981440

Alizadehrad, Davod; Imai, Yohsuke; Nakaaki, Keita; Ishikawa, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Takami



National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP). Working Group Report on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many reports have addressed the use of ambulatory devices in evaluating blood pressure changes with different antihypertensive drugs; correlating target organ damage and hypertension; and assisting with diagnostic problems such as 'office' ('white-coat') ...



Learned Control of Blood Pressure in Patients with High Blood Pressure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of operant conditioning techniques to modify the blood pressure of hypertensive patients is investigated. Five patients with documented histories of essential hypertension of at least 10 years duration participated in a triphasic study of training...

D. A. Kristt B. T. Engel



Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.  


Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the ? opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to ? antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance. PMID:22698870

Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C



Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine blood is an excellent flocculating agent, faster acting and as effective on a mass basis as polyacrylamide, the most widely utilized polymeric flocculant. To determine the molecular basis of flocculation activity, whole bovine blood (BB) and BB plasma were fractionated by size exclusion chro...


Exercise Interventions for Older Adults with High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies on the effects of aerobic exercise upon blood pressure in older hypertensives. Controlled evaluations indicate average decreases in systolic and diastolic resting blood pressure of 8.8 rnm Hg systolic and 7.8 mm Hg, respectively, indicating a moderate, yet clinically important reduction. However, few studies have independently focused on the older adult hypertensive, an increasingly important source

Christi A. Patten; John Martin



Development of continuous-vacuum fermentation/fractional distillation for the small-scale production of high-proof ethanol. Annual report, September 1, 1981-November 30, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Continuous vacuum fermentation and continuous vacuum fractional distillation, COVFAD, is an experimental process that has been proposed for the small scale production of high proof ethanol. A lab-scale version of the COVFAD system was constructed and evaluated with respect to ethanol production and operating stability. Methods of controlling temperature, rate of feedstock addition in continuous operation, maintenance of system pressure, and interfacing the fermenter with the distillation unit are important considerations in the design of a reliable system. Temperature controllers were used to control the temperature of the fermenters (primary and secondary) and the re-boiler pot of the fractional distillation column. The fermenter distillate receiver was interfaced with the vacuum distillation system using an intermediate reservoir and a system of solenoid valves. A microprocessor control system was constructed around a personal computer (Sinclair ZX-81 or Timex 1000) and has been interfaced with the COVFAD System so that it can be operated with modular controllers or under microprocessor control. The operation of the COVFAD System has been evaluated with two feedstocks (glucose and blackstrap molasses) for the production of high proof ethanol (98 to 99%). The rate of ethanol productivity attained by this system was significantly lower than expected. Preliminary energy requirement studies suggest that additional design refinement will be needed to develop a system that economically produces high proof ethanol.

Robinson, J.L.; Wright, J.R.; Chan, L.C.



Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Is Required for the Maintenance of Ethanol Self-Administration in a Rat Genetic Model of High Alcohol Intake  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic modulation of Group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate ethanol self-administration in a variety of animal models. Although these receptors are expressed in reward-related brain regions, the anatomical specificity of their functional involvement in ethanol self-administration remains to be characterized. This study sought to evaluate the functional role of Group I (mGluR5) and Group II (mGluR2/3) in mesocorticolimbic brain regions in ethanol self-administration. Methods Alcohol-preferring (P) rats, a genetic model of high alcohol drinking, were trained to self-administer ethanol (15% v/v) versus water in operant conditioning chambers. Effects of brain site-specific infusion of the mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP) and the mGluR2/3 agonist were then assessed on the maintenance of self-administration. Results Microinjection of the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP in the nucleus accumbens reduced ethanol self-administration at a dose that did not alter locomotor activity. By contrast, infusion of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 in the nucleus accumbens reduced self-administration and produced nonspecific reductions in locomotor activity. The mGluR5 involvement showed anatomical specificity as evidenced by lack of effect of MPEP infusion in the dorsomedial caudate or medial prefrontal cortex on ethanol self-administration. To determine reinforcer specificity, P-rats were trained to self-administer sucrose (.4% w/v) versus water, and effects of intra-accumbens MPEP were tested. The MPEP did not alter sucrose self-administration or motor behavior. Conclusions These results suggest that mGluR5 activity specifically in the nucleus accumbens is required for the maintenance of ethanol self-administration in individuals with genetic risk for high alcohol consumption.

Besheer, Joyce; Grondin, Julie J.M.; Cannady, Reginald; Sharko, Amanda C.; Faccidomo, Sara; Hodge, Clyde W.



Alcohol preference drinking in a mouse line selectively bred for high drinking in the dark  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have selectively bred mice that reach very high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after drinking from a single bottle of 20% ethanol. High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice drink nearly 6g\\/kg ethanol in 4h and reach average BECs of more than 1.0mg\\/mL. Previous studies suggest that DID and two-bottle preference for 10% ethanol with continuous access are influenced by

John C. Crabbe; Stephanie E. Spence; Lauren L. Brown; Pamela Metten



Changes in the Rheologic Properties of Blood after a High Altitude Expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in blood rheologic properties induced by exposure to high altitude plus heavy and prolonged physical strain were investigated in 14 climbers of an Italian expedition to Himalaya (maximum altitude reached m 7350). In blood samples collected immediately after return, alterations of some haemorheologic parameters were observed in comparison with baseline values, and namely an increase in relative blood

Gualtiero Palareti; Sergio Coccheri; Mario Poggi; Maria Gabriella Tricarico; Mario Magelli; Francesco Cavazzuti



Identification of RCN1 and RSA3 as ethanol-tolerant genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a high copy barcoded library.  


Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) encounters a multitude of stresses during industrial processes such as wine fermentation including ethanol toxicity. High levels of ethanol reduce the viability of yeast and may prevent completion of fermentation. The identification of ethanol-tolerant genes is important for creating stress-resistant industrial yeast, and S. cerevisiae genomic resources have been utilized for this purpose. We have employed a molecular barcoded yeast open reading frame (MoBY-ORF) high copy plasmid library to identify ethanol-tolerant genes in both the S. cerevisiae S288C laboratory and M2 wine strains. We find that increased dosage of either RCN1 or RSA3 improves tolerance of S288C and M2 to toxic levels of ethanol. RCN1 is a regulator of calcineurin, whereas RSA3 has a role in ribosome maturation. Additional fitness advantages conferred upon overproduction of RCN1 and RSA3 include increased resistance to cell wall degradation, heat, osmotic and oxidative stress. We find that the M2 wine yeast strain is generally more tolerant of stress than S288C with the exception of translation inhibition, which affects M2 growth more severely than S288C. We conclude that regulation of ribosome biogenesis and ultimately translation is a critical factor for S. cerevisiae survival during industrial-related environmental stress. PMID:22093065

Anderson, Michael J; Barker, Sarah L; Boone, Charlie; Measday, Vivien



Acute effects of ethanol (0.5 mg/kg) and its interaction with diazepam (5 mg) and meclophenoxate (100 mg) on the blood pressure, the body temperature and the heart rate in man.  


1. In the course of an experiment in which acute effects of perorally applied ethanol alone (0.5 g/kg of body weight) or in combination with diazepam (5 mg) and meclophenoxate (100 mg) on verbal learning were studied, the values of the blood pressure, the body temperature and the heart rate of experimental subject were simultaneously registered with the help of polyphysiograph Physiomat. 2. The method of artificial conditioned speech connections was adopted. The experimental subjects were 16 healthy and unfatigued volunteers - university students (8 females, 8 males, age 21 years). The investigation-sets consisted of two optic, two complex tactile, and two acoustic associations. Three trials were always carried out: before, and one and two hours after the administration of the studied drugs. 3. The values of the blood pressure, the body temperature and the heart rate were not significantly influenced by the applied substances. Only two hours after application of ethanol in combination with diazepam, a marked decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was registered in comparison with the values observed after application of placebo. PMID:2533803

Hrbek, J; Macáková, J; Komenda, S; Siroká, A; Rypka, M



Recycling cellulases for cellulosic ethanol production at industrial relevant conditions: Potential and temperature dependency at high solid processes.  


Different versions of two commercial cellulases were tested for their recyclability of enzymatic activity at high dry matter processes (12% or 25% DM). Recyclability was assessed by measuring remaining enzyme activity in fermentation broth and the ability of enzymes to hydrolyse fresh, pretreated wheat straw. Industrial conditions were used to study the impact of hydrolysis temperature (40 or 50°C) and residence time on recyclability. Enzyme recycling at 12% DM indicated that hydrolysis at 50°C, though ideal for ethanol yield, should be kept short or carried out at lower temperature to preserve enzymatic activity. Best results for enzyme recycling at 25% DM was 59% and 41% of original enzyme load for a Celluclast:Novozyme188 mixture and a modern cellulase preparation, respectively. However, issues with stability of enzymes and their strong adsorption to residual solids still pose a challenge for applicable methods in enzyme recycling. PMID:24045205

Lindedam, Jane; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Chylenski, Piotr; Jørgensen, Henning; Felby, Claus



Application of hemicelluloses precipitated via ethanol treatment of pre-hydrolysis liquor in high-yield pulp.  


Hemicelluloses in industrially produced pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) were precipitated with ethanol. These PHL-derived hemicelluloses (PHL-EH) and a commercial, pure birch wood xylan sample (powder form) (BWX) were bleached using chlorine dioxide (D(0) and D(1)) and hydrogen peroxide (Ep) in the D(0)EpD(1) sequence, and the chemical compositions, molecular weights and charge densities of the treated samples were assessed. When applied to high-yield pulp (HYP) at 50 mg/g, 26 and 20 mg/g of the bleached PHL-EH and BWX, respectively, were adsorbed without significantly affecting paper properties. These results suggest that semi-bleached hemicelluloses could be used to increase the basis weight of paper products. Furthermore, an integrated process was proposed that converts the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process into a biorefinery unit with dissolving pulp, bleached hemicelluloses and lignin as main products. PMID:21865032

Liu, Zehua; Fatehi, Pedram; Sadeghi, Soroosh; Ni, Yonghao



Recommendations on screening for high blood pressure in Canadian adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To provide recommendations on screening for hypertension in adults aged 18 years and older without previously diagnosed hypertension. Quality of evidence Evidence was found through a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (EBM Reviews), from January 1985 to September 2011. Study types were limited to randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and observational studies with control groups. Main message Three strong recommendations were made based on moderate-quality evidence. It is recommended that blood pressure measurement occur at all appropriate primary care visits, according to the current techniques described in the Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for office and ambulatory blood pressure measurement. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program criteria for assessment and diagnosis of hypertension should be applied for people found to have elevated blood pressure. Conclusion After review of the most recent evidence, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care continues to recommend blood pressure measurement during regular physician visits.

Lindsay, Patrice; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Joffres, Michel; Birtwhistle, Richard; McKay, Donald; Cloutier, Lyne



When Your Blood Glucose Is Too High or Too Low  


... doctor whether your pills can cause low blood glucose. Printer-friendly version of the " Action Steps If You Don't Use Insulin " [ Top ] Previous | Table of Contents | Next >> Page last updated August 8, 2013 Contact ...


Over-the-Counter Medications and High Blood Pressure  


... Types of Blood Pressure Medications 10 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red Day® is a registered trademark. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.


Intervention Study in High School Students with Elevated Blood Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blood pressure-lowering effect of increased prostaglandin synthesis via polyunsaturated fatty acids has been demonstrated in animal experiments. To our knowledge, for the first time an attempt was made to lower elevated blood pressures in adolescents (age 15–18 years) through a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. This community-based dietary trial involved 30 students in the diet group and 20

B. Stern; S. Heyden; D. Miller; G. Latham; A. Klimas; K. Pilkington



Rat muscle blood flows during high-speed locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously studied blood flow distribution within and among rat muscles as a function of speed from walking (15 m\\/min) through galloping (75 m\\/min) on a motor-driven treadmill. The results showed that muscle blood flows continued to increase as a function of speed through 75 m\\/min. The purpose of the present study was to have rats run up to maximal

R. B. Armstrong; M. H. Laughlin; K. Rouk; R. Stroup; J. White



Nonpharmacological approaches to the control of high blood pressure. Final report of the Subcommittee on Nonpharmacological Therapy of the 1984 Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.  


This report reviews a variety of nonpharmacological approaches used to control arterial blood pressure. Of all the modalities considered, only three had sufficient scientific support to warrant recommendation for inclusion in hypertension treatment programs. Each of these three modalities--weight control, alcohol restriction, and sodium restriction--was found to be capable not only of independently controlling blood pressure (particularly in patients with mild hypertension) but also of reducing the number and dosage of prescribed pharmacological agents, should their prescription be indicated. Weight reduction was found to reduce the risk from elevated arterial pressure as well as overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, because the rate of recidivism was exceedingly high in these studies, close and continuous patient follow-up is considered necessary. Excessive alcohol intake is associated in many studies with proportionally higher arterial pressures and an increased prevalence of hypertension. Therefore, the recommendation of moderation in alcohol consumption to less than 2 oz of ethanol daily for patients with hypertension is supported. Restriction of dietary sodium to less than 2 g/day was the only other nonpharmacological approach with sufficient support to be recommended as a treatment for hypertension. Although long-term studies are sorely lacking, sodium restriction has been shown to be manageable and safe and probably will benefit those hypertensive patients who are sodium-sensitive. PMID:3009327



Ranitidine increases the bioavailability of postprandial ethanol by the reduction of first pass metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood ethanol concentrations after separate oral dosing and intravenous infusion of ethanol (0.15 g\\/kg) were measured in 16 control subjects and 13 subjects treated with ranitidine. All subjects underwent routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Peak blood ethanol concentrations, and area under the blood ethanol\\/time curve, were significantly higher in the ranitidine group after oral, but not intravenous, ethanol administration. The first

A S Brown; J R Fiaterone; C P Day; M K Bennett; P J Kelly; O F James



Ethanol-induced fetal dysmorphogenesis in the mouse is diminished by high antioxidative capacity of the mother.  


Intrauterine exposure to ethanol causes embryonic and fetal maldevelopment. Oxidative stress in mother and offspring has been suggested to be part of the teratogenic mechanism of ethanol. Here we aimed to assess the importance of maternal and fetal antioxidative capability for the risk of dysmorphogenesis in the offspring. We used male and female mice with different levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity-wild-type (WT) mice, mice with a targeted SOD mutation (KO, decreased CuZnSOD mRNA), and mice transgenic for SOD (TG, increased CuZnSOD mRNA). Female WT, KO (heterozygous), and TG (heterozygous) mice were given drinking water containing 20% ethanol before and throughout gestation. Non-ethanol-exposed WT, KO, and TG mice served as controls. The female mice were mated with males with identical genotype, and the pregnancy was interrupted on gestational day 18 when the offspring was evaluated and genotyped. Fetal hepatic isoprostane (8-epi-PGF(2alpha)) levels were measured to assess the degree of fetal oxidative stress. Exposure to 20% ethanol decreased fetal weight by 9-13% in the three groups. Ethanol exposure roughly doubled the rates of maldeveloped WT and KO offspring but did not affect TG offspring. The fetal hepatic levels of 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) were increased in the ethanol-exposed WT and KO mice but not in ethanol-exposed TG mice. Ethanol exposure preferentially damaged WT fetuses in pregnant KO mice, whereas no such effect was found in the litters of ethanol-consuming TG mice. Administration of ethanol to pregnant mice disturbs embryogenesis by oxidative stress, and the adverse effects are more pronounced in offspring of mice with low antioxidative capacity. PMID:16731578

Wentzel, Parri; Eriksson, Ulf J



Highly sensitive ethanol chemical sensor based on Ni-doped SnO? nanostructure materials.  


Due to potential applications of semiconductor transition doped nanostructure materials and the important advantages of synthesis in cost-effective and environmental concerns, a significant effort has been consummated for improvement of Ni-doped SnO(2) nanomaterials using hydrothermal technique at room conditions. The structural and optical properties of the low-dimensional (average diameter, 52.4 nm) Ni-doped SnO(2) nanostructures were demonstrated using various conventional techniques such as UV/visible spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The calcined doped material is an attractive semiconductor nanoparticle for accomplishment in chemical sensing by simple I-V technique, where toxic chemical (ethanol) is used as a target chemical. Thin-film of Ni-doped SnO(2) nanostructure materials with conducting coating agents on silver electrodes (AgE, surface area, 0.0216 cm(2)) revealed higher sensitivity and repeatability. The calibration plot is linear (R, 0.8440) over the large dynamic range (1.0 nM-1.0 mM), where the sensitivity is approximately 2.3148 ?A cm(-2) mM(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6 nM, based on signal/noise ratio in short response time. Consequently on the basis of the sensitive communication among structures, morphologies, and properties, it is exemplified that the morphologies and the optical characteristics can be extended to a large scale in doping nanomaterials and proficient chemical sensors applications. PMID:21831627

Rahman, Mohammed M; Jamal, Aslam; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Faisal, M



Relationships between blood pressure, anthropometric characteristics and blood lipids in high- and low-altitude populations from Central Asia.  


We studied the relationships between blood pressure, anthropometric characteristics and blood lipids in 72 low altitude (LA) Uighurs (600 m), 91 LA-Kirghizs (900 m), 117 medium altitude (MA) Kazakhs (2100 m) and 94 high altitude (HA) Kirghizs (3200 m). All subjects were male and had a similar age (p = ns, ANOVA; range for all 374 subjects: 18-66 yr). Body weight (Wt), body mass index (BM1) and the sum of four skinfolds (4SF) were significantly lower in HA-Kirghizs than the remaining groups (p < 0.0005, p < 0.0005 and p < 0.05 respectively, ANOVA). However, no difference was found in body fat distribution as detected by waist:hip circumference (WHR) and triceps:subscapular skinfold ratios (TSR; p = ns, ANOVA). Stage 1 hypertension was detected in 18% of LA-Uighurs, 2% of LA-Kirghizs, 4% of MA-Kazakhs and 1% of HA-Kirghizs; stage 2 hypertension was detected in 2% of LA-Uighurs and none of the remaining groups; no subject had stage 3 hypertension (The Joint National Committee on Prevention. Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 1997). Blood cholesterol (CH) and triglycerides (TG) did not differ between groups (p = ns, ANOVA). The relationships between systolic (SBP) or diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and age, Wt, BMI, 4SF, WHR, TSR, CH and TG were independent from altitude (p = ns, ANCOVA). In the pooled sample (n = 374), age explained 1 and 3% of SBP (p < 0.05) and DBP (p < 0.005) variance respectively, Wt was the best predictor of SBP and DBP explaining 11 and 10% of their variance respectively (p < 0.0001) and CH explained 5% of DBP variance (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, hypertension is more frequent in LA- than MA- and HA-subjects from Central Asia. However, anthropometric characteristics and blood lipids do similarly contribute to explain blood pressure in these subjects. PMID:10673137

Fiori, G; Facchini, F; Pettener, D; Rimondi, A; Battistini, N; Bedogni, G


Endogenous ethanol 'auto-brewery syndrome' as a drunk-driving defence challenge.  


The concentration of ethanol in blood, breath or urine constitutes important evidence for prosecuting drunk drivers. For various reasons, the reliability of the results of forensic alcohol analysis are often challenged by the defence. One such argument for acquittal concerns the notion that alcohol could be produced naturally in the body, hence the term 'auto-brewery' syndrome. Although yeasts such as Candida albicans readily produce ethanol in-vitro, whether this happens to any measurable extent in healthy ambulatory subjects is an open question. Over the years, many determinations of endogenous ethanol have been made, and in a few rare instances (Japanese subjects with very serious yeast infections) an abnormally high ethanol concentration (> 80 mg/dl) has been reported. In these atypical individuals, endogenous ethanol appeared to have been produced after they had eaten carbohydrate-rich foods. A particular genetic polymorphism resulting in reduced activity of enzymes involved in hepatic metabolism of ethanol and a negligible first-pass metabolism might explain ethnic differences in rates of endogenous ethanol production and clearance. Other reports of finding abnormally high concentrations of ethanol in body fluids from ostensibly healthy subjects suffer from deficiencies in study design and lack suitable control experiments or used non-specific analytical methods. With reliable gas chromatographic methods of analysis, the concentrations of endogenous ethanol in peripheral venous blood of healthy individuals, as well as those suffering from various metabolic disorders (diabetes, hepatitis, cirrhosis) ranged from 0-0.08 mg/dl. These concentrations are far too low to have any forensic or medical significance. The notion that a motorist's state of intoxication was caused by endogenously produced ethanol lacks merit. PMID:10976182

Logan, B K; Jones, A W



High temperature enzymatic prehydrolysis prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam pretreated corn stover for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of heightened concern for the greenhouse effect, depleting oil reserves and skyrocketing oil prices, renewable fuels, such as bioethanol, are becoming increasingly important.Cellulosic biomass like wood, agricultural residue and herbaceous material is a huge, cheap natural resource that can be used for ethanol production. Decreasing production costs through technological development is, however, still needed to make ethanol

Karin Öhgren; Jari Vehmaanperä; Matti Siika-Aho; Mats Galbe; Liisa Viikari; Guido Zacchi



Impact of Corn Based Ethanol Production on the U.S. High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) and Sugar Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of ethanol production on the sweetener market in the U.S. It was found that ethanol production has increased corn demand and prices, and therefore, may have a negative impact on HFCS production and increase the demand for sugar.

Hassan Marzoughi; P. Lynn Kennedy; Brian M. Hilbun



Quantitative evaluation of yeast's requirement for glycerol formation in very high ethanol performance fed-batch process  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glycerol is the major by-product accounting for up to 5% of the carbon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation. Decreasing glycerol formation may redirect part of the carbon toward ethanol production. However, abolishment of glycerol formation strongly affects yeast's robustness towards different types of stress occurring in an industrial process. In order to assess whether glycerol production can be reduced

Julien Pagliardini; Georg Hubmann; Carine Bideaux; Sandrine Alfenore; Elke Nevoigt; Stéphane E Guillouet



Automated High Throughput GMAX-L Strains of Saccharomyces Cereviciae for Profitable Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Industrial Hydrosylates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current ethanol dry grind and wet mill processes for fuel ethanol production from starch, yield substantial amounts of corn oil as one of the byproducts. This crude corn oil is a suitable feedstock for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters for use as biodiesel, which could be produced on-site. ...


A simple and efficient method for DNA purification from samples of highly clotted blood.  


Rapid purification of DNA from samples of highly clotted blood is a challenging problem due to the difficulty in recovering and dispersing blood clots. We developed a new method for discarding the serum-separator gel and rapidly dispersing the blood clots. A special disposable tip was inserted into the serum-separator gel so that the serum-separator gel could be discarded. The blood clot obtained was dispersed into small pieces through a copper mesh (pore size, 250 ?m) in a special dispersing instrument by centrifugation. After lysis of red blood cells and white blood cells, genomic DNA was concentrated and desalted by isopropanol precipitation. The mean yield of DNA purified from a 0.3-ml blood clot was 22.70 ?g in 173 samples of clotted blood cryopreserved for 1 month, and 19.02 ?g in 1,372 samples of clotted blood cryopreserved for >6 months. DNA samples were successfully performed through polymerase chain reaction, real time polymerase chain reaction, and melt curve analysis. Their quality was comparable with that purified directly from EDTA-anticoagulated blood. The new method overcomes the difficulties in recovering and dispersing blood clots, allowing efficient purification of DNA from samples of highly clotted blood. PMID:20549389

Xu, Ruyi; Ye, Ping; Luo, Leiming; Wu, Hongmei; Dong, Jin; Deng, Xinxin



Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation of High Dry Matter Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw at Low Enzyme Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O2 as oxidizing agent was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high viscosity of the material, higher inhibition of the enzymes, and fermenting microorganism. The wet-explosion pretreatment method enabled relatively high yields from both enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to be obtained when performed on unwashed slurry with 14% DM and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%.

Georgieva, Tania I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte K.


Ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis  

SciTech Connect

Research progress is described on the development of laboratory-scale columnar bioreactors utilizing the flocculent bacterium, X. mobilis, for ethanol production. X. mobilis forms stable, ball-like aggregates which maintain structural integrity even when subjected to the high shear forces generated in the active 3-phase fluidized-bed reactors. Cell retention and ethanol production were studied using 3 bioreactor configurations. Ethanol productivity appeared to be primarily affected by glucose feed concentration. In addition, it was found that in the absence of nutrients, the level of ethanol productivity can be maintained for at least 1 h before a severe drop occurred. Ethanol inhibition is considered to be a limiting factor in ethanol production. (DMC)

Strandberg, G.W.; Scott, C.D.; Donaldson, T.L.; Worden, R.M.



Lack of blood pressure effect with calcium and magnesium supplementation in adults with high-normal blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) was a randomized, multicenter investigation that included double-blind, placebo-controlled testing of calcium and magnesium supplementation among 698 healthy adults (10.5% blacks and 31% women) aged 30 to 54 years with high-normal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (80 to 89 mm Hg). Very high compliance (94 to 96% by pill counts) with daily

Monica E. Yamamoto; William B. Applegate; Michael J. Klag; Nemat O. Borhani; Jerome D. Cohen; Kent A. Kirchner; Edward Lakatos; Frank M. Sacks; James O. Taylor; Charles H. Hennekens



Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke  


... factor for stroke because it’s the No. 1 cause of stroke. HBP adds to your heart’s workload and damages ... HBP or aging blood vessels are the main causes of this type of stroke. Who is at higher risk? People with a ...


[Impact of fermentation system initial status on oscillations in very high gravity ethanol continuous fermentation process and analysis of fermentation efficiency improvement].  


Prior research reported the oscillatory behavior characterized by long period and high amplitude during high gravity continuous ethanol fermentations at the dilution rate of 0.027 h(-1). In this paper, high gravity continuous ethanol fermentations using Saccharomyces cerevisia at different dilution rates were carried out. Similar oscillations were observed when the dilution rate was switched to 0.04 h(-1). Both oscillatory and steady processes can be achieved at dilution rates of 0.027 or 0.04 h(-1), which depends on the initial status of the fermentation system. However, compared to steady process at the same dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1), the average residual sugar concentration was lowered by 14.8% for the oscillatory process, while the average ethanol concentration and productivity were increased by 12.6% and 12.3%, respectively. Further investigation revealed that besides the lag time, oscillatory processes were different from steady ones in kinetics because a higher specific growth rate can be achieved at the same residual sugar and ethanol concentrations (increased by 53.8% in average). PMID:20684303

Shen, Yu; Ge, Xumeng; Bai, Fengwu



More Follow-Up Needed for Kids with High Blood Pressure Reading  


... JavaScript. More Follow-Up Needed for Kids With High Blood Pressure Reading Only 1 of 5 children was rechecked ... August 2, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health High Blood Pressure FRIDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Children who have ...


Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. METHODS: Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national

Fikru Tesfaye; Peter Byass; Stig Wall



Relation between ethanol induced changes in plasma catecholines during stress and voluntary ethanol preference  

SciTech Connect

N/NIH rats (N = 10) were implanted with venous catheters to permit stressless chronic, repeated blood withdrawal. Following surgical recovery, the rats were restrained to a lab counter top for 30 min after injection with saline or low dose (0.5 g/kg) ethanol. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn to determine AUC production of NE and E to assess the effect that low dose ethanol has on stress responsiveness. Between saline injection restraint and ethanol injection restraint conditions no differences in NE or E AUC were apparent. A 2- bottle preference test for ethanol was then performed over 21 days. Multiple regression analyses of NE saline restraint and ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .02 level with R/sup 2/ = .681. Multiple regressions of E saline restraint and E ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .01 level with R/sup 2/ = .746. These data suggest that ethanol induced increases in plasma NE and E during stress can predict later voluntary ethanol consumption between the ranges of .13 and 1.05 g ethanol/kg/day. This data seems to be more in line with an arousal or withdrawal relationship between ethanol consumption and stress than by a simple tension reduction formulation based on plasma NE or E.

Pashko, S.



Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. ?AIMS—To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. ?METHODS—Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily.?RESULTS—A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. ?CONCLUSIONS—Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora. ?? Keywords: ciprofloxacin; ethanol; colonic bacteria; metabolism; alcohol dehydrogenase; acetaldehyde

Tillonen, J; Homann, N; Rautio, M; Jousimies-Somer, H; Salaspuro, M



Interpreting results of ethanol analysis in postmortem specimens: a review of the literature.  


We searched the scientific literature for articles dealing with postmortem aspects of ethanol and problems associated with making a correct interpretation of the results. A person's blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) and state of inebriation at the time of death is not always easy to establish owing to various postmortem artifacts. The possibility of alcohol being produced in the body after death, e.g. via microbial contamination and fermentation is a recurring issue in routine casework. If ethanol remains unabsorbed in the stomach at the time of death, this raises the possibility of continued local diffusion into surrounding tissues and central blood after death. Skull trauma often renders a person unconscious for several hours before death, during which time the BAC continues to decrease owing to metabolism in the liver. Under these circumstances blood from an intracerebral or subdural clot is a useful specimen for determination of ethanol. Bodies recovered from water are particular problematic to deal with owing to possible dilution of body fluids, decomposition, and enhanced risk of microbial synthesis of ethanol. The relationship between blood and urine-ethanol concentrations has been extensively investigated in autopsy specimens and the urine/blood concentration ratio might give a clue about the stage of alcohol absorption and distribution at the time of death. Owing to extensive abdominal trauma in aviation disasters (e.g. rupture of the viscera), interpretation of BAC in autopsy specimens from the pilot and crew is highly contentious and great care is needed to reach valid conclusions. Vitreous humor is strongly recommended as a body fluid for determination of ethanol in postmortem toxicology to help establish whether the deceased had consumed ethanol before death. Less common autopsy specimens submitted for analysis include bile, bone marrow, brain, testicle, muscle tissue, liver, synovial and cerebrospinal fluids. Some investigators recommend measuring the water content of autopsy blood and if necessary correcting the concentration of ethanol to a mean value of 80% w/w, which corresponds to fresh whole blood. Alcoholics often die at home with zero or low BAC and nothing more remarkable at autopsy than a fatty liver. Increasing evidence suggests that such deaths might be caused by a pronounced ketoacidosis. Recent research has focused on developing various biochemical tests or markers of postmortem synthesis of ethanol. These include the urinary metabolites of serotonin and non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol, such as ethyl glucuronide, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. This literature review will hopefully be a good starting point for those who are contemplating a fresh investigation into some aspect of postmortem alcohol analysis and toxicology. PMID:16782292

Kugelberg, Fredrik C; Jones, Alan Wayne



Ethanol-metabolizing pathways in deermice. Estimation of flux calculated from isotope effects  

SciTech Connect

The apparent deuterium isotope effects on Vmax/Km (D(V/K) of ethanol oxidation in two deermouse strains (one having and one lacking hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were used to calculate flux through the ADH, microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), and catalase pathways. In vitro, D(V/K) values were 3.22 for ADH, 1.13 for MEOS, and 1.83 for catalase under physiological conditions of pH, temperature, and ionic strength. In vivo, in deermice lacking ADH (ADH-), D(V/K) was 1.20 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.) at 7.0 +/- 0.5 mM blood ethanol and 1.08 +/- 0.10 at 57.8 +/- 10.2 mM blood ethanol, consistent with ethanol oxidation principally by MEOS. Pretreatment of ADH- animals with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole did not significantly change D(V/K). ADH+ deermice exhibited D(V/K) values of 1.87 +/- 0.06 (untreated), 1.71 +/- 0.13 (pretreated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), and 1.24 +/- 0.13 (after the ADH inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole) at 5-7 mM blood ethanol levels. At elevated blood ethanol concentrations (58.1 +/- 2.4 mM), a D(V/K) of 1.37 +/- 0.21 was measured in the ADH+ strain. For measured D(V/K) values to accurately reflect pathway contributions, initial reaction conditions are essential. These were shown to exist by the following criteria: negligible fractional conversion of substrate to product and no measurable back reaction in deermice having a reversible enzyme (ADH). Thus, calculations from D(V/K) indicate that, even when ADH is present, non-ADH pathways (mostly MEOS) participate significantly in ethanol metabolism at all concentrations tested and play a major role at high levels.

Alderman, J.; Takagi, T.; Lieber, C.S.



Cell recycle batch fermentation of high-solid lignocellulose using a recombinant cellulase-displaying yeast strain for high yield ethanol production in consolidated bioprocessing.  


The aim of this study is to develop a scheme of cell recycle batch fermentation (CRBF) of high-solid lignocellulosic materials. Two-phase separation consisting of rough removal of lignocellulosic residues by low-speed centrifugation and solid-liquid separation enabled effective collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with decreased lignin and ash. Five consecutive batch fermentation of 200 g/L rice straw hydrothermally pretreated led to an average ethanol titer of 34.5 g/L. Moreover, the display of cellulases on the recombinant yeast cell surface increased ethanol titer to 42.2 g/L. After, five-cycle fermentation, only 3.3 g/L sugar was retained in the fermentation medium, because cellulase displayed on the cell surface hydrolyzed cellulose that was not hydrolyzed by commercial cellulases or free secreted cellulases. Fermentation ability of the recombinant strain was successfully kept during a five-cycle repeated batch fermentation with 86.3% of theoretical yield based on starting biomass. PMID:22954707

Matano, Yuki; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko



High Blood Cholesterol Q&A Dr. Michael Lauer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Q&A with Dr. Michael Lauer Past Issues / ... heavier and older, what does recent research on cholesterol and heart health tell us that Americans need ...


Benefits and potential harm of lowering high blood pressure.  


To investigate whether the lower the blood pressure (BP) the better the prognosis for the patient with moderate-to-severe hypertension, an assessment was made of 902 patients who received the beta 1-selective beta-blocker atenolol (median dose 100 mg a day), either alone or with other antihypertensive agents, for up to 10 years (mean 6.1). 91 died, 40 from myocardial infarction, 21 from stroke, and 30 from other causes. Initial BP was a poor predictor of mortality from myocardial infarction, whereas treated systolic blood pressure (SBP) was a strong predictor. There was a J-shaped relation, confined to those with evidence of ischaemic heart disease, between frequency of death from myocardial infarction and treated DBP (phase V); the frequency was lowest at treated DBP of 85-90 mm Hg and rose with treated DBP on either side of this range. PMID:2881129

Cruickshank, J M; Thorp, J M; Zacharias, F J



High prevalence of blood parasites in hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-seven hawfinches Coccothraustes coccothraustes were caught in May–June 1982–2001 on the Curonian Spit in the Baltic Sea and investigated by microscopical examination of stained blood films. Haemoproteus fringillae, H. tartakovskyi, Leucocytozoon dubreuili, L. fringillinarum, L. majoris, Plasmodium relictum, P. vaughani, Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, and microfilariae were identified. The overall prevalence of infection was 100%. Prevalences of Haemoproteus spp. (89.5%),

G. Valki?nas; T. A. Iezhova; A. P. Shapoval



High capacity for leukotriene biosynthesis in peripheral blood during pregnancy.  


Pregnancy is accompanied by major immunological changes to maintain both tolerance for the fetus and immune competence. Leukotrienes are powerful 5-lipoxygenase-derived inflammatory mediators and the characteristics of leukotriene-related diseases (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinitis) change during pregnancy. Here, we show that pregnancy affects leukotriene synthesis in human blood and leukocytes. 5-Lipoxygenase product formation in stimulated blood of pregnant women was significantly higher than in non-pregnant females. Although a pregnancy-related increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts may explain these observations, granulocytes of pregnant donors have lower leukotriene-synthetic capacities. On the other hand, granulocytes from non-pregnant woman produced more leukotrienes when resuspended in plasma of pregnant women than of non-pregnant females. Together, we show that leukotriene biosynthesis in maternal blood is increased by the interrelations of higher leukocyte numbers, lower cellular capacity for leukotriene synthesis and stimulatory effects of plasma. This bias may affect leukotriene-related diseases during pregnancy and their pharmacological treatment. PMID:23870194

Schaible, A M; Koeberle, A; Northoff, H; Lawrenz, B; Weinigel, C; Barz, D; Werz, O; Pergola, C



Impact of an acid fungal protease in high gravity fermentation for ethanol production using Indian sorghum as a feedstock.  


This study evaluated the conventional jet cooking liquefaction process followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 30% and 35% dry solids (DS) concentration of Indian sorghum feedstock for ethanol production, with addition of acid fungal protease or urea. To evaluate the efficacy of thermostable ?-amylase in liquefaction at 30% and 35% DS concentration of Indian sorghum, liquefact solubility, higher dextrins, and fermentable sugars were analyzed at the end of the process. The liquefact was further subjected to SSF using yeast. In comparison with urea, addition of an acid fungal protease during SSF process was observed to accelerate yeast growth (?), substrate consumption (Q(s)), ultimately ethanol yield based on substrate (Y(p/s)) and ethanol productivity based on fermentation time (Q(p)). The fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery were determined for both concentrations of Indian sorghum and found to be increased with use of acid fungal protease in SSF process. PMID:23292745

Gohel, V; Duan, G; Maisuria, V B



Short-term High-Dose Effect of Lovastatin on Thrombolysis by rt-PA in a Human Whole-Blood in vitro Clot Model  

PubMed Central

High-dose hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme. A reductase inhibitor (statin) administration reduces neuronal injury and improves outcomes in experimental models of acute ischemic stroke, and has been shown to be safe in a phase 1 dose-escalation study using lovastatin at doses higher than currently approved for daily use. Statins also affect the hemostatic system by upregulating t-PA expression and decreasing plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) expression, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation in animal models. Since a thrombolytic agent, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), is currently the only FDA-approved therapy for use in ischemic stroke patients, it is important to ascertain whether high statin doses impact the efficacy of rt-PA. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high dose of lovastatin and its active form, lovastatin hydroxy acid, on rt-PA thrombolysis in an in vitro model. Percentage clot lysis was measured in the presence and absence of rt-PA in three different treatment groups: lovastatin, lovastatin hydroxy acid, and ethanol. The effect of ethanol on clot lysis was studied since ethanol was used to disperse the highly hydrophobic lovastatin. The decrease in clot width over time was measured using microscopic imaging of an in vitro human whole blood clot model; an approximately 400 ?m diameter clot was formed on suture silk, suspended in human fresh frozen plasma (hFFP) and exposed to treatment. In the absence of rt-PA. clot lysis did not show statistically significant differences in the percentage clot lysis between different treatment groups (p=0.103). In the presence of rt-PA, clot lysis was greater than in the absence of rt-PA for all groups, but there were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups (p=0.385). In this in vitro study, high doses of lovastatin neither impaired nor enhanced the lytic efficacy of rt-PA.

Kandadai, Madhuvanthi A.; Meunier, Jason; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Shaw, George J.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.



Determination of 8Methoxypsoralen, A Photoactive Compound, in Blood by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, sensitive, and specific high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed for the determination of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) from blood. The assay involves extraction of 8-methoxypsoralen into n-hexane: 2-propanol (95:5) from blood buffered to pH 9. The overall recovery is 75 ± 5.0% (S.D.), and the sensitivity limit of detection is 10–15 ng\\/ml of blood, using a 1 ml

Carl V. Puglisi; J. Arthur F. de Silva; John C. Meyer



Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol over high surface area CeO 2: The role of CeO 2 as an internal pre-reforming catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, it was found that high surface area ceria (CeO2 (HSA)), synthesized by a surfactant-assisted approach, have useful ethanol steam reforming activity under solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) temperatures. The catalyst provides good reforming reactivity and high resistance toward carbon deposition compared to Ni\\/Al2O3 and conventional low surface area ceria (CeO2 (LSA)). Although the hydrogen selectivity at

N. Laosiripojana; S. Assabumrungrat



Effect of cetane number improver on heat release rate and emissions of high speed diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the influence of cetane number improver on heat release rate and emissions of a high-speed diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend fuel. Different percentages of cetane number enhancer (0, 0.2, 0.4%) were added to blends, and the engine tests were performed on a 4-cylinder high-speed DI diesel engine. The results show that: the brake specific fuel consumption

Lü Xing-cai; Yang Jian-guang; Zhang Wu-gao; Huang Zhen



Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.



Production of high concentrations of ethanol from inulin by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Pure nonhydrolyzed inulin was directly converted to ethanol in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. An inulinase-hyperproducing mutant, Aspergillus niger 817, was grown in a submerged culture at 30 degrees C for 5 days. The inulin-digestive liquid culture (150 ml) was supplemented with 45 g of inulin, 0.45 g of (NH4)2SO4, and 0.15 g of KH2PO4. The medium (pH 5.0) was inoculated with an ethanol-tolerant strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1200, and fermentation was conducted at 30 degrees C. An additional 20 g of inulin was added to the culture after 15 h of fermentation. S. cerevisiae 1200 utilized 99% of the 65 g of inulin during the fermentation, and produced 20.4 and 21.0% (vol/vol) ethanol from chicory and dahlia inulins, respectively, within 3 days of fermentation. The maximum volumetric productivities of ethanol were 6.2 and 6.0 g/liter/h for chicory and dahlia inulins, respectively. The conversion efficiency of inulin to ethanol was 83 to 84% of the theoretical ethanol yield.

Ohta, K; Hamada, S; Nakamura, T



Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly.  


The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (? 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly. PMID:23915404

Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues



Thermophilic microbes in ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

General and specific properties of thermophilic ethanol-producing bacteria are reviewed and their relative merits in ethanol production assessed. The studies examine the use of bacteria in mono- and co-culture fermentations for ethanol production from cellulosics; in particular, the cellulase system of Clostridium thermocellum is considered. Thermotolerant yeasts and physiological factors influencing their growth and fermentation at high temperatures are discussed. Emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary approaches to develop economical processes for ethanol production at high temperatures. Relevant topics considered include: adaptation, nutrition, heat shock, ethanol tolerance, metabolic control, genetic improvement, and fermentation/process design. General aspects of thermophily for both bacteria and yeasts (definitions, ecological aspects, merits and limitations, other industrial uses, thermostability of cellular components, and consequences of thermophilic fermentation) are discussed and the volume references over 1100 relevant articles.

Slapack, G.E.; Russell, I.; Stewart, G.G.



Fuel Ethanol Subsidies and Farm Price Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol subsidies are well established in U.S. policy and have high priority in corn growers' political agenda. This paper develops a vertical market model of ethanol, byproducts, and corn which is used to analyze whether corn growers would prefer the government's subsidy dollar to be spent directly on corn subsidies (though deficiency payments) rather than on a subsidy on ethanol

Bruce Gardner



The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.  


The antiobesity effects of a P. aviculare ethanol extract (PAE) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice were investigated. The mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with PAE (400?mg/kg/day) for 6.5 weeks. The increased body weights, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte area as well as serum total triglyceride, leptin, and malondialdehyde concentrations were decreased in PAE-treated HFD-induced obese mice relative to the same measurements in untreated obese mice. Furthermore, PAE significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. In addition, PAE treatment of 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PAE exerts antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice through the suppression of lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased antioxidant activity. PMID:23431342

Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung



Production of 21% (v\\/v) ethanol by fermentation of very high gravity (VHG) wheat mashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Very high gravity wheat mashes containing 300 g or more sugares per liter were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch and fermented with a commercial preparation of active dry yeast. The active dry yeast used in this study was a blend of several strains ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentation was carried out at 20°C at different pitching rates (inoculation levels)

K. C. Thomas; W. M. Ingledew



Evaluation of high hydrostatic pressure effects on bovine red blood cells and platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the stability of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets. Bovine blood cells (n=5) were treated with the pressure of 55, 110, 154 and 220 MPa at 25 °C for 5 min. Light microscopy, atomic force microscopy and flow cytometry studies revealed that RBCs were morphologically stable up

Cagatay Ceylan; Mete Severcan; Faruk Bozoglu; Feride Severcan



Experimental evidence for blood pressure-independent vascular effects of high sodium diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two physiologic mechanisms that may be responsible for the adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term high sodium diet without increasing blood pressure (BP) are increased blood flow and increased extracellular sodium concentration. The first dilates arteries, and the second may impact on vascular reactivity and growth. The experimental evidence for these two mechanisms was critically reviewed, distinguishing between the administration

Geza Simon



Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressurised Treatment on Porcine Blood Red Cells Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for the application of high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HHP) on the red blood cells (RBC) fraction from porcine blood. HHP was applied under varying conditions of pressure (400, 450 and 500 MPa), temperature (5, 20 and 40°C) and time (5, 15 and 30 min), and the effects on the

M. Toldrà; A. Busquets; E. Saguer; D. Parés; C. Carretero



Blood alcohol concentrations after scheduled access in high-alcohol-preferring mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of procedures yielding substantial blood alcohol concentrations during voluntary access to an alcohol solution in mice is necessary to further characterize genetic and neurobiologic mechanisms underlying alcohol self-administration. Although, in experimental situations, some populations of mice readily drink an alcohol solution, results from previous studies have not typically revealed high blood alcohol concentrations after voluntary access, probably because of

Nicholas J. Grahame; Amanda M. Grose



Fetal ethanol exposure increases ethanol intake by making it smell and taste better  

PubMed Central

Human epidemiologic studies reveal that fetal ethanol exposure is highly predictive of adolescent ethanol avidity and abuse. Little is known about how fetal exposure produces these effects. It is hypothesized that fetal ethanol exposure results in stimulus-induced chemosensory plasticity. Here, we asked whether gestational ethanol exposure increases postnatal ethanol avidity in rats by altering its taste and odor. Experimental rats were exposed to ethanol in utero via the dam's diet, whereas control rats were either pair-fed an iso-caloric diet or given food ad libitum. We found that fetal ethanol exposure increased the taste-mediated acceptability of both ethanol and quinine hydrochloride (bitter), but not sucrose (sweet). Importantly, a significant proportion of the increased ethanol acceptability could be attributed directly to the attenuated aversion to ethanol's quinine-like taste quality. Fetal ethanol exposure also enhanced ethanol intake and the behavioral response to ethanol odor. Notably, the elevated intake of ethanol was also causally linked to the enhanced odor response. Our results demonstrate that fetal exposure specifically increases ethanol avidity by, in part, making it taste and smell better. More generally, they establish an epigenetic chemosensory mechanism by which maternal patterns of drug use can be transferred to offspring. Given that many licit (e.g., tobacco products) and illicit (e.g., marijuana) drugs have noteworthy chemosensory components, our findings have broad implications for the relationship between maternal patterns of drug use, child development, and postnatal vulnerability.

Youngentob, Steven L.; Glendinning, John I.



High quality genome-wide genotyping from archived dried blood spots without DNA amplification.  


Spots of blood are routinely collected from newborn babies onto filter paper called Guthrie cards and used to screen for metabolic and genetic disorders. The archived dried blood spots are an important and precious resource for genomic research. Whole genome amplification of dried blood spot DNA has been used to provide DNA for genome-wide SNP genotyping. Here we describe a 96 well format procedure to extract DNA from a portion of a dried blood spot that provides sufficient unamplified genomic DNA for genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We show that SNP genotyping of the unamplified DNA is more robust than genotyping amplified dried blood spot DNA, is comparable in cost, and can be done with thousands of samples. This procedure can be used for genome-wide association studies and other large-scale genomic analyses that require robust, high-accuracy genotyping of dried blood spot DNA. PMID:23737996

St Julien, Krystal R; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L; Shaw, Gary M; Stevenson, David K; O'Brodovich, Hugh M; Krasnow, Mark A




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethanol has been used, or proposed for use, as a process fluid or separation agent for a number of bio-refining operations. These include oil extraction, solvent exchange, displacement drying, protein extraction, blood plasma fractionation, shellac deposition, protein film deposition, corn zein prot...


Two familial cases of high blood galactose of unknown aetiology.  


We report two male siblings presenting as newborns with increased blood galactose, urinary excretion of galactitol, and normal galactose 1-phosphate on a breast milk diet. A lactose-free diet led to normalization of all metabolites, while reintroduction of galactose in the diet resulted in an accumulation of metabolites. Potential causes of galactosaemia include: (1) activities of three enzymes of galactose metabolism: galactokinase (GALK), galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), and uridine diphosphate galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE), (2) portosystemic shunting, (3) Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, (4) tyrosinaemia. Each was excluded with appropriate tests. These two familial cases may represent a novel autosomal or X-linked recessive disorder of galactose metabolism, possibly due to a novel defect in the transport of galactose across the plasma membrane. PMID:16988899

Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Opekun, Antone R; Craigen, William J



Locally-brewed Nigerian lager beers and high blood pressure  

SciTech Connect

Volunteers who consumed 88g alcohol/day (= 2.48L of lager beer) had elevated levels of systolic and mean arterial Blood Pressure. The association between consumption of locally brewed Nigerian lager beer with arterial hypertension was independent of age and weight. The true mechanism for the development of hypertension in these alcohol-users is at present not clear. All brands of lager beer investigated contain as much as five times the sodium content of potable water. It is desirable to evaluate the consequences of ingesting such quantities of sodium in lager beers. The effect of alcohol on other monovalent and divalent cations may shed some light onto the true mechanism for the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced hypertension. 15 references, 3 tables.

Adeniyi, F.A.A.



Pinched flow coupled shear-modulated inertial microfluidics for high-throughput rare blood cell separation.  


Blood is a highly complex bio-fluid with cellular components making up >40% of the total volume, thus making its analysis challenging and time-consuming. In this work, we introduce a high-throughput size-based separation method for processing diluted blood using inertial microfluidics. The technique takes advantage of the preferential cell focusing in high aspect-ratio microchannels coupled with pinched flow dynamics for isolating low abundance cells from blood. As an application of the developed technique, we demonstrate the isolation of cancer cells (circulating tumor cells (CTCs)) spiked in blood by exploiting the difference in size between CTCs and hematologic cells. The microchannel dimensions and processing parameters were optimized to enable high throughput and high resolution separation, comparable to existing CTC isolation technologies. Results from experiments conducted with MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood indicate >80% cell recovery with an impressive 3.25 × 10(5) fold enrichment over red blood cells (RBCs) and 1.2 × 10(4) fold enrichment over peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). In spite of a 20× sample dilution, the fast operating flow rate allows the processing of ?10(8) cells min(-1) through a single microfluidic device. The device design can be easily customized for isolating other rare cells from blood including peripheral blood leukocytes and fetal nucleated red blood cells by simply varying the 'pinching' width. The advantage of simple label-free separation, combined with the ability to retrieve viable cells post enrichment and minimal sample pre-processing presents numerous applications for use in clinical diagnosis and conducting fundamental studies. PMID:21505682

Bhagat, Ali Asgar S; Hou, Han Wei; Li, Leon D; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon



Effects of vigabatrin, an irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, on ethanol reinforcement and ethanol discriminative stimuli in mice.  


We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible ?-amino butyric acid transaminase inhibitor, ?-vinyl ?-amino butyric acid [vigabatrin (VGB)], would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative-stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity, and ethanol discrimination procedures to comprehensively examine the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol and ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering the intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200mg/kg) reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. Although not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative-stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant leftward and upward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

Griffin, William C; Nguyen, Shaun A; Deleon, Christopher P; Middaugh, Lawrence D



Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?-An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model.  


An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9?mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1?mg/L; median = 0.4?mg/L; range = 0-35?mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine



High-gradient magnetic separation in blood and bone marrow processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) has been succesful in capturing red blood cells from whole blood. This is due to the paramagnetic property of the haemoglobin contained in red blood cells when it is in the deoxygenated state. The captured red blood cells and the processed white blood cells and platelets appear to be functionally undamaged by separation. The capture depends on field gradient, flow rate, dilution of the blood, size of filter and a number of other factors. Malarial parasite-containing red cells have been captured using this technique and elsewhere lymphocyte/red cell rosettes have been retained in the filter of a system using a field gradient produced by a superconducting magnet. The ex vivo processing of human bone marrow is currently under study. Removal of targetted cells from bone marrow, such as tumour cells or T-lymphocytes prior to reinfusion is currently practiced. Positive cell rescue, however, is not practicable as the present techniques mostly damage the targetted cells. We are applying high-gradient magnetic separation, using an antibody complex linked to the surface of red blood cells, which should recognise target cells within bone marrow. The whole complex is then liable to retention in a sufficiently high-gradient magnetic field and the target cell made available by red-blood-cell lysis.

Roath, S.; Smith, A. Richards; Watson, J. H. P.



[The dawn or Somogyi phenomenon? High morning fasting blood sugar values in young type-1 diabetics].  


High blood sugar levels in the morning in juvenile type 1 diabetics may be caused by a Somogyi phenomenon (counter-regulation after nocturnal hypoglycaemia) or insulin resistance in the morning hours (dawn phenomenon). To enable differentiation between the two, 1,562 blood sugar profiles (24 h, 3 h, 6 h) were determined in 161 children and juveniles (74 boys, 87 girls; mean age 10.8 [1.0-19.7] years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In accordance with the mechanism of the dawn phenomenon there was a close positive correlation between the blood sugar levels in the night and morning (r = +0.696; P less than 0.0001); the mean fasting blood sugar level was about 60 mg/dl above the 3 h value. Low nocturnal blood sugar levels as a possible cause of a high morning blood sugar (greater than 250 mg/dl) was demonstrated in fewer than 1% of profiles. On the other hand, the probability of nocturnal hypoglycaemia rose exponentially in the presence of low morning fasting blood sugar levels. Thus, if the morning level was below 80 mg/dl, the blood sugar levels at 3 h was below 50 mg/dl in 41.2%. This indicates that high morning blood sugar levels result from the dawn phenomenon and require a higher evening dose of slow-release insulin. But if the morning blood sugar values are clearly below 100 mg/dl, the cause may be nocturnal low blood sugar levels and the evening insulin dose should, therefore, be reduced. PMID:1396135

Holl, R W; Heinze, E



Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected medicinal plants--effects of high pressure and added ethanol on yield of extracted substances.  


The possibilities and limitations of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products of low, medium and high polarity under very high pressure and with polar modifiers has been investigated. The medicinal herbs marigold (Calendula officinalis), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) were used as models in this study. Extraction profiles and the spectra of extractable metabolites were recorded following extraction with mixtures of carbon dioxide:ethanol of varying proportions (0-20% ethanol) and at various pressures in the range 300-689 bar. Components were identified by HPLC-PAD-MS or GC-MS and quantified by HPLC or GC as appropriate. Extraction yields under the varying conditions depended to a large extent on the profiles of secondary metabolites present in the three drugs. Whereas the extractability of lipophilic compounds increased substantially at pressures above 300 bar, the yields of polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds remained low even at 689 bar and with 20% modifier in the extraction fluid. PMID:14979527

Hamburger, M; Baumann, D; Adler, S


Alleviation of Weight-Gain in Mice by an Ethanolic Extract from Rubus coreanus under Conditions of a High-Fat Diet and Exercise.  


The administration of an ethanolic extract (RCE) from Rubus coreanus significantly reduced the body weight and epididymal fat tissue of mice under conditions of a high-fat diet (HFD) and exercise. The mice also displayed enhanced muscular carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) expression and increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. These results suggest that RCE exerted an anti-obesity effect by up-regulating CPT1 and elevating the level of antioxidants. PMID:24096653

Chung, Changsik; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Chung, Jin Woong; Chung, Hyunjung; Yang, Soojin; Jun, Woojin



Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide\\/ethanol\\/water systems as mobie phase in reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Study of metal-diethyldithiocarbamate complexes retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper presents the, chromatographic retention of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) as diethyldithiocarbamate complexes in the\\u000a presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide\\/ethanol\\/water systems, as mobile phase, by reversed phase high performance\\u000a liquid chromatography. The presence of an organic modifier reduces the retention times and improves the efficiency. In order\\u000a to evaluate the interaction between the metal complexes and the mixed micellar system

M. P. San Andrés; M. J. Barroso; S. Vera



Highly selective Pt\\/SnO 2 sensor to propane or methane in presence of CO and ethanol, using gold nanoparticles on Fe 2O 3 catalytic filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold nanoparticles on Fe2O3 are used as a catalytic filter for Pt\\/SnO2 sensor to make it highly selective to propane or methane in presence of CO and ethanol. Gold nanoparticles with an average size of 2.5nm on Fe2O3 were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by TEM, XRD and BET. SnO2 was prepared by a sol–gel method and impregnated with

S. N. Oliaee; A. Khodadadi; Y. Mortazavi; S. Alipour



High-temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of methanol and ethanol. Experimental results and comparison with vehicle emission tests  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results of the fuel-lean, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich oxidation of methanol and ethanol using two fused silica tubular flow reactor systems are reported. For the initial set of experiments, semi-quantitative reaction byproduct data were obtained using in-line GC-MS analysis. Subsequent quantitative experiments with a second flow reactor system were conducted with an in-line water trap coupled to GC-TCD analysis. A much larger number of reaction byproducts were observed for ethanol than methanol. For methanol, observed reaction byproducts were acetone, formaldehyde, 1,2,3-trioxane, methane, ethane, and ethene. For ethanol, observed reaction byproducts were acetone, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acetic acid, methane, ethane, ethene, ethyne, and propene. Favorable comparisons of the flow reactor data with vehicle emission test results were presented. 14 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Taylor, P.H.; Shanbhag, S.; Dellinger, B.



High night blood pressure in treated hypertensive patients: not harmless.  


The left ventricular mass index (LVMI) is better related to activity than resting systolic blood pressure (BP) in treated hypertensive patients. Many recommend ambulatory BP monitoring only during the day. However, 24-hour BP monitoring may be useful in treated patients to check adequate control of BP during the entire 24-hour period. We tested the influence of night BP on LVMI in treated versus nontreated patients. We compared two groups of hypertensive patients: A: 40 patients who had discontinued therapy at least 8 days prior to the study; B: 24 patients treated for more than 3 months with the same drugs (beta-blockers in 14 cases). Ambulatory BP was recorded every 30 minutes during night and every 15 minutes during day (Spacelabs 5200). The LVMI was calculated from M mode echo blind reading (Devereux's formula). Correlation coefficients between LVMI and casual, systolic BP were calculated for both day (7:00 AM to 10:59 PM) and night time (11:00 PM to 6:59 AM). Day systolic BP is better related to LVMI than casual and night systolic BP in group A. In contrast, a significantly higher correlation existed between night BP and LVMI in B, though average night BP level was lower. Conclusion: 24-hour BP monitoring may be useful in treated hypertensive patients. Inadequate lowering of night BP may partially account for persistent LVH in treated hypertensive patients. PMID:3415799

Gosse, P; Campello, G; Roudaut, R; Dallocchio, M



Is there a different dietetic pattern depending on self-knowledge of high blood pressure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study describes the dietary pattern seen at recruitment in a large Spanish cohort comprising 41,451 people (aged 30–69 years) according to high blood-pressure status. We provide information on adjusted mean daily intake of foods and nutrients, by means of a dietary history, from those people self-reported as having high blood pressure as well as from those self-reported as

M. J. Tormo; C. Navarro; M. D. Chirlaque; X. Barber



A microfluidics approach towards high-throughput pathogen removal from blood using margination  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is an adverse systemic inflammatory response caused by microbial infection in blood. This paper reports a simple microfluidic approach for intrinsic, non-specific removal of both microbes and inflammatory cellular components (platelets and leukocytes) from whole blood, inspired by the invivo phenomenon of leukocyte margination. As blood flows through a narrow microchannel (20?×?20?µm), deformable red blood cells (RBCs) migrate axially to the channel centre, resulting in margination of other cell types (bacteria, platelets, and leukocytes) towards the channel sides. By using a simple cascaded channel design, the blood samples undergo a 2-stage bacteria removal in a single pass through the device, thereby allowing higher bacterial removal efficiency. As an application for sepsis treatment, we demonstrated separation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae spiked into whole blood, achieving high removal efficiencies of ?80% and ?90%, respectively. Inflammatory cellular components were also depleted by >80% in the filtered blood samples which could help to modulate the host inflammatory response and potentially serve as a blood cleansing method for sepsis treatment. The developed technique offers significant advantages including high throughput (?1?ml/h per channel) and label-free separation which allows non-specific removal of any blood-borne pathogens (bacteria and fungi). The continuous processing and collection mode could potentially enable the return of filtered blood back to the patient directly, similar to a simple and complete dialysis circuit setup. Lastly, we designed and tested a larger filtration device consisting of 6 channels in parallel (?6?ml/h) and obtained similar filtration performances. Further multiplexing is possible by increasing channel parallelization or device stacking to achieve higher throughput comparable to convectional blood dialysis systems used in clinical settings.

Wei Hou, Han; Gan, Hiong Yap; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Li, Leon D.; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon



The Impact of Gonadectomy and Adrenalectomy on Acute Withdrawal Severity in Male and Female C57BL/6J and DBA/2J Mice Following a Single High Dose of Ethanol  

PubMed Central

Background Steroid hormones can influence neuronal excitability and subsequent seizure susceptibility through genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. For example, there are proconvulsant steroids such as estradiol and corticosterone and anticonvulsant steroids such as testosterone, progesterone, and their GABAergic metabolites. Recent findings indicated that a single, acute administration of ethanol increased levels of GABAergic steroids and that the source of this increase was peripheral organs such as the adrenals and gonads. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of removal of the adrenals and/or gonads on withdrawal severity following a single high dose of ethanol in 2 genotypes that differ in ethanol withdrawal severity. Method Male and female C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice were either left intact (SHAM), adrenalectomized (ADX), gonadectomized (GDX), or underwent ADX/GDX surgery. Seven days following surgery, baseline handling-induced convulsions (HICs) were measured prior to administration of a 4 g/kg dose of ethanol. HICs were assessed following the ethanol injection, then hourly for 12 hours and at 24 hours. A separate group of mice were used to measure the impact of surgical status on ethanol metabolism at 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after a single 4 g/kg dose of ethanol. Results ADX and ADX/GDX treatments in male B6 and D2 mice increased ethanol withdrawal severity following a single dose of ethanol, measured by area under the withdrawal curve and peak HIC scores. Acute ethanol withdrawal also was increased in female D2 mice that had undergone ADX/GDX. In contrast, surgical status did not alter ethanol withdrawal severity in female B6 mice. Surgical status had only minor effects on ethanol metabolism. Conclusions Removal of peripherally derived steroids with anticonvulsant properties significantly increased HIC scores during acute ethanol withdrawal following a single dose of ethanol in male and female D2 mice and in male B6 mice. These increases were not due to changes in ethanol metabolism.

Gililland, Katherine R.; Finn, Deborah A.



High-frequency attenuation and backscatter measurements of rat blood between 30 and 60 MHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has recently been a great deal of interest in noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound imaging of small animals such as rats due to their being the preferred animal model for gene therapy and cancer research. Improving the interpretation of the obtained images and furthering the development of the imaging devices require a detailed knowledge of the ultrasound attenuation and backscattering of biological tissue (e.g. blood) at high frequencies. In the present study, the attenuation and backscattering coefficients of the rat red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and whole blood with hematocrits ranging from 6% to 40% were measured between 30 and 60 MHz using a modified substitution approach. The acoustic parameters of porcine blood under the same conditions were also measured in order to compare differences in the blood properties between these two animals. For porcine blood, both whole blood and RBC suspension were stirred at a rotation speed of 200 rpm. Three different rotation speeds of 100, 200 and 300 rpm were carried out for rat blood experiments. The attenuation coefficients of both rat and porcine blood were found to increase linearly with frequency and hematocrit (the values of coefficients of determination (r2) are around 0.82-0.97 for all cases). The average attenuation coefficient of rat whole blood with a hematocrit of 40% increased from 0.26 Nepers mm-1 at 30 MHz to 0.47 Nepers mm-1 at 60 MHz. The maximum backscattering coefficients of both rat and porcine RBC suspensions were between 10% and 15% hematocrits at all frequencies. The fourth-power dependence of backscatter on frequency was approximately valid for rat RBC suspensions with hematocrits between 6% and 40%. However, the frequency dependence of the backscatter estimate deviates from a fourth-power law for porcine RBC suspension with hematocrit higher than 20%. The backscattering coefficient plateaued for hematocrits higher than 15% in porcine blood, but for rat blood it was maximal around a hematocrit of 20% at the same rotation speed, and shifted to a hematocrit of 10% at a higher speed. The backscattering properties of rat RBCs in plasma are similar to those of RBCs in saline at a higher rotation speed. The differences in attenuation and backscattering between rat and porcine blood may be attributed to RBCs' being smaller and the RBC aggregation level being lower for rat blood than for porcine blood.

Huang, Chih-Chung



Overweight, physical activity and high blood pressure in children: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a growing problem in developed countries and is likely a major cause of the increased prevalence of high blood pressure in children. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians and clinical scientists with an overview of the current state of the literature describing the negative influence of obesity on blood pressure and it’s determinants in children. In short, we discuss the array of vascular abnormalities seen in overweight children and adolescents, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and insulin resistance. We also discuss the potential role of an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the development of high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. As there is little consensus regarding the methods to prevent or treat high blood pressure in children, we also provide a summary of the evidence supporting relationship between physical activity and blood pressure in children and adolescents. After reviewing a number of physical activity intervention studies performed in children, it appears as though 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic-based physical activity 3–5 days/week is required to improve vascular function and reduce blood pressure in obese children. Future studies should focus on describing the influence of physical activity on blood pressure control in overweight children.

Torrance, Brian; McGuire, K Ashlee; Lewanczuk, Richard; McGavock, Jonathan



Highly Efficient and Robust Au/MgCuCr2O4 Catalyst for Gas-Phase Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetaldehyde.  


Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) supported on MgCuCr2O4-spinel are highly active and selective for the aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde (conversion 100%; yield ?95%). The catalyst is stable for at least 500 h. The unprecedented catalytic performance is due to strong synergy between metallic AuNPs and surface Cu(+) species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that Cu(+) is already formed during catalyst preparation and becomes more dominant at the surface during ethanol oxidation. These Cu(+) species are stabilized at the surface of the ternary MgCuCr2O4-spinel support. Further kinetic measurements indicate that the Cu(+) species act as sites for O2 activation. PMID:24041129

Liu, Peng; Hensen, Emiel J M



Conformational transitions of poly(dA-dC).poly(dG-dT) induced by high salt or in ethanolic solution.  

PubMed Central

Poly(dA-dC).poly(dG-dT) was studied by circular dichroism in the presence of high CsCl concentrations and in ethanolic solutions. This alternating purine-pyrimidine duplex may undergo two conformational transitions from a B-type to a novel structure and subsequently into an A-form. Cs+ ions or increasing ethanol concentrations induced a change of the B-type CD spectrum and an inversion of the long wavelength CD band. Lowering the temperature below 0 C or addition of small amounts of Ca++ ions were particularly potent in producing a large negative CD band. A modified B-type structure or a conversion into a left-handed Z-form is considered for this conformational transition.

Zimmer, C; Tymen, S; Marck, C; Guschlbauer, W



Blood pressure during adolescence: A study among Belgian adolescents selected from a high cardiovascular risk population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: the Belgian province of Luxembourg has a high incidence of cardiovascular (CV) disease according to the MONICA register. Surveys conducted in adults and children have also found high CV risk factor levels in this province. Design: cross-sectional study. Objective of the present study: to collect data about blood pressure (BP) and its determinants in adolescents from this high CV

Dominique Paulus; Annie Saint-Remy; Michel Jeanjean



High Hydrostatic Pressure as a Method to Reduce Microbial Contamination of Porcine Blood Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of high hydrostatic pressure as an alternative method to produce porcine blood plasma with a sufficient microbial stability without affecting its functional properties was evaluated. The effects of high pressure on plasma microorganisms were highly dependent on processing temperature. Treatments of 15 min at 450 MPa carried out at 5 'C led to reductions of about 90% in

D. Pares; E. Saguer; M. Toldra; C. Carretero



Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Highly purified infected red blood cells (irbc), or highly synchronized parasite cultures, are regularly required in malaria research. Conventional isolation and synchronization rely on density and osmotic fragility of irbc, respectively. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) offers an alternative based on intrinsic magnetic properties of irbc, avoiding exposure to chemicals and osmotic stress. Successful HGMS concentration in malaria research

Sebastian C Bhakdi; Annette Ottinger; Sangdao Somsri; Panudda Sratongno; Peeranad Pannadaporn; Pattamawan Chimma; Prida Malasit; Kovit Pattanapanyasat; Hartmut PH Neumann



Genetically engineered Escherichia coli FBR5: Part I. Comparison of high cell density bioreactors for enhanced ethanol production from xylose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five reactor systems (free cell batch, free cell continuous, entrapped cell immobilized, adsorbed cell packed bed, and cell recycle membrane reactors) were compared for ethanol production from xylose employing Escherichia coli FBR5. In the free cell batch and free cell continuous reactors (continuo...


10 Ways to Control High Blood Pressure without Medication  


... you normally buy. Eat fewer processed foods. Potato chips, frozen dinners, bacon and processed lunch meats are high in sodium. Don't add salt. Just 1 level teaspoon of salt has 2,300 mg of sodium. Use herbs or spices, rather than salt, to add ...


Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant  

SciTech Connect

Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost savings of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided.

Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.



Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant  

SciTech Connect

Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost savings of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided. (Refs. 46).

Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.



Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant.  


Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost saving of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided. PMID:18574812

Gibbons, W R; Westby, C A



Modified salting-out method: high-yield, high-quality genomic DNA extraction from whole blood using laundry detergent.  


Different approaches have been used to extract DNA from whole blood. In most of these methods enzymes (such as proteinase K and RNAse A) or toxic organic solvents (such as phenol or guanidine isothiocyanate) are used. Since these enzymes are expensive, and most of the materials that are used routinely are toxic, it is desirable to apply an efficient DNA extraction procedure that does not require the use of such materials. In this study, genomic DNA was extracted by the salting-out method, but instead of using an analytical-grade enzyme and chemical detergents, as normally used for DNA isolation, a common laundry powder was used. Different concentrations of the powder were tested, and proteins were precipitated by NaCl-saturated distilled water. Finally, DNA precipitation was performed with the use of 96% ethanol. From the results, we conclude that the optimum concentration of laundry powder for the highest yield and purity of isolated DNA is 30 mg/mL. The procedure was optimized, and a final protocol is suggested. Following the same protocol, DNA was extracted from 100 blood samples, and their amounts were found to be >50 microg/mL of whole blood. The integrity of the DNA fragments was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the extracted DNA was used as a template for PCR reaction. The results obtained from PCR showed that the final solutions of extracted DNA did not contain any inhibitory material for the enzyme used in the PCR reaction, and indicated that the isolated DNA was of good quality. These results show that this method is simple, fast, safe, and cost-effective, and can be used in medical laboratories and research centers. PMID:16302208

Nasiri, H; Forouzandeh, M; Rasaee, M J; Rahbarizadeh, F



Menopausal Hormone Therapy Is Associated with Having High Blood Pressure in Postmenopausal Women: Observational Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure. Methods and Findings A total of 43,405 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Baseline data for these women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia, a large scale study of healthy ageing. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to menopause. Odds ratios for the association between MHT use and having high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by age (<56 years, 56–61 years, 62–70 years and over 71 years) and adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. MHT use was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure: past menopausal hormone therapy use: <56 years (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 99% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.20); 56–61 years (1.58, 1.31 to 1.90); 62–70 years (1.26, 1.10 to 1.44). Increased duration of hormone use was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure, with the effect of hormone therapy use diminishing with increasing age. Conclusions Menopausal hormone therapy use is associated with significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, and the odds increase with increased duration of use. High blood pressure should be conveyed as a health risk for people considering MHT use.

Chiu, Christine L.; Lujic, Sanja; Thornton, Charlene; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.



Isolation of high-quality RNA from stented blood vessels.  


Stents have become a standard of care for the treatment of coronary artery disease. A series of cellular and molecular processes contribute to the vascular response following stent placement. For the purpose of local gene expression studies, metallic stent struts are usually removed from the vessel wall with forceps under a dissection microscope prior to RNA extraction. Main drawbacks of the manual dissection are that it may cause additional tissue damage and compromise the quality of RNA through prolonged tissue handling. In this technical note, we report the recovery of high-quality RNA from atherosclerotic vessels with stent struts left in situ. PMID:23770293

Van Dyck, Christophe J; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Fransen, Erik; Vrints, Christiaan J; Hoymans, Vicky Y



A 3-day exposure to 10% ethanol with 10% sucrose successfully initiates ethanol self-administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation phase of ethanol self-administration is difficult to study using the well-established, sucrose-fading procedure due to the changing concentrations of ethanol in the first few days. The purpose of this experiment was to test whether a modified sucrose-substitution procedure in which rats are initially exposed to high concentrations of ethanol and sucrose for three days would successfully initiate ethanol

Jennifer Carrillo; Elaina C. Howard; Misbah Moten; Brenda D. Houck; Cristine L. Czachowski; Rueben A. Gonzales



Hemostasis of punctured blood vessels using high-intensity focused ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemorrhagic complications of vascular injury can be significant. We report on the use of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to stop the hemorrhage of punctured blood vessels in pigs. Two HIFU transducers with frequencies of 3.5 and 2.0 MHz, each equipped with a water-filled conical housing, were used. Major blood vessels (femoral artery and vein, axillary artery, carotid artery and

Shahram Vaezy; Roy Martin; Hadi Yaziji; Peter Kaczkowski; George Keilman; Steve Carter; Michael Caps; Emil Y Chi; Michael Bailey; Lawrence Crum



Effects of High-Chromium Bakers' Yeast on Glucose Tolerance and Blood Lipids in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 63(5):41 1-413 In rats fed a chromium-deficient diet for 17 weeks, a marginal elevation less elevation of blood glucose at 30, 60, and 90 min as compared to the in blood glucose and cholesterol levels was observed. The potential of chromium-deficient diet. Bakers'yeast also caused a significant (P< 0.05) chromium in high-chromium bakers' yeast and chromium chloride to



Efficacy of screening for high blood pressure in dental health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is consensus on the importance of early detection and treatment of high blood pressure. Dental care is one of few medical\\u000a services to which a considerable proportion of the general population comes for regular check-ups. We tested the effects of\\u000a blood pressure screening in dental care centres with subsequent work-up of subjects screening positive in primary health care\\u000a (PHCC).

Sevek Engström; Christian Berne; Lars Gahnberg; Kurt Svärdsudd



Stability of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid of high pressure processed blood orange juice during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of anthocyanins (Cy3Gl) and ascorbic acid (AA) of high pressure processed blood orange juice during storage was investigated. Blood orange juice was processed at pressure levels of 400, 500, 600MPa for a constant treatment time of 15min. During processing >99% and 94.5% retention of Cy3Gl and AA content was observed for all pressure treated samples. The degradation kinetics

B. Torres; B. K. Tiwari; A. Patras; P. J. Cullen; N. Brunton; C. P. O'Donnell



Comparison of ethanol and other drugs of abuse concentrations in whole blood stored in venoject glass and plastic and venosafe plastic evacuated tubes.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of blood concentrations of a variety of illegal and medicinal drugs that are important for forensic analyses when spiked and stored in Vacutainer or Venosafe evacuated plastic collection tubes compared to Vacutainer evacuated glass tubes. Tubes were filled with spiked whole blood and analyzed after storage for one week at ambient temperature and at -20 degrees C, respectively. Freeze-and-thaw stability was included in the study. No significant difference between storage in glass or plastic tubes was noted for any compound investigated. PMID:20822681

Karinen, Ritva; Oiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Andresen, Wenche; Wethe, Grete; Smith-Kielland, Anne; Christophersen, Asbjørg



Blockade of the Corticotropin Releasing Factor Type Receptor Attenuates Elevated Ethanol Drinking Associated With Drinking in the Dark Procedures  

PubMed Central

Background Drinking in the dark (DID) procedures have recently been developed to induce high levels of ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice, which result in blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) reaching levels that have measurable affects on physiology and/or behavior. The present experiments determined whether the increased ethanol drinking caused by DID procedures can be attenuated by pretreatment with CP-154,526; a corticotropin releasing factor type-1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist. Methods In Experiment 1, male C57BL/6J mice received ethanol (20% v/v) in place of water for 4 hours, beginning with 3 hours into the dark cycle. On the fourth day, mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of one of the 4 doses of CP-154,526 (0, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg) 30 minutes before receiving their ethanol bottle. In Experiment 2, C57BL/6J mice had 2 hours of access to the 20% ethanol solution, beginning with 3 hours into the dark cycle on days 1 to 3, and 4 hours of access to the ethanol bottle on day 4 of DID procedures. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of one of the 4 doses of CP-154,526 (0, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg) 30 minutes before receiving their ethanol bottle on day 4. Tail blood samples were collected immediately after the 4-hour ethanol access period on the fourth day of each experiment. Additional control experiments assessed the effects of CP-154,526 on 4-hour consumption of a 10% (w/v) sucrose solution and open-field locomotor activity. Results In Experiment 1, the vehicle-treated group consumed approximately 4.0 g/kg/4 h of ethanol and achieved BECs of approximately 30 mg%. Furthermore, pretreatment with the CRF1 receptor antagonist did not alter ethanol consumption. On the other hand, procedures used in Experiment 2 resulted in vehicle-treated mice consuming approximately 6.0 g/kg/4 h of ethanol with BECs of about 80 mg%. Additionally, the 10 mg/kg dose of CP-154,526 significantly reduced ethanol consumption and BECs to approximately 3.0 g/kg/4 h and 27 mg%, respectively, relative to vehicle-treated mice. Importantly, the 10 mg/kg dose of the CRF1R antagonist did not significantly alter 4-hour sucrose consumption or locomotor activity. Conclusions These data indicate that CRF1R signaling modulates high, but not moderate, levels of ethanol drinking associated with DID procedures.

Sparta, Dennis R.; Sparrow, Angela M.; Lowery, Emily G.; Fee, Jon R.; Knapp, Darin J.; Thiele, Todd E.



High-temperature fermentation: how can processes for ethanol production at high temperatures become superior to the traditional process using mesophilic yeast?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of ethanol fermentation has a long history in the production of alcoholic drinks, but much larger scale production\\u000a of ethanol is now required to enable its use as a substituent of gasoline fuels at 3%, 10%, or 85% (referred to as E3, E10,\\u000a and E85, respectively). Compared with fossil fuels, the production costs are a major issue for

Babiker M. A. Abdel-Banat; Hisashi Hoshida; Akihiko Ano; Sanom Nonklang; Rinji Akada



True color blood flow imaging using a high-speed laser photography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physiological changes in the retinal vasculature are commonly indicative of such disorders as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Thus, various methods have been developed for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics. However, to the best of our knowledge, current ophthalmic instruments do not provide a true color blood flow imaging capability. Accordingly, we propose a new method for the true color imaging of blood flow using a high-speed pulsed laser photography system. In the proposed approach, monochromatic images of the blood flow are acquired using a system of three cameras and three color lasers (red, green, and blue). A high-quality true color image of the blood flow is obtained by assembling the monochromatic images by means of image realignment and color calibration processes. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by imaging the flow of mouse blood within a microfluidic channel device. The experimental results confirm the proposed system provides a high-quality true color blood flow imaging capability, and therefore has potential for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics.

Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Sun, Yung-Nien; Ho, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Chi



Intermittent Availability of Ethanol Does Not Always Lead to Elevated Drinking in Mice  

PubMed Central

Aims: Intermittent access (IA) to an alcohol (ethanol) solution can lead rats to higher ethanol intakes than continuous access, and a recent report showed increased drinking in C57BL/6J mice offered 20% ethanol vs. water 3X/week (Prior studies have offered ethanol during 24 h periods, either continuously or intermittently.). Methods: We tested the high-preference C57BL/6J inbred mice: we also studied High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) mice, a line we have selectively bred to reach intoxicating blood ethanol levels after a short period of access to a single bottle of 20% ethanol. Results: Neither HDID or C57BL/6J male mice offered ethanol every other day during only a 4-h access period showed greater daily intake than mice offered ethanol daily for 4 h. There was a small increase in drinking with 24 h IA in C57BL/6J mice. An experiment with HDID mice and their control heterogeneous stock stock modeled closely after a published study with C57BL/6J mice (Hwa, Chu, Levinson SA et al. Persistent escalation of alcohol drinking in C57BL/6J mice with intermittent access to 20% ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2011;35:1938–1947) showed no significant elevation with 24 h IA exposure in either sex of any genotype. Finally, a near replication of the Hwa et al. study showed modestly greater intake in C57BL/6J mice, confirming the efficacy of 24 h IA. Conclusion: We conclude that 4 h of IA is likely insufficient to elevate drinking in mice. The lack of effect in HDID mice and their controls further suggests that not all genotypes respond to intermittency.

Crabbe, John C.; Harkness, John H.; Spence, Stephanie E.; Huang, Lawrence C.; Metten, Pamela



High Blood Pressure as Risk Factor and Prognostic Predictor in Acute Ischaemic Stroke: When and How to Treat It?  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure is common in the western world and is a major risk factor for the development of stroke. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of first and recurrent stroke. High blood pressure is also common in acute stroke and is independently associated with a poor prognosis, in part due to promoting early recurrence and the development of fatal

Philip Bath



High-speed shaking of frozen blood clots for extraction of human and malaria parasite DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Frozen blood clots remaining after serum collection is an often disregarded source of host and pathogen DNA due to troublesome handling and suboptimal outcome. Methods High-speed shaking of clot samples in a cell disruptor manufactured for homogenization of tissue and faecal specimens was evaluated for processing frozen blood clots for DNA extraction. The method was compared to two commercial clot protocols based on a chemical kit and centrifugation through a plastic sieve, followed by the same DNA extraction protocol. Blood clots with different levels of parasitaemia (1-1,000 p/?l) were prepared from parasite cultures to assess sensitivity of PCR detection. In addition, clots retrieved from serum samples collected within two epidemiological studies in Kenya (n = 630) were processed by high speed shaking and analysed by PCR for detection of malaria parasites and the human ?-thalassaemia gene. Results High speed shaking succeeded in fully dispersing the clots and the method generated the highest DNA yield. The level of PCR detection of P. falciparum parasites and the human thalassaemia gene was the same as samples optimally collected with an anticoagulant. The commercial clot protocol and centrifugation through a sieve failed to fully dissolve the clots and resulted in lower sensitivity of PCR detection. Conclusions High speed shaking was a simple and efficacious method for homogenizing frozen blood clots before DNA purification and resulted in PCR templates of high quality both from humans and malaria parasites. This novel method enables genetic studies from stored blood clots.



The clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements for the prevention and management of high blood pressure.  


1. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring (M) provides BP information at many points on any particular day during unrestricted routine daily activities, whereas home blood pressure (HBP) monitoring provides a lot of BP information obtained under fixed times and conditions over a long period of time, thus mean values of HBP provide high reproducibility, and thus an overall superiority compared with ABP. 2. HBP is at least equally or better able than ABP to predict hypertensive target organ damage and prognosis of cardiovascular disease. 3. HBPM allows for ongoing disease monitoring by patients, improves adherence to antihypertensive treatment, and can provide health care providers with timely clinical data and direct and immediate feedback regarding diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. 4. HBPM provides BP information in relation to time, i.e., BP in the morning, in the evening, and at night during sleep, and it is an essential tool for the diagnosis of white-coat and masked hypertension. 5. HBPM yields minimal alerting effects and a placebo effect, and can therefore distinguish small but significant serial changes in BP. It is thus the most practical way to monitor BP in the day-by-day management of hypertension. 6. The superiority of HBPM over ABPM and clinic BPM is apparent from almost all practical and clinical research perspectives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:23763494

Imai, Yutaka; Hosaka, Miki; Elnagar, Noha; Satoh, Michihiro



High-efficiency ethanol production from lignocellulosic residues pretreated with alkaline H/sub 2/O/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

It is demonstrated that H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-treated lignocellulosic materials can, in the presence of cellulase, be rapidly fermented to ethanol with greter than 90% overall efficiency. A number of cellulosic materials were ground to pass a 2-mm screen. The residues were treated with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ by incubating a suspension of the residue in distilled water containing 1% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (1 g residue/50 mL). Changes in composition of the residues were analyzed by the method of Goering and Van Soest. The residues were inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and incubated at 30/sup 0/C on an orbital shaker. Ethanol concentrations in the fermentation broths were determined by gas chromatography.

Gould, J.M.; Freer, S.N.



Micronuclei in peripheral blood cells of Microtus oeconomus Pall. inhabiting areas with a high natural radioactive background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of high-gamma background radiation on the blood cells of voles were investigated. The morphology of the blood micronuclei of erythrocytes and lymphocytes of these voles were compared with controls. Pathological changes and somatic mutations were discussed.

L. D. Materii; K. I. Maslova



Observed quasi-steady kinetics of yeast cell growth and ethanol formation under very high gravity fermentation condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a generalSaccharomyces cerevisiae as a model strain, continuous ethanol fermentation was carried out in a stirred tank bioreactor with a working volume of\\u000a 1,500 mL. Three different gravity media containing glucose of 120, 200 and 280 g\\/L, respectively, supplemented with 5 g\\/L\\u000a yeast extract and 3 g\\/L peptone, were fed into the fermentor at different dilution rates. Although complete

Li-Jie Chen; Ya-Li Xu; Feng-Wu Bai; William A. Anderson; Murray Moo-Young



Application of hemicelluloses precipitated via ethanol treatment of pre-hydrolysis liquor in high-yield pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemicelluloses in industrially produced pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) were precipitated with ethanol. These PHL-derived hemicelluloses (PHL-EH) and a commercial, pure birch wood xylan sample (powder form) (BWX) were bleached using chlorine dioxide (D0 and D1) and hydrogen peroxide (Ep) in the D0EpD1 sequence, and the chemical compositions, molecular weights and charge densities of the treated samples were assessed. When applied to

Zehua Liu; Pedram Fatehi; Soroosh Sadeghi; Yonghao Ni



Minimal contribution of the gastrointestinal tract to splanchnic uptake of intravenously infused ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of iv infused ethanol in the liver and the GI tract were determined by the portal-hepatic and arterial-portal gradients of ethanol in this report. Male Wistar rats were cannulated either in the portal vein (P), the hepatic vein (H) and the inferior vena cava (V) or in the common carotid artery (A), the portal vein (P) and the inferior vena cava (V). The experiments were performed in the fed state only on those animals whose daily food consumption has returned to pre-cannulation level. Ethanol was infused into V at a rate of 15.2 umol/min/rat for 90 min. Five sets of P and H blood or A and P blood were simultaneously taken from PHV and APV cannulated rats between 60 and 90 min of infusion when plasma ethanol concentrations in A,P and H were found to reach plateau. Ethanol concentration P was 3.10 {plus minus} 1.17 mM (SD), H was 2.64 {plus minus} 1.19 mM(SD). The difference between the two was highly significant. P-H gradient was 0.46 {plus minus} 0.06 mM(SD). A-P gradients of ethanol in APV cannulated were 0.03 {approximately} 0.04 mM, 12 {approximately} 15 times lower than hepatic gradient. It was concluded that the role of alcohol dehydrogenase activity recently found in the GI tract in metabolizing blood ethanol is insignificant in comparison to that of the liver.

Huang, Mingta (Chang Gung Medical Coll., Tao-Yuan (Taiwan))



Long-term ethanol consumption and macrocytosis: diagnostic and pathogenic implications.  


Although excessive alcohol consumption is known to elevate the mean cell volume (MCV) of erythrocytes, the relationships among the intensity of ethanol exposure, the generation of abnormal red blood cell indices, and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms have remained unclear. The authors examined 105 alcoholics with a wide range of ethanol consumption (40-500 g of ethanol/day), 62 moderate drinkers (mean consumption 1-40 g/day), and 24 abstainers, who underwent detailed interviews, measurements of blood cell counts, markers of liver status, and circulating antibodies against ethanol-derived protein modifications. Follow-up information was collected from healthy volunteers with detailed records on drinking habits. Data from the NORIP project for laboratory parameters in apparently healthy moderate drinkers or abstainers (n = 845) were used for reference interval comparisons. The highest MCV (P < 0.001) and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) (P < 0.01) occurred in the alcoholics. However, the values in the moderate drinkers also responded to ethanol intake such that the upper normal limit for MCV based on the data from moderate drinkers was 98 fl, as compared with 96 fl from abstainers. Follow-up cases with carefully registered drinking habits showed parallel changes in MCV and ethanol intake. Anti-adduct IgA and IgM against acetaldehyde-induced protein modifications were elevated in 94% and 64% of patients with high MCV, respectively, the former being significantly less frequent in the alcoholics with normal MCV (63%) (P < 0.05). The data indicate dose-related responses in red blood indices upon chronic ethanol consumption, which may also be reflected in reference intervals for hematological parameters in health care. Generation of immune responses against acetaldehyde-modified erythrocyte proteins may be associated with the appearance of such abnormalities. PMID:16581347

Koivisto, Heidi; Hietala, Johanna; Anttila, Petra; Parkkila, Seppo; Niemelä, Onni



HSP-4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is not activated in a C. elegans model of ethanol intoxication and withdrawal.  


Acute and chronic exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to concentrations of ethanol in the range 250-350 mM elicits distinct behaviours. Previous genetic analysis highlights specific neurobiological substrates for these effects. However, ethanol may also elicit cellular stress responses which may contribute to the repertoire of ethanol-induced behaviours. Here, we have studied the effect of ethanol on an important arm of the cellular stress pathways, which emanates from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to several conditions including heat shock and chemical or genetic perturbations that lead to protein misfolding. HSP-4 is a heat shock protein and homologue of mammalian BiP. It is a pivotal upstream component of the ER stress response. Therefore, we used a C. elegans heat shock protein mutant, hsp-4, and a strain carrying a transcriptional reporter, Phsp-4::gfp, to test the role of the ER following chronic ethanol conditioning. We found no evidence for an overt ER response during acute or prolonged exposure to concentrations of ethanol that lead to defined ethanol-induced behaviours. Furthermore, whilst hsp-4 was strongly induced by tunicamycin, pre-exposure of C. elegans to low doses of tunicamycin followed by ethanol was not sufficient to induce an additive ER stress response. Behavioural analysis of an hsp-4 mutant indicated no difference compared to wild type in susceptibility to ethanol intoxication and withdrawal. There is a clear precedent for a significance of ER stress pathways particularly in clinical conditions associated with toxic or pathological effects of high doses of alcohol consumption. The concentrations of ethanol used in this C. elegans study equate to the highest blood alcohol levels measured in patients with chronic alcohol dependency. Taken together, these observations imply that the classic ER stress pathway in C. elegans is relatively refractory to induction by ethanol. PMID:22661239

Ient, Ben; Edwards, Richard; Mould, Richard; Hannah, Matthew; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent



Specific alcoholic beverage and blood pressure in a middle-aged Japanese population: the High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOP-OHP) Study.  


The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of popular Japanese alcoholic beverages on blood pressure. We performed a cross-sectional study on 4335 Japanese male workers using baseline data from an intervention study. We defined six groups according to the type of alcoholic beverage that provided two-thirds of the subject's total alcohol consumption: beer, sake (rice wine), shochu (traditional Japanese spirits), whiskey, wine and others. The partial regression coefficients of daily alcohol intake (1 drink=11.5 g of ethanol) to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 0.87(P<0.001, standard error (s.e.)=0.09) and 0.77(P<0.001, s.e.=0.06), respectively. A comparison among the types of alcoholic beverages mainly consumed revealed significant differences in SBP and DBP. Both SBP and DBP were highest in the shochu group. However, an analysis of covariance adjusting for total alcohol consumption resulted in the disappearance of these differences. Although after adjustment for total alcohol consumption, the shochu group exhibited a significant positive association with 'high-normal blood pressure or greater' (odds ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.95) compared with the beer group, this significant relation disappeared after adjusting for the body mass index (BMI), urinary sodium and potassium excretion. The pressor effect, per se, of popular Japanese alcoholic beverages on blood pressure may not be different among the types of alcoholic beverages after adjusting for other lifestyle factors. PMID:14688805

Okamura, T; Tanaka, T; Yoshita, K; Chiba, N; Takebayashi, T; Kikuchi, Y; Tamaki, J; Tamura, U; Minai, J; Kadowaki, T; Miura, K; Nakagawa, H; Tanihara, S; Okayama, A; Ueshima, H



Investigation of red blood cell antigens with highly fluorescent and stable semiconductor quantum dots.  


We report a new methodology for red blood cell antigen expression determination by a simple labeling procedure employing luminescent semiconductor quantum dots. Highly luminescent and stable core shell cadmium sulfide/cadmium hydroxide colloidal particles are obtained, with a predominant size of 9 nm. The core-shell quantum dots are functionalized with glutaraldehyde and conjugated to a monoclonal anti-A antibody to target antigen-A in red blood cell membranes. Erythrocyte samples of blood groups A+, A2+, and O+ are used for this purpose. Confocal microscopy images show that after 30 min of conjugation time, type A+ and A2+ erythrocytes present bright emission, whereas the O+ group cells show no emission. Fluorescence intensity maps show different antigen expressions for the distinct erythrocyte types. The results obtained strongly suggest that this simple labeling procedure may be employed as an efficient tool to investigate quantitatively the distribution and expression of antigens in red blood cell membranes. PMID:16178656

de Farias, Patrícia Maria Albuquerque; Santos, Beate Saegesser; de Menezes, Frederico Duarte; de Carvalho Ferreira, Ricardo; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Castro, Vagner; Lima, Paulo Roberto Moura; Fontes, Adriana; Cesar, Carlos Lenz


Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. Methods This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. Results A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P < 0.01). The rate of successful glucose control (blood glucose level < 150 mg/dl maintained for 6 days or longer) decreased with increase in blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P < 0.01). The blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions High blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control.



Shift Work Is Not Associated with High Blood Pressure or Prevalence of Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Working mostly at night has been suggested to be associated with upset of chronobiological rhythms and high blood pressure, but the evidence from epidemiological studies is weak. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, we evaluated the association between shift work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. In total, 493 nurses, nurse technicians and assistants, were selected at random in a large general hospital setting. Hypertension was diagnosed by the mean of four automatic blood pressure readings ?140/90 mmHg or use of blood pressure lowering agents, and pre-hypertension by systolic blood pressure ?120–139 or diastolic blood pressure ?80–89 mmHg. Risk factors for hypertension were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The association between the shift of work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension was explored using univariate and multivariate analyses that controlled for risk factors for hypertension by covariance analysis and modified Poisson regression. Results The mean age of the participants was 34.3±9.4 years and 88.2% were women. Night shift workers were older, more frequently married or divorced, and less educated. The prevalence of hypertension in the whole sample was 16%, and 28% had pre-hypertension. Blood pressure (after adjustment for confounding) was not different in day and night shift workers. The prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension by shift work was not different in the univariate analysis and after adjustment for confounding (all risk ratios ?=?1.0). Conclusion Night shift work did not increase blood pressure and was not associated with hypertension or pre-hypertension in nursing personnel working in a large general hospital.

Sfreddo, Carla; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Merlo, Alvaro Roberto; Fuchs, Flavio Danni



[A case of acute ethanol intoxication with remarkable hyperglycemia by "ume-shu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar].  


A 19-year-old woman ingested 2.2 L of "umeshu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar. She was unconscious and in shock. The estimated blood ethanol concentration was 607 mg/dl, and the blood glucose level was 576 mg/dl. Because her respiration and circulation was highly suppressed, blood purification was indicated. Continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) was performed instead of hemodialysis because her hemodynamics was unstable. After CHDF was instituted, her blood glucose level reduced to normal range, and her consciousness became alert. CHDF was effective in eliminating ethanol and stabilizing her hemodynamics within an early stage. Though acute ethanol intoxication is known to inhibit glucogenesis, leading to hypoglycemia, marked hyperglycemia was seen in this case. Ingestion of a large amount of glucose-rich liquor and being in shock seemed to be the causes of hyperglycemia. PMID:12415871

Sugano, Takayuki; Kojima, Naoki; Kaneko, Susumu; Ishida, Junro; Terada, Taizo; Inagawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasusei



High blood pressure and cerebral white matter lesion progression in the general population.  


High blood pressure is considered an important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in the aging population. In a longitudinal population-based study of 665 nondemented persons, we investigated the longitudinal relationship of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure with annual progression of WMLs. Means of blood pressure were calculated over a 5-year period before longitudinal MRI scanning. WML progression was subsequently measured on 2 scans 3.5 years apart. We performed analyses with linear regression models and evaluated adjustments for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline WML volume. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of hypertension is related to less WML progression. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with annual WML progression (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.08 [0.03; 0.14] mL/y and 0.09 [0.03; 0.15] mL/y per SD increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Pulse pressure was also significantly associated with WML progression, but not independent from hypertension. After adjustment for baseline WML volume, only systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated: 0.05 (0.00; 0.09) mL/y per SD increase. People with uncontrolled untreated hypertension had significantly more WML progression than people with uncontrolled treated hypertension (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.12 [0.00; 0.23] mL/y). The present study further establishes high blood pressure to precede WMLs and implies that hypertension treatment could reduce WML progression in the general population. PMID:23529163

Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Vernooij, Meike W; de Boer, Renske; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan



Distinct molecular targets including SLO-1 and gap junctions are engaged across a continuum of ethanol concentrations in Caenorhabditis elegans.  


Ethanol (alcohol) interacts with diverse molecular effectors across a range of concentrations in the brain, eliciting intoxication through to sedation. Invertebrate models including the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans have been deployed for molecular genetic studies to inform on key components of these alcohol signaling pathways. C. elegans studies have typically employed external dosing with high (>250 mM) ethanol concentrations: A careful analysis of responses to low concentrations is lacking. Using the C. elegans pharyngeal system as a paradigm, we report a previously uncharacterized continuum of cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol from low (10 mM) to high (300 mM) concentrations. The complexity of these responses indicates that the pleiotropic action of ethanol observed in mammalian brain is conserved in this invertebrate model. We investigated two candidate ethanol effectors, the calcium-activated K(+) channel SLO-1 and gap junctions, and show that they contribute to, but are not sole determinants of, the low- and high-concentration effects, respectively. Notably, this study shows cellular and whole organismal behavioral responses to ethanol in C. elegans that directly equate to intoxicating through to supralethal blood alcohol concentrations in humans and provides an important benchmark for interpretation of paradigms that seek to inform on human alcohol use disorders.-Dillon, J., Andrianakis, I., Mould, R., Ient, B., Liu, W., James, C., O'Connor, V., Holden-Dye, L. Distinct molecular targets including SLO-1 and gap junctions are engaged across a continuum of ethanol concentrations in Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:23882127

Dillon, James; Andrianakis, Ioannis; Mould, Richard; Ient, Ben; Liu, Wei; James, Christopher; O'Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy



Cyclic variations of high-frequency ultrasonic backscattering from blood under pulsatile flow.  


It was shown previously that ultrasonic scattering from whole blood varies during the flow cycle under pulsatile flow both in vitro and in vivo. It has been postulated that the cyclic variations of the backscattering signal are associated with red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in flowing whole blood. To obtain a better understanding of the relationship between blood backscattering and RBC aggregation behavior for pulsatile flowing blood, the present study used high-frequency ultrasound to characterize blood properties. The backscattering signals from both whole blood and an RBC suspension at different peak flow velocities (from 10 to 30 cm/s) and hematocrits (20% and 40%) under pulsatile flow (stroke rate of 20 beats/min) were measured with 3 single-element transducers at frequencies of 10, 35, and 50 MHz in a mock flow loop. To avoid the frequency response problem of a Doppler flowmeter, the integrated backscatter (IB) and flow velocity as functions of time were calculated directly using RF signals from flowing blood. The experimental results showed that cyclic variations of the IB curve were clearly observed at a low flow velocity and a hematocrit of 40% when using 50 MHz ultrasound, and that these variations became weaker as the peak flow velocity increased. However, these cyclic variations were detected only at 10 cm/s when using 10 MHz ultrasound. These results demonstrate that a high flow velocity can stop the formation of rouleaux and that a high hematocrit can promote RBC aggregation to produce cyclic variations of the backscattering signal under pulsatile flow. In addition, slight cyclic variations of the IB curve for an RBC suspension were observed at 35 and 50 MHz. Furthermore, the peak of the IB curve from whole blood led the peak of the velocity waveform when using high-frequency ultrasound, which could be explained by the assumption that a rapid flow can promote RBC aggregation under pulsatile flow. Together, the experimental results showed that the sensitivity and resolution of detecting blood properties are higher for 50 MHz ultrasound than for 10 MHz ultrasound. PMID:19686983

Huang, Chih-Chung



Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Stabilized and Manganese-Modified Rhodium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Highly Selective Synthesis of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde from Syngas  

SciTech Connect

Well-defined and monodispersed rhodium nanoparticles as small as approximately 2?nm were encapsulated in?situ and stabilized in a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) framework during the synthesis of the mesoporous material. Although both the activity and selectivity of MSN-encapsulated rhodium nanoparticles in CO hydrogenation could be improved by the addition of manganese oxide as expected, the carbon selectivity for C2 oxygenates (including ethanol and acetaldehyde) was unprecedentedly high at 74.5?% with a very small amount of methanol produced if rhodium nanoparticles were modified by manganese oxide with very close interaction.

Huang, Yulin; Deng, Weihua; Guo, Enruo; Chung, Po-Wen; Chen, Senniang; Trewyn, Brian; Brown, Robert; Lin, Victor



High-Throughput Lens-Free Blood Analysis on a Chip  

PubMed Central

We present a detailed investigation of the performance of lens-free holographic microscopy toward high-throughput on-chip blood analysis. Using a spatially incoherent source that is emanating from a large aperture, automated counting of red blood cells with minimal sample preparation steps at densities reaching up to ~0.4 × 106 cells/?L is presented. Using the same lens-free holographic microscopy platform, we also characterize the volume of the red blood cells at the single-cell level through recovery of the optical phase information of each cell. We further demonstrate the measurement of the hemoglobin concentration of whole blood samples as well as automated counting of white blood cells, also yielding spatial resolution at the subcellular level sufficient to differentiate granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes from each other. These results uncover the prospects of lens-free holographic on-chip imaging to provide a useful tool for global health problems, especially by facilitating whole blood analysis in resource-poor environments.

Seo, Sungkyu; Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Mudanyali, Onur; Su, Ting-Wei; Bishara, Waheb; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan



High thermal sensitivity of blood enhances oxygen delivery in the high-flying bar-headed goose.  


The bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) crosses the Himalaya twice a year at altitudes where oxygen (O2) levels are less than half those at sea level and temperatures are below -20°C. Although it has been known for over three decades that the major hemoglobin (Hb) component of bar-headed geese has an increased affinity for O2, enhancing O2 uptake, the effects of temperature and interactions between temperature and pH on bar-headed goose Hb-O2 affinity have not previously been determined. An increase in breathing of the hypoxic and extremely cold air experienced by a bar-headed goose at altitude (due to the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response in this species) could result in both reduced temperature and reduced levels of CO2 at the blood-gas interface in the lungs, enhancing O2 loading. In addition, given the strenuous nature of flapping flight, particularly in thin air, blood leaving the exercising muscle should be warm and acidotic, facilitating O2 unloading. To explore the possibility that features of blood biochemistry in this species could further enhance O2 delivery, we determined the P50 (the partial pressure of O2 at which Hb is 50% saturated) of whole blood from bar-headed geese under conditions of varying temperature and [CO2]. We found that blood-O2 affinity was highly temperature sensitive in bar-headed geese compared with other birds and mammals. Based on our analysis, temperature and pH effects acting on blood-O2 affinity (cold alkalotic lungs and warm acidotic muscle) could increase O2 delivery by twofold during sustained flapping flight at high altitudes compared with what would be delivered by blood at constant temperature and pH. PMID:23470665

Meir, Jessica U; Milsom, William K



Influence of high glycemic index and glycemic load diets on blood pressure during adolescence.  


We aimed to prospectively examine the association between the glycemic index and glycemic load of foods consumed and the dietary intakes of carbohydrates, sugars, fiber, and principal carbohydrate-containing food groups (eg, breads, cereals, and sugary drinks) with changes in blood pressure during adolescence. A total of 858 students aged 12 years at baseline (422 girls and 436 boys) were examined from 2004-2005 to 2009-2011. Dietary data were assessed from validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Blood pressure was measured using a standard protocol. In girls, after adjusting for age, ethnicity, parental education, parental history of hypertension, baseline height, baseline blood pressure, change in body mass index, and time spent in physical and sedentary activities, each 1-SD (1-SD = 7.10 g/d) increase in baseline dietary intake of total fiber was associated with a 0.96-, 0.62-, and 0.75-mmHg decrease in mean systolic (P = 0.02), diastolic (P = 0.01), and arterial blood pressures (P = 0.002), respectively, 5 years later. In girls, each 1-SD increase in dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrate, and fructose was concurrently related to increases of 1.81 (P = 0.001), 4.02 (P = 0.01), 4.74 (P = 0.01), and 1.80 mm Hg (P = 0.03) in systolic blood pressure, respectively, >5 years. Significant associations between carbohydrate nutrition variables and blood pressure were not observed among boys. Excessive dietary intake of carbohydrates, specifically from high glycemic index/glycemic load foods, could adversely influence blood pressure, particularly in girls, whereas fiber-rich diets may be protective against elevated blood pressure during adolescence. PMID:22493075

Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; Baur, Louise A; Smith, Wayne; Mitchell, Paul



An unusual form of fatal ethanol intoxication.  


Forensic pathologists are very familiar with deaths due to ethanol intoxication. The overwhelming majority of these deaths are a result of the oral ingestion of ethanol. We report an unusual case of an individual who expired in his secured residence after self administration of a wine enema. Toxicology showed an ethanol concentration of 0.40 g/dL in the blood and 0.41 g/dL in the vitreous fluid. Scene investigation was of paramount importance in determining the unusual method by which the decedent absorbed the alcoholic beverage. PMID:15932106

Wilson, Christopher I; Ignacio, Susan S; Wilson, Gwennaëlle A



Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, high ethanol-yielding bacterium isolated from household waste.  


An extremely thermophilic, xylanolytic, spore-forming and strictly anaerobic bacterium, strain DTU01(T), was isolated from a continuously stirred tank reactor fed with xylose and household waste. Cells stained Gram-negative and were rod-shaped (0.5-2 µm in length). Spores were terminal with a diameter of approximately 0.5 µm. Optimal growth occurred at 70 °C and pH 7, with a maximum growth rate of 0.1 h(-1). DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. Strain DTU01(T) could ferment arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, melibiose, pectin, starch, sucrose, xylan, yeast extract and xylose, but not cellulose, Avicel, inositol, inulin, glycerol, rhamnose, acetate, lactate, ethanol, butanol or peptone. Ethanol was the major fermentation product and a maximum yield of 1.39 mol ethanol per mol xylose was achieved when sulfite was added to the cultivation medium. Thiosulfate, but not sulfate, nitrate or nitrite, could be used as electron acceptor. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain DTU01(T) was shown to be closely related to Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3(T), Thermoanaerobacter italicus Ab9(T) and Thermoanaerobacter thermocopriae JT3-3(T), with 98-99 % similarity. Despite this, the physiological and phylogenetic differences (DNA G+C content, substrate utilization, electron acceptors, phylogenetic distance and isolation site) allow for the proposal of strain DTU01(T) as a representative of a novel species within the genus Thermoanaerobacter, for which the name Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DTU01(T) ( = DSM 25963(T) = KCTC 4529(T) = VKM B-2752(T) = CECT 8142(T)). PMID:23178727

Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini



Elimination of ethanol inhibition by perstraction.  


Perstraction (membrane-aided solvent extraction) was utilized for elimination of ethanol inhibition in continuous ethanol fermentation using high sugar concentrate. Hollow fibers for an artificial kidney were used as a permeable membrane, and their capacity to extract ethanol was examined by using several organic solvents. When tri-n-butylphosphate was used as an extractant, a 500 g/L feed glucose medium was successfully fermented by immobilized yeast cells. During this continuous fermentation a high ethanol productivity of 48 g/hxL-gel was held, and the solvent requirement per consumed glucose was 6 L-solvent/kg-glucose. PMID:18555357

Matsumura, M; Märkl, H



Aerobic production of ethanol. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A computer-controlled continuous culture of yeast converted glucose to ethanol at excellent rates on a per-cell basis. This highly unconventional aerobic bioprocess makes use of oxidoreductive metabolism induced by concentrations of glucose that overload respiratory capacity and dump glucose into the ethanol pathway. Unfortunately, this yeast strain lost this high productivity when ethanol approached the concentrations required by a commercially feasible process. These results point the way for a new method for making ethanol if an organism can be found that is less inhibited by its main product.

Clesceri, L.S.; Bungay, H.R.



The interaction between ethanol and pregnanolone at induction of anaesthesia investigated with a threshold method in male rats  

PubMed Central

An anaesthesia threshold was used to investigate the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between ethanol and pregnanolone in male rats.The criterion to determine threshold doses of pregnanolone was the first burst suppression of 1 s in the EEG. Ethanol (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0?g?kg?1) was injected i.p. 15?min before pregnanolone infusion. Trunk blood, serum, cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum, brain stem, fat and muscle tissues obtained at criterion were used to determine ethanol (blood) and pregnanolone.Ethanol reduced threshold doses in a dose dependent linear manner. A similar reduction of pregnanolone tissue concentrations was only found in brain stem and striatum. Deviations consisted of larger decreases in serum, cerebellum and hippocampus after 0.5?g?kg?1 ethanol and in cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus after 2.0?g?kg?1 of ethanol. Positive correlations between dose and concentration of pregnanolone was recorded in brain stem, hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex. A kinetic component influenced the concentration in cortex. There was a correlation between dose and serum concentration of pregnanolone only after ethanol. In the muscle 0.5?g?kg?1 ethanol had no influence on pregnanolone concentration.The linear, additive pharmacodynamic interaction could involve the GABA ionophore. A pharmacokinetic interaction was found in cortex. The retained high uptake of pregnanolone in muscle (after 0.5?g?kg?1) corresponded to losses in other tissues (including serum). The reduced uptake of pregnanolone in cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus (after 2.0?g?kg?1) was not due to a corresponding change in serum concentration. It was probably due to a reduced blood flow.

Wang, Ming-De; Zhu, Di; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Wahlstrom, Goran



Nutrient-enhanced production of remarkably high concentrations of ethanol by Saccharomyces bayanus through soy flour supplementation  

SciTech Connect

The supplementation of a simple medium with soy flour led to an increase in the specific growth rate and viable cell concentration of saccharomyces bayanus during fermentation. Increasing the amount of soy flour led to an increase in the maximum number of viable yeast cells and the percentage of glucose fermented. It was possible in 64 h to reach 12.8% (wt/vol) ethanol by adding 4% soy flour (wt/vol) to a simple medium with 300 g of glucose per liter. The aqueous extract from soy flour was nearly as effective as whole-soy flour, whereas the lipidic fraction had no positive effect.

Viegas, C.A.; Sa-Correia, I.; Novais, J.M.



High Stress Responsivity Predicts Later Blood Pressure Only in Combination With Positive Family History and High Life Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

High cardiovascular responsivity to stressors has not consistently improved prediction of later blood pressure increases beyond the predictive effects of baseline pressure. Animal models suggest that genetic susceptibility to hypertension and frequent stress exposure are important modulating factors in stress-related hypertension. Thus in 103 men originally tested at age 18 to 22 years and reassessed 10 years later, interactive effects

Kathleen C. Light; Susan S. Girdler; Andrew Sherwood; Edith E. Bragdon; Kimberly A. Brownley; Sheila G. West; Alan L. Hinderliter


Composition and properties of basic high molecular weight impurities in waste waters from ethanol and fodder yeast production from wood biomass processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the composition and properties of impurities of waste waters from ethanol and fodder yeast production shows that about 76% of impurities are retained in the ethanol-soluble fraction. Colloidal waste impurity particles average about 670 nm diameter. When designing water recycling schemes for ethanol and fodder yeast production by wood biomass hydrolytic and biotechnological processing, particular attention should be

Andrew V. Grammatikov; Howard D. Mettee


Production of the Anaerobic GMAX-L Yeast Using High-Throughput Mating and Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae With Identified Genes For Simultaneous Cellulosic Ethanol and Biodiesel Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tailored GMAX-L yeast engineering for strains capable of universal ethanol production industrially with coproduction of an expressed lipase catalyst for coproduction of ethyl esters from corn oil and ethanol from the modern dry grind ethanol facility: Production of the stable baseline glucose, mann...


High transcytosis of melanotransferrin (P97) across the blood-brain barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) performs a neuroprotective function by tightly controlling access to the brain; consequently it also impedes access of proteins as well as pharmacological agents to cerebral tissues. We demonstrate here that recom- binant human melanotransferrin (P97) is highly accumulated into the mouse brain following intravenous injection and in situ brain perfusion. Moreover, P97 transcytosis across bovine brain

Michel Demeule; Julie Poirier; Julie Jodoin; Richard R. Desrosiers; Claude Dagenais; Tran Nguyen; Julie Lanthier; Reinhard Gabathuler; Malcolm Kennard; Wilfred A. Jefferies; Delara Karkan; Sam Tsai; Laurence Fenart; Romeo Cecchelli; Richard Beliveau


High-dose therapy and autologous blood stem cell transplantation in POEMS syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We treated 5 patients with polyneurop- athy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome and multifo- cal bone lesions or diffuse bone marrow plasmacytic infiltration with high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous blood stem cell transplantation. In all cases, the treat- ment produced remission of plasma cell proliferation associated with marked im- provement in the patients' performance status, neurologic

Arnaud Jaccard; Bruno Royer; Dominique Bordessoule; Jean-Claude Brouet; Jean-Paul Fermand


Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO) high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is

Sheldon W Tobe; Margaret Moy Lum-Kwong; Nancy Perkins; Shirley Von Sychowski; Rolf J Sebaldt; Alex Kiss



High Blood Pressure Trends in Children and Adolescents in National Surveys, 1963 to 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Secular trend data on hypertension in children and adolescents are scarce and inconsistent. In the face of growing obesity, we sought to assess high blood pressure (HBP) secular trends in children and adolescents enrolled in national surveys and to determine whether the HBP trend reversed its course with the rise in obesity. Methods and Results—National survey data obtained from multistage

Rebecca Din-Dzietham; Yong Liu; Marie-Vero Bielo; Falah Shamsa


Umbilical cord blood transplant from unrelated HLA-mismatched donors in children with high risk leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 3 years, 14 children with high-risk leukemia (11 ALL, 2 AML and 1 CML) underwent cord blood transplantation from unrelated HLA-mismatched donors at a median of 99 days from the start of search. Eight patients were transplanted in second CR, one in accelerated phase, three at relapse and two patients in first CR. Conditioning regimen (fractionated TBI,

W Arcese; C Guglielmi; AP Iori; M Screnci; D Carmini; AM Testi; ML Moleti; A Mengarelli; IDel Giudice; G Cimino; L Elia; MC Rapanotti; P Perrone; L Laurenti; G Gentile; F Boecklin; A Romano; L De Felice; F Mandelli



Putrefactive Ethanol Sources in Postmortem Tissues of Conventional and Germ-Free Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Putrefaction produces high levels of ethanol (alcohol) in brain, liver, and lung of intact mice. Previously eviscerated organs produce ethanol in much lower concentrations, while no ethanol is produced in the organs of germ-free mice. These latter animals...

G. L. Davis N. W. Rantanen R. L. Leffert



Exacerbation of myocardial dysfunction and autonomic imbalance contribute to the estrogen-dependent chronic hypotensive effect of ethanol in female rats  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies showed that the hypotensive effect of chronic ethanol in female rats is reduced by ovariectomy (OVX) rats and was restored after estrogen replacement (OVXE2). Further, in randomly cycling rats, chronic ethanol increased cardiac parasympathetic dominance and subsequently reduced myocardial contractility and blood pressure (BP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in myocardial contractility and sympathovagal control account for the E2 exacerbation of the hemodynamic effects of ethanol. BP, myocardial contractility (+dP/dtmax), and spectral cardiovascular autonomic profiles were evaluated in radiotelemetered OVX, and OVXE2 rats receiving liquid diet with or without ethanol (5%, w/v) for 13 weeks. In OVX rats, ethanol caused modest hypotension along with significant increases in +dP/dtmax during weeks 2–5. The high-frequency (IBIHF, 0.75–3 Hz) and low-frequency (IBILF, 0.25–0.75 Hz) bands of interbeat intervals were briefly increased and decreased, respectively, by ethanol. Compared with its effects in OVX rats, chronic treatment of OVXE2 rats with ethanol elicited significantly greater and more sustained reductions in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures and +dP/dtmax. Altered sympathovagal balance and parasympathetic overactivity were more evident in ethanol-treated OVXE2 rats as suggested by the sustained: (i) increases in high-frequency bands of interbeat intervals (IBIHF, 0.75–3 Hz), and (ii) decreases in low-frequency IBI bands (IBILF, 0.25–0.75 Hz), IBILF/HF ratio and +dP/dtmax. The plasma ethanol concentration was not affected by changes in the hormonal milieu. These findings suggest that estrogen exacerbates the ethanol-evoked reductions in myocardial contractility and BP and the associated parasympathetic overactivity in female rats.

El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.



Regulation of adenosine transport by acute and chronic ethanol exposure  

SciTech Connect

Chronic exposure to ethanol results in a desensitization of adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP production. Since adenosine is released by cells and is known to desensitize its own as well as other receptors, it may be involved in ethanol-induced desensitization of adenosine receptor function. Therefore, we have examine the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the transport of adenosine via the nucleoside transport. Acute exposure to ethanol caused an inhibition of adenosine uptake in S49 lymphoma cells. This decrease in uptake resulted in accumulation of extracellular adenosine after ethanol exposure. The effect of ethanol was specific to nucleoside transport. Uptake of uridine, also transported by the nucleoside transporter, was inhibited by ethanol to the same degree as adenosine uptake, while neither isoleucine nor deoxyglucose uptake was altered by ethanol treatment. Inhibition of adenosine uptake by ethanol was non-competitive and dependent on the concentration of ethanol. After chronic exposure to ethanol, cells became tolerant to the acute effects of ethanol. There was no longer an acute inhibition of adenosine uptake, nor was these accumulation of extracellular adenosine. Chronic ethanol exposure also resulted in a decrease in the absolute rate of adenosine uptake. Binding studies using a high affinity lignad for the nucleoside transporter, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), indicate that this decreased uptake was due to a decrease in the maximal number of binding sites. These ethanol-induced changes in adenosine transport may be important for the acute and chronic effects of ethanol.

Nagy, L.E.; Casso, D.; Diamond, I.; Gordon, A.S. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))



Limited Access Ethanol Drinking in the Dark in Adolescent and Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Adult risk of alcohol dependence increases the younger one first engages in intoxicating consumption. Adolescent mice drink more ethanol than do adults on a g/kg basis, an increase sometimes persisting into adulthood, and this is genotype-dependent. Most studies have used 24-hr two-bottle preference, with choice between ethanol and water. We studied the developmental onset of binge drinking using limited access ethanol drinking in the dark (DID) in male and female mice. To establish age dependence in DID magnitude, we tested HS/Npt mice of 6 ages for DID for two weeks, and, when 9 weeks old, retested them for two weeks vs naïve adult controls. Age groups drank equivalently in their first week; thus, adolescent HS/Npt mice do not show greater DID than adults. Six week old mice drank more ethanol during their second week relative to their other weeks. Ethanol DID during early adolescence (4 weeks) led to increased drinking in adulthood, as did initial DID exposure at 8 weeks. High Drinking in the Dark-1 (HDID-1) mice (4, 6, 9 weeks old), selectively bred for high blood ethanol after DID, were tested for 9 weeks. Mice beginning at 4 weeks generally drank more ethanol than those of other age groups. Comparison at the same ages showed that 9 week olds initiated at 4 weeks drank more ethanol than did naïve 9 week olds, but all three groups of age-matched mice drank equivalent amounts once 10 weeks and older. The DID test is thus sensitive to developmental age. DID intakes by young adolescent HDID-1 mice were greater than by older mice, like studies with two-bottle preference. Early DID led to increased drinking as adults only in HS/Npt mice. HDID-1 mice provide a useful animal model for exploring whether DID and continuous access preference drinking have parallel consequences when initiated in adolescence.

Metten, Pamela; Brown, Lauren Lyon; Crabbe, John C.



Improving the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by laccase during ethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw at high-substrate loadings.  


Operating the saccharification and fermentation processes at high-substrate loadings is a key factor for making ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass economically viable. However, increasing the substrate loading presents some disadvantages, including a higher concentration of inhibitors (furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds) in the media, which negatively affect the fermentation performance. One strategy to eliminate soluble inhibitors is filtering and washing the pretreated material. In this study, it was observed that even if the material was previously washed, inhibitory compounds were released during the enzymatic hydrolysis step. Laccase enzymatic treatment was evaluated as a method to reduce these inhibitory effects. The laccase efficiency was analyzed in a presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process at high-substrate loadings. Water-insoluble solids fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw was used as substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as fermenting microorganism. Laccase supplementation reduced strongly the phenolic content in the media, without affecting weak acids and furan derivatives. This strategy resulted in an improved yeast performance during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, increasing significantly ethanol productivity. PMID:23143932

Alvira, Pablo; Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Mercedes



Identification of crucial yeast inhibitors in bio-ethanol and improvement of fermentation at high pH and high total solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compounds inhibitory to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation are generated from neutral steam exploded corn stover in the process of producing bio-ethanol. In this study, weak acids were identified as main yeast inhibitors, while phenols and aldehyde contribute to the inhibition to a lower degree. Main weak acids in hydrolysates are acetic acid and formic acid, for which critical levels for

Hongzhi Huang; Xinyan Guo; Dongmin Li; Mengmeng Liu; Jiafang Wu; Haiyu Ren



Determination of Trimethylpsoralen in Blood, Ophthalmic Fluids, and Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimethylpsoralen (TMP) levels in the blood of vitiligo patients were determined through the use of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. TMP was extracted from blood buffered at pH 9.0 with 95:5 (V\\/V) hexane-isopropanol mixture; evaporated to dryness, and reconstituted in 50 ?l of ethanol, A 10-?l aliquot was injected into a Micropack MCH-10 column (Varian HPLC model #5000). The mobile

Siba G. Chakrabarti; Pearl E. Grimes; Harold R. Minus; John A. Kenney Jr.; Tapas K. Pradhan



Effects of acute hypoxia tests on blood markers in high-level endurance athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the response of blood markers to acute hypoxia in high-level endurance athletes before\\u000a training based on “living high-training low” model. Thirty endurance athletes performed a hypoxic cycling test and spent 3 h\\u000a at rest in a simulated altitude of 3,000 m. At the end of the hypoxic cycling test, the quantity of the natural

Rémi Mounier; Vincent Pialoux; Laurent Schmitt; Jean-Paul Richalet; Paul Robach; Jean Coudert; Eric Clottes; Nicole Fellmann



High-Dose Therapy and Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients With Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients with refractory Hodgkin's disease (24 patients) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1 6 patients) who were considered for high-dose therapy but not for autolo- gous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) due to BM metastases. previous pelvic irradiation. a history of mar- row involvement by tumor or hypocellular marrow in conventional harvest sites received high-dose therapy and autologous peripheral blood (PB) hematopoietic

Anne Kessinger; Douglas M. Smith; James D. Landmark; Philip J. Bierman; Dennis D. Weisenburger



Blood-pressure responses during social interaction in high- and low-cynically hostile males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cook and Medley Hostility (Ho) Scale has been found to predict the development of coronary heart disease, coronary death, and death from other causes. Enhanced physiological responsiveness among high-Ho subjects may represent a link between hostility and health. The present study examined the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure (SBP, DBP) and heart-rate (HR) responses of high- and low-Ho undergraduate males

Timothy W. Smith; Kenneth D. Allred



Successful tandem (autologous-cord blood) SCT in advanced neuroblastomas with highly amplified MYCN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although autologous tandem hematopoietic SCT has improved the prognosis of patients with advanced high-risk neuroblastoma, the results remain unsatisfactory. In an attempt to induce the graft-versus-tumor effect, we performed autologous PBSCT followed by allogeneic cord blood transplantation in three consecutive advanced neuroblastoma cases with marked BM infiltration and high MYCN amplification. Severe acute complications did not occur in any patient

K Goi; T Inukai; H Honna; K Akahane; K Hirose; I Kuroda; N Hasuda; K Koshizuka; K Takano; K Sugita



Lack of effect of single high doses of buprenorphine on arterial blood gases in the rat.  


High dose buprenorphine, a potent semisynthetic agonist-antagonist for opiate receptors, is now used in substitution treatment of human heroin addiction. Deaths have been reported in addicts misusing buprenorphine. We determined the median lethal dose (LD(50)) and studied the effects of high doses of intravenous buprenorphine on arterial blood gases in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered buprenorphine intravenously to determine the LD(50) using the up-and-down method. Subsequently, catheterized groups of 10 restrained rats received no drug, saline, acid-alcohol aqueous solvent (required to dissolve buprenorphine at a high concentration), or 3, 30, or 90 mg/kg of buprenorphine intravenously. Serial arterial blood gases were obtained over 3 h. The LD(50) determined in triplicate was 146.5 mg/kg (median of 3 series, range: 142.6-176.5). The mean dose received by surviving animals was 96.9 +/- 46.7 mg/kg. There was a significant effect of the acid-alcohol aqueous solvent on arterial blood gases. Excluding the solvent effect, 3, 30, and 90-mg/kg buprenorphine doses had no significant effects on arterial blood gases. The toxicity of intravenous buprenorphine in adult rats, assessed by the LD(50), is low. These data are consistent with a wide margin of safety of buprenorphine. The mechanism of death after the intravenous administration of a lethal dose of buprenorphine remains to be determined. PMID:11399802

Gueye, P N; Borron, S W; Risède, P; Monier, C; Buneaux, F; Debray, M; Baud, F J



Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples  

PubMed Central

Introduction Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA) from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8) with high intactness of DNA. Results PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

Samadi Shams, Sara; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Soltanzad, Farzaneh; Kafil, Vala; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Atashpaz, Sina; Barar, Jaleh



Ethanol and thermotolerance in the bioconversion of xylose by yeasts  


Heat and ethanol stress adversely affect membrane integrity. These factors are particularly detrimental to xylose-fermenting yeasts ... Organisms with higher ethanol tolerance have ATPase activities with low pH optima and high affinity for ATP.


Effect of Ethanol on Fluoroquinolone Efficacy in a Rat Model of Pneumococcal Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

This investigation compared the effect of ethanol on fluoroquinolone antibiotic efficacy and pharmacodynamics in an ethanol-fed rat model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a liquid diet containing 36% of total calories as ethanol. Paired controls (pair-fed controls) were fed a liquid diet without ethanol or received rat chow. Diets began 7 days before and continued for 10 days after transtracheal infections with 10 times the 50% lethal dose of type 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae. Beginning 18 h after infection, the rats received once daily subcutaneous phosphate-buffered saline, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, or trovafloxacin at 50 or 100 mg/kg of body weight. White blood cell counts were determined, blood samples were collected for culture, and mortality was recorded. Additional rats were killed on day 5 for pharmacodynamic studies and quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Bacteremia occurred by day 3 in 20 of 22 untreated rats. All 22 untreated rats died by day 9. Moxifloxacin treatment was effective in all diet groups at both the 50- and 100-mg/kg doses. In contrast, 50-mg/kg doses of levofloxacin and trovafloxacin improved survival in ethanol-fed rats but were ineffective in chow-fed rats. High-dose trovafloxacin at 100 mg/kg was associated with increased mortality in pair-fed rats. The free-fraction area under the concentration-time curve/MIC ratio exceeded 50 with all antibiotics in the ethanol group but dropped below 30 with levofloxacin and trovafloxacin in the pair- and chow-fed rats, with higher mortality. Achievement of adequate antibiotic-free fraction area under the concentration-time curve/MIC ratios helps overcome ethanol-induced immune defects induced in experimental pneumococcal pneumonia.

Olsen, Keith M.; Gentry-Nielsen, Martha; Yue, Mei; Snitily, Mary U.; Preheim, Laurel C.



Detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation  

SciTech Connect

A detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation has been developed and validated against a variety of experimental data sets. Laminar flame speed data obtained from a constant volume bomb, ignition delay data behind reflected shock waves, and ethanol oxidation product profiles from a turbulent flow reactor were used in this study. Very good agreement was found in modeling the data sets obtained from the three different experimental systems. The computational modeling results show that high temperature ethanol oxidation exhibits strong sensitivity to the fall-off kinetics of ethanol decomposition, branching ratio selection for c2h5oh+oh=products, and reactions involving the hydroperoxyl (HO2) radical.

Marinov, N.



Ethanol modulates the neurovascular coupling.  


Despite some evidence of the underlying molecular mechanisms the neuronal basis of ethanol-induced effects on the neurovascular coupling that forms the BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependent) signal is poorly understood. In a recent fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) study monitoring ethanol-induced changes of the BOLD signal a reduction of the amplitude and a prolongation of the BOLD signal were observed. However, the BOLD signal is assumed to consist of a complex superposition of different underlying signals. To gain insight how ethanol influences stimulus efficacy, oxygen extraction, transit time and vessel-related parameters the fMRI time series from the sensori-motor and the visual cortex were analyzed using the balloon model. The results show a region-dependent decrease of the stimulus efficacy to trigger a post-stimulus neurovascular response as well as a prolongation of the transit time through the venous compartment. Oxygen extraction, feedback mechanisms and other vessel-related parameters were not affected. The results may be interpreted as follows: the overall mechanisms of the neurovascular coupling are still acting well at the moderate ethanol level of about 0.8‰ (in particular the vessel-related parts), but the potency to evoke a neurovascular response is already compromised most obviously in the supplementary motor area responsible for complex synchronizing and planning processes. PMID:23159106

Luchtmann, Michael; Jachau, Katja; Adolf, Daniela; Röhl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Baecke, Sebastian; Lützkendorf, Ralf; Müller, Charles; Bernarding, Johannes



The reinforcing property of ethanol in the rhesus monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhesus monkeys received intravenous injections of ethanol during daily sessions contingent on their presses on an available lever. Under the standard conditions, when each response on the lever during a 3-h period each day resulted in an i.v. injection of 0.1 g\\/kg ethanol, the monkeys made between 30 and 50 responses\\/session and developed blood ethanol levels of approximately 400 mg%.

Andrew J. Karoly; Gail Winger; Fumio Ikomi; James H. Woods



Metabolic interaction between m-xylene and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of a moderate dose of ethanol (0.8 g\\/kg) by volunteers prior to 4-h inhalation exposure to m-xylene (6.0 or 11.5 mmol\\/m3) caused marked alterations in xylene kinetics. After ethanol intake the blood xylene level rose about 1.5–2.0-fold and urinary methylhippuric acid excretion declined by about 50% suggesting that ethanol decreased the metabolic clearance of xylene by about one half

V. Riihimäki; K. Savolainen; P. Pfäffli; K. Pekari; H. W. Sippel; A. Laine



Inhibition of plasma membrane and mitochondrial transmembrane potentials by ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actions of ethanol and its primary oxidative metabolite, acetaldehyde, on plasma membrane and mitochondrial transmembrane potentials were examined in rat brain using fluorescence techniques. Subchronic treatment of adult rats with ethanol resulted in a significant depolarization of both the plasma and mitochondrial membranes when the mean blood ethanol level of the rats was 59±11 mM (mean±SEM, n=6). Acute dosing

Yasmin M. Samynathan; Stephen C. Bondy



Uncontrolled blood pressure in a treated, high-risk managed care population.  


The prevalence of hypertension in the United States is increasing, and the estimated cost of care is more than USD 55 billion annually, including direct and indirect expenditures. The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show an improvement in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension compared with previous surveys. Nonetheless, fewer than one third of adults with hypertension are achieving blood pressure control. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) states that most patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve goal blood pressure (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease). Hypertension is common in patients with diabetes, and aggressive blood pressure control has been shown to reduce the risk of these complications. In a study conducted from 2002 to 2005, the medical charts of 9492 adults with hypertension and diabetes from physician practices across the United States were reviewed. Only 27.5% of this high risk study population achieved the blood pressure goal of <130/80 mm Hg. Ninety-eight percent of patients were receiving antihypertensive therapy; 37.1% were using 1 agent, 34.4% were using 2, and 26.2% were using 3 or more agents. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers were the most frequently used antihypertensive agents in this study population, but they were underutilized, being used by 55.4% and 32.3%, respectively. These findings, which are consistent with other studies, suggest a need for improvement in management of hypertension in patients with diabetes and other high-risk groups. PMID:16180959

Andros, Vickie



A high blood level in the air trap reduces microemboli during hemodialysis.  


Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of air microemboli in the dialysis circuit and in the venous circulation of the patients during hemodialysis. In vitro studies indicate that a high blood level in the venous air trap reduces the extent of microbubble formation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether air microbubbles can be detected in the patient's access and if so, whether the degree of microbubble formation can be altered by changing the blood level in the venous air trap. This was a randomized, double-blinded, interventional study of 20 chronic hemodialysis patients. The patients were assigned to hemodialysis with either an elevated or a low blood level in the air trap. The investigator and the patient were blinded to the settings. The numbers of microbubbles were measured at the site of the arteriovenous (AV) access for 2?min with the aid of an ultrasonic Doppler device. The blood level in the air trap was then altered to the opposite setting and a new measurement was carried out after an equilibration period of 30?min. Median (range) for the number of microbubbles measured with the high air trap level and the low air trap level in AV access was 2.5 (0-80) compared with 17.5 (0-77), respectively (P?=?0.044). The degree of microbubble formation in hemodialysis patients with AV access was reduced significantly if the blood level in the air trap was kept high. The exposure of potentially harmful air microbubbles was thereby significantly reduced. This measure can be performed with no additional healthcare cost. PMID:22360799

Forsberg, Ulf; Jonsson, Per; Stegmayr, Christofer; Stegmayr, Bernd



Adding value to carbon dioxide from ethanol fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) from ethanol production facilities is increasing as more ethanol is produced for alternative transportation fuels. CO2 produced from ethanol fermentation processes is of high purity and is nearly a saturated gas. Such highly-concentrated source of CO2 is a potential candidate for capture and utilization by the CO2 industry. Quantity, quality and capture of CO2 from ethanol fermentations

Yixiang Xu; Loren Isom; Milford A. Hanna



The effect of regulation of high blood pressure on plasma endothelin-1 levels in blacks with hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma concentrations of immunoreactive endothelin-1 (irET-1) are significantly elevated in blacks with hypertension. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the regulation of high blood pressure on plasma irET-1 levels in black hypertensive individuals. After the initial blood samples were collected from 20 black patients with uncontrolled high blood pressure (Day 1), an intensive antihypertensive treatment was initiated,

Sitki Ergul; Adviye Ergul; John A. Hudson; David Puett; Bobbye M. Wieman; Marcus D. Durham; David C. Parish



High-Fat Diet-Induced Neuropathy of Prediabetes and Obesity: Effect of PMI-5011, an Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.  

PubMed Central

Artemisia species are a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on neuropathy in high-sfat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and proinflammatory changes in peripheral nervous system. C57Bl6/J mice fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks developed obesity, moderate nonfasting hyperglycemia, nerve conduction deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. They displayed 12/15-lipoxygenase overexpression, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid accumulation, and nitrosative stress in peripheral nerve and spinal cord. PMI-5011 (500?mgkg?1d?1, 7 weeks) normalized glycemia, alleviated nerve conduction slowing and sensory neuropathy, and reduced 12/15-lipoxygenase upregulation and nitrated protein expression in peripheral nervous system. PMI-5011, a safe and nontoxic botanical extract, may find use in treatment of neuropathic changes at the earliest stage of disease.

Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Ribnicky, David M.; Raskin, Ilya; Obrosova, Irina G.



Efficacy of screening for high blood pressure in dental health care  

PubMed Central

Background There is consensus on the importance of early detection and treatment of high blood pressure. Dental care is one of few medical services to which a considerable proportion of the general population comes for regular check-ups. We tested the effects of blood pressure screening in dental care centres with subsequent work-up of subjects screening positive in primary health care (PHCC). Methods Altogether 1,149 subjects 40-65 years old or 20-39 years old with body mass index >25, and with no previously known hypertension, who came for a dental examination had their blood pressure measured with an Omron M4® automatic blood pressure reading device. Subjects with systolic blood pressure readings above 160 mmHg or diastolic above 90 mmHg were referred to their PHCC for a check up. Outcome data were obtained by scrutiny of PHCC and hospital patient records for hypertension diagnoses during the three years following screening. Results 237 (20.6%) subjects screened positive. Of these, 230 (97.1%) came to their PHCC within the 3-year follow-up period, as compared with 695 (76.2%) of those who screened negative (p < 0.0001). Of those who screened positive, 76 (32.1%) received a diagnosis of hypertension, as compared with 26 (2.9%) of those who screened negative. Sensitivity was 79.1%, specificity 84.8% and positive predictive value 30.1%. The number of subjects needed to screen to find one case of hypertension was 18. Conclusions Co-operation between dental and primary care for blood pressure screening and work-up appears to be an effective way of detecting previously unknown hypertension.



GDNF is an Endogenous Negative Regulator of Ethanol-Mediated Reward and of Ethanol Consumption After a Period of Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Background We previously found that activation of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) pathway in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces ethanol-drinking behaviors. In this study, we set out to assess the contribution of endogenous GDNF or its receptor GFR?1 to the regulation of ethanol-related behaviors. Methods GDNF and GFR?1 heterozygote mice (HET) and their wild-type littermate controls (WT) were used for the studies. Ethanol-induced hyperlocomotion, sensitization, and conditioned place preference (CPP), as well as ethanol consumption before and after a period of abstinence were evaluated. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Results We observed no differences between the GDNF HET and WT mice in the level of locomotor activity or in sensitization to ethanol-induced hyperlocomotion after systemic injection of a nonhypnotic dose of ethanol and in BEC. However, GDNF and GFR?1 mice exhibited increased place preference to ethanol as compared with their WT littermates. The levels of voluntary ethanol or quinine consumption were similar in the GDNF HET and WT mice, however, a small but significant increase in saccharin intake was observed in the GDNF HET mice. No changes were detected in voluntary ethanol, saccharin or quinine consumption of GFR?1 HET mice as compared with their WT littermates. Interestingly, however, both the GDNF and GFR?1 HET mice consumed much larger quantities of ethanol after a period of abstinence from ethanol as compared with their WT littermates. Furthermore, the increase in ethanol consumption after abstinence was found to be specific for ethanol as similar levels of saccharin intake were measured in the GDNF and GFR?1 HET and WT mice after abstinence. Conclusions Our results suggest that endogenous GDNF negatively regulates the rewarding effect of ethanol and ethanol-drinking behaviors after a period of abstinence.

Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; Janak, Patricia H.; Ron, Dorit



The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National High Blood Pressure Education Program presents the complete Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Like its predecessors, the purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of hypertension. The key messages of this report are these: in those older than age 50, systolic

Aram V. Chobanian; George L. Bakris; Henry R. Black; William C. Cushman; Lee A. Green; Joseph L. Izzo; Daniel W. Jones; Barry J. Materson; Jackson T. Wright


How Family, Community, and Work Structured High Blood Pressure AccountsFrom African Americans in Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure is one of the most often researched, yet least understood health disparities among African Americans. This descriptive, critical discourse analysis examined how family and community demographics and paid and unpaid work structured participants' accounts of high blood pressure experiences in Washington State. Thirty-seven urban-dwelling African American women (n = 17) and men (n = 20) in Washington

Doris M. Boutain; Clarence Spigner



Ethanol Disrupts Vascular Endothelial Barrier: Implication in Cancer Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Both epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that ethanol exposure enhances tumor progression. Ethanol exposure promotes cancer cell invasion and is implicated in tumor metastasis. Metastasis consists of multiple processes involving intravasation and extravasation of cancer cells across the blood vessel walls. The integrity of the vascular endothelial barrier that lines the inner surface of blood vessels plays a critical role in cancer cell intravasation/extravasation. We examined the effects of ethanol on the endothelial integrity in vitro. Ethanol at physiologically relevant concentrations did not alter cell viability but disrupted the endothelial monolayer integrity, which was evident by a decrease in the electric resistance and the appearance of intercellular gaps in the endothelial monolayer. The effect of ethanol was reversible once ethanol was removed. The disruption of the endothelial monolayer integrity was associated with an increased invasion of cancer cells through the endothelial monolayer. Ethanol induced the formation of stress fibers; stabilization of actin filaments by jasplakinolide prevented ethanol-induced disruption of endothelial integrity and cancer cell invasion. VE-cadherin is a critical component of the adherens junctions, which regulates vascular endothelial integrity. Ethanol induced the endocytosis of VE-cadherin and the effect was blocked by jasplakinolide. Our results indicate that ethanol may facilitate cancer metastasis by disrupting the vascular endothelial barrier.

Xu, Mei; Chen, Gang; Fu, Wei; Liao, Mingjun; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Bower, Kimberly A.; Fang, Shengyun; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia



High frequency photoacoustic imaging for in vivo visualizing blood flow of zebrafish heart.  


A technique on high frame rate(28fps), high frequency co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for visualizing zebrafish heart blood flow was demonstrated. This approach was achieved with a 40MHz light weight(0.38g) ring-type transducer, serving as the ultrasound transmitter and receiver, to allow an optic fiber, coupled with a 532nm laser, to be inserted into the hole. From the wire target study, axial resolutions of 38µm and 42µm were obtained for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging, respectively. Carbon nanotubes were utilized as contrast agents to increase the flow signal level by 20dB in phantom studies, and zebrafish heart blood flow was successfully observed. PMID:23787651

Park, Jinhyoung; Cummins, Thomas M; Harrison, Michael; Lee, Jungwoo; Zhou, Qifa; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K Kirk



Base deficit level indicating major injury is increased with ethanol.  


Analyses were performed to determine whether ethanol increases base deficit, independent of major injury, in blunt trauma patients from two Level I trauma centers. In 2140 Baltimore patients, base deficit was significantly higher in ethanol-positive patients (blood level > or =0.01%), independent of blood pressure (BP), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and blood loss. In 139 Youngstown, Ohio, patients, base deficit was significantly higher in ethanol-positive patients, independent of ISS and RBC units given. In 1796 awake Baltimore patients, major injury was defined as an ISS >10, presence of blood loss, or need for RBC transfusion. A base deficit < or =-4.1 for ethanol-positive and < or =-1.1 for ethanol-negative patients had higher rates of major injury (odds ratio 3.2 and 2.1, respectively) and abdominal trauma (odds ratio 3.6 and 3.2, respectively). In blunt trauma patients, base deficit is increased with ethanol, independent of major injury. A base deficit of < or =-4.1 for ethanol-positive and < or =-1.1 for ethanol-negative awake patients may be an early warning for occult injury and suggest the need for an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan or ultrasound. PMID:10699516

Dunham, C M; Watson, L A; Cooper, C



Effect of nitrogen on blood compatibility of nickel-free high nitrogen stainless steel for biomaterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to study the effect of nitrogen content on blood compatibility including platelet adhesion and kinetic clotting time of nickel-free high nitrogen stainless steel (HNS), also in comparison with a conventional austenitic stainless steel AISI 317L. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the surface chemical composition. The surface wettability and surface free energy

Peng Wan; Yibin Ren; Bingchun Zhang; Ke Yang