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Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines  

SciTech Connect

Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

Szybist, J.; Confer, K. (Delphi Automotive Systems)



High blood pressure - infants  


Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...


High Blood Pressure  


... during light physical activity or exercise. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... stated as 120/80. Do You Have High Blood Pressure? One reason to have regular visits to ...


Leucine accelerates blood ethanol oxidation by enhancing the activity of ethanol metabolic enzymes in the livers of SHRSP rats.  


Chronic ethanol consumption induces liver diseases, such as alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. The enhancement of alcohol oxidation is important in the prevention of these liver diseases. Chronic supplementation with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) prevents liver cirrhosis. Therefore, BCAAs may be associated with enhanced ethanol oxidation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of the administration of individual BCAAs on ethanol oxidation and changes in alcohol-metabolizing enzyme activities following acute alcohol intake in rats. Blood ethanol concentrations and the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and low and high Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), were measured in the liver following acute ethanol administration in rats; the ethanol was administered 30 min after the treatment with amino acids [such as leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) or alanine (Ala)]. Leu significantly decreased the blood ethanol concentration 1 h after ethanol administration compared to the water-treated control (C) [C 0.46 ± 0.09, Leu 0.18 ± 0.04, Ile 0.27 ± 0.09, Val 0.46 ± 0.1, Ala 0.43 ± 0.06, mean ± SEM (g/l), P < 0.05]. In addition, leucine significantly stimulated ADH activity 30 min after ethanol intake [C 0.042 ± 0.014, Leu 0.090 ± 0.016, Ile 0.042 ± 0.008, Val 0.022 ± 0.010, Ala 0.070 ± 0.016, mean ± SEM (unit/mg protein), P < 0.05] and low Km ALDH activity 15 min after ethanol intake [C 0.51 ± 0.63, Leu 3.72 ± 0.66, Ile 1.26 ± 0.89, Val: ND, Ala 1.86 ± 1.57, mean ± SEM (unit/mg protein), P < 0.05]. However, leucine and its metabolite ?-keto-isocaproic acid did not enhance ethanol clearance in isolated rat hepatocytes. These results indicate that leucine accelerates ethanol oxidation by indirectly enhancing ADH and low Km ALDH activities in the liver. PMID:23053019

Murakami, Hitoshi; Ito, Michiko; Furukawa, Yuji; Komai, Michio



High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  


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High Blood Pressure  


... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...


Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)  


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Living with High Blood Pressure  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure (HBP), you' ... If You Have High Blood Pressure Web page. High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy Many pregnant women who have HBP ...


High ethanol tolerance yeast for production of ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The subject of ethanol tolerance in yeasts has been receiving considerable attention as result of renewed interest in ethanol as a fuel source. Fermentation of sugars to ethanol is being studied in our laboratory using a genetically engineered yeast strain 1400. Results are described.

Krishnan, M.S.; Tsao, G.T.; Kasthurikrishnan, N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others



The determination of ethanol in blood and urine by mass fragmentography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass fragmentographic technique for a rapid, specific and sensitive determination of ethanol in blood and urine is described. A Varian gas chromatograph coupled through an all-glass membrane separator to a Finnigan quadripole mass spectrometer and interfaced to a computer system is used for ethanol determination in blood and urine samples. A procedure for plotting calibration curves for ethanol quantitation is also described. Quantitation is achieved by plotting the peak area ratios of undeuterated-to-deuterated ethanol fragment ions against the amount of ethanol added. Representative results obtained by this technique are included.

Pereira, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Rindfleisch, T. C.; Duffield, A. M.



High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy  


High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force exerted by the blood against the walls of ... Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure ...


High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

M. Clark Dale



High Blood Pressure Medicines  


... fluid. Renin inhibitors slow down your body’s production of renin, the enzyme that starts the many chemical reactions that raise your blood pressure. Do these medicines have any side effects? All medicines ... effects of high blood pressure medicines include the following: Chest ...


Isopropyl Alcohol Pad Use for Blood Ethanol Sampling Does Not Cause False-Positive Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data collected from a study of blood ethanol levels after the use of the alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS). A total of 5 male volunteers were enrolled. Eight of the 10 total blood ethanol level measurements were drawn after skin preparation with Kendall WEBCOL® Alcohol Preps (APP) containing 70% isopropyl alcohol. All had an

Michael A. Miller; Alex Rosin; Marc E. Levsky; Timothy J. D. Gregory; Chad S. Crystal



High Blood Cholesterol Prevention  


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High blood sugar  


High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...


Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure  


... High Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But ...


Effect of ethanol of heart rate and blood pressure in nonstressed and stressed rats  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ethanol on the cardiovascular system (ECG, heart rate, blood pressure) was studied in anesthetized, nonstressed or stressed rats. In anesthetized rats, ethanol showed no effect on heart rate or ECG. In nonstressed rats, ethanol sedated the animals but increased heart rate significantly. This ethanol induced tachycardia seemed the result of a direct stimulation of the sympathetic nerves to the heart. Blood pressure was not significantly affected by ethanol in these nonstressed rats. In stressed rats, marked behavioral excitation and significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure were noted. Ethanol pretreatment calmed the animals considerably during restraint. Ethanol did reduce slightly the stress-induced tachycardia but markedly reduced or antagonized stress-induced blood pressure increases. No major changes in the ECG were noted during these studies with the exception of a few individual animals which showed pathologic ECG responses to ethanol. These data show that ethanol affects cardiovascular functions differently in anesthetized, non stressed or stressed rats, and that ethanol can significantly reduce or antagonize stress-induced behavioral excitation, tachycardia and hypertension. 32 references, 4 tables.

Sparrow, M.G.; Roggendorf, H.; Vogel, W.H.



High Blood Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside: High Blood PressureThis booklet explains what health professionals know about high blood pressure or hypertension, one of the leading causes of heart disease and stroke. It shows how to prevent high blood pressure, as well as how to care for yourself if you have been diagnosed with the disease. The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



Effect of ethanol consumption on blood pressure and rat mesenteric arterial bed, aorta and carotid responsiveness.  


This study investigates whether chronic ethanol consumption increases blood pressure and alters vascular reactivity in different tissues. Changes in reactivity to phenylephrine and acetylcholine were investigated in the aorta, carotid artery and mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) isolated from rats pretreated with ethanol for 2 or 6 weeks. Mild hypertension was observed in chronically ethanol-treated rats, which was due to rises in both systolic and diastolic pressures. Chronic ethanol consumption increased the contractile response to phenylephrine of endothelium-intact and denuded rat aortic rings from rats pretreated with ethanol for 2 or 6 weeks. Conversely, no differences were found in acetylcholine-induced relaxation. Neither phenylephrine-induced contraction nor acetylcholine-induced relaxation were altered in the rat carotid. Six weeks' ethanol consumption enhanced the contractile response to phenylephrine of endothelium-intact, but not denuded rat MAB. On the other hand, 2 weeks' ethanol consumption did not affect phenylephrine-induced increase in perfusion pressure. Moreover, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the MAB was reduced after treatment with ethanol for 6 weeks but not after 2 weeks. In conclusion, ethanol affects both blood pressure and vessel reactivity, but the effect on vascular reactivity may take longer to become apparent in MAB than in the aorta, and was not evident in the carotid. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect of ethanol depends on the agonist and blood vessel studied. PMID:17637194

Tirapelli, Carlos R; Leone, Andreia F C; Coelho, Eduardo B; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Lanchote, Vera L; Uyemura, Sergio A; Padovan, Cláudia M; de Oliveira, Ana M



What Causes High Blood Pressure?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure tends to rise with age, unless ... cold-relief products. Other medicines also can cause high blood pressure (HBP). If you have HBP, let your doctor ...


Effect of diet and disulfiram on acetaldehyde blood levels after ethanol in UChA and UChB rats.  


Acetaldehyde (AcH) levels in blood samples taken from different zones of the vascular system 2 h after a p.o. dose of ethanol (2.76 g/kg) were studied in UChA (low ethanol consumer) and UChB (high ethanol consumer) rats fed a diet devoid of animal products, diet 1 (D1), and a diet containing fish meal, diet 2 (D2), and in rats pretreated with disulfiram (600 mg/kg p.o.). The results showed that, while there is no significant difference between UChA and UChB rats fed D1 with respect to blood AcH levels and the basal activity of the hepatic mitochondrial high-affinity aldehyde dehydrogenase (AIDH), a significant strain difference was observed in rats fed D2, which induced high blood AcH levels in UChA rats but not in UChB ones. No strain differences were observed in blood ethanol levels in the two groups of rats. When rats fed D1 were pretreated with disulfiram, the raising of AcH blood levels induced by ethanol after disulfiram was significantly higher in UChA than in UChB rats in suprahepatic vein, femoral vein, and tail blood. This difference was concomitant with a greater inhibition of the hepatic mitochondrial high-affinity ADH activity in UChA rats than in UChB ones, whether disulfiram was administered in vivo or in vitro, which excluded the possibility that the strain difference would be caused by a different bioavailability of disulfiram. PMID:8216884

Quintanilla, M E; Sepúlveda, S; Tampier, L



What Is High Blood Pressure?  


What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Sep 4,2014 High blood pressure, also known as HBP or hypertension, is a widely misunderstood medical ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...


High Blood Pressure and Women  


High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people mistakenly believe that high blood pressure, also called ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...


[Gas-mass spectrometry in the identification and determination of ethanol in blood].  


A contemporary analytical method for positive identification and quantitative toxicological--chemical analysis of ethanol in blood samples using the methods of gas extraction, thermal adsorption/desorption and gas-mass spectrometry, was developed. Maximal sensitivity of ethanol detection was 0.27 mmol/l. PMID:7571541

Cusi?, S; Jakovljevi?, L; Pavlica, M



Controlling your high blood pressure  


Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure, kidney disease, and early death. You are more likely to have high ...


High blood pressure medications  


... blood pressure medicine listed below comes in different brand and generic names. One or more of these ... blood vessels, which lowers your blood pressure. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (also called ARBs ) work in about ...


Process engineering of high-ethanol-tolerance yeast for the manufacture of ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Inhibitory effects of ethanol and glucose on a high-ethanol-tolerance yeast strain (fusion product of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces uvarum) having high osmotic and ethanol tolerance were studied in batch cultures. A model incorporating both substrate and product inhibition was developed that represented the experimental data quite well. By performing fed-batch fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 13.3% (w/v) was obtained. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration for cell growth was predicted to be 129.9 g/L and ethanol-producing capability of cells was found to be completely inhibited at 136.4 g/L. On-line monitoring of the fermentation was performed using an ion trap mass spectrometer and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Preliminary results are reported.

Krishnan, M.S.; Xia, Y.; Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others



Stroke and High Blood Pressure  


Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 13,2014 Stroke is America's no. 4 killer and a leading cause of severe, long-term disability. Since managing high blood pressure, also called HBP or hypertension, is the most ...


Ethanol consumption increases blood pressure and alters the responsiveness of the mesenteric vasculature in rats.  


Chronic ethanol consumption and hypertension are related. In the current study we investigated whether changes in reactivity of the mesenteric arterial bed could account for the increased blood pressure associated with chronic ethanol intake. Changes in reactivity to phenylephrine and acetylcholine were investigated in the perfused mesenteric bed from rats treated with ethanol for 2 or 6 weeks and their age-matched controls. Mild hypertension was observed in chronically ethanol-treated rats. Treatment of rats for 6 weeks induced an increase in the contractile response of endothelium-intact mesenteric bed to phenylephrine, but not denuded rat mesenteric bed. The phenylephrine-induced increase in perfusion pressure was not altered after 2 weeks' treatment with ethanol. Moreover, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was reduced by ethanol treatment for 6 weeks, but not 2 weeks. Pre-treatment with indometacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, reduced the maximum effect induced by phenylephrine (Emax) in endothelium-intact mesenteric bed from both control and ethanol-treated rats. No differences in the Emax values for phenylephrine were observed between groups in the presence of indometacin. L-NNA, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor, increased the Emax for phenylephrine in endothelium-intact mesenteric bed from control rats but not from ethanol-treated rats. Levels of endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA were not altered by chronic ethanol consumption. However, chronic ethanol intake strongly reduced eNOS protein levels in the mesenteric bed. This study shows that chronic ethanol consumption increases blood pressure and alters the reactivity of the mesenteric bed. Moreover, the increased vascular response to phenylephrine observed in the mesenteric bed is maintained by two mechanisms: an increased release of endothelial-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids and a reduced modulatory action of endothelial NO, which seems to be associated with reduced post-transcriptional expression of eNOS. PMID:18284813

Tirapelli, Carlos R; Leone, Andreia F C; Yogi, Alvaro; Tostes, Rita C; Lanchote, Vera L; Uyemura, Sergio A; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Padovan, Cláudia M; de Oliveira, Ana M; Coelho, Eduardo B



Ethanol enrichment from ethanol-water mixtures using high frequency ultrasonic atomization.  


The influence of high frequency ultrasound on the enrichment of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures was investigated. Experiments performed in a continuous enrichment system showed that the generated atomized mist was at a higher ethanol concentration than the feed and the enrichment ratio was higher than the vapor liquid equilibrium curve for ethanol-water above 40 mol%. Well-controlled experiments were performed to analyze the effect of physical parameters; temperature, carrier gas flow and collection height on the enrichment. Droplet size measurements of the atomized mist and visualization of the oscillating fountain jet formed during sonication were made to understand the separation mechanism. PMID:21300561

Kirpalani, D M; Suzuki, K



High Blood Cholesterol  


... by plaque. The buildup of plaque limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood through the artery. The inset image ... and narrows your coronary arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Eventually, an area ...


Myths about High Blood Pressure  


... you. Keep reading to learn some blood pressure myths. 1) Myth. High blood pressure runs in my family. There ... medication prescriptions. If you drink, limit alcohol. 2) Myth. I don’t use table salt, so I’ ...


What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...


High blood pressure tests (image)  


Routine lab tests are recommended before beginning treatment of high blood pressure to determine organ or tissue damage or other risk factors. These lab tests include urinalysis, blood cell count, ...


High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy  


... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...


Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.  


In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control). PMID:24659046

Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay



Preventive effect of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on blood ethanol elevation in ethanol-loaded rat: Structure requirement and suppression of gastric emptying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic extract from the leaves of Laurus nobilis (bay leaf, laurel) potently inhibited the elevation of blood ethanol level in ethanol-loaded rat. Through bioassay-guided separation, costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, and santamarine were isolated as the active constituents and the ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone structure was found to be essential for the preventive effect on ethanol absorption. In addition, the retardation of gastric emptying

Hisashi Matsuda; Hiroshi Shimoda; Toshiaki Uemura; Masayuki Yoshikawa



High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  


Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.



High Blood Pressure  


... need antihypertensive medicine? What are the risks and benefits of taking this medicine? Could alternative therapies such as meditation, yoga or acupuncture help lower my blood pressure? Bibliography American Heart ...


Assessment of postmortem blood alcohol concentrations by ethanol levels measured in fluids from putrefactive blisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was the aim of the present study to investigate whether the postmortem blood alcohol concentration (BAC) can be assessed by means of ethanol values measured in fluids from putrefactive blisters. Fluids from one or two putrefactive blisters were collected in 45 putrefied corpses (postmortem interval: 3–23 days, graduation of the degree of decomposition into four stages) and compared with

Wolfgang Grellner; Rolf Iffland



How Can High Blood Pressure Be Prevented?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can High Blood Pressure Be Prevented? If You Have Normal Blood Pressure ... Is High Blood Pressure Treated?" If You Have High Blood Pressure If you have HBP, you can still take ...


Microarray characterization of gene expression changes in blood during acute ethanol exposure  

PubMed Central

Background As part of the civil aviation safety program to define the adverse effects of ethanol on flying performance, we performed a DNA microarray analysis of human whole blood samples from a five-time point study of subjects administered ethanol orally, followed by breathalyzer analysis, to monitor blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to discover significant gene expression changes in response to the ethanol exposure. Methods Subjects were administered either orange juice or orange juice with ethanol. Blood samples were taken based on BAC and total RNA was isolated from PaxGene™ blood tubes. The amplified cDNA was used in microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses to evaluate differential gene expression. Microarray data was analyzed in a pipeline fashion to summarize and normalize and the results evaluated for relative expression across time points with multiple methods. Candidate genes showing distinctive expression patterns in response to ethanol were clustered by pattern and further analyzed for related function, pathway membership and common transcription factor binding within and across clusters. RT-qPCR was used with representative genes to confirm relative transcript levels across time to those detected in microarrays. Results Microarray analysis of samples representing 0%, 0.04%, 0.08%, return to 0.04%, and 0.02% wt/vol BAC showed that changes in gene expression could be detected across the time course. The expression changes were verified by qRT-PCR. The candidate genes of interest (GOI) identified from the microarray analysis and clustered by expression pattern across the five BAC points showed seven coordinately expressed groups. Analysis showed function-based networks, shared transcription factor binding sites and signaling pathways for members of the clusters. These include hematological functions, innate immunity and inflammation functions, metabolic functions expected of ethanol metabolism, and pancreatic and hepatic function. Five of the seven clusters showed links to the p38 MAPK pathway. Conclusions The results of this study provide a first look at changing gene expression patterns in human blood during an acute rise in blood ethanol concentration and its depletion because of metabolism and excretion, and demonstrate that it is possible to detect changes in gene expression using total RNA isolated from whole blood. The analysis approach for this study serves as a workflow to investigate the biology linked to expression changes across a time course and from these changes, to identify target genes that could serve as biomarkers linked to pilot performance. PMID:23883607



Ethanol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein cholesterol  

SciTech Connect

Male squirrel monkeys fed ethanol at variable doses were used to assess whether alcohol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in vivo. Monkeys were divided into three groups: 1) controls fed isocaloric liquid diet; 2) low ethanol monkeys fed liquid diet with vodka substituted isocalorically for carbohydrate at 12% of calories; and 3) High Ethanol animals fed diet plus vodka at 24% of calories. High Ethanol primates had significantly higher levels of HDL nonesterified cholesterol than Control and Low Ethanol animals while serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase was similar for the three treatments. There were no significant differences between the groups in HDL cholesteryl ester mass or specific activity following intravenous injection of labeled mevalonolactone. By contrast, High Ethanol monkeys had significantly greater HDL nonesterified cholesterol specific activity with approximately 60% of the radioactivity distributed in the HDL/sub 3/ subfraction. This report provides the first experimental evidence that ethanol at 24% of calories induces elevations in HDL cholesterol in primates through enhanced de novo synthesis without adverse effects on liver function.

Cluette, J.E.; Mulligan, J.J.; Noring, R.; Doyle, K.; Hojnacki, J.



Occurrence of 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, a condensation product of cysteine and acetaldehyde, in human blood as a consequence of ethanol consumption.  


Acetaldehyde is a strongly electrophilic compound that is endogenously produced as a first intermediate in oxidative ethanol metabolism. Its high reactivity towards biogenic nucleophiles has toxicity as a consequence. Acetaldehyde readily undergoes a non-enzymatic condensation reaction and consecutive ring formation with cysteine to form 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA). For analytical purposes, N-acetylation of MTCA was required for stabilization and to enable its quantification by reversed-phase chromatography combined with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Qualitative screening of post mortem blood samples with negative blood alcohol concentration (BAC) mostly showed low basal levels of MTCA. In BAC-positive post mortem samples, but not in corresponding urine specimens, strongly increased levels were present. To estimate the association between ethanol consumption and the occurrence of MTCA in human blood, the time curves of BAC and MTCA concentration were determined after a single oral dose of 0.5 g ethanol per kilogram of body weight. The blood elimination kinetics of MTCA was slower than that of ethanol. The peak concentration of MTCA (12.6 mg L(-1)) was observed 4 h after ethanol intake (BAC 0.07‰) and MTCA was still detectable after 13 h. Although intermediary acetaldehyde scavenging by formation of MTCA is interesting from a toxicological point of view, lack of hydrolytic stability under physiological conditions may hamper the use of MTCA as a quantitative marker of acetaldehyde exposure, such as resulting from alcohol consumption. PMID:22941064

Reischl, Roland J; Bicker, Wolfgang; Keller, Thomas; Lamprecht, Günther; Lindner, Wolfgang



Development of Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Sensitization and Relapse Drinking in Mice Selected for High or Low Ethanol Preference  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that high alcohol consumption is associated with low withdrawal susceptiblility, while at the same time, other studies have shown that exposure to ethanol vapor increases alcohol drinking in rats and mice. In the present studies, we sought to shed light on this seeming contradiction by using mice selectively bred for High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preference, first, assessing these lines for differences in signs of ethanol withdrawal and second, for differences in the efficacy of intermittent alcohol vapor exposure on elevating subsequent ethanol intake. Methods Experiment 1 examined whether these lines of mice differed in ethanol withdrawal-induced CNS hyperexcitability and the development of sensitization to this effect following intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Adult HAP and LAP lines (replicates 1 and 2), and the C3H/HeNcr inbred strain (included as a control genotype for comparison purposes) received intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor and were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures assessed by scoring handling-induced convulsions (HIC). Experiment 2 examined the influence of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on voluntary ethanol drinking. Adult male and female HAP-2 and LAP-2 mice, along with male C57BL/6J (included as comparative controls) were trained to drink 10% ethanol using a limited access (2 hr/day) 2-bottle choice paradigm. After stable baseline daily intake was established, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers. Ethanol intake sessions resumed 72 hr after final ethanol (or air) exposure for 5 consecutive days. Results Following chronic ethanol treatment, LAP mice exhibited overall greater withdrawal seizure activity compared to HAP mice. In Experiment 2, chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal resulted in a significant increase in ethanol intake in male C57BL/6J, and modestly elevated intake in HAP-2 male mice. Ethanol intake for male control mice did not change from baseline levels of intake. In contrast, HAP-2 females and LAP-2 mice of both sexes did not show changes in ethanol intake as a consequence of intermittent ethanol exposure. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the magnitude of ethanol withdrawal-related seizures is inversely related to inherited ethanol intake preference. Additionally, intermittent ethanol vapor exposure appears more likely to affect high-drinking mice (C57BL/6J and HAP-2) than low drinkers, even though these animals are less affected by ethanol withdrawal. PMID:21314693

Lopez, Marcelo F.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Becker, Howard C.



Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models.  


To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX) receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573) on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P) rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark) model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting non-specific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting non-specific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol consumption. PMID:24616657

Anderson, Rachel I; Becker, Howard C; Adams, Benjamin L; Jesudason, Cynthia D; Rorick-Kehn, Linda M



Intermittent high-dose ethanol exposures increase motivation for operant ethanol self-administration: Possible neurochemical mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the neurochemical mechanism of how high-dose ethanol exposure may increase motivation for ethanol consumption. First, we developed an animal model of increased motivation for ethanol using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Sprague–Dawley rats were trained to administer 10% ethanol-containing gelatin or plain gelatin (on alternate weeks) in daily 30-min sessions under different fixed ratio (FR) and PR schedules.

Zhimin Li; Alevtina Zharikova; Cheryl H. Vaughan; Jaime Bastian; Shannon Zandy; Leonardo Esperon; Elyssia Axman; Neil E. Rowland; Joanna Peris




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstruct  Ethanol can be directly blended with gasoline, reacted with isobutylene to form the oxygenated fuel additive ethyl tert-butyl\\u000a ether (ETBE), or burned directly as a neat fuel. Blends of either ethanol or ETBE with gasoline force engines set for gasoline\\u000a to run lean and can substantially reduce carbon monoxide emissions. ETBE also lowers the overall vapor pressure, thereby cutting\\u000a back

Charles E. Wyman; Norman D. Hinman



Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure  


... Tools & Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...


Ethanol and acetonitrile-induced inhibition of water diffusional permeability across bovine red blood cell membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 0–3% (v\\/v) ethanol and acetonitrile on water diffusional permeability of bovine and chicken red blood cells (RBCs) was studied using a pulse1H-T2 NMR technique. Transmembrane water diffusional exchange times, ?exch, of 9.2 ± 0.46 ms and 18.3 ± 1.0 ms were determined for bovine and chicken erythrocytes at 27.5° C, respectively. Arrhenius activation energies Ea of water

Gojmir Lahajnar



Effect of ethanol on pancreatic interstitial pH and blood flow in cats with chronic pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol on pancreatic blood flow and interstitial pH in chronic pancreatitis. BACKGROUND: Ethanol is known to contribute to the development of both acute and chronic pancreatitis. However, it is unclear how ethanol precipitates episodes of acute pancreatic inflammation in the setting of chronic pancreatitis. In a model of chronic pancreatitis in cats, it is known that pancreatic blood flow is abnormally low and decreases further after ethanol ingestion. Because it is possible that this reduction in blood flow might be damaging to the pancreas, we investigated the effects of ethanol on pancreatic interstitial pH, an index of pancreatic ischemia. METHODS: In normal cats and cats with obstructive chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic blood flow and interstitial pH were measured using the hydrogen gas clearance technique and pH microelectrode, respectively. RESULTS: In normal cats, intragastric, but not intravenous, ethanol reduced both pancreatic blood flow by 62% (p < 0.05) and interstitial pH (7.38 +/- 0.03 to 7.20 +/- 0.03, p < 0.05). In cats with chronic pancreatitis in which basal pancreatic blood flow was already only 60% of normal flow, both intragastric and intravenous ethanol decreased both pancreatic blood flow (intragastric, 40% decrease, p < 0.05; intravenous, 34% decrease, p < 0.05) and interstitial pH (intragastric, 7.24 +/- 0.04 to 7.08 +/- 0.04, p < 0.05; intravenous 7.20 +/- 0.08 to 7.07 +/- 0.07, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This profound decrease in pH, lasting up to 2 hours after ethanol exposure in the chronic pancreatitis animals, suggests the possibility of ischemic cellular damage to the pancreas. These findings may explain the pathogenesis of bouts of acute pancreatic inflammation after ethanol ingestion in the setting of chronic disease. PMID:9065300

Toyama, M T; Patel, A G; Nguyen, T; Ashley, S W; Reber, H A



Lignocellulosic ethanol production at high-gravity: challenges and perspectives.  


In brewing and ethanol-based biofuel industries, high-gravity fermentation produces 10-15% (v/v) ethanol, resulting in improved overall productivity, reduced capital cost, and reduced energy input compared to processing at normal gravity. High-gravity technology ensures a successful implementation of cellulose to ethanol conversion as a cost-competitive process. Implementation of such technologies is possible if all process steps can be performed at high biomass concentrations. This review focuses on challenges and technological efforts in processing at high-gravity conditions and how these conditions influence the physiology and metabolism of fermenting microorganisms, the action of enzymes, and other process-related factors. Lignocellulosic materials add challenges compared to implemented processes due to high inhibitors content and the physical properties of these materials at high gravity. PMID:24231155

Koppram, Rakesh; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Xiros, Charilaos; Olsson, Lisbeth



Acute normovolaemic anaemia prevents ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats through a blood flow related mechanism.  


The aim of the study was to assess whether changes in gastric mucosal blood flow induced by acute normovolaemic anaemia influence the susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to ethanol-induced damage, and the relationship of these changes with nitric oxide biosynthesis. Acute normovolaemic anaemia, promoted by exchanging 3 ml of blood by a plasma expander, induced a significant increase in gastric mucosal blood flow measured by hydrogen gas clearance, without changes in arterial blood pressure. After intragastric 60% ethanol administration, gastric blood flow was still significantly higher in anaemic than in control rats, and this was associated with a lower macroscopic and microscopic gastric damage. Following ethanol administration, anaemic rats pretreated with an inhibitor of nitric oxide biosynthesis (L-NMMA, 50 mg/kg, i.v.) had a lower gastric blood flow and a higher macroscopic gastric damage than anaemic rats without pretreatment. Anaemic rats pretreated with vasopressin also had after ethanol administration a lower gastric blood flow and a higher macroscopic gastric damage. It is concluded that acute normovolaemic anaemia protects the gastric mucosa against damage induced by intragastric ethanol. The inhibition of nitric oxide biosynthesis reverts in part this protective effect, and this seems to be related with the capability of nitric oxide to increase gastric mucosal blood flow, since vasoconstriction by a nitric oxide-independent mechanism causes a similar effect. PMID:7870197

Casadevall, M; Piqué, J M; Cirera, I; Barrachina, M D; Terés, J



How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated? High blood pressure (HBP) is treated with lifestyle changes and medicines. ... The NHLBI "Grand Opportunity" Exome Sequencing Project Managing High Blood Pressure With Lifestyle Changes Myth-busting blood pressure - a ...


Comparative Polygenic Analysis of Maximal Ethanol Accumulation Capacity and Tolerance to High Ethanol Levels of Cell Proliferation in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ?17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ?17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance. PMID:23754966

Pais, Thiago M.; Foulquie-Moreno, Maria R.; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Francoise; Thevelein, Johan M.



Hexitol repression effects in the high corn ethanol fermentation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Manitol and sorbitol were used in theSaccharomyces cerevisiae glucose ethanol fermentation to study osmotic and membrane transport effects in the presence of non-saccharified high corn solids. Both hexitols caused temporary depression of alcohol yield during the early growth period but did not appear to affect maximum hourly production rates.

Jack Ziffer



Evidence-based survey of the elimination rates of ethanol from blood with applications in forensic casework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable information about the elimination rate of alcohol (ethanol) from blood is often needed in forensic science and legal medicine when alcohol-related crimes, such as drunken driving or drug-related sexual assault are investigated. A blood sample for forensic analysis might not be taken until several hours after an offence was committed. The courts usually want to know the suspect's blood-alcohol

Alan Wayne Jones



Performance of dairy cows fed high levels of acetic acid or ethanol.  


Ethanol and acetic acid are common end products from silages. The main objective of this study was to determine whether high concentrations of ethanol or acetic acid in total mixed ration would affect performance in dairy cows. Thirty mid-lactation Holstein cows were grouped in 10 blocks and fed one of the following diets for 7 wk: (1) control (33% Bermuda hay + 67% concentrates), (2) ethanol [control diet + 5% ethanol, dry matter (DM) basis], or (3) acetic acid (control diet + 5% acetic acid, DM basis). Ethanol and acetic acid were diluted in water (1:2) and sprayed onto total mixed rations twice daily before feeding. An equal amount of water was mixed with the control ration. To adapt animals to these treatments, cows were fed only half of the treatment dose during the first week of study. Cows fed ethanol yielded more milk (37.9 kg/d) than those fed the control (35.8 kg/d) or acetic acid (35.3 kg/d) diets, mainly due to the higher DM intake (DMI; 23.7, 22.2, and 21.6 kg/d, respectively). The significant diet × week interaction for DMI, mainly during wk 2 and 3 (when acetic acid reached the full dose), was related to the decrease in DMI observed for the acetic acid treatment. There was a diet × week interaction in excretion of milk energy per DMI during wk 2 and 3, due to cows fed acetic acid sustained milk yield despite lower DMI. Energy efficiency was similar across diets. Blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, ethanol, and ?-glutamyl transferase activity) and sensory characteristics of milk were not affected by these treatments. Animal performance suggested similar energy value for the diet containing ethanol compared with other diets. Rumen conversion of ethanol to acetate and a concomitant increase in methane production might be a plausible explanation for the deviation of the predicted energy value based on the heat of combustion. Therefore, the loss of volatile compounds during the drying process in the laboratory should be considered when calculating energy content of fermented feedstuffs. PMID:23141834

Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Sá Neto, A; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Bispo, A W; Zopollatto, M; Cardoso, T L; Spoto, M H F; Santos, F A P; Nussio, L G



How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated?  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated? High blood cholesterol is treated with lifestyle ... need to follow a heart healthy diet . Lowering Cholesterol Using Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes TLC is a set ...


What Are the Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure?  


... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure (HBP) itself usually has no ... your risk for related health problems. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...


Symptoms and Dangers of High Blood Sugar  


... is high. This can lead to yeast and fungal infections. Examples include: A rash in the genital area or other moist surfaces A discharge from the vagina A sore throat Athlete's foot All of these symptoms can be relieved with treatment that controls high blood sugar. If the blood sugar levels ...


More Americans Controlling Their High Blood Pressure  


... page, please enable JavaScript. More Americans Controlling Their High Blood Pressure Government researchers report the numbers are looking better, ... November 16, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Statistics High Blood Pressure SUNDAY, Nov. 16, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A growing ...


American Heart Month National High Blood  

E-print Network

FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National Cholesterol Education Month Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Heart for Heart Health # P2-2 Risk Factors - High Blood Pressure # P2-3 Sodium is needed to. . . # P2-4 Sources


Acrylonitrile has Distinct Hormetic Effects on Acetyl-Cholinesterase Activity in Mouse Brain and Blood that are Modulated by Ethanol  

PubMed Central

Acrylonitrile(AN) is a neurotoxin both in animals and humans, but its effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity remain controversial. This study aimed to determine the dose-response effects of AN on AChE activity and the modulatory role of ethanol pre-treatment. A total of 144 Kunming mice were randomly divided into 18 groups: nine groups received 5% ethanol in their drinking water, and the remaining nine groups received regular tap water. One week later, both the ethanol and tap water only groups were given an intraperitoneal injection of AN at the following doses: 0 (control), 0.156, 0.3125, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg AN/kg body weight. AChE activity was determined on whole blood and brain 24 h later. Blood AChE activity was higher in AN-injected mice than in controls at all doses. AChE activity in blood increased in a dose-dependent manner, peaking at 0.156 mg/kg, after which a gradual decrease ensued, displaying a ?-typed dose-response relationship. In contrast, brain AChE activity, following a single AN injection, was consistently lower than in control mice, and continued to fall up to a dose of 0.313 mg/kg, and thereafter increased gradually with higher doses. Mice receiving a 20 mg/kg dose of AN exhibited AChE brain activity indistinguishable from that of control mice, demonstrating a typical U-typed dose-response relationship. The activity of AChE in the blood and brain of the AN + ethanol-treated groups displayed a shift to the right, and the magnitude of the decrease in AChE activity induced by AN was attenuated relative to the AN-only group. These results suggest that AN affects AChE activity in both mouse blood and brain in a hormetic manner. Pretreatment with ethanol modifies the effect of AN on AChE, indicating that parent AN has a more prominent role than its metabolites in modulating enzyme activity. PMID:23550232

Yuanqing, He; Suhua, Wang; Guangwei, Xing; Chunlan, Ren; Hai, Qian; Wenrong, Xu; Rongzhu, Lu; Aschner, Michael; Milatovic, Dejan



Cerebral blood flow and dynamic cerebral autoregulation during ethanol intoxication and hypercapnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than one-third of patients diagnosed with head injury are intoxicated with ethanol. Most clinical and animal studies have shown alcohol to have a deleterious impact in the setting of cerebrovascular trauma; however, there are also data showing neuroprotective effects in low ethanol doses. Human studies using imaging modalities suggest that small doses of alcohol produce cerebral vasodilatation and higher

Martin Blaha; Rune Aaslid; Colleen M Douville; Reinaldo Correra; David W Newell



Blood alcohol concentration for monitoring ethanol treatment to prevent alcohol withdrawal in the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a serious complication during postoperative treatment in chronic alcoholics. Despite prophylactic treatment, AWS occurs in at least 25% of these patients after elective surgery. An established protocol for the prevention of AWS is ethanol administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in ethanol dose and levels between successfully treated patients

Verena Eggers; Joke Tio; Tim Neumann; Fritz Pragst; Christian Müller; Lutz G. Schmidt; Wolfgang J. Kox; Claudia D. Spies



Binge Drinking and High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... October 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse High Blood Pressure Underage Drinking Transcript New ... the study.The team looked at patterns of alcohol use, the amount of alcohol consumed, the age ...


High Blood Pressure: The Science Inside  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This booklet is a resource to help individuals at risk to high blood pressure. Supported by Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) from the National Center for Research Resources Grant # 5R25RR15601

Healthy People Library Project;



Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3?H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6?% higher ethanol concentration and a 17?% higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic fermentation performance for sustainable bio-ethanol production. PMID:22839110



Separation of high-value products from ethanol extracts of corn by chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research details the development of a new one-step process for producing high-value products such as zein and xanthophylls from corn to enhance the economic viability of the dry-grind ethanol industry. This process was designed for incorporation in a dry-grind ethanol plant, and thus in-house ethanol was the processing solvent for the entire processing chain, from the initial extraction of

Aniket Kale; Fangyi Zhu; Munir Cheryan



Ethanol induced adaptive changes in blood for the pathological and toxicological effects of chronic ethanol consumption in humans.  


Alcohol consumption is associated with a number of toxicological changes in blood and the oxidant-antioxidant system. The present study was performed to investigate the alcohol induced toxicological, pathological changes in blood and an adaptive role of erythrocyte antioxidant system in chronic alcoholics. Human male volunteers aged 44±6 years with similar dietary habits were divided into two groups, namely non-alcoholic controls and chronic alcoholics. We measured hematological parameters, erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, NO production, erythrocyte antioxidant and liver function test enzyme activities. Alcoholics had increased erythrocyte nitric oxide levels and also elevated erythrocyte lipid malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Strikingly, increments in reduced glutathione and markedly increased activities of certain antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and another related enzyme G-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PDH) with no alterations in the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) in chronic alcoholics were observed compared to controls. Furthermore, erythrocyte NO levels were positively correlated with lipid peroxidation, SOD, GSH, GR and G6PDH in chronic alcoholics. In addition, increased AST/ALT ratio and a significant increase in WBC and platelets were also noticed. Together, these results indicate that, antioxidants and defense enzymes appear to be rendering protection as a consequence of chronic adaptation in alcoholics. PMID:21282047

Maturu, Paramahamsa; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula



Over-the-Counter Medications and High Blood Pressure  


... along with all of our regular issues. Interactive High Blood Pressure Guide Find videos, quizzes, trackers and more with ... Get started ! Also available as a downloadable PDF . High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...



EPA Science Inventory

This study was designed to assess the thermoregulatory mechanisms responsible for the elevation in body temperature following ethanol administration when exposed to a high ambient temperature (Ta). ale rats of the Fischer 344 strain were gavaged with 20% ethanol at doses of 0, 2....


Selective oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid in highly efficient polymer electrolyte membrane-direct ethanol fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective conversion of ethanol into potassium acetate with concomitant production of electrical energy has been achieved in both passive and active direct fuel cells containing platinum-free electrodes and an anion-exchange polymer membrane. The power densities supplied by the passive systems at r.t. can be as high as 55mWcm?2, while the active systems can deliver up to 170mWcm?2 at 80°C.

Claudio Bianchini; Valentina Bambagioni; Jonathan Filippi; Andrea Marchionni; Francesco Vizza; Paolo Bert; Alessandro Tampucci



Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol  


... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...


"Jello® Shots" and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats  

PubMed Central

Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose); ethanol concentration (4% or 10%); and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib.) during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed. PMID:24284614

Dess, Nancy K.; Madkins, Chardonnay D.; Geary, Bree A.; Chapman, Clinton D.



Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes  


Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? ©2009 by ... having your blood pressure checked regularly. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow ...


Behavioral interactions between ethanol and imidazodiazepines with high affinities for benzodiazepine receptors  

SciTech Connect

The intrinsic effect of two imidazodiazepines RO 15-3505 and RO 17-1812 on the behavior of mice in a holeboard test were investigated. The interactions of these two drugs with ethanol were also studied. RO 15-3505 failed to significantly alter either exploratory head-dipping or locomotor activity when administered alone but doses of 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg reversed the reduction in the number of head-dips caused by ethanol and partially reversed ethanol's locomotor stimulant action. In contrast, RO 17-1812 increased locomotor activity when administered alone, and enhanced the reduction in exploration caused by ethanol. Neither RO 15-3505 nor RO 17-1812 altered blood alcohol concentrations suggesting a pharmacodynamic basis for these interactions. The results suggest that in the holeboard test the interactions of imidazodiazepines with ethanol are related to the nature of their interaction with benzodiazepine receptors, inverse agonists antagonising and agonists enhancing ethanol's effects on exploration.

Lister, R.G.



American Heart Month National High Blood  

E-print Network

FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National-3 Texas Cholesterol Statistics # P3-4 Lipoprotein Profile # P3-5 What Affects Cholesterol Levels? (cannot control) # P3-6 What Affects Cholesterol Levels? (can control) # P3-7 Nutrition Facts # P3-8 Cut Fat


Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))



Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus.

Kumar, V.; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C. D.; Khanna, Geetika



Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats.  


Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

Kumar, V; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, Geetika



Ethanol locomotor sensitization, but not tolerance correlates with selection for alcohol preference in high- and low-alcohol preferring mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Some theories have advanced a role for both locomotor sensitization and tolerance in the reinforcing properties of drugs.\\u000a The present studies used selected lines of mice to assess genetic correla- tions among ethanol drinking, ethanol locomotor\\u000a sensitization, and tolerance to the depressant effects of ethanol. Objectives: Ethanol-naive high- and low-alcohol preferring (HAP and LAP) selected lines of mice were

Nicholas J. Grahame; Kristina Rodd-Henricks; Ting-Kai Li; Lawrence Lumeng



Role of an Ethanolic Extract of Crotalaria juncea L. on High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic effects of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) by performing in vivo studies. Methods The effects of oral administration of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) in rats fed with a high-fat diet were investigated by evaluating parameters like food consumption, weight gain, fecal fat excretion, serum and liver lipids, and biochemical profiles as well as by histopathological studies. The results were compared to animals fed with the standard diet and animals fed with a high-fat diet and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg BW). Results The animal group administered with the ethanolic extract for 35 days showed decreased levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, TG, HDL+VLDL, VLDL+LDL, LDL/TC, AI, SGOT, SGPT, and elevated levels of HDL, HDL/TC, significantly (p<0.01 & p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of liver tissues of the animal groups treated with the herbal extract and standard had shown increased levels of SOD, GSH, and catalase, whereas levels of SGOT, SGPT, total glucose, HMG-CoA, lipase, amylase, and the percentage of malon-dialdehyde were decreased when compared with the high-fat diet-fed rats. Body weight and food intake in the treated groups were significantly lower than that in the model control. Conclusion The present study showed that an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea L. influences several blood lipid and metabolic parameters in rats, suggesting a potential benefit as an antihypercholesterolemic agent. PMID:24959408

Kumar, Dinakaran Sathis; David, Banji; Harani, Avasarala; Vijay, Bhaskar



CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol  


... Vital Signs Share Compartir High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control February 2011 39 Every 39 ... High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...


High blood pressure and visual sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.



High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know  


... Parents Need to Know High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know ... children, the sooner it can be treated. All children 3 years of age and older should have ...


High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke  


... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ... 800,000 Americans suffer a stroke each year. High blood pressure is the chief culprit, and atrial fibrillation isn’ ...


Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure  


... nurse. Talk With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Partnership for HEALTH Here are some questions to ... What can you do to prevent or control high blood pressure? 1. Quit smoking and/or chewing tobacco. Ask ...


A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

Podell, Richard N.



High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor  


What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...


varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure  

E-print Network

varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack arthritis prostate disease bladder infection incontinence cancer varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu

Diggle, Peter J.


Barbershops Join Fight Against High Blood Pressure in Black Men  


... Join Fight Against High Blood Pressure in Black Men Novel partnership detects "silent killer" in more than ... overlooked health concern: high blood pressure among black men. In a novel partnership, the U.S. Centers for ...


Performance, emission and combustion characteristic of a multicylinder DI diesel engine running on diesel–ethanol–biodiesel blends of high ethanol content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feasibility of using high percentage of ethanol in diesel–ethanol blends, with biodiesel as a co-solvent and properties enhancer has been investigated. The blends tested are D70\\/E20\\/B10 (blend A), D50\\/E30\\/B20 (blend B) D50\\/E40\\/B10 (blend C), and Diesel (D100). The blends are prepared to get maximum percentage of oxygen content but keeping important properties such as density, viscosity and Cetane index within

Dattatray Bapu Hulwan; Satishchandra V. Joshi



Ethanol production from high cellulose concentration by the basidiomycete fungus Flammulina velutipes.  


Ethanol production by Flammulina velutipes from high substrate concentrations was evaluated. F. velutipes produces approximately 40-60 g l(-1) ethanol from 15% (w/v) D-glucose, D-fructose, D-mannose, sucrose, maltose, and cellobiose, with the highest conversion rate of 83% observed using cellobiose as a carbon source. We also attempted to assess direct ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse cellulose (SCBC) by F. velutipes. The hydrolysis rate of 15% (w/v) SCBC with commercial cellulase was approximately 20%. In contrast, F. velutipes was able to produce a significant amount of ethanol from 15% SCBC with the production of ?-glucosidase, cellobohydrolase, and cellulase, although the addition of a small amount of commercial cellulase to the culture was required for the conversion. When 9 mg g(-1) biomass of commercial cellulase was added to cultures, 0.36 g of ethanol was produced from 1 g of cellulose, corresponding to an ethanol conversion rate of 69.6%. These results indicate that F. velutipes would be useful for consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol. PMID:23537879

Maehara, Tomoko; Ichinose, Hitomi; Furukawa, Takanori; Ogasawara, Wataru; Takabatake, Koji; Kaneko, Satoshi



Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by combining high-pressure thermal sterilization and ethanol.  


High-pressure thermal sterilization (HPTS) is a new and promising sterilization technology of foods. Effects of combining HPTS and ethanol treatment on inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores were investigated. An interesting phenomenon was observed. The inactivation effect of HPTS treatment on the spores was enhanced significantly with the increase in ethanol concentration from 0 to 15%. However, the inactivation effect was decreased with further increase in ethanol concentration up to 70%. In addition, the release of DPA and leakages of OD(260) and OD(280) material from the spores increased continuously with the increase in ethanol concentration. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis suggested that although the inner membrane of the spores was damaged, PI could not bind with the spore DNA immediately after HPTS treatment. In conclusion, the mechanism of this special phenomenon could be attributed to the germination of spores under HPTS treatment and effects of ethanol on the protein or water activity. HPTS caused other lethal damages to the spores besides its damage to the inner membrane. Ethanol of low concentrations could significantly enhance the sterilization effects of HPTS, which was good for keeping the qualities of foods. PMID:23177048

Zhang, Zhong; Jiang, Bin; Liao, Xiaojun; Yi, Jianyong; Hu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yan



The relationship between adjunctive drinking, blood ethanol concentration and plasma corticosterone across fixed-time intervals of food delivery in two inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Summary Schedules of intermittent food delivery induce excessive fluid intake, termed schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is important for the expression and maintenance of this adjunctive behavior. Previous work has focused of examining the relationship between water intake and plasma corticosterone (CORT) in rats at a single or a limited range of fixed time (FT) intervals. However, little remains known regarding SIP and the corresponding stress response 1) across the bitonic function that epitomizes adjunctive behavior, 2) when ethanol is the available fluid, and 3) when a species other than rat or multiple strains are studied. Here we report the findings from ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) and non-preferring DBA/2J (D2) mice serially exposed to progressively larger FT intervals (0 ? 60 min) and given access to either water or a 5% v/v ethanol solution. Following 2 weeks of experience with each schedule, blood samples were collected at the conclusion of the last 60-min session to evaluate CORT and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) achieved. While both strains exhibited a bitonic function of ethanol intake and BEC that peaked at or near a 5-min interval, only D2 mice showed a similar response with water. In contrast, CORT levels rose monotonically with incremental increases in the FT interval regardless of the strain examined or fluid type offered, indicating that glucocorticoid release likely reflects the aversive aspects of increasing intervals between reinforcement rather than engagement in adjunctive behavior. These findings also caution against the use of a single intensity stressor to evaluate the relationship between stress and ethanol intake, as the magnitude of stress appears to affect ethanol consumption in a non-linear fashion. PMID:23827168

Ford, Matthew M.; Steele, Andrea M.; McCracken, Aubrey D.; Finn, Deborah A.; Grant, Kathleen A.



Repeated Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking Alters Ethanol Drinking Patterns and Depresses Striatal GABAergic Transmission  

PubMed Central

Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the ‘drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a ‘front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15?min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum. PMID:23995582

Wilcox, Mark V; Carlson, Verginia C Cuzon; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A



Does the clinical use of ethanol-based hand sanitizer elevate blood alcohol levels? A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEthanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) are used in most health care facilities in the United States. Infection control personnel advocate the use of generous quantities of EBHS before and after contact with patients. Although it is assumed that little systemic absorption of ethanol occurs during EBHS use, many alcohols are absorbed to varying degrees via the transdermal route. Ethanol intoxication by

Michael A. Miller; Alex Rosin; Marc E. Levsky; Manish M. Patel; Timothy J. D. Gregory; Chad S. Crystal



Effects of route of administration of ethanol on high-speed reaction time in young and old rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) and reactive capacity of young (8 months) and old (24 months) male Fischer 344 rats were compared at 5, 10, 20, 45, 65, and 90 min following the administration of ethanol (EtOH). The time-dependent effects of intragastric intubation (IG; 3 g\\/kg) and intraperitoneal injection (IP; 1.5 g\\/kg) of EtOH (20% w\\/v) were determined. Subsequent to

Waneen W. Spirduso; Dayne Mayfield; Mitzie Grant; Timothy Schallert



Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations  

PubMed Central

The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L?1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h?1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L?1) and very high (100–200 g·L?1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L?1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L?1·h?1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L?1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L?1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials. PMID:25028956

Ylitervo, Paivi; Franzen, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.



[High blood pressure and physical exercise].  


High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. PMID:24928464

Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D



High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know  


High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents Why Is Cholesterol Important? How Does Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease? ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...


High Blood Pressure May Protect the Very Old from Dementia  


... Blood Pressure May Protect the Very Old From Dementia But it's too early to recommend any change ... 2014) Monday, July 14, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia High Blood Pressure MONDAY, July 14, 2014 (HealthDay ...



EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...


Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials at high temperature using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displaying cellulolytic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To exploit cellulosic materials for fuel ethanol production, a microorganism capable of high temperature and simultaneous\\u000a saccharification–fermentation has been required. However, a major drawback is the optimum temperature for the saccharification\\u000a and fermentation. Most ethanol-fermenting microbes have an optimum temperature for ethanol fermentation ranging between 28 °C\\u000a and 37 °C, while the activity of cellulolytic enzymes is highest at around 50 °C and

Shuhei Yanase; Tomohisa Hasunuma; Ryosuke Yamada; Tsutomu Tanaka; Chiaki Ogino; Hideki Fukuda; Akihiko Kondo



High ethanol consumption and low sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation in protein kinase A-mutant mice.  


Both in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) mediates some of the acute and chronic cellular responses to alcohol. However, it is unclear whether PKA regulates voluntary alcohol consumption. We therefore studied alcohol consumption by mice that completely lack the regulatory IIbeta (RIIbeta) subunit of PKA as a result of targeted gene disruption. Here we report that RIIbeta knockout mice (RIIbeta-/-) showed incr eased consumption of solutions containing 6, 10, and 20% (v/v) ethanol when compared with wild-type mice (RIIbeta+/+). On the other hand, RIIbeta-/- mice showed normal consumption of solutions containing either sucrose or quinine. When compared with wild-type mice, the RIIbeta-/- mice were found to be less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol as measured by more rapid recovery from ethanol-induced sleep, even though plasma ethanol concentrations did not differ significantly from those of controls. Finally, both RIbeta- and catylatic subunit beta1-deficient mice showed normal voluntary consumption of ethanol, indicating that increased ethanol consumption is not a general characteristic associated with deletion of PKA subunits. These data demonstrate a role for the RIIbeta subunit of PKA in regulating voluntary consumption of alcohol and sensitivity to the intoxication effects that are produced by this drug. PMID:10783399

Thiele, T E; Willis, B; Stadler, J; Reynolds, J G; Bernstein, I L; McKnight, G S



Porous single-crystalline palladium nanoflowers with enriched {100} facets for highly enhanced ethanol oxidation.  


Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black. PMID:25370157

Qi, Kun; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Xiaoqiang



Diamagnetic orientation of blood cells in high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamagnetic orientation of blood cells has been investigated in static high magnetic fields. The anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility Deltachi of erythrocytes and blood platelets are determined. Deltachi of blood platelets is 1.5 times larger than that of erythrocytes. The contribution of microtubules to the Deltachi of platelets is also discussed.

A. Yamagashi; T. Takeuchi; T. Hagashi; M. Date



Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production cost reductions almost independently of each other. PMID:18471311

Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido



When Blood Sugar Is Too High  


... range as possible, which means following your diabetes management plan. Checking your blood sugar levels several times a day will let you know ... your blood sugar levels regularly and your ketone levels when your diabetes management plan recommends it. Stick to your diabetes management ...


Impact of reformulated ethanol-gasoline blends on high-emitting vehicles.  


In-use vehicles which are high emitters (HEVs) make a large contribution to the emissions inventory. It is not known, however, whether HEVs share common emissions characteristics, and particularly the effect of ethanol blends. We study this by first examining laboratory measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions on ethanol blends containing 21%, 26% and 30% aromatics, and a reference fuel formulated with methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Switching from MTBE to ethanol fuels on HEVs shows no effect on the total emissions of regulated pollutants, but 1,3-butadiene emissions would increased substantially while the emissions of total carbonyls would not be affected except in the case of acetaldehyde, which would increase with EtOH. The ozone-forming potential of exhaust and evaporative emissions would be less using the EtOH blends and specific reactivity will not be incremented. Lowering the vapour pressure of the gasoline and increasing the proportions of alkylate and isomerate in the composition produces an ethanol-blended fuel with lower environmental impact both in normal vehicles and HEVs. PMID:23837342

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; González, Uriel



High temperature stimulates acetic acid accumulation and enhances the growth inhibition and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermenting conditions.  


Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high temperatures of up to 42 °C during ethanol fermentation at a high glucose concentration (i.e., 100 g/L) were investigated. Increased temperature correlated with stimulated glucose uptake to produce not only the thermal protectant glycerol but also ethanol and acetic acid. Carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle correlated positively with cultivation temperature. These results indicate that the increased demand for energy (in the form of ATP), most likely caused by multiple stressors, including heat, acetic acid, and ethanol, was matched by both the fermentation and respiration pathways. Notably, acetic acid production was substantially stimulated compared to that of other metabolites during growth at increased temperature. The acetic acid produced in addition to ethanol seemed to subsequently result in adverse effects, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, appeared to cause the specific growth rate, and glucose uptake rate reduced leading to a decrease of the specific ethanol production rate far before glucose depletion. These results suggest that adverse effects from heat, acetic acid, ethanol, and oxidative stressors are synergistic, resulting in a decrease of the specific growth rate and ethanol production rate and, hence, are major determinants of cell stability and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. The results are discussed in the context of possible applications. PMID:24706214

Woo, Ji-Min; Yang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Sae-Um; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung



High Blood Pressure in Acute Ischemic Stroke and Underlying Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Acute Candesartan Cilexetil Therapy in Stroke Survivors (ACCESS) study indicated that early treatment with an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker in acute stroke patients who had relatively high blood pressure improved cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic stage. To better interpret the findings of this study, we determined whether stroke patients with high acute blood pressure had

Kazunori Toyoda; Yasushi Okada; Juro Jinnouchi; Seiji Gotoh; Yoko Yokoyama; Shigeru Fujimoto; Setsuro Ibayashi



Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.





... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...




... mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. What Is Blood and What Does It Do? Two types of ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also called ...


Effect of ethanol on morphology and total, capillary, and shunted blood flow of different anatomical layers of dog jejunum  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of previous studies in our laboratory we postulated that the ethanol-induced alteration in jejunal morphology was the result of its effect on the microcirculation. The present study was undertaken to examine the validity of this hypothesis. Accordingly, the effects of intraluminal ethanol perfusion (3.0 and 6.0% w\\/v) on mucosal morphology; water, glucose, and sodium transport; and regional

Mikael G. Buell; P. K. Dinda; Ivan T. Beck



Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.  


High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688 g/g/h with 92 % theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same. PMID:24682264

Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K



At low doses ethanol maintains blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity after hypoxia and reoxygenation: a brain slice study.  


Post-ischemia ethanol (EtOH) treatments have been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects and those on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we determined whether administering differing concentrations of EtOH alter the expressions of BBB integral proteins, including aquaporins-4 and -9 (AQP-4, AQP-9), matrix metallopeptidases-2 and -9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and basal lamina (laminin). We employed an organotypic brain slice culture model that utilizes oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R). Brain slices were obtained from 10-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats and divided into the following five groups (n = 8 subjects per group): (1) control, (2) hypoxia (OGD/R), no EtOH, (3) OGD/R and 10 mM EtOH, (4) OGD/R and 30 mM EtOH, and (5) OGD/R and 90 mM EtOH. To assess BBB integrity, levels of AQPs, MMPs, ZO-1, and laminin were determined by Western blot. Compared to control, OGD/R without EtOH significantly increased AQP-4, AQP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-9 levels, while decreasing ZO-1 and laminin levels. All EtOH concentration treatments (groups 3 through 5) significantly reduced the expressions of AQP-4, AQP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-9, compared to the OGD/R, non-alcohol treated slices. Furthermore, compared to the OGD/R without EtOH group, the 30 mM EtOH treatment significantly increased ZO-1 and laminin levels. In contrast, the 90 mM EtOH level neither enhanced the reduction in AQP and MMP levels nor increased ZO-1 or basal lamina expressions observed in the 30 mM treatment. In conclusion, at an optimal dose of 30 mM, EtOH improves the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, AQP-4, AQP-9, ZO-1, and basal laminin, previously altered by OGD/R. These effects may indicate a beneficial effect of EtOH on BBB integrity after stroke. PMID:23582053

Peng, Changya; Li, William A; Fu, Paul; Chakraborty, Tia; Hussain, Mohammed; Guthikonda, Murali; Rafols, Jose A; Ding, Yuchuan



A highly sensitive ethanol sensor based on mesoporous ZnO-SnO2 nanofibers  

PubMed Central

A facile and versatile method for the large-scale synthesis of sensitive mesoporous ZnO–SnO2 (m-Z–S) nanofibers through a combination of surfactant-directed assembly and an electrospinning approach is reported. The morphology and the structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm analysis. The results showed that the diameters of fibers ranged from 100 to 150 nm with mixed structures of wurtzite (ZnO) and rutile (SnO2), and a mesoporous structure was observed in the m-Z–S nanofibers. The sensor performance of the prepared m-Z–S nanofibers was measured for ethanol. It is found that the mesoporous fiber film obtained exhibited excellent ethanol sensing properties, such as high sensitivity, quick response and recovery, good reproducibility, and linearity in the range 3–500 ppm. PMID:19417420

Song, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhaojie; Liu, Yongben; Wang, Ce; Li, Lijuan



Effects of Lycium barbarum aqueous and ethanol extracts on high-fat-diet induced oxidative stress in rat liver tissue.  


This study evaluated the protective effects of aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum (LBAE) and ethanol extract of Lycium barbarum (LBEE) on blood lipid levels, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver tissue antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed a high fat diet (HF). The rats were randomly divided into seven groups of ten rats each and fed a different diet for eight weeks as follows: One group (NC group) was fed a standard diet, one group was fed a high-fat diet (HF group), one group was fed a high-fat diet and orally fed with 20 mg/kg b.w. simvastatin (HF + simvastatin group), and the other group was fed the high fat diet and orally fed with 50 mg/kg b.w. or 100 mg/kg b.w. LBAE (HF + LBAE), or 50 mg/kg b.w. or 100 mg/kg b.w. LBEE (HF + LBEE), respectively. After eight weeks, the HF diet caused deleterious metabolic effects. Rats fed the HF diet alone showed increased hepatocellular enzyme activities in plasma, a significant decline in antioxidant enzyme activities, and elevated liver lipid peroxidation indices. LBAE and LBEE administration significantly reduced liver damage and oxidative changes, and brought back the antioxidants and lipids towards normal levels. These data suggest that these antioxidants protect against toxicity parameters in HF rats. PMID:22045040

Cui, BoKang; Liu, Su; Lin, XiaoJun; Wang, Jun; Li, ShuHong; Wang, QiBo; Li, ShengPing



Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the Research on ACEs, ARBs, and DRIs  


... Summary – Oct. 24, 2011 Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the Research on ACEIs, ... Tekturna®) No About Your Condition What is high blood pressure? “Blood pressure” is the force of blood ...


Cellulases without carbohydrate-binding modules in high consistency ethanol production process  

PubMed Central

Background Enzymes still comprise a major part of ethanol production costs from lignocellulose raw materials. Irreversible binding of enzymes to the residual substrate prevents their reuse and no efficient methods for recycling of enzymes have so far been presented. Cellulases without a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) have been found to act efficiently at high substrate consistencies and to remain non-bound after the hydrolysis. Results High hydrolysis yields could be obtained with thermostable enzymes of Thermoascus aurantiacus containing only two main cellulases: cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), Cel7A and endoglucanase II (EG II), Cel5A. The yields were decreased by only about 10% when using these cellulases without CBM. A major part of enzymes lacking CBM was non-bound during the most active stage of hydrolysis and in spite of this, produced high sugar yields. Complementation of the two cellulases lacking CBM with CBH II (CtCel6A) improved the hydrolysis. Cellulases without CBM were more sensitive during exposure to high ethanol concentration than the enzymes containing CBM. Enzymes lacking CBM could be efficiently reused leading to a sugar yield of 90% of that with fresh enzymes. The applicability of cellulases without CBM was confirmed under industrial ethanol production conditions at high (25% dry matter (DM)) consistency. Conclusions The results clearly show that cellulases without CBM can be successfully used in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose at high consistency, and that this approach could provide new means for better recyclability of enzymes. This paper provides new insight into the efficient action of CBM-lacking cellulases. The relationship of binding and action of cellulases without CBM at high DM consistency should, however, be studied in more detail. PMID:24559384



Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain.  


Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial for the outcome of the fermentation process, both with regard to residual saccharides and final ethanol concentration. The increased formation of cell mass when a well-suited strain was applied increased the final ethanol concentration, since a more complete fermentation was achieved. PMID:15678305

Devantier, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sven; Olsson, Lisbeth



Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?  


Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy. PMID:24022674

Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning



Better Survival from Blood Infections at High-Volume Hospitals  


... Better Survival From Blood Infections at High-Volume Hospitals Improved outcomes seen in medical centers with 500 ... bloodstream infection if they're treated in a hospital that handles a large number of sepsis cases, ...


High performance of a carbon supported ternary PdIrNi catalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells  

E-print Network

-oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells Shuiyun Shen, T. S. Zhao,* Jianbo Xu and Yinshi Li-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs). We demonstrate that the use of the ternary PdIrNi catalyst for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs) offers

Zhao, Tianshou


Toxicology findings in suicides: concentrations of ethanol and other drugs in femoral blood in victims of hanging and poisoning in relation to age and gender of the deceased.  


Over-consumption of alcohol and/or abuse of other drugs are closely linked to attempted or completed suicides. In this retrospective 10-year study (2001-2010), we compared the toxicology findings in hanging suicides (n = 4551) with drug poisoning (intoxication) suicides (n = 2468). The mean age of hanging deaths was 49 ± 19 y (±SD) and 80% were male, compared with a mean age of 52 ± 17 y and 47% males for the intoxication deaths. Poly-drug use was more common in poisoning suicides with an average of 3.6 drugs/case compared with 1.8 drugs/case in hangings. Moreover, 31% of hangings were negative for alcohol and/or drugs. Alcohol was detected (>0.20 g/L) in femoral blood in 30% of hanging suicides (mean 1.39 g/L) and 36% of drug poisonings (mean 1.39 g/L). The median BACs did not depend on the person's age or gender (p > 0.05). Ethanol, paracetamol, citalopram, diazepam, propiomazine, alimemazine and zopiclone were amongst the top-ten drugs detected in both methods of suicide. With the exception of ethanol, the concentrations of drugs in blood were considerably higher in the poisoning deaths, as might be expected. Regardless of the method of suicide, antidepressants and/or antipsychotics were common findings, which could implicate mental health as a significant suicide risk factor. PMID:24112333

Jones, Alan Wayne; Holmgren, Anita; Ahlner, Johan



High blood pressure in pregnancy and coronary calcification.  


A considerable proportion of pregnant women develop high blood pressure in pregnancy. Although it is assumed that this condition subsides after pregnancy, many of these women develop the metabolic syndrome later in life and are at increased risk to develop coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis development is considered in between risk factors and occurrence of vascular symptoms. We set out to cross-sectionally study the relation of high blood pressure during pregnancy with risk of coronary calcification. The study population was composed 491 healthy postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Information on high blood pressure during pregnancy was obtained using a questionnaire. Between 2004 and 2005, the women underwent a multidetector computed tomography (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16) to assess coronary calcium. The Agatston score, volume, and mass measurements were used to quantify coronary calcium. A total of 30.7% of the women reported to have had high blood pressure in pregnancy. Body mass index (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.09) and diastolic blood pressure (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.05) were significantly related to a history of high blood pressure in pregnancy. Age was significantly related to increased coronary calcification. Women with a history of high blood pressure during pregnancy had a 57% increased risk of having coronary calcification compared with those women without this condition (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.37). After adjusting for age, the relation did not change (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.53). We concluded that high blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of coronary calcification later in life. PMID:17283250

Sabour, Siamak; Franx, Arie; Rutten, Annemarieke; Grobbee, Diederick E; Prokop, Mathias; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bots, Michiel L



Hierarchical Pd-Sn Alloy Nanosheet Dendrites: An Economical and Highly Active Catalyst for Ethanol Electrooxidation  

PubMed Central

Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures. PMID:23383368

Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren



Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.  


Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits ? and ?) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, ?-globulin, ?-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, ?-globulin, and ?-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, ?-globulin, ?-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity. PMID:22194055

Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A




Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococci may display high level resistance to aminoglycosides, in which case synergy with cell-wall active antibiotics will be lost. All enterococcal blood culture isolates at Royal Brisbane Hospital have been screened by agar dilution for high level resistance to gentamicin and strepto- mycin since 1989. Of 110 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, 16% displayed high level resistance to gentamicin and 10%

David Paterson; Janet Bodman; Mee Len Thong


High Fermentable Corn Hybrids for the Dry-Grind Corn Ethanol Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The biofuel corn ethanol helps provide a sustainable and secure non-petroleum source of energy. The dry-grind ethanol industry\\u000a is the customer for about one-third of US-produced corn grain. Getting the most ethanol from sourced corn grain is important\\u000a to the economics of a commercial ethanol plant. Near infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT), backed by calibrations built\\u000a with robust reference chemistry, is

Joel E. Ream; Ping Feng; Iñigo Ibarra; Susan A. MacIsaac; Beena A. Neelam; Erik D. Sall


High in-hospital mortality of intensive care patients with nucleated red blood cells in blood.  


The detection of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in blood of patients suffering from a variety of severe diseases is known to be highly associated with increased mortality. Blood analyzers to routinely measure NRBC concentrations are now available. However, the diagnostic and prognostic significance of this parameter for intensive care patients has not been evaluated. Using a Sysmex XE-2100 analyzer, NRBC concentrations were determined in blood samples from 421 patients treated in intensive care units (general and accident surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, and internal medicine) of a university hospital. NRBCs were found at least once in 19.2% of all patients. The mortality of NRBC-positive patients (n=81) was 42.0% (n=34); this was significantly higher (p<0.001) than the mortality of NRBC-negative patients (5.9%, n=340). The NRBC concentration was 115+/-4x10(6)/l (median 40x10(6)/l; range 20-2930x10(6)/l) at initial detection of NRBCs in the blood. Mortality increased with increasing NRBC concentration and increasing frequency of occurrence. With regard to in-hospital mortality, NRBCs in blood showed sensitivity and specificity of 63.0% and 87.2%, respectively. The detection of NRBCs is highly predictive of death, the odds ratio after adjustment for other laboratory prognostic indicators being 1.01 (p<0.01) for each increase in the NRBC concentration of +1x10(6)/l. NRBCs were detected for the first time, on average, 13 days (median 8 days) before death. The routine analysis of NRBCs in blood is of high prognostic power with regard to in-hospital mortality of critically ill patients. Therefore, this parameter may serve as an early indicator for patients at increased mortality risk. PMID:15387445

Stachon, Axel; Holland-Letz, Tim; Krieg, Michael



Synergistic ablation of liver tissue and liver cancer cells with high-intensity focused ultrasound and ethanol.  


We investigated the combined effect of ethanol and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), first, on heating and cavitation bubble activity in tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine liver tissues and, second, on the viability of HepG2 liver cancer cells. Phantoms or porcine tissues were injected with ethanol and then subjected to HIFU at acoustic power ranging from 1.2 to 20.5 W (HIFU levels 1-7). Cavitation events and the temperature around the focal zone were measured with a passive cavitation detector and embedded type K thermocouples, respectively. HepG2 cells were subjected to 4% ethanol solution in growth medium (v/v) just before the cells were exposed to HIFU at 2.7, 8.7 or 12.0 W for 30 s. Cell viability was measured 2, 24 and 72 h post-treatment. The results indicate that ethanol and HIFU have a synergistic effect on liver cancer ablation as manifested by greater temperature rise and lesion volume in liver tissues and reduced viability of liver cancer cells. This effect is likely caused by reduction of the cavitation threshold in the presence of ethanol and the increased rate of ethanol diffusion through the cell membrane caused by HIFU-induced streaming, sonoporation and heating. PMID:24798386

Hoang, Nguyen H; Murad, Hakm Y; Ratnayaka, Sithira H; Chen, Chong; Khismatullin, Damir B



Amitriptyline and ethanol: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amitriptyline has clinically important interactions with ethanol. Five healthy volunteers received 25 mg of amitriptyline orally, preceded by one hour and followed for eight hours by oral ethanol (or juice), dosed to achieve and maintain blood ethanol concentrations of 800 mg\\/l. In the presence of ethanol, amitriptyline free plasma concentrations were increased by a logarithmic mean of 204%, 186% and

P. Dorian; E. M. Sellers; K. L. Reed; J. J. Warsh; H. L. Kaplan; T. Fan



Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.  


The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps. PMID:24983758

Lackland, Daniel T



Concurrent cocaine-ethanol ingestion in humans: pharmacology, physiology, behavior, and the role of cocaethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous abuse of cocaine and ethanol is a common occurrence. Cocaethylene, the ethyl ester of benzoylecgonine, has been detected in the urine of patients reporting concurrent use of cocaine and ethanol, and high levels have been found in the blood of victims of fatal drug overdose. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the pharmacokinetic, physiologic, and behavioral effects of dual cocaine

Elinore F. McCance-Katz; Lawrence H. Price; Christopher J. McDougle; Thomas R. Kosten; Jed E. Black; Peter I. Jatlow



Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 Stress Response during High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung



Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.



Fatty acid ethyl esters. Ethanol metabolites that reflect ethanol intake.  


Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are nonoxidative ethanol metabolites that have been implicated as mediators of alcohol-induced organ damage. FAEEs are detectable in the blood after ethanol ingestion, and on that basis represent markers of ethanol intake. FAEEs have also been quantitated in human liver and adipose tissue and have been shown to be postmortem markers of premortem ethanol intake. A substantial difference in FAEE concentration was found in liver and adipose tissue of patients with detectable blood ethanol at the time of autopsy vs those with no detectable blood ethanol, who were either chronic alcoholics or social drinkers. Most currently available diagnostic markers for chronic alcoholism have limited clinical utility. Data in this report demonstrate that the amount or type of FAEEs can be used to differentiate a chronic alcoholic from an episodic heavy drinker (binage drinker) at or near peak blood ethanol concentrations and approximately 24 hours after discontinuation of ethanol. Thus, FAEEs are markers of ethanol intake in blood and tissues and can be useful in distinguishing chronic alcoholics from binge drinkers. PMID:12951847

Soderberg, Britt L; Salem, Raneem O; Best, Catherine A; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E; Laposata, Michael



Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.  


Abstract Background. Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. Materials and methods. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. Results. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Conclusion. Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease. PMID:24738834

Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván



Effect of some drugs on ethanol-induced changes in blood brain barrier permeability for /sup 14/C-tyrosine  

SciTech Connect

This investigation seeks to compare the effects of membrane stabilizers chlorpromazine and alpha-tocopherol, and also the dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol, in changes in permeability of the blood-brain barrier for carbon 14-labelled tyrosine.

Borisenko, S.A.; Burov, Yu.V.



A highly sensitive ethanol sensor based on Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the ethanol-sensing characteristics of Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated. The morphology, structure, and formation mechanism of the Ag@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were carefully studied using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, ZetaSizer Nano ZS and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A gas sensing study showed that Ag@TiO2 is a promising sensor for detecting ethanol gas at low concentrations (below 5 ppm) at room working temperature. Ag@TiO2 exhibited a sensor response of 1.04-4.35 at the ethanol concentration from 0.15 ppm to 5 ppm. In addition, the sensor presented an excellent selectivity and stability for ethanol gas. This systematic study of the promising ethanol-sensing characteristics of Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles can facilitate the development of sensors that detect ethanol gas.

Zhu, Zhen; Kao, Cheng-Tse; Wu, Ren-Jang



What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar.  

E-print Network

What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar. DIABETES IS HIGH BLOOD SUGAR We all have sugar in our blood. When you have diabetes you have too much sugar in your blood muscles can then use sugar for fuel. Insulin keeps blood sugar in balance. #12; If you have diabetes


Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous developments in ethanol fermentation technology since the beginning of the new millennium as ethanol\\u000a has become an immediate viable alternative to fast-depleting crude reserves as well as increasing concerns over environmental\\u000a pollution. Nowadays, although most research efforts are focused on the conversion of cheap cellulosic substrates to ethanol,\\u000a methods that are cost-competitive with gasoline production are

Pradeep Puligundla; Daniela Smogrovicova; Vijaya Sarathi Reddy Obulam; Sanghoon Ko


Feasibility of high protein flour and ethanol production in northern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study on the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a medium-scale (3,000,000 gal/year) ethanol plant in northern Idaho are presented. The boilers will be fueled with a wood waste fuel (WOODEX) and sawdust. Distiller's dried grains will be processed and produce high-protein flour which will be sold as a health food product for human consumption. The feedstock will be locally grown wheat and barley. Carbon dioxide by-product will be collected and sold to a chemical plant. A third by-product, fusel oil, will be produced and sold for use as a solvent. Processes and equipment were evaluated and recommendations are included. 5 figs. (DMC)

Snipes, D.; Korus, R.



National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.


Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure  

E-print Network

Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other booklets in the Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes series: Are You at Risk for Heart Disease? Do You Need To Lose Weight? Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Enjoy Living

Bandettini, Peter A.


Rapid Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Synthesis by Porcine Myocardium Upon Ethanol Infusion into the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, have been implicated in ethanol-induced heart injury. To assess the in vivo production of FAEEs by myocardial tissue, we used a modified ethanol ablation procedure in pigs. A controlled 60-minute ethanol infusion was administered into the distal left anterior descending coronary artery in seven swine; serial blood sampling of the coronary sinus and peripheral vein before, during, and after infusion allowed measurement of FAEE production and ethanol levels in the coronary sinus and the peripheral circulation. In a single animal, FAEEs were also quantified from nine different sites within the myocardium. FAEEs were produced by the heart within 5 minutes of exposure to ethanol, with very high concentrations of FAEEs detected in coronary sinus blood. Significant variability in amounts of FAEEs was detected in different regions of the heart tissue. A strong correlation was found between coronary sinus FAEEs and ethanol concentration (r = 0.9241, P < 0.00001). FAEE production by the heart after delivery of ethanol into the left anterior descending coronary artery was rapid, reaching levels in the coronary sinus blood 4 to 10 times greater than that found in peripheral blood after ethanol intake. These data demonstrate that FAEEs may be mediators of ethanol-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:16651611

Yoerger, Danita M.; Best, Catherine A.; McQuillan, Brendan M.; Supple, Gregory E.; Guererro, J. Luis; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Hasaba, Ali; Picard, Michael H.; Stone, James R.; Laposata, Michael



Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase overexpression in Escherichia coli resulted in high ethanol production and rewired metabolic enzyme networks.  


Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase are efficient enzymes for ethanol production in Zymomonas mobilis. These two enzymes were over-expressed in Escherichia coli, a promising candidate for industrial ethanol production, resulting in high ethanol production in the engineered E. coli. To investigate the intracellular changes to the enzyme overexpression for homoethanol production, 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were performed. More than 1,000 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the gel by image analysis. Compared to the wild-type, 99 protein spots showed significant changes in abundance in the recombinant E. coli, in which 46 were down-regulated and 53 were up-regulated. Most proteins related to tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycerol metabolism and other energy metabolism were up-regulated, whereas proteins involved in glycolysis and glyoxylate pathway were down-regulated, indicating the rewired metabolism in the engineered E. coli. As glycolysis is the main pathway for ethanol production, and it was inhibited significantly in engineered E. coli, further efforts should be directed at minimizing the repression of glycolysis to optimize metabolism network for higher yields of ethanol production. PMID:25217026

Yang, Mingfeng; Li, Xuefeng; Bu, Chunya; Wang, Hui; Shi, Guanglu; Yang, Xiushan; Hu, Yong; Wang, Xiaoqin



High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services



High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Levine, G.F. (California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services)



Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat

Per Sassner; Guido Zacchi



Effects of hydro-ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis on blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluated the differential effects of ethanol extraction of Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) on the blood glucose concentration and pathology of pancreas, liver, lungs, kidney and gastrointestinal tract in the alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 adult female Albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The first group was treated with the extract of C. colocynthis seed (300 mg/kg) and the rats of the second group, as an untreated diabetic group, received ordinary diet. Ten non diabetic rats remained as a normal control group. Results The results of this study indicate that C. colocynthis was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control diabetic group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, alloxan resulted in severe necrotic changes in the pancreatic islets, especially in the central area of the islets. Tissue sections of the pancreas in the treated rats demonstrated enhanced regeneration of B cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Liver of the treated diabetic rats revealed significant improvement of the hepatic tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions The present study indicated a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. colocynthis seed and supported its traditional usage in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Oryan, Ahmad; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Hamidi, Ahmad-Reza; Mohammadalipour, Adel



Step by Step: Eating To Lower Your High Blood Cholesterol. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet offers advice for adults who want to lower their blood cholesterol level. The first section, "What You Need To Know about High Blood Cholesterol," discusses blood cholesterol and why it matters, what cholesterol numbers mean, and what affects blood cholesterol levels. Section 2, "What You Need To Do To Lower Blood Cholesterol,"…

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.


Urease expression in a Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ethanologen allows high titer ethanol production.  


Genes encoding the enzyme urease were integrated in a Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ethanologen. The engineered strain hydrolyzed urea, as evidenced by increased cellular growth and elevated final pH in urea minimal medium and urease activity in cell free extracts. Interestingly, replacement of ammonium salts with urea resulted in production of 54 g/L ethanol, one of the highest titers reported for Thermoanaerobacterium. The observed increase in ethanol titer may result from reduced pH, salt, and osmolality stresses during fermentation. Urea utilization is attractive for industrial scale fermentation, where pH control is technically challenging and increased ethanol titer is desirable. PMID:22781282

Shaw, A Joe; Covalla, Sean F; Miller, Bethany B; Firliet, Brian T; Hogsett, David A; Herring, Christopher D



Fermentation method producing ethanol  


Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)



Comparison of casual blood pressure and twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure in high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To perform ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in high school students and to compare the 24-hour values with casual blood pressure (BP). Methods: Ambulatory BP monitoring was carried out in 190 high school students, 15 or 16 years of age, with elevated casual BP during the first examination at school for hypertension; 66 had elevated casual BP at both

Kenji Nishibata; Masami Nagashima; Akihito Tsuji; Seiichi Hasegawa; Noriko Nagai; Masahiko Goto; Hiroshi Hayashi



Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook



Structural rearrangement of ethanol-denatured soy proteins by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.  


The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (100-500 MPa) on solubility and structural properties of ethanol (EtOH)-denatured soy ?-conglycinin and glycinin were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy. HHP treatment above 200 MPa, especially at neutral and alkaline pH as well as low ionic strength, significantly improved the solubility of denatured soy proteins. Structural rearrangements of denatured ?-conglycinin subjected to high pressure were confirmed, as evidenced by the increase in enthalpy value (?H) and the formation of the ordered supramolecular structure with stronger intramolecular hydrogen bond. HHP treatment (200-400 MPa) caused an increase in surface hydrophobicity (F(max)) of ?-conglycinin, partially attributable to the exposure of the Tyr and Phe residues, whereas higher pressure (500 MPa) induced the decrease in F(max) due to hydrophobic rearrangements. The Trp residues in ?-conglycinin gradually transferred into a hydrophobic environment, which might further support the finding of structural rearrangements. In contrast, increasing pressure induced the progressive unfolding of denatured glycinin, accompanied by the movement of the Tyr and Phe residues to the molecular surface of protein. These results suggested that EtOH-denatured ?-conglycinin and glycinin were involved in different pathways of structural changes during HHP treatment. PMID:21609024

Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Yin, Shou-Wei; Zhang, Ye; Tang, Chuan-He; Li, Bian-Sheng; Yuan, De-Bao; Guo, Jian



Quantitative profiling of phosphatidylethanol molecular species in human blood by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry.  


Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a group of aberrant phospholipids formed in cell membranes in the presence of ethanol by the catalytic action of the enzyme phospholipase D on phosphatidylcholine. Recently published literature has demonstrated the existence of several molecular species of PEth in samples drawn from alcohol-dependent subjects. A novel liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method coupled with a lipidomic strategy was developed and validated for the quantitative profiling of PEth molecular species in human blood collected from heavy and social drinkers. Chromatography was performed on a C18 column using acetonitrile, 10mM ammonium acetate, and 2-propanol as mobile phases with a 22-min gradient. HRMS experiments were performed on an LTQ-Orbitrap XL hybrid mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source operated in negative ion mode. The theoretical masses of [M-H](-) of PEth species were calculated from the elemental chemical formula by varying the length and unsaturation grade of the fatty acid side chains; identification of PEth species in blood was achieved by searching the accurate masses of the targeted compounds in the acquired full-scan LC-HRMS chromatogram. The chemical structure of tentatively identified PEth species was elucidated through HR multiple mass experiments. The validated LC-HRMS method was selective, as warranted by HRMS at 60,000 resolution and 4 ppm accuracy. Linearity was observed in the 0.001-2.000 ?M range, and limit of detection of 0.0005 ?M and limit of quantitation of 0.001 ?M were obtained for single PEth species. Imprecision and inaccuracy were always lower than 10% and 15%, respectively. The identification capabilities of the method were tested on blood samples collected from heavy drinkers (n=11), social drinkers (n=8), and teetotalers (n=10). The high sensitivity of the method led to the simultaneous identification of 17 different PEth molecular species in blood collected from heavy drinkers, and 2 PEth species (16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2) in blood collected from social drinkers. PMID:21999914

Nalesso, Alessandro; Viel, Guido; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Mioni, Davide; Pessa, Gloria; Favretto, Donata; Ferrara, Santo Davide



Interaction Between High-Fat Diet and Alcohol Dehydrogenase on Ethanol-Elicited Cardiac Depression in Murine Myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Consumption of high-fat diet and alcohol is associated with obesity, leading to enhanced morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to examine the interaction between high-fat diet and the alcohol metabolizing enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced cardiac depression.Research Methods and Procedures: Mechanical and intracellular Ca2+ properties were measured in cardiomyocytes from ADH transgenic and Friend Virus-B type (FVB)

Jun Ren



Highly efficient ruthenium and ruthenium–platinum cluster-derived nanocatalysts for hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alumina-supported Ru and Ru–Pt nanoparticles, obtained by the decarbonylation of organometallic cluster precursors, were found to be highly active and selective catalysts for ethanol steam reforming. These catalysts outperformed a commercial Ru\\/Al2O3 catalyst, as well as catalysts that had been prepared from inorganic salts using the conventional impregnation method. The highly dispersed nanoparticles derived from cluster precursors were much smaller

Alaric C. W. Koh; Weng Kee Leong; Luwei Chen; Thiam Peng Ang; Jianyi Lin; Brian F. G. Johnson; Tetyana Khimyak



High yield simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production under extreme-thermophilic (70 °C) mixed culture environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH and medium composition on extreme-thermophilic (70°C) dark fermentative simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (process performance and microbial ecology) was investigated. Hydrogen and ethanol yields were optimized with respect to glucose, peptone, FeSO4, NaHCO3, yeast extract, trace mineral salts, vitamins, and phosphate buffer concentrations as well as initial pH as independent variables. A combination of low levels

Chenxi Zhao; Sompong O-Thong; Dimitar Karakashev; Irini Angelidaki; Wenjing Lu; Hongtao Wang



Brain catalase activity is highly correlated with ethanol-induced locomotor activity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that acute administration of lead to mice enhances brain catalase activity and ethanol-induced locomotion. These effects of lead seem to be related, since they show similar time courses and occur at similar doses. In the present study, in an attempt to further evaluate the relation between brain catalase activity and lead-induced changes in ethanol-stimulated locomotion, the

Mercè Correa; Carles Sanchis-Segura; Carlos M. G. Aragon



A high-performance no-chamber fuel cell operated on ethanol flame  

Microsoft Academic Search

A no-chamber solid-oxide fuel cell operated on a fuel-rich ethanol flame was reported. Heat produced from the combustion of ethanol thermally sustained the fuel cell at a temperature of 500–830°C. Considerable amounts of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were also produced during the fuel-rich combustion which provided the direct fuels for the fuel cell. The location of the fuel cell with

Kang Wang; Ran Ran; Yong Hao; Zongping Shao; Wanqin Jin; Nanping Xu



High Sensitivity Micro-Elastometry: Applications in Blood Coagulopathy  

PubMed Central

Highly sensitive methods for the assessment of clot structure can aid in our understanding of coagulation disorders and their risk factors. Rapid and simple clot diagnostic systems are also needed for directing treatment in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. Here we demonstrate a method for micro-elastometry, named Resonant Acoustic Spectroscopy with Optical Vibrometry (RASOV), which measures the clot elastic modulus (CEM) from the intrinsic resonant frequency of a clot inside a microwell. We observed a high correlation between the CEM of human blood measured by RASOV and a commercial Thromboelastograph (TEG), (R=0.966). Unlike TEG, RASOV requires only 150 ?L of sample and offers improved repeatability. Since CEM is known to primarily depend upon fibrin content and network structure, we investigated the CEM of purified clots formed with varying amounts of fibrinogen and thrombin. We found that RASOV was sensitive to changes of fibrinogen content (0.5–6 mg/mL), as well as to the amount of fibrinogen converted to fibrin during clot formation. We then simulated plasma hypercoagulability via hyperfibrinogenemia by spiking whole blood to 150% and 200% of normal fibrinogen levels, and subsequently found that RASOV could detect hyperfibrinogenemia-induced changes in CEM and distinguish these conditions from normal blood. PMID:23649979

Wu, Gongting; Krebs, Charles R.; Lin, Feng-Chang; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Oldenburg, Amy L.



A Selective Ultrahigh Responding High Temperature Ethanol Sensor Using TiO2 Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

In this research work, the sensitivity of TiO2 nanoparticles towards C2H5OH, H2 and CH4 gases was investigated. The morphology and phase content of the particles was preserved during sensing tests by prior heat treatment of the samples at temperatures as high as 750 °C and 1000 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to characterize the size, morphology and phase content of the particles. For sensor fabrication, a film of TiO2 was printed on a Au interdigitated alumina substrate. The sensing temperature was varied from 450 °C to 650 °C with varying concentrations of target gases. Results show that the sensor has ultrahigh response towards ethanol (C2H5OH) compared to hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4). The optimum sensing temperature was found to be 600 °C. The response and recovery times of the sensor are 3 min and 15 min, respectively, for 20 ppm C2H5OH at the optimum operating temperature of 600 °C. It is proposed that the catalytic action of TiO2 with C2H5OH is the reason for the ultrahigh response of the sensor. PMID:25072346

Arafat, M. M.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Akbar, Sheikh A.



A selective ultrahigh responding high temperature ethanol sensor using TiO2 nanoparticles.  


In this research work, the sensitivity of TiO2 nanoparticles towards C2H5OH, H2 and CH4 gases was investigated. The morphology and phase content of the particles was preserved during sensing tests by prior heat treatment of the samples at temperatures as high as 750 °C and 1000 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to characterize the size, morphology and phase content of the particles. For sensor fabrication, a film of TiO2 was printed on a Au interdigitated alumina substrate. The sensing temperature was varied from 450 °C to 650 °C with varying concentrations of target gases. Results show that the sensor has ultrahigh response towards ethanol (C2H5OH) compared to hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4). The optimum sensing temperature was found to be 600 °C. The response and recovery times of the sensor are 3 min and 15 min, respectively, for 20 ppm C2H5OH at the optimum operating temperature of 600 °C. It is proposed that the catalytic action of TiO2 with C2H5OH is the reason for the ultrahigh response of the sensor. PMID:25072346

Arafat, M M; Haseeb, A S M A; Akbar, Sheikh A



"Binge" Drinking Experience in Adolescent Mice Shows Sex Differences and Elevated Ethanol Intake In Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Binge drinking, defined as achieving blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 80 mg%, has been increasing in adolescents and was reported to predispose later physical dependence. The present experiments utilized an animal model of binge drinking to compare the effect of ethanol “binge” experience during adolescence or adulthood on subsequent ethanol intake in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Adolescent and adult mice were initially exposed to the scheduled high alcohol consumption procedure, which produces BECs that exceed the levels for binge drinking following a 30 min ethanol session every third day. Ethanol intake and BECs were significantly higher in the adolescent (?3 g/kg, 199 mg%) versus adult (?2 g/kg, 135 mg%) mice during the first three ethanol sessions, but were more equivalent during the final two ethanol sessions (1.85-2.0 g/kg, 129-143 mg%). Then, separate groups of the ethanol experienced mice were tested with ethanol naïve adolescent and adult mice for 2-hr limited access (10 and 20% solutions) or 24-hr (5, 10 and 20% solutions) ethanol preference drinking. Limited access ethanol intake was significantly higher in female versus male mice, but was not altered by age or ethanol experience. In contrast, 24-hr ethanol intake was significantly higher in the adolescent versus adult mice and in female versus male mice. Furthermore, binge drinking experience in the adolescent mice significantly increased subsequent ethanol intake, primarily due to intake in female mice. Thus, adolescent binge drinking significantly increased unlimited ethanol intake during adulthood, with female mice more susceptible to this effect. PMID:19854195

Strong, Moriah N.; Yoneyama, Naomi; Fretwell, Andrea M.; Snelling, Chris; Tanchuck, Michelle A.; Finn, Deborah A.



High ethanol titers from cellulose by using metabolically engineered thermophilic, anaerobic microbes.  


This work describes novel genetic tools for use in Clostridium thermocellum that allow creation of unmarked mutations while using a replicating plasmid. The strategy employed counter-selections developed from the native C. thermocellum hpt gene and the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum tdk gene and was used to delete the genes for both lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). The ?ldh ?pta mutant was evolved for 2,000 h, resulting in a stable strain with 40:1 ethanol selectivity and a 4.2-fold increase in ethanol yield over the wild-type strain. Ethanol production from cellulose was investigated with an engineered coculture of organic acid-deficient engineered strains of both C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Fermentation of 92 g/liter Avicel by this coculture resulted in 38 g/liter ethanol, with acetic and lactic acids below detection limits, in 146 h. These results demonstrate that ethanol production by thermophilic, cellulolytic microbes is amenable to substantial improvement by metabolic engineering. PMID:21965408

Argyros, D Aaron; Tripathi, Shital A; Barrett, Trisha F; Rogers, Stephen R; Feinberg, Lawrence F; Olson, Daniel G; Foden, Justine M; Miller, Bethany B; Lynd, Lee R; Hogsett, David A; Caiazza, Nicky C



High Ethanol Titers from Cellulose by Using Metabolically Engineered Thermophilic, Anaerobic Microbes ? † ‡  

PubMed Central

This work describes novel genetic tools for use in Clostridium thermocellum that allow creation of unmarked mutations while using a replicating plasmid. The strategy employed counter-selections developed from the native C. thermocellum hpt gene and the Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum tdk gene and was used to delete the genes for both lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta). The ?ldh ?pta mutant was evolved for 2,000 h, resulting in a stable strain with 40:1 ethanol selectivity and a 4.2-fold increase in ethanol yield over the wild-type strain. Ethanol production from cellulose was investigated with an engineered coculture of organic acid-deficient engineered strains of both C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Fermentation of 92 g/liter Avicel by this coculture resulted in 38 g/liter ethanol, with acetic and lactic acids below detection limits, in 146 h. These results demonstrate that ethanol production by thermophilic, cellulolytic microbes is amenable to substantial improvement by metabolic engineering. PMID:21965408

Argyros, D. Aaron; Tripathi, Shital A.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Feinberg, Lawrence F.; Olson, Daniel G.; Foden, Justine M.; Miller, Bethany B.; Lynd, Lee R.; Hogsett, David A.; Caiazza, Nicky C.



High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: A Guide for Parents  


... High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: A Guide for Parents High blood pressure is ... its complications. What causes CKD in adults and children? In adults, the major causes of CKD are ...


Many Docs Fail to Counsel Young Adults with High Blood Pressure  


... Many Docs Fail to Counsel Young Adults With High Blood Pressure Too few physicians urge lifestyle changes, study finds (* ... November 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Healthy Living High Blood Pressure Talking With Your Doctor MONDAY, Nov. 10, 2014 ( ...


For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease  


... for Kidney Disease For People with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure: Get Checked for Kidney Disease Make the Kidney ... I be checked for kidney disease? Diabetes and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys and lead to kidney ...


Ethanolic extract of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through down-regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression.  


Phenolic compounds and flavonoids ameliorate bodyweight, blood glucose, and serum lipid profile. Since seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is known as a rich source of isoflavones and flavonoids, we hypothesized that ethanolic extract of seabuckthorn leaves (SL) may have anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects. To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of SL, 32 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups, containing 8 mice in each group: normal diet group; high-fat diet (HD) control group; high-fat diet with SL extract, 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) (SL1) group; and high-fat diet with SL extract, 1000 mg/kg BW (SL2) group. After 13 weeks, it was observed that oral administration of SL extract significantly reduced the energy intake; BW gain; epididymal fat pad weight; hepatic triglyceride, hepatic, and serum total cholesterol levels; and serum leptin levels in the SL groups compared to the HD group. However, differences in serum triglyceride and insulin levels in the SL groups were not significant in comparison to the HD group. The hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 along with PPAR-? were significantly increased in SL groups, whereas the level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was significantly reduced in SL groups compared to HD group. Our results indicated that SL is effective in preventing BW gain and fat accumulation in the liver; it also reduced adipose tissue mass, hepatic lipid profile, and serum leptin level in the mouse. Together, these observations suggest that SL is a potential agent to study in the management of obesity and related disorders. PMID:23176796

Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Moon, Hye-Jung; Park, Jeong-Eun; Moon, Yeon-Jeong; Cha, Youn-Soo




Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity to the sedative effect of y-hydroxybuty ric acid (GHB), an endogenous constituent of mammalian brain as well as an effective drug in the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism, was evaluated in rats of the selectively bred, ethanol-preferring sP and non-prefernng sNP lines. GHB (0.75 and 1.0 g\\/kg) was administered i.p. to ethanol-naive sP and sNP rats. Times to lose (onset) and



Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Dry-grind Highly Digestible Grain Sorghum Lines for Ethanol Production  

E-print Network

of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the Home Brewery (Ozark, MO) was used for the fermentation. It was isolated from a commercially available Super Yeast? dry brewer?s yeast which can produce and tolerate up to 20% ethanol. Stock culture was maintained in a 15 x 90... of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the Home Brewery (Ozark, MO) was used for the fermentation. It was isolated from a commercially available Super Yeast? dry brewer?s yeast which can produce and tolerate up to 20% ethanol. Stock culture was maintained in a 15 x 90...

Hernandez, Joan R.



Corn steep liquor as a cost-effective nutrition adjunct in high-performance Zymomonas ethanol fermentations  

SciTech Connect

The ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has been demonstrated to possess several fermentation performance characteristics that are superior to yeast. In a recent survey conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Zymomonas was selected as the most promising host for improvement by genetic engineering directed to pentose metabolism for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass and wastes. Minimization of costs associated with nutritional supplements and seed production is essential for economic large-scale production of fuel ethanol. Corn steep liquor (CSL) is a byproduct of corn wet-milling and has been used as a fermentation nutrient supplement in several different fermentations. This study employed pH-controlled batch fermenters to compare the growth and fermentation performance of Z. mobilis in glucose media with whole and clarified corn steep liquor as sole nutrient source, and to determine minimal amounts of CSL required to sustain high-performance fermentation. 44 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)



High concentrations of cellulosic ethanol achieved by fed batch semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of waste-paper  

PubMed Central

A fundamental goal of second generation ethanol production is to increase the ethanol concentration to 10% (v/v) or more to optimise distillation costs. Semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentations (SSSF) were conducted at small pilot scale (5 L) utilising fed-batch additions of solid shredded copier paper substrate. Early addition of Accellerase® 1500 at 16 FPU/g substrate and 30 U/g ?-glucosidase followed by substrate only batch addition allowed low final equivalent enzyme concentrations to be achieved (3.7 FPU/g substrate) whilst maintaining digestion. Batch addition resulted in a cumulative substrate concentration equivalent to 65% (w/v). This in turn resulted in the production of high concentrations of ethanol (11.6% v/v). The success of this strategy relied on the capacity of the bioreactor to perform high shear mixing as required. Further research into the timing and number of substrate additions could lead to further improvement in overall yields from the 65.5% attained. PMID:23500568

Elliston, Adam; Collins, Samuel R.A.; Wilson, David R.; Roberts, Ian N.; Waldron, Keith W.



Central neuropeptide Y alters ethanol-induced sedation,but not ethanol intake, in C57BL\\/6 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence indicates that neuropeptide Y modulates neurobiologic responses to ethanol and ethanol consumption. Resistance to the sedative effects of ethanol, voluntary ethanol consumption, or both was found to be inversely related to neuropeptide Y levels in genetically manipulated rat and mouse models. More recently, intracerebroventricular infusion of neuropeptide Y reduced ethanol drinking in rats selectively bred for high ethanol

Todd E. Thiele; Dennis R. Sparta; Jon R. Fee; Montserrat Navarro; Inmaculada Cubero



Cerebral blood flow recorded at high sensitivity in two dimensions using high resolution optical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT Knowledge about sensory-evoked blood-fl ow changes is es- sential for constraining hemodynamic response models used to interpret functional brain imaging signals, such as fMRI. Here, we extracted 2-dimensional blood-flow and its tempo- ral modulations from high-resolution optical imaging data in the awake monkey. Optical imaging allows to track moving erythrocytes (or small clusters thereof), thus providing, albeit noisy,

Ivo Vanzetta; Thomas Deneux; Guillaume S. Masson; Olivier D. Faugeras



Orexin-1 receptor antagonism decreases ethanol consumption and preference selectively in high-ethanolepreferring  

E-print Network

for morphine, cocaine, and food. Other groups have demonstrated a connection between the ORX system and ethanol that the ORX system provides opportunities to develop novel treatments for alcohol abuse. Ã? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Orexin; Lateral hypothalamus; Alcohol; Reward; Preference Introduction

Aston-Jones, Gary


Alkali doped polybenzimidazole membrane for high performance alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anion exchange membrane for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) was prepared by doping KOH in polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The distributions of nitrogen, oxygen and potassium in the membrane were analyzed by means of XRD and SEM-EDX, respectively. It was found that free or combined KOH molecules may exist in the PBI matrix, which was helpful for the ionic

Hongying Hou; Gongquan Sun; Ronghuan He; Zhimou Wu; Baoying Sun



A pre-injury high ethanol intake in rats promotes brain edema following traumatic brain injury.  


Abstract Drinking is a risk factor for traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ethanol can aggravate the outcome by promoting brain edema. The mechanism involved is not fully understood. It has been confirmed that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play pivotal roles in cytotoxic/vasogenic brain edema individually, and both of these proteins are downstream regulatory factors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). In this study, we used a fluid percussion injury (FPI) model in rats to determine the effects of acute ethanol intake on the expression levels of HIF-1?, AQP4, and VEGF prior to FPI. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, and 4 days post-injury. We found that the expression levels of HIF-1? and AQP4 were significantly upregulated in the ethanol-pretreated groups, whereas the VEGF expression level was not. In addition, there was a positive correlation between HIF-1? and AQP4. The results of this study indicate that cytotoxic brain edema may play an important role in the early stage of FPI in ethanol-pre-treated animals and that HIF-1? and AQP4 might be involved. PMID:24814385

Wu, Weichuan; Tian, Runfa; Hao, Shuyu; Xu, Feifan; Mao, Xiang; Liu, Baiyun



A new subspecies of Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. with very high ethanol tolerance.  


In a search for thermophilic ethanol-tolerant bacteria, water-sediment samples collected at springs in Yunnan province of China were screened by ethanol enrichment. A novel thermophilic bacterium, strain E13(T) , was isolated. It exhibits a unique and remarkable ability to preferably grow in the presence of ethanol and is able to tolerate 13% (v/v) ethanol at 60 °C. The isolate is a facultative aerobic, Gram-positive, motile, spore-forming rod that is capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources, such as xylose, arabinose and cellobiose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene similarity showed the strain to be affiliated with the species Anoxybacillus flavithermus (99.2% sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization comparisons demonstrated a 64.8% DNA-DNA relatedness between strain E13(T) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641(T) . On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it was concluded that the isolate merited classification as a novel subspecies of A. flavithermus, for which the name Anoxybacillus flavithermus ssp. yunnanensis ssp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is E13(T) (=CCTCC AB2010187(T) =KCTC 13759(T) ). PMID:21521361

Dai, Jun; Liu, Yang; Lei, Yin; Gao, Yi; Han, Fang; Xiao, Yazhong; Peng, Hui



Ethanol induces human red cell shape transformations and enhanced ligand-mediated agglutinability  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol concentrations are markedly elevated in rat stomach wall when ulcerogenic doses of 100 % ethanol (2 ml for 5 to 10 minutes) are instilled in rat gastric lumen. The authors observed that red cells in gastric mucosal postcapillary venules become spiculated and interadherent under these conditions. The authors have now studied this phenomenon in vitro using washing human red cells. Concentrations of high grade ethanol ranging from 2 to 10% (v/v) in physiological buffered saline (pH 7.3) without Ca/sup + +/ or Mg/sup + +/ at 25/sup 0/C rapidly transformed human red cells into spiculated forms. 2% ethanol transformed human red cells into disco-echinocytes in 15 min. whereas 10% ethanol transformed red blood cells into echinocytes within 3 min. Washing out of ethanol at 1 hour reverted the echinocytes into discocytes. However, following 3 hours of incubation in 10% ethanol washing out of ethanol produced stomatocytes. The ethanol-induced echinocytic shape transformations were accompanied by a dose-related increase in red cell agglutinability with poly-L-lysine or the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin. The enhanced agglutinability was reversed by restoring the red cell shape changes and alterations in surface properties may play a role in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.

Weinstein, R.S.; McLawhon, R.W.; Marikovsky, Y.



Northern contaminant mixtures induced morphological and functional changes in human coronary artery endothelial cells under culture conditions typifying high fat/sugar diet and ethanol exposure.  


It has been reported that Northern populations are exposed to mixtures of various environmental contaminants unique to the Arctic (Northern contaminant mixtures - NCM) at a large range of concentrations, depending on their geological location, age, lifestyle and dietary habits. To determine if these contaminants may contribute to a cardiovascular health risk, especially when combined with a high fat and sugar diet and ethanol exposure, we treated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with two mixtures of 4 organic (NCM1) or 22 organic and inorganic (NCM2) chemicals detected in Northerners' blood during 2004-2005 in the presence or absence of low-density lipoprotein (1.5mg/ml), very-low-density lipoprotein (1.0mg/ml) and glucose (10mmol/L) (LVG), and in the absence or presence of 0.1% ethanol. After 24h of exposure, cell morphology and markers of cytotoxicity and endothelial function were examined. NCM1 treatment did not affect cell viability, but increased cell size, disrupted cell membrane integrity, and decreased cell density, uptake of small peptides, release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), while causing no changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) release. In contrast, NCM2 decreased cell viability, total protein yield, uptake of small peptides, eNOS protein expression, and NO release and caused membrane damage, but caused no changes in the secretion of ET-1, prostacyclin and PAI. The presence of LVG and/or alcohol did or did not influence the effects of NCM1 or NCM2 depending on the endpoint and the mixture examined. These results suggested that the effects of one or one group of contaminants may be altered by the presence of other contaminants, and that with or without the interaction of high fat and sugar diet and/or ethanol exposure, NCMs at the concentrations used caused endothelial dysfunction in vitro. It remains to be investigated if these effects of NCMs also occur in vivo. PMID:23384447

Florian, Maria; Yan, Jin; Ulhaq, Saad; Coughlan, Melanie; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Willmore, William; Jin, Xiaolei



Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.


Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.  


Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance. PMID:22387426

Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu



Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Responses to Anticipated High-stress Dental Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four healthy adults participated in a study to determine the effects of anticipated high-stress dental treatment on blood pressure and heart rate. Blood pressure, heart rate, and state anxiety were assessed prior to four consecutive dental appointments. Appointments 1, 2, and 4 were of relatively low stress and appointment 3 was of relatively high stress. Blood pressure was unaffected while

Frank M. Beck; Joël M. Weaver



Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke  


... that cut off the blood flow to brain cells. This is an ischemic stroke. About 13 percent of strokes occur when a blood vessel ruptures in or near the brain. This is a hemorrhagic stroke. Chronic HBP or aging blood vessels are the main causes of this ...


Ethanol Causes Protein Precipitation—New Safety Issues for Catheter Locking Techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective The ethanol lock technique has shown great potential to eradicate organisms in biofilms and to treat or prevent central venous catheter related infections. Following instillation of ethanol lock solution, however, the inherent density gradient between blood and ethanol causes gravity induced seepage of ethanol out of the catheter and blood influx into the catheter. Plasma proteins so are exposed to highly concentrated ethanol, which is a classic agent for protein precipitation. We aimed to investigate the precipitating effect of ethanol locks on plasma proteins as a possible cause for reported catheter occlusions. Methods Plasma samples were exposed in-vitro to ethanol (concentrations ranging from 7 to 70 v/v%) and heparin lock solutions. In catheter studies designed to mimic different in-vivo situations, the catheter tip was placed in a plasma reservoir and the material contained within the catheter was analyzed after ethanol lock instillation. The samples underwent standardized investigation for protein precipitation. Results Protein precipitation was observed in plasma samples containing ethanol solutions above a concentration of 28%, as well as in material retrieved from vertically positioned femoral catheters and jugular (subclavian) catheters simulating recumbent or head down tilt body positions. Precipitates could not be re-dissolved by dilution with plasma, urokinase or alteplase. Plasma samples containing heparin lock solutions showed no signs of precipitation. Conclusions Our in-vitro results demonstrate that ethanol locks may be associated with plasma protein precipitation in central venous catheters. This phenomenon could be related to occlusion of vascular access devices locked with ethanol, as has been reported. Concerns should be raised regarding possible complications upon injection or spontaneous gravity induced leakage of such irreversibly precipitated protein particles into the systemic circulation. We suggest limiting the maximum advisable concentration of ethanol to 28 v/v% in catheter lock solutions. PMID:24391979

Schilcher, Gernot; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Schneditz, Daniel; Scharnagl, Hubert; Ribitsch, Werner; Krause, Robert; Rosenkranz, Alexander R.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Horina, Joerg H.



High blood pressure in Latin America: a call to action.  


High blood pressure (BP) is an enormous global problem, and is especially challenging for low- and middle-income countries such as those of Latin America. Although developed countries have benefited from significant reductions in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in recent decades, comparable reductions have not been achieved in Latin America. In fact, the prevalence of high BP is increasing in many Latin American countries, and the situation will worsen without definitive efforts to correct it. The growing preponderance of hypertension and chronic diseases, coupled with expected increases in population growth, present a mounting threat to Latin American economies. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the burden of high BP throughout Latin America, and presents recommendations for change. The dismal observations warrant a call to action for improved control of high BP and other cardiovascular risk factors across Latin America. Achieving these ambitious goals will require collaborative efforts by many groups, including policymakers, international organizations, healthcare providers, schools and society as a whole. PMID:19561117

Rubinstein, Adolfo; Alcocer, Luis; Chagas, Antonio



Mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very\\u000a high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level.\\u000a Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol stress response in past decades, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance\\u000a are not well known.

Menggen Ma; Z. Lewis Liu



High performance direct ethanol fuel cell with double-layered anode catalyst layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-layered anode catalyst layers with two reverse configurations, which consist of 45wt.% Pt3Sn\\/C and PtRu black catalyst layers, were fabricated to improve the performance of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). The in-house 45wt.% Pt3Sn\\/C catalyst was characterized by XRD and TEM. The cross-sectional double-layered anode catalyst layer was observed by SEM. In DEFC performance test and anode linear sweep

Q. Wang; G. Q. Sun; L. Cao; L. H. Jiang; G. X. Wang; S. L. Wang; S. H. Yang; Q. Xin



Ethanol inhibition of Saccharomyces and Candida enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol inhibition of several hydrolases (sucrase, maltase, trehalase, melezitase and cellobiase) has been measured in both highly ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces strains (R) and in Candida strains less tolerant to ethanol (S). Cells were either grown in the presence of ethanol and the activities of the enzymes measured without preincubation in this alcohol (“in situ” inhibition assay), or the culture was grown

Encarnación Martín-Rendón; Juan Jiménez; Tahía Benítez



Highly active iridium/iridium-tin/tin oxide heterogeneous nanoparticles as alternative electrocatalysts for the ethanol oxidation reaction.  


Ethanol is a promising fuel for low-temperature direct fuel cell reactions due to its low toxicity, ease of storage and transportation, high-energy density, and availability from biomass. However, the implementation of ethanol fuel cell technology has been hindered by the lack of low-cost, highly active anode catalysts. In this paper, we have studied Iridium (Ir)-based binary catalysts as low-cost alternative electrocatalysts replacing platinum (Pt)-based catalysts for the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) reaction. We report the synthesis of carbon supported Ir(71)Sn(29) catalysts with an average diameter of 2.7 ± 0.6 nm through a "surfactant-free" wet chemistry approach. The complementary characterization techniques, including aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, are used to identify the "real" heterogeneous structure of Ir(71)Sn(29)/C particles as Ir/Ir-Sn/SnO(2), which consists of an Ir-rich core and an Ir-Sn alloy shell with SnO(2) present on the surface. The Ir(71)Sn(29)/C heterogeneous catalyst exhibited high electrochemical activity toward the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to the commercial Pt/C (ETEK), PtRu/C (Johnson Matthey) as well as PtSn/C catalysts. Electrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the superior electro-activity is directly related to the high degree of Ir-Sn alloy formation as well as the existence of nonalloyed SnO(2) on surface. Our cross-disciplinary work, from novel "surfactant-free" synthesis of Ir-Sn catalysts, theoretical simulations, and catalytic measurements to the characterizations of "real" heterogeneous nanostructures, will not only highlight the intriguing structure-property correlations in nanosized catalysts but also have a transformative impact on the commercialization of DEFC technology by replacing Pt with low-cost, highly active Ir-based catalysts. PMID:21812458

Du, Wenxin; Wang, Qi; Saxner, David; Deskins, N Aaron; Su, Dong; Krzanowski, James E; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Teng, Xiaowei



Highly Active Iridium/Iridium Tin/Tin Oxide Heterogeneous Nanoparticles as Alternative Electrocatalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a promising fuel for low-temperature direct fuel cell reactions due to its low toxicity, ease of storage and transportation, high-energy density, and availability from biomass. However, the implementation of ethanol fuel cell technology has been hindered by the lack of low-cost, highly active anode catalysts. In this paper, we have studied Iridium (Ir)-based binary catalysts as low-cost alternative electrocatalysts replacing platinum (Pt)-based catalysts for the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) reaction. We report the synthesis of carbon supported Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29} catalysts with an average diameter of 2.7 {+-} 0.6 nm through a 'surfactant-free' wet chemistry approach. The complementary characterization techniques, including aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, are used to identify the 'real' heterogeneous structure of Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C particles as Ir/Ir-Sn/SnO{sub 2}, which consists of an Ir-rich core and an Ir-Sn alloy shell with SnO{sub 2} present on the surface. The Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C heterogeneous catalyst exhibited high electrochemical activity toward the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to the commercial Pt/C (ETEK), PtRu/C (Johnson Matthey) as well as PtSn/C catalysts. Electrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the superior electro-activity is directly related to the high degree of Ir-Sn alloy formation as well as the existence of nonalloyed SnO{sub 2} on surface. Our cross-disciplinary work, from novel 'surfactant-free' synthesis of Ir-Sn catalysts, theoretical simulations, and catalytic measurements to the characterizations of 'real' heterogeneous nanostructures, will not only highlight the intriguing structure-property correlations in nanosized catalysts but also have a transformative impact on the commercialization of DEFC technology by replacing Pt with low-cost, highly active Ir-based catalysts.

Du W.; Su D.; Wang Q.; Saxner D.; Deskins N.A.; Krzanowski J.E.; Frenkel A.I.; Teng X.



Ethanol Production and Maximum Cell Growth Are Highly Correlated with Membrane Lipid Composition during Fermentation as Determined by Lipidomic Analysis of 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains  

PubMed Central

Optimizing ethanol yield during fermentation is important for efficient production of fuel alcohol, as well as wine and other alcoholic beverages. However, increasing ethanol concentrations during fermentation can create problems that result in arrested or sluggish sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The fundamental cellular basis for these problem fermentations, however, is not well understood. Small-scale fermentations were performed in a synthetic grape must using 22 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (primarily wine strains) with various degrees of ethanol tolerance to assess the correlation between lipid composition and fermentation kinetic parameters. Lipids were extracted at several fermentation time points representing different growth phases of the yeast to quantitatively analyze phospholipids and ergosterol utilizing atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry methods. Lipid profiling of individual fermentations indicated that yeast lipid class profiles do not shift dramatically in composition over the course of fermentation. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed using partial least-squares linear regression modeling to correlate lipid composition data with fermentation kinetic data. The results indicate a strong correlation (R2 = 0.91) between the overall lipid composition and the final ethanol concentration (wt/wt), an indicator of strain ethanol tolerance. One potential component of ethanol tolerance, the maximum yeast cell concentration, was also found to be a strong function of lipid composition (R2 = 0.97). Specifically, strains unable to complete fermentation were associated with high phosphatidylinositol levels early in fermentation. Yeast strains that achieved the highest cell densities and ethanol concentrations were positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine species similar to those known to decrease the perturbing effects of ethanol in model membrane systems. PMID:23064336

Henderson, Clark M.; Lozada-Contreras, Michelle; Jiranek, Vladimir; Longo, Marjorie L.



Dioxins and furans determination in postmortem blood by gas chromatography--high-resolution mass spectrometry.  


Dioxins and related compounds (furans) are persistent environmental contaminants that cause adverse biological effects. Their influence on humans is still unclear, except for accidental high-dose exposure. However, chronic exposure to these compounds seems to be involved in cancer, endocrine disruption, and neurobehavioral effects. For several years, a large concern about the potential health risks of dioxins is emerging in Europe and United States. Dioxin levels in biological specimens are extremely low and require very sensitive and specific methods of analysis. In this study, gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to evaluate dioxin body burden of two women deceased from generalized cancer. Fat fraction of blood specimens was obtained after precipitation with ethanol and extraction of both liquid and solid phases spiked with labeled 13C12-dioxin analogues. Organic phases were grouped, washed, and evaporated to weigh the lipid content. Lipids were dissolved in hexane, hydrolyzed with concentrated sulfuric acid, and discarded during water washes. Dioxins purification was achieved using three successive columns: silica, alumina/sodium sulfate, and carbon/Celite. Finally, the toluene eluent was evaporated and the extract injected in the analytical system. After chromatographic separation, detection was achieved in single ion monitoring mode using a high-resolution mass spectrometer operating in electron impact ionization mode (40 eV, minimal resolution of 10,000). Dioxin levels were expressed in pg TEQ/g of fat as defined by the World Health Organization. Quantification limits for each dioxin congener ranged from 2.5 to 12.0 pg/g fat with a relative extraction recovery always higher than 60%. Dioxin concentrations in the blood of the two deceased women were 35.0 and 42.7 pg TEQ/g fat, respectively. These concentrations are largely lower than those observed after accidental releases, but in the range of those observed in the general European population. Therefore, it was not possible to correlate dioxin body burden of the two women as a potential contributor of their cancer pathology. Nevertheless, knowledge of dioxin body burden in the French population would be of interest for an accurate interpretation of these results. PMID:15902976

Cirimele, V; Villain, M; Kintz, P



High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by  

E-print Network

High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction of human red blood cells (RBC) parasitized by malaria-inducing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-RBCs. Three

Dao, Ming


Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

Derr, Dan



Longitudinal Assessment of High Blood Pressure in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD. Methods Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks. Results Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P?=?0.003). Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively). Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P?=?0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD. PMID:25419656

Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Zepeda, Anne; Newton, Kimberly P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Behling, Cynthia; Hallinan, Erin K.; Donithan, Michele; Tonascia, James



Process for producing ethanol  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.



Upregulation of cardiac NOS due to endotoxemia and vagal overactivity contributes to the hypotensive effect of chronic ethanol in female rats.  


We previously reported that chronic ethanol lowers blood pressure in female rats. In this study, hemodynamic, biochemical, and immunoblot analyses were performed to investigate: (i) the roles of cardiac contractility and autonomic activity in the hypotensive action of ethanol, and (ii) whether endotoxemia-induced upregulation of cardiac and/or vascular nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms underlies the hypotensive and cardiac effects of ethanol. Telemetric monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, and myocardial contractility (dP/dt(max)) was performed in female rats receiving liquid diet with or without ethanol (5% w/v, 13weeks). Autonomic control was assessed by frequency domain analysis of interbeat intervals (IBI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Compared with pair-fed controls, ethanol caused sustained reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and+dP/dt(max). Ethanol feeding increased the spectral power of high-frequency band (IBI(HF), 0.75-3Hz) and decreased the low-frequency band (IBI(LF), 0.25-0.75Hz) and IBI(LF/HF) ratio, suggesting increased cardiac parasympathetic dominance. In contrast, vascular tone was not affected by ethanol because SBP spectral bands and plasma norepinephrine remained unchanged. Myocardial expressions of eNOS and its upstream regulators, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, and plasma endotoxin and nitrite/nitrate were increased by ethanol. Myocardial iNOS was also increased by ethanol whereas nNOS remained unchanged and aortic levels of all NOS isoforms were not altered by ethanol. These findings suggest that facilitation of myocardial PI3K/Akt/eNOS and iNOS pathways, due possibly to ethanol-induced endotoxemia and/or increased cardiac parasympathetic dominance, might constitute a cellular mechanism for the reduced myocardial contractility and hypotension caused by ethanol in female rats. PMID:20970417

El-Mas, Mahmoud M; Fan, Ming; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A



High Performance Blood Glucose Sensor using Charge Transfer Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charge transfer type blood glucose sensor (CTTGS) has been proposed. The CTTGS is an accumulation method H+ ion (gluconic acid) perception system. As compared to cyclic-voltammetry and ISFET, the performance was found to be excellent with span and range of 1445 mV and 200 mmol\\/L respectively. The sensitivity obtained for blood glucose level of the person was 29.06 mV\\/mmol

Seung-Ro Lee; Takeshi Hizawa; Kazuaki Sawada; Hidekuni Takao; M. Ishida



Low blood alcohol levels in rats despite chronic alcohol consumption  

SciTech Connect

Rats fed liquid diets containing 36% or 26% of calories from ethanol consume similar amounts of alcohol each day. After 3 weeks on ethanol diet, the blood alcohol levels (BAL) are high in rats fed the 36% alcohol diet, but low or insignificant in those fed the 26% alcohol diet. Rats in either alcohol diet group consume most of their diet in the night. Hence, the low BAL in 26% ethanol diet-fed rats may not be due to a more rapid diet consumption after feeding and clearance of the bulk of ingested alcohol as compared to the rats fed the 36% alcohol diet. BAL at various times during the day (7 AM, 10 AM, 1 PM, 4 PM, 7 PM and 10 PM) are high in rats fed the 36% ethanol diet. However, BAL in those fed the 26% ethanol diet are low during the corresponding times. It appears that the low BAL produced by the enhanced hepatic metabolism of ethanol is related to the improved nutritional status in rats fed the 26% ethanol diet, compared to those fed 36% ethanol diet, because rats fed the 36% ethanol diet ingest reduced amounts of calories and other nutrients. Extrahepatic effects of chronic alcohol consumption caused by high BAL may be abated by an enhanced daily intake of nutrients by the animal.

Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W.; Lin, J.C.; Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. (VA Medical Centers, Portland, OR (USA))



Influence of fiber degradation and concentration of fermentable sugars on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of high-solids spruce slurry to ethanol  

PubMed Central

Background Saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic materials, such as spruce, should be performed at high solids contents in order to reduce the cost of the produced bioethanol. However, this has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields or a complete lack of ethanol production. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results when prehydrolysis is performed at a higher temperature prior to the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic materials. In some cases, a significant increase in overall ethanol yield was reported, while in others, a slight decrease in ethanol yield was observed. In order to investigate the influence of prehydrolysis on high-solids SSF of steam-pretreated spruce slurry, in the present study, the presence of fibers and inhibitors, degree of fiber degradation and initial fermentable sugar concentration has been studied. Results SSF of whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry at a solids content of 13.7% water-insoluble solids (WIS) resulted in a very low overall ethanol yield, mostly due to poor fermentation. The yeast was, however, able to ferment the washed slurry and the liquid fraction of the pretreated slurry. Performing prehydrolysis at 48°C for 22 hours prior to SSF of the whole pretreated slurry increased the overall ethanol yield from 3.9 to 62.1%. The initial concentration of fermentable sugars in SSF could not explain the increase in ethanol yield in SSF with prehydrolysis. Although the viscosity of the material did not appear to decrease significantly during prehydrolysis, the degradation of the fibers prior to the addition of the yeast had a positive effect on ethanol yield when using whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that the increase in ethanol yield from SSF when performing prehydrolysis is a result of fiber degradation rather than a decrease in viscosity. The increased concentration of fermentable sugars at the beginning of the fermentation phase in SSF following prehydrolysis did not affect the overall ethanol yield in the present study. PMID:24103097



Interpreting results of ethanol analysis in postmortem specimens: a review of the literature.  


We searched the scientific literature for articles dealing with postmortem aspects of ethanol and problems associated with making a correct interpretation of the results. A person's blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) and state of inebriation at the time of death is not always easy to establish owing to various postmortem artifacts. The possibility of alcohol being produced in the body after death, e.g. via microbial contamination and fermentation is a recurring issue in routine casework. If ethanol remains unabsorbed in the stomach at the time of death, this raises the possibility of continued local diffusion into surrounding tissues and central blood after death. Skull trauma often renders a person unconscious for several hours before death, during which time the BAC continues to decrease owing to metabolism in the liver. Under these circumstances blood from an intracerebral or subdural clot is a useful specimen for determination of ethanol. Bodies recovered from water are particular problematic to deal with owing to possible dilution of body fluids, decomposition, and enhanced risk of microbial synthesis of ethanol. The relationship between blood and urine-ethanol concentrations has been extensively investigated in autopsy specimens and the urine/blood concentration ratio might give a clue about the stage of alcohol absorption and distribution at the time of death. Owing to extensive abdominal trauma in aviation disasters (e.g. rupture of the viscera), interpretation of BAC in autopsy specimens from the pilot and crew is highly contentious and great care is needed to reach valid conclusions. Vitreous humor is strongly recommended as a body fluid for determination of ethanol in postmortem toxicology to help establish whether the deceased had consumed ethanol before death. Less common autopsy specimens submitted for analysis include bile, bone marrow, brain, testicle, muscle tissue, liver, synovial and cerebrospinal fluids. Some investigators recommend measuring the water content of autopsy blood and if necessary correcting the concentration of ethanol to a mean value of 80% w/w, which corresponds to fresh whole blood. Alcoholics often die at home with zero or low BAC and nothing more remarkable at autopsy than a fatty liver. Increasing evidence suggests that such deaths might be caused by a pronounced ketoacidosis. Recent research has focused on developing various biochemical tests or markers of postmortem synthesis of ethanol. These include the urinary metabolites of serotonin and non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol, such as ethyl glucuronide, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. This literature review will hopefully be a good starting point for those who are contemplating a fresh investigation into some aspect of postmortem alcohol analysis and toxicology. PMID:16782292

Kugelberg, Fredrik C; Jones, Alan Wayne



Ethanol-metabolizing pathways in deermice. Estimation of flux calculated from isotope effects  

SciTech Connect

The apparent deuterium isotope effects on Vmax/Km (D(V/K) of ethanol oxidation in two deermouse strains (one having and one lacking hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were used to calculate flux through the ADH, microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), and catalase pathways. In vitro, D(V/K) values were 3.22 for ADH, 1.13 for MEOS, and 1.83 for catalase under physiological conditions of pH, temperature, and ionic strength. In vivo, in deermice lacking ADH (ADH-), D(V/K) was 1.20 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.) at 7.0 +/- 0.5 mM blood ethanol and 1.08 +/- 0.10 at 57.8 +/- 10.2 mM blood ethanol, consistent with ethanol oxidation principally by MEOS. Pretreatment of ADH- animals with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole did not significantly change D(V/K). ADH+ deermice exhibited D(V/K) values of 1.87 +/- 0.06 (untreated), 1.71 +/- 0.13 (pretreated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), and 1.24 +/- 0.13 (after the ADH inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole) at 5-7 mM blood ethanol levels. At elevated blood ethanol concentrations (58.1 +/- 2.4 mM), a D(V/K) of 1.37 +/- 0.21 was measured in the ADH+ strain. For measured D(V/K) values to accurately reflect pathway contributions, initial reaction conditions are essential. These were shown to exist by the following criteria: negligible fractional conversion of substrate to product and no measurable back reaction in deermice having a reversible enzyme (ADH). Thus, calculations from D(V/K) indicate that, even when ADH is present, non-ADH pathways (mostly MEOS) participate significantly in ethanol metabolism at all concentrations tested and play a major role at high levels.

Alderman, J.; Takagi, T.; Lieber, C.S.



An in vitro study on the metabolic interaction between ethanol and caffeine at high concentrations using human liver microsomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, CA) is a compound usually contained in beverages such as coffee and tea. CA is known to\\u000a pharmacologically antagonize ethanol. Thus, the simultaneous intake of CA and ethanol takes place very commonly. Sometimes,\\u000a toxic interactions also occur following combined intake of these two compounds. In this study, we conducted in vitro experiments\\u000a to examine the interaction between ethanol

Takako Nakamura; Einosuke Tanaka; Katsuya Honda



Relation between ethanol induced changes in plasma catecholines during stress and voluntary ethanol preference  

SciTech Connect

N/NIH rats (N = 10) were implanted with venous catheters to permit stressless chronic, repeated blood withdrawal. Following surgical recovery, the rats were restrained to a lab counter top for 30 min after injection with saline or low dose (0.5 g/kg) ethanol. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn to determine AUC production of NE and E to assess the effect that low dose ethanol has on stress responsiveness. Between saline injection restraint and ethanol injection restraint conditions no differences in NE or E AUC were apparent. A 2- bottle preference test for ethanol was then performed over 21 days. Multiple regression analyses of NE saline restraint and ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .02 level with R/sup 2/ = .681. Multiple regressions of E saline restraint and E ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .01 level with R/sup 2/ = .746. These data suggest that ethanol induced increases in plasma NE and E during stress can predict later voluntary ethanol consumption between the ranges of .13 and 1.05 g ethanol/kg/day. This data seems to be more in line with an arousal or withdrawal relationship between ethanol consumption and stress than by a simple tension reduction formulation based on plasma NE or E.

Pashko, S.



Characterization and bioavailability of tea polyphenol nanoliposome prepared by combining an ethanol injection method with dynamic high-pressure microfluidization.  


Tea polyphenols are major polyphenolic substances found in green tea with various biological activities. To overcome their instability toward oxygen and alkaline environments, tea polyphenol nanoliposome (TPN) was prepared by combining an ethanol injection method with dynamic high-pressure microfluidization. Good physicochemical characterizations (entrapment efficiency = 78.5%, particle size = 66.8 nm, polydispersity index = 0.213, and zeta potential = -6.16 mv) of TPN were observed. Compared with tea polyphenol solution, TPN showed equivalent antioxidant activities, indicated by equal DPPH free radical scavenging and slightly lower ferric reducing activities and lower inhibitions against Staphylococcus aureus , Escerhichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium , and Listeria monocytogenes . In addition, a relatively good sustained release property was observed in TPN, with only 29.8% tea polyphenols released from nanoliposome after 24 h of incubation. Moreover, TPN improved the stability of tea polyphenol in alkaline solution. This study expects to provide theories and practice guides for further applications of TPN. PMID:24428744

Zou, Li-qiang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Wei-lin; Liang, Rui-hong; Li, Ti; Liu, Cheng-mei; Cao, Yan-lin; Niu, Jing; Liu, Zhen



High Blood Cholesterol Q&A Dr. Michael Lauer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Q&A with Dr. Michael Lauer Past Issues / ... heavier and older, what does recent research on cholesterol and heart health tell us that Americans need ...


Construction and Analysis of High-Ethanol-Producing Fusants with Co-Fermentation Ability through Protoplast Fusion and Double Labeling Technology  

PubMed Central

Double labeling of resistance markers and report genes can be used to breed engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that can assimilate xylose and glucose as a mixed carbon source for ethanol fermentation and increased ethanol production. In this study Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and Candida shehatae 20335 were used as parent strains to conduct protoplast fusion and the resulting fusants were screened by double labeling. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to assess the ethanol yield following the fermentation of xylose and glucose, as both single and mixed carbon sources, by the fusants. Interestingly, one fusant (ZLYRHZ7) was demonstrated to have an excellent fermentation performance, with an ethanol yield using the mixed carbon source of 0.424 g g?1, which compares with 0.240 g g?1 (W5) and 0.353 g g?1 (20335) for the parent strains. This indicates an improvement in the ethanol yield of 43.4% and 16.7%, respectively. PMID:25268957

Ge, Jingping; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Luyan; Zhang, Mengyun; Ping, Wenxiang



The Edgecombe County High Blood Pressure Control Program: the process of medical care and blood pressure control.  


As part of the Edgecombe County High Blood Pressure Control Program, a medical record review was conducted within a multispecialty private group practice in the county. The purposes of the review were to assess the relationship between the process of medical care and blood pressure control and to explore the variation in level and impact of medical care by race and sex. At the end of a three-year period, 41 percent of 628 hypertensive patients from the practice had uncontrolled diastolic blood pressure (DBP), as defined by Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program criteria. The percentage of uncontrolled hypertensives ranged from 53 percent for black men to 34 percent for white women. Hypertensive patients whose physicians were more aggressive in their use of antihypertensive drug therapy were more likely to be controlled. The effect of the level of physician drug aggressiveness tended to be more pronounced for blacks than for whites. Differences by race in exposure to and efficacy of aggressive drug treatment may influence racial variation in blood pressure control. PMID:3453192

Ballard, D J; Strogatz, D S; Wagner, E H; Siscovick, D S; James, S A; Kleinbaum, D G; Williams, C A; Cutchin, L M; Ibrahim, M A



Impact of Corn Based Ethanol Production on the U.S. High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) and Sugar Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of ethanol production on the sweetener market in the U.S. It was found that ethanol production has increased corn demand and prices, and therefore, may have a negative impact on HFCS production and increase the demand for sugar.

Hassan Marzoughi; P. Lynn Kennedy; Brian M. Hilbun



High capacity for leukotriene biosynthesis in peripheral blood during pregnancy.  


Pregnancy is accompanied by major immunological changes to maintain both tolerance for the fetus and immune competence. Leukotrienes are powerful 5-lipoxygenase-derived inflammatory mediators and the characteristics of leukotriene-related diseases (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinitis) change during pregnancy. Here, we show that pregnancy affects leukotriene synthesis in human blood and leukocytes. 5-Lipoxygenase product formation in stimulated blood of pregnant women was significantly higher than in non-pregnant females. Although a pregnancy-related increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts may explain these observations, granulocytes of pregnant donors have lower leukotriene-synthetic capacities. On the other hand, granulocytes from non-pregnant woman produced more leukotrienes when resuspended in plasma of pregnant women than of non-pregnant females. Together, we show that leukotriene biosynthesis in maternal blood is increased by the interrelations of higher leukocyte numbers, lower cellular capacity for leukotriene synthesis and stimulatory effects of plasma. This bias may affect leukotriene-related diseases during pregnancy and their pharmacological treatment. PMID:23870194

Schaible, A M; Koeberle, A; Northoff, H; Lawrenz, B; Weinigel, C; Barz, D; Werz, O; Pergola, C



Effects of enzyme feeding strategy on ethanol yield in fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of spruce at high dry matter  

PubMed Central

Background To make lignocellulosic fuel ethanol economically competitive with fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce the production cost. One way to achieve this is by increasing the substrate concentration in the production process, and thus reduce the energy demand in the final distillation of the fermentation broth. However, increased substrate concentration in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields and severe stirring problems. Because the SSF medium is being continuously hydrolyzed, running the process in fed-batch mode could potentially reduce the stirring problems and lead to increased ethanol yields in high-solids SSF. Different enzyme feeding strategies, with the enzymes either present in the reactor from start-up or fed into the reactor together with the substrate, have been studied, along with the influence of the enzyme feeding strategy on the final ethanol yield and productivity. Results In the present study, SSF was run successfully with 10% and 14% water-insoluble solids (WIS) in batch and fed-batch mode. The mixing of the material in the reactor was significantly better in fed-batch than batch mode, and similarly high or higher ethanol yields were achieved in fed-batch mode compared with batch SSF in some cases. No general trend in the dependence of ethanol yield on enzyme feeding strategy was found. Conclusions The optimum enzyme feeding strategy appears to depend on the conditions during SSF, such as the WIS concentration and the concentration of inhibitory compounds in the SSF medium. PMID:20579340



Evaluation of high hydrostatic pressure effects on bovine red blood cells and platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the stability of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets. Bovine blood cells (n=5) were treated with the pressure of 55, 110, 154 and 220 MPa at 25 °C for 5 min. Light microscopy, atomic force microscopy and flow cytometry studies revealed that RBCs were morphologically stable up

Cagatay Ceylan; Mete Severcan; Faruk Bozoglu; Feride Severcan



Operant Self-Administration Models for Testing the Neuropharmacological Basis of Ethanol Consumption in Rats  

PubMed Central

Operant self-administration procedures are used to assess the neural basis of ethanol-seeking behavior under a wide range of experimental conditions. Rats do not spontaneously self-administer ethanol in pharmacologically meaningful amounts. This unit provides a step-by-step guide for training rats to self-administer quantities of ethanol that produce moderate to high blood-alcohol content. Different protocols are used for rats that are genetically heterogeneous versus rats that are selectively bred for high alcohol preference. Also, these protocols have different sets of advantages and disadvantages, for example, control for caloric intake or taste between two solutions that maintain operant lever-press behavior. Basic self-administration protocols can also be altered to focus on different aspects of the motivational properties of ethanol (for example, those related to dependence). This unit provides multiple protocols for producing alcohol intake in rats that can be pharmacologically probed relative to a variety of control conditions. PMID:20373508

June, Harry L.; Gilpin, Nicholas W.



High quality genome-wide genotyping from archived dried blood spots without DNA amplification.  


Spots of blood are routinely collected from newborn babies onto filter paper called Guthrie cards and used to screen for metabolic and genetic disorders. The archived dried blood spots are an important and precious resource for genomic research. Whole genome amplification of dried blood spot DNA has been used to provide DNA for genome-wide SNP genotyping. Here we describe a 96 well format procedure to extract DNA from a portion of a dried blood spot that provides sufficient unamplified genomic DNA for genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We show that SNP genotyping of the unamplified DNA is more robust than genotyping amplified dried blood spot DNA, is comparable in cost, and can be done with thousands of samples. This procedure can be used for genome-wide association studies and other large-scale genomic analyses that require robust, high-accuracy genotyping of dried blood spot DNA. PMID:23737996

St Julien, Krystal R; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L; Shaw, Gary M; Stevenson, David K; O'Brodovich, Hugh M; Krasnow, Mark A



Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?--An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model  

PubMed Central

An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9?mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1?mg/L; median = 0.4?mg/L; range = 0–35?mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

Huynh-Delerme, Celine; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cecile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine



Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.



Minimization of Glycerol Production during the High-Performance Fed-Batch Ethanolic Fermentation Process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Using a Metabolic Model as a Prediction Tool†  

PubMed Central

On the basis of knowledge of the biological role of glycerol in the redox balance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation strategy was defined to reduce the surplus formation of NADH, responsible for glycerol synthesis. A metabolic model was used to predict the operating conditions that would reduce glycerol production during ethanol fermentation. Experimental validation of the simulation results was done by monitoring the inlet substrate feeding during fed-batch S. cerevisiae cultivation in order to maintain the respiratory quotient (RQ) (defined as the CO2 production to O2 consumption ratio) value between 4 and 5. Compared to previous fermentations without glucose monitoring, the final glycerol concentration was successfully decreased. Although RQ-controlled fermentation led to a lower maximum specific ethanol production rate, it was possible to reach a high level of ethanol production: 85 g · liter?1 with 1.7 g · liter?1 glycerol in 30 h. We showed here that by using a metabolic model as a tool in prediction, it was possible to reduce glycerol production in a very high-performance ethanolic fermentation process. PMID:16517663

Bideaux, Carine; Alfenore, Sandrine; Cameleyre, Xavier; Molina-Jouve, Carole; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Guillouet, Stephane E.



[Unfavorable outcome of aggressive lowering of high blood pressure. Case report].  


Cerebral autoregulation is essential in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow. Due to this autoregulation, cerebral perfusion is constant in healthy subjects if blood pressure values are between 50-150 mmHg. In hypertensive patients the curve is right-shifted towards higher blood pressure values (pathological autoregulation). Aggressive blood pressure reduction can lead to severe ischaemia. The authors report the history of a 73-year-old man with the background history of widespread atherosclerotic disease. The patient complained about headache and dizziness and was found to have high blood pressure (160/100 mmHg) and increased blood glucose (14.8 mmol/l). Prior to his admission an aggressive blood pressure and blood sugar reduction was carried out and, within a short period of time he became unconscious and was transferred to the department of the authors with the possible diagnosis of brainstem stroke. On admission the patient was unresponsive, comatose with brainstem symptoms. Urgent brain computed tomography failed to show any acute alterations. However, repeat CT scan revealed extensive bilateral space occupying ischemic changes involving in territories of both internal carotid arteries with consequent brainstem compression. Computed tomography angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. The authors conclude that intensive blood pressure reduction result in ischemic lesions via hypoperfusion especially in patients with widespread atherosclerotic disease and significant carotid vessel pathology. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(42), 1685-1689. PMID:25305726

Kuperczkó, Diána; Csécsei, Péter; Komáromy, Hedvig; Szapáry, László; Fehér, Gergely



Zymomonas ethanol fermentations  

SciTech Connect

Studies on various industrial raw materials indicate that a Zymomonas process has its greatest commercial potential in fermenting starch-based substrates. High yields, productivities and ethanol concentrations can be achieved. Genetic manipulation is now being used to extend the substrate range to lactose and other carbohydrates. 31 references.

Rogers, P.L.; Goodman, A.E.; Heyes, R.E.



Fetal ethanol exposure increases ethanol intake by making it smell and taste better  

PubMed Central

Human epidemiologic studies reveal that fetal ethanol exposure is highly predictive of adolescent ethanol avidity and abuse. Little is known about how fetal exposure produces these effects. It is hypothesized that fetal ethanol exposure results in stimulus-induced chemosensory plasticity. Here, we asked whether gestational ethanol exposure increases postnatal ethanol avidity in rats by altering its taste and odor. Experimental rats were exposed to ethanol in utero via the dam's diet, whereas control rats were either pair-fed an iso-caloric diet or given food ad libitum. We found that fetal ethanol exposure increased the taste-mediated acceptability of both ethanol and quinine hydrochloride (bitter), but not sucrose (sweet). Importantly, a significant proportion of the increased ethanol acceptability could be attributed directly to the attenuated aversion to ethanol's quinine-like taste quality. Fetal ethanol exposure also enhanced ethanol intake and the behavioral response to ethanol odor. Notably, the elevated intake of ethanol was also causally linked to the enhanced odor response. Our results demonstrate that fetal exposure specifically increases ethanol avidity by, in part, making it taste and smell better. More generally, they establish an epigenetic chemosensory mechanism by which maternal patterns of drug use can be transferred to offspring. Given that many licit (e.g., tobacco products) and illicit (e.g., marijuana) drugs have noteworthy chemosensory components, our findings have broad implications for the relationship between maternal patterns of drug use, child development, and postnatal vulnerability. PMID:19273846

Youngentob, Steven L.; Glendinning, John I.



Feasibility of producing ethanol from food waste.  


Food waste generated in Korea is rich in carbohydrate as high as 65% of total solids. Using the food waste, the feasibility of ethanol production was investigated in a lab-scale fermentor. Pretreatment with hydrolyzing enzymes including carbohydrase, glucoamylase, cellulase and protease were tested for hydrolysis of food waste. The carbohydrase was able to hydrolyze and produce glucose with a glucose yield of 0.63 g glucose/g total solid. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation by using carbohydrase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in the batch mode. For separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), ethanol concentration reached at the level corresponding to an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g total solids. For simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the ethanol yield was 0.31 g ethanol/g total solids. During the continuous operation of SHF, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 1.18 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.3g ethanol/g total solids. For SSF process, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 0.8 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.2g ethanol/g total solids. PMID:21596551

Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Jun Cheol; Pak, Daewon



Impact of an acid fungal protease in high gravity fermentation for ethanol production using Indian sorghum as a feedstock.  


This study evaluated the conventional jet cooking liquefaction process followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 30% and 35% dry solids (DS) concentration of Indian sorghum feedstock for ethanol production, with addition of acid fungal protease or urea. To evaluate the efficacy of thermostable ?-amylase in liquefaction at 30% and 35% DS concentration of Indian sorghum, liquefact solubility, higher dextrins, and fermentable sugars were analyzed at the end of the process. The liquefact was further subjected to SSF using yeast. In comparison with urea, addition of an acid fungal protease during SSF process was observed to accelerate yeast growth (?), substrate consumption (Q(s)), ultimately ethanol yield based on substrate (Y(p/s)) and ethanol productivity based on fermentation time (Q(p)). The fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery were determined for both concentrations of Indian sorghum and found to be increased with use of acid fungal protease in SSF process. PMID:23292745

Gohel, V; Duan, G; Maisuria, V B



High affinity of blood for oxygen reduces oxygen uptake in contracting canine gracilis muscle.  


To clarify the influence of blood flow with high-oxygen (O2)-affinity blood on oxygen consumption (VO2) in submaximally exercising skeletal muscle, we perfused the isolated dog gracilis (n = 8) contracting under 1 Hz stimulation alternatively with normal and high-O2-affinity blood, with a constant arterial O2 content (Ca,O2) and varying perfusion rates. The average P50 (oxygen partial pressure (PO2) for half-saturation at pH 7.40, PCO2 of 40 mmHg at 37 degrees C) of the high-O2-affinity blood prepared by carbamylation was 15.5 mmHg, and that of the normal blood 33.7 mmHg. With normal blood perfusion, the average VO2 above 6 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 of O2 delivery (Ca,O2 x flow) was 4.38 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 (range 4.17-4.68 ml min-1 (100 g)-1, and VO2 at the O2 delivery range of 6-5 and 4-2.5 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 decreased to 3.96 and 2.43 ml min-1 (100 g)-1, respectively. The PO2 of venous effluent (Pv,O2) at the O2 delivery of 6 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 was 33 mmHg. With low-P50 blood perfusion, VO2 was significantly less than with normal blood, both below the O2 delivery level of 6 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 and above it, even in the fairly high O2 delivery range of 8.5-12 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 (P < 0.05). Thus, high blood flow did not compensate for the reduced VO2 caused by high-O2-affinity blood. At values of Pv,O2 less than 33 mmHg, VO2 with low-P50 blood was not significantly different from that with normal blood (P > 0.05). The reduced VO2 in submaximally exercising skeletal muscle might be due to a slower O2 dissociation from the high-O2-affinity red cells and to a limited O2 diffusion resulting from the lower Pv,O2 value (which reflects mean end-capillary PO2). PMID:8011318

Kohzuki, H; Enoki, Y; Sakata, S; Shimizu, S; Ohga, Y



Effect of cetane number improver on heat release rate and emissions of high speed diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the influence of cetane number improver on heat release rate and emissions of a high-speed diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend fuel. Different percentages of cetane number enhancer (0, 0.2, 0.4%) were added to blends, and the engine tests were performed on a 4-cylinder high-speed DI diesel engine. The results show that: the brake specific fuel consumption

Lü Xing-cai; Yang Jian-guang; Zhang Wu-gao; Huang Zhen



Changes in lymphocyte subsets and macrophage functions from high, short-term dietary ethanol in C57\\/BL6 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic administration of a diet containing 7% ethanol (36% of total calories) for 8 days to male C57\\/BL6 mice resulted in significant changes in functioning of macrophages. Peritoneal exudate macrophages from the ethanol-fed mice released more tumor cell cytotoxic materials upon culturing in vitro than cells from controls. However, peritoneal exudate cells continued to respond to exogenous beta carotene in

R Ross Watson; R. H. Prabhala; E. Abril; T. L. Smith



High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and ethanol induced tissue ablation: Thermal lesion volume and temperature ex vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIFU is the upcoming technology for noninvasive or minimally invasive tumor ablation via the localized acoustic energy deposition at the focal region within the tumor target. The presence of cavitation bubbles had been shown to improve the therapeutic effect of HIFU. In this study, we have investigated the effect of HIFU on temperature rise and cavitation bubble activity in ethanol-treated porcine liver and kidney tissues. We have also explored changes in the viability and proliferation rate of HepG2, SW1376, and FB1 cancer cells with their exposure to ethanol and HIFU. Tissues were submerged in 95% ethanol for five hours and then exposed to HIFU generated by a 1.1 MHz transducer or injected into focal spot before HIFU exposure. Cavitation events were measured by a passive cavitation detection technique for a range of acoustic power from 1.17 W to 20.52 W. The temperature around the focal zone was measured by type K or type E thermocouples embedded in the samples. In experiments with cancer cells, 2.7 millions cells were treated with concentration of ethanol at concentration 2%, 4%, 10%, 25%, and 50% and the cell were exposed to HIFU with power of 2.73 W, 8.72 W, and 12.0 W for 30 seconds. Our data show that the treatment of tissues with ethanol reduces the threshold power for inertial cavitation and increases the temperature rise. The exposure of cancer cells to various HIFU power only showed a higher number of viable cells 24 to 72 hours after HIFU exposure. On the other hand, both the viability and proliferation rate were significantly decreased in cells treated with ethanol and then HIFU at 8.7 W and 12.0 W even at ethanol concentration of 2 and 4 percent. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and HIFU have a synergistic effect on cancer cells ablation.

Hoang, Nguyen Hai


Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration  

SciTech Connect

Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regular diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.

Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))



Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)



Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat  

PubMed Central

Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE) and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2) and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis. PMID:23365609

Jang, Woong Sun; Choung, Se Young



High Performance Nanocatalysts Supported on Micro/Nano Carbon Structures Using Ethanol Immersion Pretreatment for Micro DMFCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, highly dense platinum (Pt) nanocatalysts were successfully deposited on the hydrophilically-treated nano/micro carbon supports with an ethanol (EtOH) immersion pretreatment and an acidic treatment for the performance improvement of methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). In order to thoroughly immerse the three-dimensional, interwoven structures of the carbon cloth fibers with a 6 M sulfuric acid surface modification, which increasing more oxygen-containing functional groups on the surfaces of the carbon supports, the EtOH immersion pretreatment of the carbon supports was utilized prior to the sulfuric acid treatment. Subsequently, Pt catalysts were reduced on the modified carbon supports by a homemade open-loop reduction system (OLRS) [1] For comparisons, carbon cloth (CC) and carbon nanotube on CC (CNT/CC) supports were employed with and without EtOH immersion pretreatments before Pt catalyst reduction. In the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves, the electrosorption charges of hydrogen ion (QH) and the peak current density (IP) of the fabricated Pt/CC and Pt/CNT/CC electrodes with the EtOH immersion pretreatments can efficiently be enhanced due to more active Pt sites for electrocatalytic reactions.

Lin, Liang-You; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Chang, Chaun; Tseng, Fan-Gang



Ethanolic extract of taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and Fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.  


We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice. PMID:25299819

Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl



The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

The antiobesity effects of a P. aviculare ethanol extract (PAE) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice were investigated. The mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with PAE (400?mg/kg/day) for 6.5 weeks. The increased body weights, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte area as well as serum total triglyceride, leptin, and malondialdehyde concentrations were decreased in PAE-treated HFD-induced obese mice relative to the same measurements in untreated obese mice. Furthermore, PAE significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. In addition, PAE treatment of 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PAE exerts antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice through the suppression of lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased antioxidant activity. PMID:23431342

Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung



Stabilized alumina\\/ethanol colloidal dispersion for seeding high temperature air flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and\\/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable

Judith H. Wernet; Mark P. Wernet



Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy



A novel highly selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist attenuates ethanol and nicotine seeking but does not affect inhibitory response control in Wistar rats.  


Recent studies suggest a potential role for 5-hydroxytryptamine(6) (5-HT(6)) receptors in the regulation of addictive behavior. In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the novel highly selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist compound (CMP) 42 affected nicotine and ethanol seeking behavior in Wistar rats. We have also studied whether CMP 42 had beneficial effects in a model of impulse control, as measured in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Rats were trained to nose poke to receive intravenous infusions of nicotine or an ethanol drop. CMP 42 (3-30 mg/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.) was administered to investigate the effects on nicotine self-administration. Rats were also tested for cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine and ethanol seeking. In addition, the effects of CMP 42 were studied on the number of anticipatory responses in the 5-CSRTT. CMP 42 was effective in reducing nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine seeking at a dose of 30 mg/kg (i.p.). CMP 42 was also effective in reducing reinstatement of ethanol seeking (30 mg/kg i.p.). In contrast, CMP 42 did not affect anticipatory responding at doses tested, indicating no effects on impulse control. These results add to a body of evidence implicating the 5-HT(6) receptor as a viable target for the control of drug abuse. Specifically, we demonstrated for the first time effects on nicotine self-administration and on nicotine and ethanol reinstatement. Further, these effects are probably not mediated by effects on impulse control. PMID:22974550

de Bruin, N M W J; McCreary, A C; van Loevezijn, A; de Vries, T J; Venhorst, J; van Drimmelen, M; Kruse, C G



Everest Study Finds High Altitude Affects Blood Pressure  


... The findings, reported online Aug. 27 in the European Heart Journal , could impact not just high-altitude ... altitudes for leisure or work," Parati concluded. SOURCE: European Heart Journal , news release, Aug. 26, 2014 HealthDay ...


Embedding NiCo2O4 nanoparticles into a 3DHPC assisted by CO2-expanded ethanol: a potential lithium-ion battery anode with high performance.  


A high-performance anode material, NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite, for lithium-ion batteries was developed through direct nanoparticles nucleation on a three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon (3DHPC) matrix and cation substitution of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles. It was synthesized via a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) expanded ethanol solution-assisted deposition method combined with a subsequent heat-treatment process. The NiCo2O4 nanoparticles were uniformly embedded into the porous carbon matrix and efficiently avoided free-growth in solution or aggregation in the pores even at a high content of 55.0 wt %. In particular, the 3DHPC was directly used without pretreatment or surfactant assistance. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite showed high reversible capacity and improved rate capability that outperformed those composites formed with single metal oxides (NiO/3DHPC, Co3O4/3DHPC), their physical mixture, and the composite prepared in pure ethanol (NiCo2O4/3DHPC-E). The superior performance is mainly contributed to the unique advantages of the scCO2-expanded ethanol medium, and the combination of high utilization efficiency and improved electrical conductivity of NiCo2O4 as well as the electronic and ionic transport advantages of 3DHPC. PMID:24937364

Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu



Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85)  

E-print Network

1 2.4.2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85) Contents Introduction is a renewable alternative transportation fuel blend of gasoline and ethanol. Ethanol (C2H5OH, a.k.a. ethyl matter. The E85 ethanol blend is a low carbon, clean-burning, high-octane fuel, and a versatile solvent


Very unusual ethanol distribution in a fatality.  


A 48-year-old man with an extensive history of alcoholism was found dead at home. He was lying face down on a carpet. There was evidence of gastric aspiration at autopsy and histologic examination. The distribution of ethanol was very unusual (concentrations in mg/100 mL or mg/100 g): femoral blood, 257 and 273 (two samples); heart blood, 643; vitreous humor, 763; urine, 84; bile, 616; liver, 250; and gastric, 4660 (2470 mg/53 g). In addition, this man ingested isopropanol, and, according to the history, may also have ingested acetone in the form of nail polish remover. The distribution of both isopropanol and acetone was as expected, which was approximately in proportion to the aqueous content of the respective tissues. It is proposed that agonal or postmortem aspiration of the ethanol-rich vomitus and postmortem fermentation could account for the apparently elevated concentrations of ethanol in heart blood and bile. The elevated vitreous ethanol could be explained if ethanol diffused across the eye in the agonal phase or postmortem from gastric aspirate in the carpet. The relatively low urinary ethanol concentration would be consistent with a recent binge-drinking episode, which allowed only a limited time period for excretion into an already partially full, but relatively ethanol-free, bladder. PMID:9323534

Singer, P P; Jones, G R



True color blood flow imaging using a high-speed laser photography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physiological changes in the retinal vasculature are commonly indicative of such disorders as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Thus, various methods have been developed for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics. However, to the best of our knowledge, current ophthalmic instruments do not provide a true color blood flow imaging capability. Accordingly, we propose a new method for the true color imaging of blood flow using a high-speed pulsed laser photography system. In the proposed approach, monochromatic images of the blood flow are acquired using a system of three cameras and three color lasers (red, green, and blue). A high-quality true color image of the blood flow is obtained by assembling the monochromatic images by means of image realignment and color calibration processes. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by imaging the flow of mouse blood within a microfluidic channel device. The experimental results confirm the proposed system provides a high-quality true color blood flow imaging capability, and therefore has potential for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics.

Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Sun, Yung-Nien; Ho, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Chi



[A case of acute ethanol intoxication with remarkable hyperglycemia by "ume-shu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar].  


A 19-year-old woman ingested 2.2 L of "umeshu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar. She was unconscious and in shock. The estimated blood ethanol concentration was 607 mg/dl, and the blood glucose level was 576 mg/dl. Because her respiration and circulation was highly suppressed, blood purification was indicated. Continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) was performed instead of hemodialysis because her hemodynamics was unstable. After CHDF was instituted, her blood glucose level reduced to normal range, and her consciousness became alert. CHDF was effective in eliminating ethanol and stabilizing her hemodynamics within an early stage. Though acute ethanol intoxication is known to inhibit glucogenesis, leading to hypoglycemia, marked hyperglycemia was seen in this case. Ingestion of a large amount of glucose-rich liquor and being in shock seemed to be the causes of hyperglycemia. PMID:12415871

Sugano, Takayuki; Kojima, Naoki; Kaneko, Susumu; Ishida, Junro; Terada, Taizo; Inagawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasusei



High ?-glucosidase secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves the efficiency of cellulase hydrolysis and ethanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.  


Bioethanol production from lignocellulose is considered as a sustainable biofuel supply. However, the low cellulose hydrolysis efficiency limits the cellulosic ethanol production. The cellulase is strongly inhibited by the major end product cellobiose, which can be relieved by the addition of ?-glucosidase. In this study, three ?-glucosidases from different organisms were respectively expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the ?-glucosidase from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera showed the best activity (5.2 U/ml). The recombinant strain with S. fibuligera ?-glucosidase could metabolize cellobiose with a specific growth rate similar to the control strain in glucose. This recombinant strain showed higher hydrolysis efficiency in the cellulose simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, when using the Trichoderma reesei cellulase, which is short of the ?-glucosidase activity. The final ethanol concentration was 110% (using Avicel) and 89% (using acid-pretreated corncob) higher than the control strain. These results demonstrated the effect of ?-glucosidase secretion in the recombinant S. cerevisiae for enhancing cellulosic ethanol conversion. PMID:23928840

Tang, Hongting; Hou, Jin; Shen, Yu; Xu, Lili; Yang, Hui; Fang, Xu; Bao, Xiaoming



Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation.  


A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. PMID:24463536

Hu, Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia



Nucleated red blood cells indicate high risk of in-hospital mortality.  


The presence of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the blood of patients with a variety of severe diseases is known to be highly associated with increased mortality. Blood analyzers to routinely measure NRBC concentrations are now available. However, the prognostic significance of such measurements has not been evaluated. Using a Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex; Norderstedt, Germany), we measured NRBC concentrations in 15,541 blood samples from 4,173 patients at a university clinic over the course of 12 weeks. NRBCs were found at least once in 7.5% of all patients. The highest incidence (20.0%) was found in patients from the intensive care unit of the general and accident surgery. The incidence of NRBC increased with age. The mortality of NRBC-positive patients (n = 313) was 21.1% (n = 66); this was significantly higher (P <.001) than the mortality of NRBC-negative patients (1.2%, n = 3,860). Mortality increased with increasing NRBC concentration. With regard to in-hospital mortality, NRBCs in blood showed sensitivity and specificity of 57.9% and 93.9%, respectively. NRBCs were detected for the first time, on average, 21 days (median 13 days) before death. The routine analysis of NRBCs in blood is of high prognostic power with regard to in-hospital mortality. This parameter may serve as an early indicator of patients at increased risk. PMID:12486408

Stachon, Axel; Sondermann, Nina; Imohl, Matthias; Krieg, Michael



A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of cyanide in equine blood.  


An epidemiological association among black cherry trees (Prunus serotina), eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americana), and the spring 2001 episode of mare reproductive loss syndrome in central Kentucky focused attention on the potential role of environmental cyanogens in the causes of this syndrome. To evaluate the role of cyanide (CN (-)) in this syndrome, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive method for determination of low parts per billion concentrations of CN (-) in equine blood and other biological fluids was developed. The analytical method is an adaptation of methods commonly in use and involves the evolution and trapping of gaseous hydrogen cyanide followed by spectrophotometric determination by autoanalyzer. The limit of quantitation of this method is 2 ng/mL in equine blood, and the standard curve shows a linear relationship between CN (-) concentration and absorbance (r >. 99). The method throughput is high, up to 100 samples per day. Normal blood CN (-) concentrations in horses at pasture in Kentucky in October 2001 ranged from 3-18 ng/mL, whereas hay-fed horses showed blood CN (-) levels of 2-7 ng/mL in January 2002. Blood samples from a small number of cattle at pasture showed broadly similar blood CN (-) concentrations. Intravenous administration of sodium cyanide and oral administration of mandelonitrile and amygdalin yielded readily detectable increases in blood CN (-) concentrations. This method is sufficiently sensitive and specific to allow the determination of normal blood CN (-) levels in horses, as well as the seasonal and pasture-dependent variations. The method should also be suitable for investigation of the toxicokinetics and disposition of subacutely toxic doses of CN (-) and its precursor cyanogens in the horse as well as in other species. PMID:20021191

Hughes, Charlie; Lehner, Fritz; Dirikolu, Levent; Harkins, Dan; Boyles, Jeff; McDowell, Karen; Tobin, Thomas; Crutchfield, James; Sebastian, Manu; Harrison, Lenn; Baskin, Stephen I



Rheology of red blood cells under flow in highly confined microchannels: I. effect of elasticity.  


We analyze the rheology of dilute red blood cell suspensions in pressure driven flows at low Reynolds number, in terms of the morphologies and elasticity of the cells. We focus on narrow channels of width similar to the cell diameter, when the interactions with the walls dominate the cell dynamics. The suspension presents a shear-thinning behaviour, with a Newtonian-behaviour at low shear rates, an intermediate region of strong decay of the suspension viscosity, and an asymptotic regime at high shear rates in which the effective viscosity converges to that of the solvent. We identify the relevant aspects of cell elasticity that contribute to the rheological response of blood at high confinement. In a second paper, we will explore the focusing of red blood cells while flowing at high shear rates and how this effect is controlled by the geometry of the channel. PMID:25105872

Lázaro, Guillermo R; Hernández-Machado, Aurora; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio



Highly efficient and robust Au/MgCuCr2O4 catalyst for gas-phase oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde.  


Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) supported on MgCuCr2O4-spinel are highly active and selective for the aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde (conversion 100%; yield ?95%). The catalyst is stable for at least 500 h. The unprecedented catalytic performance is due to strong synergy between metallic AuNPs and surface Cu(+) species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that Cu(+) is already formed during catalyst preparation and becomes more dominant at the surface during ethanol oxidation. These Cu(+) species are stabilized at the surface of the ternary MgCuCr2O4-spinel support. Further kinetic measurements indicate that the Cu(+) species act as sites for O2 activation. PMID:24041129

Liu, Peng; Hensen, Emiel J M



Developing high-sensitivity ethanol liquid sensors based on ZnO/porous Si nanostructure surfaces using an electrochemical impedance technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO nanostructures were synthesized on porous Si (PSi) substrates using the thermal catalytic-free immersion method. Crack-like ZnO nanostructures were formed on the bare, sponge-like PSi structures. An approach to fabricate chemical sensors based on the ZnO/PSi nanostructure arrays that uses an electrochemical impedance technique is reported. Sensor performance was evaluated for ethanol solutions by the morphology and defect structures of the ZnO nanostructure layer. Results indicate that the ZnO/PSi nanostructure chemical sensor exhibits rapid and high response to ethanol compared with a PSi nanostructure sensor because of its small particle size and an oxide layer acting as a capacitive layer on the PSi nanostructure surface.

Husairi, Mohd; Rouhi, Jalal; Alvin, Kevin; Atikah, Zainurul; Rusop, Muhammad; Abdullah, Saifollah



High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.  


The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O2 transport system to secure adequate O2 delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O2 binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O2 equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O2 binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O2 carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O2 with an unusually high affinity (P50=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O2 affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ? g wet tissue(-1), respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O2 affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O2 flux from the blood to the muscles. PMID:25139401

Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias




EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption isotherms were measured for each compound adsorbed on commercially available ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 140) powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures of ethanol, carboxylic acids, and water at room temperature. The amounts adsorbed were measured using a recently developed t...


Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells.A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05722d

HuThese Authors Contributed Equally To This Work., Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia



Highly stable amperometric biosensor for ethanol based on Meldola's blue adsorbed on silica gel modified with niobium oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reagentless amperometric biosensor sensitive to ethanol was developed. This sensor comprises a carbon paste electrode modified with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) cofactor and Meldola's blue (MB) adsorbed on silica gel coated with niobium oxide. The amperometric response was based on the electrocatalytic properties of MB to oxidize NADH, which was generated in the enzymatic reaction of

Antonio S. Santos; Renato S. Freire; Lauro T. Kubota



High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale  

PubMed Central

A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300?L, 3?m3, and 12?m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65?m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18%?(w/v), inoculum size of 20%?(v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10?kg/65?m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4?g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek



The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.



Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.



High-Throughput Immunoassay for the Biochemical Diagnosis of Friedreich Ataxia in Dried Blood Spots and Whole Blood  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is caused by reduced frataxin (FXN) concentrations. A clinical diagnosis is typically confirmed by DNA-based assays for GAA-repeat expansions or mutations in the FXN (frataxin) gene; however, these assays are not applicable to therapeutic monitoring and population screening. To facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of FRDA patients, we developed an immunoassay for measuring FXN. METHODS Antibody pairs were used to capture FXN and an internal control protein, ceruloplasmin (CP), in 15 ?L of whole blood (WB) or one 3-mm punch of a dried blood spot (DBS). Samples were assayed on a Luminex LX200 analyzer and validated according to standard criteria. RESULTS The mean recovery of FXN from WB and DBS samples was 99%. Intraassay and interassay imprecision (CV) values were 4.9%–13% and 9.8%–16%, respectively. The FXN limit of detection was 0.07 ng/mL, and the reportable range of concentrations was 2–200 ng/mL. Reference adult and pediatric FXN concentrations ranged from 15 to 82 ng/mL (median, 33 ng/mL) for DBS and WB. The FXN concentration range was 12–22 ng/mL (median, 15 ng/mL) for FRDA carriers and 1–26 ng/mL (median 5 ng/mL) for FRDA patients. Measurement of the FXN/CP ratio increased the ability to distinguish between patients, carriers, and the reference population. CONCLUSIONS This assay is applicable to the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of FRDA. This assay can measure FXN and the control protein CP in both WB and DBS specimens with minimal sample requirements, creating the potential for high-throughput population screening of FRDA. PMID:23838345

Oglesbee, Devin; Kroll, Charles; Gakh, Oleksandr; Deutsch, Eric C.; Lynch, David R.; Gavrilova, Ralitza; Tortorelli, Silvia; Raymond, Kimiyo; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Rinaldo, Piero; Matern, Dietrich; Isaya, Grazia



Acute ethanol responses in Drosophila are sexually dimorphic  

PubMed Central

In mammalian and insect models of ethanol intoxication, low doses of ethanol stimulate locomotor activity whereas high doses induce sedation. Sex differences in acute ethanol responses, which occur in humans, have not been characterized in Drosophila. In this study, we find that male flies show increased ethanol hyperactivity and greater resistance to ethanol sedation compared with females. We show that the sex determination gene transformer (tra) acts in the developing nervous system, likely through regulation of fruitless (fru), to at least partially mediate the sexual dimorphism in ethanol sedation. Although pharmacokinetic differences may contribute to the increased sedation sensitivity of females, neuronal tra expression regulates ethanol sedation independently of ethanol pharmacokinetics. We also show that acute activation of fru-expressing neurons affects ethanol sedation, further supporting a role for fru in regulating this behavior. Thus, we have characterized previously undescribed sex differences in behavioral responses to ethanol, and implicated fru in mediating a subset of these differences. PMID:23213244

Devineni, Anita V.; Heberlein, Ulrike



Acute ethanol responses in Drosophila are sexually dimorphic.  


In mammalian and insect models of ethanol intoxication, low doses of ethanol stimulate locomotor activity whereas high doses induce sedation. Sex differences in acute ethanol responses, which occur in humans, have not been characterized in Drosophila. In this study, we find that male flies show increased ethanol hyperactivity and greater resistance to ethanol sedation compared with females. We show that the sex determination gene transformer (tra) acts in the developing nervous system, likely through regulation of fruitless (fru), to at least partially mediate the sexual dimorphism in ethanol sedation. Although pharmacokinetic differences may contribute to the increased sedation sensitivity of females, neuronal tra expression regulates ethanol sedation independently of ethanol pharmacokinetics. We also show that acute activation of fru-expressing neurons affects ethanol sedation, further supporting a role for fru in regulating this behavior. Thus, we have characterized previously undescribed sex differences in behavioral responses to ethanol, and implicated fru in mediating a subset of these differences. PMID:23213244

Devineni, Anita V; Heberlein, Ulrike



Ethnic Differences in the Effects of the DASH Diet on Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping in Individuals with High Blood Pressure  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Ethnic differences in nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping may contribute to the increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events noted in African Americans (AAs). The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet has been shown to be efficacious in lowering clinic and ambulatory BP; however, the effect of the DASH diet on BP dipping is unclear. METHODS One hundred and eighteen men and women with high clinic BP (systolic BP (SBP) 130–159; diastolic BP 85–99) and above ideal body weight were randomized to a DASH diet intervention or to a usual diet control (UC) condition. Measures of 24-h ambulatory BP were obtained at baseline and at the end of the 4-month intervention period. RESULTS At baseline, AAs (n = 43) displayed blunted nocturnal SBP dipping compared to Caucasians (CAs; n = 75) and were more likely to be categorized as nondippers (<10% nocturnal decline in SBP, AAs: 51% vs. CAs: 27%). AAs randomized to the DASH diet intervention showed a significant improvement in SBP dipping postintervention compared to AAs in the UC condition (P = 0.04), whereas there was no appreciable change in SBP dipping in CAs (P = 0.72). Following the intervention, ethnic differences in SBP dipping were no longer statistically significant (nondipper status: AAs: 44% vs. CAs: 32%; P = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS Our study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that in overweight men and women with high BP, AAs may be especially likely to benefit from augmented SBP dipping associated with consumption of the DASH diet. PMID:21866183

Prather, Aric A.; Blumenthal, James A.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Sherwood, Andrew



High thermal sensitivity of blood enhances oxygen delivery in the high-flying bar-headed goose.  


The bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) crosses the Himalaya twice a year at altitudes where oxygen (O2) levels are less than half those at sea level and temperatures are below -20°C. Although it has been known for over three decades that the major hemoglobin (Hb) component of bar-headed geese has an increased affinity for O2, enhancing O2 uptake, the effects of temperature and interactions between temperature and pH on bar-headed goose Hb-O2 affinity have not previously been determined. An increase in breathing of the hypoxic and extremely cold air experienced by a bar-headed goose at altitude (due to the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response in this species) could result in both reduced temperature and reduced levels of CO2 at the blood-gas interface in the lungs, enhancing O2 loading. In addition, given the strenuous nature of flapping flight, particularly in thin air, blood leaving the exercising muscle should be warm and acidotic, facilitating O2 unloading. To explore the possibility that features of blood biochemistry in this species could further enhance O2 delivery, we determined the P50 (the partial pressure of O2 at which Hb is 50% saturated) of whole blood from bar-headed geese under conditions of varying temperature and [CO2]. We found that blood-O2 affinity was highly temperature sensitive in bar-headed geese compared with other birds and mammals. Based on our analysis, temperature and pH effects acting on blood-O2 affinity (cold alkalotic lungs and warm acidotic muscle) could increase O2 delivery by twofold during sustained flapping flight at high altitudes compared with what would be delivered by blood at constant temperature and pH. PMID:23470665

Meir, Jessica U; Milsom, William K



Xylose fermentation to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

McMillan, J.D.



Using a Low-Sodium, High-Potassium Salt Substitute to Reduce Blood Pressure among Tibetans with High Blood Pressure: A Patient-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt-substitute on lowering blood pressure (BP) among Tibetans living at high altitude (4300 meters). Method The study was a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted between February and May 2009 in Dangxiong County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China. A total of 282 Tibetans aged 40 or older with known hypertension (systolic BP?140 mmHg) were recruited and randomized to intervention (salt-substitute, 65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride and 10% magnesium sulfate) or control (100% sodium chloride) in a 1: 1 allocation ratio with three months’ supply. Primary outcome was defined as the change in BP levels measured from baseline to followed-up with an automated sphygmomanometer. Per protocol (PP) and intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Results After the three months’ intervention period, the net reduction in SBP/DBP in the intervention group in comparison to the control group was ?8.2/?3.4 mmHg (all p<0.05) in PP analysis, after adjusting for baseline BP and other variables. ITT analysis showed the net reduction in SBP/DBP at ?7.6/?3.5 mmHg with multiple imputations (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the whole distribution of blood pressure showed an overall decline in SBP/DBP and the proportion of patients with BP under control (SBP/DBP<140 mmHg) was significantly higher in salt-substitute group in comparison to the regular salt group (19.2% vs. 8.8%, p?=?0.027). Conclusion Low sodium high potassium salt-substitute is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and offers a simple, low-cost approach for hypertension control among Tibetans in China. Trial Registration NCT01429246 PMID:25338053

Zhao, Xingshan; Yin, Xuejun; Li, Xian; Yan, Lijing L.; Lam, Christopher T.; Li, Shenshen; He, Feng; Xie, Wuxiang; Sang, Ba; Luobu, Gesang; Ke, Liang; Wu, Yangfeng



High blood Pressure in children and its correlation with three definitions of obesity in childhood  

PubMed Central

Background Several authors have correlated the increase of cardiovascular risk with the nutritional status, however there are different criteria for the classification of overweight and obesity in children. Objectives To evaluate the performance of three nutritional classification criteria in children, as definers of the presence of obesity and predictors of high blood pressure in schoolchildren. Methods Eight hundred and seventeen children ranging 6 to 13 years old, enrolled in public schools in the municipality of Vila Velha (ES) were submitted to anthropometric evaluation and blood pressure measurement. The classification of the nutritional status was established by two international criteria (CDC/NCHS 2000 and IOTF 2000) and one Brazilian criterion (Conde e Monteiro 2006). Results The prevalence of overweight was higher when the criterion of Conde e Monteiro (27%) was used, and inferior by the IOTF (15%) criteria. High blood pressure was observed in 7.3% of children. It was identified a strong association between the presence of overweight and the occurrence of high blood pressure, regardless of the test used (p < 0.001). The test showing the highest sensitivity in predicting elevated BP was the Conde e Monteiro (44%), while the highest specificity (94%) and greater overall accuracy (63%), was the CDC criterion. Conclusions The prevalence of overweight in Brazilian children is higher when using the classification criterion of Conde e Monteiro, and lower when the criterion used is IOTF. The Brazilian classification criterion proved to be the most sensitive predictor of high BP risk in this sample. PMID:24676372

de Moraes, Leonardo Iezzi; Nicola, Thaís Coutinho; de Jesus, Julyanna Silva Araújo; Alves, Eduardo Roberty Badiani; Giovaninni, Nayara Paula Bernurdes; Marcato, Daniele Gasparini; Sampaio, Jéssica Dutra; Fuly, Jeanne Teixeira Bessa; Costalonga, Everlayny Fiorot



High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It  


... loss What causes high blood glucose? Too much food Too little exercise or physical activity Skipped or not enough diabetes pills or insulin Insulin that has spoiled after being exposed to extreme heat or freezing cold Stress, illness, infection, injury or surgery A ...


Risk factors for high blood lead levels among the general populationin Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Environmental and occupational lead pollution is a common problem in both developing and industrialized countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk factors for high blood lead levels among the general population in Taiwan. Methods: After multi-stage sampling, we randomly selected 2803 subjects (1471 males and 1332 females) for this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression

N. F. Chu; S. H. Liou; T. N. Wu; K. N. Ko; P. Y. Chang



"Tic-Tac-Toe": A Risk Screening Game for High Blood Pressure  

PubMed Central

Detection and screening for hypertension in the work setting is becoming a focus of increased interest to business and health care professionals. An inexpensive, interactive computer program in the form of the tic-tac-toe game has been developed to motivate people to seek blood pressure evaluation. The focus of the game is to evaluate the individual's predisposing risk factors for high blood pressure and related diseases. The computer can be utilized in a variety of settings since it does not require the services of a nurse or physician.

Smith, Pamela P.; Michael, M. Gail



Relationship of parental history of high blood pressure to blood pressure: combined findings of three Japanese population samples, the INTERSALT study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of parental history of high blood pressure (HBP) to blood pressure (BP) was estimated in three Japanese population samples, totalling 591 men and women aged 20–59 years, from the INTERSALT study. Parental history of HBP was defined as reported HBP by their father and\\/or mother. With adjustment for antihypertensive medication, body mass index, alcohol intake, and Na\\/K ratio

Y Naruse; H Nakagawa; S Kagamimori; Y Fujita; T Hashimoto; T Kasamatsu; K Mikawa; H Ueshima



Red cell volume measurements and acute blood loss in high-risk newborn infants.  


Red cell volume was measured in 259 infants admitted to a high-risk newborn unit. Red cell volume was measured using 50Cr tagging which subsequently was activated to 51Cr for counting. Total blood volume was calculated using the corrected whole body hematocrit. A low red cell volume was frequently associated with a maternal history of vaginal spotting, with placenta previa or placenta abruptio, with nonelective cesarean section, and with deliveries associated with cord compression. Asphyxiated infants without a history suggestive of blood loos often had a low red cell volume. An early central hematocrit below 45% correlated with a low red cell volume, but a normal or high hematocrit was often associated with low red cell measurements. The total blood volume depended largely on whether the tagging was done long enough after the blood loss for plasma volume equilibration to have occurred. Very low red cell volume values were associated with a high mortality rate, but birth weight played a dominant role in survival, even at low red cell volume levels. PMID:830921

Faxelius, G; Raye, J; Gutberlet, R; Swanstrom, S; Tsiantos, A; Dolanski, E; Dehan, M; Dyer, N; Lindstrom, D; Brill, A B; Stahlman, M



Ethanol kinetics during pregnancy. Study in ewes and their fetuses.  


1. Kinetics of placental transfer and elimination of ethanol in maternal and fetal blood and amniotic fluid were studied after iv infusion of ethanol in 3 ewes in the third trimester of pregnancy. 2. Ethanol was transferred rapidly from the maternal to the fetal compartment, and more slowly from these to the amniotic fluid. 3. The kinetics of ethanol elimination from the maternal and fetal circulations were similar, indicating rapid bidirectional transfer between them and elimination from the former only. 4. There was significantly slower elimination of ethanol from the amniotic fluid, with increasing concentrations long after these had started to decline in the maternal and fetal blood. This suggests that the amniotic fluid can act as a reservoir for ethanol storage. PMID:7202228

Ng, P K; Cottle, M K; Baker, J M; Johnson, B; van Muyden, P; van Petten, G R



Ethanol toxicokinetics resulting from inhalation exposure in human volunteers and toxicokinetic modeling.  


Uncertainty exists regarding the validity of a previously developed physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) for inhaled ethanol in humans to predict the blood levels of ethanol (BLE) at low level exposures (<1000?ppm). Thus, the objective of this study is to document the BLE resulting from low levels exposures in order to refine/validate this PBPK model. Human volunteers were exposed to ethanol vapors during 4?h at 5 different concentrations (125-1000 ppm), at rest, in an inhalation chamber. Blood and exhaled air were sampled. Also, the impact of light exercise (50?W) on the BLE was investigated. There is a linear relationship between the ethanol concentrations in inhaled air and (i) BLE (women: r²=?0.98/men: r²=?0.99), as well as (ii) ethanol concentrations in the exhaled air at end of exposure period (men: r²=?0.99/women: r²=?0.99). Furthermore, the exercise resulted in a net and significant increase of BLE (2-3 fold). Overall, the original model predictions overestimated the BLE for all low exposures performed in this study. To properly simulate the toxicokinetic data, the model was refined by adding a description of an extra-hepatic biotransformation of high affinity and low capacity in the richly perfused tissues compartment. This is based on the observation that total clearance observed at low exposure levels was much greater than liver blood flow. The results of this study will facilitate the refinement of the risk assessment associated with chronic inhalation of low levels of ethanol in the general population and especially among workers. PMID:24495244

Dumas-Campagna, Josée; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Haddad, Sami



Regulation of adenosine transport by acute and chronic ethanol exposure  

SciTech Connect

Chronic exposure to ethanol results in a desensitization of adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP production. Since adenosine is released by cells and is known to desensitize its own as well as other receptors, it may be involved in ethanol-induced desensitization of adenosine receptor function. Therefore, we have examine the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the transport of adenosine via the nucleoside transport. Acute exposure to ethanol caused an inhibition of adenosine uptake in S49 lymphoma cells. This decrease in uptake resulted in accumulation of extracellular adenosine after ethanol exposure. The effect of ethanol was specific to nucleoside transport. Uptake of uridine, also transported by the nucleoside transporter, was inhibited by ethanol to the same degree as adenosine uptake, while neither isoleucine nor deoxyglucose uptake was altered by ethanol treatment. Inhibition of adenosine uptake by ethanol was non-competitive and dependent on the concentration of ethanol. After chronic exposure to ethanol, cells became tolerant to the acute effects of ethanol. There was no longer an acute inhibition of adenosine uptake, nor was these accumulation of extracellular adenosine. Chronic ethanol exposure also resulted in a decrease in the absolute rate of adenosine uptake. Binding studies using a high affinity lignad for the nucleoside transporter, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), indicate that this decreased uptake was due to a decrease in the maximal number of binding sites. These ethanol-induced changes in adenosine transport may be important for the acute and chronic effects of ethanol.

Nagy, L.E.; Casso, D.; Diamond, I.; Gordon, A.S. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))



Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Stabilized and Manganese-Modified Rhodium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Highly Selective Synthesis of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde from Syngas  

SciTech Connect

Well-defined and monodispersed rhodium nanoparticles as small as approximately 2?nm were encapsulated in?situ and stabilized in a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) framework during the synthesis of the mesoporous material. Although both the activity and selectivity of MSN-encapsulated rhodium nanoparticles in CO hydrogenation could be improved by the addition of manganese oxide as expected, the carbon selectivity for C2 oxygenates (including ethanol and acetaldehyde) was unprecedentedly high at 74.5?% with a very small amount of methanol produced if rhodium nanoparticles were modified by manganese oxide with very close interaction.

Huang, Yulin; Deng, Weihua; Guo, Enruo; Chung, Po-Wen; Chen, Senniang; Trewyn, Brian; Brown, Robert; Lin, Victor



Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide  


... Hospital Is there a risk for low blood sugar? Low blood sugar (defined as a blood sugar ... after your hospital stay. What are the blood sugar targets in the hospital? Health care providers want ...


Metabolic interaction between m-xylene and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of a moderate dose of ethanol (0.8 g\\/kg) by volunteers prior to 4-h inhalation exposure to m-xylene (6.0 or 11.5 mmol\\/m3) caused marked alterations in xylene kinetics. After ethanol intake the blood xylene level rose about 1.5–2.0-fold and urinary methylhippuric acid excretion declined by about 50% suggesting that ethanol decreased the metabolic clearance of xylene by about one half

V. Riihimäki; K. Savolainen; P. Pfäffli; K. Pekari; H. W. Sippel; A. Laine



High-throughput rare cell separation from blood samples using steric hindrance and inertial microfluidics.  


The presence and quantity of rare cells in the bloodstream of cancer patients provide a potentially accessible source for the early detection of invasive cancer and for monitoring the treatment of advanced diseases. The separation of rare cells from peripheral blood, as a "virtual and real-time liquid biopsy", is expected to replace conventional tissue biopsies of metastatic tumors for therapy guidance. However, technical obstacles, similar to looking for a needle in a haystack, have hindered the broad clinical utility of this method. In this study, we developed a multistage microfluidic device for continuous label-free separation and enrichment of rare cells from blood samples based on cell size and deformability. We successfully separated tumor cells (MCF-7 and HeLa cells) and leukemic (K562) cells spiked in diluted whole blood using a unique complementary combination of inertial microfluidics and steric hindrance in a microfluidic system. The processing parameters of the inertial focusing and steric hindrance regions were optimized to achieve high-throughput and high-efficiency separation, significant advantages compared with existing rare cell isolation technologies. The results from experiments with rare cells spiked in 1% hematocrit blood indicated >90% cell recovery at a throughput of 2.24 × 10(7) cells min(-1). The enrichment of rare cells was >2.02 × 10(5)-fold. Thus, this microfluidic system driven by purely hydrodynamic forces has practical potential to be applied either alone or as a sample preparation platform for fundamental studies and clinical applications. PMID:24862501

Shen, Shaofei; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yaolei; Wang, Jian-Chun; Xu, Juan; Li, Tianbao; Pang, Long; Wang, Jinyi



Blood alcohol concentrations after scheduled access in high-alcohol-preferring mice.  


Development of procedures yielding substantial blood alcohol concentrations during voluntary access to an alcohol solution in mice is necessary to further characterize genetic and neurobiologic mechanisms underlying alcohol self-administration. Although, in experimental situations, some populations of mice readily drink an alcohol solution, results from previous studies have not typically revealed high blood alcohol concentrations after voluntary access, probably because of the high alcohol metabolism rate in mice. Toward development of a murine drinking model, 36 selectively bred high-alcohol-preferring mice of both sexes were subjected to a 30-min scheduled-access procedure by using saccharin fading to gradually introduce an alcohol solution. Mice had ad libitum access to food and water 24 h a day. The alcohol solution was available 1 h after the start of the dark part of the cycle for 30 min per day, 5 days per week. After complete removal of saccharin from the drinking tubes, mice consistently drank 1.4 g/kg of a 10% [volume/volume (vol./vol.)] alcohol solution in 30 min. Analysis of tail blood samples, taken immediately after the end of the 30-min access period, indicated blood alcohol concentrations were tightly correlated with alcohol intakes (range, 6-130 mg/dl; average, nearly 60 mg/dl). A concentration-response function of 10%, 12%, 15%, 18%, and 21% (vol./vol.) alcohol solutions indicated an inverted U-shaped relation between alcohol intake and alcohol concentration, with peak intake of greater than 1.75 g/kg per 30 min when a 15% alcohol solution was available. No sex differences were seen. These findings indicate the utility of this procedure in obtaining pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations after voluntary oral self-administration of an alcohol solution in mice. PMID:14615017

Grahame, Nicholas J; Grose, Amanda M



Efficacy of a church-based lifestyle intervention programme to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose in church members: a randomized controlled trial in Pretoria, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In persons 15 years and above in South Africa the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes has been estimated at 9.1% and 9.6%, respectively, and the prevalence of systolic prehypertension and hypertension, 38.2% and 24.6%, respectively. Elevated blood glucose and elevated blood pressure are prototype of preventable chronic cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lifestyle interventions have been shown to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose. Methods/Design This study proposes to evaluate the efficacy of a community (church)-based lifestyle intervention programme to control high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose in church members in a randomized controlled trial in Gauteng, South Africa. The objectives are to: (1) measure non-communicable diseases profile, including hypertension and diabetes, health behaviours, weight management and psychological distress of church members; (2) measure the reduction of blood glucose and blood pressure levels after the intervention; (3) prevent the development of impaired glucose tolerance; (4) compare health behaviours, weight management and psychological distress, blood glucose and blood pressure levels between intervention and control groups, and within group during 6, 12, 24 and 36 months during and post intervention. The study will use a group-randomized design, recruiting 300 church members from 12 churches. Churches will be randomly assigned to experimental and control conditions. Discussion Lifestyle interventions may prevent from the development of high blood pressure and/or diabetes. The findings will impact public health and will enable the health ministry to formulate policy related to lifestyle interventions to control blood pressure and glucose. Trial registration number PACTR201105000297151 PMID:24906450



Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.  


The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

Beaufrère, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N



The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National High Blood Pressure Education Program presents the complete Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Like its predecessors, the purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of hypertension. The key messages of this report are these: in those older than age 50, systolic

Aram V. Chobanian; George L. Bakris; Henry R. Black; William C. Cushman; Lee A. Green; Joseph L. Izzo; Daniel W. Jones; Barry J. Materson; Jackson T. Wright


Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, high ethanol-yielding bacterium isolated from household waste.  


An extremely thermophilic, xylanolytic, spore-forming and strictly anaerobic bacterium, strain DTU01(T), was isolated from a continuously stirred tank reactor fed with xylose and household waste. Cells stained Gram-negative and were rod-shaped (0.5-2 µm in length). Spores were terminal with a diameter of approximately 0.5 µm. Optimal growth occurred at 70 °C and pH 7, with a maximum growth rate of 0.1 h(-1). DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. Strain DTU01(T) could ferment arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, melibiose, pectin, starch, sucrose, xylan, yeast extract and xylose, but not cellulose, Avicel, inositol, inulin, glycerol, rhamnose, acetate, lactate, ethanol, butanol or peptone. Ethanol was the major fermentation product and a maximum yield of 1.39 mol ethanol per mol xylose was achieved when sulfite was added to the cultivation medium. Thiosulfate, but not sulfate, nitrate or nitrite, could be used as electron acceptor. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain DTU01(T) was shown to be closely related to Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3(T), Thermoanaerobacter italicus Ab9(T) and Thermoanaerobacter thermocopriae JT3-3(T), with 98-99 % similarity. Despite this, the physiological and phylogenetic differences (DNA G+C content, substrate utilization, electron acceptors, phylogenetic distance and isolation site) allow for the proposal of strain DTU01(T) as a representative of a novel species within the genus Thermoanaerobacter, for which the name Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DTU01(T) ( = DSM 25963(T) = KCTC 4529(T) = VKM B-2752(T) = CECT 8142(T)). PMID:23178727

Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini



Detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation  

SciTech Connect

A detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation has been developed and validated against a variety of experimental data sets. Laminar flame speed data obtained from a constant volume bomb, ignition delay data behind reflected shock waves, and ethanol oxidation product profiles from a turbulent flow reactor were used in this study. Very good agreement was found in modeling the data sets obtained from the three different experimental systems. The computational modeling results show that high temperature ethanol oxidation exhibits strong sensitivity to the fall-off kinetics of ethanol decomposition, branching ratio selection for c2h5oh+oh=products, and reactions involving the hydroperoxyl (HO2) radical.

Marinov, N.



Composition and properties of basic high molecular weight impurities in waste waters from ethanol and fodder yeast production from wood biomass processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the composition and properties of impurities of waste waters from ethanol and fodder yeast production shows that about 76% of impurities are retained in the ethanol-soluble fraction. Colloidal waste impurity particles average about 670 nm diameter. When designing water recycling schemes for ethanol and fodder yeast production by wood biomass hydrolytic and biotechnological processing, particular attention should be

Andrew V. Grammatikov; Howard D. Mettee


Nutrient-enhanced production of remarkably high concentrations of ethanol by Saccharomyces bayanus through soy flour supplementation  

SciTech Connect

The supplementation of a simple medium with soy flour led to an increase in the specific growth rate and viable cell concentration of saccharomyces bayanus during fermentation. Increasing the amount of soy flour led to an increase in the maximum number of viable yeast cells and the percentage of glucose fermented. It was possible in 64 h to reach 12.8% (wt/vol) ethanol by adding 4% soy flour (wt/vol) to a simple medium with 300 g of glucose per liter. The aqueous extract from soy flour was nearly as effective as whole-soy flour, whereas the lipidic fraction had no positive effect.

Viegas, C.A.; Sa-Correia, I.; Novais, J.M.



High-resolution blood-brain barrier permeability and blood volume imaging using quantitative synchrotron radiation computed tomography: study on an F98 rat brain glioma.  


The authors previously provided evidence of synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) efficacy for quantitative in vivo brain perfusion measurements using monochromatic X-ray beams. However, this technique was limited for small-animal studies by partial volume effects. In this paper, high-resolution absolute cerebral blood volume and blood-brain barrier permeability coefficient measurements were obtained on a rat glioma model using SRCT and a CCD camera (47x47 microm2 pixel size). This is the first report of in vivo high-resolution brain vasculature parameter assessment. The work gives interesting perspectives to quantify brain hemodynamic changes accurately in healthy and pathological small animals. PMID:15678122

Adam, Jean-François; Nemoz, Christian; Bravin, Alberto; Fiedler, Stefan; Bayat, Sam; Monfraix, Sylvie; Berruyer, Gilles; Charvet, Anne Marie; Le Bas, Jean-François; Elleaume, Hélène; Estève, François



High-level gentamicin-resistant isolates of oral streptococci and Aerococcus from blood specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-nine isolates of oral streptococci and Aerococcus obtained from blood specimens between December 1997 and January 2000 were tested for high-level gentamicin resistance. Three\\u000a isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ?1024??g\\/ml were selected as potential high-level gentamicin-resistant\\u000a isolates. The DNA sequence of the structural gene encoding 6?-acetyltransferase-2?-phosphotransferase in the three high-level\\u000a gentamicin-resistant isolates was investigated according to the method

Intetsu Kobayashi; Akiko Kanayama; Kaoru Matsuzaki; Minoru Nishida; Noriko Nakatogawa; Akihiro Kaneko



Adding value to carbon dioxide from ethanol fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) from ethanol production facilities is increasing as more ethanol is produced for alternative transportation fuels. CO2 produced from ethanol fermentation processes is of high purity and is nearly a saturated gas. Such highly-concentrated source of CO2 is a potential candidate for capture and utilization by the CO2 industry. Quantity, quality and capture of CO2 from ethanol fermentations

Yixiang Xu; Loren Isom; Milford A. Hanna



GDNF is an Endogenous Negative Regulator of Ethanol-Mediated Reward and of Ethanol Consumption After a Period of Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Background We previously found that activation of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) pathway in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces ethanol-drinking behaviors. In this study, we set out to assess the contribution of endogenous GDNF or its receptor GFR?1 to the regulation of ethanol-related behaviors. Methods GDNF and GFR?1 heterozygote mice (HET) and their wild-type littermate controls (WT) were used for the studies. Ethanol-induced hyperlocomotion, sensitization, and conditioned place preference (CPP), as well as ethanol consumption before and after a period of abstinence were evaluated. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Results We observed no differences between the GDNF HET and WT mice in the level of locomotor activity or in sensitization to ethanol-induced hyperlocomotion after systemic injection of a nonhypnotic dose of ethanol and in BEC. However, GDNF and GFR?1 mice exhibited increased place preference to ethanol as compared with their WT littermates. The levels of voluntary ethanol or quinine consumption were similar in the GDNF HET and WT mice, however, a small but significant increase in saccharin intake was observed in the GDNF HET mice. No changes were detected in voluntary ethanol, saccharin or quinine consumption of GFR?1 HET mice as compared with their WT littermates. Interestingly, however, both the GDNF and GFR?1 HET mice consumed much larger quantities of ethanol after a period of abstinence from ethanol as compared with their WT littermates. Furthermore, the increase in ethanol consumption after abstinence was found to be specific for ethanol as similar levels of saccharin intake were measured in the GDNF and GFR?1 HET and WT mice after abstinence. Conclusions Our results suggest that endogenous GDNF negatively regulates the rewarding effect of ethanol and ethanol-drinking behaviors after a period of abstinence. PMID:19302086

Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; Janak, Patricia H.; Ron, Dorit



Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine using ethanol and ethanol-reformed gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ethanol is a renewable source of energy and has lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than gasoline, ethanol produced from biomass is expected to be used more frequently as an alternative fuel. It is recognized that for spark ignition (SI) engines, ethanol has the advantages of high octane and high combustion speed and the disadvantage of ignition difficulties at low

Young Choi; Changgi Kim; Seungmook Oh; Gihun Lim; Yasuo Moriyoshi



Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on levels of adipokines in visceral adipose tissues and sera of rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the effects of ethanol on adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin and cartonectin) levels in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and sera, and explore the correlation between VAT and serum adipokine levels. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, low, middle and high ethanol treatment groups that received 0, 0.5, 2.5, or 5.0 g of ethanol·kg-1·d-1, respectively, via gastric tubes for 22 weeks. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting serum insulin (FINS) were measured and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were calculated. Adipokines in perirenal and epididymal VAT and sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Results: High-dose treatments of ethanol (vs control group) significantly increased FINS (eg 37.86%) and HOMA-IR values (eg 40.63%). In VAT, levels of leptin, resistin and visfatin in the middle- and high-dose groups were significantly elevated, whereas adiponectin and cartonectin levels decreased. In sera, changes in adipokine levels were similar to that observed in VAT, with the exception of cartonectin. These ethanol-induced effects were dose-dependent. A positive correlation existed between VAT and serum adipokine levels, except for cartonectin. Conclusion: Chronic ethanol consumption affects adipokine levels in VAT and sera in a dose-dependent manner, with the exception of serum cartonectin. The altered levels of adipokines in VAT and sera are positively correlated. PMID:20208553

Yu, Heng-cai; Li, Si-ying; Cao, Ming-feng; Jiang, Xiu-yun; Feng, Li; Zhao, Jia-jun; Gao, Ling



Metabolic Profiling of Human Blood by High Resolution Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry (IM-MS)  

PubMed Central

A high resolution ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization source (ESI-IM-MS) was evaluated as an analytical method for rapid analysis of complex biological samples such as human blood metabolome was investigated. The hybrid instrument (IM-MS) provided an average ion mobility resolving power of ~90 and a mass resolution of ~1500 (at m/z 100). A few µL of whole blood was extracted with methanol, centrifuged and infused into the IM-MS via an electrospray ionization source. Upon IM-MS profiling of the human blood metabolome approximately 1,100 metabolite ions were detected and 300 isomeric metabolites separated in short analyses time (30 minutes). Estimated concentration of the metabolites ranged from the low micromolar to the low nanomolar level. Various classes of metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, purines and pyrimidines etc) were found to form characteristic mobility-mass correlation curves (MMCC) that aided in metabolite identification. Peaks corresponding to various sterol derivatives, estrogen derivatives, phosphocholines, prostaglandins, and cholesterol derivatives detected in the blood extract were found to occupy characteristic two dimensional IM-MS space. Low abundance metabolite peaks that can be lost in MS random noise were resolved from noise peaks by differentiation in mobility space. In addition, the peak capacity of MS increased six fold by coupling IMS prior to MS analysis. PMID:21113320

Dwivedi, Prabha; Schultz, Albert J.; Hill, Herbert H.



The blood lactate increase in high intensity exercise is depressed by Acanthopanax sieboldianus.  


This study investigates the anti-fatigue effects of Acanthopanax sieboldianus (A. sieboldianus) at various exercise intensities. Two experiments were conducted in 18 Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, a three-stage increment test (15 m/min for 5 min, and 20 m/min for 5 min and 25 m/min for 10 min) was performed using a treadmill. In Experiment 2, a 10-min swimming test was conducted. Blood samples were extracted from each rat before, during and after the exercises and the blood concentrations of lactate and glucose measured. In both experiments, water (control) or A. sieboldianus solution (ASS) was administered orally using a zonde 30 min before the exercise. In the swimming test, ASS administration significantly decreased the blood lactate level measured at the end of the exercise and 5 min post-exercise relative to the water group, although the two groups did not differ significantly in the treadmill test. Our study demonstrates that a single oral administration of A. sieboldianus prior to high-intensity exercise significantly decreases the blood lactate concentration suggesting that A. sieboldianus has an intrinsic anti-fatigue effect. PMID:24135965

Kato, Morimasa; Kurakane, Shizue; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Park, Jaeyoung; Chang, Hyukki



A Concept for Blood Supply in Patients with Highly Contagious, Life-Threatening Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: Highly contagious, life-threatening diseases such as viral hemorrhagic fever (caused by Ebola, Marburg, Lassa or Krim-Kongo virus), orthopox virus infection, or pneumonic plague require special isolation of the patient for protection of the medical staff and the public. As blood and other body fluids from these patients may be dangerous for the laboratory staff, laboratory examinations must also be

E. Strobel; H.-U. Schmidt



Hemoglobin hydrolysates from porcine blood obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis assisted by high hydrostatic pressure processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to obtain discoloured hemoglobin (Hb) hydrolysates from porcine red blood cells fraction by combining enzymatic hydrolysis and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments. Samples of Hb were submitted to treatments of enzymatic hydrolysis by trypsin (EC or pepsin (EC, under controlled conditions of temperature and pH, for 2, 6 and 24h, and pressurization

M. Toldrà; D. Parés; E. Saguer; C. Carretero



New Study Suggests Link Between Chronic Estrogen Exposure and High Blood Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Press release on a new study that links chronic estrogen exposure to high blood pressure. This study, "Chronic Estradiol-17B Exposure Increases Superoxide Production in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) and Causes Hypertension: Reversal by Resveratrol," was conducted by P.S. MohanKumarm, Ph.D., and team from Michigan State University. The study is published in the June 2011 issue of American Journal of Physiology ÃÂ Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)



Role of oxidative stress in elevated blood pressure induced by high free fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to investigate the possible mechanism of oxidative stress in the high free fatty acids (FFAs)-induced hypertension. Male Sprague–Dawley rat models were established and classified into three groups, namely the control group (NC group), the FFA group, and the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) group. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded. An organ chamber experiment was performed to determine

Hui Wang; Hongliang Li; Zhiqiang Hou; Lin Pan; Xiaoxia Shen; Guangwei Li; G Li; H Li



High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 in human blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and reproducible method has been developed for the measurement of the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). The procedure involves extraction of the RBCC with acetonitrile, purification of the extracts with reversed-phase Sep-Pak C18 cartridges and determination of Pc 4 in the extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reversed-phase C18 column. The

M. M. Zuk; M. E. Kenney; B. Horowitz; E. Ben-Hur



Improving the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by laccase during ethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw at high-substrate loadings.  


Operating the saccharification and fermentation processes at high-substrate loadings is a key factor for making ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass economically viable. However, increasing the substrate loading presents some disadvantages, including a higher concentration of inhibitors (furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds) in the media, which negatively affect the fermentation performance. One strategy to eliminate soluble inhibitors is filtering and washing the pretreated material. In this study, it was observed that even if the material was previously washed, inhibitory compounds were released during the enzymatic hydrolysis step. Laccase enzymatic treatment was evaluated as a method to reduce these inhibitory effects. The laccase efficiency was analyzed in a presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process at high-substrate loadings. Water-insoluble solids fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw was used as substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as fermenting microorganism. Laccase supplementation reduced strongly the phenolic content in the media, without affecting weak acids and furan derivatives. This strategy resulted in an improved yeast performance during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, increasing significantly ethanol productivity. PMID:23143932

Alvira, Pablo; Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Mercedes



Genetically engineered Escherichia coli FBR5: part I. Comparison of high cell density bioreactors for enhanced ethanol production from xylose.  


Five reactor systems (free cell batch, free cell continuous, entrapped cell immobilized, adsorbed cell packed bed, and cell recycle membrane reactors) were compared for ethanol production from xylose using Escherichia coli FBR5. In the free cell batch and free cell continuous reactors (continuous stirred tank reactor-CSTR) productivities of 0.84 gL(-1) h(-1) and 1.77 gL(-1) h(-1) were achieved, respectively. A cell recycle membrane reactor resulted in the highest productivity of 55.56 gL(-1) h(-1), which is an increase of 66-fold (e.g., 6614%) over the batch reactor. Calcium alginate gel CSTR resulted in a productivity of 2.04 gL(-1) h(-1) whereas adsorbed cell packed bed reactor resulted in a productivity of 4.39 gL(-1) h(-1). In the five reactor systems, ethanol concentrations ranged from 18.9 to 40.30 gL(-1) with metabolic yields from 0.44 to 0.51. PMID:22736598

Qureshi, N; Dien, B S; Liu, S; Saha, B C; Hector, R; Cotta, M A; Hughes, S



High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ?3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR?=?1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend ?=?0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR?=?1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility to poor outcome among acute ischemic stroke patients in a northern Chinese population. PMID:25265507

Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun



Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation  

PubMed Central

We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J. M. A.



Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation.  


We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; D'Costa, Ninadh Malrina; Akhter, Farjana; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J M A



[Lacidipine efficacy and safety for high blood pressure treatment in pediatric oncohematology].  


In adults, lacidipine seems to have no CYP3A4-inhibiting action. This particular characteristic makes it advantageous when combined with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, such as cyclosporine. Until now, no data on the efficacy or safety of this calcium antagonist have been available in children. Thirty-nine hypertensive children (age: 0.13-14 years) receiving lacidipine in oncohematology for a mean of 75 days were included in this retrospective study. The causes of high blood pressure were renal tumor (n=7), catecholamine-secreting tumor (n=4), corticoid treatment (n=5), and cyclosporine treatment (n=23). An initial dosage of 0.05 mg/kg/day was sufficient for 41% of the patients. The remaining patients needed to increase the dosage, by steps of 0.03 mg/kg/day, until reaching an average effective dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day. Lacidipine significantly decreased blood pressure by 30 (±14) mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 26 (±13) mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. A medication plan with twice-daily administration was not significantly more effective than a single administration per day. Lacidipine was well tolerated, and no toxicity-related withdrawal of treatment occurred. For 22 patients treated with both cyclosporine and lacidipine, renal function was not disturbed over time, suggesting its preservation by lacidipine. No significant increase in cyclosporine blood concentration was detected. Lacidipine seems to be an effective calcium antagonist in pediatric oncohematology, is well tolerated, has a kidney-protector effect and no drug interaction when combined with cyclosporine. PMID:25125033

Bernard, E; Mialou, V; Dony, A; Garnier, N; Renard, C; Bleyzac, N



Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review  

SciTech Connect

Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.



A study of ethanol tolerance in yeast.  


The ethanol tolerance of yeast and other microorganisms has remained a controversial area despite the many years of study. The complex inhibition mechanism of ethanol and the lack of a universally accepted definition and method to measure ethanol tolerance have been prime reasons for the controversy. A number of factors such as plasma membrane composition, media composition, mode of substrate feeding, osmotic pressure, temperature, intracellular ethanol accumulation, and byproduct formation have been shown to influence the ethanol tolerance of yeast. Media composition was found to have a profound effect upon the ability of a yeast strain to ferment concentrated substrates (high osmotic pressure) and to ferment at higher temperatures. Supplementation with peptone-yeast extract, magnesium, or potassium salts has a significant and positive effect upon overall fermentation rates. An intracellular accumulation of ethanol was observed during the early stages of fermentation. As fermentation proceeds, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations become similar. In addition, increases in osmotic pressure are associated with increased intracellular accumulation of ethanol. However, it was observed that nutrient limitation, not increased intracellular accumulation of ethanol, is responsible to some extent for the decreases in growth and fermentation activity of yeast cells at higher osmotic pressure and temperature. PMID:2178780

D'Amore, T; Panchal, C J; Russell, I; Stewart, G G



Acute tolerance to rate-decreasing effects of single doses of ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute tolerance occurs when behavioral impairment is greater at a given blood ethanol concentration (BAC) on the ascending versus descending limb of the BAC–time curve following administration of a single dose of ethanol, however studies utilizing learned behaviors have not been widely reported. We assessed acute tolerance to single doses of ethanol in five Lewis rats responding under a fixed-ratio

Brett C. Ginsburg; Gerardo Martinez; Gregory Friesenhahn; Martin Javors; R. J. Lamb



Ovariectomy abolishes ethanol-induced impairment of baroreflex control of heart rate in conscious rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous studies have shown that ethanol attenuates baroreflex control of heart rate in male rats. The present study investigated whether this effect of ethanol is gender-related, and whether it involves hormonal factors. The effect of intragastric administration of ethanol or equal volume of water on baroreflex-mediated decreases in heart rate in response to increments in blood pressure evoked by

Mahmoud M El-Mas; Abdel A Abdel-Rahman



High blood cadmium levels are not associated with consumption of traditional food among the Inuit of Nunavik  

SciTech Connect

High levels of cadmium in the liver and kidneys of caribous and sea mammals of the Canadian Arctic have led to recommendations to remove such offal from the traditional diet. Blood cadmium levels have been found to be very high in samples of Inuit volunteers, hence the hypothesis that the Inuit might be exposed to cadmium through their diet. This survey of a population-based random sample of Nunavik residents (n = 518) confirms that blood cadmium of Inuit is indeed very high by comparison to published reports. Blood cadmium levels are closely associated with the current smoking status and are independent of dietary patterns among nonsmokers. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids concentrations have been used to assess the reliability of the dietary information collected by questionnaires and to test for any association of blood cadmium with the consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are not related to the reported consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are very high among smokers and are associated with levels of exposure to tobacco. Among nonsmoking Inuit, blood cadmium levels are comparable with those reported in nonsmokers elsewhere in the world. In reference to international standards, blood cadmium concentrations are high enough among the Inuit to warrant energetic public health interventions. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

Rey, M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia)] [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia); Turcotte, F.; Lapointe, C. [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada)] [and others] [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada); and others



Effect of Phytase Application During High Gravity (HG) Maize Mashes Preparation on the Availability of Starch and Yield of the Ethanol Fermentation Process.  


Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process. PMID:25119551

Mikulski, D; K?osowski, G; Rolbiecka, A



Phytase supplementation improves blood zinc in rats fed with high phytate Iranian bread  

PubMed Central

Background: More than one third of energy intake in Iran is provided from bread. Therefore, improving bread mineral bioavailability through dephytinization can play an important role in decreasing the prevalence of many mineral deficiencies. In this study, effect of phytase supplementation on zinc, iron and calcium status in growing rats fed with a diet containing high phytate Iranian bread (Sangak) was assessed. Methods: Thirty weanling Wistar male rats were assigned to phytase (Aspergillus niger) or control group for 6 weeks. The diet was designed based on Iranian's food pattern and 34.2% of the energy was supplied from Sangak bread. Food intake, body and organ weight and body height were measured. Zinc was measured in blood, liver and femur. Iron was assessed in blood and liver and calcium was titrated from femur bone. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Paired sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and repeated measurement ANOVA were used for proper analysis of data. Results: Although weekly weight gain was not different between groups, final weight was in favor of control group. Food intakes, liver and femur bone weight did not differ between the two groups. However, the blood zinc was higher in the phytase group (26.2 ± 7.4 vs. 19.2 ± 5.2, P = 0.03). Thus positive effects of phytase supplementation on zinc, independent of growth was found. Other variables did not show any differences between groups. Conclusion: Addition of phytase to diet containing high phytate Iranian bread can improve blood zinc status in growing rats. PMID:23267398

Shockravi, Soodeh; Mohammad-Shirazi, Minoo; Abadi, Alireza; Seyedain, Mahdi; Kimiagar, Masoud



The influence of patient's consciousness regarding high blood pressure and patient's attitude in face of disease controlling medicine intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective - To assess the relation between blood pres- sure control and the following: the Morisky-Green test, the patient's consciousness regarding high blood pressu- re, the patient's attitude in face of medicine intake, the pa- tient's attendance at medical consultations, and the sub- jective physician's judgment. Methods - We studied 130 hypertensive patients with the following characteristics: 73% females, 60±11

Maria Aparecida A Moura Strelec; Angela M. G. Pierin; Décio Mion Jr.



Summary of the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a special report by The Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents to inform clinicians on recent scientific evidence related to blood pressure in children and to offer recommendations for evaluation and treatment of hypertension in these patients.



A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set  

PubMed Central

Background The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list, HUPO later re-analysed their own original dataset with a more stringent statistical treatment that resulted in a much reduced list of high confidence (at least 95%) proteins compared with their original findings. In order to facilitate the discovery of novel biomarkers in the future and to realize the full diagnostic potential of blood plasma, we feel that there is still a need for an ultra-high confidence reference list (at least 99% confidence) of blood plasma proteins. Methods To address the complexity and dynamic protein concentration range of the plasma proteome, we employed a linear ion-trap-Fourier transform (LTQ-FT) and a linear ion trap-Orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap) for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Both instruments allow the measurement of peptide masses in the low ppm range. Furthermore, we employed a statistical score that allows database peptide identification searching using the products of two consecutive stages of tandem mass spectrometry (MS3). The combination of MS3 with very high mass accuracy in the parent peptide allows peptide identification with orders of magnitude more confidence than that typically achieved. Results Herein we established a high confidence set of 697 blood plasma proteins and achieved a high 'average sequence coverage' of more than 14 peptides per protein and a median of 6 peptides per protein. All proteins annotated as belonging to the immunoglobulin family as well as all hypothetical proteins whose peptides completely matched immunoglobulin sequences were excluded from this protein list. We also compared the results of using two high-end MS instruments as well as the use of various peptide and protein separation approaches. Furthermore, we characterized the plasma proteins using cellular localization information, as well as comparing our list of proteins to data from other sources, including the HUPO PPP dataset. Conclusion Superior instrumentation combined with rigorous validation criteria gave rise to a set of 697 plasma proteins in which we have very high confidence, demonstrated by an exceptionally low false peptide identification rate of 0.29%. PMID:18793429

Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo; Mann, Matthias



Ethanol fuels: Energy security, economics, and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fuel ethanol production have been the subject of numerous reports, including this analysis. The conclusions are that ethanol: does not improve U.S. energy security; is uneconomical; is not a renewable energy source; and increases environmental degradation. Ethanol production is wasteful of energy resources and does not increase energy security. Considerably more energy, much of it high- grade fossil

David Pimentel



Heat release in the compression-ignition combustion of ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of ethanol and blends of ethanol with diesel fuel and additives has been investigated with the aid of a heat release model. The advantages of using ethanol as compared to using diesel fuel were amplified at high fueling rates where maximum rates of premixed combustion were substantially less and duration of diffusion combustion was shorter.

A. C. Hansen; A. B. Taylor; P. W. L. Lyne; P. Meiring



Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil. There are mainly two processes involved in the conversion: hydrolysis of cellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass to produce reducing sugars, and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is relatively high based on current technologies,

Ye Sun; Jiayang Cheng



Ethanol Fuels: Energy Balance, Economics, and Environmental Impacts Are Negative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies suggest that the $1.4 billion in government subsidies are encouraging the ethanol program without substantial benefits to the U.S. economy. Large ethanol industries and a few U.S. government agencies, such as the USDA, support the production of ethanol. Corn-farmers receive minimal profits. In the U.S. ethanol system, considerably more energy, including high-grade fossil fuel, is required to produce

David Pimentel



Metabolic engineering to improve ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoanaerobacter mathranii can produce ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass at high temperatures, but its biotechnological exploitation will require\\u000a metabolic engineering to increase its ethanol yield. With a cofactor-dependent ethanol production pathway in T. mathranii, it may become crucial to regenerate cofactor to increase the ethanol yield. Feeding the cells with a more reduced carbon\\u000a source, such as mannitol, was shown to

Shuo Yao; Marie Just Mikkelsen



Ethnic Differences in the Effects of the DASH Diet on Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping in Individuals with High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEthnic differences in nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping may contribute to the increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events noted in African Americans (AAs). The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet has been shown to be efficacious in lowering clinic and ambulatory BP; however, the effect of the DASH diet on BP dipping is unclear.MethodsOne hundred and eighteen men and

Aric A. Prather; James A. Blumenthal; Alan L. Hinderliter; Andrew Sherwood



Risk Factors Associated with High Blood Pressure in Two-to Five-Year-Old Children  

PubMed Central

Background Over recent decades, the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) has increased among children. Several risk factors are involved in the genesis of high BP during childhood, and their early identification can prevent the development of that disease. Objectives To assess the prevalence of high BP and associated factors in children. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study, carried out at the household. This study included 276 two- to five-year-old children in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás, and assessed their BP, sociodemographic characteristics, birth weight, high BP family history, passive smoking, maternal breastfeeding, dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle and nutritional status. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between risk factors and high BP. Results Their mean age was 3.1 ± 0.79 years, and high BP and overweight were observed in 19.9% and 11.2% of the children, respectively. Direct association of high BP was identified with age [prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.2 - 4.8; p = 0.017] and overweight (PR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.2 - 3.6; p = 0.014). No other variable associated with high BP. Conclusions The prevalence of high BP in children was high. Overweight and younger children had greater prevalence of high BP. PMID:24263779

Crispim, Paula Azevedo Aranha; Peixoto, Maria do Rosario Gondim; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Brandao Veiga



Role of nitric oxide and prostanoids in the regulation of leg blood flow and blood pressure in humans with essential hypertension: effect of high-intensity aerobic training  

PubMed Central

We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in the regulation of leg blood flow and systemic blood pressure before and after 8 weeks of aerobic high-intensity training in individuals with essential hypertension (n= 10) and matched healthy control subjects (n= 11). Hypertensive subjects were found to have a lower (P < 0.05) blood flow to the exercising leg than normotensive subjects (30 W: 2.92 ± 0.16 vs. 3.39 ± 0.37 l min?1). Despite the lower exercise hyperaemia, pharmacological inhibition of the NO and prostanoid systems reduced leg blood flow to a similar extent during exercise in the two groups and vascular relaxation to the NO-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine was also similar between groups. High-intensity aerobic training lowered (P < 0.05) resting systolic (?9 mmHg) and diastolic (?12 mmHg) blood pressure in subjects with essential hypertension, but this effect of training was abolished when the NO and prostanoid systems were inhibited. Skeletal muscle vascular endothelial NO synthase uncoupling, expression and phosphorylation status were similar in the two groups before and after training. These data demonstrate that a reduction in exercise hyperaemia in hypertensive subjects is not associated with a reduced capacity of the NO and prostanoid systems to induce vasodilatation or with altered acetylcholine-induced response. However, our data suggest that the observed reduction in blood pressure is related to a training-induced change in the tonic effect of NO and/or prostanoids on vascular tone. PMID:22271868

Nyberg, Michael; Jensen, Lasse G; Thaning, Pia; Hellsten, Ylva; Mortensen, Stefan P



High-throughput mass finger printing and Lewis blood group assignment of human milk oligosaccharides.  


The structural diversity of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) strongly depends on the Lewis (Le) blood group status of the donor which allows a classification of these glycans into three different groups. Starting from 50 ?L of human milk, a new high-throughput, standardized, and widely automated mass spectrometric approach has been established which can be used for correlation of HMO structures with the respective Lewis blood groups on the basis of mass profiles of the entire mixture of glycans together with selected fragment ion spectra. For this purpose, the relative abundance of diagnostically relevant compositional species, such as Hex(2)Fuc(2) and Hex(3)HexNAc(1)Fuc(2), as well as the relative intensities of characteristic fragment ions obtained thereof are of key importance. For each Lewis blood group, i.e., Le(a-b+), Le(a+b-), and Le(a-b-), specific mass profile and fragment ion patterns could be thus verified. The described statistically proven classification of the derived glycan patterns may be a valuable tool for analysis and comparison of large sets of milk samples in metabolic studies. Furthermore, the outlined protocol may be used for rapid screening in clinical studies and quality control of milk samples donated to milk banks. PMID:21898157

Blank, Dennis; Gebhardt, Sabine; Maass, Kai; Lochnit, Günter; Dotz, Viktoria; Blank, Jennifer; Geyer, Rudolf; Kunz, Clemens



Development and characterization of a blood mimicking fluid for high intensity focused ultrasound.  


A blood mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for the acoustic and thermal characterizations of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation devices. The BMF is based on a degassed and de-ionized water solution dispersed with low density polyethylene microspheres, nylon particles, gellan gum, and glycerol. A broad range of physical parameters, including attenuation coefficient, speed of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity, were characterized as a function of temperature (20-70 degrees C). The nonlinear parameter B/A and backscatter coefficient were also measured at room temperature. Importantly, the attenuation coefficient is linearly proportional to the frequency (2-8 MHz) with a slope of about 0.2 dB cm(-1) MHz(-1) in the 20-70 degrees C range as in the case of human blood. Furthermore, sound speed and bloodlike backscattering indicate the usefulness of the BMF for ultrasound flow imaging and ultrasound-guided HIFU applications. Most of the other temperature-dependent physical parameters are also close to the reported values in human blood. These properties make it a unique HIFU research tool for developing standardized exposimetry techniques, validating numerical models, and determining the safety and efficacy of HIFU ablation devices. PMID:19045670

Liu, Yunbo; Maruvada, Subha; King, Randy L; Herman, Bruce A; Wear, Keith A



Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO) high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal of improving the management of this chronic health condition by primary care providers and patients in the community. Methods This study will test the effect of a systems change on the management of high blood pressure in real world practice in primary care in Ontario, Canada. The systems change intervention involves an interprofessional educational program bringing together physicians, nurses and pharmacists with tools for both providers and patients to facilitate blood pressure management. Each of two waves of subjects were enrolled over a 6 month period with the initial enrollment between waves separated by 9 months. Blood pressure will be measured with the BpTru ® automated blood pressure device. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, a before and after analysis within all subjects will compare blood pressure at baseline to annual measurements for the three year study. To assess whether the intervention has an impact on blood pressure control independent of community trends, a betwen group comparison of baseline blood pressures in the delayed wave will be made with the immediate wave during the same time period, so that the immediate wave has experienced the intervention for at least 9 months. The total enrollment goal is 5,000 subjects. The practice locations include 10 Family Health Teams (FHTs) and 1 Community Health Centre (CHC) and approximately 49 primary care physicians, 15 nurse practitioners, 37 registered nurses and over 150 community pharmacists across the 11 communities throughout the province of Ontario. The 11 primary care sites will be divided into immediate and delayed groups based on geography and the use of an electronic versus a traditional chart patient record. Discussion Initial consideration was given to randomizing the groups, however, for a number of reasons, this was deemed to not be possible. In order to ensure that the sites in the immediate intervention and delayed intervention groups are not different from each other, the sites will be assigned to the intervention groups manually to ensure a distribution of the variables as evenly as possible. Given that HSFO approached this particular group of health care providers to participate in a program relating to hypertension, this may have heightened their awareness of the issue and affected their management of patients with hypertension. Thus, data will be collected to allow an assessment of previous practice patterns and determine any impact of the Hawthorne Effect. Trial registration NCT00425828 PMID:19068141

Tobe, Sheldon W; Lum-Kwong, Margaret Moy; Perkins, Nancy; Von Sychowski, Shirley; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Kiss, Alex



Mechanisms of naturally evolved ethanol resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.  


The decaying fruit in which Drosophila melanogaster feed and breed can contain ethanol in concentrations as high as 6-7%. In this cosmopolitan species, populations from temperate regions are consistently more resistant to ethanol poisoning than populations from the tropics, but little is known about the physiological basis of this difference. I show that when exposed to low levels of ethanol vapor, flies from a tropical African population accumulated 2-3 times more internal ethanol than flies from a European population, giving evidence that faster ethanol catabolism by European flies contributes to the resistance difference. Using lines differing only in the origin of their third chromosome, however, I show that faster ethanol elimination cannot fully explain the resistance difference, because relative to African third chromosomes, European third chromosomes confer substantially higher ethanol resistance, while having little effect on internal ethanol concentrations. European third chromosomes also confer higher resistance to acetic acid, a metabolic product of ethanol, than African third chromosomes, suggesting that the higher ethanol resistance conferred by the former might be due to increased resistance to deleterious effects of ethanol-derived acetic acid. In support of this hypothesis, when ethanol catabolism was blocked with an Alcohol dehydrogenase mutant, there was no difference in ethanol resistance between flies with European and African third chromosomes. PMID:25392459

Fry, James D



Spoilage of blood sausages morcilla de Burgos treated with high hydrostatic pressure.  


In this study, the microbial ecology of the blood sausage morcilla de Burgos, subjected to high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPP), was studied by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Morcilla de Burgos is the most traditional and famous blood sausage in Spain. The producers are interested in extending its shelf-life in order to expand their market and to reduce losses attributed to spoilage. Sausage batter prior to stuffing and blood sausages HPP treated or not (control) were analyzed at 0, 9, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of storage at 4 degrees C. Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. and aerobic mesophilic bacteria were investigated by traditional plating. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyze the DNA and the RNA extracted directly from the blood sausages, as well as bulk cells of LAB and Pseudomonas spp. The results showed that HPP improved the shelf life of morcilla de Burgos to 28 days in comparison with control samples. The populations responsible for spoilage, namely LAB, remained lower in HPP treated samples when compared with the control samples. Only at 35 days of storage they reached values of 10(8) cfu/g, leading to the spoilage of the product. Although, HPP affected the LAB population, they were able to recover the injury provoked by the treatment. Lastly, HPP seemed to affect differently LAB species detected. While Leuconostoc mesenteroides was completely inactivated by HPP, Weissella viridescens was able to recover and carry out the typical spoilage of the product. Pseudomonas spp. remained under detection level (<10(2) CFU/g) after the HPP treatment. PMID:18367280

Diez, Ana M; Urso, Rosalinda; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Cocolin, Luca



Obesity and high blood pressure of 12-hour night shift female clean-room workers.  


The 12 h shift schedule is widely used in clean rooms for electronic semiconductor production in Taiwan. This study investigated the associations of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components among women working in a semiconductor manufacturing factory in North Taiwan. Workers were divided into four groups according to their work schedules and duties (i.e., office workers, day workers, fixed 12 h day shift, and fixed 12 h night shiftworkers). The subjects comprised 1838 women who voluntarily attended a health examination between August 2006 and November 2006. Their mean (+/-SD) age was 33.6 (+/-7.1) yrs and their mean duration of work was 7.4 (+/-5.2) yrs. Each subject's health-related behaviors, body mass index, and MetS components were measured and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Obesity and MetS were defined according to World Health Organization criteria for Asian populations and the National Cholesterol Educational Program and Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines, respectively. The results showed that women working in the clean room on fixed 12 h night shifts had significantly elevated odds ratios for obesity (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.5), central obesity (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7-5.1), and high blood pressure (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.4) compared to female office workers; these results persisted after adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, education, and duration of work. We did not find any significant differences in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among women working different schedules. We conclude that working fixed 12 h night shifts was associated with an increased odds ratio for obesity, central obesity, and high blood pressure among clean-room women workers. Weight reduction and blood pressure control programs should be implemented in the workplace for women working fixed 12 h night shifts. PMID:20370473

Chen, Jong-Dar; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsiao, Shu-Tin



High-fidelity large eddy simulation of blood flow through a mechanical heart valve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bileaflet heart valves are currently the most commonly implanted type of mechanical heart valve (MHV). However, the current designs are far from being optimal and, due to non-physiological flow characteristics, significant complications often arise after implantation. We carry out a high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) of blood flow through a bileaflet MHV for a better understanding of the dynamics of flow in both 2-D and 3-D models. For this purpose, we employ a sixth-order Pad'e approximant compact scheme that is coupled with an eleventh-order filtering procedure for removing high wave number noise. To our knowledge, this is one of the most complicated applications of high-order CFD methods, from the standpoint of geometry, and the first attempt at simulating blood flow in 3-D mechanical heart valves using such methods, with and without the overset grid methodology. The results clearly show the need for a full 3-D model for MHV. The formation of vortices and shear layers is discussed, as are their physiological implications.

Zhou, Min



Association of High Blood Pressure with Heart Rate Variability in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and hypertension in Chinese children. Methods The study was conducted in First Hospital of Jilin University, China. A total of 101 children were recruited in this study. They were divided into a high systolic blood pressure (SBP) group (HS group) and normal SBP group (NS group) according to the SBP levels. In the second set of experiments, the children were divided into a high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) group (HD group) and normal DBP group (ND group) according to the DBP levels. HRV measurements were performed, and the time domain and power spectrum values were calculated. Findings The differences of low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio, HF, and standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN) between daytime and nighttime were obviously abolished in HS and HD groups. The HS group displayed significantly lower values of HRV over a 24 h period compared to the NS group (SDNN, standard deviation of the averaged normal-to-normal RR intervals [SDANN], Triangle Index, root mean square successive difference [RMSSD], total power [TP], ultra-LF [ULF], and HF). Only the Triangle Index in the HD group was lower than that in ND group. Conclusion We provide evidence that HRV is reduced and the circadian rhythm of HRV is weakened in hypertensive children, and hypothesize that a reduced HRV is a potential pathophysiological mechanism linking childhood hypertension and adulthood cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23550151

Xie, Gui-Ling; Wang, Jing-hua; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Hui; Sun, Jing-Hui; Yang, Si-Rui



Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.  


Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. PMID:24060214

Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D



Sensitivity to reinforcer delay predicts ethanol's suppressant effects, but itself is unaffected by ethanol  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Relative preference for smaller, sooner rewards over larger, later rewards (“delay discounting”) is increased by acute ethanol. Additionally, drug-naïve levels of delay discounting can predict subsequent ethanol consumption. However, it is unknown whether these phenomena are driven by a difference in sensitivity to the reinforcer delay or a difference in sensitivity to the reinforcer magnitude, because typical delay discounting tasks manipulate both parameters simultaneously. METHODS To disambiguate these factors, two tasks were developed in which animals chose between levers with either different delay contingencies (adjusting delay task) or different magnitude contingencies (adjusting magnitude task). When task performance was stable, rats received ethanol (0, 0.6, and 0.9 g/kg, i.p.). RESULTS Ethanol did not affect sensitivity to delay or sensitivity to magnitude. However, responding was suppressed at the highest dose of ethanol (0.9 g/kg). Less suppression was found in animals exhibiting high levels of drug-naïve sensitivity to delay. CONCLUSION Thus, this study suggests that ethanol’s effect on standard delay discounting tasks is not due to an alteration in sensitivity to delay or magnitude. Additionally, these data show that animals with high sensitivity to delay are resistant to the behaviorally suppressant effects of ethanol, which suggests that low tolerance for delayed rewards and low sensitivity to the behaviorally suppressant effects of ethanol may partly be driven by the same underlying mechanism. PMID:23910798

Moschak, Travis M.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.



Red blood cell senescence and neocytolysis in humans after high altitude acclimatization.  


A selective lysis of relatively young erythrocytes (neocytolysis), together with a decrease of erythropoietin (EPO) production, has been described in polycythemic, high altitude acclimatized climbers, after descent to sea level, and in astronauts, soon after exposure to weightlessness (Alfrey CP, Rice L, Udden MM, Driscoll TB. Neocytolysis may represent the physiological down-regulation of red-cell mass. Lancet 349 (1997) 1389-90). To study neocytolysis, we analysed blood samples drawn from 4 mountain climbers at sea level before and after 53 days of high altitude acclimatization (> or = 4500 m). After a 6-day descent to sea level, erythropoietin (EPO) plasma levels were lower than before high altitude acclimatization (mean values: 2.5+/-3.3 versus 10+/-4.5 mIU/ml, p < 0.05). Red blood cell (RBC) populations were separated into low, middle and high density subsets, which, by physical and phenotypical criteria, were characterized as young, middle-aged and old. RBC membrane molecules CD55 and CD59 along with phosphatydylserine and CD47 were measured. The former are partially lost during RBC aging. The latter are involved in the triggering or inhibition of RBC phagocytosis by macrophages. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry were done on each density subset. Young and middle-aged RBCs largely disappeared after descent from high altitude (from 4.50% (+/-3.10) and 66% (+/-6.90) to 0.19% (+/-0.07) and 1.90% (+/-0.50), respectively). Simultaneously, there was a dramatic increase of high density RBCs (from 29.50% (+/-7) to 97.90% (+/-2.00)). Furthermore, the remaining young and middle-aged RBCs had acquired a senescent-like phenotype, which may account for their increased susceptibility to phagocytosis. PMID:17188915

Risso, Angela; Turello, Marina; Biffoni, Franco; Antonutto, Guglielmo



Ethanol Drinking in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Many studies have used voluntary ethanol consumption by animals to assess the influence of genetic and environmental manipulations on ethanol drinking. However, the relationship between home cage ethanol consumption and more formal assessments of ethanol-reinforced behavior using operant and instrumental conditioning procedures is not always clear. The present review attempted to evaluate whether there are consistent correlations between mouse and rat home cage ethanol drinking on the one hand, and either operant oral self-administration (OSA), conditioned taste aversion (CTA) or conditioned place preference (CPP) with ethanol on the other. We also review literature on intravenous ethanol self-administration (IVSA). To collect data, we evaluated a range of genetic manipulations that can change both genes and ethanol drinking behavior including selective breeding, transgenic and knock-out models, and inbred and recombinant inbred strain panels. For a genetic model to be included in the analysis, there had to be published data resulting in differences on home cage drinking and data for at least one of the other behavioral measures. A consistent, positive correlation was observed between ethanol drinking and OSA, suggesting that instrumental behavior is closely genetically related to consummatory and ingestive behavior directed at ethanol. A negative correlation was observed between CTA and drinking, suggesting that ethanol’s aversive actions may limit oral consumption of ethanol. A more modest, positive relationship was observed between drinking and CPP, and there were not enough studies available to determine a relationship with IVSA. That some consistent outcomes were observed between widely disparate behavioral procedures and genetic populations may increase confidence in the validity of findings from these assays. These findings may also have important implications when researchers decide which phenotypes to use in measuring alcohol-reward relevant behaviors in novel animal models. PMID:18164576

Green, Alexis S.; Grahame, Nicholas J.



High Blood Pressure in Panama: Prevalence, Sociodemographic and Biologic Profile, Treatment, and Control (STROBE).  


The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence, treatment, and control of high blood pressure, hypertension (HBP) in Panama and assess its associations with sociodemographic and biologic factors.A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Panama by administering a survey on cardiovascular risk factors to 3590 adults and measuring their blood pressure 3 times. A single-stage, probabilistic, and randomized sampling strategy with a multivariate stratification was used. The average blood pressure, confidence intervals (CIs), odds ratio (OR), and a value of P???0.05 were used for the analysis.The estimated prevalence of HBP was 29.6% (95% CI, 28.0-31.1); it was more prevalent in men than in women, OR?=?1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.61); it increased with age and was more frequent among Afro-Panamanians (33.8%). HBP was associated with a family history of HBP with being physically inactive and a body mass index ?25.0?kg/m or a waist circumference >90?cm in men and >88?cm in women (P?high priority to HBP prevention programs and integrated care programs aimed at treating HBP, taking into consideration the changes in behavior that have been brought about by alterations in nutrition and sedentary lifestyles. PMID:25396327

Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J; Motta Borrel, Jorge A; Fontes, Flavia; Cruz Gonzalez, Clara E; Pachón Burgos, Alvaro A; Cumbrera Ortega, Alberto



Vitamin D Deficiency Induces High Blood Pressure and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Multiple epidemiological studies link vitamin D deficiency to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), but causality and possible mechanisms underlying these associations are not established. To clarify the role of vitamin D-deficiency in CVD in vivo, we generated mouse models of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency in two backgrounds (LDL receptor- and ApoE-null mice) that resemble humans with diet-induced hypertension and atherosclerosis. Mice were fed vitamin D-deficient or -sufficient chow for 6 weeks and then switched to high fat (HF) vitamin D-deficient or –sufficient diet for 8–10 weeks. Mice with diet-induced vitamin D deficiency showed increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high plasma renin, and decreased urinary sodium excretion. Hypertension was reversed and renin was suppressed by returning chow-fed vitamin D-deficient mice to vitamin D-sufficient chow diet for 6 weeks. On a HF diet, vitamin D-deficient mice had ?2-fold greater atherosclerosis in the aortic arch and ?2–8-fold greater atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aorta compared to vitamin D-sufficient mice. In the aortic root, HF-fed vitamin D-deficient mice had increased macrophage infiltration with increased fat accumulation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation, but a lower prevalence of the M1 macrophage phenotype within atherosclerotic plaques. Similarly, peritoneal macrophages from vitamin D-deficient mice displayed an M2-predominant phenotype with increased foam cell formation and ER stress. Treatment of vitamin D-deficient mice with the ER stress reliever PBA during HF feeding suppressed atherosclerosis, decreased peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation, and downregulated ER stress proteins without changing blood pressure. Thus, we suggest that vitamin D deficiency activates both the renin angiotensin system and macrophage ER stress to contribute to the development of hypertension and accelerated atherosclerosis, highlighting vitamin D replacement as a potential therapy to reduce blood pressure and atherosclerosis. PMID:23349943

Oh, Jisu; Riek, Amy E.; Chin, Kathleen; Garcia, Miguel; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos



Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.  


Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPAR?, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24746837

Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng



Physical activity is inversely associated with high blood pressure independently of overweight in Brazilian adolescents.  


The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between blood pressure (BP) levels and physical activity (PA) domains accounting for overweight/obesity. Adolescents aged 10 to 17 years old were recruited (n?=?1021). International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria were used to define overweight and obesity. High BP was defined using the Center of Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Different domains of PA (school activities, sport out of school, and leisure time PA) were assessed using a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 21.9% for boys and 14.8% for girls. Some 13.4% of boys and 10.2% of girls, respectively, had high blood pressure (HBP). A strong and positive association was found between overweight and HBP. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total PA was inversely associated with BP. When all PA domains were entered simultaneously in a regression model, and after adjustment for BMI, only sport out of school was significantly and inversely associated with systolic BP [?: -0.82 (-1.50; -0.13)]. These findings open avenue for the early prevention of HBP by the prevention of obesity and promotion of PA. PMID:22092334

Christofaro, D G D; Ritti-Dias, R M; Chiolero, A; Fernandes, R A; Casonatto, J; de Oliveira, A R



Three Dimensional Endoscopic Image of a Blood Vessel Using High Frequency Ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a high frequency ultrasound (US) imaging system for observation of small tissues and a virtual endoscopic image of a blood vessel. This system consists of a US probe with a central frequency of 32 MHz, a microscope table designed to collect some slices of US brightness mode (B-mode) images, a transmitter containing control logic and a receiver circuit and a personal computer (PC) with an analog to digital (AD) converter. First, US B-mode images with high spatial resolution were obtained by shifting a measurement plane at a constant step of 0.075 mm. Second, three-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction was performed with linear interpolation and a volume rendering technique. Finally, the point of view of the 3-D image was set in the human body and a virtual endoscopic image was presented. The experimental results present a blood vessel as if an ultrasound probe were inserted in it and reveal the anatomical structure under skin.

Oshiro, Osamu; Kamada, Kumi; Chihara, Kunihiro; Secomski, Wojciech; Nowicki, Andrzej



Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol  


Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)



High spatial and temporal resolution observations of pulsatile changes in blood echogenicity in the common carotid artery of rats.  


Previous studies have found that ultrasound backscatter from blood in vascular flow systems varies under pulsatile flow, with the maximum values occurring during the systolic period. This phenomenon is of particular interest in hemorheology because it is contrary to the well-known fact that red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, which determines the intensity of ultrasound backscatter from blood, decreases at a high systolic shear rate. In the present study, a rat model was used to provide basic information on the characteristics of blood echogenicity in arterial blood flow to investigate the phenomenon of RBC aggregation under pulsatile flow. Blood echogenicity in the common carotid arteries of rats was measured using a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system with a 40-MHz probe. The electrocardiography-based kilohertz visualization reconstruction technique was employed to obtain high-temporal-resolution and high-spatial-resolution time-course B-mode cross-sectional and longitudinal images of the vessel. The experimental results indicate that blood echogenicity in rat carotid arteries varies during a cardiac cycle. Blood echogenicity tends to decrease during early systole and reaches its peak during late systole, followed by a slow decline thereafter. The time delay of the echogenicity peak from peak systole in the present results is the main difference from previous in vitro and in vivo observations of backscattering peaks during early systole, which may be caused by the very rapid heart rates and low RBC aggregation tendency of rats compared with humans and other mammalian species. The present study may provide useful information elucidating the characteristics of RBC aggregation in arterial blood flow. PMID:23830099

Nam, Kweon-Ho; Bok, Tae-Hoon; Kong, Qi; Paeng, Dong-Guk



Mechanisms of blood pressure regulation that differ in men repeatedly exposed to high-G acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated exposure to high acceleration (G) would be associated with enhanced functions of specific mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. We measured heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (), mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, forearm and leg vascular resistance, catecholamines, and changes in leg volume (%DeltaLV) during various protocols of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), carotid stimulation, and infusions of adrenoreceptor agonists in 10 males after three training sessions on different days over a period of 5-7 days using a human centrifuge (G trained). These responses were compared with the same measurements in 10 males who were matched for height, weight, and fitness but did not undergo G training (controls). Compared with the control group, G-trained subjects demonstrated greater R-R interval response to equal carotid baroreceptor stimulation (7.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.4 ms/mmHg, P = 0.02), less vasoconstriction to equal low-pressure baroreceptor stimulation (-1.4 +/- 0.2 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.3 U/mmHg, P = 0.01), and higher HR (-1.2 +/- 0.2 vs. -0.5 +/- 0.1 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1), P = 0.01) and alpha-adrenoreceptor response (32.8 +/- 3.4 vs. 19.5 +/- 4.7 U/mmHg, P = 0.04) to equal dose of phenylephrine. During graded LBNP, G-trained subjects had less decline in and SV, %DeltaLV, and elevation in thoracic impedance. G-trained subjects also had greater total blood (6,497 +/- 496 vs. 5,438 +/- 228 ml, P = 0.07) and erythrocyte (3,110 +/- 364 vs. 2,310 +/- 96 ml, P = 0.06) volumes. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to repeated high G is associated with increased capacities of mechanisms that underlie blood pressure regulation.

Convertino, V. A.



Research note: methodology for high-quality RNA extraction from poultry whole blood for further gene expression analysis.  


1. There are no published methods for RNA isolation from avian whole blood where nucleated red blood cells prevent the use of established mammalian protocols. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a protocol for total RNA extraction using avian whole blood by defining the effect of anticoagulants and sample purification protocols on RNA yield and quality. 2. Blood collections from the cutaneous ulnar or medial metatarsal veins of birds yielded adequate blood volume (2-3 ml) draws. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two levels of DNase (0 and TURBO DNA-free Kit), two levels of Cleanup (0 and RNeasy MinElute Cleanup Kit), and three anticoagulants (no anticoagulant, EDTA, or sodium citrate). 3. RNA was isolated successfully by adding TRIzol LS to 0.25 ml of chicken whole blood at 3:1 ratio. From 0.125 ml of avian whole blood, 2-3 µg of RNA with RNA integrity number values of 7.75 was successfully isolated with the TRIzol LS extraction and an RNeasy MinElute Cleanup Kit. 4. This reliable protocol can be used to extract high yield and quality of total RNA from a small amount of whole blood. PMID:24844274

Mewis, J L; Sun, X; Zuidhof, M J; Guan, L L



Charging into the Blend Wall: Conjoint Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Ethanol Blend Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol use in the U.S. rose sharply in recent years due to public policy and a spike in petroleum prices, and remains high. Public support for ethanol includes mandated minimum levels of use nationwide. However, rather little is known about consumer demand for ethanol and much less about demand by type of blend and ethanol source. We used trial survey

Francisco X. Aguilar; Wyatt Thompson



Preferential ethanol consumption in Drosophila models features of addiction.  


Alcohol addiction is a common affliction with a strong genetic component [1]. Although mammalian studies have provided significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol consumption [2], other organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster are better suited for unbiased, forward genetic approaches to identify novel genes. Behavioral responses to ethanol, such as hyperactivity, sedation, and tolerance, are conserved between flies and mammals [3, 4], as are the underlying molecular pathways [5-9]. However, few studies have investigated ethanol self-administration in flies [10]. Here we characterize ethanol consumption and preference in Drosophila. Flies prefer to consume ethanol-containing food over regular food, and this preference increases over time. Flies are attracted to the smell of ethanol, which partially mediates ethanol preference, but are averse to its taste. Preference for consuming ethanol is not entirely explained by attraction to either its sensory or caloric properties. We demonstrate that flies can exhibit features of alcohol addiction. First, flies self-administer ethanol to pharmacologically relevant concentrations. Second, flies will overcome an aversive stimulus in order to consume ethanol. Third, flies rapidly return to high levels of ethanol consumption after a period of imposed abstinence. Thus, ethanol preference in Drosophila provides a new model for studying aspects of addiction. PMID:20005106

Devineni, Anita V; Heberlein, Ulrike



High Blood caffeine levels in MCI linked to lack of progression to dementia.  


Although both human epidemiologic and animal model studies have suggested that caffeine/coffee protects against Alzheimer's disease, direct human evidence for this premise has been lacking. In the present case-control study, two separate cohorts consisting of 124 total individuals (65-88 years old) were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for caffeine/biomarker analysis. Subjects were then monitored for cognitive status over the ensuing 2-4 year period to determine the extent to which initial plasma caffeine/biomarkers levels would be predictive of changes in cognitive status. Plasma caffeine levels at study onset were substantially lower (-51%) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects who later progressed to dementia (MCI?DEM) compared to levels in stable MCI subjects (MCI?MCI). Moreover, none of the MCI?DEM subjects had initial blood caffeine levels that were above a critical level of 1200 ng/ml, while half of stable MCI?MCI subjects had blood caffeine levels higher than that critical level. Thus, plasma caffeine levels greater than 1200 ng/ml (?6 ?M) in MCI subjects were associated with no conversion to dementia during the ensuing 2-4 year follow-up period. Among the 11 cytokines measured in plasma, three of them (GCSF, IL-10, and IL-6) were decreased in MCI?DEM subjects, but not in stable MCI?MCI subjects with high plasma caffeine levels. Coffee would appear to be the major or perhaps only source of caffeine for such stable MCI patients. This case-control study provides the first direct evidence that caffeine/coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of dementia or delayed onset, particularly for those who already have MCI. PMID:22430531

Cao, Chuanhai; Loewenstein, David A; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Li; Duara, Ranjan; Wu, Yougui; Giannini, Alessandra; Bai, Ge; Cai, Jianfeng; Greig, Maria; Schofield, Elizabeth; Ashok, Raj; Small, Brent; Potter, Huntington; Arendash, Gary W



High prevalence of blood-borne virus infections and high-risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Tallinn, Estonia  

PubMed Central

Summary The HIV epidemic in Estonia is rapidly expanding, and injection drug users (IDUs) are the major risk group contributing to the expansion. A convenience sample of 159 IDUs visiting syringe-exchange programmes (SEPs) was selected to quantify the association of HIV-risk behaviours and blood-borne infections. A high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody (HBVcore), hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibodies (56, 85.1, 21.3, and 96.2%, respectively) was associated with high-risk injections, unsafe sexual behaviour and alcohol abuse. These findings emphasize the importance of evidence-based secondary prevention among the HIV-infected, especially given the uncertain sustainability of antiretroviral and substance abuse treatments. PMID:17326862

Uuskula, Anneli; McNutt, Louise Anne; Dehovitz, Jack; Fischer, Krista; Heimer, Robert



NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

Not Available



Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques  

SciTech Connect

Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

Kim, K.



Quantification of ethanol methyl 1H magnetic resonance signal intensity following intravenous ethanol administration in primate brain  

PubMed Central

In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to directly monitor brain ethanol. Previously, studies of human subjects have lead to the suggestion that the ethanol methyl 1H MRS signal intensity relates to tolerance to ethanol’s intoxicating effects. More recently, the ethanol 1H MRS signal intensity has been recognized to vary between brain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to differences in T2 within these environments. The methods presented here extend ethanol MRS techniques to nonhuman primate subjects. Twelve monkeys were administered ethanol while sedated and positioned within a 3T MRI system. Chemical shift imaging (CSI) measurements were performed following intravenous infusion of 1g/kg ethanol. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were also recorded for each monkey to provide volume fractions of GM, WM, and CSF for each CSI spectrum. To estimate co-variance of ethanol MRS intensity with GM, WM, and CSF volume fractions, the relative contribution of each tissue subtype was determined following corrections for radiofrequency pulse profile non-uniformity, chemical shift artifacts, and differences between the point spread function in the CSI data and the imaging data. The ethanol MRS intensity per unit blood ethanol concentration was found to differ between GM, WM, and CSF. Individual differences in MRS intensity were larger in GM than WM. This methodology demonstrates the feasibility of ethanol MRS experiments and analysis in nonhuman primate subjects, and suggests GM may be a site of significant variation in ethanol MRS intensity between individuals. PMID:20018244

Flory, Graham S.; O'Malley, Jean; Grant, Kathleen A.; Park, Byung; Kroenke, Christopher D.



Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary β-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank

C. G. Gianoulakis; D. Beliveau; P. Angelogianni; M. Meaney; J. Thavundayil; V. Tawar; M. Dumas



High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography  

PubMed Central

We present high-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography (OMAG) technology. Based on spatial frequency analysis, OMAG is capable of visualizing the vascular perfusion map down to capillary-level resolution. An OMAG system operating at 840 nm is used with an A-scan rate of 27,000 Hz, axial resolution of 8 ?m, and sensitivity of 98 dB. To achieve wide-field imaging, we capture 16 optical coherence tomography (OCT) 3-D datasets in a sequential order, which together provide an area of ?7.4×7.4 mm2 at the posterior segment of the human eye. For each of these datasets, the bulk tissue motion artifacts are eliminated by applying a phase compensation method based on histogram estimation of bulk motion phases, while the displacements occurring between adjacent B-frames are compensated for by 2-D cross correlation between two adjacent OMAG flow images. The depth-resolved capability of OMAG imaging also provides volumetric information on the ocular circulations. Finally, we compare the clinical fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography imaging results with the OMAG results of blood perfusion map within the retina and choroid, and show excellent agreement between these modalities. PMID:20459256

An, Lin; Subhush, Hrebesh M.; Wilson, David J.; Wang, Ruikang K.



Drinking Typography Established by Scheduled Induction Predicts Chronic Heavy Drinking in a Monkey Model of Ethanol Self-Administration  

PubMed Central

Background We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Methods Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Results Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent “spree” drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). Conclusion This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into chronic heavy alcohol consumption in primates (drinking the equivalent of 16 to 20 drinks per day). The model may aid in identifying biological risks for establishing harmful alcohol drinking. PMID:18702645

Grant, Kathleen A.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L.; Szeliga, Kendall T.; Rogers, Laura S. M.; Gonzales, Steven W.



Zanthoxylum piperitum DC ethanol extract suppresses fat accumulation in adipocytes and high fat diet-induced obese mice by regulating adipogenesis.  


This study was conducted to determine the anti-obesity effects of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC fruit ethanol extract (ZPE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. We evaluated the influence of the addition of ZPE to a high-fat diet on body weight, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipids in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, adipogenic gene expression was determined by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. We assessed the effect of ZPE on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. ZPE reduced weight gain, white adipose tissue mass, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels (p<0.05) in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. ZPE decreased lipid accumulation and PPAR?, C/EBP?, SREBP-1, and FAS protein and mRNA levels in the liver. ZPE inhibited in vitro adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and significantly attenuated adipogenic transcription factors, such as PPAR?, C/EBP?, and SREBP-1 in 3T3L1 cells. These findings suggest that Z. piperitum DC exerts an anti-obesity effect by inhibiting adipogenesis through the downregulation of genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway. PMID:23419397

Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Tae Wan; Ha, Tae Youl



Clean method for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-supported PtPd alloys with high electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.  


In this article, a clean method for the synthesis of PtPd/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) catalysts with different Pt/Pd ratios is reported in which no additional components such as external energy (e.g., high temperature or high pressure), surfactants, or stabilizing agents are required. The obtained catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and electrochemical measurements. The HRTEM measurements showed that all of the metallic nanoparticles (NPs) exhibited well-defined crystalline structures. The composition of these Pt-Pd/RGO catalysts can be easily controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of the Pt and Pd precursors. Both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) results demonstrate that bimetallic PtPd catalysts have superior catalytic activity for the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to the monometallic Pt or Pd catalyst, with the best performance found with the PtPd (1:3)/RGO catalyst. The present study may open a new approach for the synthesis of PtPd alloy catalysts, which is expected to have promising applications in fuel cells. PMID:24451011

Ren, Fangfang; Wang, Huiwen; Zhai, Chunyang; Zhu, Mingshan; Yue, Ruirui; Du, Yukou; Yang, Ping; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Wensheng



Blood Sugar  


... an A1C. It checks your average blood sugar level over the past three months. If your blood sugar is too high, you may need to take medicines and/or follow a special diet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


An ethanol vapor chamber system for small animals.  


Ethanol vapor chambers have been utilized widely in alcohol research since their introduction in 1971, and implementations of these systems are now available commercially. Here, we present a modification of the chamber that can be built at lower cost and greater simplicity of operation. The six-chamber system for rats has multiple air pumps. Ethanol vapor levels are adjusted with the air flow rate, ethanol drip rate, and dilution with room air, without a heater or fans. Ethanol vapor concentrations are measured with a breathalyzer, using room air to dilute the vapor chamber output into the range of the breathalyzer. Multiple pumps provide backup to ensure animal survival in the case of failure of the primary air pump. Tests in animals demonstrated comfortable and stable elevation of blood ethanol, with tight control of the ethanol vapor concentrations and the ability to select from a broad range of levels. The ethanol vapor measurement was rapid and efficient. The parts cost was a few thousand U.S. dollars. This vapor chamber system features low cost, ease of use, and convenient and inexpensive measurement of ethanol vapor concentrations. The lack of a heater and electrical components that could come into contact with ethanol in our case facilitated institutional approval. PMID:22575431

Wang, Jie; Jiang, Lihong; Du, Hongying; Mason, Graeme F



Ethanol intake during lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactating rats, with litters adjusted to 8 pups on day 1, were divided into 4 groups: control animals (C), which received water and Nuvilab chow ad libitum, and ethanol animals (E), which received 20% (E20), 10% (E10), or 5% (E5) ethanol diluted in the drinking water and Nuvilab chow ad libitum. On day 12 of life, the pups were weighed

L. M Oyama; R. C Couto; G. E. C Couto; A. R Dâmaso; C. M Oller do Nascimento



Full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system for blood-flow measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and performance of a new full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system developed for mapping and monitoring of blood flow in biological tissue. The total imaging time for 256x256 pixels region of interest is 1.2 seconds. An integrating CMOS image sensor is utilized to detect Doppler signal in a plurality of points simultaneously on the sample illuminated by a divergent laser beam of a uniform intensity profile. The integrating property of the detector improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, which results in high-quality flow-images provided by the system. The new technique is real-time, non-invasive and the instrument is easy to use. The wide range of applications is one of the major challenges for a future application of the imager. High-resolution high-speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a promising optical technique for diagnostic and assessing the treatment effect of the diseases such as e.g. atherosclerosis, psoriasis, diabetes, skin cancer, allergies, peripheral vascular diseases, skin irritancy and wound healing. We present some biological applications of the new imager and discuss the perspectives for the future implementations of the imager for clinical and physiological applications.

Serov, Alexandre; Lasser, Theo



Ex Vivo Generation of Highly Purified and Activated Natural Killer Cells from Human Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adoptive immunotherapy using natural killer (NK) cells has been a promising treatment for intractable malignancies; however, there remain a number of difficulties with respect to the shortage and limited anticancer potency of the effector cells. We here established a simple feeder-free method to generate purified (>90%) and highly activated NK cells from human peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Among the several parameters, we found that CD3 depletion, high-dose interleukin (IL)-2, and use of a specific culture medium were sufficient to obtain highly purified, expanded (?200-fold) and activated CD3?/CD56+ NK cells from PBMCs, which we designated zenithal-NK (Z-NK) cells. Almost all Z-NK cells expressed the lymphocyte-activated marker CD69 and showed dramatically high expression of activation receptors (i.e., NKG2D), interferon-?, perforin, and granzyme B. Importantly, only 2 hours of reaction at an effector/target ratio of 1:1 was sufficient to kill almost all K562 cells, and the antitumor activity was also replicated in tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Cytolysis was specific for various tumor cells, but not for normal cells, irrespective of MHC class I expression. These findings strongly indicate that Z-NK cells are purified, expanded, and near-fully activated human NK cells and warrant further investigation in a clinical setting. PMID:23885718

Saito, Satoru; Harada, Yui; Morodomi, Yosuke; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Yoshida, Kumi; Kyuragi, Ryoichi; Matsubara, Hisahiro



Perfusion–diffusion compartmental models describe cerebral helium kinetics at high and low cerebral blood flows in sheep  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the relative importance of perfusion and diffusion mechanisms in compartmental models of blood:tissue helium exchange in the brain. Helium has different physiochemical properties from previously studied gases, and is a common diluent gas in underwater diving where decompression schedules are based on theoretical models of inert gas kinetics. Helium kinetics across the cerebrum were determined during and after 15 min of helium inhalation, at separate low and high steady states of cerebral blood flow in seven sheep under isoflurane anaesthesia. Helium concentrations in arterial and sagittal sinus venous blood were determined using gas chromatographic analysis, and sagittal sinus blood flow was monitored continuously. Parameters and model selection criteria of various perfusion-limited or perfusion–diffusion compartmental models of the brain were estimated by simultaneous fitting of the models to the sagittal sinus helium concentrations for both blood flow states. Purely perfusion-limited models fitted the data poorly. Models that allowed a diffusion-limited exchange of helium between a perfusion-limited tissue compartment and an unperfused deep compartment provided better overall fit of the data and credible parameter estimates. Fit to the data was also improved by allowing countercurrent diffusion shunt of helium between arterial and venous blood. These results suggest a role of diffusion in blood:tissue helium equilibration in brain. PMID:15649976

Doolette, David J; Upton, Richard N; Grant, Cliff



High-throughput screening of large volumes of whole blood using structured illumination and fluorescent on-chip imaging.  


Undiluted blood samples are difficult to image in large volumes since blood constitutes a highly absorbing and scattering medium. As a result of this limitation, optical imaging of rare cells (e.g., circulating tumour cells) within unprocessed whole blood remains a challenge, demanding the use of special microfluidic technologies. Here we demonstrate a new fluorescent on-chip imaging modality that can rapidly screen large volumes of absorbing and scattering media, such as undiluted whole blood samples, for detection of fluorescent micro-objects at low concentrations (for example ?50-100 particles/mL). In this high-throughput imaging modality, a large area microfluidic device (e.g., 7-18 cm(2)), which contains for example ~0.3-0.7 mL of undiluted whole blood sample, is directly positioned onto a wide-field opto-electronic sensor-array such that the fluorescent emission within the microchannel can be detected without the use of any imaging lenses. This microfluidic device is then illuminated and laterally scanned with an array of Gaussian excitation spots, which is generated through a spatial light modulator. For each scanning position of this excitation array, a lensfree fluorescent image of the blood sample is captured using the opto-electronic sensor-array, resulting in a sequence of images (e.g., 144 lensfree frames captured in ~36 s) for the same sample chip. Digitally merging these lensfree fluorescent images based on a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm enabled us to significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast of the fluorescent micro-objects within whole blood, which normally remain undetected (i.e., hidden) using conventional uniform excitation schemes, involving plane wave illumination. This high-throughput on-chip imaging platform based on structured excitation could be useful for rare cell research by enabling rapid screening of large volume microfluidic devices that process whole blood and other optically dense media. PMID:23047492

Arpali, Serap Altay; Arpali, Caglar; Coskun, Ahmet F; Chiang, Hsin-Hao; Ozcan, Aydogan



High glucose impairs ATP formation on the surface of human peripheral blood B lymphocytes.  


Diabetes-associated lymphocyte dysfunction may be attributed to the direct effect of hyperglycemia, but the impact of glucose concentration on B cell functionality is not fully resolved. Since, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and its metabolite adenosine are the core constituents of the purinergic signaling network involved in regulation of immune response we aimed to investigate the impact of high glucose concentration on ATP outflow and metabolism on B cell surface. Purified human peripheral blood B cells cultured at high glucose (25 mM) concentration released significantly less ATP (~60%) comparing to cells cultured in low glucose (5mM) concentration. We observed that high glucose altered ATP hydrolysis on B cell surface due to increased activity of nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase-1/CD39). In the presence of 10 ?M [(3)H]AMP and 100 ?M ATP significant quantities of [(3)H]ADP and [(3)H]ATP were generated, although the AMP to ADP phosphorylation potential of B cells cultured in high glucose decreased significantly. The flow cytometry analysis revealed that the level of ecto-adenylate kinase 1? (AK1?) on surface of B cells cultured in high glucose decreased significantly. Inhibition of NTPDase1/CD39 activity with 100 ?M ARL67156 resulted in decreased cell viability, although significantly more viable cells retained in the culture media containing low glucose compared to high glucose media. Selective inhibition of P2X7 purinergic receptor irrespective of glucose concentration completely protected B cells against the ARL 67156-induced cell death. We assume that high glucose-induced alteration of ATP handling on B cell surface might contribute to impaired functionality of B cells in diabetes. PMID:23523697

Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Monika; Grden, Marzena; Maciejewska, Izabela; Szutowicz, Andrzej; Pawelczyk, Tadeusz



Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  


Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C



Ethanolic extract of rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (chuanxiong) enhances endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity in ovariectomized rats fed with high-fat diet.  


The rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (LC), also known as chuanxiong, is a very common herb widely used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is also used as a major ingredient in soups for regular consumption to promote good health. To study the protective effect of LC ethanolic extract (LCEE, 600 mg per kg per day, p.o.) on the integrity of the vascular system, ovariectomized (OVX) rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) plus LCEE for 12 weeks. The animal model was used to mimic the dyslipidemic condition seen in postmenopausal women. LCEE was found significantly to reduce the body weight gain, improve serum lipid profiles (by lowering total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol but raising high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and protect vascular endothelium in the HFD-fed OVX rats. It is postulated that LCEE could exert its vascular protective effect through multiple targets by (1) improving serum lipid profiles to reduce the detrimental effects of cholesterol; (2) reducing the ROS level in the body via enhancing the hepatic anti-oxidative activity or antioxidant level to scavenge the reactive oxygen species generated in the postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic condition; (3) stimulating eNOS-derived nitric oxide production; (4) counteracting the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokine (TNF-?, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) expressions so as to reduce endothelium damage. PMID:25110278

Li, Chun-Mei; Guo, Yu-Qing; Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, He; Wang, Bo; Wu, Jian-Hong; Wong, Man-Sau; Chan, Shun-Wan



Ethanol-induced hypothermia and hyperglycemia in genetically obese mice  

SciTech Connect

Blood glucose and rectal temperatures were monitored in two strains of genetically obese mice (C57 BL/6J ob/ob) prior to and following intragastric ethanol administration in an attempt to relate the hypothermic response to ethanol to extracellular glucose concentration. In contrast to expectation, ethanol administration was typically associated with a hyperglycemia and a hypothermic response. In the ob/ob genotype, the hypothermic response was associated with pronounced hyperglycemia which was more emphatic in older animals. The data support the conclusion that ethanol-induced hypothermia is independent of blood glucose levels. In light of the known sensitivity of ob/ob mice to insulin, it is suggested further that the observed hypothermic response was not a function of the animals' ability to transport glucose into peripheral cells. The observed hyperglycemia of the obese animals was most likely stress-related

Haller, E.W.; Wittmers, L.E. Jr.



High quality methylome-wide investigations through next-generation sequencing of DNA from a single archived dry blood spot.  


The potential importance of DNA methylation in the etiology of complex diseases has led to interest in the development of methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) aimed at interrogating all methylation sites in the human genome. When using blood as biomaterial for a MWAS the DNA is typically extracted directly from fresh or frozen whole blood that was collected via venous puncture. However, DNA extracted from dry blood spots may also be an alternative starting material. In the present study, we apply a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein enrichment-based technique in combination with next generation sequencing (MBD-seq) to assess the methylation status of the ~27 million CpGs in the human autosomal reference genome. We investigate eight methylomes using DNA from blood spots. This data are compared with 1,500 methylomes previously assayed with the same MBD-seq approach using DNA from whole blood. When investigating the sequence quality and the enrichment profile across biological features, we find that DNA extracted from blood spots gives comparable results with DNA extracted from whole blood. Only if the amount of starting material is ? 0.5µg DNA we observe a slight decrease in the assay performance. In conclusion, we show that high quality methylome-wide investigations using MBD-seq can be conducted in DNA extracted from archived dry blood spots without sacrificing quality and without bias in enrichment profile as long as the amount of starting material is sufficient. In general, the amount of DNA extracted from a single blood spot is sufficient for methylome-wide investigations with the MBD-seq approach. PMID:23644822

Aberg, Karolina A; Xie, Lin Y; Nerella, Srilaxmi; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; van den Oord, Edwin J C G



Hemoglobin Variant Analysis via Direct Surface Sampling of Dried Blood Spots Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited disorders. Newborn blood screening for clinically significant hemoglobin variants, including sickle (HbS), HbC, and HbD, has been adopted in many countries as it is widely acknowledged that early detection improves the outcome. We present a method for determination of Hb variants by direct surface sampling of dried blood spots by use of an Advion Triversa Nanomate automated electrospray system coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The method involves no sample preparation. It is possible to unambiguously identify homozygous and heterozygous HbS, HbC, and HbD variants in <10 min without the need for additional confirmation. The method allows for repeated analysis of a single blood spot over a prolonged time period and is tolerant of blood spot storage conditions. PMID:21341716



High Blood Pressure in Overweight and Obese Youth: ok Implications for Screening  

PubMed Central

In the absence of evidence-based guidelines for high blood pressure screening in asymptomatic youth, a reasonable strategy is to screen those who are high risk. The present study aimed to identify optimal body mass index (BMI) thresholds as a marker for high-risk youth to predict hypertension prevalence. In a cross-sectional study, youth aged 6–17 years (n=237,248) enrolled in an integrated prepaid health plan in 2007–2009 were classified according to their BMI and hypertension status. In moderately and extremely obese youth, the prevalence of hypertension was 3.8% and 9.2%, respectively, compared to 0.9% in normal weight youth. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CIs) of hypertension for normal weight, overweight, moderate obesity and extreme obesity were 1.00 (Reference), 2.27 (2.08–2.47), 4.43 (4.10–4.79), and 10.76 (9.99–11.59), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was best predicted by a BMI-forage ?94th percentile. Our results suggest that all obese youth should be screened for hypertension. PMID:24119024

Koebnick, Corinna; Black, Mary Helen; Wu, Jun; Martinez, Mayra P.; Smith, Ning; Kuizon, Beatriz; Cuan, David; Young, Deborah Rohm; Lawrence, Jean M.; Jacobsen, Steven J



Peripheral blood stem cell transplant for POEMS syndrome is associated with high rates of engraftment syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a devastating syndrome, characterized by peripheral neuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cells, skin changes, papilledema, volume overload, sclerotic bone lesions, thrombocytosis and high vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). High-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) ultimately yields excellent clinical responses, but there can be considerable peritransplant morbidity. We have treated 30 POEMS patients with ASCT at Mayo Clinic, Rochester. During transplant period, patients had high rates of fever, diarrhea, weight gain and rash (93%, 77%, 53% and 43%, respectively). Only 13% remained outpatient, and median time to discharge from hospital was transplant day 17 (range 0–175). Splenomegaly was the baseline factor that best predicted for a complicated peritransplant course. Depending on the definition used, ?50% of patients satisfied criteria for engraftment syndrome. Earlier and more aggressive use of corticosteroids may be associated with less complicated post-transplant courses. Median overall survival has not been reached; the treatment-related mortality was 3%. In addition, important clinical improvements and reductions in plasma VEGF levels can occur in the absence of significant decrease in the monoclonal protein. Unraveling the mechanisms of the syndrome both in the context of ASCT and in general are challenges for the future. PMID:18221391

Dispenzieri, Angela; Lacy, Martha Q; Hayman, Suzanne R; Kumar, Shaji K; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Litzow, Mark R; Gastineau, Dennis A; Inwards, David J; Elliott, Michelle A; Micallef, Ivana N; Ansell, Stephen M; Hogan, William J; Porrata, Luis F; Johnston, Patrick A; Afessa, Bekele; Bryce, Alan; Kyle, Robert A; Gertz, Morie A



Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup -}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH{sup -} and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was {approx} 1.5-fold greater in ADH{sup -} vs. ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH{sup -} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.ed [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)



Biochemical changes of hemoglobin and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in high fat diet rabbits.  


The aim of this study was to assess the effects of hyperlipidemia on auto-oxidation rate of hemoglobin (Hb; absorbance at 630 nm versus time), Hb derivatives and osmotic fragility of Red Blood Cells (RBCs). These parameters were measured in twenty five 12-week-old male New Zealand white rabbits fed on a High Fat Diet (HFD) for a feeding period of 10 weeks. We found that Hb concentration and RBC count were significantly decreased while white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly increased in HFD rabbits compared with control rabbits. The Total Cholesterol (TC) was significantly increased (p < 0.01) in HFD rabbits compared with control rabbits with percentage normalized change of 1198% and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLC) significantly increased (p < 0.01) in HFD rabbits compared with control rabbits with percentage normalized change of 1591%. In HFD rabbits, oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) percentage was significantly decreased while met-hemoglobin (Met-Hb) percentage was significantly increased compared with control rabbits. The auto-oxidation rate was significantly higher in HFD rabbits compared with controls. Hyperlipidemia induced an increase in the osmotic fragility of RBCs and a decrease in their membrane elasticity compared with controls. This study suggests that hyperlipidemia may produce reactive oxygen species and other free radicals which increase the auto-oxidation rate of Hb and promote the conversion of HbO2 and the fractions of unstable Hb molecules to Met-Hb and carboxyhemoglobin. Increased platelet activation in hyperlipidemic rabbits may be of pathophysiological importance for the progression of atherosclerosis and thromboembolic complications. The increase in osmotic fragility of RBCs may be attributed to the disturbance of ionic motion through the membrane and the change in molecular properties of the membrane macromolecules. PMID:20415140

Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K; Moussa, Sherif Abdelmottaleb



Awareness, attitude, and distribution of high blood pressure among health professionals  

PubMed Central

Background BP control is suboptimal Worldwide. Little is known about attitudes of health professionals toward their BP status. Aim To estimate awareness, attitudes, and distribution of blood pressure among health professionals. Study design Prospective cross-sectional survey. Methods Study was conducted among health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, KSA during December 2010. Socio-demographics, risk factors for high BP, awareness, and adherence to treatment were recorded. Results Six hundred and seventy-two subjects, 66.6% females, mean age 36.2 + 13.9 years. Prevalence of Hypertension (HTN) was 28%. 114 (60.6%) patients had self reported HTN in HTN group while 74 (11%) of total study population, were not aware that they have HTN which was detected on screening. Stress and lack of formal exercise were prevalent risk factors for HTN, present in 44.1% and 36.1%, of patients, respectively, while obesity was present in 19.4%. Many participants were not aware of recently recommended target value of blood pressure. 22.3% patients were irregular for their follow-up. 12.2% patients were not adherent to the treatment. Isolated systolic hypertension was more common in men. A point of serious concern was that relatively young health professionals, who were not known to be hypertensive did not monitor their BP, found to have HTN. Conclusion Suboptimal awareness and lack of adherence to the treatment for BP among health professionals is of serious concern, for increased chances of cardiovascular events. Physical exercise, correction of obesity and compliance with treatment may reduce the risk of HTN-related adverse outcome in this special subset of the population. PMID:24174841

Mitwalli, Ahmed H.; Harthi, Ahmed Al; Mitwalli, Hussam; Juwayed, Ayman Al; Turaif, Noura Al; Mitwalli, Mohammed A.



Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells  

PubMed Central

Background Highly purified infected red blood cells (irbc), or highly synchronized parasite cultures, are regularly required in malaria research. Conventional isolation and synchronization rely on density and osmotic fragility of irbc, respectively. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) offers an alternative based on intrinsic magnetic properties of irbc, avoiding exposure to chemicals and osmotic stress. Successful HGMS concentration in malaria research was previously reported using polymer coated columns, while HGMS depletion has not been described yet. This study presents a new approach to both HGMS concentration and depletion in malaria research, rendering polymer coating unnecessary. Methods A dipole magnet generating a strong homogenous field was custom assembled. Polypropylene syringes were fitted with one-way stopcocks and filled with stainless steel wool. Rbc from Plasmodium falciparum cultures were resuspended in density and viscosity optimized HGMS buffers and HGMS processed. Purification and depletion results were analysed by flow cytometer and light microscopy. Viability was evaluated by calculating the infection rate after re-culturing of isolates. Results In HGMS concentration, purity of irbc isolates from asynchronous cultures consistently ranged from 94.8% to 98.4% (mean 95.7%). With further optimization, over 90% of isolated irbc contained segmented schizonts. Processing time was less than 45 min. Reinfection rates ranged from 21.0% to 56.4%. In HGMS depletion, results were comparable to treatment with sorbitol, as demonstrated by essentially identical development of cultures. Conclusion The novel HGMS concentration procedure achieves high purities of segmented stage irbc from standard asynchronous cultures, and is the first HGMS depletion alternative to sorbitol lysis. It represents a simple and highly efficient alternative to conventional irbc concentration and synchronization methods. PMID:20122252



Ethanol enhances leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in mesenteric venules.  


In vivo studies have implicated neutrophils in the gastric mucosal injury produced by intraluminal administration of ethanol. However, in vitro studies indicate that ethanol inhibits various neutrophil functions such as adherence, chemotaxis, and degranulation. The aim of the present study was to assess whether ethanol, at clinically relevant concentrations, is proinflammatory in vivo. Ethanol (0.2, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0%) was applied to the surface of the cat mesentery, and neutrophil adherence to venules (30 microns diam) and extravasation into the interstitium were quantitated using intravital microscopy. Hemodynamic parameters were also measured (venular diameter, red blood cell velocity, and leukocyte rolling velocity) or calculated (venular blood flow and wall shear stress). In this model ethanol produced a dose-dependent increase in neutrophil adherence and extravasation. The increase in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions could not be attributed to alterations in hemodynamic factors. Pretreatment of animals with a monoclonal antibody (MoAb IB4) directed to the neutrophil CD11/CD18 adherence complex completely prevented the ethanol-induced neutrophil adherence and extravasation. Pretreatment with a leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-receptor antagonist (SC 41930) or a platelet-activating factor (PAF)-receptor antagonist (WEB 2170) did not alter the ethanol-induced neutrophil-endothelial interactions. We conclude that ethanol is proinflammatory at concentrations which may be achieved in the mucosal interstitium during acute alcohol intoxication. The ethanol-induced leukocyte adherence and extravasation is dependent on the expression of adhesive glycoproteins. The inflammatory mediators, PAF and LTB4, do not appear to play an important role in the leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions initiated by ethanol. PMID:2221068

Kvietys, P R; Perry, M A; Gaginella, T S; Granger, D N



Effect of sludge retention time on the biological performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating corn-to-ethanol thin stillage with high lipid content.  


The potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the treatment of lipid rich corn-to-ethanol thin stillage was investigated at three different sludge retention times (SRT), i.e. 20, 30 and 50 days. The membrane assisted biomass retention in AnMBRs provided an excellent solution to sludge washout problems reported for the treatment of lipid rich wastewaters by granular sludge bed reactors. The AnMBRs achieved high COD removal efficiencies up to 99% and excellent effluent quality. Although higher organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 8.0 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) could be applied to the reactors operated at shorter SRTs, better biological degradation efficiencies, i.e. up to 83%, was achieved at increased SRTs. Severe long chain fatty acid (LCFA) inhibition was observed at 50 days SRT, possibly caused by the extensive dissolution of LCFA in the reactor broth, inhibiting the methanogenic biomass. Physicochemical mechanisms such as precipitation with divalent cations and adsorption on the sludge played an important role in the occurrence of LCFA removal, conversion, and inhibition. PMID:24238260

Dereli, Recep Kaan; van der Zee, Frank P; Heffernan, Barry; Grelot, Aurelie; van Lier, Jules B



Near infrared excited micro-Raman spectra of 4:1 methanol-ethanol mixture and ruby fluorescence at high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near infrared (NIR) lasers, as a new excitation source for Raman spectroscopy, has shown its unique advantages and is being increasingly used for some special samples, such as those emitting strong fluorescence in the visible region. This article focuses on some issues related to high-pressure micro-Raman spectroscopy using NIR excitation source. The Raman spectra of 4:1 methanol-ethanol mixture (4:1 M-E) show a linear variation in both Raman shifts and linewidths under pressure up to 18 GPa. This result is useful in distinguishing Raman scattering of samples from that of the alcohol mixture, an extensively used pressure-transmitting medium. The R1 fluorescence in the red region induced by two-photon absorption of the NIR laser is strong enough to be used as pressure scale. The frequency and line width of the R1 lines are very sensitive to pressure change and the glass transition of the pressure medium. Our results manifest that it is reliable and convenient to use NIR induced two-photon excited fluorescence of ruby for both pressure calibration and distribution of pressure in the 4:1 M-E pressure transmitting medium.

Wang, X. B.; Shen, Z. X.; Tang, S. H.; Kuok, M. H.



Biological production of ethanol from coal  

SciTech Connect

Previously studies have shown the importance of both medium composition and concentration and medium pH on ethanol production of Clostridium ljungdahlii in fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas. Four additional batch experiments involving medium composition and concentration were carried out in modified basal medium without yeast extract at pH 4.0. These experiments indicate that basal medium with only small amounts of B-vitamins can yield significant cell growth while yielding ethanol as the major product. Product ratios as high as 11.0 g ethanol per g acetate were obtained with half strength B-vitamins. Further experiments indicates that Ca-pantothenate may be necessary for the growth of C. ljungdahlii and that growth and ethanol production can occur simultaneously.

Not Available



Ethanol's Molecular Targets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For much of the 20th century, it was widely believed that ethanol exerts its effects on neuronal function in a nonspecific manner—perhaps through the disordering of membrane lipids. However, over the past two decades, evidence has mounted that ethanol instead produces its effects by altering the functioning of specific proteins through its interaction with a select few amino acids in those proteins. In this Review with 2 figures and 60 citations, we focus on proteins for which evidence for specific alcohol binding sites has been obtained, and we briefly describe and compare these ethanol receptors.

R. Adron Harris (University of Texas;Institutes for Neuroscience and Cell & Molecular Biology REV); James R. Trudell (Stanford University School of Medicine;Department of Anesthesia REV); S. John Mihic (University of Texas;Institutes for Neuroscience and Cell & Molecular Biology REV)



Mechanism of increased hepatic uptake of unesterified fatty acid from serum of ethanol-treated rats.  

PubMed Central

Studies were made on the mechanism by which livers of ethanol-treated rats take up an increased fraction of the total flux of unesterified fatty acid in serum. It was found that ethanol (0.7g/kg) causes a twofold rise in the serum content of liver, and that this serum is in rapid equilibrium with the general circulation. The fractional hepatic uptake from serum of group of compounds with varying uptake mechanisms and metabolic fates was studied in control and ethanol-treated animals. All the compounds tested, including unesterified fatty acid, showed an enhanced uptake when ethanol was given. For one of the compounds, carbon tetrachloride, a dose/response relationship was established between the amount administered, the amount taken up by liver, and the amount metabolized. These findings were interpreted to mean that this dose of ethanol causes the liver to receive an increased flow of blood, and as a result all compounds present and capable of being taken by liver are taken up at an increased rate. Hepatic blood flow was measured by a technique that monitors the rate of clearance of a colloidal lipid emulsion. It was found that ethanol increased hepatic blood flow by about 60%. This effect of ethanol on hepatic blood flow provides an explanation for the fatty liver and the synergistic effect between an acute dose of ethanol and carbon tetrachloride. A hypothesis to explain why a moderate dose of ethanol causes triglyceride to accumulate in liver is presented. PMID:942402

Abrams, M A; Cooper, C



Effects of ethanol on temporal recovery of auditory-evoked potentials in individuals at risk for alcoholism.  


The present investigation examined the effects of placebo (P), low dose (LD), and high dose (HD) ethanol on auditory event-related potential (AEP) recovery functions in a group of males at high risk to develop alcoholism (HR; n = 23, mean = 22.3 years) and a low risk (LR; n = 27, mean = 23.0 years) control group. Condition order was randomized, with one condition (P, LD, or HD) per day and a minimum 1-day interval between conditions. For each subject, both blood alcohol levels (BALs) measured via breathalyzer, and event-related potentials recorded with the entire 10/20 International System, were assessed prior to and at mean intervals of 20, 60, 90, and 130 min after P, LD, or HD administration. A series of binaural auditory stimuli with randomly interposed interstimulus intervals of 0.5, 1.0, and 10.0 sec were used to elicit the N100 and P200 components of the AEP. Between-groups comparisons indicated that ethanol elicited risk group differences in recovery functions not present at baseline. The differences were manifested in the HR group as larger decrements in P200 amplitude during the ascending blood alcohol curve (acute sensitivity) and more rapid returns of both N100 and P200 to baseline levels during the descending blood alcohol curve (acute tolerance). These findings support Newlin and Thomson's (1990) Differentiator Model, suggesting that LR and HR individuals are differentially sensitive to the effects of ethanol. PMID:9660327

Cohen, H L; Porjesz, B; Stimus, A T; Begleiter, H



High resolution mapping of cortical blood flow by mosaicing the laser speckle images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser speckle imaging (LSI) has been implemented as a tool of acquiring two dimensional blood flow information. Using vascular segmentation techniques, we are able to obtain the cortical vascular blood flow distribution. Nevertheless, the conventional LSI methods have limitations of small imaging area and low dynamic range of contrast due to the ambient background field, dark current and anomalies in

Jing Yu; Peng Miao; Minheng Li; Yihong Qiu; Yisheng Zhu; Shanbao Tong



Blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline during single high-dose beta adrenoceptor blockade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute effects upon blood pressure and sympathetic outflow of two beta adrenoceptor blocking drugs, propranolol and atenolol, are described in five healthy normotensive subjects. Supine blood pressure, heart rate, plasma noradrenaline, and urinary catecholamine excretion were measured before and at intervals for 24 h after a single oral dose of either propranolol 200 mg, atenolol 100 mg, or placebo.

T. J. B. Maling; A. Ferrara; J. C. Mucklow; J. L. Reid; Carlene A. Hamilton; C. T. Dollery



NCI Researchers Discover Genes That Are Turned On at High Levels in Tumor-Associated Blood Vessels of Mice and Humans

A team of researchers at NCI has uncovered a set of genes that are turned on, or expressed, at high levels only in the blood vessels that feed tumors in mice and humans. These genes, and the proteins they encode, are important new potential targets for novel drugs that could selectively cut off a tumor's blood supply without affecting the blood vessels of healthy tissues, overcoming one of the major concerns of current anticancer therapies targeted at blood vessel growth.


Peripheral circulation in the newborn: Interaction of peripheral blood flow, blood pressure, blood volume, and blood viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral blood flow and systolic blood pressure (strain-gauge plethysmograph), blood volume (Evans blue) and whole blood viscosity (cone-plate viscometer) have been measured in 66 premature and full-term infants 6 to 144h of age. Blood flow and blood volume were moderately decreased in the infants with respiratory distress. Highly significant (Pr=0.77), blood pressure and blood volume (r=0.50), peripheral resistance and blood

O. Linderkamp; I. Strohhacker; H. T. Versmold; H. Klose; K. P. Riegel; K. Betke



Biofuel Ethanol Transport Risk  

EPA Science Inventory

Ethanol production has increased rapidly over the last 10 years and many communities lack awareness of the increased and growing extent of biofuel transportation through their jurisdictions. These communities and their emergency responders may not have the information and resour...


Ethanol production from cattails  

SciTech Connect

The industrial utilization of cattails in the production of ethanol has been investigated. Included in this study has been the natural and managed growth of the cattail plants, the methods of harvesting, fermentation kinetics, and overall economic evaluation.

Ladenburg, K.



Ethanol production from cattails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial utilization of cattails in the production of ethanol has been investigated. Included in this study has been the natural and managed growth of the cattail plants, the methods of harvesting, fermentation kinetics, and overall economic evaluation.




Dietetic Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus with Special Reference to High Blood-pressure  

PubMed Central

The error in a diabetic is essentially a carbohydrate intolerance, and correction of this defect should be aimed at in treatment. Dietetic treatment of diabetes is more readily studied in early cases or cases in the pre-diabetic state, before arterial degeneration and other catastrophes have become manifest. It is suggested that such a condition exists in obese subjects with a carbohydrate intolerance. A high protein diet based on a study of these cases is brought forward. This diet has been shown to operate favourably in diabetic states. Many cases of reasonable severity can be brought to develop a normal or nearly normal glucose tolerance curve and retain this state over a period of years. Cases in this state are better able to resist concomitant infections without deterioration of their tolerance than cases imperfectly balanced with insulin. The high protein diet can be used in cases of hyperpiesia in the absence of gross kidney damage. These cases show a steady and lasting drop in blood-pressure without the necessity of employing rest. The value of the pure fruit diet in increasing tolerance of certain diabetics to carbohydrate is demonstrated. The indiscriminate use of insulin in hyperglycæmic states is deprecated on the grounds that it is frequently unnecessary, and though it may balance it does not necessarily rectify the main deficiency of carbohydrate intolerance. By the use of this simple high protein diet, where no weighing, &c., is required, a large number of diabetics at present on insulin could be readily dealt with, a return to a normal or nearly normal glucose tolerance curve being obtained and maintained. PMID:19991654

Embleton, Dennis



High preoperative blood levels of HE4 predicts poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of preoperative blood levels of HE4 as a predictor of overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer and to validate previous data of HE4 and the ROMA algorithm including HE4 and CA125 in discriminating benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Experimental design The preoperative plasma levels of HE4 and CA125 were analyzed with ELISA in 312 patients with adnexal lesions. Tumors were classified as benign (n= 206), borderline (i.e. low malignant potential tumors) (n= 25), and well (n= 14), moderately (n= 15), and poorly (n= 51) differentiated malignant. Results In univariate Cox regression analyses high levels (dichotomized at the median) of HE4, CA125, increased age (continuous variable), advanced-stage of disease 2–4, histological grade 3 and non-optimal tumor debulking at primary surgery were all significantly associated with shorter overall survival. A multivariate Cox regression model including pre-operative available covariates HE4 and CA125 both dichotomized at median in addition to age as continuous variable showed that high levels of HE4 was an independent prognostic marker for worse prognosis HR 2.02 (95% CI 1.1-3.8). In postmenopausal women the ROMA algorithm gave the highest AUC of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.97) which was higher than the separate markers HE4 AUC 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.95) and CA125 AUC 0.91(95% CI 0.87-0.96). Conclusions High concentration of plasma HE4 is an independent preoperative marker of poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. The algorithm ROMA discriminates in postmenopausal women between malignant and benign tumors with an AUC of 0.94. PMID:22909379



Molecular Structure of Ethanol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ethanol is a clear, colorless liquid that has a very distinct alcohol smell. It was discovered/made as far back as 6000 B.C. in the production of beer and wine. The Chinese were the first to distill it from fermented rice liquor. It is fermented from glucose sugars of plant cell walls. Ethanol is the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages and is a central nervous system depressant in humans. It is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and reacts violently with oxidants. Henry Ford used ethanol to run the first engine for the Model T. Currently, there is a lot of research related to increasing use of ethanol as a fuel to help the environment and offset the demand of oil since it burns much cleaner than oil and is a renewable resource. Ethanol is commonly used as a disinfectant; it kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids: it is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses, but is ineffective against bacterial spores. This disinfectant property of ethanol is the reason that alcoholic beverages can be stored for a long time.



Elevation of Morning Blood Pressure in Sodium Resistant Subjects by High Sodium Diet  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated the response of blood pressure (BP) by dietary sodium in sodium resistant (SR) subjects. One hundred one subjects (mean age, 46.0 yr; 31 hypertensives) were admitted and given low sodium-dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet (LSD, 100 mM NaCl/day) for 7 days and high sodium-DASH diet (HSD, 300 mM NaCl/day) for the following 7 days. On the last day of each diet, 24 hr ambulatory BP was measured. Morning systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were elevated after HSD in all subjects (P < 0.01), but daytime SBP and DBP were not changed (P > 0.05). In hypertensive subjects, morning DBP elevation was greater than daytime DBP elevation (P = 0.036), although both DBPs were significantly elevated after HSD. The augmented elevation of morning DBP in hypertensive subjects was contributed by the absolute elevation of morning DBP (P = 0.032) and relative elevation to daytime DBP (P = 0.005) in sodium resistant (SR) subjects, but not by sodium sensitive subjects. Although there was no absolute elevation, SR subjects with normotension showed a relative elevation of morning SBP compared to daytime SBP change after HSD (P = 0.009). The present study demonstrates an absolute and relative elevation of morning BP in SR subjects by HSD. PMID:23580363

Lim, Chi-Yeon; Shin, Sung-Joon; Oh, Sang-Woo; Park, Yong-Soon; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Hye-Kyoung; Kim, Cho-il; Park, Cheol-Young; Kim, Sun-Woong



A compact highly efficient and low hemolytic centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically levitated impeller.  


A magnetically levitated (maglev) centrifugal blood pump (CBP), intended for use as a ventricular assist device, needs to be highly durable and reliable for long-term use without any mechanical failure. Furthermore, maglev CBPs should be small enough to be implanted into patients of various size and weight. We have developed a compact maglev CBP employing a two-degree-of-freedom controlled magnetic bearing, with a magnetically suspended impeller directly driven by an internal brushless direct current (DC) motor. The magnetic bearing actively controls the radial motion of the impeller and passively supports axial and angular motions using a permanent magnet embedded in the impeller. The overall dimensions of the maglev CBP are 65 mm in diameter and 40 mm in height. The total power consumption and pump efficiency for pumping 6 L/min against a head pressure of 105 mm Hg were 6.5 W and 21%, respectively. To evaluate the characteristics of the maglev CBP when subjected to a disturbance, excitation of the base, simulating the movement of the patient in various directions, and the sudden interception of the outlet tube connected with the pump in a mock circulatory loop, simulating an unexpected kink and emergent clamp during a heart surgery, were tested by monitoring the five-degree-of-freedom motion of the impeller. Furthermore, the hemolytic characteristics of the maglev CBP were compared with those of the Medtronic Biomedicus BPX-80, which demonstrated the superiority of the maglev CBP. PMID:16480390

Asama, Junichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Hoshi, Hideo; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira




EPA Science Inventory

In New Zealand a species of oyster (Ostrea lutaria) consumed widely contains on an average 5 micro g Cd/g wet weight. In this study the cadmium intake and blood and urinary cadmium levels in a group of 78 people with a known high oyster consumption has been investigated. A second...


Development of a point-of-care assay system for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in whole blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is emerging as a potential risk predictor for future cardiovascular diseases (CVD). High sensitivity assays have been developed and applied for clinical purposes. Methods: The fluorescence immunochromatographic assay was employed to detect and quantify CRP in whole blood. It consisted of a fluorescence (FL) antibody detector buffer, a test strip housed in a disposable cartridge, and

Jae Soon Ahn; Sunga Choi; Sang Ho Jang; Hyuk Jae Chang; Jae Hoon Kim; Ki Bong Nahm; Sang Wook Oh; Eui Yul Choi



Sodium and potassium in blood and milk and plasma aldosterone levels in high-yield dairy cows  

E-print Network

Sodium and potassium in blood and milk and plasma aldosterone levels in high-yield dairy cows A milk production and milk sodium and potassium were measured in 10 Holstein x Friesian cows during a whole lactation period beginning in November and ending in November the following year. The milk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Evaluation of Family Health Education to Build Social Support for Long-Term Control of High Blood Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational program was implemented to improve family member support for medical compliance among hypertensive patients. Family members were interviewed, counseled, and provided with a booklet for the purpose of educating and involving them in the home management of high blood pressure. Results of this program are presented and analyzed.…

Morisky, Donald E.; And Others



School-Based Exercise to Lower Blood Pressure in High-Risk African American Girls: Project Design and Baseline Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes effective methods for identifying and recruiting high risk African American ninth-grade girls to measure their fitness and assess the impact of fitness training on blood pressure. A multistage step test for fitness assessment in such girls is presented. The "Project Heart" aerobics class and control groups are described. (SM)

Ewart, Craig K.; And Others



Final Report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the final report of National Black Health Providers Task Force (NBHPTF) on High Blood Pressure Education and Control. The first chapter of the report recounts the history of the NBHPTF and its objectives. In the second chapter epidemiological evidence is presented to demonstrate the need for a suggested 20 year plan aimed at controlling…

Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.


The Effects of Blood Alcohol Levels on Driving Variables in a High-Risk Population: Objective and Subjective Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed high-risk individuals' subjective awareness of legal intoxication and ability to drive, and objectively quantified their blood alcohol levels and driving performance. While subjects were able to recognize legal intoxication, one-third of the subjects were still willing to drive after becoming intoxicated beyond the legal limit to drive.…

Cox, Daniel J.; And Others



The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol-conditioned place preference in rats.  


Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin modification (specifically histone acetylation) may play a crucial role in the development of addictive behavior. However, little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in the rewarding properties of ethanol. In the current study, we studied the effects of systemic injection of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA) on ethanol consumption and ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP). The effect of VPA (300mg/kg) on voluntary ethanol intake and preference was assessed using continuous two-bottle choice procedure with escalating concentrations of alcohol (2.5-20% v/v escalating over 4 weeks). Taste sensitivity was studies using saccharin (sweet; 0.03% and 0.06%) and quinine (bitter; 20µM and 40µM) tastants solutions. Ethanol conditioned reward was investigated using an unbiased CPP model. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Compared to vehicle, VPA-injected rats displayed significantly lower preference and consumption of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm, with no significant difference observed with saccharin and quinine. More importantly, 0.5g/kg ethanol-induced-CPP acquisition was blocked following VPA administration. Finally, vehicle- and VPA-treated mice had similar BECs. Taken together, our results implicated HDAC inhibition in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of alcohol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target HDAC could potentially help to tackle alcoholism in humans. PMID:25108044

Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansouri, Shamma; Al Maamari, Alyazia; Bahi, Amine



Types of Blood Pressure Medications  


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Different effects of aspirin on blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with high and spontaneously low levels of blood pressure.  

PubMed Central

Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of the Okamoto strain with blood pressure above 161 mmHg and SHR with blood pressure levels of less than 160 mmHg were treated with oral doses of aspirin (100 mg kg-1) for three days. Whereas the blood pressure of SHR with blood pressure above 161 mmHg was decreased by aspirin, the blood pressure of SHR below 160 mmHg was increased by aspirin. The extent and direction of blood pressure change by aspirin was strongly correlated with the blood pressure of SHR before treatment (r = -0.88). The effect of aspirin supports an important role for endogenous prostanoids in the regulation of blood pressure of SHR. PMID:8401941

Schirner, M.; Taube, C.



Sodium intake and cardiac sympatho-vagal balance in young men with high blood pressure.  


We have previously reported that a high sodium intake increases sleep-time blood pressure (BP) in young men. However, there are cases in which this relation does not apply. To account for them, we investigated the relation between sodium intake and cardiac sympatho-vagal balance (SVB) in young men with high BP. Sodium intake was estimated from the amount of urinary sodium excretion over 1 week. Twenty-four-hour (24-h) urinary sodium excretion (Salt24), 24-h ambulatory BP and ECG were obtained on the last day of the observation period. As an index of sodium intake, the expression In(Salt24/Cr24) (Cr24, 24-h urinary creatinine excretion) was used. From power-spectral analysis of ECG-RR intervals during sleep, we obtained the LF/HF ratio between the low-frequency component (LF) and the high frequency component (HF) and used it as an index of SVB. The subjects were male medical students divided into a normal BP group (N-group; n=103) and a high BP group (H-group; n=26, 24-h BP>125/75 mmHg). Mean In(Salt24/Cr24) and LF/HF in the H-group were significantly higher than those in the N-group (LF/HF: 1.86+/-0.44 [SD] vs. 1.37+/-0.30, p<0.001). The calculated discriminant function (D) for the H-group and N-group was D=1.6x + 5y - 11, where x is In(Salt24/Cr24) and y is LF/HF. This formula (D) resulted in high discriminant predictive accuracy (82%) between the groups. If D=0 (the value of the cut-off line determining separation of the groups), the relation y=-0.32x + 2.2 (negative relation between y and x) was obtained. These results suggest that excessive sodium intake in combination with accentuated SVB (LF/HF) increases BP in young men. PMID:15253104

Tochikubo, Osamu; Nishijima, Kiyoko



Ethanol Production from Ulva fasciata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical potential yield of Ulva fasciata as a biomass feedstock for fermentative ethanol was found to be about 310 L per tonne, dry weight. U. fasciata has numerous characteristics that render it a suitable mariculture energy crop. Specifically, it forms large complex structures that grow quickly, with high (14%) dry to wet weight percentages, holocellulose content for the dry mass of 51%, carbohydrate content of 5%, and relatively low (5%) lignin content. Enzymatic saccharification with a commercial cellulase (Accelerase) from Genencor was investigated: After a 12 hr digestion, 25% of the potential glucose was recovered from the cellulose fraction. The hydrolysate was supplemented with a modified YM medium and used directly for batch fermentation. A 12 hr incubation resulted in complete utilization of the glucose and production of ethanol. In this preliminary investigation, the ethanol yield corresponded to approximately 126 L per tonne (dry weight) of macroalga, or 43% of the theoretical alcohol yield with respect to only the cellulose and carbohydrate contents. Theoretical yields are higher when the hemicellulose fraction is considered. While sugar recovery needs further optimization, the data suggest that additional work is warranted.

Masutani, Evan M.; Yoza, Brandon A.


Farm size ethanol plant: A case study  

SciTech Connect

The Farm Technology, USA Ethanol Plant in Spring Green, Wisconsin will produce 1,000 gallons per day of 200-proof ethanol. The distillers grains are fed wet to the 500 beef cattle in the adjoining feedlot, with 10 percent ethanol remaining in the feed. The focus of the plant is to produce high quality livestock feed, with the production of ethanol a secondary income. This concept has worked well on several other farms across the country, and is anticipated to perform well here once the plant is completely operational. Due to its small size, flexibility in feedstocks is possible, and waste feedstocks can be utilized to minimize costs. The ethanol plant has been recently constructed, and is currently in its start-up phase. Once on-line, a feed study will be performed to analyze performance of the combined ethanol plant-feedlot operation. A grant from Wisconsin Energy Bureau will sponsor the feedstock study, as well as a study to recycle whey, both to ferment and to use in place of well water.

Hansen, H. [Farm Technology, Spring Green, WI (United States)



Continuous ethanol production by immobilized yeast cells and ethanol recovery by liquid-liquid extraction  

SciTech Connect

Contributions on ethanol fermentation by immobilized yeast cells and ethanol-water separation by liquid-liquid extraction are presented. The characterization of a packed-bed fermentor with yeast immobilized in carrageenan gel beads as well as its main operational features are reported, giving special emphasis to cell growth inside the beads during continuous fermentation experiments. A new separation process for dilute ethanol-water mixtures based on a solvent extraction step is proposed. The process development and solvent selection have been carried out. Although the first results are promising, the energy costs of the process are still too high.

Sola, C.; Casas, C.; Godia, F.; Poch, M.; Serra, A.; Scott, C.D. (ed.)



Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol: focusing on pretreatment at high solids content.  


A central composite design of response surface method was used to optimize H(2)SO(4)-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw, in respect to acid concentration (0.5-2%), treatment time (5-20 min) and solid content (10-20%) at 180 degrees C. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing ethanol production. The results showed that acid concentration and treatment time were more significant than solid content for optimization of xylose release and cellulose recovery. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid and 20% solid content for 10 min at 180 degrees C was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw for ethanol production. After pretreatment at the optimal condition and enzymatic hydrolysis, 75.12% total xylan and 63.17% total glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively. Finally, 66.79% of theoretical ethanol yielded after fermentation. PMID:19268577

Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Yimin; Angelidaki, Irini



Insulin attenuates the acquisition and expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization in DBA/2J mice  

PubMed Central

Aims Ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization is a behavioral manifestation of physiological responses to repeated ethanol exposures. While ethanol exerts direct effects on multiple neurotransmitter systems in the brain, ethanol-induced changes in metabolic state, including acute hyperglycemia and inhibition of insulin signaling, also have plausible roles in the expression of ethanol-related behaviors through direct and indirect effects on brain function. The current experiments examined whether insulin administration or the resultant hypoglycemia might attenuate the development of sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of ethanol. Main methods Male and female DBA/2J mice received daily injections of 5 or 10 IU/kg insulin before or after a stimulating dose of ethanol and subsequent testing in an automated activity monitor. Blood glucose levels were determined upon the completion of the experiments. Key findings Insulin injected prior to ethanol blunted the acute stimulant response as well as the acquisition and expression of locomotor sensitization, while insulin given after ethanol did not affect the development of the sensitized response. In a separate experiment, mice given glucose concurrently with insulin developed ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization normally. Significance These experiments suggest that insulin attenuates the development of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization, and that blood glucose levels can largely account for this effect. Further studies of the role of ethanol-induced metabolic states should provide novel information on the expression of ethanol-related behaviors. PMID:22056372

Kliethermes, Christopher L; Heberlein, Ulrike



Self-aggregation processes of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in water/ethanol mixtures with high water percentages.  


This work describes the behavior of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) in ethanol/water mixtures. The dependence of DPH photophysical properties (absorption and fluorescence emission) on the water percentage in ethanol indicates that DPH undergoes self-aggregation processes in solvent conditions above a critical water content. Evidence such as an additional absorption band, Beer's law deviation, kinetic behavior, and other experimental results obtained from temperature variation and surfactant addition demonstrated the presence of several types of DPH aggregates. Resonance light scattering measurements proved that the aggregate grew in water-rich media by a self-catalyzed process. PMID:21639981

Gracetto, Augusto C; Tessaro, André L; De Souza, Vagner R; Caetano, Wilker; Pontes, Rodrigo M; Batistela, Vagner R; De Oliveira, Hueder P M; Hioka, Noboru



A microfluidics approach towards high-throughput pathogen removal from blood using margination  

E-print Network

Sepsis is an adverse systemic inflammatory response caused by microbial infection in blood. This paper reports a simple microfluidic approach for intrinsic, non-specific removal of both microbes and inflammatory cellular ...

Hou, Han Wei


Longer blood storage is associated with suboptimal outcomes in high-risk pediatric cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe negative effects of long-term storage of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) on outcomes in adult cardiac surgery have been established, evidence of a similar effect in pediatric cardiac surgery is limited.

Cedric Manlhiot; Brian W. McCrindle; Ines B. Menjak; Hyaemin Yoon; Helen M. Holtby; Leonardo R. Brandao; Anthony K. Chan; Steven M. Schwartz; Ben V. Sivarajan; Lynn Crawford-Lean; Celeste Foreman; Christopher A. Caldarone; Glen S. Van Arsdell; Colleen E. Gruenwald


High-Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging of Blood Flow in the Anterior Segment of the Eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. TO develop a noninvasive technique to visualize and measure blood flow in the iris and ciliary body. METHODS. Echo data from 50-MHz ultrasound scans of the iris and ciliary body of rabbits were digitized using a new \\

Ronald H. Silverman; Dustin E. Kruse; D. Jackson Coleman; Katherine W. Ferrara



Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,

P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes



High speed detection of retinal blood vessels in fundus image using phase congruency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of blood vessels in retinal fundus image is the preliminary step to diagnose several retinal diseases. There exist\\u000a several methods to automatically detect blood vessels from retinal image with the aid of different computational methods.\\u000a However, all these methods require lengthy processing time. The method proposed here acquires binary vessels from a RGB retinal\\u000a fundus image in almost real

M. Ashraful Amin; Hong Yan



Cadmium-induced nephropathy in the development of high blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recognition of a central role of the kidney in long-term blood pressure control, we undertook an in-depth analysis of the relationship between blood pressure and kidney damage caused by environmental exposure to the common pollutants cadmium and lead. The subjects were 200 healthy Thais, 16 and 60 years of age (100 female non-smokers, 53 male non-smokers, and 47 male

Soisungwan Satarug; Muneko Nishijo; Pailin Ujjin; Yuvaree Vanavanitkun; Michael R. Moore



Risk factors for high blood pressure among workers in French poultry slaughterhouses and canneries.  


The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between the working conditions of employees in the food industry and blood pressure. An epidemiological survey was conducted between 1987 and 1988 in 17 poultry slaughterhouses and 6 canneries in the French regions of 'Bretagne' and 'Pays de Loire'. One thousand, four hundred and seventy-four workers were included in the study. Data was collected in the course of the medical visit organized annually for employees. Mean diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were analyzed separately for male and female workers. The results indicate a significant relationship between blood pressure, and age and obesity. Amongst the various features of working condition studies, loud noise and the number of work breaks were found to be associated with heightened mean values of DBP or SBP in men only. Type and size of the factory was found to be associated with blood pressure readings for both sexes. A number of working conditions giving rise to heightened mental strain were found to be related to a lowering in mean blood pressure: for example, irregular work finishing times for men and production-line work for women. A discussion of these results reveals the complexity of the relationships which exist between physical and environmental factors in this type of setting and blood pressure of employees. PMID:7859863

Ledésert, B; Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Bourgine, M; Kaminski, M; Touranchet, A; Verger, C



A Report of High Triglyceride Level in Cord Blood of Iranian Newborns  

PubMed Central

Background: Since cord blood triglyceride level have been reported very different in recent articles, the purpose of this study is determination of triglyceride level in cord blood of Iranian newborns and compare it with other reports. Methods: In this study, cord blood of 174 healthy term newborn infants (97 girls, 77 boys) born from healthy mothers have been used. Triglyceride level has been measured by calorie metric method Statistical analysis was performed by independent t test, Mann-Whitney regression test and Spearman correlation coefficient method using SPSS 16 .0 software (SPSS, USA). Results: The mean of cord blood triglyceride was 1.37 ± 4.81 mg /dl and there was no statistical difference between two sexes. There was not exist linear relationship between triglyceride and weight, height, head circumference, body mass index and sex of the babies. In 8.6% of our new born infants, triglyceride levels were more than 95th percentile of triglyceride level reported in Iranian population. In 33.9% of our cases, triglyceride levels were more than 95th percentile of triglyceride level reported in the Nelson text book of Pediatrics. In this study, the 95th percentile of triglyceride level in cord blood was 132.5 mg /dl. Conclusion: The mean and 95th percentiles of triglyceride levels in cord blood of our newborn infants were higher than other reports. We recommend that larger studies should be conducted in this area to establish preventive ways for increasing epidemic of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24049593

Kazemi, Seyed Ali Naghi; Mousavinasab, Nooreddin; Mellati, Ali Awsat; Sadeghzadeh, Mansour



Fluid-structure Interaction Modeling of Aneurysmal Conditions with High and Normal Blood Pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hemodynamic factors like the wall shear stress play an important role in cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the influence of hemodynamic factors in blood vessels, the authors have developed a numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis technique. The objective is to use numerical simulation as an effective tool to predict phenomena in a living human body. We applied the technique to a patient-specific arterial model, and with that we showed the effect of wall deformation on the WSS distribution. In this paper, we compute the interaction between the blood flow and the arterial wall for a patient-specific cerebral aneurysm with various hemodynamic conditions, such as hypertension. We particularly focus on the effects of hypertensive blood pressure on the interaction and the WSS, because hypertension is reported to be a risk factor in rupture of aneurysms. We also aim to show the possibility of FSI computations with hemodynamic conditions representing those risk factors in cardiovascular disease. The simulations show that the transient behavior of the interaction under hypertensive blood pressure is significantly different from the interaction under normal blood pressure. The transient behavior of the blood-flow velocity, and the resulting WSS and the mechanical stress in the aneurysmal wall, are significantly affected by hypertension. The results imply that hypertension affects the growth of an aneurysm and the damage in arterial tissues.

Torii, Ryo; Oshima, Marie; Kobayashi, Toshio; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.



Identification of 5' AMP-activated kinase as a target of reactive aldehydes during chronic ingestion of high concentrations of ethanol.  


The production of reactive aldehydes including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) is a key component of the pathogenesis in a spectrum of chronic inflammatory hepatic diseases including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). One consequence of ALD is increased oxidative stress and altered ?-oxidation in hepatocytes. A major regulator of ?-oxidation is 5' AMP protein kinase (AMPK). In an in vitro cellular model, we identified AMPK as a direct target of 4-HNE adduction resulting in inhibition of both H2O2 and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR)-induced downstream signaling. By employing biotin hydrazide capture, it was confirmed that 4-HNE treatment of cells resulted in carbonylation of AMPK?/?, which was not observed in untreated cells. Using a murine model of alcoholic liver disease, treatment with high concentrations of ethanol resulted in an increase in phosphorylated as well as carbonylated AMPK?. Despite increased AMPK phosphorylation, there was no significant change in phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase. Mass spectrometry identified Michael addition adducts of 4-HNE on Cys(130), Cys(174), Cys(227), and Cys(304) on recombinant AMPK? and Cys(225) on recombinant AMPK?. Molecular modeling analysis of identified 4-HNE adducts on AMPK? suggest that inhibition of AMPK occurs by steric hindrance of the active site pocket and by inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation. The observed inhibition of AMPK by 4-HNE provides a novel mechanism for altered ?-oxidation in ALD, and these data demonstrate for the first time that AMPK is subject to regulation by reactive aldehydes in vivo. PMID:24722988

Shearn, Colin T; Backos, Donald S; Orlicky, David J; Smathers-McCullough, Rebecca L; Petersen, Dennis R



Determination of Efavirenz in Human Dried Blood Spots by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection  

PubMed Central

Background Previously published methods for determination of efavirenz (EFV) in human dried blood spots (DBS) employ costly and complex liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We describe the validation and evaluation of a simple and inexpensive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for EFV quantification in hum