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1

Behavioral Maintenance of High Concentrations of Blood Ethanol and Physical Dependence in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats maintained on an intermittent food schedule with an available ethanol solution drink to excess (13.1 grams of ethanol per kilogram of body weight, daily). Removal of ethanol produces symptoms of physical dependence including death from tonic-clonic seizures. Overindulgence in oral self-administration of an aqueous ethanol solution, resulting in unequivocal physical dependence, approximates a model of human alcoholism.

John L. Falk; Herman H. Samson; Gail Winger

1972-01-01

2

Effects of sweetened ethanol solutions on ethanol self-administration and blood ethanol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of voluntary self-administration of ethanol by sucrose or saccharin was tested in conjunction with measurements of blood ethanol levels. Adult male rats were given access to both tap water and one of five solutions: 0.125% saccharin, 10% sucrose, ethanol, saccharin+ethanol, or sucrose+ethanol. The rats receiving the sucrose+ethanol solution drank consistently more ethanol (>5 g\\/kg\\/day) than did the rats

Douglas B. Matthews; David H. Overstreet; Amir H. Rezvani; Leslie L. Devaud; A. Leslie Morrow

2001-01-01

3

A new blood-flow pharmacokinetic model for ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicompartmental mathematical model, taking into account observed vascular concentration gradients and blood flow rate limitations, has been proposed. Based on blood flows and blood and tissue volumes reported in the literature and in personal communications, an appropriate model was elaborated for ethanol in the dog. The relatively high values of r2and a correlation coefficient determined for the simultaneous computer

Jay L. Rheingold; Richard E. Lindstrom; Paul K. Wilkinson

1981-01-01

4

Origin of blood ethanol in decomposed bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems related to blood contamination by other postmortem fluids in decomposed bodies (DB) make the interpretation of medicolegal blood alcohol levels (B EtOH) a very difficult task. So the aim of this paper is to show the utilization of vitreous humor (VH) as the biological fluid for an unequivocal determination of ethanol origin in DB for forensic purposes. Alcohol was

Irene Videira de Lima; Antonio F. Midio

1999-01-01

5

Ethanol and blood pressure in rats  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologists have identified alcohol as a risk factor in hypertension. Attempts to increase blood pressure in rats with chronic alcohol ingestion have met with mixed results. Some investigators have reported increases in blood pressure while others have reported decreases. Most investigators have given alcohol in the drinking water which produced differences in food intake across groups. To control for food intake, Wister rats were simultaneously pair fed a liquid diet with either ethanol as 35% of calories or a control diet using ARF/Israel pair-feeding devices. At 5 weeks of age, animals on ethanol diets had lower systolic blood pressure than control animals (145 (n-19) vs. 121 (n-19) mmHg). There was no difference in weight between ethanol and control animals. The same pattern of results was apparent at 7 weeks (143 (n-13) vs. 119 (n-13) mmHg) and 9 weeks (147 (n-7) vs. 124 (n-7)). The data indicate that ethanol produces hypotension in rats when food intake is controlled.

Hatton, D.C.; Edgar, S.; McCarron, D.A. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland (USA))

1989-02-09

6

Blood ethanol concentration profiles: a comparison between rats and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to select an appropriate model system for studies examining the mechanisms of ethanol-induced injury. The most common model systems use either mice or rats with ethanol administered by means of intragastric gavage or intraperitoneal injection, yet few studies have compared directly the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) profiles that result from each of these model systems. In the

Daniel J. Livy; Scott E. Parnell; James R. West

2003-01-01

7

Liver Fat and Plasma Ethanol Are Sharply Lower in Rats Fed Ethanol in Conjunction with High Carbohydrate Compared with High Fat Diets1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of high fat and high carbohydrate diets on alcohol metabolism were studied on blood alcohol and liver fat concentration. In Experiment 1, rats consumed an alcohol-containing liquid diet. Blood was collected for ethanol, glucose and lactate analyses and livers were excised for lipid determination. Blood ethanol and liver fat were lower when rats consumed the high carbohydrate diet.

Hans Fisher; Alycia Halladay; Nagarani Ramasubramaniam; James C. Petrucci; Dennis Dagounis; Anna Sekowski; Joseph V. Martin; George C. Wagner

8

Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with ethanol intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique in 26 healthy volunteers before and 60 minutes after the oral administration of ethyl alcohol or placebo on a double-blind basis. The cerebral blood flow values, corrected for test-retest differences in carbon dioxide showed a significant bilateral increase after ethanol administration. Blood levels of ethanol, estimated with a breath analyser, did not correlate with the CBF changes.

Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.

1986-11-01

9

Intravenous saline has no effect on blood ethanol clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

For patients presenting to emergency departments with ethanol intoxication, intravenous (i.v.) fluids are initiated for varied reasons. This investigation determined the effect of i.v. fluid therapy on the rate of blood ethanol clearance in such patients. Volunteers received a predetermined dose of ethanol on two separate occasions. On the second occasion, volunteers rapidly received a liter of i.v. saline directly

James Li; Trevor Mills; Ray Erato

1999-01-01

10

An allometric model for predicting blood ethanol elimination in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of ethanol elimination kinetics in mammals was estimated using the allometric principle. The hypothesis of relationships between parameters obtained from the compartment model with Michaelis–Menten elimination kinetics and body weight can lead to common equations of blood ethanol elimination in mammals. The maximum elimination velocity (g\\/hr) and the apparent volume of distribution (L) were significantly proportional to the

Hiroshi Matsumoto; Yasushi Minowa; Yoko Nishitani; Yuko Fukui

1999-01-01

11

Blood and liver acetaldehyde concentration in rats following acetaldehyde inhalation and intravenous and intragastric ethanol administration  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a highly reactive product of ethanol oxidation. Ethanol might be blended with gasoline and used as a fuel in the future; biohazard of acetaldehyde inhalation must be discussed. Recent improvements in our ability to measure acetaldehyde levels in blood and various tissues have made the assessment of acetaldehyde's role in alcoholic organ intoxication possible. Blood and liver acetaldehyde concentrations in rats were reported as being linearly correlated following intragastric ethanol administration. Acetaldehyde was administered by inhalation to study its toxicity. However, liver concentrations following the inhalation was not investigated. The present communication describes the relationship between blood and liver acetaldehyde concentrations in rats following acetaldehyde inhalation and different routes of ethanol administration.

Watanabe, A.; Hobara, N.; Nagashima, H.

1986-10-01

12

Blood Concentrations of Acetaldehyde and Ethanol in Chronic Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen adult male alcoholic volunteers were studied before, during, and after a 10- to 15-day period of experimentally induced intoxication. Blood acetaldehyde concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.15 and from 0.04 to 0.08 milligrams per 100 milliliters when blood ethanol concentrations ranged from 1 to 400 milligrams per 100 milliliters after consumption of bourbon or grain ethanol, respectively. No dose

Edward Majchrowicz; Jack H. Mendelson

1970-01-01

13

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)  

MedlinePLUS

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14

Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines  

SciTech Connect

Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

Szybist, J.; Confer, K. (Delphi Automotive Systems)

2011-03-01

15

High Blood Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

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16

The calculation of blood ethanol concentrations in males and females  

Microsoft Academic Search

In German-speaking countries, blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) are usually calculated using Widmark’s equation. The distribution\\u000a factor r of this equation is a correction factor needed to obtain a reduced body mass and corresponds to the ratio of total body water\\u000a and blood water content. To enhance the reliability of Widmark’s model equation, the body weight, body height, blood water\\u000a content

S. Seidl; U. Jensen; A. Alt

2000-01-01

17

Gastric mucosal morphology and faecal blood loss during ethanol ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The faecal blood loss of six alcoholic subjects with normal gastric mucosa, six with superficial gastritis, and six with atrophic gastritis was studied before and during ingestion of 40% v\\/v ethanol using 51Cr-tagged red blood cells. No significant change in faecal blood loss was observed in the normal mucosa and superficial gastritis groups but all subjects with atrophic gastritis had

V. P. Dinoso; H. Meshkinpour; S. H. Lorber

1973-01-01

18

Relationship between postmortem blood and vitreous humor ethanol levels.  

PubMed

The relationship between the blood to vitreous humor ethanol ratios (B/V) and the corresponding urine to blood ethanol ratios (U/B) of 200 postmortem cases were found to be bimodal in nature. Using the U/B ratio of 1.20 as a demarcation below which early absorption prevails, the results in the early absorption phase gave an average B/V ratio of 1.29, a range from 0.71 to 3.71, and a relatively large standard deviation of 0.57, whereas the results in the other phases (late absorption and elimination) gave an average B/V ratio of 0.89, a spread from 0.32 to 1.28, and a standard deviation of 0.19. It would appear that the blood ethanol levels can be estimated using B = 1.29 V for early absorption phase cases and B = 0.89 V for cases in subsequent phases. The former relationship would underestimate the blood ethanol levels in cases of very early absorption phase and the later overestimate the levels of late elimination cases. The ethanol distribution results in cases of fatal road traffic accidents and suicides by falling, in which 69% of the deceased sustained some form of head injury, were found to be similar to those of other postmortem cases. The observations reflect that vitreous humor, being reasonably protected, is likely to survive certain traumatic deaths and be available for postmortem ethanol investigation. The U/B ethanol ratios recorded in this work had an average of 1.29, a range from 0.19 to 5.19, and a standard deviation of 0.48. PMID:8116588

Chao, T C; Lo, D S

1993-12-01

19

High Blood Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

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20

Influence of cause of death and blood ethanol concentration on the coagulability of cadaveric blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-known that cadaveric blood tends to retain their fluidity in acute deaths. However, our experience indicated that blood clots are occasionally seen in such cases, especially with antemortem consumption of ethanol. We reviewed autopsy reports from 2001 to 2006 in our division retrospectively. We made evaluations of blood coagulability based on the descriptions in the autopsy reports, and

Shirushi Takahashi; Jun Sakai; Masaki Hashiyada; Masato Funayama

2009-01-01

21

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  

MedlinePLUS

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22

High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

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23

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Print and Share (PDF 109 KB) En ... Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

24

Effect of ethanol of heart rate and blood pressure in nonstressed and stressed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethanol on the cardiovascular system (ECG, heart rate, blood pressure) was studied in anesthetized, nonstressed or stressed rats. In anesthetized rats, ethanol showed no effect on heart rate or ECG. In nonstressed rats, ethanol sedated the animals but increased heart rate significantly. This ethanol induced tachycardia seemed the result of a direct stimulation of the sympathetic nerves

M. G. Sparrow; H. Roggendorf; W. H. Vogel

1987-01-01

25

High blood pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... body. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are given as two numbers. ... than 120/80 mmHg most of the time. High blood pressure (hypertension) is when your blood pressure is 140/ ...

26

High ethanol tolerance yeast for production of ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The subject of ethanol tolerance in yeasts has been receiving considerable attention as result of renewed interest in ethanol as a fuel source. Fermentation of sugars to ethanol is being studied in our laboratory using a genetically engineered yeast strain 1400. Results are described.

Krishnan, M.S.; Tsao, G.T.; Kasthurikrishnan, N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

27

High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

M. Clark Dale

2006-10-30

28

The determination of ethanol in blood and urine by mass fragmentography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass fragmentographic technique for a rapid, specific and sensitive determination of ethanol in blood and urine is described. A Varian gas chromatograph coupled through an all-glass membrane separator to a Finnigan quadripole mass spectrometer and interfaced to a computer system is used for ethanol determination in blood and urine samples. A procedure for plotting calibration curves for ethanol quantitation is also described. Quantitation is achieved by plotting the peak area ratios of undeuterated-to-deuterated ethanol fragment ions against the amount of ethanol added. Representative results obtained by this technique are included.

Pereira, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Rindfleisch, T. C.; Duffield, A. M.

1974-01-01

29

Acute ethanol treatment induces a bimodal response of phospholipid acylation rates in rat red blood cells  

SciTech Connect

A single intraperitoneal injection of ethanol in rats elicited a bimodal response of acylation rates in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine of intact red blood cells. Within an initial period, ethanol inhibited acylation rates. The inhibition then reversed, leading to increased values which persisted as long as ethanol was present in plasma. Acylation rates were not correlated to ethanol concentrations in plasma. The authors suggest that red cells first desensitize to, then overcompensate for the inhibitory effect of ethanol on acylation reactions. These adaptive changes may be one of the events mediating membrane tolerance to ethanol.

Verine, A.; Valette, A.; Richard, D.; Boyer, J. (INSERM, Marseille (France))

1991-01-01

30

High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)  

MedlinePLUS

... tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, such as bone mineral density, ultrasound, or other types of scans. How is HigH blood calcium treated? ...

31

Effect of ethanol of heart rate and blood pressure in nonstressed and stressed rats  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ethanol on the cardiovascular system (ECG, heart rate, blood pressure) was studied in anesthetized, nonstressed or stressed rats. In anesthetized rats, ethanol showed no effect on heart rate or ECG. In nonstressed rats, ethanol sedated the animals but increased heart rate significantly. This ethanol induced tachycardia seemed the result of a direct stimulation of the sympathetic nerves to the heart. Blood pressure was not significantly affected by ethanol in these nonstressed rats. In stressed rats, marked behavioral excitation and significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure were noted. Ethanol pretreatment calmed the animals considerably during restraint. Ethanol did reduce slightly the stress-induced tachycardia but markedly reduced or antagonized stress-induced blood pressure increases. No major changes in the ECG were noted during these studies with the exception of a few individual animals which showed pathologic ECG responses to ethanol. These data show that ethanol affects cardiovascular functions differently in anesthetized, non stressed or stressed rats, and that ethanol can significantly reduce or antagonize stress-induced behavioral excitation, tachycardia and hypertension. 32 references, 4 tables.

Sparrow, M.G.; Roggendorf, H.; Vogel, W.H.

1987-06-29

32

High blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

33

Blood ethanol levels and adenylyl cyclase activity in lymphocytes of alcoholic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The adenylyl cyclase (AC) signal transduction pathway is a target of acute and chronic ethanol actions. This study examined whether AC activity in lymphocyte membranes of male alcoholic patients correlated with blood concentrations of ethanol.Methods: Patients (n = 13; mean age: 40 ± 8 years) were studied on the day of admission (day 0) and 2 days later under

Thorsten Pauly; Norbert Dahmen; Armin Szegedi; Hermann Wetzel; Gaby-Fleur Böl; Kirsten Ferdinand; Christoph Hiemke

1999-01-01

34

High Blood Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside: High Blood PressureThis booklet explains what health professionals know about high blood pressure or hypertension, one of the leading causes of heart disease and stroke. It shows how to prevent high blood pressure, as well as how to care for yourself if you have been diagnosed with the disease. The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2004-01-01

35

High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... blood pressure tests and other chronic disease screening. Web Sites with More Information About High Blood Pressure ...

36

Pregnancy and High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Pregnancy and High Blood Pressure HealthDay January 29, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Transcript Does keeping tight control of blood pressure ...

37

High Blood Pressure and Women  

MedlinePLUS

High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people mistakenly believe that high blood pressure, also called HBP or ... last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

38

Process engineering of high-ethanol-tolerance yeast for the manufacture of ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Inhibitory effects of ethanol and glucose on a high-ethanol-tolerance yeast strain (fusion product of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces uvarum) having high osmotic and ethanol tolerance were studied in batch cultures. A model incorporating both substrate and product inhibition was developed that represented the experimental data quite well. By performing fed-batch fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 13.3% (w/v) was obtained. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration for cell growth was predicted to be 129.9 g/L and ethanol-producing capability of cells was found to be completely inhibited at 136.4 g/L. On-line monitoring of the fermentation was performed using an ion trap mass spectrometer and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Preliminary results are reported.

Krishnan, M.S.; Xia, Y.; Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

39

High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart ... it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the ...

40

Controlling your high blood pressure  

MedlinePLUS

Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure, kidney disease, and early death. You are more likely to have high ...

41

Progress in a Replicated Selection for Elevated Blood Ethanol Concentrations in HDID Mice  

PubMed Central

Drinking in the Dark (DID) is a limited access ethanol drinking phenotype in mice. High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice have been bred for 27 selected generations (S27) for elevated blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after a 4 hr period of access to 20% ethanol. A second replicate line (HDID-2) was started later from the same founder population and is currently in S20. An initial report of response to selection in HDID-1 was published after S11. This paper reports genetic and behavioral characteristics of both lines in comparison with the HS controls. Heritability is low in both replicates (h2 = 0.09) but the lines have shown 4-5 fold increases in BEC since S0; 80% of HDID-1 and 60% of HDID-2 mice reach BECs greater than 1.0 mg/ml. Several hours after a DID test, HDID mice show mild signs of withdrawal. Although not considered during selection, intake of ethanol (g/kg) during the DID test increased by approximately 80% in HDID-1 and 60% in HDID-2. Common genetic influences were more important than environmental influences in determining the similarity between BEC and intake for HDID mice. Analysis of the partitioning of intake showed that 60% of intake is concentrated in the last 2 hr of the 4 hr session. However, this has not changed during selection. Hourly BECs during the DID test reach peak levels after 3 or 4 hr of drinking. HDID mice do not differ from HS mice in their rate of elimination of an acute dose of alcohol. PMID:24219304

Crabbe, John C.; Metten, Pamela; Belknap, John K.; Spence, Stephanie E.; Cameron, Andy J.; Schlumbohm, Jason P.; Huang, Lawrence C.; Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Ford, Matthew M.; Phillips, Tamara J.

2013-01-01

42

Fasting and nonfasting blood ethanol concentrations following repeated oral administration of ethanol to one adult male subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole capillary blood ethanol concentrations following the oral administration of a 30-ml dose of absolute alcohol (0.32 g\\/kg absolute alcohol) and 45-ml doses of 95% alcohol (0.45 g\\/kg absolute alcohol) under varying test meal conditions to an adult male volunteer were measured. Ten different test conditions were two fasting (30 ml and 45 ml), three liquid test meals (45 ml),

Paul K. Wilkinson; Allen J. Sedman; Ermelinda Sakmar; Yi-Jong Lin; John G. Wagner

1977-01-01

43

Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood glow: Role of adenosine  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism by which ethanol induces an increase in portal vein blood flow was studied in rats using radiolabeled microspheres. Ethanol by gavage resulted in an increase of 50-70% in portal vein blood flow. The ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker 8-phenyltheophylline. By itself, 8-phenyltheophylline was without effect on cardiac output or portal blood flow. Adenosine infusion resulted in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This adenosine-induced increase in portal blood flow was inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline in a dose-dependent manner. Both alcohol and adenosine significantly reduced preportal vascular resistance by 40% and 60%, respectively. These effects were fully suppressed by 8-phenyltheophylline. It is concluded that adenosine is a likely candidate to mediate the ethanol-induced increase in portal vein blood flow. It is suggested that an increase in circulating acetate and liver hypoxia may mediate the effects of alcohol by increasing tissue and interstitial adenosine levels.

Orrego, H.; Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Giles, H.G.; Sandrin, S.; Israel, Y. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1988-04-01

44

Medications for High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

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45

Time-Dependent Effects of Acute Ethanol Administration on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the role of the postinjection interval in determining the functional consequences of acute ethanol administration in the CNS. Regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) was determined by the [14C]iodoantipyrine method in 33 brain structures of ethanol-naive Sprague–Dawley rats. In the first experiment, changes in RCBF were assessed 5 and 15 min after a 0.8 g\\/kg (IP) dose

David Lyons; Mack D. Miller; Ashlee A. Hedgecock-Rowe; Alison M. Crane; Linda J. Porrino

1998-01-01

46

False-positive ethanol blood concentrations leading to clinical confusion on Christmas Day.  

PubMed

A case of altered consciousness in which ethanol ingestion was one of the differential diagnoses is described. Three separate blood samples were conveyed to the hospital biochemistry laboratory and each returned a positive value when assayed via an indirect, enzymatic method. The family strongly denied alcohol ingestion and hence, a few days later, the samples were conveyed to an external laboratory using a 'specific', chromatographic method. These samples were all reported as negative for ethanol. Alternative causes of altered consciousness were restricted by the false-positive ethanol laboratory results. PMID:21854765

Jones, Terry E

2011-11-01

47

Preventive effect of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on blood ethanol elevation in ethanol-loaded rat: Structure requirement and suppression of gastric emptying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic extract from the leaves of Laurus nobilis (bay leaf, laurel) potently inhibited the elevation of blood ethanol level in ethanol-loaded rat. Through bioassay-guided separation, costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, and santamarine were isolated as the active constituents and the ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone structure was found to be essential for the preventive effect on ethanol absorption. In addition, the retardation of gastric emptying

Hisashi Matsuda; Hiroshi Shimoda; Toshiaki Uemura; Masayuki Yoshikawa

1999-01-01

48

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOEpatents

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

1983-01-01

49

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOEpatents

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

1983-05-24

50

Elevated blood ethanol levels caused by ‘non-alcoholic’ beer  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of non-alcoholic beer, many patients are substituting non-alcoholic beer for regular beer. Moreover, several clinicians advocate the use of non-alcoholic beer by alcoholics when there is a possibility of relapse. However, patients with alcoholic end-stage liver disease can accumulate substantial circulating ethanol levels even when they consume non-alcoholic beer. We present a case of a patient with

Andrea F DiMartini; Kalipatnapu N Rao

1999-01-01

51

High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

52

High Blood Pressure: Using an Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version High Blood Pressure | Using an Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor What is an ambulatory blood pressure monitor? An ambulatory blood pressure monitor is a small machine, about ...

53

Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)  

MedlinePLUS

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54

High Blood Pressure Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... help your body get rid of extra sodium (salt) and water so your blood vessels don't have to hold so much fluid. Renin inhibitors slow down your body’s production of renin, the enzyme that starts the many chemical reactions that raise your blood pressure. Do these medicines ...

55

Microarray characterization of gene expression changes in blood during acute ethanol exposure  

PubMed Central

Background As part of the civil aviation safety program to define the adverse effects of ethanol on flying performance, we performed a DNA microarray analysis of human whole blood samples from a five-time point study of subjects administered ethanol orally, followed by breathalyzer analysis, to monitor blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to discover significant gene expression changes in response to the ethanol exposure. Methods Subjects were administered either orange juice or orange juice with ethanol. Blood samples were taken based on BAC and total RNA was isolated from PaxGene™ blood tubes. The amplified cDNA was used in microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses to evaluate differential gene expression. Microarray data was analyzed in a pipeline fashion to summarize and normalize and the results evaluated for relative expression across time points with multiple methods. Candidate genes showing distinctive expression patterns in response to ethanol were clustered by pattern and further analyzed for related function, pathway membership and common transcription factor binding within and across clusters. RT-qPCR was used with representative genes to confirm relative transcript levels across time to those detected in microarrays. Results Microarray analysis of samples representing 0%, 0.04%, 0.08%, return to 0.04%, and 0.02% wt/vol BAC showed that changes in gene expression could be detected across the time course. The expression changes were verified by qRT-PCR. The candidate genes of interest (GOI) identified from the microarray analysis and clustered by expression pattern across the five BAC points showed seven coordinately expressed groups. Analysis showed function-based networks, shared transcription factor binding sites and signaling pathways for members of the clusters. These include hematological functions, innate immunity and inflammation functions, metabolic functions expected of ethanol metabolism, and pancreatic and hepatic function. Five of the seven clusters showed links to the p38 MAPK pathway. Conclusions The results of this study provide a first look at changing gene expression patterns in human blood during an acute rise in blood ethanol concentration and its depletion because of metabolism and excretion, and demonstrate that it is possible to detect changes in gene expression using total RNA isolated from whole blood. The analysis approach for this study serves as a workflow to investigate the biology linked to expression changes across a time course and from these changes, to identify target genes that could serve as biomarkers linked to pilot performance. PMID:23883607

2013-01-01

56

When Blood Sugar is Too High  

MedlinePLUS

... balancing act. Continue The Causes of High Blood Sugar In general, higher than normal blood glucose levels ... in your diabetes treatment plan. Signs That Blood Sugar Levels Are High People with high blood sugar ...

57

High blood pressure and diet  

MedlinePLUS

... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ... meal plan. Ask your doctor what your blood pressure target is. ... limit foods that are high in saturated fat (more than 20% of the ...

58

Comparison of spectroscopically measured finger and forearm tissue ethanol concentration to blood and breath ethanol measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous works investigated a spectroscopic technique that offered a promising alternative to blood and breath assays for determining in vivo alcohol concentration. Although these prior works measured the dorsal forearm, we report the results of a 26-subject clinical study designed to evaluate the spectroscopic technique at a finger measurement site through comparison to contemporaneous forearm spectroscopic, venous blood, and breath measurements. Through both Monte Carlo simulation and experimental data, it is shown that tissue optical probe design has a substantial impact on the effective path-length of photons through the skin and the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectroscopic measurements. Comparison of the breath, blood, and tissue assays demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration that are attributable to both assay accuracy and alcohol pharmacokinetics. Similar to past works, a first order kinetic model is used to estimate the fraction of concentration variance explained by alcohol pharmacokinetics (72.6-86.7%). A significant outcome of this work was significantly improved pharmacokinetic agreement with breath (arterial) alcohol of the finger measurement (mean kArt-Fin = 0.111 min-1) relative to the forearm measurement (mean kArt-For = 0.019 min-1) that is likely due to the increased blood perfusion of the finger.

Ridder, Trent D.; Hull, Edward L.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

2011-02-01

59

Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models.  

PubMed

To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX) receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573) on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P) rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark) model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting non-specific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting non-specific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol consumption. PMID:24616657

Anderson, Rachel I; Becker, Howard C; Adams, Benjamin L; Jesudason, Cynthia D; Rorick-Kehn, Linda M

2014-01-01

60

What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol ... fats) raise your LDL cholesterol and lower your high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Trans fats are made ...

61

High blood pressure and eye disease  

MedlinePLUS

Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina from high blood pressure. The retina is the layer of tissue at ... High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it ...

62

Ethanol drinking microstructure of a High Drinking in the Dark selected mouse line  

PubMed Central

Background The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) selected mouse line was bred for high blood ethanol concentration (BEC) following the limited access Drinking in the Dark (DID) test and is a genetic animal model of binge-like drinking. The present study examines the microstructure of ethanol drinking in these mice and their control line during three versions of the DID test to determine how drinking structure differences might relate to overall intake and BEC. Methods Male mice from the HDID-1 replicate line and HS/Npt progenitor stock were tested in separate experiments on 2- and 4-day versions of the DID test, and on a 2-day two-bottle choice DID test with 20% ethanol and water. Testing took place in home cages connected to a continuous fluid intake monitoring system (BioDAQ) and drinking during the DID test was analyzed for drinking microstructure. Results HDID-1 mice had more drinking bouts, shorter interbout interval, larger bout size, greater total ethanol intake, and higher BECs than HS/Npt mice on the 2nd day of the 2-day DID test. The 4-day DID test showed greater bout size, total ethanol intake, and BEC in the HDID-1 mice than the HS/Npt mice. Total ethanol intake and BECs for the HDID-1 mice in the DID tests averaged 2.6-3.0 g/kg and 0.4-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The two-bottle choice test showed no genotype differences in drinking microstructure or total consumption, but did show greater preference for the ethanol solution in HDID-1 mice than HS/Npt. Conclusions These results suggest that inherent differences in ethanol drinking structure between the HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice, especially the larger bout size in the HDID-1 mice, contribute to the difference in intake during the standard DID test. PMID:22524154

Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

2012-01-01

63

Psoriasis and High Blood Pressure  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic skin ailment which can be connected with an increased occurrence of other illnesses, including high blood pressure. Examinees and methods: A prospective study has been conducted which included 70 patients affected by psoriasis, both genders, older than 18 years. Average age being 47,14 (SD= ±15,41) years, from that there were 36 men or 51,43 and 34 women or 48,57%. Average duration of psoriasis was 15,52 (SD=±12,54) years. Results: Frequency of high blood pressure in those affected by psoriasis was 54,28%. Average age of the patients with psoriasis and high blood pressure was 53,79 year (SD=±14,15) and average duration of psoriasis was 17,19 years (SD=±13,51). Average values of PASI score were 16,65. Increase in values of PASI score and high blood pressure were statistically highly related (r=0,36, p=0,0001). Conclusion: Psoriasis was related to high blood pressure and there was a correlation between the severity of psoriasis and high blood pressure.

Salihbegovic, Eldina Malkic; Hadzigrahic, Nermina; Suljagic, Edin; Kurtalic, Nermina; Sadic, Sena; Zejcirovic, Alema; Mujacic, Almina

2015-01-01

64

Retrobulbar blood flow and visual field alterations after acute ethanol ingestion  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ethyl alcohol on the koniocellular and magnocellular pathway of visual function and to investigate the relationship between such visual field changes and retrobulbar blood flow in healthy subjects. Methods In 12 healthy subjects (mean age 32 ± 4 years), color Doppler imaging, short-wavelength automated perimetry, and frequency doubling perimetry was performed before and 60 minutes after oral intake of 80 mL of 40 vol% ethanol. Mean and pattern standard deviations for short-wavelength automated and frequency doubling perimetry were assessed. End diastolic velocity (EDV) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using color Doppler imaging. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, intraocular pressure, and blood alcohol concentration were determined. Results Mean PSV and EDV in the central retinal artery showed a significant increase after alcohol intake (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). Similarly, we found a significant acceleration of blood flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery (P = 0.02 for PSV; P = 0.04 for EDV). Mean intraocular pressure decreased by 1.0 mmHg after alcohol ingestion (P = 0.01). Retinal sensitivity in short-wavelength automated perimetry did not alter, whereas in frequency doubling perimetry, the mean deviation decreased significantly. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly. Mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.38 ± 0.16 g/L. Conclusion Although ethanol is known to cause peripheral vasodilation, our subjects had no significant drop in systemic blood pressure. However, a significant increase of blood flow velocity was seen in the retrobulbar vessels. Regarding visual function, moderate alcohol consumption led to reduced performance in the magnocellular visual system tested by frequency doubling perimetry, but had no effect on short-wavelength automated perimetry. PMID:23990703

Weber, Anke; Remky, Andreas; Bienert, Marion; der Velden, Klaudia Huber-van; Kirschkamp, Thomas; Rennings, Corinna; Roessler, Gernot; Plange, Niklas

2013-01-01

65

Behavioral Disinhibition in Mice Bred for High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) and HS Controls Increases Following Ethanol  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol consumption and behavioral inhibition share some common underlying genetic mechanisms. The current study examined whether lines of mice selected for high blood ethanol concentrations, attained by heavy drinking in the dark period (DID) of the light-dark cycle that models binge drinking, also exhibit higher levels of drug-naïve inhibition. It also examined whether the administration of ethanol would result in higher levels of disinhibition in these selected lines compared to the founder stock (HS). Methods A Go/No-Go task was used to assess baseline inhibition and the effects of acute ethanol on disinhibition (response to a No-Go cue) in the HS line and in mice selected for high levels of DID (HDID-1 and HDID-2). Results Lines did not differ in inhibition at baseline and all lines showed increased disinhibition following moderate doses of ethanol. Ethanol decreased responding to Go cues for HDID-2 and HS lines at high doses but not HDID-1 mice. Conclusions These data corroborate previous work showing ethanol-induced increases in behavioral disinhibition. The selection paradigm did not result in differential sensitivity to the disinhibiting effects of ethanol, but did result in differential sensitivity to the suppressant effects of ethanol on operant behavior between the two HDID lines. PMID:24485881

Tipps, Megan E.; Moschak, Travis M.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

2014-01-01

66

Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

67

Effects of concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations and repeated deprivations on alcohol intake of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats.  

PubMed

High-alcohol-drinking rats, given access to 10% ethanol, expressed an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) only after multiple deprivations. In alcohol-preferring (P) rats, concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations combined with repeated cycles of EtOH access and deprivation produced excessive ethanol drinking. The current study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated alcohol deprivations with concurrent access to multiple concentrations of ethanol on ethanol intake of HAD replicate lines of rats. HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats received access to 10, 20 and 30% (v/v) ethanol for 6 weeks. Rats from each replicate line were assigned to: (1) a non-deprived group; (2) a group initially deprived of ethanol for 2 weeks; or (3) a group initially deprived for 8 weeks. Following the restoration of the ethanol solutions, cycle of 2 weeks of ethanol exposure and 2 weeks of alcohol deprivation was repeated three times for a total of four deprivations. Following the initial ethanol deprivation period, deprived groups significantly increased ethanol intakes during the initial 24-hour re-exposure period. Multiple deprivations increased ethanol intakes, shifted preference to higher ethanol concentrations and prolonged the duration of the elevated ethanol intakes for up to 5 days. In addition, repeated deprivations increased ethanol intake in the first 2-hour re-exposure period as high as 5-7 g/kg (which are equivalent to amounts consumed in 24 hours by HAD rats), and produced blood ethanol levels in excess of 150 mg%. The results indicate that HAD rats exhibit 'loss-of-control' of alcohol drinking with repeated deprivations when multiple ethanol concentrations are available. PMID:19076927

Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Kuc, Kelly A; Murphy, James M; Lumeng, Lawrence; McBride, William J

2009-04-01

68

Interaction of ethanol and microwaves on the blood-brain barrier of rats  

SciTech Connect

The combined effects of ethanol and microwaves on the permeation of Evans blue dye through the mammalian blood-brain barrier was studied in male Wistar rats. Anesthetized rats were infused through a cannula in the left femoral vein with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 or 0.7 grams of absolute ethanol per kilogram of body mass. A control group was given 0.7 g/kg of isotonic saline. The left hemisphere of the brain was irradiated by 3.15-GHz microwave energy at 3.0 W/cm2 rms for 15 min. The rat's rectal temperature was maintained at 37.0 degrees C. Immediately after irradiation, 2% Evans blue dye in saline (2.0 ml/kg body mass) was injected through the cannula. The results show that as the quantity of alcohol was increased, the degree of staining was decreased or eliminated. The temperature of the irradiated area of the brain increased for the first 4 to 5 minutes of irradiation and then stabilized for the remainder of the irradiation period. The steady-state temperature was highest in animals receiving saline or the smallest dose of alcohol. As the quantity of alcohol was increased, the steady-state temperature was reduced. These results indicate that ethanol inhibits microwave-induced permeation of the blood-brain barrier through reduced heating of the brain.

Neilly, J.P.; Lin, J.C.

1986-01-01

69

Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the blood vessel walls each time the heart contracts ( ... of developing hypertension in the future. • What is high blood pressure? • What is chronic hypertension? • What is gestational hypertension? • ...

70

Comparative Polygenic Analysis of Maximal Ethanol Accumulation Capacity and Tolerance to High Ethanol Levels of Cell Proliferation in Yeast  

PubMed Central

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ?17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ?17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance. PMID:23754966

Pais, Thiago M.; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Françoise; Thevelein, Johan M.

2013-01-01

71

Dose-response study of sajabalssuk ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini on blood glucose in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or mild type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Previously we reported that an ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini lowered blood glucose in db/db mice. Here we report a preliminary study in which the blood glucose-lowering effects of two different doses of sajabalssuk ethanol extract (SBE), containing eupatilin and jaseocidin, were examined in hyperglycemic subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels of 100-150?mg/dL. Subjects were randomized into four groups: negative control (2,000?mg of lactose /day), positive control (1,140?mg of pinitol/day), low-dose SBE (2,000?mg of SBE/day), and high-dose SBE (4,000?mg of SBE/day). After 8 weeks of supplementation, FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were significantly lowered in low-and high-dose SBE groups compared to the baseline values; high-dose SBE also resulted in significantly lower plasma free fatty acid levels and systolic blood pressure. This study demonstrated that supplementation of 2?g or 4?g of SBE daily can significantly reduce blood glucose in hyperglycemic subjects, although high-dose SBE seemed to be more effective than low-dose SBE for lowering plasma free fatty acid level and systolic blood pressure. PMID:21138376

Choi, Ji-Young; Shin, Su-Kyung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Kyung Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

2011-01-01

72

Purification of ethanol for highly sensitive self-assembly experiments  

PubMed Central

Summary Ethanol is the preferred solvent for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolates on gold. By applying a thin film sensor system, we could demonstrate that even the best commercial qualities of ethanol contain surface-active contaminants, which can compete with the desired thiolates for surface sites. Here we present that gold nanoparticles deposited onto zeolite X can be used to remove these contaminants by chemisorption. This nanoparticle-impregnated zeolite does not only show high capacities for surface-active contaminants, such as thiols, but can be fully regenerated via a simple pyrolysis protocol. PMID:25161861

Barbe, Kathrin; Kind, Martin; Pfeiffer, Christian

2014-01-01

73

Stroke and High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... hurts the brain's ability to think and control body functions. Strokes can affect language, memory and vision as well as cause paralysis and other health issues. How does high blood pressure cause a stroke? ... can damage arteries throughout the body. Weakened arteries in the brain put you at ...

74

High Blood Sugar (in Type 1 Diabetes)  

MedlinePLUS

... Child or Teen Live with Type 1 Diabetes Insulin Delivery Methods Effects of Exercise, Illness, Stress, and Growth on Blood Sugar Levels What is Glucagon? Checking Blood Sugar Levels High Blood Sugar Low ...

75

40 CFR 1065.725 - High-level ethanol-gasoline blends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. 1065.725 Section...Standards § 1065.725 High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. For testing vehicles capable of operating on a high-level ethanol-gasoline blend, create a test...

2014-07-01

76

High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Pressure and Kidney Disease High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease On this page: What is high blood ...

77

Mate Tea Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Blood and Hippocampus of Rats with Acute or Chronic Ethanol Administration  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic intake of mate tea on the effects elicited by acute and chronic administration of ethanol. Methods. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus and blood of rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups, for both acute and chronic treatment: (1) control group, (2) treated group, (3) intoxicated group, (4) and intoxicated group treated with mate tea. Results. Both ethanol administrations significantly increased TBARS in plasma and hippocampus of rats and altered antioxidant enzyme activities, changes which were reverted by mate tea administration. Conclusions. Data indicate that acute and chronic ethanol administration induced oxidative stress in hippocampus and blood and that mate tea treatment was able to prevent this situation. PMID:22530075

Scolaro, Bianca; Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; da Cruz, José Geraldo Pereira; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora

2012-01-01

78

American Heart Month National High Blood  

E-print Network

FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National for Heart Health # P2-2 Risk Factors - High Blood Pressure # P2-3 Sodium is needed to. . . # P2-4 Sources Recommendations Handouts # Newsletter - Prevent High Blood Pressure - Vol. 1 No. 2 # Newsletter -¡Prevenga la alta

79

ENHANCED RATE OF ETHANOL ELIMINATION FROM BLOOD AFTER INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF AMINO ACIDS COMPARED WITH EQUICALORIC GLUCOSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate the effect of an amino acid mixture given intravenously (i.v.) on the rate of ethanol elimination from blood compared with equicaloric glucose and Ringer's acetate as control treatments. Methods: In a randomized cross-over study, six healthy men (mean age 23 years) fasted overnight before receiving either Ringer's acetate, glucose or the amino acid mixture (Vamin 18 g

BJORN LISANDER; OLLE LUNDVALL; JENS TOMNER; ALAN W. JONES

2006-01-01

80

Effect of ethanol on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism (CMRO2) in conscious sheep  

SciTech Connect

A moderate dose of ethanol severely depresses CBF and CMRO2 in the awake sheep fetus. However, the effects of ethanol on CBF and CMRO2 in the adult are unclear. The same dose of ethanol was infused for 2 hr in 5 ewes instrumented with aortic, left ventricular and sagittal sinus catheters. Ethanol caused ataxia accompanied by early modest and variable increases of total and regional CBF and CMRO2, followed by later modest and variable decreases of total and regional CBF (cerebellum) and CMRO2. Ethanol caused a cerebral transcapillary fluid shift as indicated by significant increases of the arterial-cerebral venous differences for hematocrit and hemoglobin. Brain wet-dry ratios increased by 10% above control levels. However, cerebral venous pressures were unchanged. The authors conclude that the adult cerebral response to ethanol differs quantitatively from that of the fetus. The functional significance of the cerebral fluid shift is unclear.

Krasney, J.A.; Zubkov, B.; Iwamoto, J. (Univ. of Buffalo, NY (United States))

1991-03-11

81

Potassium and High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

A diet that includes natural sources of potassium is important in controlling blood pressure because potassium lessens the effects of sodium. The recommended daily intake of potassium for an average adult ...

82

Tolerance to effects of high doses of ethanol: 1. Lethal effects in mice.  

PubMed

Male Swiss Webster mice were injected with ethanol doses ranging from 6.5-10.5 g/kg (20% w/v, IP). Survival time distribution revealed three waves of deaths with peaks around 5 min, 300 min, and 33 h. There were two windows with very low density of probability of death between 30-130 min and between 22-25 h following lethal injections. This time structure of the probability density function did not significantly depend upon ethanol overdose, novelty of the experimental environment, or prior injections of saline and/or 3.5 g/kg ethanol. Injections of high doses of ethanol in BALB/c mice showed that this strain of mice was more sensitive to ethanol-induced lethality (LD50 = 6.6 g/kg) and over 99% of deaths occurred between 5-200 min following injections of the doses from 5.5-7.5 g/kg. Preexposure to ethanol increased tolerance to ethanol-induced lethality. LD50 increased from 8.1 g/kg (at 24 h following lethal injections in ethanol-naive Swiss Webster mice) to 8.5 and 9.0 g/kg in mice following four and eight injections of 3.5 g/kg ethanol, respectively. In BALB/c mice, eight prior injections of 3.5 g/kg ethanol increased LD50 also slightly but significantly to 7.15 g/kg. The results suggest that: a) Ethanol-induced lethality is not a unitary phenomenon and that deaths that occurred within distinct waves probably have different causes; b) mice strains have different susceptibility to different causes of ethanol-induced deaths; c) preexposure to 3.5 g/kg ethanol results in significant but small increase in tolerance to ethanol-induced lethality. PMID:8327553

Tsibulsky, V L; Amit, Z

1993-06-01

83

Blood alcohol concentration for monitoring ethanol treatment to prevent alcohol withdrawal in the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a serious complication during postoperative treatment in chronic alcoholics. Despite prophylactic treatment, AWS occurs in at least 25% of these patients after elective surgery. An established protocol for the prevention of AWS is ethanol administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in ethanol dose and levels between successfully treated patients

Verena Eggers; Joke Tio; Tim Neumann; Fritz Pragst; Christian Müller; Lutz G. Schmidt; Wolfgang J. Kox; Claudia D. Spies

2002-01-01

84

Determination of endogenous ethanol in blood and breath by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We describe methods for the determination of endogenous ethanol in biological specimens from healthy abstaining subjects. The analytical methods were headspace gas chromatography (GC) for plasma samples and gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC/MS) with deuterium labelled species 2H3-ethanol and 2H5-ethanol as internal standards for breath analysis. Ethanol in rebreathed air was about 10% higher than in directly analysed end-expired alveolar air. Known volumes of rebreathed air were passed through a liquid-N2 freeze trap and the volatile constituents of breath were concentrated prior to analysis by GC or GC/MS. Besides endogenous ethanol, peaks were seen on the chromatograms for methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde as well as several as yet unidentified substances. The endogenous alcohols ethanol and methanol were confirmed from their mass chromatograms and the GC/MS profile also indicated the presence of endogenous propan-1-ol. The concentration of endogenous ethanol in plasma showed wide inter-subject variations ranging from below detection limits to 1.6 micrograms/ml (34.8 mumol/l) and with mean +/- SD of 0.39 +/- 0.45 micrograms/ml (8.5 +/- 9.8 mumol/l). We aim to characterise further the role of endogenous ethanol with the main focus on dynamic aspects such as the rate of formation and turnover. PMID:6634839

Jones, A W; Mårdh, G; Anggård, E

1983-01-01

85

Highly efficient prion transmission by blood transfusion.  

PubMed

It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely on infectious titers measured in rodent models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) using intra-cerebral (IC) inoculation of blood components. To address the biological relevance of this approach, we compared the efficiency of TSE transmission by blood and blood components when administrated either through transfusion in sheep or by intra-cerebral inoculation (IC) in transgenic mice (tg338) over-expressing ovine PrP. Transfusion of 200 µL of blood from asymptomatic infected donor sheep transmitted prion disease with 100% efficiency thereby displaying greater virulence than the transfusion of 200 mL of normal blood spiked with brain homogenate material containing 10³ID?? as measured by intracerebral inoculation of tg338 mice (ID?? IC in tg338). This was consistent with a whole blood titer greater than 10³·?ID?? IC in tg338 per mL. However, when the same blood samples were assayed by IC inoculation into tg338 the infectious titers were less than 32 ID per mL. Whereas the transfusion of crude plasma to sheep transmitted the disease with limited efficacy, White Blood Cells (WBC) displayed a similar ability to whole blood to infect recipients. Strikingly, fixation of WBC with paraformaldehyde did not affect the infectivity titer as measured in tg338 but dramatically impaired disease transmission by transfusion in sheep. These results demonstrate that TSE transmission by blood transfusion can be highly efficient and that this efficiency is more dependent on the viability of transfused cells than the level of infectivity measured by IC inoculation. PMID:22737075

Andréoletti, Olivier; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Corbière, Fabien; Lugan, Séverine; Costes, Pierrette; Schelcher, François; Vilette, Didier; Grassi, Jacques; Lacroux, Caroline

2012-01-01

86

Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3?H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6?% higher ethanol concentration and a 17?% higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic fermentation performance for sustainable bio-ethanol production. PMID:22839110

2012-01-01

87

Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes Type 1 35132 Keep On Track Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar Dangers of High and Low ... urge to eat more frequently Blurred vision In type 1 diabetes, hyperglycemia occurs when you don't take enough ...

88

Metabolism of palmitate in perfused rat liver. Effect of ethanol in livers from rats fed on a high-fat diet with or without ethanol  

PubMed Central

1. Rats were treated for 4 weeks with liquid diets that contained, on the basis of energy content, 35% fat, 18% protein and 47% carbohydrate (high-fat diet) or 35% fat, 18% protein, 11% carbohydrate and 36% ethanol (high-fat/ethanol diet). 2. The livers were perfused with 1mm-[1-14C]palmitate and with 0, 10mm- or 80mm-ethanol. The oxidation and esterification of palmitate was measured. Two subcellular pools of triacylglycerol were separated; one contained triacylglycerol from cytoplasmic lipid droplets and the other contained triacylglycerol from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. 3. In the presence of ethanol, liver from rats fed on the high-fat diet esterified about 70% of the [1-14C]palmitate taken up compared with 90% in liver from rats fed chow (containing 11% fat on the basis of energy content). Compared with chow diet the high-fat diet did not potentiate the effect of ethanol on storage of [1-14C]palmitate in hepatic triacylglycerol. The relation between the fat content of the diet and the degree of fatty liver induced by by ethanol [Lieber & DeCarli (1970) Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 23, 474–478] is discussed. 4. The ethanol-containing diet increased the hepatic content of triacylglycerol 4-fold and the increase was exclusively found in the fraction suggested to contain lipid from cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The ethanol-induced fatty liver, perfused with ethanol, esterified and oxidized palmitate at rates that were quite similar to the rates found in high-fat control livers perfused without ethanol. This suggests that the fatty liver had adapted to the presence of ethanol with respect to palmitate metabolism. 5. O2 and ethanol uptake by the livers were not affected by the ethanol-containing diet. PMID:534523

Kondrup, Jens; Lundquist, Frank; Damgaard, Stig E.

1979-01-01

89

Comparative evaluation of ethanol production by xylose-fermenting yeasts presented high xylose concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three strains ofPichiastipitis and three ofCandidashehatae were compared withPachysolentannophilus in their abilities to ferment xylose at concentrations as high as 200 g\\/L when subjected to both aerobic and microaerophilic conditions. Evaluations based on accumulated ethanol concentrations, ethanol productivities, xylose consumption, and ethanol and xylitol yields were determined from batch culture time courses. Of the strains considered,P.stipitis NRRL Y-7124 seemed

P. J. Slininger; R. J. Bothast; M. R. Okos; M. R. Ladisch

1985-01-01

90

Rise of inhaled toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene, or mesitylene in rat blood after treatment with ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene, and mesitylene (1,3,5-methyl benzene) are widespread as solvents in industries and laboratories or in the manufacture and application of glues, paints, printing inks etc. These aromatics may be absorbed by employees during exposure at the workplace. Alcoholic beverages may be consumed during occupational inhalation or after shift's end at times. Toxicokinetic interactions between the aromatics and ethanol must be assumed because of the common pathway of biotransformation. The blood levels of toluene and m-xylene after inhalation increased significantly in volunteers dosed simultaneously with ethanol. In this view the present experiments in rats should elucidate whether the blood concentrations of inhaled ethyl benzene and mesitylene (both structurally related to toluene and m-xylene) can rise under the influence of ethanol, and whether quantitative differences of this effect due to the structure of these aromatics can occur. From the results informations important for the assessment of occupational health risk are to be expected.

Roemer, K.G.; Federsel, R.J.; Freundt, K.J.

1986-12-01

91

Modification of ethanol-induced motor impairment by diet, diuretic, mineralocorticoid, or prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol-induced motor impairment in rats was measured following a number of different dietary or drug treatments. A low sodium diet combined with injections of the diuretic furosemide, but not a low sodium diet alone, increased motor impairment while a high sodium diet decreased impairment. Blood ethanol measurements indicated that both effects were probably mediated by changes in blood ethanol levels.

L. A. Grupp; J. Elias; E. Perlanski; R. B. Stewart

1985-01-01

92

How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... good,” cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from your arteries. Triglycerides (tri-GLIH-seh-rides). Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your ... Some studies suggest that a high level of triglycerides in the blood may raise the risk of ...

93

High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... to help this. High Blood Pressure and Vascular Ulcers : Vascular ulcers are skin sores that can appear in your ... nutrition to the skin and can lead to ulcers. You are at risk of developing vascular ulcers ...

94

THERMOREGULATION AT A HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE FOLLOWING THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was designed to assess the thermoregulatory mechanisms responsible for the elevation in body temperature following ethanol administration when exposed to a high ambient temperature (Ta). ale rats of the Fischer 344 strain were gavaged with 20% ethanol at doses of 0, 2....

95

Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

96

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani

2003-01-01

97

Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Results Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. Conclusions In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall ethanol production yield. PMID:24401142

2014-01-01

98

Effects of short deprivation and re-exposure intervals on the ethanol drinking behavior of selectively bred high alcohol-consuming rats.  

PubMed

Alcoholics generally display cycles of excessive ethanol intake, abstinence and relapse behavior. Using an animal model of relapse-like drinking, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), our laboratory has shown that repeated 2-week cycles of ethanol deprivation and re-exposure, following an initial 6-week access period, result in a robust ADE by alcohol-preferring (P) and high alcohol-drinking (HAD-1 and HAD-2) rats. These rat lines have been selectively bred to prefer a 10% ethanol solution over water. The present study examined whether P and HAD rats would display an ADE using much shorter ethanol deprivation and re-exposure intervals. Rats were given either continuous or periodic concurrent access to multiple concentrations (10%, 20%, and 30% [vol/vol]) of ethanol. The periodic protocol involved access to ethanol for 12 days followed by four cycles of 4 days of deprivation and 4 days of re-exposure to ethanol access. High-alcohol-drinking rats displayed a robust 24-h ADE upon first re-exposure (HAD-1: approximately 5 vs. 8g/kg/day; HAD-2: approximately 6 vs. 9g/kg/day, baseline vs. re-exposure), whereas P rats ( approximately 7 vs. 8g/kg/day) displayed a modest, nonsignificant, increase in 24-h intake. In a separate group of rats, ethanol intake and blood alcohol concentrations after the first hour of the fourth re-exposure cycle were HAD-1: 2.0g/kg and 97 mg%, HAD-2: 2.3g/kg and 73 mg%, and P: 1.2g/kg and 71 mg%; with all three lines displaying a robust first hour ADE. These findings suggest that (a) an ADE may be observed with short ethanol deprivation and re-exposure intervals in HAD rats, and (b) the genetic make-up of the P and HAD rats influences the expression of this ADE. PMID:18486429

Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Schultz, Jonathon A; Peper, Caron L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

2008-08-01

99

“Jello® Shots” and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats  

PubMed Central

Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose); ethanol concentration (4% or 10%); and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib.) during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed. PMID:24284614

Dess, Nancy K.; Madkins, Chardonnay D.; Geary, Bree A.; Chapman, Clinton D.

2013-01-01

100

Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis). PMID:25706565

Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

2015-03-18

101

Over-the-Counter Medications and High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... iOS | Android | Kindle Fire | PDF Interactive High Blood Pressure Guide Find videos, quizzes, trackers and more with ... Also available as a downloadable PDF . High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

102

Myths about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... sodium – and count the same toward total sodium consumption. Table salt is a combination of the two ... can be highly addictive. If you drink, limit consumption to no more than two drinks per day ...

103

Behavioral interactions between ethanol and imidazodiazepines with high affinities for benzodiazepine receptors  

SciTech Connect

The intrinsic effect of two imidazodiazepines RO 15-3505 and RO 17-1812 on the behavior of mice in a holeboard test were investigated. The interactions of these two drugs with ethanol were also studied. RO 15-3505 failed to significantly alter either exploratory head-dipping or locomotor activity when administered alone but doses of 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg reversed the reduction in the number of head-dips caused by ethanol and partially reversed ethanol's locomotor stimulant action. In contrast, RO 17-1812 increased locomotor activity when administered alone, and enhanced the reduction in exploration caused by ethanol. Neither RO 15-3505 nor RO 17-1812 altered blood alcohol concentrations suggesting a pharmacodynamic basis for these interactions. The results suggest that in the holeboard test the interactions of imidazodiazepines with ethanol are related to the nature of their interaction with benzodiazepine receptors, inverse agonists antagonising and agonists enhancing ethanol's effects on exploration.

Lister, R.G.

1988-01-01

104

High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform.  

PubMed

Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production. PMID:25878135

Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G; Abell, Chris

2015-05-01

105

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Dry-grind Highly Digestible Grain Sorghum Lines for Ethanol Production  

E-print Network

The potential of high digestible grain sorghum (HDGS) with a modified starch protein endosperm matrix to replace corn in ethanol production was investigated using dry grind simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Preliminary...

Hernandez, Joan R.

2010-07-14

106

Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

1989-01-01

107

Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... having your blood pressure checked regularly. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow ...

108

Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

Kumar, V.; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C. D.; Khanna, Geetika

2014-01-01

109

Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

Kumar, V; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, Geetika

2014-07-01

110

Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure  

E-print Network

Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other at www.nhlbi.nih.gov. #12;Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Homes #12;Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure 1 Did you know that high blood pressure

Bandettini, Peter A.

111

Role of an Ethanolic Extract of Crotalaria juncea L. on High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic effects of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) by performing in vivo studies. Methods The effects of oral administration of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) in rats fed with a high-fat diet were investigated by evaluating parameters like food consumption, weight gain, fecal fat excretion, serum and liver lipids, and biochemical profiles as well as by histopathological studies. The results were compared to animals fed with the standard diet and animals fed with a high-fat diet and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg BW). Results The animal group administered with the ethanolic extract for 35 days showed decreased levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, TG, HDL+VLDL, VLDL+LDL, LDL/TC, AI, SGOT, SGPT, and elevated levels of HDL, HDL/TC, significantly (p<0.01 & p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of liver tissues of the animal groups treated with the herbal extract and standard had shown increased levels of SOD, GSH, and catalase, whereas levels of SGOT, SGPT, total glucose, HMG-CoA, lipase, amylase, and the percentage of malon-dialdehyde were decreased when compared with the high-fat diet-fed rats. Body weight and food intake in the treated groups were significantly lower than that in the model control. Conclusion The present study showed that an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea L. influences several blood lipid and metabolic parameters in rats, suggesting a potential benefit as an antihypercholesterolemic agent. PMID:24959408

Kumar, Dinakaran Sathis; David, Banji; Harani, Avasarala; Vijay, Bhaskar

2014-01-01

112

American Heart Month National High Blood  

E-print Network

FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National Cholesterol Education Month Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Heart-1 Eat Smart for Heart Health - Cholesterol/Saturated Fat # P3-2 Cardiovascular Disease Statistics # P3

113

American Heart Month National High Blood  

E-print Network

FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National Cholesterol Education Month Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Heart Health Heart Health - Lesson 1 Contents: Lesson - Heart Health Power Point # P1-1 Eat Smart for Heart

114

Metabolic engineering of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius for high yield ethanol production.  

PubMed

We describe the metabolic engineering of two strains of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius to divert their fermentative carbon flux from a mixed acid pathway, to one in which ethanol becomes the major product. This involved elimination of the lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase pathways by disruption of the ldh and pflB genes, respectively, together with upregulation of expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Unlike the situation in Escherichia coli, pyruvate dehydrogenase is active under anaerobic conditions in thermophilic bacilli, but expressed sub-optimally for a role as the primary fermentation pathway. Mutants were initially characterised in batch culture using glucose as carbon substrate and strains with all three modifications shown to form ethanol efficiently and rapidly at temperatures in excess of 60 degrees C in yields in excess of 90% of theoretical. The strain containing the 3 modifications, TM242, was also shown to efficiently ferment cellobiose and a mixed hexose and pentose feed. PMID:19703579

Cripps, R E; Eley, K; Leak, D J; Rudd, B; Taylor, M; Todd, M; Boakes, S; Martin, S; Atkinson, T

2009-11-01

115

HPLC Method for the Evaluation of Blood Acetaldehyde without Ethanol Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of acetaldehyde blood levels is important in view of possible toxic effects in the acute and chronic alcohol intoxication. Artefactual formation of acetaldehyde and its binding to erythrocyte components are the main problems that scientists have faced with in the measurement of acetaldehyde blood levels. The results reported herein show that addition of butyraldehyde as internal standard to

C. Pezzoli; M. Galli-kienle; C. Di Padova; G. Stramentinoli

1984-01-01

116

Ethanol fermentation of crude acid hydrolyzate of cellulose using high-level yeast inocula  

SciTech Connect

High-level yeast inocula was investigated as a means of overcoming the toxicity problem in ethanol fermentation of acid hydrolyzate of wood cellulose. When the inoculum level exceeded 10/sup 8/ initial cells/mL, 50% of the yeast cells survived the initial cell death period during which furfural and HMF were depleted. The fermentation thus proceeded to completion by virtue of cell regrowth. The specific ethanol productivity in batch fermentation on the basis of viable cells was comparable to that of pure glucose fermentation. Continuous fermentation with cell recycle was superior to batch fermentation in that there was no overall cell decline and the ethanol yield was substantially higher. The maximum ethanol productivity in continuous fermentation was 4.9 g/L h and it occurred at a dilution rate of 0.24 hr/sup -1/.

Chung, I.S.; Lee, Y.Y.

1985-01-01

117

Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow: Role of acetate and A sub 1 - and A sub 2 -adenosine receptors  

SciTech Connect

The increase in portal blood flow induced by ethanol appears to be adenosine mediated. Acetate, which is released by the liver during ethanol metabolism, is known to increase adenosine levels in tissues and in blood. The effects of acetate on portal blood flow were investigated in rats using the microsphere technique. The intravenous infusion of acetate resulted in vasodilation of the preportal vasculature and in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This acetate-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. Using the A{sub 1}-adenosine receptor agonist N-6-cyclohexyl adenosine and the A{sub 2}-agonist 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine, we demonstrate that the effect of adenosine on the preportal vasculature is mediated by the A{sub 2}-subtype of adenosine receptors. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the increase in portal blood flow after ethanol administration results from a preportal vasodilatory effect of adenosine formed from acetate metabolism in extrahepatic tissues.

Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Varghese, G.A.; Israel, Y.; Orrego, H. (Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1988-10-01

118

Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient. Methods: This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success. Results: Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients. Conclusion: Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.

Linden, Edwin van der, E-mail: e.van.der.linden@mchaaglanden.nl [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Baalen, Jary M. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Pattynama, Peter M. T. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

2012-08-15

119

Repeated Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking Alters Ethanol Drinking Patterns and Depresses Striatal GABAergic Transmission  

PubMed Central

Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the ‘drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a ‘front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15?min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum. PMID:23995582

Wilcox, Mark V; Carlson, Verginia C Cuzon; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A

2014-01-01

120

CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control February 2011 39 ... http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National ...

121

The relationship between adjunctive drinking, blood ethanol concentration and plasma corticosterone across fixed-time intervals of food delivery in two inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Summary Schedules of intermittent food delivery induce excessive fluid intake, termed schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is important for the expression and maintenance of this adjunctive behavior. Previous work has focused of examining the relationship between water intake and plasma corticosterone (CORT) in rats at a single or a limited range of fixed time (FT) intervals. However, little remains known regarding SIP and the corresponding stress response 1) across the bitonic function that epitomizes adjunctive behavior, 2) when ethanol is the available fluid, and 3) when a species other than rat or multiple strains are studied. Here we report the findings from ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) and non-preferring DBA/2J (D2) mice serially exposed to progressively larger FT intervals (0 ? 60 min) and given access to either water or a 5% v/v ethanol solution. Following 2 weeks of experience with each schedule, blood samples were collected at the conclusion of the last 60-min session to evaluate CORT and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) achieved. While both strains exhibited a bitonic function of ethanol intake and BEC that peaked at or near a 5-min interval, only D2 mice showed a similar response with water. In contrast, CORT levels rose monotonically with incremental increases in the FT interval regardless of the strain examined or fluid type offered, indicating that glucocorticoid release likely reflects the aversive aspects of increasing intervals between reinforcement rather than engagement in adjunctive behavior. These findings also caution against the use of a single intensity stressor to evaluate the relationship between stress and ethanol intake, as the magnitude of stress appears to affect ethanol consumption in a non-linear fashion. PMID:23827168

Ford, Matthew M.; Steele, Andrea M.; McCracken, Aubrey D.; Finn, Deborah A.; Grant, Kathleen A.

2013-01-01

122

ORAL FRUCTOSE-INDUCED CHANGES IN BLOOD ETHANOL OXIDOKINETIC DATA AMONG HEALTHY NIGERIANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on the influence of fructose on blood alcohol clearance have not always been consistent. Notwithstanding, information concerning the Nigerian population is yet to be documented. In this present study, ten consenting adults in apparent sound health, and who did not have any traceable history of alcohol or drug abuse were selected. The subjects were non-smoking Nigerians with an average

I Onyesom; Emmanuel O Anosike

123

High blood pressure and visual sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

2003-09-01

124

Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Let's Talk About High Blood Pressure and Stroke Updated:Feb 8,2013 What is high blood pressure (HBP)? High blood pressure means that the force of the ... sides of your arteries is consistently in the high range. This can lead to stroke, heart attack, ...

125

Animal model of ethanol abuse: rats selectively bred for high and low voluntary alcohol intake.  

PubMed

The selectively bred alcohol-preferring and alcohol-non-preferring lines of rats have been used to study the biology of alcohol abuse and dependence. In our laboratory new lines of Wistar rats have been selectively outbread for 7 years and 19 generations for high and low ethanol intake (WHP--Warsaw High Preferring) and WLP--Warsaw Low Preferring respectively). After the first selection procedure, the highest scoring females and males were used initiate upward selection, while the lowest scoring pairs were used to initiate downward selection. Mated pairs were housed in breeding cages, pups were allowed to nurse for 3 weeks before weaning, then the pups of each litter were culled to the same-sex cage and allowed to mature until they were subjected to the selection procedure. In order to determine the alcohol intake and preference, the rats were individually housed in wire cages containing two graduated drinking tubes mounted at the front. During the entire investigation, the subjects had free access to standard lab chow (Bacutil, Poland). Ethanol solution was prepared from 95% stock ethanol and tap water. The animals were presented with 10% ethanol solution and water (two-bottle choice test). The drinking tubes were rotated daily to prevent position preference. Alcohol intake was calculated as average g/kg/day (absolute ethanol) while alcohol preference (in %) was calculated as the amount of alcohol consumed/total fluid x 100. Our results (17-19 generations) have shown that mean alcohol intake in WHP rats was higher than 5.0 g/kg/24 h ethanol, while WLP rats generally consumed less than 2.0 g/kg/24 h ethanol. Our results also showed that the total fluid intake in WHP rats slightly but not significantly higher as compared with WLP rats. Maximal ethanol consumption (in both lines) occurred during the natural dark phase three bungs (19.00-20.00 hrs, 23.00-02.00 hrs and 04.00-05.00 hrs). Interestingly, the intakes of high concentrations of sucrose and saccharin solutions were significantly higher in WHP than in WLP rats. Furthermore, the WHP rats reduced their alcohol and water intakes in the presence of 10% sucrose solution. Thus, it appears that high consumption of sweets may be a neurobiological factor promoting increased ethanol intake by WHP rats. PMID:11293278

Dyr, W; Kostowski, W

2000-11-01

126

Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations  

PubMed Central

The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L?1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h?1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L?1) and very high (100–200 g·L?1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L?1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L?1·h?1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L?1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L?1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials. PMID:25028956

Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2014-01-01

127

Fermentation of liquefacted hydrothermally pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse to ethanol at high-solids content.  

PubMed

The ability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be utilized as feedstock for ethanol production at high initial dry matter concentration was investigated. In order to achieve high enzymatic hydrolysis yield, a hydrothermal pretreatment prior to liquefaction and saccharification was applied. Response surface methodology had been employed in order to optimize the pretreatment step, taking into account the yield of cellulose hydrolysis. Liquefaction of the pretreated bagasse was performed at a specially designed liquefaction chamber at 50 °C for either 12 or 24h using an enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g · DM and 18% DM. Fermentation of liquefacted bagasse was not affected by liquefaction duration and leaded to an ethanol production of 41.43 g/L and a volumetric productivity of 1.88 g/Lh. The addition of extra enzymes at the start up of SSF enhanced both ethanol concentration and volumetric productivity by 16% and 17% after 12 and 24h saccharification, respectively. PMID:23131642

Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul

2013-01-01

128

High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) ... Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure Visoki krvni tlak - Bosanski (Bosnian) ...

129

Who is at Risk for High Blood Pressure?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure (HBP) ... your diet Lack of physical activity Smoking Other Risk Factors A family history of HBP raises your ...

130

Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... nurse. Talk With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Partnership for HEALTH Here are some questions to ... What can you do to prevent or control high blood pressure? 1. Quit smoking and/or chewing tobacco. Ask ...

131

High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor  

MedlinePLUS

What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

132

High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ... 800,000 Americans suffer a stroke each year. High blood pressure is the chief culprit, and atrial fibrillation isn’ ...

133

What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?  

MedlinePLUS

... vision. The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in the world. High blood pressure affects more than 40 percent of African Americans. It also develops earlier in life in blacks ...

134

Insomnia Linked to High Blood Pressure in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Insomnia Linked to High Blood Pressure in Study But ... 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages High Blood Pressure Insomnia MONDAY, Jan. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People with ...

135

Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease that you can do something about. The higher ...

136

Newly Diagnosed with High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Newly Diagnosed With High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis Systolic reading of 150 ... 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Stroke THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Prompt ...

137

Paramagnetic microchip for high-gradient separation of blood cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a magnetophoretic separation method on a chip of white blood cells from blood under continuous flow. The separation of red blood cells from the whole blood is performed using a high gradient magnetic separation method under continuous flow to trap the particles inside the device. The device is fabricated by microfabrication technology and enables to capture the

Ciprian Iliescu; Guolin Xu; Elena Barbarini; Marioara Avram; Florina S. Iliescu

2008-01-01

138

Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96%?v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Results Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30?days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Conclusions Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue. PMID:24761774

2014-01-01

139

‘Sausage-string’ deformations of blood vessels at high blood pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new instability is proposed to explain the ‘sausage-string’ patterns of alternating constrictions and dilatations formed in blood vessels at high blood pressure conditions. Our theory provides predictions for the conditions under which the cylindrical geometry of a blood vessel becomes unstable. The theory is related to experimental observations in rats, where high blood pressure is induced by intravenous infusion of angiotensin II.

Alstrøm, P.; Mikkelsen, R.; Gustafsson, F.; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

1999-12-01

140

ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER ADSORPTION FROM BINARY AND TERNARY LIQUID MIXTURES ON HIGH-SILICA ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

141

Coded Aperture Raman Spectroscopy for Quantitative Measurements of Ethanol in a Tissue Phantom  

E-print Network

Coded Aperture Raman Spectroscopy for Quantitative Measurements of Ethanol in a Tissue Phantom S. T of the Raman system, along with quantitative estimation results for ethanol at non-toxic levels in a lipid at physiological levels in aqueous humor, urine, and filtered blood serum.2­4 In highly-scattering media like blood

Pitsianis, Nikos P.

142

Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones

2003-01-01

143

Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production cost reductions almost independently of each other. PMID:18471311

Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

2008-01-01

144

What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?  

MedlinePLUS

... oil. • Trans fat comes from adding hydrogen to vegetable oils and tends to raise blood cholesterol. It’s used ... milk and beef. • Polyunsaturated fats are found in vegetable oils and fish oils. These tend to lower blood ...

145

Know Your Blood Pressure Many people with diabetes also have high blood pressure.  

E-print Network

Know Your Blood Pressure Many people with diabetes also have high blood pressure. Blood pressure. If you have diabetes, your goal is to keep the first number 0 or less. If you have diabetes, your goal: · It runs in their family. · They eat too much salt. · They are overweight and do not get enough exercise

146

varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure  

E-print Network

diabetes insomnia e cancer stroke embolism smoking obesity swine flu high blood pres parkinson's stress insomnia e cancer stroke embolism smoking obesity swine flu high blood pres parkinson's stress depression m stiffness heart attack paralysis lo blood pressure asthma bowel can spina bifida diabetes insomnia e cancer

Diggle, Peter J.

147

Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment?  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment? Controlling blood pressure doesn't seem to affect baby, but may ... January 28, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

148

Alcoholic fatty liver in rats: Role of fat and ethanol intake  

SciTech Connect

The claim that high intake of both ethanol and fat is essential to induce fatty liver and high blood alcohol levels (BAL) was tested. Two groups of rats were fed liquid diets containing 26% and 36% of calories as ethanol respectively. After 4 weeks, all rats were bled for BAL and some were sacrificed to obtain liver morphology. Remaining rats in Group 1 (26% ethanol) were switched to 36% ethanol diet and Group 2 (36% ethanol) to 26% ethanol diet. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks to obtain blood for BAL and liver morphology. The results indicate that high ethanol intake and high fat ingestion is not the criterion for induction of fatty liver. Inadequate ingestion of macronutrients plays a major role in alcoholic fatty liver and BAL.

Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W. (VA Medical Centers, Portland, OR (United States)); Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. (VA Medical Centers, Martinez, CA (United States))

1991-03-11

149

Continuous production of high-purity fructooligosaccharides and ethanol by immobilized Aspergillus japonicus and Pichia heimii.  

PubMed

High-purity fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were produced from sucrose by an innovative process incorporating immobilized Aspergillus japonicus and Pichia heimii cells. Intracellular FTase of A. japonicus converted sucrose into FOS and glucose, and P. heimii fermented glucose mainly into ethanol. The continuous production of FOS was carried out using a tanks-in-series bioreactor consisting of three stirred tanks. When a solution composed of 1 g L(-1) yeast extract and 300 g L(-1) sucrose was fed continuously to the bioreactor at a dilution rate of 0.1 h(-1), FOS at a purity of up to 98.2 % could be achieved and the value-added byproduct ethanol at 79.6 g L(-1) was also obtained. One gram of sucrose yielded 0.62 g FOS and 0.27 g ethanol. This immobilized dual-cell system was effective for continuous production of high-purity FOS and ethanol for as long as 10 days. PMID:23568753

Sheu, Dey Chyi; Chang, Jan Yi; Wang, Chung Yih; Wu, Chang Ta; Huang, Chen Ji

2013-11-01

150

Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P) and high gravity (20°P) worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI) was higher (9.8 percentage units) and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units) compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN), pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency. PMID:25530885

Peralta-Contreras, Mayeli; Aguilar-Zamarripa, Edna; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Escamilla-García, Erandi; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio Othon

2014-01-01

151

Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P) and high gravity (20°P) worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI) was higher (9.8 percentage units) and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units) compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN), pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency. PMID:25530885

Peralta-Contreras, Mayeli; Aguilar-Zamarripa, Edna; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Escamilla-García, Erandi; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio Othon

2014-01-01

152

Cerebral blood flow at high altitude.  

PubMed

This brief review traces the last 50 years of research related to cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans exposed to high altitude. The increase in CBF within the first 12 hours at high altitude and its return to near sea level values after 3-5 days of acclimatization was first documented with use of the Kety-Schmidt technique in 1964. The degree of change in CBF at high altitude is influenced by many variables, including arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, oxygen content, cerebral spinal fluid pH, and hematocrit, but can be collectively summarized in terms of the relative strengths of four key integrated reflexes: 1) hypoxic cerebral vasodilatation; 2) hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction; 3) hypoxic ventilatory response; and 4) hypercapnic ventilatory response. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these reflexes and their interactions with one another is critical to advance our understanding of global and regional CBF regulation. Whether high altitude populations exhibit cerebrovascular adaptations to chronic levels of hypoxia or if changes in CBF are related to the development of acute mountain sickness are currently unknown; yet overall, the integrated CBF response to high altitude appears to be sufficient to meet the brain's large and consistent demand for oxygen. This short review is organized as follows: An historical overview of the earliest CBF measurements collected at high altitude introduces a summary of reported CBF changes at altitude over the last 50 years in both lowlanders and high-altitude natives. The most tenable candidate mechanism(s) regulating CBF at altitude are summarized with a focus on available data in humans, and a role for these mechanisms in the pathophysiology of AMS is considered. Finally, suggestions for future directions are provided. PMID:24971767

Ainslie, Philip N; Subudhi, Andrew W

2014-06-01

153

Effects of ethanolic extract of Iris germanica on lipid profile of rats fed on a high-fat diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extract of Iris germanica rhizomes was investigated for hypolipidemic activity. Iris germanica belong to the family Iridaceae and has been used to treat liver and spleen ailments in traditional system of medicine. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet and ethanolic extract of Iris germanica were administered orally in one group of rats, while other received

M. Iqbal Choudhary; S. Naheed; S. Jalil; J. M. Alam; Atta-ur-Rahman

2005-01-01

154

Aqueous-ethanol nitro blue tetrazolium solutions for high dose dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ions of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT 2+) in aqueous ethanol solution are readily reduced radiolytically first to monoformazan (MF +) and then to diformazan (DF) having high linear molar extinction coefficients at the absorption maxima of ˜522 and ˜570-610 nm. Spectrophotometric analysis then provides potential use in high-dose dosimetry over the dose ranges of 0.1-1 and 1-30 kGy. The solution is stable for the first 24 h after the irradiation.

Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.; Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; McLaughlin, W. L.

1999-08-01

155

Effect of high pressure on heat and ethanol stabilities of milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of high pressure (in range from 200 to 1000 MPa) and periods of exposure time (from 15 to 35min) on the changes of selected physico-chemical characteristics of skim milk, particularly considering its heat and ethanol stability, was studied.Due to High pressure the conformation of milk proteins and the milk salt system were changing. Pressurization caused slightly change in

A. Kruk; K. Kielczewska; A. Reps

2000-01-01

156

THE EFFECTS OF PREGNANCY ON ETHANOL CLEARANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have studied the effects of pregnancy on ethanol clearance rates and on blood and urine ethanol concentrations (BECs and UECs) in adult Sprague–Dawley rats infused with ethanol intragastrically. Pregnant rats had greater ethanol clearance following an intragastric or intravenous ethanol bolus (3 ...

157

Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.  

PubMed

Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact. PMID:25299491

Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

2014-12-01

158

Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups  

SciTech Connect

Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet.

Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.

1986-05-01

159

Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update.  

PubMed

There have been numerous developments in ethanol fermentation technology since the beginning of the new millennium as ethanol has become an immediate viable alternative to fast-depleting crude reserves as well as increasing concerns over environmental pollution. Nowadays, although most research efforts are focused on the conversion of cheap cellulosic substrates to ethanol, methods that are cost-competitive with gasoline production are still lacking. At the same time, the ethanol industry has engaged in implementing potential energy-saving, productivity and efficiency-maximizing technologies in existing production methods to become more viable. Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is an emerging, versatile one among such technologies offering great savings in process water and energy requirements through fermentation of higher concentrations of sugar substrate and, therefore, increased final ethanol concentration in the medium. The technology also allows increased fermentation efficiency, without major alterations to existing facilities, by efficient utilization of fermentor space and elimination of known losses. This comprehensive research update on VHG technology is presented in two main sections, namely VHG brewing, wherein the effects of nutrients supplementation, yeast pitching rate, flavour compound synthesis and foam stability under increased wort gravities are discussed; and VHG bioethanol fermentation studies. In the latter section, aspects related to the role of osmoprotectants and nutrients in yeast stress reduction, substrates utilized/tested so far, including saccharide (glucose, sucrose, molasses, etc.) and starchy materials (wheat, corn, barley, oats, etc.), and mash viscosity issues in VHG bioethanol production are detailed. Thereafter, topics common to both areas such as process optimization studies, mutants and gene level studies, immobilized yeast applications, temperature effect, reserve carbohydrates profile in yeast, and economic aspects are discussed and future prospects are summarized. PMID:21695540

Puligundla, Pradeep; Smogrovicova, Daniela; Obulam, Vijaya Sarathi Reddy; Ko, Sanghoon

2011-09-01

160

Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.

1994-01-01

161

High gravity fermentation of sugarcane molasses to produce ethanol: Effect of nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation efficiency of more than 85% was obtained by high gravity fermentation of 33–34°Bx (spec. gravity ?1.134) molasses\\u000a medium with certain nutrients, instead of generally employed medium containing ?16% (w\\/v) total sugar (spec. gravity ?1.090)\\u000a for ethanol fermentation in distilleries to get maximum 80–85% conversion. The fermenting yeast, Saccharomyces, has varied capabilities, depending on the species and nutrition for fermenting

P. Pradeep; O. V. S. Reddy

2010-01-01

162

Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.  

PubMed

High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688 g/g/h with 92 % theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same. PMID:24682264

Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K

2014-10-01

163

How Is High Blood Pressure Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... with HBP. If you have diabetes or chronic kidney disease, a blood pressure of 130/80 mmHg ... avoid problems such as heart attack , stroke , and kidney failure . Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video Myth- ...

164

When Blood Sugar Is Too High  

MedlinePLUS

... odor rapid, deep breathing confusion unconsciousness ("diabetic coma") Checking for DKA How do you know if you ... possible, which means following your diabetes management plan. Checking your blood sugar levels several times a day ...

165

Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing. PMID:23382943

Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

2013-01-01

166

Insights from the fungus Fusarium oxysporum point to high affinity glucose transporters as targets for enhancing ethanol production from lignocellulose.  

PubMed

Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km((glucose)) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing. PMID:23382943

Ali, Shahin S; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M

2013-01-01

167

Contribution of the stomach to ethanol oxidation in the rat  

SciTech Connect

To estimate the amount of ethanol that can be oxidized in the stomach, steady-state conditions were created in a group of fed rats by giving a loading dose of ethanol (2 g/kg body wt I.V.) followed by continuous infusion either intravenously or intragastrically. The rate of ethanol oxidation was calculated from the rate of infusion required to maintain steady blood levels of approximately 30 mM for at least 3 hours. Gastrointestinal ethanol concentrations and total contents also remained steady. The rate of ethanol oxidation was 19.3% faster during intragastric than during intravenous infusion (p<0.01). When measured at the prevailing luminal ethanol concentration (145 mM) and expressed per body weight, the gastric ADH activity represented 14% of the hepatic activity at 30 mM ethanol, suggesting that gastric ADH activity could account for most of the increased rate of oxidation when ethanol is given intragastrically. Thus, gastric ethanol oxidation by a high Km ADH in the rat represents a significant fraction of the total rate of ethanol oxidation and it is therefore one of the factors which determines the bioavailability of orally administered ethanol. 22 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Caballeria, J.; Baraona, E.; Lieber, C.S.

1987-08-24

168

Cellulases without carbohydrate-binding modules in high consistency ethanol production process  

PubMed Central

Background Enzymes still comprise a major part of ethanol production costs from lignocellulose raw materials. Irreversible binding of enzymes to the residual substrate prevents their reuse and no efficient methods for recycling of enzymes have so far been presented. Cellulases without a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) have been found to act efficiently at high substrate consistencies and to remain non-bound after the hydrolysis. Results High hydrolysis yields could be obtained with thermostable enzymes of Thermoascus aurantiacus containing only two main cellulases: cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), Cel7A and endoglucanase II (EG II), Cel5A. The yields were decreased by only about 10% when using these cellulases without CBM. A major part of enzymes lacking CBM was non-bound during the most active stage of hydrolysis and in spite of this, produced high sugar yields. Complementation of the two cellulases lacking CBM with CBH II (CtCel6A) improved the hydrolysis. Cellulases without CBM were more sensitive during exposure to high ethanol concentration than the enzymes containing CBM. Enzymes lacking CBM could be efficiently reused leading to a sugar yield of 90% of that with fresh enzymes. The applicability of cellulases without CBM was confirmed under industrial ethanol production conditions at high (25% dry matter (DM)) consistency. Conclusions The results clearly show that cellulases without CBM can be successfully used in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose at high consistency, and that this approach could provide new means for better recyclability of enzymes. This paper provides new insight into the efficient action of CBM-lacking cellulases. The relationship of binding and action of cellulases without CBM at high DM consistency should, however, be studied in more detail. PMID:24559384

2014-01-01

169

More Cases of High Blood Pressure in Less Affluent States  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. More Cases of High Blood Pressure in Less Affluent States The unemployed seemed to ... February 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Disparities High Blood Pressure THURSDAY, Feb. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Your odds ...

170

Treatment of high ethanol concentration wastewater by biological sand filters: enhanced COD removal and bacterial community dynamics.  

PubMed

Winery wastewater is characterized by its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), seasonal occurrence and variable composition, including periodic high ethanol concentrations. In addition, winery wastewater may contain insufficient inorganic nutrients for optimal biodegradation of organic constituents. Two pilot-scale biological sand filters (BSFs) were used to treat artificial wastewater: the first was amended with ethanol and the second with ethanol, inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A number of biochemical parameters involved in the removal of pollutants through BSF systems were monitored, including effluent chemistry and bacterial community structures. The nutrient supplemented BSF showed efficient COD, N and P removal. Comparison of the COD removal efficiencies of the two BSFs showed that N and P addition enhanced COD removal efficiency by up to 16%. Molecular fingerprinting of BSF sediment samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amendment with high concentrations of ethanol destabilized the microbial community structure, but that nutrient supplementation countered this effect. PMID:22683841

Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Ramond, J-B; Welz, P J; Cowan, D A; Odlare, M; Burton, S G

2012-10-30

171

Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats  

E-print Network

intervals post- ethanol revealed that peak blood alcohol12, 24, 48, 72, 96 hr post-ethanol). Blood samples taken atBlood alcohol level (BAL) peaks within 5-10 min of bolus intraperitoneal injection of ethanol

Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

2006-01-01

172

Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?  

PubMed

Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy. PMID:24022674

Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

2014-01-01

173

Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPAR? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1?, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3? in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. PMID:25549548

Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

2015-03-18

174

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

175

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

176

Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report updates the 1990 “National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy” and focuses on classification, pathophysiologic features, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Through a combination of evidence-based medicine and consensus this report updates contemporary approaches to hypertension control during pregnancy by expanding on recommendations made in “The Sixth

2000-01-01

177

Changes in lymphocyte subsets and macrophage functions from high, short-term dietary ethanol in C57/BL6 mice  

SciTech Connect

Chronic administration of a diet containing 7% ethanol (36% of total calories) for 8 days to male C57/BL6 mice resulted in significant changes in functioning of macrophages. Peritoneal exudate macrophages from the ethanol-fed mice released more tumor cell cytotoxic materials upon culturing in vitro than cells from controls. However, peritoneal exudate cells continued to respond to exogenous beta carotene in vitro to produce additional cytotoxic materials. Phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells in vitro was suppressed in cells from ethanol treated mice. The number of splenic lymphocytes of various subsets was significantly changed by the ethanol exposure. Total T cells and T suppressor cells were lower, with a significant decrease in B cells containing IgM on their surface. The percentage of spleen cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced. It is concluded that short-term chronic consumption of dietary ethanol, which was sufficient to produce physical dependence, results in significant alterations in lymphocyte subtypes and suppression of some macrophage functions.

Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Abril, E.; Smith, T.L.

1988-01-01

178

Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the Research on ACEs, ARBs, and DRIs  

MedlinePLUS

... Oct. 24, 2011 Choosing Medicines for High Blood Pressure: A Review of the Research on ACEIs, ARBs, ... No About Your Condition What is high blood pressure? “Blood pressure” is the force of blood in ...

179

Is exercise good for high blood pressure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten men with uncomplicated essential hypertension (mean standing blood pressure 165\\/109 mm Hg) and 10 normal controls matched for age and weight were studied for the hypotensive potential of moderate exercise. Tests were conducted on a treadmill set to induce a steady heart rate of 120 beats\\/min and performed over five 10-minute periods separated by three minutes' rest and finishing

R G Wilcox; T Bennett; A M Brown; I A Macdonald

1982-01-01

180

High Blood Pressure in Acute Ischaemic Stroke – Broadening Therapeutic Horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure (BP) is present in 80% of patients with acute ischaemic stroke and is independently associated with poor outcome. Although this epidemiology suggests that BP should be lowered acutely, concerns about dysfunctional cerebral autoregulation suggest otherwise. Several small randomised trials have assessed cerebral blood flow with various antihypertensive classes and agents in acute ischaemic stroke. Overall, these studies

Gillian M. Sare; Chamila Geeganage; Philip M. W. Bath

2009-01-01

181

Enhanced blood-brain barrier leakage to evans blue-labelled albumin after air embolism in ethanol-intoxicated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and ethanol-intoxicated rats were given a small air embolus in the right common carotid artery after ligation of the external carotid branch. The extravasation of Evans blue-labelled albumin (EBA) was studied. Control rats displayed a slight extravasation of EBA through arteries and arterioles at the surface of the right hemisphere with a slight spread into adjacent brain parenchyma. Additionally,

Lars Rosengren; Lennart Persson; Barbro Johansson

1977-01-01

182

Hierarchical Pd-Sn Alloy Nanosheet Dendrites: An Economical and Highly Active Catalyst for Ethanol Electrooxidation  

PubMed Central

Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures. PMID:23383368

Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

2013-01-01

183

Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,  

E-print Network

beverages. Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy and nursing leads to blood- ethanol levelsEthanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

184

High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) ... ????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Visok krvni pritisak ...

185

Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... lead to heart failure? HBP damages the entire circulatory system. "Heart failure" is the term used for a ... body. High blood pressure damages the entire complex circulatory system. As mentioned above, HBP creates conditions for blocked ...

186

Synergistic ablation of liver tissue and liver cancer cells with high-intensity focused ultrasound and ethanol.  

PubMed

We investigated the combined effect of ethanol and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), first, on heating and cavitation bubble activity in tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine liver tissues and, second, on the viability of HepG2 liver cancer cells. Phantoms or porcine tissues were injected with ethanol and then subjected to HIFU at acoustic power ranging from 1.2 to 20.5 W (HIFU levels 1-7). Cavitation events and the temperature around the focal zone were measured with a passive cavitation detector and embedded type K thermocouples, respectively. HepG2 cells were subjected to 4% ethanol solution in growth medium (v/v) just before the cells were exposed to HIFU at 2.7, 8.7 or 12.0 W for 30 s. Cell viability was measured 2, 24 and 72 h post-treatment. The results indicate that ethanol and HIFU have a synergistic effect on liver cancer ablation as manifested by greater temperature rise and lesion volume in liver tissues and reduced viability of liver cancer cells. This effect is likely caused by reduction of the cavitation threshold in the presence of ethanol and the increased rate of ethanol diffusion through the cell membrane caused by HIFU-induced streaming, sonoporation and heating. PMID:24798386

Hoang, Nguyen H; Murad, Hakm Y; Ratnayaka, Sithira H; Chen, Chong; Khismatullin, Damir B

2014-08-01

187

Concurrent cocaine-ethanol ingestion in humans: pharmacology, physiology, behavior, and the role of cocaethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous abuse of cocaine and ethanol is a common occurrence. Cocaethylene, the ethyl ester of benzoylecgonine, has been detected in the urine of patients reporting concurrent use of cocaine and ethanol, and high levels have been found in the blood of victims of fatal drug overdose. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the pharmacokinetic, physiologic, and behavioral effects of dual cocaine

Elinore F. McCance-Katz; Lawrence H. Price; Christopher J. McDougle; Thomas R. Kosten; Jed E. Black; Peter I. Jatlow

1993-01-01

188

Ethanol Myths: Under the Microscope  

E-print Network

the emissions, ethanol is the same as high performance characteristics of 100% ethanol. gasoline or worse. your FACT: Ethanol results in fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than gasoline and is fully biodegradable methods. Production of ethanol requires a third less fossil energy than gasoline, reducing GHG emissions

Pawlowski, Wojtek

189

Rat muscle blood flows during high-speed locomotion  

SciTech Connect

We previously studied blood flow distribution within and among rat muscles as a function of speed from walking (15 m/min) through galloping (75 m/min) on a motor-driven treadmill. The results showed that muscle blood flows continued to increase as a function of speed through 75 m/min. The purpose of the present study was to have rats run up to maximal treadmill speeds to determine if blood flows in the muscles reach a plateau as a function of running speed over the animals normal range of locomotory speeds. Muscle blood flows were measured with radiolabeled microspheres at 1 min of running at 75, 90, and 105 m/min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The data indicate that even at these relatively high treadmill speeds there was still no clear evidence of a plateau in blood flow in most of the hindlimb muscles. Flows in most muscles continued to increase as a function of speed. These observed patterns of blood flow vs. running speed may have resulted from the rigorous selection of rats that were capable of performing the high-intensity exercise and thus only be representative of a highly specific population of animals. On the other hand, the data could be interpreted to indicate that the cardiovascular potential during exercise is considerably higher in laboratory rats than has normally been assumed and that inadequate blood flow delivery to the muscles does not serve as a major limitation to their locomotory performance.

Armstrong, R.B.; Laughlin, M.H.

1985-10-01

190

Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 stress response during high-temperature ethanol fermentation.  

PubMed

Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

2013-03-01

191

Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 Stress Response during High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

2013-01-01

192

Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

1977-01-01

193

Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

1995-01-01

194

BOOGIE: Predicting Blood Groups from High Throughput Sequencing Data.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, we have witnessed an incredible growth in the amount of available genotype data due to high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. This information may be used to predict phenotypes of medical relevance, and pave the way towards personalized medicine. Blood phenotypes (e.g. ABO and Rh) are a purely genetic trait that has been extensively studied for decades, with currently over thirty known blood groups. Given the public availability of blood group data, it is of interest to predict these phenotypes from HTS data which may translate into more accurate blood typing in clinical practice. Here we propose BOOGIE, a fast predictor for the inference of blood groups from single nucleotide variant (SNV) databases. We focus on the prediction of thirty blood groups ranging from the well known ABO and Rh, to the less studied Junior or Diego. BOOGIE correctly predicted the blood group with 94% accuracy for the Personal Genome Project whole genome profiles where good quality SNV annotation was available. Additionally, our tool produces a high quality haplotype phase, which is of interest in the context of ethnicity-specific polymorphisms or traits. The versatility and simplicity of the analysis make it easily interpretable and allow easy extension of the protocol towards other phenotypes. BOOGIE can be downloaded from URL http://protein.bio.unipd.it/download/. PMID:25893845

Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Scalzotto, Marta; Leonardi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Carlo; Tosatto, Silvio C E

2015-01-01

195

Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous developments in ethanol fermentation technology since the beginning of the new millennium as ethanol\\u000a has become an immediate viable alternative to fast-depleting crude reserves as well as increasing concerns over environmental\\u000a pollution. Nowadays, although most research efforts are focused on the conversion of cheap cellulosic substrates to ethanol,\\u000a methods that are cost-competitive with gasoline production are

Pradeep Puligundla; Daniela Smogrovicova; Vijaya Sarathi Reddy Obulam; Sanghoon Ko

196

Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19.  

PubMed

Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is severely limited by low solvent titer and productivities. Thus, this study aims at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced ABE production capability followed by process optimization for high ABE productivity. Random mutagenesis of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK was performed by screening cells on fluoroacetate plates to isolate a mutant strain, BKM19, which exhibited the total solvent production capability 30.5% higher than the parent strain. The BKM19 produced 32.5?g?L(-1) of ABE (17.6?g?L(-1) butanol, 10.5?g?L(-1) ethanol, and 4.4?g?L(-1) acetone) from 85.2?g?L(-1) glucose in batch fermentation. A high cell density continuous ABE fermentation of the BKM19 in membrane cell-recycle bioreactor was studied and optimized for improved solvent volumetric productivity. Different dilution rates were examined to find the optimal condition giving highest butanol and ABE productivities. The maximum butanol and ABE productivities of 9.6 and 20.0?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , respectively, could be achieved at the dilution rate of 0.85?h(-1) . Further cell recycling experiments were carried out with controlled cell-bleeding at two different bleeding rates. The maximum solvent productivities were obtained when the fermenter was operated at a dilution rate of 0.86?h(-1) with the bleeding rate of 0.04?h(-1) . Under the optimal operational condition, butanol and ABE could be produced with the volumetric productivities of 10.7 and 21.1?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , and the yields of 0.17 and 0.34?g?g(-1) , respectively. The obtained butanol and ABE volumetric productivities are the highest reported productivities obtained from all known-processes. PMID:23335317

Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Sang Yup

2013-06-01

197

Ethanol levels in honeybee hemolymph resulting from alcohol ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous work on a social insect model of ethanol-induced behavior focused on behavioral studies of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). We now investigate the dependence of honeybee blood ethanol concentration on both the amount of ethanol consumed and time elapsed since ingestion. Blood ethanol level was determined using gas chromatograph using hemolymph taken from harnessed bees. Significantly increased levels of

Janko Bozic; John DiCesare; Harrington Wells; Charles I. Abramson

2007-01-01

198

Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound.  

PubMed

Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging, needle hydrophone measurements and passive cavitation detection. Temperature in or near the focal zone was measured by thermocouples embedded in the samples. The results of this study indicate that the treatment of tissue phantoms and bovine liver samples with ethanol reduces their threshold power for inertial cavitation. This in turn leads to a sudden rise in temperature in ethanol-treated samples at a lower acoustic power than that in untreated ones. The analysis of passive cavitation detection data shows that once the threshold acoustic power is reached, inertial cavitation becomes a major contributor to acoustic scattering in ethanol-treated phantoms and bovine liver samples as compared to control. This study opens up the possibility of improved tumor ablation therapy via a combination of percutaneous ethanol injection and high-intensity focused ultrasound. PMID:22290554

Chen, C; Liu, Y; Maruvada, S; Myers, M; Khismatullin, D

2012-02-21

199

Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging, needle hydrophone measurements and passive cavitation detection. Temperature in or near the focal zone was measured by thermocouples embedded in the samples. The results of this study indicate that the treatment of tissue phantoms and bovine liver samples with ethanol reduces their threshold power for inertial cavitation. This in turn leads to a sudden rise in temperature in ethanol-treated samples at a lower acoustic power than that in untreated ones. The analysis of passive cavitation detection data shows that once the threshold acoustic power is reached, inertial cavitation becomes a major contributor to acoustic scattering in ethanol-treated phantoms and bovine liver samples as compared to control. This study opens up the possibility of improved tumor ablation therapy via a combination of percutaneous ethanol injection and high-intensity focused ultrasound.

Chen, C.; Liu, Y.; Maruvada, S.; Myers, M.; Khismatullin, D.

2012-02-01

200

Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase overexpression in Escherichia coli resulted in high ethanol production and rewired metabolic enzyme networks.  

PubMed

Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase are efficient enzymes for ethanol production in Zymomonas mobilis. These two enzymes were over-expressed in Escherichia coli, a promising candidate for industrial ethanol production, resulting in high ethanol production in the engineered E. coli. To investigate the intracellular changes to the enzyme overexpression for homoethanol production, 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were performed. More than 1,000 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the gel by image analysis. Compared to the wild-type, 99 protein spots showed significant changes in abundance in the recombinant E. coli, in which 46 were down-regulated and 53 were up-regulated. Most proteins related to tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycerol metabolism and other energy metabolism were up-regulated, whereas proteins involved in glycolysis and glyoxylate pathway were down-regulated, indicating the rewired metabolism in the engineered E. coli. As glycolysis is the main pathway for ethanol production, and it was inhibited significantly in engineered E. coli, further efforts should be directed at minimizing the repression of glycolysis to optimize metabolism network for higher yields of ethanol production. PMID:25217026

Yang, Mingfeng; Li, Xuefeng; Bu, Chunya; Wang, Hui; Shi, Guanglu; Yang, Xiushan; Hu, Yong; Wang, Xiaoqin

2014-11-01

201

High-efficiency ethanol production from lignocellulosic residues pretreated with alkaline H/sub 2/O/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment should be economic and should not utilize toxic reagents. In this study locally obtained residues were used - wheat straw, cornstalks, corn husks and kenaf -as substrates. The high efficiency of glucose production from alkaline H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ pretreated lignocellulosic residues made these materials excellent substrates for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in combined saccharification/fermentation experiments. Results showed that overall efficiency of ethanol formation was 90% for pretreated corn cobs, stalks and husks compared to 50% for untreated materials. Yields from kenaf and oak were also enhanced although below the theoretical maximum. The lignin containing supernatant does not appear to be inhibitory to Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth or ethanol production. The improvement in conversion efficiency is apparently the result of the removal of about one half of the lignin along with an apparent reduction in the degree of crystallinity within the cellulose structure itself. 16 references.

Gould, J.M.; Freer, S.N.

1984-06-01

202

Impact of osmotic stress and ethanol inhibition in yeast cells on process oscillation associated with continuous very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation  

PubMed Central

Background VHG fermentation is a promising process engineering strategy aiming at improving ethanol titer, and thus saving energy consumption for ethanol distillation and distillage treatment. However, sustained process oscillation was observed during continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, which significantly affected ethanol fermentation performance of the system. Results Sustained process oscillation was investigated in continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, and stresses exerted on yeast cells by osmotic pressure from unfermented sugars and ethanol inhibition developed within the fermentation system were postulated to be major factors triggering this phenomenon. In this article, steady state was established for continuous ethanol fermentation with LG medium containing 120 g/L glucose, and then 160 g/L non-fermentable xylose was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the osmotic stress on yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, but the fermentation process was still at steady state, indicating that the impact of osmotic stress on yeast cells was not the main reason for the process oscillation. However, when 30 g/L ethanol was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the ethanol inhibition in yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, process oscillation was triggered, which was augmented with extended oscillation period and exaggerated oscillation amplitude as ethanol supplementation was increased to 50 g/L, but the process oscillation was gradually attenuated when the ethanol supplementations were stopped, and the steady state was restored. Furthermore, gas stripping was incorporated into the continuous VHG fermentation system to in situ remove ethanol produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the process oscillation was also attenuated, but restored after the gas stripping was interrupted. Conclusions Experimental results indicated that ethanol inhibition rather than osmotic stress on yeast cells is one of the main factors triggering the process oscillation under the VHG fermentation condition, and in the meantime gas stripping was validated to be an effective strategy for attenuating the process oscillation. PMID:24041271

2013-01-01

203

Continuous High-solids corn liquefaction and fermentation with stripping of ethanol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Removal of ethanol from the fermentor during fermentation can increase productivity and reduce the costs for dewatering the product and coproduct. One approach is to recycle the fermentor contents through a stripping column, where a non-condensable gas removes ethanol to a condenser. Previous resear...

204

Esterification with ethanol to produce biodiesel from high acidity raw materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the esterification reaction of free fatty acids (FFA) in sunflower oil, coconut oil and concentrated FFA, with ethanol, methanol and ethanol 96%, using homogeneous acid catalysts to produce biodiesel is studied. Kinetic parameters are estimated with a simplified model, and then used to predict the reaction behavior. Reactions other than the reversible esterification are considered to explain

M. L. Pisarello; B. Dalla Costa; G. Mendow; C. A. Querini

2010-01-01

205

HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

206

CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL IN HIGH PRODUCTIVITY BIOREACTORS USING GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ESCHERICHIA COLI FBR5: MEMBRANE AND FIXED CELL REACTORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biochemical reactor design plays a major role in determining the economics of fuel and chemical production. Reactors that result in continuously high productivities can significantly reduce the cost of the final product. With this aim, five different reactor systems were evaluated for ethanol prod...

207

What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar.  

E-print Network

What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar. DIABETES IS HIGH BLOOD SUGAR We all have sugar in our blood. When you have diabetes you have too much sugar in your blood muscles can then use sugar for fuel. Insulin keeps blood sugar in balance. #12; If you have diabetes

208

Effects of hydro-ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis on blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluated the differential effects of ethanol extraction of Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) on the blood glucose concentration and pathology of pancreas, liver, lungs, kidney and gastrointestinal tract in the alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 adult female Albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The first group was treated with the extract of C. colocynthis seed (300 mg/kg) and the rats of the second group, as an untreated diabetic group, received ordinary diet. Ten non diabetic rats remained as a normal control group. Results The results of this study indicate that C. colocynthis was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control diabetic group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, alloxan resulted in severe necrotic changes in the pancreatic islets, especially in the central area of the islets. Tissue sections of the pancreas in the treated rats demonstrated enhanced regeneration of B cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Liver of the treated diabetic rats revealed significant improvement of the hepatic tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions The present study indicated a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. colocynthis seed and supported its traditional usage in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Oryan, Ahmad; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Hamidi, Ahmad-Reza; Mohammadalipour, Adel

2014-01-01

209

Fermentation method producing ethanol  

DOEpatents

Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

1986-01-01

210

National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

211

A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

1985-01-01

212

Ethanol induces second-order aversive conditioning in adolescent and adult rats  

PubMed Central

Alcohol abuse and dependence is considered a developmental disorder with etiological onset during late childhood and adolescence, and understanding age-related differences in ethanol sensitivity is important. Low to moderate ethanol doses (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg, i.g.) induce single-trial, appetitive second-order place conditioning (SOC) in adolescent, but not adult, rats. Recent studies have demonstrated that adolescents may be less sensitive than adults to the aversive properties of ethanol, reflected by conditioned taste aversion. The present study assessed the aversive motivational effects of high-dose ethanol (3.0 and 3.25 g/kg, i.g., for adolescent and adults, respectively) using SOC. These doses were derived from Experiment 1, which found similar blood and brain ethanol levels in adolescent and adult rats given 3.0 and 3.25 g/kg ethanol, respectively. In Experiment 2, animals received ethanol or vehicle paired with intraoral pulses of sucrose (conditioned stimulus 1 [CS1]). After one, two, or three conditioning trials, rats were presented with the CS1 while in a distinctive chamber (CS2). When tested for CS2 preference, ethanol-treated animals exhibited reduced preference for the CS2 compared with controls. This result, indicative of ethanol-mediated aversive place conditioning, was similar for adolescents and adults, for females and males, and after one, two, or three training trials. One finding, however, suggested that adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol’s aversive effects at the intermediate level of training. In conjunction with previous results, the present study showed that in adolescent rats subjected to SOC, ethanol’s hedonic effects vary from appetitive to aversive as the ethanol dose increases. Adolescent and adult animals appear to perceive the post-ingestive effects of high-dose ethanol as similarly aversive when assessed by SOC. PMID:21187242

Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Myers, Mallory; Spear, Linda Patia; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

2011-01-01

213

Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication  

E-print Network

to a blood ethanol concentration (BEC) above 1 mg/ml. The test consists of replacing the water with 20- posed strain, C57BL/6J, drink to a blood ethanol concentra- tion (BEC) above 1 mg/ml blood (Rhodes et alMouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication J. S. Rhodes*, , M. M. Ford , C

Garland Jr., Theodore

214

Effects of isoflavonoids on blood pressure in subjects with high-normal ambulatory blood pressure levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetarian diets lower blood pressure (BP), but attempts to identify dietary components responsible have been unsuccessful. Isoflavonoids are commonly consumed as part of vegetarian diets. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of isoflavonoid supplementation on BP. Fifty-nine subjects with high-normal range systolic BP completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of two-way parallel design and 8

Jonathan M. Hodgson; Ian B. Puddey; Lawrence J. Beilin; Trevor A. Mori; Valerie Burke; Kevin D. Croft; Penny B. Rogers

1999-01-01

215

High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Levine, G.F. (California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services)

1993-01-01

216

High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

1993-05-01

217

Brain growth during ethanol-induced hypoplasia.  

PubMed

The inhibition of fetal brain growth resulting from in utero ethanol exposure may impair central nervous system (CNS) development and thereby result in mental retardation. Studies of ethanol-induced brain hypoplasia using chick embryos have shown that the early development of the chick is significantly growth inhibited by a single dose of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) given at the start of incubation (day 0). However, this level of ethanol exposure has been reported to have no effect on chick weight measured at hatching, suggesting that the weights of ethanol-treated chicks were regained during their development. The present experiments were undertaken to determine the biochemical changes associated with the varying growth rates believed to occur in the alcohol-treated embryos. The results indicated that between days 5 and 8 of development, the rates of DNA and protein synthesis (measured as radioactive thymidine and leucine incorporation, respectively) were inhibited by ethanol. The growth inhibition was highly correlated with blood alcohol content and there were associated increases in brain prostaglandin E (PGE) levels relative to vehicle-treated embryos. Further, there was a significant, inverse correlation between brain cyclic AMP content and individual brain weight. By day 10, the ethanol-treated embryos remained smaller than controls but their rates of DNA and protein synthesis were comparable to those of control animals. The normal rates of synthesis observed on day 10 appeared to correlate with clearance of the ethanol dose and with restoration of normal brain levels of PGE relative to 10-day vehicle-dosed embryos. PMID:2830089

Pennington, S; Kalmus, G

1987-11-30

218

Effects of particulate materials and osmoprotectants on very-high-gravity ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The effects of osmoprotectants (such as glycine betaine and proline) and particulate materials on the fermentation of very high concentrations of glucose by the brewing strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (uvarum) NCYC 1324 were studied. The yeast growing at 20 degrees C consumed only 15 g of the sugar per 100 ml from a minimal medium which initially contained 35% (wt/vol) glucose. Supplementing the medium with a mixture of glycine betaine, glycine, and proline increased the amount of sugar fermented to 30.5 g/100 ml. With such supplementation, the viability of the yeast cells was maintained above 80% throughout the fermentation, while it dropped to less than 12% in the unsupplemented controls. Among single additives, glycine was more effective than proline or glycine betaine. On incubating the cultures for 10 days, the viability decreased to only 55% with glycine, while it dropped to 36 and 27%, respectively, with glycine betaine and proline. It is suggested that glycine and proline, known to be poor nitrogen sources for growth, may serve directly or indirectly as osmoprotectants. Nutrients such as tryptone, yeast extract, and a mixture of purine and pyrimidine bases increased the sugar uptake and ethanol production but did not allow the population to maintain the high level of cell viability. While only 43% of the sugar was fermented in unsupplemented medium, the presence of particulate materials such as wheat bran, wheat mash insolubles, alumina, and soy flour increased sugar utilization to 68, 75, 81, and 82%, respectively. PMID:8017934

Thomas, K C; Hynes, S H; Ingledew, W M

1994-01-01

219

Structural rearrangement of ethanol-denatured soy proteins by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.  

PubMed

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (100-500 MPa) on solubility and structural properties of ethanol (EtOH)-denatured soy ?-conglycinin and glycinin were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy. HHP treatment above 200 MPa, especially at neutral and alkaline pH as well as low ionic strength, significantly improved the solubility of denatured soy proteins. Structural rearrangements of denatured ?-conglycinin subjected to high pressure were confirmed, as evidenced by the increase in enthalpy value (?H) and the formation of the ordered supramolecular structure with stronger intramolecular hydrogen bond. HHP treatment (200-400 MPa) caused an increase in surface hydrophobicity (F(max)) of ?-conglycinin, partially attributable to the exposure of the Tyr and Phe residues, whereas higher pressure (500 MPa) induced the decrease in F(max) due to hydrophobic rearrangements. The Trp residues in ?-conglycinin gradually transferred into a hydrophobic environment, which might further support the finding of structural rearrangements. In contrast, increasing pressure induced the progressive unfolding of denatured glycinin, accompanied by the movement of the Tyr and Phe residues to the molecular surface of protein. These results suggested that EtOH-denatured ?-conglycinin and glycinin were involved in different pathways of structural changes during HHP treatment. PMID:21609024

Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Yin, Shou-Wei; Zhang, Ye; Tang, Chuan-He; Li, Bian-Sheng; Yuan, De-Bao; Guo, Jian

2011-07-13

220

Interaction Between High-Fat Diet and Alcohol Dehydrogenase on Ethanol-Elicited Cardiac Depression in Murine Myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Consumption of high-fat diet and alcohol is associated with obesity, leading to enhanced morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to examine the interaction between high-fat diet and the alcohol metabolizing enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced cardiac depression.Research Methods and Procedures: Mechanical and intracellular Ca2+ properties were measured in cardiomyocytes from ADH transgenic and Friend Virus-B type (FVB)

Jun Ren

2007-01-01

221

The intrinsic and interactive effects of RO 15-4513 and ethanol on locomotor activity, body temperature, and blood glucose concentration  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the putative ethanol antagonist RO 15-4513 to antagonize ethanol-induced hypoactivity, hypothermia and hyperglycemia was investigated in rats. Although RO 15-4513 produced hypoactivity by itself, it attenuated ethanol-induced hypoactivity. This antagonism suggests that ethanol-induced hypoactivity is mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex which is thought to be the site of action of RO 15-4513. In contrast, although RO 15-4513 produced hypothermia by itself, it had no significant effect on ethanol-induced hypothermia. This suggests that the hypothermic effect of ethanol is not mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex. The fact that RO 15-4513, ethanol and the vehicle all produced hyperglycemia suggests a common stress effect and does not permit any firm conclusions to be drawn as to the interaction between ethanol and RO 15-4513 in modulating glycemic responses. These data indicate that the ethanol antagonism of RO 15-4513 is primarily confined to ethanol's behavioral effects and that ethanol's behavioral and physiological effects are mediated by neurochemically distinct mechanisms.

Wood, A.L.; Healey, P.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Verne, S.L.; Atrens, D.M. (Univ. of Sydney, (Australia))

1989-01-01

222

The elusiveness of population-wide high blood pressure control.  

PubMed

High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is highly prevalent in the US general population, especially in those who are old, African American, or socially disadvantaged. Prevalence is also high and increasing worldwide. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension have improved over time, but there is still considerable room for improvement. The optimal solution to this health challenge varies by country. Several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are well proven as effective means to prevent hypertension and improve control rates in those with established hypertension. Better prevention and control of hypertension will yield substantial general population health benefits and remain high priorities in public health. PMID:25594330

Whelton, Paul K

2015-03-18

223

High efficiency magnetic bearing for a rotary blood pump.  

PubMed

Mohawk Innovative Technology, Inc. (MiTi; Albany, NY) and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (Cleveland, OH) have been engaged in a joint project to develop a new, high efficiency magnetic bearing for use in a rotary blood pump. Such a bearing would have some advantages with respect to permitting large, low shear clearances and avoiding crevice-like pivot interfaces and surface wear related issues. While magnetically suspended blood pumps have been demonstrated, other prototypes reported in the literature consume 5-15 W of power to energize the bearing. The MiTi bearing has been prototyped and tested. The design is a hybrid configuration, radially passive and axially active. The rotor-and-bearing system has been run in air and in blood analog solution, in all orientations. Measurements show a bearing power consumption below 0.5 W. Vibration peaked at 0.2 g in blood analog solution; frequency analysis indicated that this was primarily related to motor design features. Measured displacements from the equilibrium position were less than 0.005 cm. Based on this highly successful bearing prototype, an integrated pump/bearing system is now being developed. PMID:9804532

Chen, H M; Smith, W A; Walton, J F

1998-01-01

224

Palladium-cobalt nanotube arrays supported on carbon fiber cloth as high-performance flexible electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation.  

PubMed

PdCo nanotube arrays (NTAs) supported on carbon fiber cloth (CFC) (PdCo NTAs/CFC) are presented as high-performance flexible electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation. The fabricated flexible PdCo NTAs/CFC exhibits significantly improved electrocatalytic activity and durability compared with Pd NTAs/CFC and commercial Pd/C catalysts. Most importantly, the PdCo NTAs/CFC shows excellent flexibility and the high electrocatalytic performance remains almost constant under the different distorted states, such as normal, bending, and twisting states. This work shows the first example of Pd-based alloy NTAs supported on CFC as high-performance flexible electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation. PMID:25631986

Wang, An-Liang; He, Xu-Jun; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Han; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

2015-03-16

225

High abundant protein removal from rodent blood for biomarker discovery.  

PubMed

In order to realize the goal of stratified and/or personalized medicine in the clinic, significant advances in the field of biomarker discovery are necessary. Adding to the abundance of nucleic acid biomarkers being characterized, additional protein biomarkers will be needed to satisfy diverse clinical needs. An appropriate source for finding these biomarkers is within blood, as it contains tissue leakage factors as well as additional proteins that reside in blood that can be linked to the presence of disease. Unfortunately, high abundant proteins and complexity of the blood proteome present significant challenges for the discovery of protein biomarkers from blood. Animal models often enable the discovery of biomarkers that can later be translated to humans. Therefore, determining appropriate sample preparation of proteomic samples in rodent models is an important research goal. Here, we examined both mouse and rat blood samples (including both serum and plasma), for appropriate high abundant protein removal techniques for subsequent gel-based proteomic experiments. We assessed four methods of albumin removal: antibody-based affinity chromatography (MARS), Cibacron® Blue-based affinity depletion (SwellGel® Blue Albumin Removal Kit), protein-based affinity depletion (ProteaPrep Albumin Depletion Kit) and TCA/acetone precipitation. Albumin removal was quantified for each method and SDS-PAGE and 2-DE gels were used to quantify the number of protein spots obtained following albumin removal. Our results suggest that while all four approaches can effectively remove high abundant proteins, antibody-based affinity chromatography is superior to the other three methods. PMID:25445603

Haudenschild, Dominik R; Eldridge, Angela; Lein, Pamela J; Chromy, Brett A

2014-12-01

226

Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant\\/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid profile and oxidant\\/antioxidant status were investigated in volunteer subjects with high blood cholesterol. A total of 23 volunteer subjects with high blood cholesterol (>5.98 mmol\\/L) participated in the study. Of them, 13 patients were evaluated as a hypertensive group and the others a normotensive group. Before (first sample) and after (second sample)

?lker Durak; Mustafa Kavutcu; Bilal Aytaç; Asl?han Avc?; Erdinç Devrim; Hanefi Özbek; Hasan Serdar Öztürk

2004-01-01

227

Long-term ethanol consumption impairs reverse cholesterol transport function of high-density lipoproteins by depleting high-density lipoprotein sphingomyelin both in rats and in humans  

PubMed Central

Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to lower incidence of coronary artery disease due to increased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas heavy drinking has the opposite effect. Because of the crucial role of HDL in reverse cholesterol transport and positive correlation of HDL sphingomyelin (SM) content with cholesterol efflux, we have compared HDL SM content with its reverse cholesterol transport capacity both in rats fed ethanol on long-term basis and alcoholic individuals. In rats, SM HDL content was decreased in the ethanol group (?15.4%, P < .01) with a concomitant efflux decrease (?21.0%, P < .01) compared to that in controls. Similarly, HDL from the ethanol group, when compared with HDL from the control group, exhibited 13.8% (P < .05) less cholesterol uptake with control-group hepatocytes and 35.0% (P < .05) less cholesterol uptake with ethanol-group hepatocytes. Conversely, hepatocytes from the ethanol group, when compared with hepatocytes from the control group, exhibited 31.0% (P < .01) less cholesterol uptake with control-group HDL and 48.0% (P < .01) less with ethanol-group HDL. In humans, SM content in plasma HDL was also decreased in chronically alcoholic individuals without liver disease (?51.5%, P < .01) and in chronically alcoholic individuals with liver disease (?51.3%, P < .01), compared with nondrinkers. Concomitantly, in alcoholic individuals without liver disease, both efflux and uptake were decreased by 83.0% and 54.0% (P < .01), respectively, and in chronically alcoholic individuals with liver disease by 84.0% and 61.0% (P < .01), respectively, compared with nondrinkers. Based on these findings, we conclude that long-term ethanol consumption significantly impairs not only cholesterol efflux function of HDL by decreasing its SM content but also cholesterol uptake by affecting presumably hepatocyte receptors for HDL. PMID:17570257

Marmillot, Philippe; Munoz, Jennifer; Patel, Sanket; Garige, Mamatha; Rosse, Richard B.; Lakshman, M. Raj

2007-01-01

228

From the Cover: Fetal ethanol exposure increases ethanol intake by making it smell and taste better  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human epidemiologic studies reveal that fetal ethanol exposure is highly predictive of adolescent ethanol avidity and abuse. Little is known about how fetal exposure produces these effects. It is hypothesized that fetal ethanol exposure results in stimulus-induced chemosensory plasticity. Here, we asked whether gestational ethanol exposure increases postnatal ethanol avidity in rats by altering its taste and odor. Experimental rats

Steven L. Youngentob; John I. Glendinning

2009-01-01

229

Nicotinic receptor ligands reduce ethanol intake by high alcohol-drinking HAD-2 rats.  

PubMed

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are implicated in the reinforcing effects of many drugs of abuse, including ethanol. The present study examined the efficacy of cytisine, a nAChR partial agonist, and lobeline, a putative nAChR antagonist, on the maintenance of ethanol drinking by HAD-2 rats. Adult male HAD-2 rats were given access to ethanol (15 and 30%, with ad libitum access to water and food) 22 h/day for 12 weeks, beginning at 60 days of age, after which cytisine (0.0, 0.5, and 1.5 mg/kg) was tested for 3 consecutive days. The rats were given an 18-day washout period and were then tested with lobeline (0.0, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Ethanol intake was measured at 1, 4, and 22 h postinjection. Rats were injected intraperitoneally just before lights out (1200 h). There was a significant main effect of cytisine treatment on the second test day, with the 1.5 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake at the 1- and 4-h time-points, relative to saline, and the 0.5 mg/kg dose inducing a significant reduction at the 4-h time-point. Conversely, lobeline treatment resulted in significant main effects of treatment for all three time-points within each test day, with the 5.0 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake, relative to saline, at each time-point within each test day. These findings provide further evidence that activity at the nAChR influences ethanol intake and is a promising target for pharmacotherapy development for the treatment of alcohol dependence and relapse. PMID:20004336

Bell, Richard L; Eiler, Bill J A; Cook, Jason B; Rahman, Shafiqur

2009-12-01

230

Nicotinic receptor ligands reduce ethanol intake by high alcohol-drinking HAD-2 rats  

PubMed Central

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are implicated in the reinforcing effects of many drugs of abuse, including ethanol. The present study examined the efficacy of cytisine, a nAChR partial agonist, and lobeline, a putative nAChR antagonist, on the maintenance of ethanol drinking by HAD-2 rats. Adult male HAD-2 rats were given access to ethanol (15% and 30%, with ad lib water and food) 22 hr per day for 12 weeks, beginning at 60 days old, after which cytisine (0.0, 0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg) was tested for 3 consecutive days. The rats were given an 18 day wash-out period, and were then tested with lobeline (0.0, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Ethanol intake was measured at 1, 4 and 22 hours post-injection. Rats were injected i.p. just prior to lights out (1200 h). There was a significant main effect of cytisine treatment on the 2nd test day, with the 1.5 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake at the 1 hr and 4 hr time-points, relative to saline, and the 0.5 mg/kg dose inducing a significant reduction at the 4 hr time-point. Conversely, lobeline treatment resulted in significant main effects of treatment for all 3 time points, within each test day, with the 5.0 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake, relative to saline, at each time-point within each test day. These findings provide further evidence that activity at the nAChR influences ethanol intake and is a promising target for pharmacotherapy development for the treatment of alcohol dependence and relapse. PMID:20004336

Bell, Richard L.; Eiler, Bill J. A.; Cook, Jason B.; Rahman, Shafiqur

2010-01-01

231

Ethanol Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews the current process technologies for fuel ethanol production. In the US, almost all commercial fuel ethanol is produced from corn whereas cane sugar is used almost exclusively in Brazil. In Europe, two major types of feedstock considered for fuel ethanol production are be...

232

Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

2014-03-01

233

Gas signatures from Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli-inoculated human whole blood  

E-print Network

blood Diemthyl sulfide [pptv] Carbon disulfide [pptv] Acetaldehyde [ppbv] Ethanol [blood culture; Dimethyl sulfide (DMS); Carbon disulfide (CS 2 ); Ethanol;with human blood. It is likely that the ethanol emission

2013-01-01

234

Schedule-induced Polydipsia in Lines of Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Ethanol Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol drinking was assessed in the P\\/NP, HAD1\\/LAD1, and HAD2\\/LAD2 lines of rats under environmental conditions that produce\\u000a schedule-induced polydipsia. Female rats (n = 8\\/line), maintained at 85% of free-feeding body weights, underwent daily 1-h sessions during which 45-mg food pellets were\\u000a delivered every 60 s. Water, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32% w\\/v ethanol solution was available from a single bottle for

N. W. Gilpin; N. E. Badia-Elder; R. L. Elder; R. B. Stewart

2008-01-01

235

[Clinical guideline for diagnosis and treatment of high blood pressure].  

PubMed

Hypertension is a disease with numerous etiologies which consequences led to systemic vascular damage leading to other cardio-vascular diseases increasing morbi-morbility. Clinically it goes through a prolonged asymptomatic phase that prevents early diagnosis. Today, a high prevalence is reported in our country so that it is considered a public health issue. The purpose of this guide is to be a useful tool to be used to define the Arterial Hypertension or high blood pressure concept, its epidemiology, prevalence, classification and, according to these concepts, in order to establish a proper treatment program emphasizing the preventive side of the disease in primary care units. PMID:21839001

Castaño-Guerra, Rodolfo; Medina-González, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa-Rincón, Rosa Lidia; Loría-Castellanos, Jorge

2011-01-01

236

Corn steep liquor as a cost-effective nutrition adjunct in high-performance Zymomonas ethanol fermentations  

SciTech Connect

The ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has been demonstrated to possess several fermentation performance characteristics that are superior to yeast. In a recent survey conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Zymomonas was selected as the most promising host for improvement by genetic engineering directed to pentose metabolism for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass and wastes. Minimization of costs associated with nutritional supplements and seed production is essential for economic large-scale production of fuel ethanol. Corn steep liquor (CSL) is a byproduct of corn wet-milling and has been used as a fermentation nutrient supplement in several different fermentations. This study employed pH-controlled batch fermenters to compare the growth and fermentation performance of Z. mobilis in glucose media with whole and clarified corn steep liquor as sole nutrient source, and to determine minimal amounts of CSL required to sustain high-performance fermentation. 44 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1997-12-31

237

Production of an acetone-butanol-ethanol mixture from Clostridium acetobutylicum and its conversion to high-value biofuels.  

PubMed

Clostridium acetobutylicum is a bacterial species that ferments sugar to a mixture of organic solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol). This protocol delineates a methodology to combine solventogenic clostridial fermentation and chemical catalysis via extractive fermentation for the production of biofuel blendstocks. Extractive fermentation of C. acetobutylicum is operated in fed-batch mode with a concentrated feed solution (500 grams per liter glucose and 50 grams per liter yeast extract) for 60 h, producing in excess of 40 g of solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) between the completely immiscible extractant and aqueous phases of the bioreactor. After distillation of the extractant phase, the acetone, butanol and ethanol mixture is upgraded to long-chain ketones over a palladium-hydrotalcite (Pd-HT) catalyst. This reaction is generally carried out in batch with a high-pressure Q-tube for 20 h at 250 °C. Following this protocol enables the production of ?0.5 g of high-value biofuel precursors from a 1.7-g portion of fermentation solvents. PMID:25719271

Sreekumar, Sanil; Baer, Zachary C; Pazhamalai, Anbarasan; Gunbas, Gorkem; Grippo, Adam; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S; Toste, F Dean

2015-03-01

238

Early maternal separation affects ethanol-induced conditioning in a nor-BNI insensitive manner, but does not alter ethanol-induced locomotor activity.  

PubMed

Early environmental stress significantly affects the development of offspring. This stress has been modeled in rats through the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which alters the functioning of the HPA axis and can enhance ethanol intake at adulthood. Infant rats are sensitive to ethanol's reinforcing effects, which modulate ethanol seeking and intake. Little is known about the impact of MS on sensitivity to ethanol's appetitive and aversive effects during infancy. The present study assessed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference established through second-order conditioning (SOC), spontaneous or ethanol-induced locomotor activity and ethanol intake in preweanling rats that experienced normal animal facility rearing (AFR) or daily episodes of maternal separation (MS) during postnatal days 1-13 (PDs 1-13). Low-ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) induced appetitive conditioned place preference (via SOC) in control rats given conventional rearing but not in rats given maternal separation in early infancy, whereas 2.0 g/kg ethanol induced aversive conditioned place preference in the former but not the latter. The administration of a kappa antagonist at PD 1 or immediately before testing did not alter ethanol-induced reinforcement. High (i.e., 2.5 and 2.0 g/kg) but not low (i.e., 0.5 g/kg) ethanol dose induced reliable motor stimulation, which was independent of early maternal separation. Ethanol intake and blood alcohol levels during conditioning were unaffected by rearing conditions. Pups given early maternal separation had lower body weights than controls and showed an altered pattern of exploration when placed in an open field. These results indicate that, when assessed in infant rats, earlier maternal separation alters the balance between the appetitive and aversive motivational effects of ethanol but has no effect on the motor activating effects of the drug. PMID:22108648

Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Fabio, Ma Carolina; Spear, Norman E

2012-01-01

239

Ethanol induces human red cell shape transformations and enhanced ligand-mediated agglutinability  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol concentrations are markedly elevated in rat stomach wall when ulcerogenic doses of 100 % ethanol (2 ml for 5 to 10 minutes) are instilled in rat gastric lumen. The authors observed that red cells in gastric mucosal postcapillary venules become spiculated and interadherent under these conditions. The authors have now studied this phenomenon in vitro using washing human red cells. Concentrations of high grade ethanol ranging from 2 to 10% (v/v) in physiological buffered saline (pH 7.3) without Ca/sup + +/ or Mg/sup + +/ at 25/sup 0/C rapidly transformed human red cells into spiculated forms. 2% ethanol transformed human red cells into disco-echinocytes in 15 min. whereas 10% ethanol transformed red blood cells into echinocytes within 3 min. Washing out of ethanol at 1 hour reverted the echinocytes into discocytes. However, following 3 hours of incubation in 10% ethanol washing out of ethanol produced stomatocytes. The ethanol-induced echinocytic shape transformations were accompanied by a dose-related increase in red cell agglutinability with poly-L-lysine or the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin. The enhanced agglutinability was reversed by restoring the red cell shape changes and alterations in surface properties may play a role in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.

Weinstein, R.S.; McLawhon, R.W.; Marikovsky, Y.

1986-03-01

240

Ethanol Causes Protein Precipitation—New Safety Issues for Catheter Locking Techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective The ethanol lock technique has shown great potential to eradicate organisms in biofilms and to treat or prevent central venous catheter related infections. Following instillation of ethanol lock solution, however, the inherent density gradient between blood and ethanol causes gravity induced seepage of ethanol out of the catheter and blood influx into the catheter. Plasma proteins so are exposed to highly concentrated ethanol, which is a classic agent for protein precipitation. We aimed to investigate the precipitating effect of ethanol locks on plasma proteins as a possible cause for reported catheter occlusions. Methods Plasma samples were exposed in-vitro to ethanol (concentrations ranging from 7 to 70 v/v%) and heparin lock solutions. In catheter studies designed to mimic different in-vivo situations, the catheter tip was placed in a plasma reservoir and the material contained within the catheter was analyzed after ethanol lock instillation. The samples underwent standardized investigation for protein precipitation. Results Protein precipitation was observed in plasma samples containing ethanol solutions above a concentration of 28%, as well as in material retrieved from vertically positioned femoral catheters and jugular (subclavian) catheters simulating recumbent or head down tilt body positions. Precipitates could not be re-dissolved by dilution with plasma, urokinase or alteplase. Plasma samples containing heparin lock solutions showed no signs of precipitation. Conclusions Our in-vitro results demonstrate that ethanol locks may be associated with plasma protein precipitation in central venous catheters. This phenomenon could be related to occlusion of vascular access devices locked with ethanol, as has been reported. Concerns should be raised regarding possible complications upon injection or spontaneous gravity induced leakage of such irreversibly precipitated protein particles into the systemic circulation. We suggest limiting the maximum advisable concentration of ethanol to 28 v/v% in catheter lock solutions. PMID:24391979

Schilcher, Gernot; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Schneditz, Daniel; Scharnagl, Hubert; Ribitsch, Werner; Krause, Robert; Rosenkranz, Alexander R.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Horina, Joerg H.

2013-01-01

241

Wearable, Doc-Prescribed Monitors May Help Spot High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... Doc-Prescribed Monitors May Help Spot High Blood Pressure Wearing device for a day gives more accurate ... December 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure MONDAY, Dec. 22, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People suspected ...

242

Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled  

MedlinePLUS

... Sign Out Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease and ... and third leading causes of death. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, ...

243

A single dose of ethanol suppresses rat embryo development in vivo.  

PubMed

In humans and animal models, maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy results in a variety of fetal defects collectively termed the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Limited follow-up studies suggest that FAS children fail to achieve normal physical or mental development despite significant postnatal intervention. Although the complete FAS appears to result only when chronic, excessive alcohol consumption occurs throughout pregnancy, several investigators have suggested that ethanol consumption at intermediate levels may induce components of FAS. The defect most consistently observed in neonates exposed to ethanol is growth retardation. Even those children whose mothers consume limited amounts of ethanol during pregnancy have a significant incidence of fetal growth deficiency. We now report that a single dose of ethanol administered to female Holtzman rats within 8 hr after mating results in a dose-dependent retardation of cell division in the fertilized ova. The growth retardation is sustained up to 42 hr after the dose and the embryos of young mothers are especially sensitive to ethanol. Animals with high blood alcohol levels (greater than 150 mg/100 ml) show a significant increase in abnormal embryo morphology. These data suggest that maternal consumption of a single dose of ethanol near the time sustained up to 42 hr after the dose and the embryos of young mothers are especially sensitive to ethanol. Animals with high blood alcohol levels (greater than 150 mg/100 ml) show a significant increase in abnormal embryo morphology. These data suggest that maternal consumption of a single dose of ethanol near the time of conception retards embryonic growth and may be detrimental to the developing organism. Further, young female rats receiving a high dose of ethanol had significantly lower uterine weights and a lower number of corpora lutea per ovary, suggesting that a single dose of ethanol has a detrimental effect on maternal reproductive ability. PMID:6377953

Pennington, S N; Taylor, W A; Cowan, D H; Kalmus, G W

1984-01-01

244

JAMA Patient Page: New Guideline for Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... the most common conditions in adults seen in primary care clinics. There are 2 numbers in a blood pressure measurement: systolic blood pressure (the top number) and diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number). High blood pressure occurs when either of these numbers is too ...

245

Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.  

PubMed

Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance. PMID:22387426

Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu

2012-08-31

246

Acute Ethanol Effects on Brain Activation in Low- and High-Level Responders to Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Background A low level of response (LR) to alcohol is an important endophenotype associated with an increased risk for alcoholism. However, little is known about how neural functioning may differ between individuals with low and high LRs to alcohol. This study examined whether LR group effects on neural activity varied as a function of acute alcohol consumption. Methods 30 matched high- and low-LR pairs (N=60 healthy young adults) were recruited from the University of California, San Diego and administered a structured diagnostic interview and laboratory alcohol challenge followed by two fMRI sessions under placebo and alcohol conditions, in randomized order. Task performance and BOLD response contrast to high relative to low working memory load in an event-related visual working memory (VWM) task was examined across 120 fMRI sessions. Results Both LR groups performed similarly on the VWM task across conditions. A significant LR group by condition interaction effect was observed in inferior frontal and cingulate regions, such that alcohol attenuated the LR group differences found under placebo (p<.05). The LR group by condition effect remained even after controlling for cerebral blood flow, age, and typical drinking quantity. Conclusions Alcohol had differential effects on brain activation for low and high LR individuals within frontal and cingulate regions. These findings represent an additional step in the search for physiological correlates of a low LR, and identify brain regions that may be associated with the low LR response. PMID:20477775

Trim, Ryan S.; Simmons, Alan N.; Tolentino, Neil J.; Hall, Shana A.; Matthews, Scott C.; Robinson, Shannon K.; Smith, Tom L.; Padula, Claudia B.; Paulus, Martin P.; Tapert, Susan F.; Schuckit, Marc A.

2013-01-01

247

Fuel ethanol  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

Not Available

1989-02-01

248

Acceleration of the rate of ethanol fermentation by addition of nitrogen in high tannin grain sorghum  

SciTech Connect

In this communication, the authors show that accelerated rates of ethanol production, comparable to sorghum varieties containing low levels of tannins and to corn, can occur without the removal of the tannins. The basis of the inhibition appears to be a lack of sufficient nitrogen in the mash for protein synthesis required to support an accelerated fermentative metabolism in Saccharomyces. No inhibition of the enzymes used for starch hydrolysis was found.

Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.

1987-01-01

249

High solids simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated wheat straw to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw was pretreated with dilute (0.5%) sulfuric acid at 140°C for 1 h. Pretreated straw solids were washed with deionized\\u000a water to neutrality and then stored frozen at –20°C. The approximate composition of the pretreated straw solids was 64% cellulose,\\u000a 33% lignin, and 2% xylan. The cellulose in the pretreated wheat straw solids was converted to ethanol in batch

A. Mohagheghi; M. Tucker; K. Grohmann; C. Wyman

1992-01-01

250

Telemonitoring in the management of high blood pressure.  

PubMed

High blood pressure (BP) is an important risk factor for stroke and ischaemic heart disease. Yet, despite the availability of effective drugs, it is generally poorly controlled. Partly this is because some patients do not adhere to treatment regimens and partly because clinicians either measure BP insufficiently frequently or are not rigorous in applying treatment guidelines. Additionally individual surgery measurements of BP provide a poor prediction of cardiovascular risk. Methods using multiple BP measures provide more accurate estimates of risk and response to treatment. Self-monitoring of blood pressure at home overcomes this problem, but alone has not been conclusively shown to lower BP. There is now strong evidence from several randomised controlled trials that using telemetry to communicate home BP measures to healthcare providers (telemonitoring) is associated with highly statistically and clinically significant reductions in BP. However the studies have been of relatively short duration and it is not known if these reductions would be sustained in the long term, nor have any of the studies been at large scale. While there are challenges to implementing telemonitoring at scale there is a need for large implementation trials over relatively prolonged periods to establish the efficacy of such an approach in routine care. PMID:25341853

Mc Kinstry, Brian; Hanley, Janet; Lewis, Steff

2015-01-01

251

Effects of short deprivation and re-exposure intervals on the ethanol drinking behavior of selectively bred high alcohol-consuming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholics generally display cycles of excessive ethanol intake, abstinence and relapse behavior. Using an animal model of relapse-like drinking, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), our laboratory has shown that repeated 2-week cycles of ethanol deprivation and re-exposure, following an initial 6-week access period, result in a robust ADE by alcohol-preferring (P) and high alcohol-drinking (HAD-1 and HAD-2) rats. These rat

Richard L. Bell; Zachary A. Rodd; Jonathon A. Schultz; Caron L. Peper; Lawrence Lumeng; James M. Murphy; William J. McBride

2008-01-01

252

Respiratory chain analysis of Zymomonas mobilis mutants producing high levels of ethanol.  

PubMed

We previously isolated respiratory-deficient mutant (RDM) strains of Zymomonas mobilis, which exhibited greater growth and enhanced ethanol production under aerobic conditions. These RDM strains also acquired thermotolerance. Morphologically, the cells of all RDM strains were shorter compared to the wild-type strain. We investigated the respiratory chains of these RDM strains and found that some RDM strains lost NADH dehydrogenase activity, whereas others exhibited reduced cytochrome bd-type ubiquinol oxidase or ubiquinol peroxidase activities. Complementation experiments restored the wild-type phenotype. Some RDM strains seem to have certain mutations other than the corresponding respiratory chain components. RDM strains with deficient NADH dehydrogenase activity displayed the greatest amount of aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that all NADH dehydrogenase-deficient strains were mutated within the ndh gene, which includes insertion, deletion, or frameshift. These results suggested that the loss of NADH dehydrogenase activity permits the acquisition of higher aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance in this industrially important strain. PMID:22660712

Hayashi, Takeshi; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

2012-08-01

253

Ethanol Production and Maximum Cell Growth Are Highly Correlated with Membrane Lipid Composition during Fermentation as Determined by Lipidomic Analysis of 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains  

PubMed Central

Optimizing ethanol yield during fermentation is important for efficient production of fuel alcohol, as well as wine and other alcoholic beverages. However, increasing ethanol concentrations during fermentation can create problems that result in arrested or sluggish sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The fundamental cellular basis for these problem fermentations, however, is not well understood. Small-scale fermentations were performed in a synthetic grape must using 22 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (primarily wine strains) with various degrees of ethanol tolerance to assess the correlation between lipid composition and fermentation kinetic parameters. Lipids were extracted at several fermentation time points representing different growth phases of the yeast to quantitatively analyze phospholipids and ergosterol utilizing atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry methods. Lipid profiling of individual fermentations indicated that yeast lipid class profiles do not shift dramatically in composition over the course of fermentation. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed using partial least-squares linear regression modeling to correlate lipid composition data with fermentation kinetic data. The results indicate a strong correlation (R2 = 0.91) between the overall lipid composition and the final ethanol concentration (wt/wt), an indicator of strain ethanol tolerance. One potential component of ethanol tolerance, the maximum yeast cell concentration, was also found to be a strong function of lipid composition (R2 = 0.97). Specifically, strains unable to complete fermentation were associated with high phosphatidylinositol levels early in fermentation. Yeast strains that achieved the highest cell densities and ethanol concentrations were positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine species similar to those known to decrease the perturbing effects of ethanol in model membrane systems. PMID:23064336

Henderson, Clark M.; Lozada-Contreras, Michelle; Jiranek, Vladimir; Longo, Marjorie L.

2013-01-01

254

Highly Active Iridium/Iridium Tin/Tin Oxide Heterogeneous Nanoparticles as Alternative Electrocatalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a promising fuel for low-temperature direct fuel cell reactions due to its low toxicity, ease of storage and transportation, high-energy density, and availability from biomass. However, the implementation of ethanol fuel cell technology has been hindered by the lack of low-cost, highly active anode catalysts. In this paper, we have studied Iridium (Ir)-based binary catalysts as low-cost alternative electrocatalysts replacing platinum (Pt)-based catalysts for the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) reaction. We report the synthesis of carbon supported Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29} catalysts with an average diameter of 2.7 {+-} 0.6 nm through a 'surfactant-free' wet chemistry approach. The complementary characterization techniques, including aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, are used to identify the 'real' heterogeneous structure of Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C particles as Ir/Ir-Sn/SnO{sub 2}, which consists of an Ir-rich core and an Ir-Sn alloy shell with SnO{sub 2} present on the surface. The Ir{sub 71}Sn{sub 29}/C heterogeneous catalyst exhibited high electrochemical activity toward the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to the commercial Pt/C (ETEK), PtRu/C (Johnson Matthey) as well as PtSn/C catalysts. Electrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the superior electro-activity is directly related to the high degree of Ir-Sn alloy formation as well as the existence of nonalloyed SnO{sub 2} on surface. Our cross-disciplinary work, from novel 'surfactant-free' synthesis of Ir-Sn catalysts, theoretical simulations, and catalytic measurements to the characterizations of 'real' heterogeneous nanostructures, will not only highlight the intriguing structure-property correlations in nanosized catalysts but also have a transformative impact on the commercialization of DEFC technology by replacing Pt with low-cost, highly active Ir-based catalysts.

Du W.; Su D.; Wang Q.; Saxner D.; Deskins N.A.; Krzanowski J.E.; Frenkel A.I.; Teng X.

2011-08-03

255

Ethanol blocks nicotine-induced seizures in mice: comparison with midazolam and baclofen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low doses of ethanol may antagonize the pharmacological effects of nicotine. Recently, it has been shown that the effects of ethanol on nicotine discrimination are not correlated with blood ethanol levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether ethanol (0.5–2g\\/kg, i.p.) could block nicotine-induced seizures in C57BL\\/6J mice and to correlate ethanol's actions with blood ethanol concentrations.

Agnieszka Korkosz; Pawel Zatorski; Ewa Taracha; Adam Plaznik; Wojciech Kostowski; Przemyslaw Bienkowski

2006-01-01

256

What African Americans with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure Need to Know: Get Checked for Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... or High Blood Pressure Need to Know What African Americans with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure Need to ... is the #1 cause of kidney failure among African Americans. High blood pressure is the #2 cause. African ...

257

Rewarding and aversive effects of ethanol in High Drinking in the Dark selectively bred mice.  

PubMed

Both rewarding and aversive effects contribute to alcohol consumption. Animals genetically predisposed to be high drinkers show reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol, and in some instances, increased sensitivity to alcohol's rewarding effects. The present studies tested the high drinking in the dark (HDID) selected lines, a genetic model of drinking to intoxication, to determine whether intake in these mice was genetically related to sensitivity to alcohol aversion or reward. Male HDID mice from the first and second replicate lines (HDID-1 and HDID-2, respectively) and mice from the heterogeneous progenitor control population (HS/Npt, or HS) were conditioned for a taste aversion to a salt solution using two doses of alcohol, and lithium chloride (LiCl) and saline controls. In separate experiments, male and female HDID-1, HDID-2 and HS mice were conditioned for place preference using alcohol. HDID mice were found to have an attenuated sensitivity to alcohol at a moderate (2?g/kg) dose compared to HS mice, but did not differ on conditioned taste aversion to a high (4?g/kg) dose or LiCl or saline injections. HDID and HS mice showed comparable development of alcohol-induced conditioned place preference. These results indicate that high blood alcohol levels after drinking in the HDID mice is genetically related to attenuated aversion to alcohol, while sensitivity to alcohol reward is not altered in these mice. Thus, HDID mice may find a moderate dose of alcohol to be less aversive than control mice and consequently may drink more because of this reduced aversive sensitivity. PMID:23910826

Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M; Cunningham, Christopher L; Smitasin, Phoebe J; Crabbe, John C

2015-01-01

258

Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

259

High Blood Sugar in Heart Failure Patients May Point to Risk of Early Death  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. High Blood Sugar in Heart Failure Patients May Point to Risk of Early Death Even ... Checking the blood sugar levels of emergency department patients with heart failure can identify those at risk ...

260

More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... young adults have high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously ... health problems. Another healthy move is to limit alcohol intake. Excess alcohol can raise blood pressure as ...

261

Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... American Heart Association Download (99.0 kB) Blood Pressure Check copyright American Heart Association Download (998.4 ...

262

Ranitidine increases the bioavailability of postprandial ethanol by the reduction of first pass metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood ethanol concentrations after separate oral dosing and intravenous infusion of ethanol (0.15 g\\/kg) were measured in 16 control subjects and 13 subjects treated with ranitidine. All subjects underwent routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Peak blood ethanol concentrations, and area under the blood ethanol\\/time curve, were significantly higher in the ranitidine group after oral, but not intravenous, ethanol administration. The first

A S Brown; J R Fiaterone; C P Day; M K Bennett; P J Kelly; O F James

1995-01-01

263

Inhibition of ethanol absorption by Rhodiola sachalinensis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a herbal medicine, roots ofRhodiola sachalinensis (RS) to assess whether RS extract can decrease blood ethanol concentrations in rats fed ethanol and if so, to elucidate the\\u000a mechanism by which RS extract reduces blood ethanol levels. Rats were fed ethanol orally 1 hr after the oral administration\\u000a of various doses of RS extract. In another experiment, rats were

Moon-Hee Kim; Chan-Koo Park

1997-01-01

264

Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

Derr, Dan

2013-12-30

265

Upregulation of cardiac NOS due to endotoxemia and vagal overactivity contribute to the hypotensive effect of chronic ethanol in female rats  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that chronic ethanol lowers blood pressure in female rats. In this study, hemodynamic, biochemical, and immunoblot analyses were performed to investigate: (i) the roles of cardiac contractility and autonomic activity in the hypotensive action of ethanol, and (ii) whether endotoxemia-induced upregulation of cardiac and/or vascular nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms underlies the hypotensive and cardiac effects of ethanol. Telemetric monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, and myocardial contractility (dP/dtmax) was performed in female rats receiving liquid diet with or without ethanol (5% w/v, 13 weeks). Autonomic control was assessed by frequency domain analysis of interbeat intervals (IBI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Compared with pair-fed controls, ethanol caused sustained reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and +dP/dtmax. Ethanol feeding increased the spectral power of high-frequency band (IBIHF, 0.75–3 Hz) and decreased the low-frequency band (IBILF, 0.25–0.75 Hz) and IBILF/HF ratio, suggesting increased cardiac parasympathetic dominance. In contrast, vascular tone was not affected by ethanol because SBP spectral bands and plasma norepinephrine remained unchanged. Myocardial expressions of eNOS and its upstream regulators, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K) and Akt, and plasma endotoxin and nitrite/nitrate were increased by ethanol. Myocardial iNOS was also increased by ethanol whereas nNOS remained unchanged and aortic levels of all NOS isoforms were not altered by ethanol. These findings suggest that facilitation of myocardial PI3K/Akt/eNOS and iNOS pathways, due possibly to ethanol-induced endotoxemia and/or increased cardiac parasympathetic dominance, might constitute a cellular mechanism for the reduced myocardial contractility and hypotension caused by ethanol in female rats. PMID:20970417

El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; Fan, Ming; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.

2010-01-01

266

Endogenous ethanol 'auto-brewery syndrome' as a drunk-driving defence challenge.  

PubMed

The concentration of ethanol in blood, breath or urine constitutes important evidence for prosecuting drunk drivers. For various reasons, the reliability of the results of forensic alcohol analysis are often challenged by the defence. One such argument for acquittal concerns the notion that alcohol could be produced naturally in the body, hence the term 'auto-brewery' syndrome. Although yeasts such as Candida albicans readily produce ethanol in-vitro, whether this happens to any measurable extent in healthy ambulatory subjects is an open question. Over the years, many determinations of endogenous ethanol have been made, and in a few rare instances (Japanese subjects with very serious yeast infections) an abnormally high ethanol concentration (> 80 mg/dl) has been reported. In these atypical individuals, endogenous ethanol appeared to have been produced after they had eaten carbohydrate-rich foods. A particular genetic polymorphism resulting in reduced activity of enzymes involved in hepatic metabolism of ethanol and a negligible first-pass metabolism might explain ethnic differences in rates of endogenous ethanol production and clearance. Other reports of finding abnormally high concentrations of ethanol in body fluids from ostensibly healthy subjects suffer from deficiencies in study design and lack suitable control experiments or used non-specific analytical methods. With reliable gas chromatographic methods of analysis, the concentrations of endogenous ethanol in peripheral venous blood of healthy individuals, as well as those suffering from various metabolic disorders (diabetes, hepatitis, cirrhosis) ranged from 0-0.08 mg/dl. These concentrations are far too low to have any forensic or medical significance. The notion that a motorist's state of intoxication was caused by endogenously produced ethanol lacks merit. PMID:10976182

Logan, B K; Jones, A W

2000-07-01

267

High Quality Genome-Wide Genotyping from Archived Dried Blood Spots without DNA Amplification  

E-print Network

High Quality Genome-Wide Genotyping from Archived Dried Blood Spots without DNA Amplification resource for genomic research. Whole genome amplification of dried blood spot DNA has been used to provide a portion of a dried blood spot that provides sufficient unamplified genomic DNA for genome-wide single

Krasnow, Mark A.

268

Probing red blood cell morphology using high-frequency photoacoustics.  

PubMed

A method that can rapidly quantify variations in the morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs) using light and sound is presented. When irradiated with a laser pulse, an RBC absorbs the optical energy and emits an ultrasonic pressure wave called a photoacoustic wave. The power spectrum of the resulting photoacoustic wave contains distinctive features that can be used to identify the RBC size and morphology. When particles 5-10 ?m in diameter (such as RBCs) are probed with high-frequency photoacoustics, unique periodically varying minima and maxima occur throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum at frequencies >100 MHz. The location and distance between spectral minima scale with the size and morphology of the RBC; these shifts can be used to quantify small changes in the morphology of RBCs. Morphological deviations from the normal biconcave RBC shape are commonly associated with disease or infection. Using a single wide-bandwidth transducer sensitive to frequencies between 100 and 500 MHz, we were able to differentiate healthy RBCs from irregularly shaped RBCs (such as echinocytes, spherocytes, and swollen RBCs) with high confidence using a sample size of just 21 RBCs. As each measurement takes only seconds, these methods could eventually be translated to an automated device for rapid characterization of RBC morphology and deployed in a clinical setting to help diagnose RBC pathology. PMID:23823224

Strohm, Eric M; Berndl, Elizabeth S L; Kolios, Michael C

2013-07-01

269

Probing Red Blood Cell Morphology Using High-Frequency Photoacoustics  

PubMed Central

A method that can rapidly quantify variations in the morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs) using light and sound is presented. When irradiated with a laser pulse, an RBC absorbs the optical energy and emits an ultrasonic pressure wave called a photoacoustic wave. The power spectrum of the resulting photoacoustic wave contains distinctive features that can be used to identify the RBC size and morphology. When particles 5–10 ?m in diameter (such as RBCs) are probed with high-frequency photoacoustics, unique periodically varying minima and maxima occur throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum at frequencies >100 MHz. The location and distance between spectral minima scale with the size and morphology of the RBC; these shifts can be used to quantify small changes in the morphology of RBCs. Morphological deviations from the normal biconcave RBC shape are commonly associated with disease or infection. Using a single wide-bandwidth transducer sensitive to frequencies between 100 and 500 MHz, we were able to differentiate healthy RBCs from irregularly shaped RBCs (such as echinocytes, spherocytes, and swollen RBCs) with high confidence using a sample size of just 21 RBCs. As each measurement takes only seconds, these methods could eventually be translated to an automated device for rapid characterization of RBC morphology and deployed in a clinical setting to help diagnose RBC pathology. PMID:23823224

Strohm, Eric M.; Berndl, Elizabeth S.L.; Kolios, Michael C.

2013-01-01

270

Trends in high blood pressure prevalence in Greek adolescents.  

PubMed

A school-based screening with anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements was performed in adolescents aged 12-17 years in the island of Samos, Greece, in 2004 and also in 2007. A total of 446 adolescents were included in the analysis in 2004 and 558 in 2007. The 2007 study population had higher levels of body mass index (BMI) (P<0.05) and systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.001), compared with 2004. The prevalence of high BP was 16.1% in 2004 and 22.9% in 2007 (P<0.01 for difference). Mean age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted BP increase was 4.1/10.5 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic). In multivariate analysis, BMI, male gender and age, but also modifiable factors (lack of physical activity, breakfast skipping, smoking and low milk consumption) were associated with increased BP levels in the study population. These data indicate that further to BMI, other factors such as adverse lifestyle and dietary habits appear to be associated with elevated BP levels in adolescents. Moreover, rising trends seem to characterize the prevalence of high BP. PMID:19158825

Kollias, A; Antonodimitrakis, P; Grammatikos, E; Chatziantonakis, N; Grammatikos, E E; Stergiou, G S

2009-06-01

271

Low blood alcohol levels in rats despite chronic alcohol consumption  

SciTech Connect

Rats fed liquid diets containing 36% or 26% of calories from ethanol consume similar amounts of alcohol each day. After 3 weeks on ethanol diet, the blood alcohol levels (BAL) are high in rats fed the 36% alcohol diet, but low or insignificant in those fed the 26% alcohol diet. Rats in either alcohol diet group consume most of their diet in the night. Hence, the low BAL in 26% ethanol diet-fed rats may not be due to a more rapid diet consumption after feeding and clearance of the bulk of ingested alcohol as compared to the rats fed the 36% alcohol diet. BAL at various times during the day (7 AM, 10 AM, 1 PM, 4 PM, 7 PM and 10 PM) are high in rats fed the 36% ethanol diet. However, BAL in those fed the 26% ethanol diet are low during the corresponding times. It appears that the low BAL produced by the enhanced hepatic metabolism of ethanol is related to the improved nutritional status in rats fed the 26% ethanol diet, compared to those fed 36% ethanol diet, because rats fed the 36% ethanol diet ingest reduced amounts of calories and other nutrients. Extrahepatic effects of chronic alcohol consumption caused by high BAL may be abated by an enhanced daily intake of nutrients by the animal.

Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W.; Lin, J.C.; Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. (VA Medical Centers, Portland, OR (USA))

1989-02-09

272

Organ blood flow during high-frequency ventilation at low and high airway pressure in dogs.  

PubMed

Using the radiolabeled microsphere technique, the authors studied hemodynamic variables and regional blood flow to multiple peripheral organs during conventional positive-pressure ventilation (CV) and high-frequency ventilation (HFV) at low and high mean airway pressure (Paw). Twenty supine anesthetized, paralyzed dogs were ventilated using CV (14-16 breaths/min) and HFV (rate = 10 Hz) in random order. In the first group (low Paw, n = 10), Paw was maintained at 3 cmH2O during CV and HFV. In the second group (high Paw, n = 10), Paw was increased to 13 cmH2O during CV and HFV. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and right atrial pressure remained constant during low and high Paw trials. No differences in heart rate, systemic arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, or cardiac output were noted during CV and HFV within the low and high Paw groups. In addition, blood flow to multiple peripheral organs during CV and HFV remained constant within each Paw group, except for a small decrease in cerebellar blood flow during HFV at high Paw trials showed a significant decrease in hepatic arterial and outer kidney cortical flow at high Paw. Total cerebral blood flow was decreased at high Paw, as were regional flows to diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla, and cerebellum. However, these differences were not attributable to differences in cerebral perfusion pressure or intracranial pressure, and cerebral oxygen delivery was not different between high Paw and low Paw groups. It is concluded that under conditions of similar Paw in anesthetized dogs, HFV does not significantly alter hemodynamic patterns or regional circulation relative to CV. PMID:3524318

Gioia, F R; Harris, A P; Traystman, R J; Rogers, M C

1986-07-01

273

Ethanol-metabolizing pathways in deermice. Estimation of flux calculated from isotope effects  

SciTech Connect

The apparent deuterium isotope effects on Vmax/Km (D(V/K) of ethanol oxidation in two deermouse strains (one having and one lacking hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were used to calculate flux through the ADH, microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), and catalase pathways. In vitro, D(V/K) values were 3.22 for ADH, 1.13 for MEOS, and 1.83 for catalase under physiological conditions of pH, temperature, and ionic strength. In vivo, in deermice lacking ADH (ADH-), D(V/K) was 1.20 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.) at 7.0 +/- 0.5 mM blood ethanol and 1.08 +/- 0.10 at 57.8 +/- 10.2 mM blood ethanol, consistent with ethanol oxidation principally by MEOS. Pretreatment of ADH- animals with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole did not significantly change D(V/K). ADH+ deermice exhibited D(V/K) values of 1.87 +/- 0.06 (untreated), 1.71 +/- 0.13 (pretreated with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), and 1.24 +/- 0.13 (after the ADH inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole) at 5-7 mM blood ethanol levels. At elevated blood ethanol concentrations (58.1 +/- 2.4 mM), a D(V/K) of 1.37 +/- 0.21 was measured in the ADH+ strain. For measured D(V/K) values to accurately reflect pathway contributions, initial reaction conditions are essential. These were shown to exist by the following criteria: negligible fractional conversion of substrate to product and no measurable back reaction in deermice having a reversible enzyme (ADH). Thus, calculations from D(V/K) indicate that, even when ADH is present, non-ADH pathways (mostly MEOS) participate significantly in ethanol metabolism at all concentrations tested and play a major role at high levels.

Alderman, J.; Takagi, T.; Lieber, C.S.

1987-06-05

274

Relation between ethanol induced changes in plasma catecholines during stress and voluntary ethanol preference  

SciTech Connect

N/NIH rats (N = 10) were implanted with venous catheters to permit stressless chronic, repeated blood withdrawal. Following surgical recovery, the rats were restrained to a lab counter top for 30 min after injection with saline or low dose (0.5 g/kg) ethanol. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn to determine AUC production of NE and E to assess the effect that low dose ethanol has on stress responsiveness. Between saline injection restraint and ethanol injection restraint conditions no differences in NE or E AUC were apparent. A 2- bottle preference test for ethanol was then performed over 21 days. Multiple regression analyses of NE saline restraint and ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .02 level with R/sup 2/ = .681. Multiple regressions of E saline restraint and E ethanol restraint could predict ethanol consumption to the p = .01 level with R/sup 2/ = .746. These data suggest that ethanol induced increases in plasma NE and E during stress can predict later voluntary ethanol consumption between the ranges of .13 and 1.05 g ethanol/kg/day. This data seems to be more in line with an arousal or withdrawal relationship between ethanol consumption and stress than by a simple tension reduction formulation based on plasma NE or E.

Pashko, S.

1986-03-01

275

Longitudinal Assessment of High Blood Pressure in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD. Methods Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks. Results Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P?=?0.003). Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively). Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P?=?0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD. PMID:25419656

Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Zepeda, Anne; Newton, Kimberly P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Behling, Cynthia; Hallinan, Erin K.; Donithan, Michele; Tonascia, James

2014-01-01

276

trans-dominant mutations in the GPR1 gene cause high sensitivity to acetic acid and ethanol in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

Acetate non-utilizing strains harbouring trans-dominant mutations in the GPR1 gene (GPR1(d)) of the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica have been selected and characterized. These mutants are highly sensitive to low concentrations of acetic acid and ethanol, even in presence of glucose. The toxic effect of acetic acid is pH-dependent and has the strongest effect at low pH. In contrast, the action of ethanol is pH-independent. One GPR1(d) mutant has been detected that was highly sensitive to acetic acid but could still grow on ethanol, which indicates putative differences in the function of the GPR1 gene product in the sensitivity to acetic acid and ethanol. The GPR1(d) mutants exhibit a complex pleiotropic phenotype. The mutations cause changed colony morphology as well as dimorphism of cells, and induce early cell death during growth on glucose, even without the presence of dicarbon compounds. Composition of intracellular membranes, as well as morphology of vacuole and mitochondria, were strongly changed. Back-crosses with wild-type strains and analysis of recombinant strains have shown that the expression of the pleiotropic phenotype depends on the site of mutation in the GPR1 gene, as well as on the genetic background of the strain harbouring the responsive mutation. Our data suggest that Gpr1p is involved in a general response of cells to the toxic action of dicarbon compounds like acetic acid and ethanol. PMID:10572261

Tzschoppe, K; Augstein, A; Bauer, R; Kohlwein, S D; Barth, G

1999-11-01

277

Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in an economically feasible process requires microorganisms that produce ethanol with a high yield from all sugars present (hexoses as well as pentoses) and have a high ethanol productivity in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, i.e., can withstand potential inhibitors. Different fermentation organisms among bacteria, yeasts, and fungi (natural as well as recombinant) are reviewed with emphasis on

Lisbeth Olsson; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

1996-01-01

278

Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant eff...

279

High Blood Cholesterol Q&A Dr. Michael Lauer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Q&A with Dr. Michael Lauer ... is the current status of treatment for very high cholesterol? And how effective is that treatment? We ...

280

Chiral separation and determination of propranolol enantiomers in rat or mouse blood and tissue by column switching high performance liquid chromatography with ovomucoid bonded stationary phase.  

PubMed

Resolution of propranolol (PL) enantiomers in biological samples was accomplished by column switching high performance liquid chromatography using a short precolumn and an analytical column of ovomucoid chiral phase. Plasma, whole blood or tissue homogenate sample was directly injected into the precolumn, and PL was adsorbed on Butyl Toyopearl 650-M. After column switching, the PL was backflushed and transferred to the analytical column (Ultron ES-OVM) by the eluant. Fluorometric detection was carried out at lambda ex = 297 nm and lambda em = 340 nm with a detection limit of 0.5 pmol (signal to noise ratio = 2). The recovery (98.8-103%), reproducibility (coefficient of variance less than 3%) and enantiomer resolution (separation factor 1.15) were satisfactory using as eluant 50 mM sodium dihydrogenphosphate (pH 4.6) containing 12% ethanol. The time course of elimination of PL enantiomers in rat or mouse blood and tissues was also studied. PMID:2207377

Tamai, G; Edani, M; Imai, H

1990-07-01

281

High Blood Pressure Treatment in Children (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... length of treatment depends upon the type of hypertension (primary versus secondary), the success of nonpharmacologic treatments, and the ability to reverse any underlying medical problems. BLOOD PRESSURE ... Those with hypertension are generally monitored more often depending upon the ...

282

Recommendations on screening for high blood pressure in Canadian adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To provide recommendations on screening for hypertension in adults aged 18 years and older without previously diagnosed hypertension. Quality of evidence Evidence was found through a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (EBM Reviews), from January 1985 to September 2011. Study types were limited to randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and observational studies with control groups. Main message Three strong recommendations were made based on moderate-quality evidence. It is recommended that blood pressure measurement occur at all appropriate primary care visits, according to the current techniques described in the Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for office and ambulatory blood pressure measurement. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program criteria for assessment and diagnosis of hypertension should be applied for people found to have elevated blood pressure. Conclusion After review of the most recent evidence, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care continues to recommend blood pressure measurement during regular physician visits. PMID:24029505

Lindsay, Patrice; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Joffres, Michel; Birtwhistle, Richard; McKay, Donald; Cloutier, Lyne

2013-01-01

283

Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions in growing pigs.  

PubMed

A total of 105 growing pigs (24.91?±?1.06?kg) were used in a 6-week trial to investigate the effects of including Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract (SPE) in the diet on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions. Pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (seven pens/treatment, five pigs/pen) according to initial body weight and sex (two gilts and three barrows). Treatments consisted of a corn soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SPE. There was a significant linear improvement (P?blood lymphocyte percentage, immunoglobulin G concentration, fecal Escherichia?coli and Lactobacillus counts as well as fecal NH3 and H2 S emissions associated with the inclusion of SPE in the diet. Average daily feed intake, red blood cells and white blood cells concentration were not significantly (P?>?0.05) affected by SPE supplementation in the diets. In conclusion, results indicate that dietary SPE supplementation can improve growth performance, digestibility and fecal microbiota, and decrease fecal gas emissions in growing pigs. PMID:24725201

Li, Jian; Kim, In H

2014-06-01

284

High correlations in gene expression between paired umbilical cord blood and neonatal blood of healthy newborns on Guthrie cards  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the correlation in genes expressed in paired umbilical cord blood (UCB) and newborn blood (NB). Methods Total mRNA and mRNA of three gene sets (inflammatory, hypoxia, and thyroidal response) was assessed using microarray in UCB and NB spotted on Guthrie cards from 7 mother/infant pairs. Results The average gene expression correlation between paired UCB and NB samples was 0.941 when all expressed genes were considered, and 0.949 for three selected gene sets. Conclusion The high correlation of UCB and NB gene expression suggest that either source may be useful for examining gene expression in the perinatal period. PMID:23668672

Slaughter, Jaime; Wei, Changshuai; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Lu, Qing; Beck, John S.; Khoo, Sok Kean; Brovont, Ariel; Maurer, Joel; Martin, Denny; Lenski, Madeleine; Paneth, Nigel

2014-01-01

285

Construction and Analysis of High-Ethanol-Producing Fusants with Co-Fermentation Ability through Protoplast Fusion and Double Labeling Technology  

PubMed Central

Double labeling of resistance markers and report genes can be used to breed engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that can assimilate xylose and glucose as a mixed carbon source for ethanol fermentation and increased ethanol production. In this study Saccharomyces cerevisiae W5 and Candida shehatae 20335 were used as parent strains to conduct protoplast fusion and the resulting fusants were screened by double labeling. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to assess the ethanol yield following the fermentation of xylose and glucose, as both single and mixed carbon sources, by the fusants. Interestingly, one fusant (ZLYRHZ7) was demonstrated to have an excellent fermentation performance, with an ethanol yield using the mixed carbon source of 0.424 g g?1, which compares with 0.240 g g?1 (W5) and 0.353 g g?1 (20335) for the parent strains. This indicates an improvement in the ethanol yield of 43.4% and 16.7%, respectively. PMID:25268957

Ge, Jingping; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Luyan; Zhang, Mengyun; Ping, Wenxiang

2014-01-01

286

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake  

E-print Network

/kg was not able to affect intake of sucrose or quinine, alcohol-induced sedation, or blood ethanol eliminationORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake in mice Wei Hu Rationale Cyclic AMP (cAMP)­protein kinase A signal- ing has been implicated in the regulation of ethanol

287

Impact of Corn Based Ethanol Production on the U.S. High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) and Sugar Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of ethanol production on the sweetener market in the U.S. It was found that ethanol production has increased corn demand and prices, and therefore, may have a negative impact on HFCS production and increase the demand for sugar.

Hassan Marzoughi; P. Lynn Kennedy; Brian M. Hilbun

2008-01-01

288

Automated High Throughput GMAX-L Strains of Saccharomyces Cereviciae for Profitable Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Industrial Hydrosylates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current ethanol dry grind and wet mill processes for fuel ethanol production from starch, yield substantial amounts of corn oil as one of the byproducts. This crude corn oil is a suitable feedstock for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters for use as biodiesel, which could be produced on-site. ...

289

Effects of enzyme feeding strategy on ethanol yield in fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of spruce at high dry matter  

PubMed Central

Background To make lignocellulosic fuel ethanol economically competitive with fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce the production cost. One way to achieve this is by increasing the substrate concentration in the production process, and thus reduce the energy demand in the final distillation of the fermentation broth. However, increased substrate concentration in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields and severe stirring problems. Because the SSF medium is being continuously hydrolyzed, running the process in fed-batch mode could potentially reduce the stirring problems and lead to increased ethanol yields in high-solids SSF. Different enzyme feeding strategies, with the enzymes either present in the reactor from start-up or fed into the reactor together with the substrate, have been studied, along with the influence of the enzyme feeding strategy on the final ethanol yield and productivity. Results In the present study, SSF was run successfully with 10% and 14% water-insoluble solids (WIS) in batch and fed-batch mode. The mixing of the material in the reactor was significantly better in fed-batch than batch mode, and similarly high or higher ethanol yields were achieved in fed-batch mode compared with batch SSF in some cases. No general trend in the dependence of ethanol yield on enzyme feeding strategy was found. Conclusions The optimum enzyme feeding strategy appears to depend on the conditions during SSF, such as the WIS concentration and the concentration of inhibitory compounds in the SSF medium. PMID:20579340

2010-01-01

290

U.S. Deaths Due to High Blood Pressure Keep Rising: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. U.S. Deaths Due to High Blood Pressure Keep Rising: CDC Most marked increases seen in ... MedlinePlus Pages Health Disparities Health Statistics High Blood Pressure THURSDAY, March 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The overall ...

291

Vitamin D Won't Help Fight High Blood Pressure, Researchers Say  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Vitamin D Won't Help Fight High Blood Pressure, Researchers Say Review of data from dozens of ... Dotinga Monday, March 16, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages High Blood Pressure Vitamin D MONDAY, March 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

292

Oral contraceptive administration aggravates nitric oxide synthesis inhibition-induced high blood pressure in female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of estrogen–progestogen oral contraceptive (OC) is associated with high blood pressure, although mechanisms responsible are still unclear. This study sought to investigate the effects of administration of OC on high blood pressure resulting from nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition in female Sprague–Dawley rats. Rats were given ethinyl estradiol in combination with norgestrel and were treated with NO synthase

L. A. Olatunji; A. O. Soladoye

2008-01-01

293

Effects of heat shock and ethanol stress on the viability of a Saccharomyces uvarum (carlsbergensis) brewing yeast strain during fermentation of high gravity wort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of heat shock and ethanol stress on the viability of a lager brewing yeast strain during fermentation of high gravity wort were studied. These stress effects resulted in reduced cell viability and inhibition of cell growth during fermentation. Cells were observed to be less tolerant to heat shock during the fermentation of 25°P (degree Plato) wort than

Joseph A. Odumeru; Tony D'Amore; Inge Russell; Graham G. Stewart

1992-01-01

294

Highly sensitive ethanol chemical sensor based on Ni-doped SnO? nanostructure materials.  

PubMed

Due to potential applications of semiconductor transition doped nanostructure materials and the important advantages of synthesis in cost-effective and environmental concerns, a significant effort has been consummated for improvement of Ni-doped SnO(2) nanomaterials using hydrothermal technique at room conditions. The structural and optical properties of the low-dimensional (average diameter, 52.4 nm) Ni-doped SnO(2) nanostructures were demonstrated using various conventional techniques such as UV/visible spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The calcined doped material is an attractive semiconductor nanoparticle for accomplishment in chemical sensing by simple I-V technique, where toxic chemical (ethanol) is used as a target chemical. Thin-film of Ni-doped SnO(2) nanostructure materials with conducting coating agents on silver electrodes (AgE, surface area, 0.0216 cm(2)) revealed higher sensitivity and repeatability. The calibration plot is linear (R, 0.8440) over the large dynamic range (1.0 nM-1.0 mM), where the sensitivity is approximately 2.3148 ?A cm(-2) mM(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6 nM, based on signal/noise ratio in short response time. Consequently on the basis of the sensitive communication among structures, morphologies, and properties, it is exemplified that the morphologies and the optical characteristics can be extended to a large scale in doping nanomaterials and proficient chemical sensors applications. PMID:21831627

Rahman, Mohammed M; Jamal, Aslam; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Faisal, M

2011-10-15

295

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24

296

Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?—An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model  

PubMed Central

An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9?mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1?mg/L; median = 0.4?mg/L; range = 0–35?mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

2012-01-01

297

COLD-ETHANOL FOR BIOREFINING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethanol has been used, or proposed for use, as a process fluid or separation agent for a number of bio-refining operations. These include oil extraction, solvent exchange, displacement drying, protein extraction, blood plasma fractionation, shellac deposition, protein film deposition, corn zein prot...

298

Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation of High Dry Matter Wet-Exploded Wheat Straw at Low Enzyme Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O2 as oxidizing agent was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high viscosity of the material, higher inhibition of the enzymes, and fermenting microorganism. The wet-explosion pretreatment method enabled relatively high yields from both enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to be obtained when performed on unwashed slurry with 14% DM and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%.

Georgieva, Tania I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte K.

299

Precision blood-leak detector with high long-time stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With this publication a precision blood-leak-detector is presented. The blood-leak-detector is used for recognition of fractures in the dialyzer of a kidney-machine. It has to detect safely a blood flow of ml/min to exclude any risk for the patient. A lot of systems exist for blood-leak-detection. All of them use the same principle. They detect the light absorption in the dialyze fluid. The actual used detectors are inferior to the new developed sensor in resolution and long-time stability. Regular test of the existing systems and high failure rates are responsible for the high maintenance.

Georgiadis, Christos; Kleuver, Wolfram

1999-11-01

300

Thermophilic microbes in ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

General and specific properties of thermophilic ethanol-producing bacteria are reviewed and their relative merits in ethanol production assessed. The studies examine the use of bacteria in mono- and co-culture fermentations for ethanol production from cellulosics; in particular, the cellulase system of Clostridium thermocellum is considered. Thermotolerant yeasts and physiological factors influencing their growth and fermentation at high temperatures are discussed. Emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary approaches to develop economical processes for ethanol production at high temperatures. Relevant topics considered include: adaptation, nutrition, heat shock, ethanol tolerance, metabolic control, genetic improvement, and fermentation/process design. General aspects of thermophily for both bacteria and yeasts (definitions, ecological aspects, merits and limitations, other industrial uses, thermostability of cellular components, and consequences of thermophilic fermentation) are discussed and the volume references over 1100 relevant articles.

Slapack, G.E.; Russell, I.; Stewart, G.G.

1987-01-01

301

Ethanol conditioned place preference and alterations in ?FosB following adolescent nicotine administration differ in rats exhibiting high or low behavioral reactivity to a novel environment.  

PubMed

This study determined the effects of adolescent nicotine administration on adult alcohol preference in rats exhibiting high or low behavioral reactivity to a novel environment, and ascertained whether nicotine altered ?FosB in the ventral striatum (vStr) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) immediately after drug administration or after rats matured to adulthood. Animals were characterized as exhibiting high (HLA) or low (LLA) locomotor activity in the novel open field on postnatal day (PND) 31 and received injections of saline (0.9%) or nicotine (0.56 mg free base/kg) from PND 35 to 42. Ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was assessed on PND 68 following 8 days conditioning in a biased paradigm; ?FosB was measured on PND 43 or PND 68. Following adolescent nicotine exposure, HLA animals demonstrated a CPP when conditioned with ethanol; LLA animals were unaffected. Further, adolescent nicotine exposure for 8 days increased levels of ?FosB in limbic regions in both HLA and LLA rats, but this increase persisted into adulthood only in LLA animals. Results indicate that adolescent nicotine exposure facilitates the establishment of an ethanol CPP in HLA rats, and that sustained elevations in ?FosB are not necessary or sufficient for the establishment of an ethanol CPP in adulthood. These studies underscore the importance of assessing behavioral phenotype when determining the behavioral and cellular effects of adolescent nicotine exposure. PMID:24412683

Philpot, Rex M; Engberg, Melanie E; Wecker, Lynn

2014-04-01

302

Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration  

SciTech Connect

Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regular diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.

Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-02-09

303

Effects of growth, diving history, and high altitude on blood oxygen capacity in harbor seals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blood volume and body composition for diving and nondiving harbor seals were measured at six-week intervals during a 10-month period of captitivity. Whole body hematocrit, red cell volume per kg of lean body mass, and total circulating hemoglobin per kg lean body mass were significantly higher in the diving group, but relatively large blood volumes expressed in terms of body weight (11-12%) were found in both groups. A pair of harbor seals exposed to high altitude for about three months registered significant increases in red cell volume, blood hemoglobin levels, and blood volume expressed in terms of body weight; results of alveolar gas analyses indicate that hyperventilation also occurred. These typical mammalian responses to hypoxia suggest that the harbor seal's large blood volume and high hemoglobin content are an expression of phylogenetic control, and that in spite of its adaptability to apnea during its diving life, the animal cannot be considered preacclimatized to high altitude.

Kodama, A. M.; Elsner, R.; Pace, N.

1977-01-01

304

Effect of cetane number improver on heat release rate and emissions of high speed diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the influence of cetane number improver on heat release rate and emissions of a high-speed diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend fuel. Different percentages of cetane number enhancer (0, 0.2, 0.4%) were added to blends, and the engine tests were performed on a 4-cylinder high-speed DI diesel engine. The results show that: the brake specific fuel consumption

Lü Xing-cai; Yang Jian-guang; Zhang Wu-gao; Huang Zhen

2004-01-01

305

High Quality Genome-Wide Genotyping from Archived Dried Blood Spots without DNA Amplification  

PubMed Central

Spots of blood are routinely collected from newborn babies onto filter paper called Guthrie cards and used to screen for metabolic and genetic disorders. The archived dried blood spots are an important and precious resource for genomic research. Whole genome amplification of dried blood spot DNA has been used to provide DNA for genome-wide SNP genotyping. Here we describe a 96 well format procedure to extract DNA from a portion of a dried blood spot that provides sufficient unamplified genomic DNA for genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We show that SNP genotyping of the unamplified DNA is more robust than genotyping amplified dried blood spot DNA, is comparable in cost, and can be done with thousands of samples. This procedure can be used for genome-wide association studies and other large-scale genomic analyses that require robust, high-accuracy genotyping of dried blood spot DNA. PMID:23737996

St. Julien, Krystal R.; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Stevenson, David K.; O’Brodovich, Hugh M.; Krasnow, Mark A.

2013-01-01

306

Fatty acid ethyl esters are present in human serum after ethanol ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine whether fatty acid ethyl esters, nonoxidative products of ethanol metabolism selectively present in organs damaged by ethanol abuse, are de- tectable in the serum after ethanol ingestion. Serum samples of hospital emergency room patients with positive (n = 32) and negative (n = 5) blood ethanol levels were assayed for fatty acid

Kathleen M. Doyle; David A. Bird; Salih Al-Salihi; Youseff Hallaq; Joanne E. Cluette-Brown; Kendrick A. Goss; Michael Laposata

307

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and ethanol induced tissue ablation: Thermal lesion volume and temperature ex vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIFU is the upcoming technology for noninvasive or minimally invasive tumor ablation via the localized acoustic energy deposition at the focal region within the tumor target. The presence of cavitation bubbles had been shown to improve the therapeutic effect of HIFU. In this study, we have investigated the effect of HIFU on temperature rise and cavitation bubble activity in ethanol-treated porcine liver and kidney tissues. We have also explored changes in the viability and proliferation rate of HepG2, SW1376, and FB1 cancer cells with their exposure to ethanol and HIFU. Tissues were submerged in 95% ethanol for five hours and then exposed to HIFU generated by a 1.1 MHz transducer or injected into focal spot before HIFU exposure. Cavitation events were measured by a passive cavitation detection technique for a range of acoustic power from 1.17 W to 20.52 W. The temperature around the focal zone was measured by type K or type E thermocouples embedded in the samples. In experiments with cancer cells, 2.7 millions cells were treated with concentration of ethanol at concentration 2%, 4%, 10%, 25%, and 50% and the cell were exposed to HIFU with power of 2.73 W, 8.72 W, and 12.0 W for 30 seconds. Our data show that the treatment of tissues with ethanol reduces the threshold power for inertial cavitation and increases the temperature rise. The exposure of cancer cells to various HIFU power only showed a higher number of viable cells 24 to 72 hours after HIFU exposure. On the other hand, both the viability and proliferation rate were significantly decreased in cells treated with ethanol and then HIFU at 8.7 W and 12.0 W even at ethanol concentration of 2 and 4 percent. In conclusion, the results of our study indicate that percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and HIFU have a synergistic effect on cancer cells ablation.

Hoang, Nguyen Hai

308

Combining the effects of process design and pH for improved xylose conversion in high solid ethanol production from Arundo donax.  

PubMed

The impact of pH coupled to process design for the conversion of the energy crop Arundo donax to ethanol was assessed in the present study under industrially relevant solids loadings. Two main process strategies were investigated, i.e. the traditional simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) and a HYBRID design, where a long high temperature enzymatic hydrolysis step was carried out prior to continued low temperature SSCF, keeping the same total reaction time. Since acetic acid was identified as the major inhibitor in the slurry, the scenarios were investigated under different fermentation pH in order to alleviate the inhibitory effect on, in particular, xylose conversion. The results show that, regardless of fermentation pH, a higher glucan conversion could be achieved with the HYBRID approach compared to SSCF. Furthermore, it was found that increasing the pH from 5.0 to 5.5 for the fermentation phase had a large positive effect on xylose consumption for both process designs, although the SSCF design was more favored. With the high sugar concentrations available at the start of fermentation during the HYBRID design, the ethanol yield was reduced in favor of cell growth and glycerol production. This finding was confirmed in shake flask fermentations where an increase in pH enhanced both glucose and xylose consumption, but also cell growth and cell yield with the overall effect being a reduced ethanol yield. In conclusion this resulted in similar overall ethanol yields at the different pH values for the HYBRID design, despite the improved xylose uptake, whereas a significant increase in overall ethanol yield was found with the SSCF design. PMID:24949274

Palmqvist, Benny; Lidén, Gunnar

2014-01-01

309

Combining the effects of process design and pH for improved xylose conversion in high solid ethanol production from Arundo donax  

PubMed Central

The impact of pH coupled to process design for the conversion of the energy crop Arundo donax to ethanol was assessed in the present study under industrially relevant solids loadings. Two main process strategies were investigated, i.e. the traditional simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) and a HYBRID design, where a long high temperature enzymatic hydrolysis step was carried out prior to continued low temperature SSCF, keeping the same total reaction time. Since acetic acid was identified as the major inhibitor in the slurry, the scenarios were investigated under different fermentation pH in order to alleviate the inhibitory effect on, in particular, xylose conversion. The results show that, regardless of fermentation pH, a higher glucan conversion could be achieved with the HYBRID approach compared to SSCF. Furthermore, it was found that increasing the pH from 5.0 to 5.5 for the fermentation phase had a large positive effect on xylose consumption for both process designs, although the SSCF design was more favored. With the high sugar concentrations available at the start of fermentation during the HYBRID design, the ethanol yield was reduced in favor of cell growth and glycerol production. This finding was confirmed in shake flask fermentations where an increase in pH enhanced both glucose and xylose consumption, but also cell growth and cell yield with the overall effect being a reduced ethanol yield. In conclusion this resulted in similar overall ethanol yields at the different pH values for the HYBRID design, despite the improved xylose uptake, whereas a significant increase in overall ethanol yield was found with the SSCF design. PMID:24949274

2014-01-01

310

[The dawn or Somogyi phenomenon? High morning fasting blood sugar values in young type-1 diabetics].  

PubMed

High blood sugar levels in the morning in juvenile type 1 diabetics may be caused by a Somogyi phenomenon (counter-regulation after nocturnal hypoglycaemia) or insulin resistance in the morning hours (dawn phenomenon). To enable differentiation between the two, 1,562 blood sugar profiles (24 h, 3 h, 6 h) were determined in 161 children and juveniles (74 boys, 87 girls; mean age 10.8 [1.0-19.7] years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In accordance with the mechanism of the dawn phenomenon there was a close positive correlation between the blood sugar levels in the night and morning (r = +0.696; P less than 0.0001); the mean fasting blood sugar level was about 60 mg/dl above the 3 h value. Low nocturnal blood sugar levels as a possible cause of a high morning blood sugar (greater than 250 mg/dl) was demonstrated in fewer than 1% of profiles. On the other hand, the probability of nocturnal hypoglycaemia rose exponentially in the presence of low morning fasting blood sugar levels. Thus, if the morning level was below 80 mg/dl, the blood sugar levels at 3 h was below 50 mg/dl in 41.2%. This indicates that high morning blood sugar levels result from the dawn phenomenon and require a higher evening dose of slow-release insulin. But if the morning blood sugar values are clearly below 100 mg/dl, the cause may be nocturnal low blood sugar levels and the evening insulin dose should, therefore, be reduced. PMID:1396135

Holl, R W; Heinze, E

1992-10-01

311

Antiobesity Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Areshoung in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rat  

PubMed Central

Laminaria japonica Areshoung, a widely consumed marine vegetable, has traditionally been used in Korean maternal health. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Laminaria japonica Areshoung ethanol extract (LE) and its molecular mechanism in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were separately fed a normal diet or a high-calorie high-fat diet for 6 weeks; then they were treated with LE or tea catechin for another 6 weeks. LE administration significantly decreased the body weight gain, fat-pad weights, and serum and hepatic lipid levels in HD-induced obese rats. The histological analysis revealed that LE-treated group showed a significantly decreased number of lipid droplets and size of adipocytes compared to the HD group. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LE, the levels of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle. LE treatment resulted in an increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes in obese rats. Conversely, the expression of the fat intake-related gene (ACC2) and lipogenesis-related genes was reduced by LE treatment. Additionally, LE treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its direct downstream protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid synthesis pathway. These findings demonstrate that LE treatment has a protective effect against a high-fat-diet-induced obesity in rats through regulation of expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis. PMID:23365609

Jang, Woong Sun; Choung, Se Young

2013-01-01

312

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2014-01-01

313

Viola mandshurica ethanolic extract prevents high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.  

PubMed

Viola mandshurica W. Becker has been used as an expectorant, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory agent. We evaluated the effects of V. mandshurica ethanol extract (VME) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. HPLC analysis showed that the VME contained 11.95 ± 0.37 mg/g esculetin and 0.13 ± 0.01 mg/g scopoletin. Orally administered VME decreased the body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, and triglyceride and leptin serum concentrations. In contrast, VME increased serum adiponectin concentrations and adiponectin expression levels in epididymal adipose tissues. VME also significantly reversed the HFD-induced elevation of the mRNA and protein levels of lipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty-acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, VME reversed the HFD-induced inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coA carboxylase phosphorylation in epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, treatment of VME and esculetin in 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation. These results suggest that VME exerts anti-obesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice by activating AMPK and suppressing PPAR? expression in adipose tissues. PMID:24879516

Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

2014-07-01

314

Storage stability and antibacterial activity of eugenol nanoliposomes prepared by an ethanol injection-dynamic high-pressure microfluidization method.  

PubMed

Eugenol is a major phenolic component with diverse biological activities. However, it is difficult to formulate into an aqueous solution due to poor water solubility, and this limits its application. In the present study, eugenol nanoliposomes (EN) were prepared by combining the ethanol injection method with the dynamic high-pressure microfluidization method. Good physicochemical characterizations of EN were obtained. The successful encapsulation of eugenol in nanoliposomes was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A good storage stability of EN was confirmed by its low variation of average particle diameter and encapsulation efficiency after 8 weeks of storage. No oil drops were found in EN after 8 weeks of storage at 4°C and at room temperature, which suggested that the poor water solubility of eugenol was overcome by nanoliposome encapsulation. Compared with that of eugenol solution, a relatively good sustained release property was observed in EN. The antibacterial activity of EN against four common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes) was evaluated in both Luria broth and milk medium. PMID:25581174

Peng, Shengfeng; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Wei; Gan, Lu; Liu, Weilin; Liang, Ruihong; Liu, Chengmei; Niu, Jing; Cao, Yanlin; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Xing

2015-01-01

315

Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

316

Adaptation of yeast cell membranes to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

A highly ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces wine strain is able, after growth in the presence of ethanol, to efficiently improve the ethanol tolerance of its membrane. A less-tolerant Saccharomyces laboratory strain, however, is unable to adapt its membrane to ethanol. Furthermore, after growth in the presence of ethanol, the membrane of the latter strain becomes increasingly sensitive, although this is a reversible process. Reversion to a higher tolerance occurs only after the addition of an energy source and does not take place in the presence of cycloheximide.

Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

1987-05-01

317

Chronic High Blood Sugar May be Detrimental to the Developing Brain of Young Children  

MedlinePLUS

... blood sugar may be detrimental to the developing brain of young children NIH study shows young children with type 1 diabetes have significant difference in brain development Young children who have long-term high ...

318

Folic Acid May Help Ward Off Stroke in People with High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

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319

Time to Talk: High Blood Cholesterol? 5 Things You Should Know  

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320

High-pressure solubility data of system ethanol (1)+epicatechin (2)+CO 2 (3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds are widely found in natural products and their effects on health have been largely studied, but most of the interest in these compounds stems from their antioxidant properties. The properties of these compounds differ from one to another; thus their isolation is of high interest. The most abundant phenolic compounds isolated from grape seed are the catechins family.

A Cháfer; A Berna; J. B Montón; R Muñoz

2002-01-01

321

Internal filtration, filtration fraction, and blood flow resistance in high- and low-flux dialyzers.  

PubMed

It was the aim to examine the fluid flow in blood and dialysate compartments of highly permeable hollow fiber dialyzers where internal filtration contributes to solute removal but where excessive filtration bears a risk of cell activation and damage. Flow characteristics of high- (HF) and low-flux (LF) dialyzers were studied in lab-bench experiments using whole bovine blood. Measurements obtained under different operating conditions and under zero net ultrafiltration were compared to theoretical calculations obtained from a mathematical model. Experimental resistances in the blood compartment were within ±2% of those calculated from the model when dialysate was used as a test fluid. With whole blood, the experimental resistances in the blood compartment were only 81.8 ± 2.8% and 83.7 ± 4.3% of those calculated for the LF and HF dialyzer, respectively. Surprisingly, measured blood flow resistance slightly but significantly decreased with increasing flow rate (p < 0.001). Mathematical modeling confirmed this decrease both in LF and HF dialyzers which was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in internal filtration fraction, while overall internal filtration increased. The increase in internal filtration when increasing blood flow is associated with a beneficial reduction in internal filtration fraction. Concerns of increased hemoconcentration when increasing blood flow therefore appear to be unwarranted. PMID:24254583

Schneditz, Daniel; Zierler, Edda; Vanholder, Raymond; Eloot, Sunny

2014-01-01

322

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected medicinal plants--effects of high pressure and added ethanol on yield of extracted substances.  

PubMed

The possibilities and limitations of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products of low, medium and high polarity under very high pressure and with polar modifiers has been investigated. The medicinal herbs marigold (Calendula officinalis), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) were used as models in this study. Extraction profiles and the spectra of extractable metabolites were recorded following extraction with mixtures of carbon dioxide:ethanol of varying proportions (0-20% ethanol) and at various pressures in the range 300-689 bar. Components were identified by HPLC-PAD-MS or GC-MS and quantified by HPLC or GC as appropriate. Extraction yields under the varying conditions depended to a large extent on the profiles of secondary metabolites present in the three drugs. Whereas the extractability of lipophilic compounds increased substantially at pressures above 300 bar, the yields of polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds remained low even at 689 bar and with 20% modifier in the extraction fluid. PMID:14979527

Hamburger, M; Baumann, D; Adler, S

2004-01-01

323

High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats  

PubMed Central

High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l?1 blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators. PMID:21490011

Kelm, Detlev H.; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C.; Ristow, Michael

2011-01-01

324

High-frequency attenuation and backscatter measurements of rat blood between 30 and 60 MHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has recently been a great deal of interest in noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound imaging of small animals such as rats due to their being the preferred animal model for gene therapy and cancer research. Improving the interpretation of the obtained images and furthering the development of the imaging devices require a detailed knowledge of the ultrasound attenuation and backscattering of biological tissue (e.g. blood) at high frequencies. In the present study, the attenuation and backscattering coefficients of the rat red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and whole blood with hematocrits ranging from 6% to 40% were measured between 30 and 60 MHz using a modified substitution approach. The acoustic parameters of porcine blood under the same conditions were also measured in order to compare differences in the blood properties between these two animals. For porcine blood, both whole blood and RBC suspension were stirred at a rotation speed of 200 rpm. Three different rotation speeds of 100, 200 and 300 rpm were carried out for rat blood experiments. The attenuation coefficients of both rat and porcine blood were found to increase linearly with frequency and hematocrit (the values of coefficients of determination (r2) are around 0.82-0.97 for all cases). The average attenuation coefficient of rat whole blood with a hematocrit of 40% increased from 0.26 Nepers mm-1 at 30 MHz to 0.47 Nepers mm-1 at 60 MHz. The maximum backscattering coefficients of both rat and porcine RBC suspensions were between 10% and 15% hematocrits at all frequencies. The fourth-power dependence of backscatter on frequency was approximately valid for rat RBC suspensions with hematocrits between 6% and 40%. However, the frequency dependence of the backscatter estimate deviates from a fourth-power law for porcine RBC suspension with hematocrit higher than 20%. The backscattering coefficient plateaued for hematocrits higher than 15% in porcine blood, but for rat blood it was maximal around a hematocrit of 20% at the same rotation speed, and shifted to a hematocrit of 10% at a higher speed. The backscattering properties of rat RBCs in plasma are similar to those of RBCs in saline at a higher rotation speed. The differences in attenuation and backscattering between rat and porcine blood may be attributed to RBCs' being smaller and the RBC aggregation level being lower for rat blood than for porcine blood.

Huang, Chih-Chung

2010-10-01

325

Minimal contribution of the gastrointestinal tract to splanchnic uptake of intravenously infused ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of iv infused ethanol in the liver and the GI tract were determined by the portal-hepatic and arterial-portal gradients of ethanol in this report. Male Wistar rats were cannulated either in the portal vein (P), the hepatic vein (H) and the inferior vena cava (V) or in the common carotid artery (A), the portal vein (P) and the inferior vena cava (V). The experiments were performed in the fed state only on those animals whose daily food consumption has returned to pre-cannulation level. Ethanol was infused into V at a rate of 15.2 umol/min/rat for 90 min. Five sets of P and H blood or A and P blood were simultaneously taken from PHV and APV cannulated rats between 60 and 90 min of infusion when plasma ethanol concentrations in A,P and H were found to reach plateau. Ethanol concentration P was 3.10 {plus minus} 1.17 mM (SD), H was 2.64 {plus minus} 1.19 mM(SD). The difference between the two was highly significant. P-H gradient was 0.46 {plus minus} 0.06 mM(SD). A-P gradients of ethanol in APV cannulated were 0.03 {approximately} 0.04 mM, 12 {approximately} 15 times lower than hepatic gradient. It was concluded that the role of alcohol dehydrogenase activity recently found in the GI tract in metabolizing blood ethanol is insignificant in comparison to that of the liver.

Huang, Mingta (Chang Gung Medical Coll., Tao-Yuan (Taiwan))

1992-02-26

326

High ?-glucosidase secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves the efficiency of cellulase hydrolysis and ethanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from lignocellulose is considered as a sustainable biofuel supply. However, the low cellulose hydrolysis efficiency limits the cellulosic ethanol production. The cellulase is strongly inhibited by the major end product cellobiose, which can be relieved by the addition of ?-glucosidase. In this study, three ?-glucosidases from different organisms were respectively expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the ?-glucosidase from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera showed the best activity (5.2 U/ml). The recombinant strain with S. fibuligera ?-glucosidase could metabolize cellobiose with a specific growth rate similar to the control strain in glucose. This recombinant strain showed higher hydrolysis efficiency in the cellulose simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, when using the Trichoderma reesei cellulase, which is short of the ?-glucosidase activity. The final ethanol concentration was 110% (using Avicel) and 89% (using acid-pretreated corncob) higher than the control strain. These results demonstrated the effect of ?-glucosidase secretion in the recombinant S. cerevisiae for enhancing cellulosic ethanol conversion. PMID:23928840

Tang, Hongting; Hou, Jin; Shen, Yu; Xu, Lili; Yang, Hui; Fang, Xu; Bao, Xiaoming

2013-11-28

327

Sorghum to Ethanol Research  

SciTech Connect

The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called �dedicated bioenergy crops� including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

2010-06-30

328

14-methoxymetopon, a highly potent ? opioid agonist, biphasically affects ethanol intake in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Increased opioidergic activity is thought to increase the propensity to consume ethanol. However, the dose monotonicity and\\u000a receptor subtype for this effect remain uncertain. 14-methoxymetopon is a centrally acting, selective ? opioid receptor agonist\\u000a with greater systemic antinociceptive potency than morphine and a putatively improved therapeutic index.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To determine whether 14-methoxymetopon influenced voluntary ethanol intake in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats.

Valentina Sabino; Pietro Cottone; Luca Steardo; Helmut Schmidhammer; Eric P. Zorrilla

2007-01-01

329

Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation.  

PubMed

A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. PMID:24463536

Hu, Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia

2014-03-01

330

Impact of high pressure freezing on DH5? Escherichia coli and red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of high pressure and freezing on survivability of Escherichia coli and human red blood cells was evaluated to determine the utility of high-pressure transitions for preserving living cells. Based on microscopy and survivability, high pressures did not directly impact physical damage to living cells. E. coli studies showed that increased cell death is due to indirect phenomena with

Galen J Suppes; Susan Egan; Alfred J Casillan; Kok Wei Chan; Bill Seckar

2003-01-01

331

High Fibrinogen in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Objectives We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. Study Design A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. Methods Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients’ initial visit to our clinic. Results In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. Conclusions High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset. PMID:25166620

Kanzaki, Sho; Sakagami, Masafumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Shingo; Ogawa, Kaoru

2014-01-01

332

Thermal lens effect induced by high power diode laser beam in liquid ethanol and its influence on a probe laser beam quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present results of experimental investigation of the thermal lens effect in ethanol by a dual beam arrangement. The influence of thermal lens strength on a probe beam passing through this thermal lens medium was analyzed. Thermal lens was induced by focusing the beam of a high power diode laser in ethanol and the profile of a He-Ne laser as a probe beam was inspected. The comparison of the He-Ne laser beam profile in the condition of various diode laser beam powers shows that the beam quality of the probe can be significantly affected and the its deformed profile depends on the strength of thermal lens effect.

Mahdieh, M. H.; Akbari Jafarabadi, M.; Ahmadinejad, E.

2015-02-01

333

Circadian activity rhythms and voluntary ethanol intake in male and female ethanol-preferring rats: effects of long-term ethanol access.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian period, and show further that the development of chronobiological tolerance to ethanol may vary by sex and genotype. PMID:25281289

Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew

2014-11-01

334

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

335

Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue  

PubMed Central

Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years) were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6) and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6) that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups. PMID:25114743

Neto, Gabriel R.; Santos, Heleodório H.; Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Júnior, Adenilson T. A.; Araújo, Joamira P.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Sousa, Maria S. C.

2014-01-01

336

Alcohol-induced insulin resistance in liver: Potential roles in regulation of ADH expression; ethanol clearance and alcohol liver disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using total enteral nutrition (TEN), we demonstrated that low carbohydrate, high alcohol-containing diets (10-12 g/kg/dO produced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g). Intragastric infusion of this diet generates regular pulses of blood ethanol concentrations (BEC...

337

Metabolic profiling of human blood by high-resolution ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization source (ESI-IM-MS) was evaluated as an analytical method for rapid analysis of complex biological samples such as human blood metabolome.The hybrid instrument (IM-MS) provided an average ion mobility resolving power of ?90 and a mass resolution of ?1500 (at m\\/z 100). A few ?L of whole blood was extracted with

Prabha Dwivedi; Albert J. Schultz; Herbert H. Hill Jr

2010-01-01

338

EFFECTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS ON LIQUID-PHASE ADSORPTION OF ETHANOL AND WATER BY HIGH-SILICA ZSM-5  

EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption isotherms were measured for each compound adsorbed on commercially available ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 140) powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures of ethanol, carboxylic acids, and water at room temperature. The amounts adsorbed were measured using a recently developed t...

339

Ethanol production in the Southern High Plains of Texas: Impacts on the economy and scarce water resources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The establishment of new biorefineries in an effort to increase energy security in the United States has generated positive impacts by creating jobs and generating economic output. However, communities and local and state leaders are concerned about whether ethanol production is an effective use o...

340

Genetically engineered Escherichia coli FBR5: Part I. Comparison of high cell density bioreactors for enhanced ethanol production from xylose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five reactor systems (free cell batch, free cell continuous, entrapped cell immobilized, adsorbed cell packed bed, and cell recycle membrane reactors) were compared for ethanol production from xylose employing Escherichia coli FBR5. In the free cell batch and free cell continuous reactors (continuo...

341

Improved ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed cultures with Kluyveromyces lactis on high-sugar fermentation.  

PubMed

The influence of non-Saccharomyces yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, on metabolite formation and the ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed cultures was examined on synthetic minimal medium containing 20% glucose. In the late stage of fermentation after the complete death of K. lactis, S. cerevisiae in mixed cultures was more ethanol-tolerant than that in pure culture. The chronological life span of S. cerevisiae was shorter in pure culture than mixed cultures. The yeast cells of the late stationary phase both in pure and mixed cultures had a low buoyant density with no significant difference in the non-quiescence state between both cultures. In mixed cultures, the glycerol contents increased and the alanine contents decreased when compared with the pure culture of S. cerevisiae. The distinctive intracellular amino acid pool concerning its amino acid concentrations and its amino acid composition was observed in yeast cells with different ethanol tolerance in the death phase. Co-cultivation of K. lactis seems to prompt S. cerevisiae to be ethanol tolerant by forming opportune metabolites such as glycerol and alanine and/or changing the intracellular amino acid pool. PMID:24932883

Yamaoka, Chizuru; Kurita, Osamu; Kubo, Tomoko

2014-12-01

342

High solid loading hydrolyzate-tolerant strains of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis exhibiting reduced diauxic lag and higher ethanol productivity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol by native pentose-fermenting yeasts such as Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124, the switch from glucose to xylose uptake results in a diauxic lag unless process strategies to prevent this are applied. Further investigation...

343

Acute ethanol responses in Drosophila are sexually dimorphic.  

PubMed

In mammalian and insect models of ethanol intoxication, low doses of ethanol stimulate locomotor activity whereas high doses induce sedation. Sex differences in acute ethanol responses, which occur in humans, have not been characterized in Drosophila. In this study, we find that male flies show increased ethanol hyperactivity and greater resistance to ethanol sedation compared with females. We show that the sex determination gene transformer (tra) acts in the developing nervous system, likely through regulation of fruitless (fru), to at least partially mediate the sexual dimorphism in ethanol sedation. Although pharmacokinetic differences may contribute to the increased sedation sensitivity of females, neuronal tra expression regulates ethanol sedation independently of ethanol pharmacokinetics. We also show that acute activation of fru-expressing neurons affects ethanol sedation, further supporting a role for fru in regulating this behavior. Thus, we have characterized previously undescribed sex differences in behavioral responses to ethanol, and implicated fru in mediating a subset of these differences. PMID:23213244

Devineni, Anita V; Heberlein, Ulrike

2012-12-18

344

True color blood flow imaging using a high-speed laser photography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physiological changes in the retinal vasculature are commonly indicative of such disorders as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Thus, various methods have been developed for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics. However, to the best of our knowledge, current ophthalmic instruments do not provide a true color blood flow imaging capability. Accordingly, we propose a new method for the true color imaging of blood flow using a high-speed pulsed laser photography system. In the proposed approach, monochromatic images of the blood flow are acquired using a system of three cameras and three color lasers (red, green, and blue). A high-quality true color image of the blood flow is obtained by assembling the monochromatic images by means of image realignment and color calibration processes. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by imaging the flow of mouse blood within a microfluidic channel device. The experimental results confirm the proposed system provides a high-quality true color blood flow imaging capability, and therefore has potential for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics.

Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Sun, Yung-Nien; Ho, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Chi

2012-10-01

345

Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant  

SciTech Connect

Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost savings of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided. (Refs. 46).

Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

1983-09-01

346

Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant  

SciTech Connect

Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost savings of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided.

Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

1983-09-01

347

High performance ethanol sensing films fabricated from ZnO and In2O3 nanofibers with a double-layer structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO and In2O3 nanofibers are synthesized via electrospinning methods, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanofibers are deposited on ceramic substrates to form sensing films with various structures (ZnO nanofiber films, ZnO-In2O3 nanofiber films, and ZnO-In2O3-ZnO nanofiber films), and their sensing properties are investigated at different temperatures. Compared with ZnO nanofiber films and ZnO-In2O3-ZnO nanofiber films, the obtained ZnO-In2O3 nanofiber films exhibit improved and excellent sensing properties to ethanol. The highest sensitivity (the ratio of sensor resistance in air to that in target ambience) of 25 is obtained when the ZnO-In2O3 films are exposed to 100 ppm ethanol at 210 °C, while the corresponding values are only 8 for ZnO nanofiber films at 300 °C and 17 for ZnO-In2O3-ZnO nanofiber films at 210 °C. Rapid sensing reactions are also obtained as the response and recovery times of ZnO-In2O3 nanofiber films to 100 ppm ethanol are only about 2 and 1 s, respectively. These high sensing performances are explained by referring the heterocontacts formed by the double-layer structure.

Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Qiao, Guan-Jun

2012-06-01

348

Xylose fermentation to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

McMillan, J.D.

1993-01-01

349

Gene Expression within the Extended Amygdala of 5 Pairs of Rat Lines Selectively Bred for High or Low Ethanol Consumption  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine innate differences in gene expression in 2 regions of the extended amygdala between 5 different pairs of lines of male rats selectively bred for high or low ethanol consumption: a) alcohol-preferring (P) vs. alcohol-non-preferring (NP) rats, b) high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) vs. low-alcohol-drinking (LAD) rats (replicate line-pairs 1 and 2), c) ALKO alcohol (AA) vs. nonalcohol (ANA) rats, and d) Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) vs. Sardinian alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rats, and then to determine if these differences are common across the line-pairs. Microarray analysis revealed up to 1,772 unique named genes in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and 494 unique named genes in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) that significantly differed [False Discovery Rate (FDR) = 0.10; fold-change at least 1.2] in expression between the individual line-pairs. Analysis using Gene Ontology (GO) and Ingenuity Pathways information indicated significant categories and networks in common for up to 3 or 4 line-pairs, but not for all 5 line-pairs. However, there were almost no individual genes in common within these categories and networks. ANOVAs of the combined data for the 5 line-pairs indicated 1,014 and 731 significant (p < 0.01) differences in expression of named genes in the AcbSh and CeA, respectively. There were 4–6 individual named genes that significantly differed across up to 3 line-pairs in both regions; only 1 gene (Gsta4 in the CeA) differed in as many as 4 line-pairs. Overall, the findings suggest that a) some biological categories or networks (e.g., cell-to-cell signaling, cellular stress response, cellular organization, etc.) may be in common for subsets of line-pairs within either the AcbSh or CeA, and b) regulation of different genes and/or combinations of multiple biological systems may be contributing to the disparate alcohol drinking behaviors of these line-pairs. PMID:24157127

McBride, William J.; Kimpel, Mark W.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Hyytia, Petri; Colombo, Giancarlo; Liang, Tiebing; Edenberg, Howard J.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Bell, Richard L.

2013-01-01

350

ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENT RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION  

PubMed Central

Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced reinforcement. Experiment 1 compared ethanol-induced LMA in adolescent and adult rats. Subsequent experiments analyzed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion in adolescent rats evaluated for ethanol-induced LMA. Adolescent rats exhibit a robust LMA after high-dose ethanol. Ethanol-induced LMA was fairly similar across adolescents and adults. As expected, adolescents were sensitive to ethanol’s aversive reinforcement, but they also exhibited conditioned place preference. These measures of ethanol reinforcement, however, were not related to ethanol-induced LMA. Spontaneous LMA in an open field was, however, negatively associated with ethanol-induced CTA. PMID:22592597

Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

2012-01-01

351

Aerobic production of ethanol. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A computer-controlled continuous culture of yeast converted glucose to ethanol at excellent rates on a per-cell basis. This highly unconventional aerobic bioprocess makes use of oxidoreductive metabolism induced by concentrations of glucose that overload respiratory capacity and dump glucose into the ethanol pathway. Unfortunately, this yeast strain lost this high productivity when ethanol approached the concentrations required by a commercially feasible process. These results point the way for a new method for making ethanol if an organism can be found that is less inhibited by its main product.

Clesceri, L.S.; Bungay, H.R.

1990-01-01

352

A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of cyanide in equine blood.  

PubMed

An epidemiological association among black cherry trees (Prunus serotina), eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americana), and the spring 2001 episode of mare reproductive loss syndrome in central Kentucky focused attention on the potential role of environmental cyanogens in the causes of this syndrome. To evaluate the role of cyanide (CN (-)) in this syndrome, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive method for determination of low parts per billion concentrations of CN (-) in equine blood and other biological fluids was developed. The analytical method is an adaptation of methods commonly in use and involves the evolution and trapping of gaseous hydrogen cyanide followed by spectrophotometric determination by autoanalyzer. The limit of quantitation of this method is 2 ng/mL in equine blood, and the standard curve shows a linear relationship between CN (-) concentration and absorbance (r >. 99). The method throughput is high, up to 100 samples per day. Normal blood CN (-) concentrations in horses at pasture in Kentucky in October 2001 ranged from 3-18 ng/mL, whereas hay-fed horses showed blood CN (-) levels of 2-7 ng/mL in January 2002. Blood samples from a small number of cattle at pasture showed broadly similar blood CN (-) concentrations. Intravenous administration of sodium cyanide and oral administration of mandelonitrile and amygdalin yielded readily detectable increases in blood CN (-) concentrations. This method is sufficiently sensitive and specific to allow the determination of normal blood CN (-) levels in horses, as well as the seasonal and pasture-dependent variations. The method should also be suitable for investigation of the toxicokinetics and disposition of subacutely toxic doses of CN (-) and its precursor cyanogens in the horse as well as in other species. PMID:20021191

Hughes, Charlie; Lehner, Fritz; Dirikolu, Levent; Harkins, Dan; Boyles, Jeff; McDowell, Karen; Tobin, Thomas; Crutchfield, James; Sebastian, Manu; Harrison, Lenn; Baskin, Stephen I

2003-01-01

353

Influence of ethanol on the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate's metabolites ritalinic acid and ethylphenidate.  

PubMed

In view of the widespread application of methylphenidate for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapy its interaction with alcohol was investigated in an in-vitro assay and in a study involving 9 male volunteers. The study conditions were: methylphenidate (20 mg) only, methylphenidate followed by ethanol (0.8 g/kg body weight) and ethanol followed by methylphenidate. Methylphenidate (CAS 113-45-1), ritalinic acid (CAS 19395-41-6) and ethylphenidate (CAS 57413-43-1) were assayed in blood samples collected up to 7 h after ingestion using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). It was found that methylphenidate is hydrolyzed to ritalinic acid by the same esterase that degrades cocaine. In the presence of ethanol this is inhibited and the active metabolite ethylphenidate is formed. The pharmacokinetic evaluation showed that methylphenidate concentrations were not markedly affected by ethanol, but ritalinic acid concentrations were lower, especially if ethanol was ingested first. Ethylphenidate concentrations were low with only about 10% of methylphenidate concentrations suggesting that concurrent ethanol use does not impair methylphenidate's therapeutic efficacy. Unexpectedly one subject exhibited a methylphenidate hydrolysis defect yielding very high methylphenidate and low ritalinic acid concentrations in all study conditions. PMID:20533759

Koehm, Michaela; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

2010-01-01

354

Clinical comparison of high-resolution with high-sensitivity collimators in low-count cardiac gated blood pool studies  

SciTech Connect

We compared high-sensitivity (HS) and high-resolution (HR) collimators for 2.5-minute low-count acquisitions in 13 patients undergoing cardiac gated blood pool studies. High-count acquisitions served as standards. Ejection fractions calculated from low-count acquisitions were plotted against high-count acquisitions for each collimator; the variance of the HS plot was lower, and HS images were superior.

Kuni, C.C.; Johnson, T.K.; Boudreau, R.J.

1988-01-01

355

Functional coupling of renal K+ and Na+ handling causes high blood pressure in Na+ replete mice  

PubMed Central

A network of kinases, including WNKs, SPAK and Sgk1, is critical for the independent regulation of K+ and Na+ transport in the distal nephron. Angiotensin II is thought to act as a key hormone in orchestrating these kinases to switch from K+ secretion during hyperkalaemia to Na+ reabsorption during intravascular volume depletion, thus keeping disturbances in electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis at a minimum. It remains unclear, however, how K+ and Na+ transport are regulated during a high Na+ intake, which is associated with suppressed angiotensin II levels and a high distal tubular Na+ load. We therefore investigated the integrated blood pressure, renal, hormonal and gene and protein expression responses to large changes of K+ intake in Na+ replete mice. Both low and high K+ intake increased blood pressure and caused Na+ retention. Low K+ intake was accompanied by an upregulation of the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) and its activating kinase SPAK, and inhibition of NCC normalized blood pressure. Renal responses were unaffected by angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonism, indicating that low K+ intake activates the distal nephron by an angiotensin-independent mode of action. High K+ intake was associated with elevated plasma aldosterone concentrations and an upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and its activating kinase Sgk1. Surprisingly, high K+ intake increased blood pressure even during ENaC or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism, suggesting the contribution of aldosterone-independent mechanisms. These findings show that in a Na+ replete state, changes in K+ intake induce specific molecular and functional adaptations in the distal nephron that cause a functional coupling of renal K+ and Na+ handling, resulting in Na+ retention and high blood pressure when K+ intake is either restricted or excessively increased. PMID:24396058

Vitzthum, Helga; Seniuk, Anika; Schulte, Laura Helene; Müller, Maxie Luise; Hetz, Hannah; Ehmke, Heimo

2014-01-01

356

Ethanol Transforms Agricultural Markets in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

summaryEthanol Transforms Agricultural Markets in the USA<\\/title>In the United States the volume of ethanol produced from maize is increasing at a very fast rate. The high crude oil prices explain some of this growth, but government policies have also been instrumental by fostering the growth of the US ethanol industry. Tax credits and import tariffs have encouraged investment by increasing

Pat Westhoff; Wyatt Thompson; John Kruse; Seth Meyer

2007-01-01

357

Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging,

C Chen; Y Liu; S Maruvada; M Myers; D Khismatullin

2012-01-01

358

High-Intensity Targeted Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in 2 Inner-City Chicago Communities  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (? 10 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood), risk factors, and previous blood lead testing among children in 2 high-risk Chicago, Ill, communities. Methods. Through high-intensity targeted screening, blood lead levels were tested and risks were assessed among a representative sample of children aged 1 to 5 years who were at risk for lead exposure. Results. Of the 539 children who were tested, 27% had elevated blood lead levels, and 61% had never been tested previously. Elevated blood lead levels were associated with chipped exterior house paint. Conclusions. Most of the children who lived in these communities—where the prevalence for elevated blood lead levels among children was 12 times higher than the national prevalence—were not tested for lead poisoning. Our findings highlight the need for targeted community outreach that includes testing blood lead levels in accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendations. PMID:15514235

Dignam, Timothy A.; Evens, Anne; Eduardo, Eduard; Ramirez, Shokufeh M.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Kilpatrick, Nikki; Noonan, Gary P.; Flanders, W. Dana; Meyer, Pamela A.; McGeehin, Michael A.

2004-01-01

359

Blood pressure targets in the treatment of high blood pressure: a reappraisal of the J-shaped phenomenon.  

PubMed

The risk that lowering blood pressure (BP) excessively increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease-the J-shaped phenomenon-has been a matter of concern endorsed by many experts, particularly in patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes. The results of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes (ACCORD) trial strengthened the idea that it may be futile to lower BP more intensively in patients with diabetes. Nevertheless, there seems to be no direct J-shaped relation between BP-lowering treatment and outcome. Patients with normal or low BP and high or very high cardiovascular risk could have their BP reduced further by treatment. Placebo-controlled clinical trials of BP-lowering agents in patients with BP within normal values and concomitant cardiovascular disease demonstrated consistent reduction of recurrent and newer cardiovascular events. The use of BP agents in such conditions, as in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes and in patients recovered from a stroke has been endorsed by guidelines. Although is likely that there is a J-shaped relationship of BP with outcomes in cohort studies, clinical trials that tested more intensive versus standard goals and clinical trials done with patients with low BP demonstrated that the J-shaped phenomenon should not be a concern in the treatment of high BP. PMID:23966174

Fuchs, F D; Fuchs, S C

2014-02-01

360

A lab-on-CD prototype for high-speed blood separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood separation is the first step for subsequent blood tests in clinical diagnosis. Lab-on-a-chip technology provides an automatic, cost-effective and fast solution for a wide variety of blood analyses. The objective of this work is to design a new lab-on-CD microstructure capable of separating blood cells from the whole blood into different reservoirs directly. A CD platform including a microchannel network consisting of a straight main microchannel, a curved microchannel and a branching microchannel has been proposed. The merits of this design are its simple structure, less operating time and high separation efficiency because it utilizes multiple separation mechanisms, for instance, two centrifugal forces and Coriolis force. One centrifugal force is due to the system rotation; the other centrifugal force is due to the curvature of the specifically designed curved channel. In this work, systematical evaluation on the functionality and performance of such a design has been done. Ninety-nine per cent separation efficiency is achieved for diluted blood of 6% hematocrit.

Zhang, Jinlong; Guo, Qiuquan; Liu, Mei; Yang, Jun

2008-12-01

361

In vivo roles of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), catalase and the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) in deermice  

SciTech Connect

The relative importance of ADH and MEOS for ethanol oxidation in the liver has yet to be elucidated. The discovery of a strain of deermice genetically lacking ADH (ADH-) which can consume ethanol at greater than 50% of the rates seen in deermice having ADH (ADH+) suggested a significant role for non-ADH pathways in vivo. To quantitate contributions of the various pathways, the authors examined first the ethanol oxidation rates with or without 4-methylpyrazole in isolated deermice hepatocytes. 4-Methylpyrazole significantly reduced the ethanol oxidation in both ADH+ and ADH- hepatocytes. The reduction seen in ADH- cells can be applied to correct for the effect of 4-methylpyrazole on non-ADH pathways of ADH+ deermouse hepatocytes. After correction, non-ADH pathways were found to contribute 28% of ethanol metabolism at 10 mM and 52% at 50 mM. When using a different approach namely measurement of the isotope effect, MEOS was calculated to account for 35% at low and about 70% at high blood ethanol concentrations. Thus, they found that two different complementary approaches yielded similar results, namely that non-ADH pathways play a significant role in ethanol oxidation even in the presence of ADH.

Takagi, T.; Alderman, J.; Lieber, C.S.

1985-01-01

362

Acute effects of ethanol on pattern reversal and flash-evoked potentials in rats and the relationship to body temperature.  

PubMed

The effects of acute ethanol treatment on flash and pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (FEPs and PREPs, respectively) were examined in three experiments using Long-Evans rats. The relationships of evoked potential parameters with blood ethanol concentration and body temperature were examined. In Experiment 1, rats were treated i.p. with vehicle or 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g ethanol/kg body weight, and tested 30 min later. The 2.0 g/kg group had prolonged latencies of PREP peaks, no changes in PREP peak-to-peak amplitudes, and lower body temperatures than saline-treated controls. The peak latency shifts were significantly correlated with both blood ethanol concentration and body temperature, and were of a magnitude to be expected from similar changes in body temperature alone. Experiment 2 measured both PREPs and paired-flash FEPs in rats 30 min after injection of either 0, 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol. PREP changes were found following treatment with the high dose which were similar to those of Experiment 1. Some FEP peak latencies were prolonged and peak-to-peak amplitudes were reduced by both doses of ethanol, despite the fact that body temperatures were reduced at only the high dose. At 2.0 g/kg ethanol, the FEP changes in latency, but not amplitude, were in accordance with what would be expected from body temperature changes alone. The third study attempted to investigate the role of reduced body temperature in producing the visual evoked potential changes by testing at room temperatures of 22 or 30 degrees C. Contrary to expectations, the rats receiving 2 g/kg ethanol were approx. 1 degree C cooler than controls at both room temperatures. Evoked potential latencies were greater in ethanol-treated rats than controls at both room temperatures. There were no significant effects of ethanol on FEP amplitudes. Overall, the effects of low doses of ethanol were independent of temperature changes, but the effects of higher doses of ethanol (2.0 g/kg) could not be distinguished from those produced by differences in body temperature alone. PMID:8432677

Boyes, W K; Hetzler, B E; Dyer, R S

1993-01-01

363

Relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure in high-altitude peru.  

PubMed

Household air pollution from biomass fuel use affects 3 billion people worldwide; however, few studies have examined the relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We sought to determine if daily biomass fuel use was associated with elevated blood pressure in high altitude Peru and if this relationship was affected by lung function. We analyzed baseline information from a population-based cohort study of adults aged ?35 years in Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. We used multivariable regression models to examine the relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure outcomes. Interactions with sex and quartiles of forced vital capacity were conducted to evaluate for effect modification. Data from 1004 individuals (mean age, 55.3 years; 51.7% women) were included. We found an association between biomass fuel use with both prehypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-9.9) and hypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0). Biomass fuel users had a higher systolic blood pressure (7.0 mm?Hg; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-9.6) and a higher diastolic blood pressure (5.9 mm?Hg; 95% confidence interval, 4.2-7.6) when compared with nonusers. We did not find interaction effects between daily biomass fuel use and sex or percent predicted forced vital capacity for either systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure. Biomass fuel use was associated with a higher likelihood of having hypertension and higher blood pressure in Peru. Reducing exposure to household air pollution from biomass fuel use represents an opportunity for cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25753976

Burroughs Peña, Melissa; Romero, Karina M; Velazquez, Eric J; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

2015-05-01

364

Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ? 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually assaulted attending our SAC. PMID:23910880

Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

2013-08-01

365

High-Throughput Immunoassay for the Biochemical Diagnosis of Friedreich Ataxia in Dried Blood Spots and Whole Blood  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is caused by reduced frataxin (FXN) concentrations. A clinical diagnosis is typically confirmed by DNA-based assays for GAA-repeat expansions or mutations in the FXN (frataxin) gene; however, these assays are not applicable to therapeutic monitoring and population screening. To facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of FRDA patients, we developed an immunoassay for measuring FXN. METHODS Antibody pairs were used to capture FXN and an internal control protein, ceruloplasmin (CP), in 15 ?L of whole blood (WB) or one 3-mm punch of a dried blood spot (DBS). Samples were assayed on a Luminex LX200 analyzer and validated according to standard criteria. RESULTS The mean recovery of FXN from WB and DBS samples was 99%. Intraassay and interassay imprecision (CV) values were 4.9%–13% and 9.8%–16%, respectively. The FXN limit of detection was 0.07 ng/mL, and the reportable range of concentrations was 2–200 ng/mL. Reference adult and pediatric FXN concentrations ranged from 15 to 82 ng/mL (median, 33 ng/mL) for DBS and WB. The FXN concentration range was 12–22 ng/mL (median, 15 ng/mL) for FRDA carriers and 1–26 ng/mL (median 5 ng/mL) for FRDA patients. Measurement of the FXN/CP ratio increased the ability to distinguish between patients, carriers, and the reference population. CONCLUSIONS This assay is applicable to the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of FRDA. This assay can measure FXN and the control protein CP in both WB and DBS specimens with minimal sample requirements, creating the potential for high-throughput population screening of FRDA. PMID:23838345

Oglesbee, Devin; Kroll, Charles; Gakh, Oleksandr; Deutsch, Eric C.; Lynch, David R.; Gavrilova, Ralitza; Tortorelli, Silvia; Raymond, Kimiyo; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Rinaldo, Piero; Matern, Dietrich; Isaya, Grazia

2014-01-01

366

Protective effect of zinc against ethanol toxicity in mice  

SciTech Connect

Protection against the lethal effects of ethanol at 4.5 g/kg administered acutely was maximal when zinc was administered 60 min prior to ethanol. The timing of ethanol administration corresponded with elevated plasma levels of absorbed zinc. Protection was inversely related to the dose of zinc employed, as 0.5 ..mu..mol provided greater protection than 1.0 ..mu..mol, which provided greater protection than 2.0 ..mu..mol. Protection against ethanol lethality was greater if zinc was administered 60 min prior to each injection of ethanol. Acute zinc pretreatment did not alter the activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), nor did it alter the blood clearance of ethanol. Chronic zinc administration as ZnCl/sub 2/, 100 ..mu..g/ml in the drinking water for 30 d, produced a 25% decrease in hepatic ADH activity, which was accompanied by a similar decrease in the intravascular clearance of ethanol.

Dar, M.S.; Townsend, Wooles, W.R.

1986-01-01

367

Effect of ethanol on serum electrolytes and osmolality  

SciTech Connect

Rats and rabbits were injected ethanol 2 g/kg intraperitoneally. One hour after injection blood was analyzed for serum electrolytes and osmolality. Administration of ethanol caused decrease in serum sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus and glucose in rabbits. Further studies of intraperitoneal administration of ethanol in rats showed decrease in concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus and glucose. Administration of ethanol caused an increase in serum osmolality in both rabbits and rats. It is concluded that ethanol ingestion is probably the commonest cause of the hyperosmolar state. Although the osmotic and sedative effects of ethanol are pharmacologically unrelated, the presence of ethanol should be considered in comatose patients whom the measured plasma osmolality appreciably exceeds that predicted on the basis of plasma glucose, urea and electrolytes concentration.

Mahboob, T.; Haleem, M.A.

1988-01-01

368

Liver and Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Obtained at Autopsy Are Postmortem Markers for Premortem Ethanol Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are nonoxi- dative ethanol metabolites that have been implicated as mediators of alcohol-induced organ damage. FAEEs are detectable in the blood after ethanol ingestion, and on that basis have been proposed as markers of ethanol intake. Because blood is not always available at autopsy, in this study we quantified FAEEs in human liver and

Majed A. Refaai; Phan N. Nguyen; Thora S. Steffensen; Richard J. Evans; Joanne E. Cluette-Brown; Michael Laposata

2002-01-01

369

Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Stabilized and Manganese-Modified Rhodium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Highly Selective Synthesis of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde from Syngas  

SciTech Connect

Well-defined and monodispersed rhodium nanoparticles as small as approximately 2?nm were encapsulated in?situ and stabilized in a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) framework during the synthesis of the mesoporous material. Although both the activity and selectivity of MSN-encapsulated rhodium nanoparticles in CO hydrogenation could be improved by the addition of manganese oxide as expected, the carbon selectivity for C2 oxygenates (including ethanol and acetaldehyde) was unprecedentedly high at 74.5?% with a very small amount of methanol produced if rhodium nanoparticles were modified by manganese oxide with very close interaction.

Huang, Yulin; Deng, Weihua; Guo, Enruo; Chung, Po-Wen; Chen, Senniang; Trewyn, Brian; Brown, Robert; Lin, Victor

2012-03-30

370

Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

371

High thermal sensitivity of blood enhances oxygen delivery in the high-flying bar-headed goose.  

PubMed

The bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) crosses the Himalaya twice a year at altitudes where oxygen (O2) levels are less than half those at sea level and temperatures are below -20°C. Although it has been known for over three decades that the major hemoglobin (Hb) component of bar-headed geese has an increased affinity for O2, enhancing O2 uptake, the effects of temperature and interactions between temperature and pH on bar-headed goose Hb-O2 affinity have not previously been determined. An increase in breathing of the hypoxic and extremely cold air experienced by a bar-headed goose at altitude (due to the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response in this species) could result in both reduced temperature and reduced levels of CO2 at the blood-gas interface in the lungs, enhancing O2 loading. In addition, given the strenuous nature of flapping flight, particularly in thin air, blood leaving the exercising muscle should be warm and acidotic, facilitating O2 unloading. To explore the possibility that features of blood biochemistry in this species could further enhance O2 delivery, we determined the P50 (the partial pressure of O2 at which Hb is 50% saturated) of whole blood from bar-headed geese under conditions of varying temperature and [CO2]. We found that blood-O2 affinity was highly temperature sensitive in bar-headed geese compared with other birds and mammals. Based on our analysis, temperature and pH effects acting on blood-O2 affinity (cold alkalotic lungs and warm acidotic muscle) could increase O2 delivery by twofold during sustained flapping flight at high altitudes compared with what would be delivered by blood at constant temperature and pH. PMID:23470665

Meir, Jessica U; Milsom, William K

2013-06-15

372

Postmortem ethanol in the setting of ethanol-containing automotive fuel.  

PubMed

The pilot of a light aircraft that crashed after a loss of power was found to have ethanol in the vitreous and the blood, but almost none in the urine. The globes of the eyes were intact, and the body was refrigerated after recovery until the autopsy was performed the following morning. The pilot was described as a "nondrinker," and additional specialized toxicology testing results were inconsistent with ethanol ingestion. The pilot's body was extensively exposed to fuel during the prolonged extraction. Investigation determined that the aircraft had been fueled with gasoline that contained 10% ethanol. Although exposure to automotive fuel has not been previously described as a source of ethanol in postmortem specimens, it may represent a source for the ethanol detected during postmortem toxicology testing in this case, and this finding may be relevant to other cases with similar exposure. PMID:22835972

Garber, Mitchell A; Canfield, Dennis V; Lewis, Russell J; Simmons, Samuel D; Radisch, Deborah L

2013-03-01

373

Ethanol disrupts vascular endothelial barrier: implication in cancer metastasis.  

PubMed

Both epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that ethanol exposure enhances tumor progression. Ethanol exposure promotes cancer cell invasion and is implicated in tumor metastasis. Metastasis consists of multiple processes involving intravasation and extravasation of cancer cells across the blood vessel walls. The integrity of the vascular endothelial barrier that lines the inner surface of blood vessels plays a critical role in cancer cell intravasation/extravasation. We examined the effects of ethanol on the endothelial integrity in vitro. Ethanol at physiologically relevant concentrations did not alter cell viability but disrupted the endothelial monolayer integrity, which was evident by a decrease in the electric resistance and the appearance of intercellular gaps in the endothelial monolayer. The effect of ethanol was reversible once ethanol was removed. The disruption of the endothelial monolayer integrity was associated with an increased invasion of cancer cells through the endothelial monolayer. Ethanol induced the formation of stress fibers; stabilization of actin filaments by jasplakinolide prevented ethanol-induced disruption of endothelial integrity and cancer cell invasion. VE-cadherin is a critical component of the adherens junctions, which regulates vascular endothelial integrity. Ethanol induced the endocytosis of VE-cadherin and the effect was blocked by jasplakinolide. Our results indicate that ethanol may facilitate cancer metastasis by disrupting the vascular endothelial barrier. PMID:22331491

Xu, Mei; Chen, Gang; Fu, Wei; Liao, Mingjun; Frank, Jacqueline A; Bower, Kimberly A; Fang, Shengyun; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

2012-05-01

374

Partially mismatched blood cell transplants for high-risk hematologic malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven patients with high-risk hematologic malignancy received cryopreserved but otherwise unmanipulated blood cell transplants (BCT) from partially mismatched family members in whom progenitor cells had been mobilized by G-CSF. Donors were mismatched by up to one antigen in the GVH direction and up to three antigens in the rejection direction. Outcomes were compared with those of 22 patients receiving BCT

JA Russell; S Desai; B Herbut; C Brown; J Luider; JD Ruether; D Stewart; A Chaudhry; K Booth; K Jorgenson; MJ Coppes; AR Turner; L Larratt; M-C Poon; J Klassen

1997-01-01

375

Optimization of real-time high-frequency ultrasound for blood flow imaging in the microcirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first high frequency ultrasound system able to image blood flow in the microcirculation in real-time has been developed. 2D color flow frames are rapidly acquired using a recently reported method to achieve frame rates approaching 10 fps. A new flow phantom was constructed in order to tune the wall filter order, cutoff and attenuation for a 25 MHz, f\\/2

Dustin E. Kruse; Jerome S. Mai; Ronald H. Silverman; Michael F. Insana; D. J. Coleman; Katherine W. Ferrara

2001-01-01

376

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO) high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is

Sheldon W Tobe; Margaret Moy Lum-Kwong; Nancy Perkins; Shirley Von Sychowski; Rolf J Sebaldt; Alex Kiss

2008-01-01

377

Using a Low-Sodium, High-Potassium Salt Substitute to Reduce Blood Pressure among Tibetans with High Blood Pressure: A Patient-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt-substitute on lowering blood pressure (BP) among Tibetans living at high altitude (4300 meters). Method The study was a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted between February and May 2009 in Dangxiong County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China. A total of 282 Tibetans aged 40 or older with known hypertension (systolic BP?140 mmHg) were recruited and randomized to intervention (salt-substitute, 65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride and 10% magnesium sulfate) or control (100% sodium chloride) in a 1: 1 allocation ratio with three months’ supply. Primary outcome was defined as the change in BP levels measured from baseline to followed-up with an automated sphygmomanometer. Per protocol (PP) and intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Results After the three months’ intervention period, the net reduction in SBP/DBP in the intervention group in comparison to the control group was ?8.2/?3.4 mmHg (all p<0.05) in PP analysis, after adjusting for baseline BP and other variables. ITT analysis showed the net reduction in SBP/DBP at ?7.6/?3.5 mmHg with multiple imputations (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the whole distribution of blood pressure showed an overall decline in SBP/DBP and the proportion of patients with BP under control (SBP/DBP<140 mmHg) was significantly higher in salt-substitute group in comparison to the regular salt group (19.2% vs. 8.8%, p?=?0.027). Conclusion Low sodium high potassium salt-substitute is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and offers a simple, low-cost approach for hypertension control among Tibetans in China. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429246 PMID:25338053

Zhao, Xingshan; Yin, Xuejun; Li, Xian; Yan, Lijing L.; Lam, Christopher T.; Li, Shenshen; He, Feng; Xie, Wuxiang; Sang, Ba; Luobu, Gesang; Ke, Liang; Wu, Yangfeng

2014-01-01

378

Adding value to carbon dioxide from ethanol fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) from ethanol production facilities is increasing as more ethanol is produced for alternative transportation fuels. CO2 produced from ethanol fermentation processes is of high purity and is nearly a saturated gas. Such highly-concentrated source of CO2 is a potential candidate for capture and utilization by the CO2 industry. Quantity, quality and capture of CO2 from ethanol fermentations

Yixiang Xu; Loren Isom; Milford A. Hanna

2010-01-01

379

Applications of schedule-induced polydipsia in rodents for the study of an excessive ethanol intake phenotype.  

PubMed

Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is generated by subjecting a highly motivated animal to a sub-optimal rate of food reinforcement while also providing access to a fluid. SIP is one of several adjunctive (or displacement) behaviors that are expressed in an exaggerated form that is deemed 'excessive.' This feature makes SIP an attractive model for studying an excessive ethanol drinking phenotype in rodents. Multiple experimental variables are crucial for the full manifestation of adjunctive drinking, including the degree of food deprivation, the inter-pellet interval selected, and the size of the food reward offered. Although these variables were extensively studied and optimized for water polydipsia in rats, a similarly customized approach to ethanol SIP and application of the procedure in mice have largely been curtailed in favor of the default variable values historically used for water SIP in rats. Further, ethanol SIP also requires careful consideration of variables such as taste and ethanol concentration. Investigation of the stress axis and neurochemical systems such as dopamine and serotonin in mediating adjunctive drinking stemmed from two leading hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of SIP generation: 1) SIP as a coping strategy to mitigate stress associated with the aversive environmental condition, and 2) SIP as a displacement of reward in a highly motivated animal. Ethanol SIP is a powerful model of excessive intake because it can generate an ethanol-dependent state and sustain frequent and intoxicating levels of blood ethanol with voluntary oral consumption. The required food deprivation and the loss of the excessive drinking phenotype following removal of the generator schedule are the two main limitations of the model. Future utility of ethanol SIP will be enhanced by more fully dissecting the underlying hormonal and neurochemical mechanisms and optimizing experimental variables for ethanol SIP on a per species and strain basis. PMID:24680665

Ford, Matthew M

2014-05-01

380

High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult population. PMID:21510847

2011-01-01

381

Production of the Anaerobic GMAX-L Yeast Using High-Throughput Mating and Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae With Identified Genes For Simultaneous Cellulosic Ethanol and Biodiesel Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tailored GMAX-L yeast engineering for strains capable of universal ethanol production industrially with coproduction of an expressed lipase catalyst for coproduction of ethyl esters from corn oil and ethanol from the modern dry grind ethanol facility: Production of the stable baseline glucose, mann...

382

Relationship of parental history of high blood pressure to blood pressure: combined findings of three Japanese population samples, the INTERSALT study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of parental history of high blood pressure (HBP) to blood pressure (BP) was estimated in three Japanese population samples, totalling 591 men and women aged 20–59 years, from the INTERSALT study. Parental history of HBP was defined as reported HBP by their father and\\/or mother. With adjustment for antihypertensive medication, body mass index, alcohol intake, and Na\\/K ratio

Y Naruse; H Nakagawa; S Kagamimori; Y Fujita; T Hashimoto; T Kasamatsu; K Mikawa; H Ueshima

1998-01-01

383

Improving the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by laccase during ethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw at high-substrate loadings.  

PubMed

Operating the saccharification and fermentation processes at high-substrate loadings is a key factor for making ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass economically viable. However, increasing the substrate loading presents some disadvantages, including a higher concentration of inhibitors (furan derivatives, weak acids, and phenolic compounds) in the media, which negatively affect the fermentation performance. One strategy to eliminate soluble inhibitors is filtering and washing the pretreated material. In this study, it was observed that even if the material was previously washed, inhibitory compounds were released during the enzymatic hydrolysis step. Laccase enzymatic treatment was evaluated as a method to reduce these inhibitory effects. The laccase efficiency was analyzed in a presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process at high-substrate loadings. Water-insoluble solids fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw was used as substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as fermenting microorganism. Laccase supplementation reduced strongly the phenolic content in the media, without affecting weak acids and furan derivatives. This strategy resulted in an improved yeast performance during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, increasing significantly ethanol productivity. PMID:23143932

Alvira, Pablo; Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Mercedes

2013-01-01

384

Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review  

SciTech Connect

Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

1981-01-01

385

Genetically engineered Escherichia coli FBR5: part I. Comparison of high cell density bioreactors for enhanced ethanol production from xylose.  

PubMed

Five reactor systems (free cell batch, free cell continuous, entrapped cell immobilized, adsorbed cell packed bed, and cell recycle membrane reactors) were compared for ethanol production from xylose using Escherichia coli FBR5. In the free cell batch and free cell continuous reactors (continuous stirred tank reactor-CSTR) productivities of 0.84 gL(-1) h(-1) and 1.77 gL(-1) h(-1) were achieved, respectively. A cell recycle membrane reactor resulted in the highest productivity of 55.56 gL(-1) h(-1), which is an increase of 66-fold (e.g., 6614%) over the batch reactor. Calcium alginate gel CSTR resulted in a productivity of 2.04 gL(-1) h(-1) whereas adsorbed cell packed bed reactor resulted in a productivity of 4.39 gL(-1) h(-1). In the five reactor systems, ethanol concentrations ranged from 18.9 to 40.30 gL(-1) with metabolic yields from 0.44 to 0.51. PMID:22736598

Qureshi, N; Dien, B S; Liu, S; Saha, B C; Hector, R; Cotta, M A; Hughes, S

2012-01-01

386

DEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS IN OLIVARY CLIMBING FIBER DISTRIBUTION FOLLOWING POSTNATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE IN  

E-print Network

on postnatal days (PN) 4­6, with the amount of neuronal loss directly pro- portional to the blood ethanolDEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS IN OLIVARY CLIMBING FIBER DISTRIBUTION FOLLOWING POSTNATAL ETHANOL 72205-7199, USA Abstract--Ethanol exposure during postnatal days (PN) 4­6 in rats alters cerebellar

Hayar, Abdallah

387

Effects of ethanol consumption on hepatic hemodynamics in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Increased portal blood flow represents a compensatory mechanism preventing hepatic hypoxia after ethanol consumption. In addition, alcohol increases hepatic vascular resistance. Thus, ethanol consumption, by increasing hepatic vascular resistance and portal flow, may worsen portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol consumption on hepatic hemodynamics in

A Luca; JC Garcia-Pagan; J Bosch; F Feu; J Caballeria; RJ Groszmann; J Rodes

1997-01-01

388

Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... Hospital Is there a risk for low blood sugar? Low blood sugar (defined as a blood sugar ... after your hospital stay. What are the blood sugar targets in the hospital? Health care providers want ...

389

Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

Not Available

2015-01-01

390

High Peripheral Blood Th17 Percent Associated with Poor Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

People with cystic fibrosis (CF) have been reported to make lung T cell responses that are biased towards T helper (Th) 2 or Th17. We hypothesized that CF-related T cell regulatory defects could be detected by analyzing CD4+ lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 42 CF patients (6 months–53 years old) and 78 healthy controls (2–61 years old) were analyzed for Th1 (IFN-?+), Th2 (IL-4+), Th17 (IL-17+), Treg (FOXP3+), IL-10+ and TGF-?+ CD4+ cells. We observed higher proportions of Treg, IL-10+ and TGF-?+ CD4+ cells in CF adults (? 18 years old), but not children/adolescents, compared with controls. Within the CF group, high TGF-?+% was associated with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection (p < 0.006). We observed no significant differences between control and CF groups in the proportions of Th1, Th2 or Th17 cells, and no association within the CF group of any subset with sex, CFTR genotype, or clinical exacerbation. However, high Th17% was strongly associated with poor lung function (FEV1 % predicted) (p = 0.0008), and this association was strongest when both lung function testing and blood sampling were performed within one week. Our results are consistent with reports of CF as a Th17 disease and suggest that peripheral blood Th17 levels may be a surrogate marker of lung function in CF. PMID:25803862

Mulcahy, Emily M.; Hudson, Jo B.; Beggs, Sean A.; Reid, David W.; Roddam, Louise F.; Cooley, Margaret A.

2015-01-01

391

High-throughput automated molecular biology platform for production of fuel ethanol yeast capable of expressing high-value heterologous proteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The majority of fuel ethanol currently produced in the United States is made from corn starch. Projections indicate that corn supplies will not be able to meet the increasing demand for biofuels. Lignocellulosic biomass, an abundant and renewable carbon source, has the potential to supplement star...

392

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National High Blood Pressure Education Program presents the complete Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Like its predecessors, the purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of hypertension. The key messages of this report are these: in those older than age 50, systolic

Aram V. Chobanian; George L. Bakris; Henry R. Black; William C. Cushman; Lee A. Green; Joseph L. Izzo; Daniel W. Jones; Barry J. Materson; Jackson T. Wright

393

Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation  

PubMed Central

We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J. M. A.

2014-01-01

394

Ethanol from biomass - The quest for efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for the production of ethanol to be used as an energy source from readily renewable biomass, natural materials based largely on cellulose, are reviewed. Current procedures for ethanol production utilize energy-inefficient processes and costly materials, such as corn, and thus are highly impractical for the large-scale ethanol production which is envisioned as a partial solution for US energy needs. The use of cellulosic raw materials is at the center of present research efforts, but no reliable and high-yielding conversion technique has yet been demonstrated. Methods of ethanol production are discussed and attention is focused on new fermentation technologies which potentially could overcome the problems associated with the use of cellulosic raw materials. For example, a strain of yeast is being developed which has the capability to convert up to twice as much of our agricultural wastes to ethanol than was thought possible just a year ago

Deyoung, H. G.

1982-02-01

395

Simulation of pressure swing adsorption in fuel ethanol production process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation derived ethanol is gaining wide popularity as a car fuel additive. A major challenge in the production of ethanol is the high energy cost associated with the separation of ethanol from the large excess of water. Distillation is usually the method of choice; however, water cannot be completely removed due to the presence of the azeotrope. The pressure swing

Marian Simo; Christopher J. Brown; Vladimir Hlavacek

2008-01-01

396

Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil. There are mainly two processes involved in the conversion: hydrolysis of cellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass to produce reducing sugars, and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is relatively high based on current technologies,

Ye Sun; Jiayang Cheng

2002-01-01

397

Ethanol fuels: Energy security, economics, and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fuel ethanol production have been the subject of numerous reports, including this analysis. The conclusions are that ethanol: does not improve U.S. energy security; is uneconomical; is not a renewable energy source; and increases environmental degradation. Ethanol production is wasteful of energy resources and does not increase energy security. Considerably more energy, much of it high- grade fossil

David Pimentel

1991-01-01

398

Ethanol production method and system  

DOEpatents

Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

1983-05-26

399

Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.  

PubMed

Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process. PMID:25119551

Mikulski, D; K?osowski, G; Rolbiecka, A

2014-10-01

400

Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance  

SciTech Connect

Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.

Witek-Janusek, L.

1986-08-01

401

Autophagy and ethanol neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Excessive ethanol exposure is detrimental to the brain. The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol such that prenatal ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Neuronal loss in the brain is the most devastating consequence and is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Since alcohol consumption during pregnancy has not declined, it is imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic strategies. One cellular mechanism that acts as a protective response for the central nervous system (CNS) is autophagy. Autophagy regulates lysosomal turnover of organelles and proteins within cells, and is involved in cell differentiation, survival, metabolism, and immunity. We have recently shown that ethanol activates autophagy in the developing brain. The autophagic preconditioning alleviates ethanol-induced neuron apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiates ethanol-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbates ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. The expression of genes encoding proteins required for autophagy in the CNS is developmentally regulated; their levels are much lower during an ethanol-sensitive period than during an ethanol-resistant period. Ethanol may stimulate autophagy through multiple mechanisms; these include induction of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulation of MTOR and AMPK signaling, alterations in BCL2 family proteins, and disruption of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. This review discusses the most recent evidence regarding the involvement of autophagy in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity as well as the potential therapeutic approach of targeting autophagic pathways. PMID:25484085

Luo, Jia

2014-12-01

402

High frequency photoacoustic imaging for in vivo visualizing blood flow of zebrafish heart.  

PubMed

A technique on high frame rate(28fps), high frequency co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for visualizing zebrafish heart blood flow was demonstrated. This approach was achieved with a 40MHz light weight(0.38g) ring-type transducer, serving as the ultrasound transmitter and receiver, to allow an optic fiber, coupled with a 532nm laser, to be inserted into the hole. From the wire target study, axial resolutions of 38µm and 42µm were obtained for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging, respectively. Carbon nanotubes were utilized as contrast agents to increase the flow signal level by 20dB in phantom studies, and zebrafish heart blood flow was successfully observed. PMID:23787651

Park, Jinhyoung; Cummins, Thomas M; Harrison, Michael; Lee, Jungwoo; Zhou, Qifa; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K Kirk

2013-06-17

403

Tissue distribution of acetaldehyde in rats following acetaldehyde inhalation and intragastric ethanol administration  

SciTech Connect

It is conceivable that ethanol will be blended with gasoline and used as a fuel in the future because of the depletion of petroleum resources. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, which is more toxic than the parent compound. While acetaldehyde levels in blood and liver following ethanol ingestion have been reported in rats, little is known about tissue distributions of acetaldehyde following inhalation exposure. The present communication comparatively describes the tissue distributions of acetaldehyde following acetaldehyde inhalation and intragastric ethanol administration.

Hobara, N.; Watanabe, A.; Kobayashi, M.; Nakatsukasa, H.; Nagashima, H.; Fukuda, T.; Araki, Y.

1985-09-01

404

Metabolic Profiling of Human Blood by High Resolution Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry (IM-MS)  

PubMed Central

A high resolution ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization source (ESI-IM-MS) was evaluated as an analytical method for rapid analysis of complex biological samples such as human blood metabolome was investigated. The hybrid instrument (IM-MS) provided an average ion mobility resolving power of ~90 and a mass resolution of ~1500 (at m/z 100). A few µL of whole blood was extracted with methanol, centrifuged and infused into the IM-MS via an electrospray ionization source. Upon IM-MS profiling of the human blood metabolome approximately 1,100 metabolite ions were detected and 300 isomeric metabolites separated in short analyses time (30 minutes). Estimated concentration of the metabolites ranged from the low micromolar to the low nanomolar level. Various classes of metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, purines and pyrimidines etc) were found to form characteristic mobility-mass correlation curves (MMCC) that aided in metabolite identification. Peaks corresponding to various sterol derivatives, estrogen derivatives, phosphocholines, prostaglandins, and cholesterol derivatives detected in the blood extract were found to occupy characteristic two dimensional IM-MS space. Low abundance metabolite peaks that can be lost in MS random noise were resolved from noise peaks by differentiation in mobility space. In addition, the peak capacity of MS increased six fold by coupling IMS prior to MS analysis. PMID:21113320

Dwivedi, Prabha; Schultz, Albert J.; Hill, Herbert H.

2010-01-01

405

Skin-scanning technique for superficial blood flow imaging using a high-frequency ultrasound system.  

PubMed

In this paper we propose a skin-scanning technique with a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system that enables images to be acquired at the fixed depth of field of a single-element focused transducer along the profile of an object contour by simultaneously moving the transducer in the horizontal and vertical directions. The scanning path, which closely parallels the profile of the object contour, was determined from the intensity difference between an object and the background in a brightness-mode image. The transducer moved along the profile of the object contour while maintaining a constant distance interval between adjacent pairs of ultrasonic signals in the horizontal direction. The image was then reconstructed by applying an alignment process to eliminate the distortion. The performance of skin-scanning technique was verified in vitro experiment using an arc-shaped phantom and the results showed a percentage error of 0.55% for the volumetric blood flow estimates. Moreover, in vivo experiment on a subcutaneous tumor was also performed. The results indicated that the proposed technique can accurately estimate the blood flow information along the profile of the object contour and avoid distortion of the morphology of blood vessels. The skin-scanning technique has potential for assessing superficial blood flows and prognoses in the oncology and dermatology fields. PMID:23850423

Chen, Jia-Jiun; Cheng, Chih-Hao; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

2014-01-01

406

The Blood Lactate Increase in High Intensity Exercise Is Depressed by Acanthopanax sieboldianus  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the anti-fatigue effects of Acanthopanax sieboldianus (A. sieboldianus) at various exercise intensities. Two experiments were conducted in 18 Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, a three-stage increment test (15 m/min for 5 min, and 20 m/min for 5 min and 25 m/min for 10 min) was performed using a treadmill. In Experiment 2, a 10-min swimming test was conducted. Blood samples were extracted from each rat before, during and after the exercises and the blood concentrations of lactate and glucose measured. In both experiments, water (control) or A. sieboldianus solution (ASS) was administered orally using a zonde 30 min before the exercise. In the swimming test, ASS administration significantly decreased the blood lactate level measured at the end of the exercise and 5 min post-exercise relative to the water group, although the two groups did not differ significantly in the treadmill test. Our study demonstrates that a single oral administration of A. sieboldianus prior to high-intensity exercise significantly decreases the blood lactate concentration suggesting that A. sieboldianus has an intrinsic anti-fatigue effect. PMID:24135965

Kato, Morimasa; Kurakane, Shizue; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Park, Jaeyoung; Chang, Hyukki

2013-01-01

407

New Study Suggests Link Between Chronic Estrogen Exposure and High Blood Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Press release on a new study that links chronic estrogen exposure to high blood pressure. This study, "Chronic Estradiol-17B Exposure Increases Superoxide Production in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) and Causes Hypertension: Reversal by Resveratrol," was conducted by P.S. MohanKumarm, Ph.D., and team from Michigan State University. The study is published in the June 2011 issue of American Journal of Physiology Â? Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2011-05-26

408

High blood pressure and the kidney: The forgotten contribution of William Senhouse Kirkes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure and the kidney: The forgotten contribution of William Senhouse Kirkes. The realization of the key role for raised intra-arterial pressure as a pathogenetic agent in hypertension is usually credited to Ludwig Traube, but Traube in his writings gives credit for the idea to a little-known English doctor, William Senhouse Kirkes (1822–1864). Kirkes' main interest was in cardiology

J Stewart Cameron; Jackie Hicks

2000-01-01

409

Beneficial Effect of Low Ethanol Intake on the Cardiovascular System: Possible Biochemical Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs), altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs. PMID:17326332

Vasdev, Sudesh; Gill, Vicki; Singal, Pawan K

2006-01-01

410

Beneficial effect of low ethanol intake on the cardiovascular system: possible biochemical mechanisms.  

PubMed

Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs), altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs. PMID:17326332

Vasdev, Sudesh; Gill, Vicki; Singal, Pawan K

2006-01-01

411

High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ?3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR?=?1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend ?=?0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR?=?1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility to poor outcome among acute ischemic stroke patients in a northern Chinese population. PMID:25265507

Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

2014-01-01

412

Hypertension`s lead connection: Does low-level exposure to lead cause high blood pressure?  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Paying for the sins of the past.{close_quotes} is how researcher Howard Hu describes a proposed disease process in which lead stored for decades in the skeleton puts people at risk of high blood pressure. Previous research has linked this silvery white, poisonous metal to a host of ill effects in children, including learning disabilities, behavior problems, and brain damage. Now, Hu`s study indicates that past exposure may be causing today`s high blood pressure. If he`s right, the public health impact would be significant. {open_quotes}Tens of millions of Americans have been exposed over the years to lead,{close_quotes} says Philip J. Landrigan of Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. {open_quotes}Adults today grew up at a time when we were still putting several hundred thousand tons of lead into gasoline each year.{close_quotes} Indeed, the men who developed high blood pressure during the recent study had in their bones lead concentrations, or lead burdens, that came from decades of everyday exposure. Such exposures resulted principally from breathing in fumes from leaded gasoline, drinking tap water from lead pipes or pipes soldered with lead, and inhaling or ingesting lead-laced paint dust or chips. This article goes on to discuss other studies and questions which still need to be answered.

Fackelmann, K.

1996-06-15

413

High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines  

SciTech Connect

Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

Hilbert, D.

2011-10-01

414

Sensitivity to reinforcer delay predicts ethanol's suppressant effects, but itself is unaffected by ethanol  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Relative preference for smaller, sooner rewards over larger, later rewards (“delay discounting”) is increased by acute ethanol. Additionally, drug-naïve levels of delay discounting can predict subsequent ethanol consumption. However, it is unknown whether these phenomena are driven by a difference in sensitivity to the reinforcer delay or a difference in sensitivity to the reinforcer magnitude, because typical delay discounting tasks manipulate both parameters simultaneously. METHODS To disambiguate these factors, two tasks were developed in which animals chose between levers with either different delay contingencies (adjusting delay task) or different magnitude contingencies (adjusting magnitude task). When task performance was stable, rats received ethanol (0, 0.6, and 0.9 g/kg, i.p.). RESULTS Ethanol did not affect sensitivity to delay or sensitivity to magnitude. However, responding was suppressed at the highest dose of ethanol (0.9 g/kg). Less suppression was found in animals exhibiting high levels of drug-naïve sensitivity to delay. CONCLUSION Thus, this study suggests that ethanol’s effect on standard delay discounting tasks is not due to an alteration in sensitivity to delay or magnitude. Additionally, these data show that animals with high sensitivity to delay are resistant to the behaviorally suppressant effects of ethanol, which suggests that low tolerance for delayed rewards and low sensitivity to the behaviorally suppressant effects of ethanol may partly be driven by the same underlying mechanism. PMID:23910798

Moschak, Travis M.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

2013-01-01

415

[Lacidipine efficacy and safety for high blood pressure treatment in pediatric oncohematology].  

PubMed

In adults, lacidipine seems to have no CYP3A4-inhibiting action. This particular characteristic makes it advantageous when combined with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, such as cyclosporine. Until now, no data on the efficacy or safety of this calcium antagonist have been available in children. Thirty-nine hypertensive children (age: 0.13-14 years) receiving lacidipine in oncohematology for a mean of 75 days were included in this retrospective study. The causes of high blood pressure were renal tumor (n=7), catecholamine-secreting tumor (n=4), corticoid treatment (n=5), and cyclosporine treatment (n=23). An initial dosage of 0.05 mg/kg/day was sufficient for 41% of the patients. The remaining patients needed to increase the dosage, by steps of 0.03 mg/kg/day, until reaching an average effective dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day. Lacidipine significantly decreased blood pressure by 30 (±14) mmHg for systolic blood pressure and by 26 (±13) mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. A medication plan with twice-daily administration was not significantly more effective than a single administration per day. Lacidipine was well tolerated, and no toxicity-related withdrawal of treatment occurred. For 22 patients treated with both cyclosporine and lacidipine, renal function was not disturbed over time, suggesting its preservation by lacidipine. No significant increase in cyclosporine blood concentration was detected. Lacidipine seems to be an effective calcium antagonist in pediatric oncohematology, is well tolerated, has a kidney-protector effect and no drug interaction when combined with cyclosporine. PMID:25125033

Bernard, E; Mialou, V; Dony, A; Garnier, N; Renard, C; Bleyzac, N

2014-10-01

416

Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This

Christine Lasco Crago; Madhu Khanna; Jason Barton; Eduardo Giuliani; Weber Amaral

2010-01-01

417

Batch and multi-step fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse at high solid loadings for high sugar and ethanol titers.  

PubMed

Formiline pretreatment pertains to a biomass fractionation process. In the present work, Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed with cellulases by batch and multi-step fed-batch processes at 20% solid loading. For wet pulp, after 144 h incubation with cellulase loading of 10 FPU/g dry solid, fed-batch process obtained ~150 g/L glucose and ~80% glucan conversion, while batch process obtained ~130 g/L glucose with corresponding ~70% glucan conversion. Solid loading could be further increased to 30% for the acetone-dried pulp. By fed-batch hydrolysis of the dried pulp in pH 4.8 buffer solution, glucose concentration could be 247.3±1.6 g/L with corresponding 86.1±0.6% glucan conversion. The enzymatic hydrolyzates could be well converted to ethanol by a subsequent fermentation using Saccharomices cerevisiae with ethanol titer of 60-70 g/L. Batch and fed-batch SSF indicated that Formiline-pretreated substrate showed excellent fermentability. The final ethanol concentration was 80 g/L with corresponding 82.7% of theoretical yield. PMID:23127840

Zhao, Xuebing; Dong, Lei; Chen, Liang; Liu, Dehua

2013-05-01

418

THE EFFECT OF A HIGH CHROMIUM YEAST ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE CONTROL AND BLOOD LIPIDS OF NORMAL AND DIABETIC HUMAN SUBJECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high potency organic chromium yeast was investigated for its effect on blood control and serum lipids in a group of 23 normal and diabetic subjects which were sub-divided into normals, hyperglycaemics, insulin-dependent diabetics and non- insulin dependent diabetics. Each volunteer daily took 100 mg of yeast containing 218 ?g of chromium for a period of six months. The

J. A. Vinson; P. Bose

419

ENHANCED BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILTIY IN A HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK GROUP OF AFRICAN AMERICANS  

PubMed Central

Background High blood pressure (BP) levels in African Americans elicit vascular inflammation resulting in vascular remodeling. BP variability (BPV) correlates with target organ damage. We aimed to investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and BPV in African Americans. Methodology 36 African Americans underwent 24-hr ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). BPV was calculated using the average real variability (ARV) index. Fasting blood samples were assayed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and white blood cell (WBC) count. Results Significant association between hs-CRP and 24-hr systolic variability (r = 0.50; p = 0.012) and awake systolic variability (r = 0.45; p =0.02) was identified after adjusting for age, BMI and 24-hr mean BP. ABPM variables were compared between the hs-CRP tertile groups. In Post-hoc analysis, there was a significant difference in 24-hr and awake periods for both systolic and diastolic variability among the groups. TNF-? and WBC count showed no associations with ABPM variables. Conclusion hs-CRP is associated with systolic variability and higher levels of hs-CRP are related with greater BPV. Higher inflammatory status influences wider fluctuations in systolic BP which in turn could facilitate early progression to target organ damage independent of absolute BP levelsin African Americans. PMID:20885987

Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Diaz, Keith M.; Feairheller, Deborah L.; Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Williamson, Sheara; Crabbe, Deborah L.; Kashem, Abul; Ahrensfield, Debra; Brown, Michael D.

2010-01-01

420

Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.  

PubMed

Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. PMID:24060214

Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

2014-01-15

421

"High in omega-3 fatty acids" bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis.  

PubMed

A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed. The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6/?-3 ratio from 17.3 to 1.9, and also the Atherogenic Index and Thrombogenic Index (0.38-0.31 and 1.03-0.54, respectively). Modified sausages with BHA and Melissa extract showed significantly lower peroxides value (2.62 and 6.11 meq O?/kg) and thiobarbituric acid value (0.26 and 0.27 mg malondialdehyde/kg) and higher antioxidant capacity (hydrophilic fraction ABTS: 0.45 and 0.74 meq Trolox/g product; lipofilic fraction ABTS: 0.44 and 0.37 meq Trolox/g product) than those without these ingredients (16.49 meq O?/kg, 2.08 mg malondialdehyde /kg, 0.26 and 0.27 meq Trolox/g product, respectively). Sensorial tests showed that acceptability of the new formulations was similar to control products. PMID:21439735

Berasategi, Izaskun; Legarra, Sheila; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

2011-08-01

422

Summary of the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a special report by The Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents to inform clinicians on recent scientific evidence related to blood pressure in children and to offer recommendations for evaluation and treatment of hypertension in these patients.

2004-01-01

423

Improving low-dose blood-brain barrier permeability quantification using sparse high-dose induced prior for Patlak model  

E-print Network

Improving low-dose blood-brain barrier permeability quantification using sparse high-dose induced, New York, NY, USA Abstract Blood-brain barrier permeability (BBBP) measurements extracted from-brain barrier permeability; Patlak model; radiation dose reduction 1. Introduction As the first leading cause

Chen, Tsuhan

424

High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It  

MedlinePLUS

... do not have diabetes typically have fasting plasma blood glucose levels that run under 100 mg/dl. Your physician ... determine if there is a pattern to your blood glucose levels. Check your blood glucose before meals 3 days ...

425

Study of the intima-media thickening in carotid arteries of healthy elderly with high blood pressure and elderly with high blood pressure and dyslipidemia  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to assess the mean intima-media thickening of carotid arteries of elderly subjects, and its relationship with age, anthropometric measurements, high systolic blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Methods In this investigation, 129 subjects were enrolled between 1995 and 1998, age ranging from 29 to 94 years. They were assigned to one of 4 groups, including 2 control groups (group I, of healthy younger subjects; group II of healthy elderly subjects). Groups III and IV included those who presented with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), and ISH and dyslipidemia, respectively. All subjects were submitted to a medical interview, lab tests with measurement of cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram, and carotid ultrasound. The ultrasound included measurement of the intima-media thickening (IMT) of the carotid arteries, the right carotid artery (RCA) and left carotid artery (LCA), and assessment of the presence of plaques. Blood fat and glucose were measured by a standard method. The results were compared among the groups through statistical tests. The tests employed were: Chi-Square, Pearson’s and Likelihood Ratio, Student’s t, Mann-Whitney; ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, and test for multiple comparisons and Odds Ratio determination (OR). Results In this investigation, a positive association was observed between aging and IMT. In relation to systolic hypertension, a significant association was observed with IMT (IMT-RCA p = 0.0034; IMT-LCA p = 0.0196; IMT-RLCA p = 0.0299), and with the presence of plaques (PlaqueR p = 0.0110; PlaqueL p = 0.0294; PlaqueRL p = 0.0040). Conclusion This investigation evidenced the important role of aging in IMT, and of systolic hypertension in the IMT and presence of plaque. However, further studies are needed for a better understanding of the actual role of risk factors in aging. PMID:18982922

de Freitas, Elizabete Viana; Brandão, Andréa Araújo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane; Castier, Márcia; Brandão, Airton Pires

2008-01-01

426

Delayed ethanol elimination and enhanced susceptibility to ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis after liver resection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis after liver resection and the mechanisms behind it. METHODS: First, the preliminary examination was performed on 6 sham-operated (Sham) and 30 partial hepatectomy (PH) male Wistar rats (8-wk-old) to evaluate the recovery of the liver weight and liver function after liver resection. PH rats were sacrificed at the indicated time points (4, 8, and 12 h; 1, 3, and 7 d) after PH. Second, the time point for the beginning of the chronic ethanol exposure (1 wk after sham- or PH-operation) was determined based on the results of the preliminary examination. Finally, pair-feeding was performed with a controlled diet or with a 5-g/dL ethanol liquid diet for 28 d in another 35 age-matched male Wistar rats with a one-week recovery after undergoing a sham- (n = 15) or PH-operation (n = 20) to evaluate the ethanol-induced liver injury after liver resection. Hepatic steatosis, liver function, fatty acid synthase (Fas) gene expression level, the expression of lipid metabolism-associated enzyme regulator genes [sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar)-?], the mediators that alter lipid metabolism [plasminogen activator (Pai)-1 gene expression level and tumor necrosis factor (Tnf)-? production], and hepatic class-1 alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1)-associated ethanol elimination were investigated in the 4 groups based on histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, Western blotting, reverse transcriptase chain reaction, and blood ethanol concentration analyses. The relevant gene expression levels, liver weight, and liver function were assessed before and 1 wk after surgery to determine the subject’s recovery from the liver resection using the rats that had been subjected to the preliminary examination. RESULTS: In the PH rats, ethanol induced marked hepatic steatosis with impaired liver functioning, as evidenced by the accumulation of fatty droplets within the hepatocytes, the higher increases in their hepatic triglyceride and blood alanine aminotransferase and blood aspartate aminotransferase levels after the 28-d pair-feeding period. The Sham-ethanol rats, not the PH-ethanol rats, demonstrated the up-regulation of Srebp-1 and the down-regulation of Ppar-? mRNA expression levels after the 28-d pair-feeding period. The 28-d ethanol administration induced the up-regulation of Pai-1 gene expression level and an overproduction of TNF-? in the Sham and the PH rats; however, the effect was more significant in the PH rats. The PH-ethanol rats (n = 4) showed higher residual blood ethanol concentrations than did the Sham-ethanol rats (n = 6) after a 5-h fast (0.66 ± 0.4 mg/mL vs 0.2 ± 0.1 mg/mL, P < 0.05); these effects manifested without up-regulation of Adh1 gene expression, which was present in the Sham-ethanol group after the 28-d pair-feeding period. One week after the liver resection, the liver weight, function, the gene expression levels of Fas, Srebp-1, Ppar-?, Pai-1 and Tnf-? recovered; however, the Adh1 gene expression did not recover in rats. CONCLUSION: Desensitization to post-hepatectomy ethanol treatment and slow recovery from PH in Adh1 gene expression enhanced the susceptibility to ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis after PH in rats. PMID:25561792

Liu, Xu; Hakucho, Ayako; Liu, Jinyao; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

427

Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol  

DOEpatents

Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

2011-08-16

428

A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set  

PubMed Central

Background The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list, HUPO later re-analysed their own original dataset with a more stringent statistical treatment that resulted in a much reduced list of high confidence (at least 95%) proteins compared with their original findings. In order to facilitate the discovery of novel biomarkers in the future and to realize the full diagnostic potential of blood plasma, we feel that there is still a need for an ultra-high confidence reference list (at least 99% confidence) of blood plasma proteins. Methods To address the complexity and dynamic protein concentration range of the plasma proteome, we employed a linear ion-trap-Fourier transform (LTQ-FT) and a linear ion trap-Orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap) for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Both instruments allow the measurement of peptide masses in the low ppm range. Furthermore, we employed a statistical score that allows database peptide identification searching using the products of two consecutive stages of tandem mass spectrometry (MS3). The combination of MS3 with very high mass accuracy in the parent peptide allows peptide identification with orders of magnitude more confidence than that typically achieved. Results Herein we established a high confidence set of 697 blood plasma proteins and achieved a high 'average sequence coverage' of more than 14 peptides per protein and a median of 6 peptides per protein. All proteins annotated as belonging to the immunoglobulin family as well as all hypothetical proteins whose peptides completely matched immunoglobulin sequences were excluded from this protein list. We also compared the results of using two high-end MS instruments as well as the use of various peptide and protein separation approaches. Furthermore, we characterized the plasma proteins using cellular localization information, as well as comparing our list of proteins to data from other sources, including the HUPO PPP dataset. Conclusion Superior instrumentation combined with rigorous validation criteria gave rise to a set of 697 plasma proteins in which we have very high confidence, demonstrated by an exceptionally low false peptide identification rate of 0.29%. PMID:18793429

Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo; Mann, Matthias

2008-01-01

429

Influence of Cerebral Blood Flow on Central Sleep Apnea at High Altitude  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To further our understanding of central sleep apnea (CSA) at high altitude during acclimatization, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically altering cerebral blood flow (CBF) would alter the severity of CSA at high altitude. Design: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled single-blind study. Setting: A field study at 5,050 m in Nepal. Patients or Participants: We studied 12 normal volunteers. Interventions: Between days 5 to10 at high altitude, CBF velocity (CBFv) was increased by intravenous (IV) acetazolamide (10 mg/kg) and reduced by oral indomethacin (100 mg). Measurements and Results: Arterial blood gases, hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and CBFv and its reactivity to carbon dioxide were measured awake. Overnight polysomnography was performed. The central apnea-hypopnea index was elevated following administration of indomethacin (89.2 ± 43.7 to 112.5 ± 32.9 events/h; mean ± standard deviation; P < 0.05) and was reduced following IV acetazolamide (89.2 ± 43.7 to 47.1 ± 48.1 events/h; P < 0.001). Intravenous acetazolamide elevated CBFv at high altitude by 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22-34%) but did not affect ventilatory responses. The elevation in CBFv was partly mediated via a selective rise in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (28 ± 4 to 31 ± 3 mm Hg) and an associated fall in pH (P < 0.01). Oral indomethacin reduced CBFv by 23% (95% CI: 16-30%), blunted CBFv reactivity, and increased the hypercapnic ventilatory response by 66% (95% CI: 30-102%) but had no effect on PaCO2 or pH. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an important role for cerebral blood flow regulation in the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea at high altitude. Citation: Burgess KR, Lucas SJE, Shepherd K, Dawson A, Swart M, Thomas KN, Lucas RAI, Donnelly J, Peebles KC, Basnyat R, Ainslie PN. Influence of cerebral blood flow on central sleep apnea at high altitude. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1679-1687. PMID:25197804

Burgess, Keith R.; Lucas, Samuel J.E.; Shepherd, Kelly; Dawson, Andrew; Swart, Marianne; Thomas, Kate N.; Lucas, Rebekah A.I.; Donnelly, Joseph; Peebles, Karen C.; Basnyat, Rishi; Ainslie, Philip N.

2014-01-01

430

Ethanol immunosuppression in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol in concentrations equivalent to levels achieved by the ingestion of moderate to large amounts of alcoholic beverages has been shown to inhibit mitogen and anti-CD3 stimulated human T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition was monophasic suggesting that ethanol affected a single limiting component of T cell proliferation. In experiments designed to test the effect of ethanol on various aspects of proliferation, it was demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the capacity of exogenously supplied interleukin 2 to stimulate proliferation of T cells that had previously acquired interleukin 2 receptors in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there was no suppression of interleukin 2 production or interleukin 2 receptor acquisition. Thus, ethanol was shown to mediate immunosuppression by a mechanism specific to one component of proliferation. Additive inhibition of T cell proliferation was seen with ethanol plus cyclosporin A which inhibits interleukin 2 production. The level of inhibition with 250 ng/ml cyclosporin A alone was equivalent to the level seen with 62 ng/ml cyclosporin A plus 20 mM (94 mg%) ethanol. Ethanol also suppressed an immune effector mechanism. NK cytotoxicity was depressed in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Thus, ethanol might be considered as a possible adjunct in immunosuppressive therapy.

Kaplan, D.R.

1986-03-01

431

Simultaneous high-resolution pH and spectrophotometric recordings of oxygen binding in blood microvolumes.  

PubMed

Oxygen equilibrium curves have been widely used to understand oxygen transport in numerous organisms. A major challenge has been to monitor oxygen binding characteristics and concomitant pH changes as they occur in vivo, in limited sample volumes. Here we report a technique allowing highly resolved and simultaneous monitoring of pH and blood pigment saturation in minute blood volumes. We equipped a gas diffusion chamber with a broad-range fibre-optic spectrophotometer and a micro-pH optode and recorded changes of pigment oxygenation along oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and pH gradients to test the setup. Oxygen binding parameters derived from measurements in only 15 ?l of haemolymph from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris showed low instrumental error (0.93%) and good agreement with published data. Broad-range spectra, each resolving 2048 data points, provided detailed insight into the complex absorbance characteristics of diverse blood types. After consideration of photobleaching and intrinsic fluorescence, pH optodes yielded accurate recordings and resolved a sigmoidal shift of 0.03 pH units in response to changing PO2 from 0 to 21 kPa. Highly resolved continuous recordings along pH gradients conformed to stepwise measurements at low rates of pH changes. In this study we showed that a diffusion chamber upgraded with a broad-range spectrophotometer and an optical pH sensor accurately characterizes oxygen binding with minimal sample consumption and manipulation. We conclude that the modified diffusion chamber is highly suitable for experimental biologists who demand high flexibility, detailed insight into oxygen binding as well as experimental and biological accuracy combined in a single setup. PMID:24436387

Oellermann, Michael; Pörtner, Hans-O; Mark, Felix C

2014-05-01

432

Risk Factors Associated with High Blood Pressure in Two-to Five-Year-Old Children  

PubMed Central

Background Over recent decades, the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) has increased among children. Several risk factors are involved in the genesis of high BP during childhood, and their early identification can prevent the development of that disease. Objectives To assess the prevalence of high BP and associated factors in children. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study, carried out at the household. This study included 276 two- to five-year-old children in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás, and assessed their BP, sociodemographic characteristics, birth weight, high BP family history, passive smoking, maternal breastfeeding, dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle and nutritional status. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between risk factors and high BP. Results Their mean age was 3.1 ± 0.79 years, and high BP and overweight were observed in 19.9% and 11.2% of the children, respectively. Direct association of high BP was identified with age [prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.2 - 4.8; p = 0.017] and overweight (PR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.2 - 3.6; p = 0.014). No other variable associated with high BP. Conclusions The prevalence of high BP in children was high. Overweight and younger children had greater prevalence of high BP. PMID:24263779

Crispim, Paula Azevedo Aranha; Peixoto, Maria do Rosário Gondim; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

2014-01-01

433

NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

Not Available

2013-11-01

434

Blood mercury levels among fish consumers residing in areas with high environmental burden.  

PubMed

Mercury is a ubiquitous, persistent toxicant found in the environment. In water, mercury bioaccumulates up the food chain and leads to high concentrations in fish. Consumption of contaminated fish is the major source of exposure to mercury in the US. The objective of this study was to enroll persons living in areas selected by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to have high mercury concentrations and who consume at least 6o z of locally caught fish per week to determine the feasibility of monitoring future trends among a population identified as highly exposed. Blood samples were collected at time of interview and analyzed for mercury. Participants (n=287) were enrolled from North Carolina, Maryland, and South Dakota. Participants reported eating an average of five servings of fish per week. The overall geometric mean for total mercury was 0.75 ?g L(-1), with North Carolina having the highest mean level (2.02 ?g L(-1)). Overall, 42% of the study population had levels greater than the US geometric mean 0.83 ?g L(-1). The number of servings of fish consumed was not found to be associated with blood mercury levels. We were able to identify some persons with elevated mercury concentrations living in areas identified by EPA; however, identifying and monitoring a highly exposed population over time would be challenging. PMID:22153999

Wolkin, Amy; Hunt, Danielle; Martin, Colleen; Caldwell, Kathleen L; McGeehin, Michael A

2012-03-01

435

Development and characterization of a blood mimicking fluid for high intensity focused ultrasound.  

PubMed

A blood mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for the acoustic and thermal characterizations of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation devices. The BMF is based on a degassed and de-ionized water solution dispersed with low density polyethylene microspheres, nylon particles, gellan gum, and glycerol. A broad range of physical parameters, including attenuation coefficient, speed of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity, were characterized as a function of temperature (20-70 degrees C). The nonlinear parameter B/A and backscatter coefficient were also measured at room temperature. Importantly, the attenuation coefficient is linearly proportional to the frequency (2-8 MHz) with a slope of about 0.2 dB cm(-1) MHz(-1) in the 20-70 degrees C range as in the case of human blood. Furthermore, sound speed and bloodlike backscattering indicate the usefulness of the BMF for ultrasound flow imaging and ultrasound-guided HIFU applications. Most of the other temperature-dependent physical parameters are also close to the reported values in human blood. These properties make it a unique HIFU research tool for developing standardized exposimetry techniques, validating numerical models, and determining the safety and efficacy of HIFU ablation devices. PMID:19045670

Liu, Yunbo; Maruvada, Subha; King, Randy L; Herman, Bruce A; Wear, Keith A

2008-09-01

436

High-throughput mass finger printing and Lewis blood group assignment of human milk oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

The structural diversity of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) strongly depends on the Lewis (Le) blood group status of the donor which allows a classification of these glycans into three different groups. Starting from 50 ?L of human milk, a new high-throughput, standardized, and widely automated mass spectrometric approach has been established which can be used for correlation of HMO structures with the respective Lewis blood groups on the basis of mass profiles of the entire mixture of glycans together with selected fragment ion spectra. For this purpose, the relative abundance of diagnostically relevant compositional species, such as Hex(2)Fuc(2) and Hex(3)HexNAc(1)Fuc(2), as well as the relative intensities of characteristic fragment ions obtained thereof are of key importance. For each Lewis blood group, i.e., Le(a-b+), Le(a+b-), and Le(a-b-), specific mass profile and fragment ion patterns could be thus verified. The described statistically proven classification of the derived glycan patterns may be a valuable tool for analysis and comparison of large sets of milk samples in metabolic studies. Furthermore, the outlined protocol may be used for rapid screening in clinical studies and quality control of milk samples donated to milk banks. PMID:21898157

Blank, Dennis; Gebhardt, Sabine; Maass, Kai; Lochnit, Günter; Dotz, Viktoria; Blank, Jennifer; Geyer, Rudolf; Kunz, Clemens

2011-11-01

437

Effects of simulated heliox diving at high altitudes on blood cells, liver functions and renal functions.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of simulated heliox diving at high altitudes on divers' blood cells, liver functions and renal functions. In this experiment, four divers lived for nine consecutive days in a dual-function high-low pressure chamber, which simulated air pressure at an altitude of 3,000 meters and at a 30-meter depth; an altitude of 4,000 meters and 30-meter depth; and at an altitude of 5,200 meters and 30 meters and 50 meters in depth. Total time underwater was 60 minutes. The subjects breathed heliox (with oxygen at 40% and helium at 60%) during the simulated 30-meter dive from zero altitude to 30 meters and while remaining underwater; they breathed air while ascending from 30 meters to 18. They breathed heliox (with oxygen at 26.7% and helium at 73.3%) in the simulated dive from zero altitude to 50 meters underwater, in remaining underwater and in ascending from 50 meters to 29; air while ascending from 29 meters to 18. Pure oxygen was breathed while ascending from 18 meters to the surface; then air. Results indicated: (1) the correlating indices of routine blood, liver and renal functions, and urine routine were all within normal reference ranges; and (2) the indices tested at other periods of time were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the results at zero-meter level and 3,000-meter level. The study suggests that the heliox diving processes at different high altitudes simulated in this experiment have no significant impact upon divers' blood routine, liver functions and renal functions. PMID:23957203

Hu, Hui-Jun; Fan, Dan-Feng; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Chen; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, Ru-Gang; Pan, Xiao-Wen

2013-01-01

438

High polymorphism in Est-SSR loci for cellulose synthase and ?-amylase of sugarcane varieties (Saccharum spp.) used by the industrial sector for ethanol production.  

PubMed

High and low polymorphisms in simple sequence repeats of expressed sequence tag (EST-SSR) for specific proteins and enzymes, such as ?-amylase, cellulose synthase, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, were used to illustrate the genetic divergence within and between varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and to guide the technological paths to optimize ethanol production from lignocellulose biomass. The varieties RB72454, RB867515, RB92579, and SP813250 on the second stage of cutting, all grown in the state of Paraná (PR), and the varieties RB92579 and SP813250 cultured in the PR state and in Northeastern Brazil, state of Pernambuco (PE), were analyzed using five EST-SSR primers for EstC66, EstC67, EstC68, EstC69, and EstC91 loci. Genetic divergence was evident in the EstC67 and EstC69 loci for ?-amylase and cellulose synthase, respectively, among the four sugarcane varieties. An extremely high level of genetic differentiation was also detected in the EstC67 locus from the RB82579 and SP813250 varieties cultured in the PR and PE states. High polymorphism in SSR of the cellulose synthase locus may explain the high variability of substrates used in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis processes, which has been an obstacle to effective industrial adaptations. PMID:25351629

Augusto, Raphael; Maranho, Rone Charles; Mangolin, Claudete Aparecida; Pires da Silva Machado, Maria de Fátima

2015-01-01

439

Ethanol as a fuel additive in Zimbabwe  

SciTech Connect

To obtain maximum yield of ethanol from sugar and to dispose of the stillage in the most effective economic way possible are the main problems facing Zimbabwe's fuel ethanol industry. In order to monitor the production of ethanol from sugar cane, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography is used as it is a simple method and the results are reproducible, accurate and produced with little delay. In order to dispose of the stillage, it has been used as a fertilizer and as animal feed but incineration and microbiological digestion of the stillage may provide better long-term solutions.

Wenman, C.M.; Tannock, J.

1984-11-01

440

Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPAR?, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24746837

Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

2014-07-01

441

An ethanol vapor chamber system for small animals.  

PubMed

Ethanol vapor chambers have been utilized widely in alcohol research since their introduction in 1971, and implementations of these systems are now available commercially. Here, we present a modification of the chamber that can be built at lower cost and greater simplicity of operation. The six-chamber system for rats has multiple air pumps. Ethanol vapor levels are adjusted with the air flow rate, ethanol drip rate, and dilution with room air, without a heater or fans. Ethanol vapor concentrations are measured with a breathalyzer, using room air to dilute the vapor chamber output into the range of the breathalyzer. Multiple pumps provide backup to ensure animal survival in the case of failure of the primary air pump. Tests in animals demonstrated comfortable and stable elevation of blood ethanol, with tight control of the ethanol vapor concentrations and the ability to select from a broad range of levels. The ethanol vapor measurement was rapid and efficient. The parts cost was a few thousand U.S. dollars. This vapor chamber system features low cost, ease of use, and convenient and inexpensive measurement of ethanol vapor concentrations. The lack of a heater and electrical components that could come into contact with ethanol in our case facilitated institutional approval. PMID:22575431

Wang, Jie; Jiang, Lihong; Du, Hongying; Mason, Graeme F

2012-06-30

442